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Sample records for lateral pedestrian-structure interaction

  1. Experimentally fitted biodynamic models for pedestrian-structure interaction in walking situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toso, Marcelo André; Gomes, Herbert Martins; da Silva, Felipe Tavares; Pimentel, Roberto Leal

    2016-05-01

    The interaction between moving humans and structures usually occurs in slender structures in which the level of vibration is potentially high. Furthermore, there is the addition of mass to the structural system due to the presence of people and an increase in damping due to the human body´s ability to absorb vibrational energy. In this paper, a test campaign is presented to obtain parameters for a single degree of freedom (SDOF) biodynamic model that represents the action of a walking pedestrian in the vertical direction. The parameters of this model are the mass (m), damping (c) and stiffness (k). The measurements were performed on a force platform, and the inputs were the spectral acceleration amplitudes of the first three harmonics at the waist level of the test subjects and the corresponding amplitudes of the first three harmonics of the vertical ground reaction force. This leads to a system of nonlinear equations that is solved using a gradient-based optimization algorithm. A set of individuals took part in the tests to ensure inter-subject variability, and, regression expressions and an artificial neural network (ANN) were used to relate the biodynamic parameters to the pacing rate and the body mass of the pedestrians. The results showed some scatter in damping and stiffness that could not be precisely correlated with the masses and pacing rates of the subjects. The use of the ANN resulted in significant improvements in the parameter expressions with a low uncertainty. Finally, the measured vertical accelerations on a prototype footbridge show the adequacy of the numerical model for the representation of the effects of walking pedestrians on a structure. The results are consistent for many crowd densities.

  2. Lateral interactions and enhanced adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rikvold, Per Arne; Deakin, Mark R.

    1991-06-01

    We extend earlier work on the effects of lateral adsorbate-adsorbate interactions in systems with two different adsorbate species to consider in detail enhanced adsorption phenomena. We give a detailed explanation of the enhancement mechanism for a lattice-gas model in thermodynamic equilibrium, and provide explicit quantitative criteria which must be satisfied by the effective lateral interactions in systems exhibiting strong, intermediate, or weak enhancement behavior. It is the examination and understanding of the topological details of the ground-state and phase diagrams of the model that allow the formulation of these criteria. The theoretically obtained criteria are supported by precise numerical calculations (transfer-matrix with strip width six) of adsorption isotherms for a three-state lattice-gas model with nearest-neighbor interactions on a triangular lattice. The applicability of this theoretical framework is illustrated by an analysis of experimental adsorption isotherms for the electrochemical adsorption of naphthalene on copper and n-decylamine on nickel, previously obtained by Bockris et al. As suggested by Damaskin et al. we attribute the potential dependence of the organic coverage to the influence of coadsorbed hydrogen. We find that nonlinear least-squares fits of numerical lattice-gas isotherms to the experimental data produce good agreement between the experimental and numerical adsorption isotherms, as well as effective lattice-gas interaction energies consistent with independent estimates from the literature.

  3. Effect of group walking traffic on dynamic properties of pedestrian structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahabpoor, E.; Pavic, A.; Racic, V.; Zivanovic, S.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of reported vibration serviceability problems in newly built pedestrian structures, such as footbridges and floors, under walking load has attracted considerable attention in the civil engineering community over the past two decades. The key design challenges are: the inter- and intra-subject variability of walking people, the unknown mechanisms of their interaction with the vibrating walking surfaces and the synchronisation between individuals in a group. Ignoring all or some of these factors makes the current design methods an inconsistent approximation of reality. This often leads to considerable over- or under-estimation of the structural response, yielding an unreliable assessment of vibration performance. Changes to the dynamic properties of an empty structure due to the presence of stationary people have been studied extensively over the past two decades. The understanding of the similar effect of walking people on laterally swaying bridges has improved tremendously in the past decade, due to considerable research prompted by the Millennium Bridge problem. However, there is currently a gap in knowledge about how moving pedestrians affect the dynamic properties of vertically vibrating structures. The key reason for this gap is the scarcity of credible experimental data pertinent to moving pedestrians on vertically vibrating structures, especially for multi-pedestrian traffic. This paper addresses this problem by studying the dynamic properties of the combined human-structure system, i.e. occupied structure damping ratio, natural frequency and modal mass. This was achieved using a comprehensive set of frequency response function records, measured on a full-scale test structure, which was occupied by various numbers of moving pedestrians under different walking scenarios. Contrary to expectations, it was found that the natural frequency of the joint moving human-structure system was higher than that of the empty structure, while it was

  4. Hormone interactions during lateral root formation.

    PubMed

    Fukaki, Hidehiro; Tasaka, Masao

    2009-03-01

    Lateral root (LR) formation, the production of new roots from parent roots, is a hormone- and environmentally-regulated developmental process in higher plants. Physiological and genetic studies using Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species have revealed the roles of several plant hormones in LR formation, particularly the role of auxin in LR initiation and primordium development, resulting in much progress toward understanding the mechanisms of auxin-mediated LR formation. However, hormone interactions during LR formation have been relatively underexamined. Recent studies have shown that the plant hormones, cytokinin and abscisic acid negatively regulate LR formation whereas brassinosteroids positively regulate LR formation. On the other hand, ethylene has positive and negative roles during LR formation. This review summarizes recent findings on hormone-regulated LR formation in higher plants, focusing on auxin as a trigger and on the other hormones in LR formation, and discusses the possible interactions among plant hormones in this developmental process.

  5. Lateral interactions in the outer retina.

    PubMed

    Thoreson, Wallace B; Mangel, Stuart C

    2012-09-01

    Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (I(Ca)) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones.

  6. Lateral interactions in the outer retina

    PubMed Central

    Thoreson, Wallace B.; Mangel, Stuart C.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (ICa) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones. PMID:22580106

  7. The effect of lateral interaction on traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouadi, M.; Jetto, K.; Benyoussef, A.; Kenz, A.

    2016-10-01

    We propose an extended cellular automaton model for traffic flow, taking into account lateral interactions with defects and between vehicles. The fundamental diagram for a given defects density on the road is studied. It is found that the plateau size increases linearly with the decreasing road width for little defects densities. Furthermore, the capacity increases linearly with the increasing road width. However, for a fixed road width, the capacity decreases exponentially with the increasing defects density. The lateral effects for non-mutual interactions between lanes and for the same maximal velocity is also investigated. It is found that the lateral effects on one lane are meaningful only when the density on the other lane is above the critical density. However, the lateral effects are always present if fast and slow lanes exist. Little differences have been found for the mutual interactions.

  8. Visual Laterality of Calf–Mother Interactions in Wild Whales

    PubMed Central

    Baranov, Vladimir; Osipova, Ludmila; Krasnova, Vera; Malashichev, Yegor

    2010-01-01

    Background Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin of these unilateral biases is not fully understood. It is especially poorly studied in the wild animals. Little is known about the role, which laterality in social interactions plays in natural populations. A number of brain characteristics make cetaceans most suitable for investigation of lateralization in social contacts. Methodology/Principal Findings Observations were made on wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the greatest breeding aggregation in the White Sea. Here we show that young calves (in 29 individually identified and in over a hundred of individually not recognized mother-calf pairs) swim and rest significantly longer on a mother's right side. Further observations along with the data from other cetaceans indicate that found laterality is a result of the calves' preference to observe their mothers with the left eye, i.e., to analyze the information on a socially significant object in the right brain hemisphere. Conclusions/Significance Data from our and previous work on cetacean laterality suggest that basic brain lateralizations are expressed in the same way in cetaceans and other vertebrates. While the information on social partners and novel objects is analyzed in the right brain hemisphere, the control of feeding behavior is performed by the left brain hemisphere. Continuous unilateral visual contacts of calves to mothers with the left eye may influence social development of the young by activation of the contralateral (right) brain hemisphere, indicating a possible mechanism on how behavioral lateralization may influence species life and welfare. This hypothesis is supported by

  9. VEP indices of cortical lateral interactions in epilepsy treatment.

    PubMed

    Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D

    2009-05-01

    We extend Spekreijse's strategy for analyzing lateral interactions in visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to clinical neurophysiologic testing of patients with epilepsy. Stimuli consisted of the radial windmill/dartboard pattern [Ratliff, F., & Zemon, V. (1982). Some new methods for the analysis of lateral interactions that influence the visual evoked potential. In: Bodis-Wollner (Ed.), Evoked potentials, Vol. 388. (pp. 113-124). New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.] and conventional checkerboards. The fundamental and 2nd-harmonic components of the steady-state responses were used to calculate indices reflecting facilitatory (FI) and suppressive (SI) cortical interactions. We carried out two studies. In the first, VEPs in 38 patients receiving antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy were compared to those of age-matched controls. For three AEDs (tiagabine, topiramate, and felbamate), addition of the drug did not change the FI and SI compared to baseline values or those of normal controls. However, the addition of gabapentin was associated with an increase of the FI, and this change was reversed when the medication was withdrawn. This suggested a medication-specific change in cortical lateral interactions. The second study focused on the effects of neurostimulation therapy. Eleven epilepsy patients receiving chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) treatment were tested. By comparing VEPs recorded with the stimulator on (Stim-ON) and turned off (Stim-OFF) in the same session, we determined that VNS did not have a short-acting effect on lateral interactions. However, when compared with normal controls, the VNS patients had a significantly smaller SI (p<.05), but no difference in the FI, demonstrating the presence of a chronic effect. We conclude that with the appropriate stimuli, VEPs can be used as a measure of cortical lateral interactions in normals and epileptic patients, and demonstrate specific changes in these interactions associated with certain treatment

  10. An Expanded Lateral Interactive Clonal Selection Algorithm and Its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shangce; Dai, Hongwei; Zhang, Jianchen; Tang, Zheng

    Based on the clonal selection principle proposed by Burnet, in the immune response process there is no crossover of genetic material between members of the repertoire, i. e., there is no knowledge communication during different elite pools in the previous clonal selection models. As a result, the search performance of these models is ineffective. To solve this problem, inspired by the concept of the idiotypic network theory, an expanded lateral interactive clonal selection algorithm (LICS) is put forward. In LICS, an antibody is matured not only through the somatic hypermutation and the receptor editing from the B cell, but also through the stimuli from other antibodies. The stimuli is realized by memorizing some common gene segment on the idiotypes, based on which a lateral interactive receptor editing operator is also introduced. Then, LICS is applied to several benchmark instances of the traveling salesman problem. Simulation results show the efficiency and robustness of LICS when compared to other traditional algorithms.

  11. Numerical study of the lateral interactions of two plasma plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Sharad K.; Patel, Bhavesh G.; Singh, R. K.; Das, Amita; Kaw, Predhiman K.; Kumar, Ajai

    2017-09-01

    A theoretical investigation of interaction between two laterally colliding laser-blow-off plasma plumes in the presence of ambient gas has been carried out. In an earlier work (Patel et al 2012 Phys. Plasmas 19 073105) it has been shown that the dynamics of the expanding laser-blow-off plume against the ambient background gas can be effectively modeled with the help of a simplified hydrodynamic evolution. The same model is adopted here to understand the interaction of the two plumes. It is observed that the qualitative behaviour of the plume dynamics compares reasonably well with the recent experimental work (Kumar et al 2015 Phys. Plasmas 22 063505).

  12. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  13. Lateral thinkers are not so laterally minded: hemispheric asymmetry, interaction, and creativity.

    PubMed

    Lindell, Annukka K

    2011-07-01

    The biological basis of creativity remains a topic of contention. A long-held view suggests that whereas the left hemisphere is intelligent and analytic, the right hemisphere is the source of all creativity. Consequently, activating the right hemisphere should enhance creative thinking, prompting a plethora of popular books hawking a right hemisphere solution to topics ranging from drawing, to money management, to sex. More recently, an alternate proposal has suggested that creativity is not a lateralised function; instead, creativity is argued to stem from the interaction and integration of information across both the left and right hemispheres. According to this view, individuals with greater interhemispheric communication and/or less-lateralised brains will evidence enhanced creative ability. This paper reviews the neural basis of creativity to determine whether creativity stems from activation of the right hemisphere, or from the interaction of both hemispheres. The relationship between creativity and psychopathology is also examined, evaluating the evidence for a causal link between disorders such as schizophrenia, hemispheric activation, and enhanced creativity. Although the research reviewed indicates greater right hemisphere activity during creative tasks, the interaction between many varied, often distant, cortical regions across both the left and right hemispheres is also a crucial component of creativity. This interaction facilitates the integration of a variety of separate cognitive abilities, fostering creative thinking. As such, creativity is better conceptualised as a distributed, rather than a purely lateralised, function; more lateral thinkers have less lateralised brains.

  14. Membrane fluctuations mediate lateral interaction between cadherin bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenz, Susanne F.; Bihr, Timo; Schmidt, Daniel; Merkel, Rudolf; Seifert, Udo; Sengupta, Kheya; Smith, Ana-Sunčana

    2017-09-01

    The integrity of living tissues is maintained by adhesion domains of trans-bonds formed between cadherin proteins residing on opposing membranes of neighbouring cells. These domains are stabilized by lateral cis-interactions between the cadherins on the same cell. However, the origin of cis-interactions remains perplexing since they are detected only in the context of trans-bonds. By combining experimental, analytical and computational approaches, we identify bending fluctuations of membranes as a source of long-range cis-interactions, and a regulator of trans-interactions. Specifically, nanometric membrane bending and fluctuations introduce cooperative effects that modulate the affinity and binding/unbinding rates for trans-dimerization, dramatically affecting the nucleation and growth of adhesion domains. Importantly, this regulation relies on physical principles and not on details of protein-protein interactions. These omnipresent fluctuations can thus act as a generic control mechanism in all types of cell adhesion, suggesting a hitherto unknown physiological role for recently identified active fluctuations of cellular membranes.

  15. The lateral extent of volcanic interactions during unrest and eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Juliet; Robertson, Elspeth; Cashman, Katharine

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions often occur simultaneously or tap multiple magma reservoirs. Such lateral interactions between magmatic systems are attributed to stress changes or hydraulic connections but the precise conditions under which coupled eruptions occur have yet to be quantified. Here we use interferometric synthetic aperture radar satellite data to analyse the surface deformation generated by volcanic unrest in the Kenyan Rift. We identify several magma sources located at depths of 2-5 km importantly, sources that are spaced less than about 10 km apart interact, whereas those spaced more than about 25 km apart do not. However, volcanoes up to 25 km apart have interacted in the geologic past. Thus, volcanic coupling is not simply controlled by the distance between the magma reservoirs. We then consider different tectonic settings globally, including intraplate volcanoes such as Hawaii and Yellowstone, arc volcanism in Alaska and Chile, and other rift settings, such as New Zealand, Iceland and Afar. We find that the most closely spaced magmatic interactions are controlled by the extent of a shallow crystal mush layer, stress changes can couple large eruptions over distances of about 20-40 km, and only large dyke intrusions or subduction earthquakes could generate coupled eruptions over distances of about 50-100 km.

  16. Lateral interactions in the perception of flicker and in the physiology of the lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Jan; Kozyrev, Vladislav; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L; Kilavik, Bjørg Elisabeth

    2004-08-09

    The perception of flicker strength in a center stimulus can be affected by the presence of a surrounding stimulus. We correlated this effect with the interactions between centers and surrounds of the receptive fields (RFs) of neurons in the retino-geniculate pathways. The responses of cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of two New World monkey species, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), and the owl monkey (Aotus azarae) were measured to two spatially non-overlapping sinusoidally modulating luminance stimuli of equal temporal frequency, one of which mainly stimulated the RF center, the other the RF surround. The relative temporal phase between the center and surround stimuli was varied. The response amplitude as a function of relative phase between the center and surround stimuli can be described by a simple model where the RF center and surround responses are vector-added. A minimal response was reached for stimuli in which the surround stimulus led the center stimulus, indicating that the RF surround response lagged the center response. The flicker strength in the center stimulus perceived by human observers was measured psychophysically. It was found that the perceived flicker strength could be described by the same function as was used for the cell data. There were qualitative similarities between the physiological and the psychophysical data, suggesting that the physiological basis of the psychophysically measured spatial interactions is present as early as the LGN. The data indicated the presence of a nonlinearity in center-surround interactions that is influenced by the stimulus contrast. The possible source of this nonlinearity was studied by comparing the center and the surround responses with those in which they were selectively stimulated.

  17. Lateral interactions and non-equilibrium in surface kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Dietrich

    2016-08-01

    Work modelling reactions between surface species frequently use Langmuir kinetics, assuming that the layer is in internal equilibrium, and that the chemical potential of adsorbates corresponds to that of an ideal gas. Coverage dependences of reacting species and of site blocking are usually treated with simple power law coverage dependences (linear in the simplest case), neglecting that lateral interactions are strong in adsorbate and co-adsorbate layers which may influence kinetics considerably. My research group has in the past investigated many co-adsorbate systems and simple reactions in them. We have collected a number of examples where strong deviations from simple coverage dependences exist, in blocking, promoting, and selecting reactions. Interactions can range from those between next neighbors to larger distances, and can be quite complex. In addition, internal equilibrium in the layer as well as equilibrium distributions over product degrees of freedom can be violated. The latter effect leads to non-equipartition of energy over molecular degrees of freedom (for products) or non-equal response to those of reactants. While such behavior can usually be described by dynamic or kinetic models, the deeper reasons require detailed theoretical analysis. Here, a selection of such cases is reviewed to exemplify these points.

  18. Individual performance and leader's laterality in interactive contests.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2017-05-01

    Left-handedness is known to provide an intrinsic and tactical advantage at top level in many sports involving interactive contests. Again, most of the renowned leaders of the world are known to have been left-handed. Leadership plays an important role in politics, sports and mentorship. In this paper we show that Cricket captains who bat left-handed have a strategic advantage over the right-handed captains in One Day International (ODI) and Test matches. The present study involving 46 left-handed captains and 148 right-handed captains in ODI matches, reveal a strong relation between leader's laterality and team member performance, demonstrating the critical importance of left-handedness and successful leadership. The odds for superior batting performance in an ODI match under left-handed captains are 89% higher than the odds under right-handed captains. Our study shows that left-handed captains are more successful in extracting superior performance from the batsmen and bowlers in ODI and Test matches; perhaps indicating left-handed leaders are better motivators as leaders when compared to right-handed captains.

  19. The interaction between breathing and swallowing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Nazan Simsek; Karaali, Kamil; Ünal, Ali; Kızılay, Ferah; Öğüş, Candan; Uysal, Hilmi

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the association between respiratory swallow patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Furthermore, it aims to clarify the role of the dysphagia limit in defining the relationship between swallowing disorders and respiratory disorders. Functional rating scales were used to describe swallowing and respiratory function. Swallowing was observed using the dysphagia limit. Dysphagia limit is the volume at which a second or more swallows are required to swallow the whole bolus. Laryngeal and chest movement sensors, pulmonary function tests, submental, and diaphragm electromyography activity were used to evaluate the relationship between swallowing and respiratory phase. Of the 27 patients included in the study, 14 were dysphagic and 13 were non-dysphagic. Tests showed normal respiratory function in 11 of the non-dysphagic patients and 3 of the dysphagic patients. There was a high correlation between the dysphagia limit and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale swallowing parameters. Non-dysphagic patients were able to swallow during inspiration but only six patients in the dysphagic group were able to swallow during inspiration. The occurrence of dysphagia in ALS is related to piecemeal deglutition and respiration consistency during swallowing. Detecting the timing of disturbances in the relationship between swallowing and respiration may be a way of identifying dysphagia. Dysphagia limit may be a useful, complementary test for assessing swallowing disturbances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  20. Interaction of lateral baroclinic forcing and turbulence in an estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacy, J.R.; Stacey, M.T.; Burau, J.R.; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of density and velocity in a channel in northern San Francisco Bay show that the onset of vertical density stratification during flood tides is controlled by the balance between the cross-channel baroclinic pressure gradient and vertical mixing due to turbulence. Profiles of velocity, salinity, temperature, and suspended sediment concentration were measured in transects across Suisun Cutoff, in northern San Francisco Bay, on two days over the 12.5-hour tidal cycle. During flood tides an axial density front developed between fresher water flowing from the shallows of Grizzly Bay into the northern side of Suisun Cutoff and saltier water flowing up the channel. North of the front, transverse currents were driven by the lateral salinity gradient, with a top-to-bottom velocity difference greater than 30 cm/s. South of the front, the secondary circulation was weak, and along-channel velocities were greater than to the north. The gradient Richardson number shows that stratification was stable north of the front, while the water column was turbulently mixed south of the front. Time-series measurements of velocity and salinity demonstrate that the front develops during each tidal cycle. In estuaries, longitudinal dynamics predict less stratification during flood than ebb tides. These data show that stratification can develop during flood tides due to a lateral baroclinic pressure gradient in estuaries with complex bathymetry.

  1. Adsorption of a binary gas mixture which laterally interacts on a random heterogeneous surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.

    1992-10-01

    Analytical expressions for the adsorption of a binary gas mixture which laterally interacts on a heterogeneous surface are developed. The lateral interactions are of the Bragg-Williams type and the surface heterogeneity is modeled via a random distribution of sites described by a uniform distribution of Henry`s Law constants. The parametric study shows that complex phase behavior can be predicted, including azeotropes and sigmoidal shaped X-Y diagrams. Also, this model may be useful for modeling and designing adsorption processes as it requires few iterations to simultaneously solve the implicit and coupled algebraic expressions.

  2. Adsorption of a binary gas mixture which laterally interacts on a random heterogeneous surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the adsorption of a binary gas mixture which laterally interacts on a heterogeneous surface are developed. The lateral interactions are of the Bragg-Williams type and the surface heterogeneity is modeled via a random distribution of sites described by a uniform distribution of Henry's Law constants. The parametric study shows that complex phase behavior can be predicted, including azeotropes and sigmoidal shaped X-Y diagrams. Also, this model may be useful for modeling and designing adsorption processes as it requires few iterations to simultaneously solve the implicit and coupled algebraic expressions.

  3. Lateral hydrodynamic interactions between an emulsion droplet and a flat surface evaluated by frictional force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Higashitani, Ko; Grieser, Franz

    2010-06-01

    We introduce a lateral atomic force microscopy (AFM) method to measure the hydrodynamic drag force acting on a microscopic emulsion droplet moving parallel to a flat surface. A tetradecane oil droplet formed in an aqueous solution of sodium dodecylsulfate was attached to a V-shaped atomic force microscopy cantilever, and lateral hydrodynamic interactions between the droplet and a flat glass surface were measured using a range of scanning velocities. The droplet was positioned either far from the oscillating surface or was pressed to the surface under a constant applied load. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of using AFM to study lateral hydrodynamic interactions and lubricity between soft matter materials relevant to a large number of applications in areas as diverse as flavor delivery in foods to the applications of emulsions or emollients in personal care products.

  4. Reducing crowding by weakening inhibitory lateral interactions in the periphery with perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Maniglia, Marcello; Pavan, Andrea; Cuturi, Luigi F; Campana, Gianluca; Sato, Giovanni; Casco, Clara

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether lateral masking in the near-periphery, due to inhibitory lateral interactions at an early level of central visual processing, could be weakened by perceptual learning and whether learning transferred to an untrained, higher-level lateral masking known as crowding. The trained task was contrast detection of a Gabor target presented in the near periphery (4°) in the presence of co-oriented and co-aligned high contrast Gabor flankers, which featured different target-to-flankers separations along the vertical axis that varied from 2λ to 8λ. We found both suppressive and facilitatory lateral interactions at target-to-flankers distances (2λ - 4λ and 8λ, respectively) that were larger than those found in the fovea. Training reduces suppression but does not increase facilitation. Most importantly, we found that learning reduces crowding and improves contrast sensitivity, but has no effect on visual acuity (VA). These results suggest a different pattern of connectivity in the periphery with respect to the fovea as well as a different modulation of this connectivity via perceptual learning that not only reduces low-level lateral masking but also reduces crowding. These results have important implications for the rehabilitation of low-vision patients who must use peripheral vision to perform tasks, such as reading and refined figure-ground segmentation, which normal sighted subjects perform in the fovea.

  5. Quasi-chemical approach for adsorption of mixtures with non-additive lateral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, O. A.; Pasinetti, P. M.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    The statistical thermodynamics of binary mixtures with non-additive lateral interactions was developed on a generalization in the spirit of the lattice-gas model and the classical quasi-chemical approximation (QCA). The traditional assumption of a strictly pairwise additive nearest-neighbors interaction is replaced by a more general one, namely that the bond linking a certain atom with any of its neighbors depends considerably on how many of them are actually present (or absent) on the sites in the first coordination shell of the atom. The total and partial adsorption isotherms are given for both attractive and repulsive lateral interactions between the adsorbed species. Interesting behaviors are observed and discussed in terms of the low-temperature phases formed in the system. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations are performed in order to test the validity of the theoretical model.

  6. Ethylene-auxin interactions regulate lateral root initiation and emergence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ivanchenko, Maria G; Muday, Gloria K; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2008-07-01

    Plant root systems display considerable plasticity in response to endogenous and environmental signals. Auxin stimulates pericycle cells within elongating primary roots to enter de novo organogenesis, leading to the establishment of new lateral root meristems. Crosstalk between auxin and ethylene in root elongation has been demonstrated, but interactions between these hormones in root branching are not well characterized. We find that enhanced ethylene synthesis, resulting from the application of low concentrations of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), promotes the initiation of lateral root primordia. Treatment with higher doses of ACC strongly inhibits the ability of pericycle cells to initiate new lateral root primordia, but promotes the emergence of existing lateral root primordia: behaviour that is also seen in the eto1 mutation. These effects are correlated with decreased pericycle cell length and increased lateral root primordia cell width. When auxin is applied simultaneously with ACC, ACC is unable to prevent the auxin stimulation of lateral root formation in the root tissues formed prior to ACC exposure. However, in root tissues formed after transfer to ACC, in which elongation is reduced, auxin does not rescue the ethylene inhibition of primordia initiation, but instead increases it by several fold. Mutations that block auxin responses, slr1 and arf7 arf19, render initiation of lateral root primordia insensitive to the promoting effect of low ethylene levels, and mutations that inhibit ethylene-stimulated auxin biosynthesis, wei2 and wei7, reduce the inhibitory effect of higher ethylene levels, consistent with ethylene regulating root branching through interactions with auxin.

  7. Interaction effects and pseudogap in two-dimensional lateral tunnel junctions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, P; Yang, I; Kang, W; Pfeiffer, L N; Baldwin, K W; West, K W

    2006-03-31

    Tunneling characteristics of a two-dimensional lateral tunnel junction are reported. A pseudogap on the order of Coulomb energy is detected in the tunneling density of states (TDOS) when two identical two-dimensional electron systems are laterally separated by a thin energy barrier. The Coulombic pseudogap remains robust well into the quantum Hall regime until it is overshadowed by the cyclotron gap in the TDOS. The pseudogap is modified by the in-plane magnetic field, demonstrating a nontrivial effect of the in-plane magnetic field on the electron-electron interaction.

  8. Lateral and Medial Ventral Occipitotemporal Regions Interact During the Recognition of Images Revealed from Noise

    PubMed Central

    Nordhjem, Barbara; Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; Meppelink, Anne Marthe; Renken, Remco J.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Leenders, Klaus L.; van Laar, Teus; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies suggest different functional roles for the medial and the lateral sections of the ventral visual cortex in object recognition. Texture and surface information is processed in medial sections, while shape information is processed in lateral sections. This begs the question whether and how these functionally specialized sections interact with each other and with early visual cortex to facilitate object recognition. In the current research, we set out to answer this question. In an fMRI study, 13 subjects viewed and recognized images of objects and animals that were gradually revealed from noise while their brains were being scanned. We applied dynamic causal modeling (DCM)—a method to characterize network interactions—to determine the modulatory effect of object recognition on a network comprising the primary visual cortex (V1), the lingual gyrus (LG) in medial ventral cortex and the lateral occipital cortex (LO). We found that object recognition modulated the bilateral connectivity between LG and LO. Moreover, the feed-forward connectivity from V1 to LG and LO was modulated, while there was no evidence for feedback from these regions to V1 during object recognition. In particular, the interaction between medial and lateral areas supports a framework in which visual recognition of objects is achieved by networked regions that integrate information on image statistics, scene content and shape—rather than by a single categorically specialized region—within the ventral visual cortex. PMID:26778997

  9. Learning lateral interactions for feature binding and sensory segmentation from prototypic basis interactions.

    PubMed

    Weng, Sebastian; Wersing, Heiko; Steil, Jochen J; Ritter, Helge

    2006-07-01

    We present a hybrid learning method bridging the fields of recurrent neural networks, unsupervised Hebbian learning, vector quantization, and supervised learning to implement a sophisticated image and feature segmentation architecture. This architecture is based on the competitive layer model (CLM), a dynamic feature binding model, which is applicable on a wide range of perceptual grouping and segmentation problems. A predefined target segmentation can be achieved as attractor states of this linear threshold recurrent network, if the lateral weights are chosen by Hebbian learning. The weight matrix is given by the correlation matrix of special pattern vectors with a structure dependent on the target labeling. Generalization is achieved by applying vector quantization on pair-wise feature relations, like proximity and similarity, defined by external knowledge. We show the successful application of the method to a number of artifical test examples and a medical image segmentation problem of fluorescence microscope cell images.

  10. Structural basis of inter-protofilament interaction and lateral deformation of microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Haixin; Downing, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The diverse functions of microtubules require stiff structures possessing sufficient lateral flexibility to enable bending with high curvature. We used cryo-electron microscopy to investigate the molecular basis for these critical mechanical properties. High-quality structural maps were used to build pseudo-atomic models of microtubules containing 11 to 16 protofilaments, representing a wide range of lateral curvature. Protofilaments in all these microtubules were connected primarily via inter-protofilament interactions between the M loops, and the H1′-S2 and H2-S3 loops. We postulate that the tolerance of the loop-loop interactions to lateral deformation provides the capacity for high-curvature bending without breaking. On the other hand, the local molecular architecture that surrounds these connecting loops contributes to the overall rigidity. Inter-protofilament interactions in the seam region are similar to those in the normal helical regions, suggesting that the existence of the seam does not significantly affect the mechanical properties of microtubules. PMID:20696402

  11. Lateral interactions and speed of information processing in highly functioning multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Helga; Bencsik, Krisztina; Rajda, Cecília; Benedek, Krisztina; Janáky, Márta; Beniczky, Sándor; Kéri, Szabolcs; Vécsei, László

    2007-06-01

    Visual impairment is a common feature of multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate lateral interactions in the visual cortex of highly functioning patients with multiple sclerosis and to compare that with basic visual and neuropsychologic functions. Twenty-two young, visually unimpaired multiple sclerosis patients with minimal symptoms (Expanded Disability Status Scale <2) and 30 healthy controls subjects participated in the study. Lateral interactions were investigated with the flanker task, during which participants were asked to detect the orientation of a low-contrast Gabor patch (vertical or horizontal), flanked with 2 collinear or orthogonal Gabor patches. Stimulus exposure time was 40, 60, 80, and 100 ms. Digit span forward/backward, digit symbol, verbal fluency, and California Verbal Learning Test procedures were used for background neuropsychologic assessment. Results revealed that patients with multiple sclerosis showed intact visual contrast sensitivity and neuropsychologic functions, whereas orientation detection in the orthogonal condition was significantly impaired. At 40-ms exposure time, collinear flankers facilitated the orientation detection performance of the patients resulting in normal performance. In conclusion, the detection of briefly presented, low-contrast visual stimuli was selectively impaired in multiple sclerosis. Lateral interactions between target and flankers robustly facilitated target detection in the patient group.

  12. The Mechanosensory Lateral Line System Mediates Activation of Socially-Relevant Brain Regions during Territorial Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Julie M.; Maruska, Karen P.

    2016-01-01

    Animals use multiple senses during social interactions and must integrate this information in the brain to make context-dependent behavioral decisions. For fishes, the largest group of vertebrates, the mechanosensory lateral line system provides crucial hydrodynamic information for survival behaviors, but little is known about its function in social communication. Our previous work using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, provided the first empirical evidence that fish use their lateral line system to detect water movements from conspecifics for mutual assessment and behavioral choices. It is unknown, however, where this socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the brain to elicit adaptive behavioral responses. To examine for the first time in any fish species which brain regions receive contextual mechanosensory information, we quantified expression of the immediate early gene cfos as a proxy for neural activation in sensory and socially-relevant brain nuclei from lateral line-intact and -ablated fish following territorial interactions. Our in situ hybridization results indicate that in addition to known lateral line processing regions, socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the ATn (ventromedial hypothalamus homolog), Dl (putative hippocampus homolog), and Vs (putative medial extended amygdala homolog). In addition, we identified a functional network within the conserved social decision-making network (SDMN) whose co-activity corresponds with mutual assessment and behavioral choice. Lateral line-intact and –ablated fight winners had different patterns of co-activity of these function networks and group identity could be determined solely by activation patterns, indicating the importance of mechanoreception to co-activity of the SDMN. These data show for the first time that the mechanosensory lateral line system provides relevant information to conserved decision-making centers of the brain during

  13. Interaction between PON1 and population density in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Diekstra, Frank P; Beleza-Meireles, Ana; Leigh, Nigel P; Shaw, Christopher E; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2009-01-28

    Paraoxonase polymorphisms have been associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Paraoxonases are detoxifying enzymes involved in the metabolism of organophosphates. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation within paraoxonase genes would interact with the environmental exposure to paraoxonase substrates. We used population density in the location of residence of ALS patients as a surrogate marker for environmental exposure. Paraoxonase genotypes at previously associated single nucleotide polymorphisms rs662, rs854560, rs6954345, and rs11981433 were studied in 98 patients from the South East England ALS population-based register. A case-only analysis was carried out and median population density was used to categorize patients into rural or urban environments. We found a significant interaction with population density for marker rs854560 (L55M) in ALS.

  14. FtsZ Bacterial Cytoskeletal Polymers on Curved Surfaces: The Importance of Lateral Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hörger, Ines; Velasco, Enrique; Rivas, Germán; Vélez, Marisela; Tarazona, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    A recent theoretical article provided a mechanical explanation for the formation of cytoskeletal rings and helices in bacteria assuming that these shapes arise, at least in part, from the interaction of the inherent mechanical properties of the protein polymers and the constraints imposed by the curved cell membrane (Andrews, S., and A. P. Arkin. 2007. Biophys. J. 93:1872–1884). Due to the lack of experimental data regarding the bending rigidity and preferential bond angles of bacterial polymers, the authors explored their model over wide ranges of preferred curvature values. In this letter, we present the shape diagram of the FtsZ bacterial polymer on a curved surface but now including recent experimental data on the in vitro formed FtsZ polymers. The lateral interactions between filaments observed experimentally change qualitatively the shape diagram and indicate that the formation of rings over spirals is more energetically favored than estimated in the above-mentioned article. PMID:18359798

  15. Biomechanically inspired modelling of pedestrian-induced forces on laterally oscillating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocian, M.; Macdonald, J. H. G.; Burn, J. F.

    2012-07-01

    Despite considerable interest among engineers and scientists, bi-directional interaction between walking pedestrians and lively bridges has still not been well understood. In an attempt to bridge this gap a biomechanically inspired model of the human response to lateral bridge motion is presented and explored. The simple inverted pendulum model captures the key features of pedestrian lateral balance and the resulting forces on the structure. The forces include self-excited components that can be effectively modelled as frequency-dependent added damping and mass to the structure. The results of numerical simulations are in reasonable agreement with recent experimental measurements of humans walking on a laterally oscillating treadmill, and in very good agreement with measurements on full-scale bridges. In contrast to many other models of lateral pedestrian loading, synchronisation with the bridge motion is not involved. A parametric study of the model is conducted, revealing that as pedestrians slow down as a crowd becomes more dense, their resulting lower pacing rates generate larger self-excited forces. For typical pedestrian parameters, the potential to generate negative damping arises for any lateral bridge vibration frequency above 0.43 Hz, depending on the walking frequency. Stability boundaries of the combined pedestrian-structure system are presented in terms of the structural damping ratio and pedestrian-to-bridge mass ratio, revealing complex relations between damping demand and bridge and pedestrian frequencies, due to the added mass effect. Finally it is demonstrated that the model can produce simultaneous self-excited forces on multiple structural modes, and a realistic full simulation of a large number of pedestrians, walking randomly and interacting with a bridge, produces structural behaviour in very good agreement with site observations.

  16. Root water uptake and lateral interactions among root systems in a temperate forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agee, E.; He, L.; Bisht, G.; Gough, C. M.; Couvreur, V.; Matheny, A. M.; Bohrer, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of research has highlighted the importance of root architecture and hydraulic properties to the maintenance of the transpiration stream under water limitation and drought. Detailed studies of single plant systems have shown the ability of root systems to adjust zones of uptake due to the redistribution of local water potential gradients, thereby delaying the onset of stress under drying conditions. An open question is how lateral interactions and competition among neighboring plants impact individual and community resilience to water stress. While computational complexity has previously hindered the implementation of microscopic root system structure and function in larger scale hydrological models, newer hybrid approaches allow for the resolution of these properties at the plot scale. Using a modified version of the PFLOTRAN model, which represents the 3-D physics of variably saturated soil, we model root water uptake in a one-hectare temperate forest plot under natural and synthetic forcings. Two characteristic hydraulic architectures, tap roots and laterally sprawling roots, are implemented in an ensemble of simulations. Variations of root architecture, their hydraulic properties, and degree of system interactions produce variable local response to water limitation and provide insights on individual and community response to changing meteorological conditions. Results demonstrate the ability of interacting systems to shift areas of active uptake based on local gradients, allowing individuals to meet water demands despite competition from their peers. These results further illustrate how inter- and intra-species variations in root properties may influence not only individual response to water stress, but also help quantify the margins of resilience for forest ecosystems under changing climate.

  17. Do Parentese Prosody and Fathers' Involvement in Interacting Facilitate Social Interaction in Infants Who Later Develop Autism?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, David; Cassel, Raquel S.; Saint-Georges, Catherine; Mahdhaoui, Ammar; Laznik, Marie-Christine; Apicella, Fabio; Muratori, Pietro; Maestro, Sandra; Muratori, Filippo; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Background Whether development of autism impacts the interactive process between an infant and his/her parents remains an unexplored issue. Methodology and Principal Findings Using computational analysis taking into account synchronic behaviors and emotional prosody (parentese), we assessed the course of infants' responses to parents' type of speech in home movies from typically developing (TD) infants and infants who will subsequently develop autism aged less than 18 months. Our findings indicate: that parentese was significantly associated with infant responses to parental vocalizations involving orientation towards other people and with infant receptive behaviours; that parents of infants developing autism displayed more intense solicitations that were rich in parentese; that fathers of infants developing autism spoke to their infants more than fathers of TD infants; and that fathers' vocalizations were significantly associated with intersubjective responses and active behaviours in infants who subsequently developed autism. Conclusion The parents of infants who will later develop autism change their interactive pattern of behaviour by both increasing parentese and father's involvement in interacting with infants; both are significantly associated with infant's social responses. We stress the possible therapeutic implications of these findings and its implication for Dean Falk's theory regarding pre-linguistic evolution in early hominins. PMID:23650498

  18. Contribution of lateral interactions in V1 to organization of response properties.

    PubMed

    Wright, J J; Alexander, D M; Bourke, P D

    2006-09-01

    We propose a model of self-organization of synaptic connections in V1, emphasizing lateral interactions. Subject to Hebbian learning with decay, evolution of synaptic strengths proceeds to a stable state in which all synapses are either saturated, or have minimum pre/post-synaptic coincidence. The most stable configuration gives rise to anatomically realistic "local maps", each of macro-columnar size, and each organized as Mobius projections of retinotopic space. A tiling of V1, constructed of approximately mirror-image reflections of each local map by its neighbors is formed, accounting for orientation-preference singularities, linear zones, and saddle points-with each map linked by connections between sites of common orientation preference. Ocular dominance columns are partly explained as a special case of the same process. The occurrence of direction preference fractures always in odd numbers around singularities is a specific feature explained by the Mobius configuration of the local map. Effects of stimulus velocity, orientation relative to direction of motion, and extension, upon orientation preference, which are not accounted for by spatial filtering, are explained by interactions between the classic receptive field and global V1.

  19. Worming forward: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis toxicity mechanisms and genetic interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Therrien, Martine; Parker, J. Alex

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases share pathogenic mechanisms at the cellular level including protein misfolding, excitotoxicity and altered RNA homeostasis among others. Recent advances have shown that the genetic causes underlying these pathologies overlap, hinting at the existence of a genetic network for neurodegeneration. This is perhaps best illustrated by the recent discoveries of causative mutations for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). Once thought to be distinct entities, it is now recognized that these diseases exist along a genetic spectrum. With this wealth of discoveries comes the need to develop new genetic models of ALS and FTD to investigate not only pathogenic mechanisms linked to causative mutations, but to uncover potential genetic interactions that may point to new therapeutic targets. Given the conservation of many disease genes across evolution, Caenorhabditis elegans is an ideal system to investigate genetic interactions amongst these genes. Here we review the use of C. elegans to model ALS and investigate a putative genetic network for ALS/FTD that may extend to other neurological disorders. PMID:24860590

  20. Interactions between the lateral habenula and the hippocampus: implication for spatial memory processes.

    PubMed

    Goutagny, Romain; Loureiro, Michael; Jackson, Jesse; Chaumont, Joseph; Williams, Sylvain; Isope, Philippe; Kelche, Christian; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Lecourtier, Lucas

    2013-11-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic structure connected with both the basal ganglia and the limbic system and that exerts a major influence on midbrain monoaminergic nuclei. The current view is that LHb receives and processes cortical information in order to select proper strategies in a variety of behavior. Recent evidence indicates that LHb might also be implicated in hippocampus-dependent memory processes. However, if and how LHb functionally interacts with the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) is still unknown. We therefore performed simultaneous recordings within LHb and dHPC in both anesthetized and freely moving rats. We first showed that a subset of LHb cells were phase-locked to hippocampal theta oscillations. Furthermore, LHb generated spontaneous theta oscillatory activity, which was highly coherent with hippocampal theta oscillations. Using reversible LHb inactivation, we found that LHb might regulate dHPC theta oscillations. In addition, we showed that LHb silencing altered performance in a hippocampus-dependent spatial recognition task. Finally, increased coherence between LHb and dHPC was positively correlated to the memory performance in this test. Collectively, these results suggest that LHb functionally interacts with the hippocampus and is involved in hippocampus-dependent spatial information processing.

  1. The interaction of genetics and environmental toxicants in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: results from animal models.

    PubMed

    Sher, Roger B

    2017-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that results in the progressive death of motor neurons, leading to paralysis and eventual death. There is presently no cure for ALS, and only two drugs are available, neither of which provide significant extension of life. The wide variation in onset and progression of the disease, both in sporadic and even in strongly penetrant monogenic familial forms of ALS, indicate that in addition to background genetic variation impacting the disease process, environmental exposures are likely contributors. Epidemiological evidence worldwide implicates exposures to bacterial toxins, heavy metals, pesticides, and trauma as probable environmental factors. Here, we review current advances in gene-environment interactions in ALS animal models. We report our recent discoveries in a zebrafish model of ALS in relation to exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin BMAA, and discuss several results from mouse models that show interactions with exposure to mercury and statin drugs, both leading to acceleration of the disease process. The increasing research into this combinatorial gene-environment process is just starting, but shows early promise to uncover the underlying biochemical pathways that instigate the initial motor neuron defects and lead to their rapidly progressive dysfunction.

  2. Optical conditional gates in laterally coupled quantum dots: the role of electron-hole exchange interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, Sophia; Reinecke, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    We propose a fast, optically induced two-qubit C-PHASE gate in laterally coupled quantum dots. We use a model potential with two asymmetric local minima to account for the difference in size and composition of the two dots. By making use of the excited bound states of the total potential, which extend over both dots and which gives rise to an effective coupling between the two resident electron spins, we avoid the need for an external bias, such as that typically used in vertically coupled dots. The electron-hole exchange interaction is shown to play an important role in our proposal. By lowering the symmetry of the eigenstates, it allows for a simple design of a fast (about 50 ps) C-PHASE gate. The dissipative dynamics of the excited states have been taken into account in our numerical simulation of the fidelity. The calculated fidelity depends on the values of the decay rates. Our proposal is consistent with the single qubit rotations we proposed [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217401 (2007)], and the combination of the two allows for universal quantum gates.

  3. The interaction of family background and personal education on depressive symptoms in later life.

    PubMed

    Schaan, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    This study assesses the interaction between personal education and family background during childhood on depressive symptoms in later life by applying Ross & Mirowsky's resource substitution and structural amplification theory of health and education. OLS regression models are estimated using data from the "Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe" (SHARE), which covers information on current social and health status as well as retrospective life histories from 20,716 respondents aged 50 or older from thirteen European countries. Higher education helps to overcome the negative consequences of a poor family background. Since people from poor families are less likely to attain higher educational levels, they lack exactly the resource they need in order to overcome the negative consequences their non-prosperous background has on depressive symptoms. Thus, low family background and low personal education amplify each other. Examining the processes described by theory of resource substitution and structural amplification over different age groups from midlife to old-age suggests that the moderating effect of education remains constant over age among people coming from a poor family background. However, there is some evidence for a decrease with age in the buffering effect of a well-off family background on depressive symptoms among the low educated group. Furthermore, the educational gap in depression diverges with age among individuals originating from a well-off family background. Taken together the results cautiously allude to the conclusion that three processes - cumulative (dis-)advantage, age-as-leveler, and persistent inequalities - might take place.

  4. Interaction of acupuncture treatment and manipulation laterality modulated by the default mode network

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xuan; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Zhenyu; Sun, Chuanzhu; Wang, Shan; Wang, Xiaocui; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Hongyan; Tian, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate selection of ipsilateral or contralateral electroacupuncture (corresponding to the pain site) plays an important role in reaching its better curative effect; however, the involving brain mechanism still remains unclear. Compared with the heat pain model generally established in previous study, capsaicin pain model induces reversible cutaneous allodynia and is proved to be better simulating aspects of clinical nociceptive and neuropathic pain. In the current study, 24 subjects were randomly divided into two groups with a 2 × 2 factorial design: laterality (ipsi- or contralateral side, inter-subject) × treatment with counter-balanced at an interval of one week (verum and placebo electroacupuncture, within-subject). We observed subjective pain intensity and brain activations changes induced by capsaicin allodynia pain stimuli before and after electroacupuncture treatment at acupoint LI4 for 30 min. Analysis of variance results indicated that ipsilateral electroacupuncture treatment produced significant pain relief and wide brain signal suppressions in pain-related brain areas compared with contralateral electroacupuncture. We also found that verum electroacupuncture at either ipsi- or contralateral side to the pain site exhibited comparable significant magnitudes of analgesic effect. By contrast, placebo electroacupuncture elicited significant pain reductions only on the ipsilateral rather than contralateral side. It was inferred that placebo analgesia maybe attenuated on the region of the body (opposite to pain site) where attention was less focused, suggesting that analgesic effect of placebo electroacupuncture mainly rely on the motivation of its spatial-specific placebo responses via attention mechanism. This inference can be further supported by the evidence that the significant interaction effect of manipulation laterality and treatment was exclusively located within the default mode network, including the bilateral superior parietal

  5. Interaction of acupuncture treatment and manipulation laterality modulated by the default mode network.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xuan; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Zhenyu; Bai, Lijun; Sun, Chuanzhu; Wang, Shan; Wang, Xiaocui; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Hongyan; Tian, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate selection of ipsilateral or contralateral electroacupuncture (corresponding to the pain site) plays an important role in reaching its better curative effect; however, the involving brain mechanism still remains unclear. Compared with the heat pain model generally established in previous study, capsaicin pain model induces reversible cutaneous allodynia and is proved to be better simulating aspects of clinical nociceptive and neuropathic pain. In the current study, 24 subjects were randomly divided into two groups with a 2 × 2 factorial design: laterality (ipsi- or contralateral side, inter-subject) × treatment with counter-balanced at an interval of one week (verum and placebo electroacupuncture, within-subject). We observed subjective pain intensity and brain activations changes induced by capsaicin allodynia pain stimuli before and after electroacupuncture treatment at acupoint LI4 for 30 min. Analysis of variance results indicated that ipsilateral electroacupuncture treatment produced significant pain relief and wide brain signal suppressions in pain-related brain areas compared with contralateral electroacupuncture. We also found that verum electroacupuncture at either ipsi- or contralateral side to the pain site exhibited comparable significant magnitudes of analgesic effect. By contrast, placebo electroacupuncture elicited significant pain reductions only on the ipsilateral rather than contralateral side. It was inferred that placebo analgesia maybe attenuated on the region of the body (opposite to pain site) where attention was less focused, suggesting that analgesic effect of placebo electroacupuncture mainly rely on the motivation of its spatial-specific placebo responses via attention mechanism. This inference can be further supported by the evidence that the significant interaction effect of manipulation laterality and treatment was exclusively located within the default mode network, including the bilateral superior parietal

  6. Generation of Accurate Lateral Boundary Conditions for a Surface-Water Groundwater Interaction Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khambhammettu, P.; Tsou, M.; Panday, S. M.; Kool, J.; Wei, X.

    2010-12-01

    The 106 mile long Peace River in Florida flows south from Lakeland to Charlotte Harbor and has a drainage basin of approximately 2,350 square miles. A long-term decline in stream flows and groundwater potentiometric levels has been observed in the region. Long-term trends in rainfall, along with effects of land use changes on runoff, surface-water storage, recharge and evapotranspiration patterns, and increased groundwater and surface-water withdrawals have contributed to this decline. The South West Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) has funded the development of the Peace River Integrated Model (PRIM) to assess the effects of land use, water use, and climatic changes on stream flows and to evaluate the effectiveness of various management alternatives for restoring stream flows. The PRIM was developed using MODHMS, a fully integrated surface-water groundwater flow and transport simulator developed by HydroGeoLogic, Inc. The development of the lateral boundary conditions (groundwater inflow and outflow) for the PRIM in both historical and predictive contexts is discussed in this presentation. Monthly-varying specified heads were used to define the lateral boundary conditions for the PRIM. These head values were derived from the coarser Southern District Groundwater Model (SDM). However, there were discrepancies between the simulated SDM heads and measured heads: the likely causes being spatial (use of a coarser grid) and temporal (monthly average pumping rates and recharge rates) approximations in the regional SDM. Finer re-calibration of the SDM was not feasible, therefore, an innovative approach was adopted to remove the discrepancies. In this approach, point discrepancies/residuals between the observed and simulated heads were kriged with an appropriate variogram to generate a residual surface. This surface was then added to the simulated head surface of the SDM to generate a corrected head surface. This approach preserves the trends associated with

  7. The Relation between Mother-Infant Interactional Characteristics in Early Infancy and Later Attachment as Assessed in the Strange Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaya, Yuko; Miyake, Kazuo

    Maternal and infant interactional characteristics in early infancy were investigated in order to examine their causal relationship with later attachment as assessed in the Strange Situation. Although the results of rating for maternal variables at four months of age exhibited significant differences between the set (S1) composed of attachment type…

  8. Vocal and visual stimulation, congruence and lateralization affect brain oscillations in interspecies emotional positive and negative interactions.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2016-01-01

    The present research explored the effect of cross-modal integration of emotional cues (auditory and visual (AV)) compared with only visual (V) emotional cues in observing interspecies interactions. The brain activity was monitored when subjects processed AV and V situations, which represented an emotional (positive or negative), interspecies (human-animal) interaction. Congruence (emotionally congruous or incongruous visual and auditory patterns) was also modulated. electroencephalography brain oscillations (from delta to beta) were analyzed and the cortical source localization (by standardized Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography) was applied to the data. Frequency band (mainly low-frequency delta and theta) showed a significant brain activity increasing in response to negative compared to positive interactions within the right hemisphere. Moreover, differences were found based on stimulation type, with an increased effect for AV compared with V. Finally, delta band supported a lateralized right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in response to negative and incongruous interspecies interactions, mainly for AV. The contribution of cross-modality, congruence (incongruous patterns), and lateralization (right DLPFC) in response to interspecies emotional interactions was discussed at light of a "negative lateralized effect."

  9. The Medicago truncatula CRE1 cytokinin receptor regulates lateral root development and early symbiotic interaction with Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rizzo, Silvina; Crespi, Martin; Frugier, Florian

    2006-10-01

    Legumes develop different types of lateral organs from their primary root, lateral roots and nodules, the latter depending on a symbiotic interaction with Sinorhizobium meliloti. Phytohormones have been shown to function in the control of these organogeneses. However, related signaling pathways have not been identified in legumes. We cloned and characterized the expression of Medicago truncatula genes encoding members of cytokinin signaling pathways. RNA interference of the cytokinin receptor homolog Cytokinin Response1 (Mt CRE1) led to cytokinin-insensitive roots, which showed an increased number of lateral roots and a strong reduction in nodulation. Both the progression of S. meliloti infection and nodule primordia formation were affected. We also identified two cytokinin signaling response regulator genes, Mt RR1 and Mt RR4, which are induced early during the symbiotic interaction. Induction of these genes by S. meliloti infection is altered in mutants affected in the Nod factor signaling pathway; conversely, cytokinin regulation of the early nodulin Nodule Inception1 (Mt NIN) depends on Mt CRE1. Hence, cytokinin signaling mediated by a single receptor, Mt CRE1, leads to an opposite control of symbiotic nodule and lateral root organogenesis. Mt NIN, Mt RR1, and Mt RR4 define a common pathway activated during early S. meliloti interaction, allowing crosstalk between plant cytokinins and bacterial Nod factors signals.

  10. Normal and lateral Casimir interactions between semi-infinite conductors in the presence of a dispersive medium

    SciTech Connect

    Soltani, Morteza; Sarabadani, Jalal; Kheirandish, Fardin; Rabbani, Hasan

    2010-10-15

    Path-integral formalism is employed to study normal and lateral Casimir interactions in a system composed of a dispersive medium surrounded by two semi-infinite ideal conductors. The dispersive medium is modeled by a continuum of harmonic oscillators, and it is shown that for smooth conductors, the normal force at small distances in the presence of a dispersive medium coincides with the original Casimir force, while at large distances, it tends to the original form with a renormalized coefficient. The correction to the normal force because of the roughness on one of the conductors is calculated. When the inner surfaces of both conductors have roughness, the lateral Casimir interaction occurs because of translational symmetry breaking, which is studied. It is shown that both normal and lateral Casimir forces in the presence of a dispersive medium are weaker in comparison with the original one and are proportional to the roughness amplitude squared. The dependence of the normal and lateral interactions on the memory and strength of the dispersive medium is considered.

  11. Classroom Demonstration and Interactive Model of Sea-Level Control on Lateral and Vertical Facies Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.; Pound, K. S.; Jones, M. H.; Schmitt, L.; Campbell, K.

    2005-12-01

    Students often have difficulty understanding and visualizing the role that relative sea-level change plays in controlling vertical and lateral facies changes; they also struggle with explanations of regional facies patterns and changes as sea-level dependant. This interactive, dynamic, in-class model has been developed to build their understanding both of this topic, and of the nature of predictive scientific models. The model can be used as a follow-up to field observations, or to pre-teach concepts. The model assumes a land-ocean transect that is divided into 5 sedimentary settings. Each setting in the land-ocean transect is associated with sediment grain size that decreases basinward; the most basinward component is carbonate. In the model, seven 10-cm diameter see-through tubes are set up to represent `cores' spread along the land-ocean transect. Brightly-colored plastic beads are used to represent sediment deposited in each of the sedimentary settings. At the start, the position of the shoreline (sea level) is fixed between the fluvial (tube 2) and beach (tube 3) sediments. Students then deposit beads that represent their sediment type in the each tube. Other students control the sea-level marker, which can be raised or lowered, and students with the sediment (beads) move shoreward or basinward accordingly, and deposit their sediments (beads) in the appropriate tube. This produces a simple visual record (tubes with layers of distinctly colored beads) that show the idealized sedimentary consequences of relative sea-level change. After large-scale patterns in facies changes have been demonstrated and discussed, students can manipulate variables such as supply and rate. Students can fill a basin using a sequence of events they determine, and other student groups can interpret their cores. The learning and approach of this model can be extended to include real sediment (gravel, sand, silt, mud) deposited in cardboard tubes that are then opened and treated as cores

  12. Escherichia coli FtsA forms lipid-bound minirings that antagonize lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments

    PubMed Central

    Krupka, Marcin; Rowlett, Veronica W.; Morado, Dustin; Vitrac, Heidi; Schoenemann, Kara; Liu, Jun; Margolin, William

    2017-01-01

    Most bacteria divide using a protein machine called the divisome that spans the cytoplasmic membrane. Key divisome proteins on the membrane’s cytoplasmic side include tubulin-like FtsZ, which forms GTP-dependent protofilaments, and actin-like FtsA, which tethers FtsZ to the membrane. Here we present genetic evidence that in Escherichia coli, FtsA antagonizes FtsZ protofilament bundling in vivo. We then show that purified FtsA does not form straight polymers on lipid monolayers as expected, but instead assembles into dodecameric minirings, often in hexameric arrays. When coassembled with FtsZ on lipid monolayers, these FtsA minirings appear to guide FtsZ to form long, often parallel, but unbundled protofilaments, whereas a mutant of FtsZ (FtsZ*) with stronger lateral interactions remains bundled. In contrast, a hypermorphic mutant of FtsA (FtsA*) forms mainly arcs instead of minirings and enhances lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments. Based on these results, we propose that FtsA antagonizes lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments, and that the oligomeric state of FtsA may influence FtsZ higher-order structure and divisome function. PMID:28695917

  13. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency. PMID:27300086

  14. Interaction of electrosensory and electromotor signals in lateral line lobe of a mormyrid fish.

    PubMed

    Zipser, B; Bennett, M V

    1976-07-01

    A signal associated with the neural command to discharge the electric organ is recorded in cells of the lateral line lobe. Responses of cells activated by medium receptor inputs are facilitated or less frequently inhibited during this command-associated signal. Only responses to disynaptic inputs are affected, the monosynaptic response is not altered. The periods of facilitation and inhibition occur at times at which electroreceptor activity evoked by organ discharge reaches the lateral line lobe. Presumably the command-associated signal is important in electrolocation. Cells responding to large receptor inputs are inhibited by the command-associated signal. Activity evoked by large receptors is transmitted in a mesencephalic fiber tract. The tract response is also inhibited by the command-associated signal. Since each organ discharge would excite all the large receptors at short latency, there would be little information contained in their responses. Inhibiting discharge-evoked activity may allow the system to return to maximum sensitivity most rapidly.

  15. Turbulence Model Effects on Cold-Gas Lateral Jet Interaction in a Supersonic Crossflow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    again with excellent agreement. The study detailed in this report found that, even with the observed variations in surface pressure, the aerodynamic ...fins or other appendages in the wake of the counter-rotating vortex pair. 15. SUBJECT TERMS lateral jet, computational fluid dynamics, aerodynamics 16...effective point of action are critical to the accuracy of any flight trajectory simulations using an aerodynamic model based on these simulations (5–7

  16. Experimental identification of the lateral human-structure interaction mechanism and assessment of the inverted-pendulum biomechanical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, S. P.; Owen, J. S.; Hussein, M. F. M.

    2014-10-01

    Within the context of crowd-induced lateral bridge vibration, human-structure interaction (HSI) is a widely studied phenomenon. Central to this study is the self-excited component of the ground reaction force (GRF). This force harmonic, induced by a walking pedestrian, resonates with lateral deck motion, irrespective of the pedestrian's pacing frequency. Its presence can lead to positive feedback between pedestrian GRFs and structural motion. Characterisation of the self-excited force as equivalent structural mass and damping has greatly improved the understanding of HSI and its role in developing lateral dynamic instability. However, despite this evolving understanding, a key question has remained unanswered; what are the features of a pedestrian's balance response to base motion that gives rise to the self-excited force? The majority of the literature has focussed on the effects of HSI with the underlying mechanism receiving comparatively little attention. This paper presents data from experimental testing in which 10 subjects walked individually on a laterally oscillating treadmill. Lateral deck motion as well as the GRFs imposed by the subject was recorded. Three-dimensional motion capture equipment was used to track the position of visual markers mounted on the subject. Thus whole body response to base motion was captured in addition to the GRFs generated. The data presented herein supports the authors' previous findings that the self-excited force is a frequency sideband harmonic resulting from amplitude modulation of the lateral GRF. The gait behaviour responsible for this amplitude modulation is a periodic modulation of stride width in response to a sinusoidally varying inertia force induced by deck motion. In a separate analysis the validity of the passive inverted pendulum model, stabilised by active control of support placement was confirmed. This was established through comparison of simulated and observed frontal plane CoM motion. Despite the relative

  17. Interaction of feel system and flight control system dynamics on lateral flying qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. E.; Knotts, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the influence of lateral feel system characteristics on fighter aircraft roll flying qualities was conducted using the variable stability USAF NT-33. Forty-two evaluation flights were flown by three engineering test pilots. The investigation utilized the power approach, visual landing task and up-and-away tasks including formation, gun tracking, and computer-generated compensatory attitude tracking tasks displayed on the Head-Up Display. Experimental variations included the feel system frequency, force-deflection gradient, control system command type (force or position input command), aircraft roll mode time constant, control system prefilter frequency, and control system time delay. The primary data were task performance records and evaluation pilot comments and ratings using the Cooper-Harper scale. The data highlight the unique and powerful effect of the feel system of flying qualities. The data show that the feel system is not 'equivalent' in flying qualities influence to analogous control system elements. A lower limit of allowable feel system frequency appears warranted to ensure good lateral flying qualities. Flying qualities criteria should most properly treat the feel system dynamic influence separately from the control system, since the input and output of this dynamic element is apparent to the pilot and thus, does not produce a 'hidden' effect.

  18. Lateral interactions among membrane proteins. Valid estimates based on freeze-fracture electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, J; Abney, J R; Owicki, J C

    1987-01-01

    We consider the lateral distribution of intrinsic membrane proteins from the viewpoint of the statistical-mechanical theory of liquids. We connect the information in freeze-fracture electron micrographs--positions of proteins but not lipids or aqueous species--to a well developed theory of liquid mixtures. An algorithm, based on the Born-Green-Yvon integral equation, is presented for deducing forces between proteins from correlations among protein positions that are observed in micrographs. The algorithm is tested on simulated micrographs, obtained by Monte-Carlo methods, where forces between proteins are known analytically. We conclude that valid estimates of such forces, both attractions and repulsions, can be obtained from the positions of a few thousand proteins. PMID:3651561

  19. Face-to-Face Interaction with Pedagogical Agents, Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. Lewis; Lester, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Johnson et al. ("International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education," 11, 47-78, 2000) introduced and surveyed a new paradigm for interactive learning environments: animated pedagogical agents. The article argued for combining animated interface agent technologies with intelligent learning environments, yielding intelligent…

  20. Face-to-Face Interaction with Pedagogical Agents, Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. Lewis; Lester, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Johnson et al. ("International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education," 11, 47-78, 2000) introduced and surveyed a new paradigm for interactive learning environments: animated pedagogical agents. The article argued for combining animated interface agent technologies with intelligent learning environments, yielding intelligent…

  1. Interaction between glucose and brassinosteroid during the regulation of lateral root development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditi; Singh, Manjul; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-05-01

    Glucose (Glc) plays a fundamental role in regulating lateral root (LR) development as well as LR emergence. In this study, we show that brassinosteroid (BR) signaling works downstream of Glc in controlling LR production/emergence in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. Glc and BR can promote LR emergence at lower concentrations, while at higher concentrations, both have an inhibitory effect. The BR biosynthesis and perception mutants showed highly reduced numbers of emerged LRs at all the Glc concentrations tested. BR signaling works downstream of Glc signaling in regulating LR production, as in the glucose insensitive2-1brassinosteroid insensitive1 double mutant, Glc-induced LR production/emergence was severely reduced. Differential auxin distribution via the influx carriers AUXIN RESISTANT1/LIKE AUXIN RESISTANT1-3 and the efflux carrier PIN-FORMED2 plays a central role in controlling LR production in response to Glc and BR. Auxin signaling components AUXIN RESISTANT2,3 and SOLITARY ROOT act downstream of Glc and BR. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7/19 work farther downstream and control LR production by regulating the expression of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-DOMAIN29 and EXPANSIN17 genes. Increasing light flux could also mimic the Glc effect on LR production/emergence. However, increased light flux could not affect LR production in those BR and auxin signaling mutants that were defective for Glc-induced LR production. Altogether, our study suggests that, under natural environmental conditions, modulation of endogenous sugar levels can manipulate root architecture for optimized development by altering its nutrient/water uptake as well as its anchorage capacity. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Interaction between Glucose and Brassinosteroid during the Regulation of Lateral Root Development in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Glucose (Glc) plays a fundamental role in regulating lateral root (LR) development as well as LR emergence. In this study, we show that brassinosteroid (BR) signaling works downstream of Glc in controlling LR production/emergence in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. Glc and BR can promote LR emergence at lower concentrations, while at higher concentrations, both have an inhibitory effect. The BR biosynthesis and perception mutants showed highly reduced numbers of emerged LRs at all the Glc concentrations tested. BR signaling works downstream of Glc signaling in regulating LR production, as in the glucose insensitive2-1brassinosteroid insensitive1 double mutant, Glc-induced LR production/emergence was severely reduced. Differential auxin distribution via the influx carriers AUXIN RESISTANT1/LIKE AUXIN RESISTANT1-3 and the efflux carrier PIN-FORMED2 plays a central role in controlling LR production in response to Glc and BR. Auxin signaling components AUXIN RESISTANT2,3 and SOLITARY ROOT act downstream of Glc and BR. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7/19 work farther downstream and control LR production by regulating the expression of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-DOMAIN29 and EXPANSIN17 genes. Increasing light flux could also mimic the Glc effect on LR production/emergence. However, increased light flux could not affect LR production in those BR and auxin signaling mutants that were defective for Glc-induced LR production. Altogether, our study suggests that, under natural environmental conditions, modulation of endogenous sugar levels can manipulate root architecture for optimized development by altering its nutrient/water uptake as well as its anchorage capacity. PMID:25810094

  3. Lateral Reaction Jet Flow Interaction Effects on a Generic Fin-Stabilized Munition in Supersonic Crossflows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    acting at the jet exit location. 15. SUBJECT TERMS reaction jet control, CFD , jet interaction, aerodynamics, Army-Navy Finner, supersonic crossflow 16...simulations were performed for each of the seven jet locations investigated in the CFD . The deflection simulations were performed for the jet located at...thrust located at the jet exit, case 2 was the effective jet thrust acting at cp , as calculated from CFD results. Case 3 was the effective jet

  4. Molecular insight into γ-γ tubulin lateral interactions within the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suri, Charu; Hendrickson, Triscia W.; Joshi, Harish C.; Naik, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-09-01

    γ-tubulin is essential for the nucleation and organization of mitotic microtubules in dividing cells. It is localized at the microtubule organizing centers and mitotic spindle fibres. The most well accepted hypothesis for the initiation of microtubule polymerization is that α/β-tubulin dimers add onto a γ-tubulin ring complex (γTuRC), in which adjacent γ-tubulin subunits bind to the underlying non-tubulin components of the γTuRC. This template thus determines the resulting microtubule lattice. In this study we use molecular modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, combined with computational MM-PBSA/MM-GBSA methods, to determine the extent of the lateral atomic interaction between two adjacent γ-tubulins within the γTuRC. To do this we simulated a γ-γ homodimer for 10 ns and calculated the ensemble average of binding free energies of -107.76 kcal/mol by the MM-PBSA method and of -87.12 kcal/mol by the MM-GBSA method. These highly favourable binding free energy values imply robust lateral interactions between adjacent γ-tubulin subunits in addition to their end-interactions longitudinally with other proteins of γTuRC. Although the functional reconstitution of γ-TuRC subunits and their stepwise in vitro assembly from purified components is not yet feasible, we nevertheless wanted to recognize hotspot amino acids responsible for key γ-γ interactions. Our free energy decomposition data from converting a compendium of amino acid residues identified an array of hotspot amino acids. A subset of such mutants can be expressed in vivo in living yeast. Because γTuRC is important for the growth of yeast, we could test whether this subset of the hotspot mutations support growth of yeast. Consistent with our model, γ-tubulin mutants that fall into our identified hotspot do not support yeast growth.

  5. Full-scale Testing and Numerical Modeling oF Axial and Lateral Soil Pipe Interaction in Deepwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraf Joshaghani, M.; M Raheem, A.

    2014-12-01

    A thorough understanding of the behavior of deep sea pipes is crucial for off-shore oil & gas industry. During the service life, network of oil and gas pipelines that connect the floating platforms to the subsea wells in deepwater undergo significant changes in temperature and pressure resulting in high shears, strains and movement. These pipelines laid on the very soft seabed become susceptible to large movement and lateral buckling resulting in global instability of the entire system. Hence, it is of paramount importance to address the aforementioned issues through combined numerical modeling and experimental study of various conditions in the field. Modeling this behavior needs to take into account the complex interactions between pipe, water, and soil (which, in this case, will be a saturated porous media). Physical experiments can be challenging as the undrained shear strength is very low of the order of 0.01 kPa. In this research, we have performed large-scale experiments as well as numerical modeling. Several full-scale models have been designed and constructed to investigate the behavior of various types of pipes (steel, plastic) on the simulated clayey sea bed (undrained shear strength ranged from 0.01 kPa to 0.11 kPa). Axial and lateral pipe soil interactions have been characterized, and appropriate mitigation solutions for axial walking and lateral buckling have been proposed. On the numerical modeling front, the pipe-soil behavior is simulated using the Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) and Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulations.

  6. Microarray analyses during early and later stages of the Arabidopsis/Piriformospora indica interaction.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Khabat; Sherameti, Irena; Bakshi, Madhunita; Mrozinska, Anna; Ludwig, Anatoli; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Colonization of the roots of different plant species by Piriformospora indica results in better plant performance and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. An increase of the biomass and seed yield is other beneficial effect of P. indica for the host plants. The interaction of P. indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots is a unique model system to study symbiotic relationships. We describe a co-cultivation system which allows us to investigate the effects of fungal exudates on the root transcriptome before and after the establishment of a physical contact, and during early phases of root colonization. We present a detailed protocol which facilitates easy reproduction of the results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE58771) published by Vahabi et al. (2015) in BMC Plant Biology [1].

  7. Microarray analyses during early and later stages of the Arabidopsis/Piriformospora indica interaction

    PubMed Central

    Vahabi, Khabat; Sherameti, Irena; Bakshi, Madhunita; Mrozinska, Anna; Ludwig, Anatoli; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of the roots of different plant species by Piriformospora indica results in better plant performance and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. An increase of the biomass and seed yield is other beneficial effect of P. indica for the host plants. The interaction of P. indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots is a unique model system to study symbiotic relationships. We describe a co-cultivation system which allows us to investigate the effects of fungal exudates on the root transcriptome before and after the establishment of a physical contact, and during early phases of root colonization. We present a detailed protocol which facilitates easy reproduction of the results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE58771) published by Vahabi et al. (2015) in BMC Plant Biology [1]. PMID:26697320

  8. GABAergic lateral interactions tune the early stages of visual processing in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Freifeld, Limor; Clark, Damon A.; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Horowitz, Mark A.; Clandinin, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Early stages of visual processing must capture complex, dynamic inputs. While peripheral neurons often implement efficient encoding by exploiting natural stimulus statistics, downstream neurons are specialized to extract behaviorally relevant features. How do these specializations arise? We use two-photon imaging in Drosophila to characterize a first order interneuron, L2, that provides input to a pathway specialized for detecting moving dark edges. GABAergic interactions, mediated in part pre-synaptically, create an antagonistic and anisotropic center-surround receptive field. This receptive field is spatiotemporally coupled, applying differential temporal processing to large and small dark objects, achieving significant specialization. GABAergic circuits also mediate OFF responses and balance these with responses to ON stimuli. Remarkably, the functional properties of L2 are strikingly similar to those of bipolar cells, yet emerge through different molecular and circuit mechanisms. Thus, evolution appears to have converged on a common strategy for processing visual information at the first synapse. PMID:23791198

  9. Bio-inspired carbon nanotube-polymer composite yarns with hydrogen bond-mediated lateral interactions.

    PubMed

    Beese, Allison M; Sarkar, Sourangsu; Nair, Arun; Naraghi, Mohammad; An, Zhi; Moravsky, Alexander; Loutfy, Raouf O; Buehler, Markus J; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2013-04-23

    Polymer composite yarns containing a high loading of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) have been developed in which the inherent acrylate-based organic coating on the surface of the DWNT bundles interacts strongly with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) through an extensive hydrogen-bond network. This design takes advantage of a toughening mechanism seen in spider silk and collagen, which contain an abundance of hydrogen bonds that can break and reform, allowing for large deformation while maintaining structural stability. Similar to that observed in natural materials, unfolding of the polymeric matrix at large deformations increases ductility without sacrificing stiffness. As the PVA content in the composite increases, the stiffness and energy to failure of the composite also increases up to an optimal point, beyond which mechanical performance in tension decreases. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations confirm this trend, showing the dominance of nonproductive hydrogen bonding between PVA molecules at high PVA contents, which lubricates the interface between DWNTs.

  10. Interaction Between Midlife Blood Glucose and APOE Genotype Predicts Later Alzheimer's Disease Pathology.

    PubMed

    Bangen, Katherine J; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Nation, Daniel A; Libon, David J; Fox, Caroline S; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A; McKee, Ann C; Au, Rhoda; Delano-Wood, Lisa

    2016-07-06

    Elevated blood glucose and the apolipoprotein (APOE) ɛ4 allele have both been associated with increased dementia risk; however, the neuropathological mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We examined the impact of APOE genotype and midlife blood glucose on post-mortem vascular and Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Ninety-four participants from the Framingham Heart Study without diagnosed diabetes underwent health examination at midlife and brain autopsy at death. Histopathological measures of vascular and AD neuropathology were obtained and analyzed. Results demonstrated that, among APOE ɛ4 carriers, elevated blood glucose was associated with more severe AD pathology. There was no such relationship with vascular pathology. In a relatively healthy sample with low vascular risk burden, midlife elevated blood glucose was associated with greater AD pathology among APOE ɛ4 carriers. A better understanding of interactive effects of APOE genotype and vascular risk on neuropathology has implications for identification of individuals at risk for decline and long-term preventive treatment.

  11. Repositioning Antimicrobial Agent Pentamidine as a Disruptor of the Lateral Interactions of Transmembrane Domain 5 of EBV Latent Membrane Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohui; Fiorini, Zeno; Smith, Christina; Zhang, Yingning; Li, Jing; Watkins, Linda R.; Yin, Hang

    2012-01-01

    The lateral transmembrane protein-protein interactions (PPI) have been regarded as “undruggable” despite their importance in many essential biological processes. The homo-trimerization of transmembrane domain 5 (TMD-5) of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is critical for the constitutive oncogenic activation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Herein we repurpose the antimicrobial agent pentamidine as a regulator of LMP-1 TMD-5 lateral interactions. The results of ToxR assay, tryptophan fluorescence assay, courmarin fluorescence dequenching assay, and Bis-Tris sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) consistently show pentamidine disrupts LMP-1 TMD-5 lateral interactions. Furthermore, pentamidine inhibits LMP-1 signaling, inducing cellular apoptosis and suppressing cell proliferation in the EBV infected B cells. In contrast, EBV negative cells are less susceptible to pentamidine. This study provides a novel non-peptide small molecule agent for regulating LMP-1 TMD-5 lateral interactions. PMID:23094078

  12. Avidin-biotin interactions at vesicle surfaces: adsorption and binding, cross-bridge formation, and lateral interactions.

    PubMed

    Noppl-Simson, D A; Needham, D

    1996-03-01

    Densely packed domains of membrane proteins are important structures in cellular processes that involve ligand-receptor binding, receptor-mediated adhesion, and macromolecule aggregation. We have used the biotin-avidin interaction at lipid vesicle surfaces to mimic these processes, including the influence of a surface grafted polymer, polyethyleneglycol (PEG). Single vesicles were manipulated by micropipette in solutions of fluorescently labeled avidin to measure the rate and give an estimate of the amount of avidin binding to a biotinylated vesicle as a function of surface biotin concentration and surface-grafted PEG as PEG-lipid. The rate of avidin adsorption was found to be four times less with 2 mol% PEG750 than for the unmodified surface, and 10 mol% PEG completely inhibited binding of avidin to biotin for a 2-min incubation. Using two micropipettes, an avidin-coated vesicle was presented to a biotinylated vesicle. In this vesicle-vesicle adhesion test, the accumulation of avidin in the contact zone was observed, again by using fluorescent avidin. More importantly, by controlling the vesicle membrane tension, this adhesion test provided a direct measure of the spreading pressure of the biotin-avidin-biotin cross-bridges confined in the contact zone. Assuming ideality, this spreading pressure gives the concentration of avidin cross-bridges in the contact zone. The rate of cross-bridge accumulation was consistent with the diffusion of the lipid-linked "receptors" into the contact zone. Once adherent, the membranes failed in tension before they could be peeled apart. PEG750 did not influence the mechanical equilibrium because it was not compressed in the contact zone, but it did perform an important function by eliminating all nonspecific adhesion. This vesicle-vesicle adhesion experiment, with a lower tension limit of 0.01 dyn/cm, now provides a new and useful method with which to measure the spreading pressures and therefore colligative properties of a range of

  13. Interaction with gravitropism, reversibility and lateral movements of phototropically stimulated potato shoots.

    PubMed

    Vinterhalter, D; Savić, J; Stanišić, M; Jovanović, Ž; Vinterhalter, B

    2016-07-01

    Phototropic (PT) and gravitropic (GT) bending are the two major tropic movements that determine the spatial position of potato shoots. We studied PT bending of potato plantlets grown under long-day photoperiods in several prearranged position setups providing different interactions with the GT response. Starting with the standard PT stimulation setup composed of unilateral irradiation of vertically positioned shoots, experiments were also done in antagonistic and synergistic setups and in treatments with horizontal displacement of the light source. In the standard setup, PT bending suppressed the GT bending, which could occur only if the PT stimulation was cancelled. The antagonistic position, with phototropism and gravitropism attempting to bend shoots in opposite directions, showed phototropism and gravitropism as independent bending events with the outcome varying throughout the day reflecting diurnal changes in the competence of individual tropic components. Whilst gravitropism was constant, phototropism had a marked daily fluctuation of its magnitude with a prominent morning maximum starting an hour after the dawn in the growth room and lasting for the next 6 h. When phototropism and gravitropism were aligned in a synergistic position, stimulating shoot bending in the same direction, there was little quantitative addition of their individual effects. The long period of morning PT bending maximum enabled multiple PT bending events to be conducted in succession, each one preceded by a separate lag phase. Studies of secondary PT events showed that potato plantlets can follow and adjust their shoot position in response to both vertical and horizontal movements of a light source. PT bending was reversible, since the 180° horizontal change of a blue light (BL) source position resulted in reversal of bending direction after a 20-min-long lag phase.

  14. Laterality interacts with sex across the schizophrenia/bipolarity continuum: an interpretation of meta-analyses of structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Crow, Timothy J; Chance, Steven A; Priddle, Thomas H; Radua, Joaquim; James, Anthony C

    2013-12-30

    Review of the first comprehensive meta-analysis of VBM (voxel-based morphometry) studies in schizophrenia indicates asymmetrical reductions of anterior cingulate gyrus to the right, and medial temporal lobe (including the uncus) and para-hippocampal gyrus to the left. In subsequent meta-analyses of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder change in these limbic structures is systematically related to change in the insula. Deficits in insula (and para-hippocampal gyrus) to the left, and dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus to the right are greater in schizophrenic psychoses whereas deficits in anterior cingulate to the left and insula to the right are greater in bipolar illness. Thus (1) brain structures implicated in schizophrenia include those implicated in bipolar disorder, (2) the variation that separates the prototypical psychoses may be a subset of that relating to the structural asymmetry (the "torque") characteristic of the human brain, and (3) the meta-analysis of Bora et al. (2012) indicates that laterality of involvement of the insula and cingulate gyrus across the spectrum of bipolar and schizophrenic psychoses is critically dependent upon the sex ratio. Thus structural change underlying the continuum of psychosis relates to the interaction of laterality and sex.

  15. The role of surface heterogeneity and lateral interactions in the adsorption of volatile organic compounds on rutile surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxa, E.; Kolliopoulos, A.; Agelakopoulou, T.; Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, F.

    2009-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are pollutants of great interest because they are very harmful for both human health and the environment, even at very low concentrations. In this work we present and discuss the results of the experimental chromatographic study of the role of surface heterogeneity and lateral interactions in the adsorption of volatile organic compounds - ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetone - on the surface of rutile (TiO 2), a typical oxide widely used as a white pigment and a photocatalyst, as well. The ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetone were chosen because they contain the same heteroatom (O) and they have small carbon-chains. The novel method of Reversed Flow-Inverse Gas Chromatography is used, which has a powerful mathematical background and comprises a simple experimental arrangement for the determination of energetic physicochemical quantities directly from the experimental data, by means of a time-resolved analysis. In particular, several important physicochemical quantities are determined, as local adsorption energy, local adsorption isotherm, local monolayer capacity, non-adsorbed gaseous concentration of adsorbate, density probability function for the adsorption energy values, as well as the differential energy of adsorption due to lateral interactions among molecules adsorbed on the heterogeneous solid surface of TiO 2. By means of these quantities, appropriate answers are achieved to critical questions of: (a) What is the type of the adsorption isotherm of a system? (b) Where are the adsorbed molecules located on the heterogeneous surface? (c) What is the nature of the surface bonds? (d) What is the type of non-ideality of the system and (e) How does the adsorbate affect the adsorbent properties?

  16. Functionalized surface-confined pores: guest binding directed by lateral noncovalent interactions at the solid-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Kazukuni; Katayama, Keisuke; Blunt, Matthew Oliver; Iritani, Kohei; De Feyter, Steven; Tobe, Yoshito

    2014-08-26

    We present here the construction of self-assembled two-dimensional (2D) molecular networks that contain pores equipped with functional groups that promote guest-specific binding at the liquid/solid interface. For this purpose, a dehydrobenzo[12]annulene (DBA) derivative, DBA-F, having perfluoroalkyl groups at the end of the three alternating alkoxy chains connected by para-phenylene linkers was synthesized. For comparison DBA-H, having the same carbon backbone without fluorine substituents, was also prepared. STM observations revealed that these molecules formed porous 2D networks whose pores were decorated with either fluoroalkane or simple alkane perimeters. Hexakis(phenylethynyl)benzene, HPEB, and its octadecafluoro derivative, HPEB-F surrounded by 18 fluorine atoms, were employed as planar guest molecules of suitable size. The fluoroalkane-lined pores present in the network of DBA-F exhibited good binding ability toward both guest molecules via fluorophilicity and electrostatic interaction, respectively. In contrast the binding ability of the alkane-lined pore of the network of DBA-H for the fluorinated guest HPEB-F was poor as a result of weaker electrostatic interaction. Interestingly, with HPEB as a guest, this network underwent a periodical structural deformation through an induced-fit mechanism to form a superlattice structure consisting of free and occupied pores. These observations are discussed based on modeling experiments using molecular mechanics and quantum chemical methods to elucidate the roles of lateral noncovalent interactions and size matching between the pore and the guest molecules used for 2D guest binding.

  17. Independent and Interactive Effects of Real-Time Risk Factors on Later Temptations and Lapses Among Smokers Trying to Quit

    PubMed Central

    Bold, Krysten W.; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Minami, Haruka; Yeh, Vivan M.; Chapman, Gretchen B.; Waters, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The current study sought to expand our understanding of relapse mechanisms by identifying the independent and interactive effects of real-time risk factors on temptations and the ability to resist temptations in smokers during a quit attempt. Procedures This study was a secondary analysis of data from 109 adult, treatment-seeking daily smokers. Ecological momentary assessment data was collected 4 times a day for 21 days following a quit attempt and was used to assess affect, urge, impulsiveness, recent cigarette exposure, and alcohol use as predictors of temptations to smoke and smoking up to 8 hours later. All smokers received nicotine replacement therapy and smoking cessation counseling. Findings In multinomial hierarchical linear models, there were significant main (agitation Odds Ratio (OR)=1.22, 95%CI=1.02-1.48; urge OR=1.60, 95%CI=1.35-1.92; nicotine dependence measured by WISDM OR=1.04, 95%CI=1.01-1.08) and interactive effects (agitation x urge OR=1.12,95%CI=1.01-1.27; urge x cigarette exposure OR=1.38, 95%CI=1.10-1.76; positive affect x impulsiveness OR=2.44, 95%CI=1.02-5.86) on the odds of temptations occurring, relative to abstinence without temptation. In contrast, prior smoking (OR=3.46, 95%CI=2.58-4.63), higher distress (OR=1.30, 95%CI=1.06-1.60), and recent alcohol use (OR=3.71, 95%CI=1.40-9.89) predicted smoking versus resisting temptation, and momentary impulsiveness was related to smoking for individuals with higher baseline impulsiveness (OR=1.12, 95%CI=1.04-1.22). Conclusions The risk factors and combinations of factors associated with temptations and smoking lapses differ, suggesting a need for separate models of temptation and lapse. PMID:26585613

  18. Host Transcriptional Profiling at Early and Later Stages of the Compatible Interaction Between Phaseolus vulgaris and Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Santini, Luciane; Munhoz, Carla de Freitas; Bonfim, Mauro Ferreira; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Inomoto, Mário Massayuki; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro

    2016-03-01

    The root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is one of most devastating pathogens that attack the common bean crop. Although there is evidence that some cultivars have race-specific resistance against M. incognita, these resistance sources have not proved effective, and nematodes are able to circumvent the host's defense system. We constructed RNA-seq based libraries and used a high-throughput sequencing platform to analyze the plant responses to M. incognita. Assessments were performed at 4 and 10 days after inoculation corresponding to the stages of nematode penetration and giant cell development, respectively. Large-scale transcript mapping to the common bean reference genome (G19833) resulted in the identification of 27,195 unigenes. Of these, 797 host genes were found to be differentially expressed. The functional annotation results confirm the complex interplay between abiotic and biotic stress signaling pathways. High expression levels of the wounding-responsive genes were observed over the interaction. At early response, an overexpression of the N gene, a TIR-NBS-LRR resistance gene, was understood as a host attempt to overcome the pathogen attack. However, the repression of heat shock proteins resulted in a lack of reactive oxygen species accumulation and absence of a hypersensitive response. Furthermore, the host basal response was broken by the repression of the ethylene/jasmonate pathway later in the response, resulting in a continuous compatible process with consequent plant susceptibility.

  19. Lateral Protein-Protein Interactions at Hydrophobic and Charged Surfaces as a Function of pH and Salt Concentration.

    PubMed

    Hladílková, Jana; Callisen, Thomas H; Lund, Mikael

    2016-04-07

    Surface adsorption of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL)-a widely used industrial biocatalyst-is studied experimentally and theoretically at different pH and salt concentrations. The maximum achievable surface coverage on a hydrophobic surface occurs around the protein isoelectric point and adsorption is reduced when either increasing or decreasing pH, indicating that electrostatic protein-protein interactions in the adsorbed layer play an important role. Using Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, where proteins are coarse grained to the amino acid level, we estimate the protein isoelectric point in the vicinity of charged surfaces as well as the lateral osmotic pressure in the adsorbed monolayer. Good agreement with available experimental data is achieved and we further make predictions of the protein orientation at hydrophobic and charged surfaces. Finally, we present a perturbation theory for predicting shifts in the protein isoelectric point due to close proximity to charged surfaces. Although this approximate model requires only single protein properties (mean charge and its variance), excellent agreement is found with MC simulations.

  20. Decrease in pH destabilizes individual vault nanocages by weakening the inter-protein lateral interaction

    PubMed Central

    Llauró, Aida; Guerra, Pablo; Kant, Ravi; Bothner, Brian; Verdaguer, Núria; de Pablo, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    Vault particles are naturally occurring proteinaceous cages with promising application as molecular containers. The use of vaults as functional transporters requires a profound understanding of their structural stability to guarantee the protection and controlled payload delivery. Previous results performed with bulk techniques or at non-physiological conditions have suggested pH as a parameter to control vault dynamics. Here we use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to monitor the structural evolution of individual vault particles while changing the pH in real time. Our experiments show that decreasing the pH of the solution destabilize the barrel region, the central part of vault particles, and leads to the aggregation of the cages. Additional analyses using Quartz-Crystal Microbalance (QCM) and Differential Scanning Fluorimetry (DSF) are consistent with our single molecule AFM experiments. The observed topographical defects suggest that low pH weakens the bonds between adjacent proteins. We hypothesize that the observed effects are related to the strong polar character of the protein-protein lateral interactions. Overall, our study unveils the mechanism for the influence of a biologically relevant range of pHs on the stability and dynamics of vault particles. PMID:27739422

  1. Thresholds vary between spatial and temporal forced-choice paradigms: the case of lateral interactions in peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Miguel A; Giorgi, Robert G; Woods, Russell L; Peli, Eli

    2005-01-01

    Psychophysicists use spatial or temporal two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) paradigms interchangeably. Thus, experiments with the same general goal are carried out using one or the other paradigm by distinct or even the same research groups. For example, this situation has occurred both in studies on visual sensitivity in dyslexia and in studies on lateral interactions in peripheral vision. Conflicting results in either field (e.g. whether or not dyslexics have a visual deficit and whether or not peripheral detection is facilitated by the presence of flankers) appear to be resolved on the surmise that spatial and temporal 2AFC paradigms indeed produce different results. We designed experiments in which peripheral detection thresholds for Gabor patches (in the presence or absence of suprathreshold flankers) could be measured using completely equivalent spatial and temporal 2AFC paradigms so that any resultant difference can be unequivocally attributed to the effect of the paradigms themselves. The results showed that spatial 2AFC renders significantly lower sensitivity than temporal 2AFC when the target is presented along with suprathreshold flankers, but about the same sensitivity as temporal 2AFC when the target is presented alone. In the end, this resulted in statistically significant facilitation in peripheral vision only when measured with temporal 2AFC. Separate experiments at each of several peripheral locations revealed that the presence and magnitude of this effect varies not only with psychophysical paradigm but also with retinal locus.

  2. Decrease in pH destabilizes individual vault nanocages by weakening the inter-protein lateral interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llauró, Aida; Guerra, Pablo; Kant, Ravi; Bothner, Brian; Verdaguer, Núria; de Pablo, Pedro J.

    2016-10-01

    Vault particles are naturally occurring proteinaceous cages with promising application as molecular containers. The use of vaults as functional transporters requires a profound understanding of their structural stability to guarantee the protection and controlled payload delivery. Previous results performed with bulk techniques or at non-physiological conditions have suggested pH as a parameter to control vault dynamics. Here we use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to monitor the structural evolution of individual vault particles while changing the pH in real time. Our experiments show that decreasing the pH of the solution destabilize the barrel region, the central part of vault particles, and leads to the aggregation of the cages. Additional analyses using Quartz-Crystal Microbalance (QCM) and Differential Scanning Fluorimetry (DSF) are consistent with our single molecule AFM experiments. The observed topographical defects suggest that low pH weakens the bonds between adjacent proteins. We hypothesize that the observed effects are related to the strong polar character of the protein-protein lateral interactions. Overall, our study unveils the mechanism for the influence of a biologically relevant range of pHs on the stability and dynamics of vault particles.

  3. The essential and downstream common proteins of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A protein-protein interaction network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Le; Heckman, C. J.

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a devastative neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of motoneurons. While several breakthroughs have been made in identifying ALS genetic defects, the detailed molecular mechanisms are still unclear. These genetic defects involve in numerous biological processes, which converge to a common destiny: motoneuron degeneration. In addition, the common comorbid Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) further complicates the investigation of ALS etiology. In this study, we aimed to explore the protein-protein interaction network built on known ALS-causative genes to identify essential proteins and common downstream proteins between classical ALS and ALS+FTD (classical ALS + ALS/FTD) groups. The results suggest that classical ALS and ALS+FTD share similar essential protein set (VCP, FUS, TDP-43 and hnRNPA1) but have distinctive functional enrichment profiles. Thus, disruptions to these essential proteins might cause motoneuron susceptible to cellular stresses and eventually vulnerable to proteinopathies. Moreover, we identified a common downstream protein, ubiquitin-C, extensively interconnected with ALS-causative proteins (22 out of 24) which was not linked to ALS previously. Our in silico approach provides the computational background for identifying ALS therapeutic targets, and points out the potential downstream common ground of ALS-causative mutations. PMID:28282387

  4. The essential and downstream common proteins of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A protein-protein interaction network analysis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yimin; Kuo, Su-Wei; Chen, Le; Heckman, C J; Jiang, M C

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a devastative neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of motoneurons. While several breakthroughs have been made in identifying ALS genetic defects, the detailed molecular mechanisms are still unclear. These genetic defects involve in numerous biological processes, which converge to a common destiny: motoneuron degeneration. In addition, the common comorbid Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) further complicates the investigation of ALS etiology. In this study, we aimed to explore the protein-protein interaction network built on known ALS-causative genes to identify essential proteins and common downstream proteins between classical ALS and ALS+FTD (classical ALS + ALS/FTD) groups. The results suggest that classical ALS and ALS+FTD share similar essential protein set (VCP, FUS, TDP-43 and hnRNPA1) but have distinctive functional enrichment profiles. Thus, disruptions to these essential proteins might cause motoneuron susceptible to cellular stresses and eventually vulnerable to proteinopathies. Moreover, we identified a common downstream protein, ubiquitin-C, extensively interconnected with ALS-causative proteins (22 out of 24) which was not linked to ALS previously. Our in silico approach provides the computational background for identifying ALS therapeutic targets, and points out the potential downstream common ground of ALS-causative mutations.

  5. Enhancing the ecological validity of tests of lateralization and hemispheric interaction: Evidence from fixated displays of letters or symbols of varying complexity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Andrew J; Upshaw, Jennifer N; Macaulay, Georgia M; Rutherford, Barbara J

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments expand upon behavioural evidence of interactions among lateralization, hemispheric interaction, and task complexity with findings from an ecologically valid procedure. Target displays of letters or symbols were presented at fixation in go/no-go matching tasks of physical or categorical identity. Simultaneously with the target, a distractor appeared in the left visual field or right visual field to weight processing of the target to the hemisphere ipsilateral to the distractor, or the distractor did not appear at all. Comparison of the respective distractor-present trials with distractor-absent trials measures the relative costs or benefits of hemispheric interaction. Both experiments found that 3-item displays were processed faster and more accurately than displays of 5 items, suggesting they are relatively simple. Accuracy to the simple tasks showed left-hemisphere lateralization in the lexical task, right-hemisphere lateralization in the spatial task, a cost of hemispheric interaction compared to the advantaged hemisphere, and a benefit of hemispheric interaction compared to the less-advantaged hemisphere, suggesting that the contributions of the less-advantaged hemisphere interfere with processing, and that the advantaged hemisphere controls the lion's share. In contrast, 5-item displays for physical match in both experiments showed a significant benefit to accuracy of hemispheric interaction compared to the left hemisphere, an insignificant benefit compared to the right hemisphere, no lateralization, no cost of hemispheric interaction, and a consequence to performance that was more costly to the hemisphere that had been advantaged in simple tasks, suggesting that the advantaged hemisphere relinquishes control as tasks become more complex and complementary processing results from both increased collaboration and decreased lateralization between the hemispheres. The findings expand upon behavioural evidence, converge with imaging evidence, and

  6. Non-linear eye movements during visual-vestibular interaction under body oscillation with step-mode lateral linear acceleration.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shigeo; Katayama, Naomi

    2005-02-01

    We investigated visual-vestibular interactions in normal humans, where a constant speed of optokinetic stimulation was combined with whole body oscillation of lateral linear acceleration (10 m stroke). The acceleration mode was not sinusoidal, but rectangular (step). The pure optokinetic reflex (reference OKR) and the OKR under combined stimulation (combined OKR) were induced by a random-dot pattern projected onto a hemispherical dome-screen affixed to a chair on a linear accelerator. The translational vestibulo-ocular reflex (tVOR) was determined separately in the dark during acceleration-step oscillation. Since the tVOR was masked by the OKR under combined stimulation, the interaction was assessed as changes in combined-OKR velocity at two segments of opposing acceleration; in other words, tVOR directions identical to (agonistic) and opposite to (antagonistic) the OKR direction. When a moderate optokinetic stimulus-speed of 40 deg/s was combined with a moderate acceleration of 0.3 G (3.0 m/s2) as in Experiment 1 (N=10), the combined-OKR velocity always increased during the agonistic condition, and the motion of the visual pattern was perceived as slow and clear in this segment. On the other hand, during the antagonistic condition, the combined-OKR velocity either remained unchanged or increased moderately, and the motion of the visual pattern was sensed as fast and unclear. Notably, in most subjects, the velocity difference in combined-OKR between the agonistic and antagonistic conditions was around the value of the tVOR velocity. In five of the ten subjects who completed an additional test session with the acceleration level increased from 0.3 to 0.5 G (4.9 m/s2), similar findings were maintained individually, suggesting independent behavior of tVOR. Therefore, we hypothesized that the interaction could be direction-selective; in other words, both tVOR and OKR are additive during the agonistic condition, but tVOR is suppressed during the antagonistic condition

  7. Basins Formed by Interaction of Left- and Right-Lateral Faults in the Eastern Transverse Ranges, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenheim, V. E.; Powell, R. E.; Biehler, S.

    2006-12-01

    the eastern Pinto Basin, the southern margin marked by prominent gravity and magnetic gradients that we use to map the Eagle Mountain strand of the BCF. The N margin of the basin does not coincide with a previously inferred right-lateral strike-slip fault (Sheep Hole Fault;SHF), but rather with a normal fault at the range front. The E-W dimension of the basin is 10±1 km. The CF also consists of left-stepping strands mapped by strong gravity and magnetic gradients. The ENE- striking Hayfield basin is 11-12 km long, ~3 km wide and 1-2 km deep with a 12 km long basin beneath Shaver Valley to the west. At the E end of the CF is a 6 km by 8 km, <2 km deep triangular basin. Using the length of the basins as a proxy for cumulative left slip suggests that displacement increases westward along the PMF and eastward along the Eagle Mountain strand of the BCF. Estimates from this method are consistent with those derived by matching offset magnetic anomalies and best-fit bedrock geologic match-ups. Slip apparently is bled off of the BCF by internal deformation in the Pinto Mountain block and fed onto the PMF by subsidiary faults such as the Ivanhoe Fault. The wider basins at the E ends of the left-lateral faults may reflect interaction with the poorly understood SHF. Geophysical data suggest that the SHF is characterized by mostly normal displacement. The westward decrease in basin width may relate to proximity to the left step in the San Andreas Fault or, for the PMF, proximity to a mafic Jurassic intrusion, north of the Joshua Tree basin.

  8. Interactive effects of early and later nutritional conditions on the adult antioxidant defence system in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Noguera, José C; Monaghan, Pat; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-07-01

    In vertebrates, antioxidant defences comprise a mixture of endogenously produced components and exogenously obtained antioxidants that are derived mostly from the diet. It has been suggested that early-life micronutritional conditions might influence the way in which the antioxidant defence system operates, which could enable individuals to adjust the activity of the endogenous and exogenous components in line with their expected intake of dietary antioxidants if the future environment resembles the past. We investigated this possibility by experimentally manipulating the micronutrient content of the diet during different periods of postnatal development in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Birds that had a low micronutrient diet during the growth phase initially had a lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC) than those reared under a high micronutrient diet, but then showed a compensatory response, so that by the end of the growth phase, the TAC of the two groups was the same. Interestingly, we found an interactive effect of micronutrient intake early and late in development: only those birds that continued with the same dietary treatment (low or high) throughout development showed a significant increase in their TAC during the period of sexual maturation. A similar effect was also found in the level of enzymatic antioxidant defences (glutathione peroxidase; GPx). No significant effects were found in the level of oxidative damage in lipids [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. These findings demonstrate the importance of early and late developmental conditions in shaping multiple aspects of the antioxidant system. Furthermore, they suggest that young birds may adjust their antioxidant defences to enable them to 'thrive' on diets rich or poor in micronutrients later in life.

  9. Interactive effects of apolipoprotein e4 and diabetes risk on later myelinating white matter regions in neurologically healthy older aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Jessica M.; Salat, David H.; Stricker, Nikki H.; Zink, Tyler A.; Grande, Laura J.; McGlinchey, Regina E.; Milberg, William P.; Leritz, Elizabeth C.

    2014-01-01

    Possession of the apolipoprotein e4 (APOE4) allele and diabetes risk are independently related to reduced white matter (WM) integrity that may contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this study is to examine the interactive effects of APOE4 and diabetes risk on later myelinating WM regions among healthy elderly at risk for AD. A sample of 107 healthy elderly (80 APOE4−/27 APOE4+) underwent structural MRI/ DTI data were prepared using TBSS and a-priori ROIs were extracted from T1-based WM parcellations. ROIs included later myelinating frontal/temporal/parietal WM regions and control regions, measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). There were no APOE group differences on DTI for any ROI. Within the APOE4 group, we found negative relationships between HAIC/fasting glucose and APOE4 on FA for all later myelinating WM regions, but not for early/middle myelinating control regions. Results also showed APOE4/diabetes risk interactions for WM underlying supramarginal, superior temporal, precuneus, superior parietal, and superior frontal regions. Results suggest interactive effects of APOE4 and diabetes risk on later myelinating WM regions, which supports preclinical detection of AD among this particularly susceptible subgroup. PMID:24381137

  10. Interaction of GABA and norepinephrine in the lateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminals in anesthetized rat, correlating single-unit and cardiovascular responses.

    PubMed

    Yeganeh, Fahimeh; Nasimi, Ali; Hatam, Masoumeh

    2017-07-25

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) consists of multiple anatomically distinct nuclei. The lateral division, which receives dense noradrenergic innervation, has been implicated in cardiovascular regulation and modulation of responses to stress. This study is performed to identify the cardiovascular and single-unit responses of the lateral BST to norepinephrine (NE), involved adrenoceptors, and possible interaction with GABAergic system of the BST in urethane-anesthetized rats. NE, adrenoreceptor antagonists, and GABAA antagonist were microinjected into the lateral division of BST, while arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), and single-unit responses were simultaneously recorded. NE microinjected into the lateral division of BST produced depressor and bradycardic responses. The decrease in AP and HR to NE was blocked by prazosin, an α1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, but not by yohimbine, an α2 antagonist. Furthermore, injections of the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline methiodide (BMI), into the lateral BST abolished the NE-induced depressor and bradycardic responses. We also observed single-unit responses consisting of excitatory and inhibitory responses correlated with cardiovascular function to the microinjection of NE. In conclusion, these data provide the first evidence that microinjection of NE in the lateral division of BST produces depressor and bradycardic responses in urethane-anesthetized rat. The depressor and bradycardiac response are mediated by local α1- but not α2-adrenoceptors. α1-AR activates the GABAergic system within the BST, which in turn produces depressor and bradycardic responses. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Exposure to People with Physical and Sensory Disabilities and Later Attitudes toward Social Interactions and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily M.; Seekins, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between exposure to classmates with visible impairments in primary and secondary schools with later attitudes toward people with disabilities. Fifty college students (mean age = 20.28 years; 76% female) completed measures assessing the extent and quality of recalled exposure to classmates with disabilities in…

  12. Judging hand laterality from my or your point of view: interactions between motor imagery and visual perspective.

    PubMed

    Conson, Massimiliano; Mazzarella, Elisabetta; Donnarumma, Carmela; Trojano, Luigi

    2012-11-14

    Motor imagery tasks (hand laterality judgment) are usually performed with respect to a self-body (egocentric) representation, but manipulations of stimulus features (hand orientation) can induce a shift to other's body (allocentric) reference frame. Visual perspective taking tasks are also performed in self-body perspective but a shift to an allocentric frame can be triggered by manipulations of context features (e.g., another person present in the to-be-judged scene). Combining hand laterality task and visual perspective taking, we demonstrated that both stimulus and context features can modulate motor imagery performance. In Experiment 1, participants judged laterality of a hand embedded in a human or non-human silhouette. Results showed that observing a human silhouette interfered with judgments on "egocentric hand stimuli" (right hand, fingers up). In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly required to judge laterality of a hand embedded in a human silhouette from their own (egocentric group) or from the silhouette's perspective (allocentric group). Consistent with previous results, the egocentric group was significantly faster than the allocentric group in judging fingers-up right hand stimuli. These findings showed that concurrent activation of egocentric and allocentric frames during mental transformation of body parts impairs participants' performance due to a conflict between motor and visual mechanisms.

  13. Investigation of shock-shock interaction and Mach reflection in laterally colliding laser-blow-off plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Singh, R. K.; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, P. K.; Kumar, Ajai

    2015-06-15

    Interactions of two Li plasma plumes and shock waves are investigated at various pressures (∼10{sup −5} to 3 mbar) in the argon gas ambient. Fast imaging and optical emission spectroscopy are used to study the plume dynamics and characteristic emission of plasmas. The plasma plumes are created in laser-blow-off geometry. The expansion of plasma plumes in the ambient gas leads to the formation of an interaction zone. The formation of interaction zone is dependent on the ambient pressure and below a certain pressure, no significant change is observed in the shape and size of the interaction plasma. In the higher pressure, formation of interaction zone and its shape are dependent on ambient pressure. Dynamics of seed plasmas and interaction zone are also affected by the shock-shock interactions. The shock-shock interaction depends on the angle of incidence (α) between two shock waves at the initial time of interaction but as the plumes expand, the shock-shock interaction does not follow α dependence.

  14. Test of a Hadronic Interaction Model by a Multidimensional Analysis of Lateral and Longitudinal Air-Shower Observables at KASCADE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, F.; Antoni, T.; Apel, W. D.; Bekk, K.; Bercuci, A.; Blümer, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Büttner, C.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Feßler, F.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Iwan, A.; Kampert, K-H.; Klages, H. O.; Maier, G.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Müller, M.; Obenland, R.; Oehschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Schieler, H.; Scholz, J.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; van Buren, J.; Vardanyan, A.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.

    2003-07-01

    The multi-detector experiment KASCADE enables simultaneous observations of parameters describing the lateral and longitudinal development of Extensive Air Showers. The present analysis is fo cused on Field Array and Muon Tracking detectors of KASCADE. The Field Array (FA) provides the numbers of electrons and muons in the shower and the Muon Tracking Detector (MTD) measures angles-of-incidence of muons which are related to the longitudinal development of EAS. An identical two step deconvolution method (on primary mass using a Bayesian approach and on primary energy) is performed to calculate the primary mass and energy of cosmic rays using the correlation of FA observables only and by adding MTD observables. The consistency of the CORSIKA/QGSJET simulation code in describing the correlation between lateral and longitudinal developments of the shower is studied by comparing the results obtained from the two sets of observables.

  15. Calculation of lateral-directional stability derivatives for wing-body combinations with and without jet-interaction effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical method is presented for predicting the lateral-directional stability derivatives of wing-body combinations with or without the blowing jet effect. The fuselage effect is accounted for by the axial distribution of vortex multiplets. Comparison of the predicted results with experiments and other theoretical methods show good agreement for configurations without the blowing jet. More applicable experimental data with blowing jets are needed to establish the accuracy of the theory.

  16. The origins of life -- the 'protein interaction world' hypothesis: protein interactions were the first form of self-reproducing life and nucleic acids evolved later as memory molecules.

    PubMed

    Andras, Peter; Andras, Csaba

    2005-01-01

    The 'protein interaction world' (PIW) hypothesis of the origins of life assumes that life emerged as a self-reproducing and expanding system of protein interactions. In mainstream molecular biology, 'replication' refers to the material copying of molecules such as nucleic acids. However, PIW is conceptualized as an abstract communication system constituted by the interactions between proteins, in which 'replication' happens at the level of self-reproduction of these interactions between proteins. Densely concentrated peptide interaction systems may have reproduced and expanded as 'protocell' vesicles surrounded by lipid bi-layer membranes. Protocells led to the emergence of proto-RNA molecules of greater chemical stability which served as chemically differentiated 'memories' of peptide interaction states, thereby facilitating the reproduction and expansion of protocells. Simplification-driven expansion led to the selection of biotic amino acids and the reduction of the typical RNA alphabet to the four usual bases (A, C, G and U). Dense interactions between RNA molecules led to the emergence of the RNA interaction subsystem of the cell, and to the emergence of 'memories' of RNA interactions in the form of DNA molecules with greater chemical stability. The expansion of DNA molecule interactions led to the dense clustering and encapsulation of DNA molecules within the cell nucleus. RNA molecules therefore serve as memories of protein interactions and DNA molecules are memories of RNA interactions. We believe that the PIW hypothesis is more evolutionarily plausible than the mainstream RNA world hypothesis, and has greater explanatory power.

  17. Motor neuron-astrocyte interactions and levels of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, S A; Roedica, J; Nagy, D; Hallewell, R A; Alderson, K; Marklund, S L; Kuby, J; Kushner, P D

    1995-02-01

    Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is involved in neutralizing free radicals within cells, and mutant forms of the enzyme have recently been shown to occur in about 20% of familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To explore the mechanism of SOD1 involvement in ALS, we have analyzed SOD1 in sporadic ALS using activity assays and immunocyto-chemistry. Analyses of SOD1 activity in washed erythrocytes revealed no difference between 13 ALS cases and 4 controls. Spinal cord sections from 6 ALS cases, 1 primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) case, and 1 control case were stained using three different antibodies to SOD1. Since astrocytes are closely associated with motor neurons, antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin were used as independent monitors of astrocytes. The principal findings from localizations are: (1) normal motor neurons do not have higher levels of SOD1 than other neurons, (2) there was no detectable difference in SOD1 levels in motor neurons of ALS cases and controls, (3) ALS spinal cord displayed a reduction or absence of SOD1-reactive astrocytes compared to the control and PLS cases, and (4) examination of GFAP-stained sections and morphometry showed that the normal close association between astrocytic processes and motor neuron somata was decreased in the ALS and PLS cases. These results indicate the disease mechanism in sporadic ALS may involve alterations in spinal cord astrocytes.

  18. Predator-prey interactions between Synbranchus marmoratus (Teleostei: Synbranchidae) and Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles (Amphibia: Hylidae): importance of lateral line in nocturnal predation and effects of fenitrothion exposure.

    PubMed

    Junges, Celina M; Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Peltzer, Paola M; Attademo, Andres M; Bassó, Agustín

    2010-11-01

    Environmental contaminants can disrupt interactions between aquatic species by altering community structure. We explored predator-prey interactions between marbled swamp juvenile eels (Synbranchus marmoratus; predator) and anuran tadpoles (Hypsiboas pulchellus; prey) in relation to two aspects: the importance of lateral line in the predator and whether the absence of light modifies predation rates; and the effect of a sub-lethal concentration of fenitrothion on both predator and prey. Eels were tested under two sensory conditions (lateral line intact and lateral line blocked by cobalt chloride) in dark conditions. Predation rates were evaluated using different treatments that combined predator and prey exposed or not to insecticide. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were also measured in muscle samples of eels and tadpoles to explore whether fenitrothion affects predator and prey differentially. Marbled swamp eels were more efficient in feeding on tadpoles during the night than during the day, showing that lateral line makes an important contribution to prey detection and capture. Regarding pesticide effects, short-term (6 h) exposure to an ecologically relevant fenitrothion dose of 2.5 mg L(-1) altered the predator-prey relationship by changing prey behaviour, reducing prey detection and therefore increasing tadpole survival. At this concentration, the outcome of the predator-prey relationship appears biased in favor of the exposed tadpoles, which were released from predation risk, despite their altered behaviour and the higher inhibition percentages of tail BChE (70%) and AChE (51%) than in control individuals. Our study involving these model species and agrochemicals demonstrates that fenitrothion affected the outcome of a predator-prey relationship. Further studies are needed, in these species and other native amphibians, to investigate the nature of the mechanisms responsible for the adverse effects of pesticides on

  19. Ab initio prediction of adsorption isotherms for small molecules in metal-organic frameworks: the effect of lateral interactions for methane/CPO-27-Mg.

    PubMed

    Sillar, Kaido; Sauer, Joachim

    2012-11-07

    A hybrid method that combines density functional theory for periodic structures with wave function-based electron correlation methods for finite-size models of adsorption sites is employed to calculate energies for adsorption of CH(4) onto different sites in the metal-organic framework (MOF) CPO-27-Mg (Mg-MOF-74) with chemical accuracy. The adsorption energies for the Mg(2+), linker, second layer sites are -27.8, -18.3, and -15.1 kJ/mol. Adsorbate-adsorbate interactions increase the average CH(4) adsorption energy by about 10% (2.4 kJ/mol). The free rotor-harmonic oscillator-ideal gas model is applied to calculate free energies/equilibrium constants for adsorption on the individual sites. This information is used in a multisite Langmuir model, augmented with a Bragg-Williams model for lateral interactions, to calculate adsorption isotherms. This ab initio approach yields the contributions of the individual sites to the final isotherms and also of the lateral interactions that contribute about 15% to the maximum excess adsorption capacity. Isotherms are calculated for both absolute amounts, for calculation of isosteric heats of adsorption as function of coverage, and excess amounts, for comparison with measured isotherms. Agreement with observed excess isotherms is reached if the experimentally determined limited accessibility of adsorption sites (78%) is taken into account.

  20. Binocular Interactions in the Lateral Suprasylvian Visual Area of Strabismic Cats Following Section of the Corpus Callosum.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, M.; Lepore, F.; Ptito, M.; Bédard, S.; Marzi, C. A.; Guillemot, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Visually responsive neurons have been recorded in the lateral suprasylvian area (LSA) of cats raised with either a convergent or a divergent strabismus. In contrast to areas 17 and 18, where many studies have documented a profound loss of binocularly activated neurons following early strabismus, in the LSA the majority of cells could still be binocularly driven. Acute or chronic section of the splenium of the corpus callosum reduced but did not abolish binocularity in the LSA. We propose that the widespread callosal connections, the large size of the receptive fields and the peculiar internal circuitry of the LSA all concur in permitting the maintenance of binocular coding in spite of early misalignment of the eyes.

  1. Predictors of At-Risk Kindergarteners' Later Reading Difficulty: Examining Learner-by-Intervention Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Deborah C.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Oslund, Eric L.; Simmons, Leslie E.; Coyne, Michael D.; Little, Mary E.; Rawlinson, D'Ann M.; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Kwok, Oi-man; Kim, Minjung

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined (a) the second-grade reading outcomes of 368 children who participated in either experimental or school-designed supplemental intervention in kindergarten, and (b) the influence and interactions of learner variables and type of intervention on reading achievement. Descriptive findings indicated that percentages of…

  2. Early Peer Interaction as a Predictor of Later Social Adjustment: Results from a Five-Year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; And Others

    This study tested the predictive links between children's interactions with peers in early elementary school and their social and emotional adjustment at the end of elementary school. A sample of 231 boys starting kindergarten and first grade were observed during this longitudinal study, on three separate occasions: kindergarten and first grade,…

  3. Predictors of At-Risk Kindergarteners' Later Reading Difficulty: Examining Learner-by-Intervention Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Deborah C.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Oslund, Eric L.; Simmons, Leslie E.; Coyne, Michael D.; Little, Mary E.; Rawlinson, D'Ann M.; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Kwok, Oi-man; Kim, Minjung

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined (a) the second-grade reading outcomes of 368 children who participated in either experimental or school-designed supplemental intervention in kindergarten, and (b) the influence and interactions of learner variables and type of intervention on reading achievement. Descriptive findings indicated that percentages of…

  4. Interactions of norepinephrine and galanin in the central amygdala and lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulate the behavioral response to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Morilak, David A; Cecchi, Marco; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2003-06-27

    Many aspects of drug abuse and addiction share neurobiological substrates with the modulatory processes underlying the response and adaptation to acute stress. In particular, the ascending noradrenergic system has been implicated in facilitating the response to stress, and in stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking behavior. Thus, to better understand the link between stress and addictive behaviors, it would be informative to understand better the modulatory function of the ascending noradrenergic system, and its interaction with other neurotransmitters with which it is closely associated or co-localized, such as the neuropeptide galanin. In this paper, we review a series of studies investigating the functional interactions of norepinephrine and galanin in modulating the behavioral response to acute stress in two components of the extended amygdala, the central nucleus of the amygdala and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. We showed that norepinephrine facilitates behavioral reactivity to stress on the elevated plus-maze and social interaction tests. However, when stress-induced activation of the noradrenergic system was enhanced by blocking inhibitory adrenergic autoreceptors, galanin release was recruited in the central amygdala, acting to attenuate the behavioral response to stress. By contrast, stress-induced galanin release in the lateral bed nucleus appeared to be independent of enhanced noradrenergic activation, and unlike the central amygdala, both galanin and norepinephrine facilitated behavioral stress reactivity in the bed nucleus. The different modes of interaction and differential region- and response-specificity of galanin and norepinephrine suggest that a complex neural circuit interconnecting these two regions is involved in the modulatory effects of norepinephrine and galanin on the behavioral response to stress. Such complexity may allow for flexibility and plasticity in stress adaptation, and may also contribute to behavioral

  5. Energy dispersion of the electrosubbands in parabolic confining quantum wires: interplay of Rashba, Dresselhaus, lateral spin-orbit interaction and the Zeeman effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong-Yi; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Xue-Ming

    2009-08-19

    We have made a thorough theoretical investigation of the interplay of spin-orbit interactions (SOIs) resulting from Rashba, Dresselhaus and the lateral parabolic confining potential on the energy dispersion relation of the spin subbands in a parabolic quantum wire. The influence of an applied external magnetic field is also discussed. We show the interplay of different types of SOI, as well as the Zeeman effect, leads to rather complex and intriguing electrosubbands for different spin branches. The effect of different coupling strengths and different magnetic field strengths is also investigated.

  6. The influence of lateral interactions on the critical behavior of a dimer-monomer surface reaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satulovsky, J.; Albano, E. V.

    1992-12-01

    The ZGB model [Ziff et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2553 (1986)] for a monomer-dimer surface reaction process of the type A+(1/2)B2→AB, exhibits two irreversible phase transitions (IPT) from a stationary regime with AB production for p1A≤pA≤p2A, to poisoned states with B (A)-species for pA≤p1A (pA≥p2A), respectively, where pA is the mole fraction of A-species in the gas phase and piA (i=1, 2) are critical points. A generalization of the ZGB model in order to account for both attractive and repulsive interactions between the reactants is presented and discussed. It is found that in most cases the first order IPT at p2A becomes of second order and the critical points are shifted. For some particular choices of the interactions energies it is found that the second order IPT at p1A becomes of first order. Also, a first order IPT from the reactive state to a effectively poisoned regime where A-species are adsorbed forming a c(2×2) metastable structure is obtained.

  7. Pubertal status, pre-meal drink composition, and later meal timing interact in determining children's appetite and food intake.

    PubMed

    Patel, Barkha P; Hamilton, Jill K; Vien, Shirley; Thomas, Scott G; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-09-01

    Puberty is a period of development that alters energy intake patterns. However, few studies have examined appetite and food intake (FI) regulation during development of puberty in children and adolescents. Therefore, the objective was to measure the effect of pubertal status on FI and subjective appetite after pre-meal glucose and whey protein drinks in 9- to 14-year-old boys and girls. In a within-subject, randomized, repeated-measures design, children (21 pre-early pubertal, 15 mid-late pubertal) received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control), glucose, or whey protein (0.75 g/kg body weight) in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standardized breakfast on 6 separate mornings. Ad libitum FI was measured either 30 or 60 min later and appetite was measured over time. In pre-early and mid-late pubertal boys and girls there was no effect of sex on total FI (kcal). Glucose and whey protein drinks reduced calorie intake similarly at 30 min. But at 60 min, whey protein reduced FI (p < 0.001) compared with control and glucose in pre-early pubertal children, but not in mid-late pubertal children. However, sex was a factor (p = 0.041) when FI was expressed per kilogram body weight. Pubertal status did not affect FI/kilogram body weight in boys, but it was 32% lower in mid-late pubertal girls than at pre-early puberty (p = 0.010). Appetite was associated with FI in mid-late pubertal children only. In conclusion, pubertal development affects appetite and FI regulation in children.

  8. Relationship of Maternal Psychological Distress Classes to Later Mother-Infant Interaction, Home Environment, and Infant Development in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hudson; Yang, Qing; Docherty, Sharron L; White-Traut, Rosemary; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2016-06-01

    Latent class analyses can be used early in the postpartum period to identify mothers of preterm infants experiencing similar patterns of psychological distress symptoms, but whether these classes of mothers also differ in parental responses to their infants or in their infants' development is largely unknown. In this longitudinal multisite-repeated measures study, we evaluated the usefulness of three psychological distress classes (low distress, high depressive and anxiety symptoms, and extreme distress) in predicting mother-infant interactions, quality of home environment, and infant development in 229 mother-preterm infant pairs. Mothers completed psychological distress questionnaires at study entry; parent-infant interaction was recorded at 2 and 6 months of age corrected for prematurity; and infant developmental data were collected 12 months corrected age. Mothers in the extreme distress class engaged in more developmental stimulation at 2 months (β = .99, p < 0.01) and at 6 months (β = 1.38, p < .01) than mothers in the other classes and had better quality of home environment at 2 months (β = 2.52, p = .03). When not controlling for neurological insult, infants of mothers in the extreme distress class had poorer cognitive (β = -10.28, p = .01) and motor (β = -15.12, p < .01) development scores at 12 months corrected age than infants of mothers in the other distress classes, but after controlling for infant neurological insult, there were no differences in cognitive, motor, and language development based on maternal psychological distress class. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Controls on small-scale biogeomorphic interactions on lateral moraine slopes and their linkage to large-scale geomorphic and vegetation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichel, Jana; Meyer, Nele; Draebing, Daniel; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Dikau, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Glacier forelands are characterized by simultaneous and coupled geomorphic and vegetation development following glacier retreat. For lateral moraine slopes, it has been shown that once geomorphic activity decreases sufficiently, ecosystem engineer species (e.g., Dryas octopetala) can establish and a 'biogeomorphic feedback window' is entered, in which the engineer (e.g., through high cover) amplifies the decrease in geomorphic activity and changes the dominant process from erosional (e.g., slope wash) to bound solifluction processes, until it is suppressed by later successional species (Eichel et al., 2015). This temporal sequence is termed 'biogeomorphic succession' and has been found in a glacier foreland (Eichel et al., 2013). However, it remains unclear (1) if and how further factors, e.g., soil properties and thermal and snow conditions, influence small-scale biogeomorphic feedbacks and (2) how biogeomorphic succession dynamics relate to geomorphic and vegetation patterns in space. Consequently, the objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate controlling factors for small-scale biogeomorphic interactions, (2) to identify geomorphic and vegetation patterns in space and (3) to link small-scale interactions with large-scale vegetation and geomorphic patterns and dynamics. A biogeomorphic approach was carried out on Little Ice Age lateral moraine slopes in the Turtmann glacier foreland (Switzerland), consisting of (1) a permanent plot survey (2x2 m) to assess geomorphic and vegetation properties, combined with soil sampling and iButton temperature loggers for thermal and snow properties, and (2) a detailed (1:1000) geomorphic and vegetation mapping. Plot data was analysed using multivariate statistics and compared to geomorphic and vegetation maps. Combined results of multivariate statistics and mapping show a strong relationship between geomorphic properties and species composition. These are independent from terrain age, but controlled by a toposequence

  10. Intracellular amyloid beta interacts with SOD1 and impairs the enzymatic activity of SOD1: implications for the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Goo Young; Cho, Hyung Min; Choi, Jung Ha; Park, Hye Yoon; Jang, Ja Young; Rhim, Hyang Shuk; Kang, Seong Man

    2009-09-30

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the degeneration of motor neurons. Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), including G93A, were reportedly linked to familial ALS. SOD1 is a key antioxidant enzyme, and is also one of the major targets for oxidative damage in the brains of patients suffering from Alzheimers disease (AD). Several lines of evidence suggest that intracellular amyloid beta (Abeta) is associated with the pathogenesis of AD. In this report we demonstrate that intracellular Abeta directly interacts with SOD1, and that this interaction decreases the enzymatic activity of the enzyme. We observed Abeta-SOD1 aggregates in the perinuclear region of H4 cells, and mapped the SOD1 binding region to Abeta amino acids 26-42. Interestingly, intracellular Ab binds to the SOD1 G93A mutant with greater affinity than to wild-type SOD1. This resulted in considerably less mutant enzymatic activity. Our study implicates a potential role for Abeta in the development of ALS by interacting with the SOD1 G93A mutant.

  11. Yeast genetic interaction screen of human genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: identification of MAP2K5 kinase as a potential drug target.

    PubMed

    Jo, Myungjin; Chung, Ah Young; Yachie, Nozomu; Seo, Minchul; Jeon, Hyejin; Nam, Youngpyo; Seo, Yeojin; Kim, Eunmi; Zhong, Quan; Vidal, Marc; Park, Hae Chul; Roth, Frederick P; Suk, Kyoungho

    2017-09-01

    To understand disease mechanisms, a large-scale analysis of human-yeast genetic interactions was performed. Of 1305 human disease genes assayed, 20 genes exhibited strong toxicity in yeast. Human-yeast genetic interactions were identified by en masse transformation of the human disease genes into a pool of 4653 homozygous diploid yeast deletion mutants with unique barcode sequences, followed by multiplexed barcode sequencing to identify yeast toxicity modifiers. Subsequent network analyses focusing on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated genes, such as optineurin (OPTN) and angiogenin (ANG), showed that the human orthologs of the yeast toxicity modifiers of these ALS genes are enriched for several biological processes, such as cell death, lipid metabolism, and molecular transport. When yeast genetic interaction partners held in common between human OPTN and ANG were validated in mammalian cells and zebrafish, MAP2K5 kinase emerged as a potential drug target for ALS therapy. The toxicity modifiers identified in this study may deepen our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of ALS and other devastating diseases. © 2017 Jo et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Dynein-Interacting Proteins in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Synaptosomes Reveals Alterations in the RNA-Binding Protein Staufen1*

    PubMed Central

    Gershoni-Emek, Noga; Mazza, Arnon; Chein, Michael; Gradus-Pery, Tal; Xiang, Xin; Li, Ka Wan; Sharan, Roded; Perlson, Eran

    2016-01-01

    Synapse disruption takes place in many neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the mechanistic understanding of this process is still limited. We set out to study a possible role for dynein in synapse integrity. Cytoplasmic dynein is a multisubunit intracellular molecule responsible for diverse cellular functions, including long-distance transport of vesicles, organelles, and signaling factors toward the cell center. A less well-characterized role dynein may play is the spatial clustering and anchoring of various factors including mRNAs in distinct cellular domains such as the neuronal synapse. Here, in order to gain insight into dynein functions in synapse integrity and disruption, we performed a screen for novel dynein interactors at the synapse. Dynein immunoprecipitation from synaptic fractions of the ALS model mSOD1G93A and wild-type controls, followed by mass spectrometry analysis on synaptic fractions of the ALS model mSOD1G93A and wild-type controls, was performed. Using advanced network analysis, we identified Staufen1, an RNA-binding protein required for the transport and localization of neuronal RNAs, as a major mediator of dynein interactions via its interaction with protein phosphatase 1–beta (PP1B). Both in vitro and in vivo validation assays demonstrate the interactions of Staufen1 and PP1B with dynein, and their colocalization with synaptic markers was altered as a result of two separate ALS-linked mutations: mSOD1G93A and TDP43A315T. Taken together, we suggest a model in which dynein's interaction with Staufen1 regulates mRNA localization along the axon and the synapses, and alterations in this process may correlate with synapse disruption and ALS toxicity. PMID:26598648

  13. Spin-polarization and spin-flip in a triple-quantum-dot ring by using tunable lateral bias voltage and Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molavi, Mohamad; Faizabadi, Edris

    2017-04-01

    By using the Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of single particle energy levels of a quantum dot on the spin-dependent transmission properties through a triple-quantum-dot ring structure. In this structure, one of the quantum dots has been regarded to be non-magnetic and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction is imposed locally on this dot while the two others can be magnetic. The on-site energy of dots, manipulates the interference of the electron spinors that are transmitted to output leads. Our results show that the effects of magnetic dots on spin-dependent transmission properties are the same as the difference of on-site energies of the various dots, which is applicable by a controllable lateral bias voltage externally. Besides, by tuning the parameters such as Rashba spin-orbit interaction, and on-site energy of dots and magnetic flux inside the ring, the structure can be indicated the spin-flip effect and behave as a full spin polarizer or splitter.

  14. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    ocean as it responds to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . My approach for...therefore requires integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal...also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the center of

  15. Interactions between Callous Unemotional Behaviors and Executive Function in Early Childhood Predict later Aggression and Lower Peer-liking in Late-childhood.

    PubMed

    Waller, Rebecca; Hyde, Luke W; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Olson, Sheryl L

    2017-04-01

    Callous unemotional (CU) behaviors are linked to aggression, behavior problems, and difficulties in peer relationships in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether early childhood CU behaviors predict aggression or peer-rejection during late-childhood or potential moderation of this relationship by executive function. The current study examined whether the interaction of CU behaviors and executive function in early childhood predicted different forms of aggression in late-childhood, including proactive, reactive, and relational aggression, as well as how much children were liked by their peers. Data from cross-informant reports and multiple observational tasks were collected from a high-risk sample (N = 240; female = 118) at ages 3 and 10 years old. Parent reports of CU behaviors at age 3 predicted teacher reports of reactive, proactive, and relational aggression, as well as lower peer-liking at age 10. Moderation analysis showed that specifically at high levels of CU behaviors and low levels of observed executive function, children were reported by teachers as showing greater reactive and proactive aggression, and were less-liked by peers. Findings demonstrate that early childhood CU behaviors and executive function have unique main and interactive effects on both later aggression and lower peer-liking even when taking into account stability in behavior problems over time. By elucidating how CU behaviors and deficits in executive function potentiate each other during early childhood, we can better characterize the emergence of severe and persistent behavior and interpersonal difficulties across development.

  16. Toxicity of heavy metals: 1. Correlation of metal toxicity with in vitro calmodulin inhibition. 2. Interactions of inorganic mercury with red blood cells: Control vs. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, J.L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The toxic effects of metals are examined in two separate in vitro systems. In the first system, the correlation between published mouse LD{sub 50} values and experimentally derived values for calmodulin inhibition was determined. Calmodulin activity was defined as stimulated phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. The basal PDE activity was determined with each cation and was unaffected by any of the concentrations utilized. The IC{sub 50} was determined from a plot of the log of the cation concentration vs. stimulated PDE activity for each cation. A very strong correlation was obtained when the IC{sub 50} vs. mouse LD{sub 50} curve was examined (p < 0.001). Calmodulin regulates many enzyme systems and processes that affect or are affected by calcium. This study was examined in light of the possible role of calcium in cell damage and death. In the second study, the interactions of erythrocytes (RBCs) and inorganic mercury (Hg) were examined. A broad range of Hg concentrations were utilized to explore the nature of the interactions. Two different mechanisms of RBC Hg accumulation and retention were evident. At lower Hg concentrations (0.001-0.1 {mu}M), the RBC accumulation/retention of Hg was constant (52% of available Hg), reversible, and temperature sensitive. At higher concentrations (1-100 {mu}M), the accumulation increased with Hg concentration, was not reversible, and was not temperature sensitive. A relationship between Hg and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is suggested by several reports in the literature. The accumulation/ retention of Hg by RBCs from control and ALS patients were compared. The RBCs from ALS patients released far more Hg during a two hr incubation 37C at 10 and 100 {mu}M Hg compared to controls.

  17. Synaptic interactions between perifornical lateral hypothalamic area, locus coeruleus nucleus and the oral pontine reticular nucleus are implicated in the stage succession during sleep-wakefulness cycle.

    PubMed

    Tortorella, Silvia; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita L; Núñez, Angel; Garzón, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The perifornical area in the posterior lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) has been implicated in several physiological functions including the sleep-wakefulness regulation. The PeFLH area contains several cell types including those expressing orexins (Orx; also known as hypocretins), mainly located in the PeF nucleus. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the synaptic interactions between Orx neurons located in the PeFLH area and different brainstem neurons involved in the generation of wakefulness and sleep stages such as the locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus (contributing to wakefulness) and the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) nucleus (contributing to REM sleep). Anatomical data demonstrated the existence of a neuronal network involving the PeFLH area, LC, and the PnO nuclei that would control the sleep-wake cycle. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that PeFLH area had an excitatory effect on LC neurons. PeFLH stimulation increased the firing rate of LC neurons and induced an activation of the EEG. The excitatory effect evoked by PeFLH stimulation in LC neurons was blocked by the injection of the Orx-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 into the LC. Similar electrical stimulation of the PeFLH area evoked an inhibition of PnO neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors because the effect was blocked by bicuculline application into the PnO. Our data also revealed that the LC and PnO nuclei exerted a feedback control on neuronal activity of PeFLH area. Electrical stimulation of LC facilitated firing activity of PeFLH neurons by activation of catecholaminergic receptors whereas PnO stimulation inhibited PeFLH neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors. In conclusion, Orx neurons of the PeFLH area seem to be an important organizer of the wakefulness and sleep stages in order to maintain a normal succession of stages during the sleep-wakefulness cycle.

  18. Functional interaction between the orexin-1 and CB1 receptors within the nucleus accumbens in the conditioned place preference induced by the lateral hypothalamus stimulation.

    PubMed

    Fatahi, Zahra; Assar, Nasim; Mahmoudi, Dorna; Pahlevani, Pouyan; Moradi, Marzieh; Haghparast, Abbas

    2015-02-28

    Several studies have shown that chemical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) by carbachol induces the conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. LH is the main source of the orexinergic neurons and sends projections to some areas of the brain such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We tried to determine the role of intra-accumbal orexin-1 (OX1) receptors in development (acquisition) and expression of reward-related behaviors induced by LH stimulation and involvement of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in this area. Adult male Wistar rats were unilaterally implanted by two separate cannulae into the LH and NAc. The CPP paradigm was done; conditioning scores and locomotor activities were recorded. The results showed that intra-accumbal administration of SB334867 as a selective OX1 receptor antagonist (1, 3, 10 and 30nM/0.5μl DMSO) 5min before intra-LH carbachol (250nM/0.5μl saline) during 3-day conditioning phase, could dose-dependently inhibit the development of LH-induced CPP. In expression experiments, intra-NAc administration of SB334867 on the test day could decrease the expression of LH stimulation-induced CPP. Furthermore, concurrent intra-accumbal administration of effective/ineffective doses of SB334867 and AM251 (45 and 15μM) as a CB1 receptor antagonist, before carbachol during the conditioning phase, could attenuate the development of LH stimulation-induced CPP. It seems that the orexinergic projection from the LH to the NAc is involved in the LH stimulation-induced CPP and OX1 receptor in the NAc has a substantial role in this phenomenon. Our findings also suggest the existence a functional interaction between OX1 and CB1 receptors within the NAc in place preference.

  19. Synaptic interactions between perifornical lateral hypothalamic area, locus coeruleus nucleus and the oral pontine reticular nucleus are implicated in the stage succession during sleep-wakefulness cycle

    PubMed Central

    Tortorella, Silvia; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita L.; Núñez, Angel; Garzón, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The perifornical area in the posterior lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) has been implicated in several physiological functions including the sleep-wakefulness regulation. The PeFLH area contains several cell types including those expressing orexins (Orx; also known as hypocretins), mainly located in the PeF nucleus. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the synaptic interactions between Orx neurons located in the PeFLH area and different brainstem neurons involved in the generation of wakefulness and sleep stages such as the locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus (contributing to wakefulness) and the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) nucleus (contributing to REM sleep). Anatomical data demonstrated the existence of a neuronal network involving the PeFLH area, LC, and the PnO nuclei that would control the sleep-wake cycle. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that PeFLH area had an excitatory effect on LC neurons. PeFLH stimulation increased the firing rate of LC neurons and induced an activation of the EEG. The excitatory effect evoked by PeFLH stimulation in LC neurons was blocked by the injection of the Orx-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 into the LC. Similar electrical stimulation of the PeFLH area evoked an inhibition of PnO neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors because the effect was blocked by bicuculline application into the PnO. Our data also revealed that the LC and PnO nuclei exerted a feedback control on neuronal activity of PeFLH area. Electrical stimulation of LC facilitated firing activity of PeFLH neurons by activation of catecholaminergic receptors whereas PnO stimulation inhibited PeFLH neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors. In conclusion, Orx neurons of the PeFLH area seem to be an important organizer of the wakefulness and sleep stages in order to maintain a normal succession of stages during the sleep-wakefulness cycle. PMID:24311996

  20. Sheep laterality.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p <.0001), with observed counts being higher than expected under independence when ewes made the same choice for exit and alley (RR or LL turn patterns) and being lower than expected for alternating choices (RL or LR). Out of the 309 ewes, 28.2% and 30.1% chose RR and LL turn patterns, respectively, while 37.5% chose the RL turn pattern, but only 13 (4.2%) chose the LR turning pattern. Overall, ewes that initially turned right when presented a second turning opportunity had a slight preference to alternate their turning direction, while ewes that initially turned left tended to continue turning left when given another chance to turn. Exit arm and return alley laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  1. A role for LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-DOMAIN 16 during the interaction Arabidopsis-Meloidogyne spp. provides a molecular link between lateral root and root-knot nematode feeding site development.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Javier; Díaz-Manzano, Fernando E; Sanchez, María; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Melillo, Teresa; Goh, Tatsuaki; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Cabello, Susana; Hofmann, Julia; Fenoll, Carmen; Escobar, Carolina

    2014-07-01

    Plant endoparasitic nematodes induce the formation of their feeding cells by injecting effectors from the esophageal glands into root cells. Although vascular cylinder cells seem to be involved in the formation of root-knot nematode (RKN) feeding structures, molecular evidence is scarce. We address the role during gall development of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-DOMAIN 16 (LBD16), a key component of the auxin pathway leading to the divisions in the xylem pole pericycle (XPP) for lateral root (LR) formation. Arabidopsis T-DNA tagged J0192 and J0121 XPP marker lines, LBD16 and DR5::GUS promoter lines, and isolated J0192 protoplasts were assayed for nematode-dependent gene expression. Infection tests in LBD16 knock-out lines were used for functional analysis. J0192 and J0121 lines were activated in early developing galls and giant cells (GCs), resembling the pattern of the G2/M-transition specific ProC yc B 1;1 :CycB1;1(NT)-GUS line. LBD16 was regulated by auxins in galls as in LRs, and induced by RKN secretions. LBD16 loss of function mutants and a transgenic line with defective XPP cells showed a significantly reduced infection rate. The results show that genes expressed in the dividing XPP, particularly LBD16, are important for gall formation, as they are for LR development.

  2. Intraspecific and interspecific interactions among proteins regulating exopolysaccharide synthesis in Streptococcus thermophilus, Streptococcus iniae, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and the assessment of potential lateral gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Cefalo, Angela D; Broadbent, Jeffery R; Welker, Dennis L

    2011-12-01

    Using the yeast two-hybrid system, intraspecific protein interactions were detected in Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris between the transmembrane activation protein (CpsC and EpsA, respectively) and the protein tyrosine kinase (CpsD and EpsB, respectively), between two protein tyrosine kinases, and between the protein tyrosine kinase and the phosphotyrosine phosphatase (CpsB and EpsC, respectively). For each of these intraspecific interactions, interspecific interactions were also detected when one protein was from S. iniae and the other was from Streptococcus thermophilus . Interactions were also observed between two protein tyrosine kinases when one protein was from either of the Streptococcus species and the other from L. lactis subsp. cremoris. The results and sequence comparisons performed in this study support the conclusion that interactions among the components of the tyrosine kinase - phosphatase regulatory system are conserved in the order Lactobacillales and that interspecific genetic exchanges of the genes that encode these proteins have the potential to form functional recombinants. A better understanding of intraspecific and interspecific protein interactions involved in regulating exopolysaccharide biosynthesis may facilitate construction of improved strains for industrial uses as well as identification of factors needed to form functional regulatory complexes in naturally occurring recombinants.

  3. Proposing interactions between maternal phospholipids and the one carbon cycle: A novel mechanism influencing the risk for cardiovascular diseases in the offspring in later life.

    PubMed

    Khot, Vinita; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-05-15

    Studies have adequately demonstrated the importance of maternal nutrition, particularly, micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in determining pregnancy outcome. Reports indicate that children born preterm or to mothers with preeclampsia are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in later life although mechanisms are unclear. Our earlier studies have established that micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and LCPUFAs are interlinked in the one carbon cycle and influence methylation reactions. Here, we propose a novel hypothesis that altered phospholipid metabolism and dysregulation in the one carbon cycle will result in altered epigenetic programming of placental genes leading to an adverse pregnancy outcome with increased risk of adult diseases in the offspring. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are involved in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis, the major methyl donor for most methyl acceptors. Inadequacy of LCPUFA containing phospholipids, one of the major methyl group acceptors in the one carbon metabolic pathway, may cause diversion of methyl groups toward deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) eventually resulting in aberrant DNA methylation patterns. These modified DNA methylation patterns lead to alterations in the expression of vital genes e.g. angiogenic factor genes thereby contributing to the dysregulation of angiogenesis/vasculogenesis further affecting placental development. This consequently would adversely "program" the fetus for increased risk of CVD in later life.

  4. Psychiatric profiles and patterns of cerebral blood flow in focal epilepsy: interactions between depression, obsessionality, and perfusion related to the laterality of the epilepsy.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, E B; Moriarty, J; Costa, D C; Ring, H A; Ell, P J; Trimble, M R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In a study of patients with focal epilepsy the hypothesis was explored that different measurements of psychopathology are related to specific distributions of cerebral perfusion. METHODS: Forty patients had SPECT performed with (99m)Tc-HMPAO. In addition, patients received a psychiatric evaluation with the following psychiatric questionnaires: the Beck depression inventory, the Leyton obsessionality inventory, the Bear-Fedio questionnaire, and the social stress and support interview. Patients were analysed in two groups according to the laterality of the epilepsy. Nine patients were excluded based on poor quality scans (n = 1), unlateralised epilepsy (n = 4), and left or ambidextrous handedness (n = 4). RESULTS: There were no overall differences between the left and right epilepsy groups on measures of psychopathology. Associations were found between scores on some of the rating scales and regional cerebral blood flow. Specifically, for patients with left sided epilepsy, higher scores on the Beck depression inventory were associated with lower contralateral temporal and bilateral frontal perfusion, and higher occipital perfusion. For patients with right sided epilepsy higher scores on the Leyton obsessionality inventory were associated with increased perfusion in ipsilateral temporal, thalamic, and basal ganglia regions and bilateral frontal regions. CONCLUSION: The results do not support the notion that lateralised epileptogenic lesions are associated with different levels of depression, obsessionality, or personality traits. They support the view that certain psychopathological symptom patterns are related to specific regional dysfunctions depending on the laterality of a hemispheric lesion. PMID:9153601

  5. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  6. [Conditioned reflex changes in the intra-analyzer interaction of the afferent inputs from the lateral geniculate body and pulvinar thalami in the cerebral cortex of cats].

    PubMed

    Shumikhina, S I

    1986-01-01

    Paired heterogeneous stimulation of the lateral geniculate body (LGB) and pulvinar (Pulv) as a conditioned stimulus of alimentary instrumental conditioned reflex (CR), resulted in a change of relations between afferent inputs from LGB and Pulv to the visual and associative cortex of cats. At stimulation of LGB preceding by 40 ms, facilitation of the response to testing Pulv stimulation observed in untrained cats, appeared only at the beginning of the learning and was suppressed by the end of elaboration, when the amplitude of the response to the conditioning LGB stimulation greatly increased. In the process of CR elaboration (in the middle of learning), Pulv stimulation preceding by 40 ms facilitated the response to the testing LGB stimulation and simultaneously increased the amplitude of the response to the conditioning Pulv stimulation.

  7. [Involvement of tissue interaction between cranial neural crest cells, their pathways lateral to the midbrain hindbrain border and the buccopharyngeal membrane in Meckel's cartilage formation in avian embryos].

    PubMed

    Imai, Hajime

    2012-03-01

    Cranial neural crest cells migrate to the craniofacial primordia and differentiate into skeletal tissues of the jaw such as Meckel's cartilage. It has not been clearly demonstrated how neural crest cells are committed to differentiate into these tissues. In this study, the conditions that are required for the formation of Meckel's cartilage were investigated. In situ hybridization in chick embryos indicated that Fgf8 and Shh involved in the pattern formation of limb cartilages were expressed in the neural tube of the midbrain-hindbrain border, the buccopharyngeal membrane and the oro-proximal site of the 1st branchial arch (oro-proximal BA1). Cell-tracing with DiI confirmed that the neural crest cells derived from both the posterior midbrain and rhombomere 1 migrated to the buccopharyngeal membrane, which subsequently forms oro-proximal BA1, by passing through the mesenchyme lateral to the midbrain-hindbrain boundary. Based on the above results, we carried out two types of ectopic transplantation experiments by chick-quail chimera The graft of oro-proximal BA1, the complex of epithelium and mesenchyme, formed a Meckel's cartilage-like structure in a self-differentiation manner, whereas neither epithelium only nor mesenchyme formed any elongated cartilage. The ectopic transplant of the buccopharyngeal membrane into the mesenchyme lateral to the neural tube of the mid-hindbrain border in which neural crest cells were migrating formed a Meckel's cartilage-like structure. These results suggest that the cranial neural crest cells derived from the mid-hindbrain region are committed to the cell fate during migration, and receive further signaling to differentiate into Meckel's cartilage in their destination.

  8. Interaction between the effects of spinal heating and cooling and of injections into a lateral cerebral ventricle of noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine and carbachol on thermoregulation in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, M; Bligh, J

    1976-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the interactions of the thermoregulatory effects of spinal cord heating and cooling and of the injections into the cerebral ventricle of noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and carbamylcholine in sheep. 2. The interactions of spinal cord heating and the injections into the cerebral ventricle of noradrenaline, 5-HT and carbamylcholine were very similar to those of hypothalamic heating or of high ambient temperature and the injections into the cerebral ventricle of these substances. These results are interpreted as evidence of the synaptic convergence of the pathways from peripheral, spinal cord and hypothalamic warm-sensors at or before the points of action of these synaptically active substances. 3. The only definite thermoregulatory effect of spinal cooling was the onset of shivering which could be due to a purely spinal effect of cold. No substantial evidence was obtained of an interaction between spinal cooling and an injection of noradrenaline, 5-HT or carbamylcholine into the cerebral ventricle. Thus there was no clear indication of centripetal pathways from spinal cold sensors converging with those from the skin and the hypothalamus for which evidence of convergence was obtained in an earlier study. 4. The results of this study are expressed in terms of the neuronal model of Bligh, Cottle & Maskrey (1971) and Maskrey & Bligh (1971), appropriately modified. PMID:1249731

  9. Color Realism and Hemispheric Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, Esther; Berry, Louis H.

    This study investigated the interaction between cognitive lateral functions and pictorial recognition memory for pictures presented in three different color modes. The stimulus materials used were slides selected from a pool of travel and general geographic scenery slides taken in various parts of North America. One third of the slides were…

  10. Creativity in later life.

    PubMed

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services.

  11. Assistive device with conventional, alternative, and brain-computer interface inputs to enhance interaction with the environment for people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a feasibility and usability study.

    PubMed

    Schettini, Francesca; Riccio, Angela; Simione, Luca; Liberati, Giulia; Caruso, Mario; Frasca, Vittorio; Calabrese, Barbara; Mecella, Massimo; Pizzimenti, Alessia; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Mattia, Donatella; Cincotti, Febo

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and usability of an assistive technology (AT) prototype designed to be operated with conventional/alternative input channels and a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) in order to provide users who have different degrees of muscular impairment resulting from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with communication and environmental control applications. Proof-of-principle study with a convenience sample. An apartment-like space designed to be fully accessible by people with motor disabilities for occupational therapy, placed in a neurologic rehabilitation hospital. End-users with ALS (N=8; 5 men, 3 women; mean age ± SD, 60 ± 12 y) recruited by a clinical team from an ALS center. Three experimental conditions based on (1) a widely validated P300-based BCI alone; (2) the AT prototype operated by a conventional/alternative input device tailored to the specific end-user's residual motor abilities; and (3) the AT prototype accessed by a P300-based BCI. These 3 conditions were presented to all participants in 3 different sessions. System usability was evaluated in terms of effectiveness (accuracy), efficiency (written symbol rate, time for correct selection, workload), and end-user satisfaction (overall satisfaction) domains. A comparison of the data collected in the 3 conditions was performed. Effectiveness and end-user satisfaction did not significantly differ among the 3 experimental conditions. Condition III was less efficient than condition II as expressed by the longer time for correct selection. A BCI can be used as an input channel to access an AT by persons with ALS, with no significant reduction of usability. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Control of food intake by MC4-R signaling in the lateral hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens shell and ventral tegmental area: Interactions with ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Lerma-Cabrera, Jose M.; Carvajal, Francisca; de la Torre, Lourdes; de la Fuente, Leticia; Navarro, Montserrat; Thiele, Todd E.; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    The Melanocortin system is involved in animal models of obesity and anorexia-cachexia and MC4 receptors (MC4-R) are currently a target system for the development of drugs aimed to treat obesity and eating disorders in humans. Previous evidence suggest that feeding peptides might lack their orexigenic activity while stimulate ethanol intake. The present study comparatively evaluated food intake (4-h interval) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats drinking ethanol (6% w/v, 2 bottle choice paradigm) (EE group) and ethanol-naïve (EN) rats in response to bilateral infusion of the selective MC4-R antagonist HS014 (0, 0.02 or 0.05 μg/0.5μl/site) or the selective MC4-R agonist cyclo(NH-CH2-CH2-CO-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Glu)-NH2 (0, 0.75 or 1.5 μg/0.5μl/site), into the lateral hypothalamus (LH), the nucleus accumbens (NAc), or the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The main findings in the study are: 1) LH-infusions of the MC4-R antagonist increased and the agonist reduced feeding and total calories consumed, while ethanol intake remained unaltered. 2) NAc- and VTA-infusions of the selective agonist reduced food, ethanol and total calories intake. 3) NAc- and VTA-infusions of the MC4-R antagonist increased feeding in EN rats, but not in EE animals which showed a mild increase in ethanol intake, while total calories consumed remained unaltered. Present data show that having ethanol available reduces feeding elicited by NAc and VTA-MC4-R blockade. Additionally, while MC4-R signalling in the LH appears to modulate homeostatic aspects of feeding, it may contribute to non-homeostatic aspects of ingestive behaviours in the VTA and the NAc. PMID:22713514

  13. Native lysozyme and dry-heated lysozyme interactions with membrane lipid monolayers: lateral reorganization of LPS monolayer, model of the Escherichia coli outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Derde, Melanie; Nau, Françoise; Lechevalier, Valérie; Guérin-Dubiard, Catherine; Paboeuf, Gilles; Jan, Sophie; Baron, Florence; Gautier, Michel; Vié, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Lysozyme is mainly described active against Gram-positive bacteria, but is also efficient against some Gram-negative species. Especially, it was recently demonstrated that lysozyme disrupts Escherichia coli membranes. Moreover, dry-heating changes the physicochemical properties of the protein and increases the membrane activity of lysozyme. In order to elucidate the mode of insertion of lysozyme into the bacterial membrane, the interaction between lysozyme and a LPS monolayer mimicking the E. coli outer membrane has been investigated by tensiometry, ellipsometry, Brewster angle microscopy and atomic force microscopy. It was thus established that lysozyme has a high affinity for the LPS monolayer, and is able to insert into the latter as long as polysaccharide moieties are present, causing reorganization of the LPS monolayer. Dry-heating increases the lysozyme affinity for the LPS monolayer and its insertion capacity; the resulting reorganization of the LPS monolayer is different and more drastic than with the native protein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Lateral retinacular release].

    PubMed

    Verdonk, P; Bonte, F; Verdonk, R

    2008-09-01

    This overview of numerous studies discusses, based on short-term and long-term results, which diagnoses are indications for lateral retinacular release. No significant differences in outcome between arthroscopic and open lateral release could be documented. Isolated lateral release offers a good success rate for treating a stable patella with excessive lateral pressure. In patellar instability, the results are less favorable in long-term follow-up evaluation. Hyperlaxity with hypermobility of the patella is an absolute contraindication. Lateral release provides only temporary benefit for patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Proximal and/or distal realignment of the extensor mechanism gives better results than isolated lateral release.

  15. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    MedlinePlus

    .org Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) Page ( 1 ) Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondyliti s, is a painful condition of the elbow caused by overuse. Not surprisingly, playing tennis or other racquet sports can cause ...

  16. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (a-my-o-TROE-fik LAT-ur-ul skluh-ROE-sis), or ALS, is a progressive nervous system (neurological) disease that ...

  17. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  18. Experiments and analysis of lateral piezoresistance gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.K.W.

    1993-07-01

    The response of lateral piezoresistance gauges to shock wave uniaxial strain loading has been examined in a combined experimental and calculational effort. Plate impact experiments provided lateral gauge data which were analyzed using quasi-static and dynamic inclusion analyses. Experimental data showed that the response of the lateral gauge output depended upon the matrix material and gauge emplacement method. The calculations indicated that these differences were due to complex gauge-matrix interactions. These interactions were influenced by the stress and strain distributions in and around the gauge, plasticity effects, properties of the gauge and matrix materials, and emplacement conditions.

  19. Reading Disability and Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Sara S.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how retarded readers differed from normal readers in the various ways laterality is manifested. An additional purpose was to investigate the development of laterality as seen across several age levels. Subjects were 80 white male 9-, 10-, 11-, and 12-year-olds from regular classrooms in suburban…

  20. Lateral subtalar dislocation.

    PubMed

    Sharda, Praveen; DuFosse, Julian

    2008-07-01

    Subtalar dislocations are rare in routine orthopedic practice. While many of these dislocations are a result of high-energy injuries such as fall from a height or traffic accidents, it is not uncommon for patients to present after slipping down a few stairs. Two types of dislocation have been described, medial and lateral. The type of dislocation is described according to the position of the foot. In lateral subtalar dislocation the head of talus is found medially and the calcaneus is dislocated laterally. The navicular may lie dorsolateral to the talus. The reverse is true of lateral dislocation. Medial dislocation has been referred to as "basketball foot" due to its preponderance in basketball players.4 The deciding factor is the inverted or everted position of the foot when the force is dissipated through the weak talonavicular and talocalcaneal ligaments. This article presents a case of an adult with lateral subtalar dislocation following a fall.

  1. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  2. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in your ... people with ALS die from respiratory failure. The disease usually strikes between age 40 and 60. More ...

  3. Arthroscopic Patellar Lateral Facetectomy.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Marcio B; Sanchez, George; Chahla, Jorge; Moatshe, Gilbert; LaPrade, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is relatively prevalent, with the lateral facet of the patella being the most commonly affected portion. This pathology can be a result of a patellar maltracking syndrome, patella instability, or idiopathic degenerative changes. A thorough diagnostic work-up with a physical examination and imaging studies are mandatory for a proper diagnosis and to rule out other causes of patellofemoral knee pain. These patients are often treated nonoperatively with exercises for patella mobility, intra-articular injections, braces, patellar tracking, quadriceps balance and strength, and activity modification. Patients with lateral patellar pain that is refractory to nonoperative management, and who have a clear bony deformity on the patella overriding the lateral aspect of the trochlea, can benefit from surgical intervention. We recommend an arthroscopic lateral patellar facetectomy because the joint can be dynamically assessed, treated, and re-evaluated intraoperatively to ensure that normal bony contact has been restored.

  4. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Veldink, J H; Weikamp, J; Schelhaas, H J; van den Berg, L H

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is one of the most severe and disabling diseases of the nervous system. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis leads to the progressive weakening of the muscles in the arms, legs, face, mouth and trunk. The onset of the disease is insidious, starting with weakness in the hands or feet or with slurred speech. The weakness worsens and patients pass away as a result of weakness of the respiratory muscles on average within 3 years of the onset of the disease. In the Netherlands, approximately 400 patients are diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis every year. There is no diagnostic test for this neuro-muscular disease; the diagnosis is established by excluding other disorders that resemble amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Only one drug is able to inhibit the progression of the disease to any extent: riluzole. Treatment, therefore, is mainly focused on supportive measures and those which enhance the quality of life optimally.

  5. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    PubMed

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  6. Experiments and analysis of lateral piezoresistance gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.K.W. )

    1994-07-10

    The response of lateral piezoresistance gauges to shock wave uniaxial strain loading has been examined in a combined experimental and calculational effort. Plate impact experiments provided lateral gauge data which were analyzed using quasi-static and dynamic inclusion analyses. Experimental data showed that the response of the lateral gauge output depended upon the matrix material and gauge emplacement method. The calculations indicated that these differences were due to complex gauge-matrix interactions. These were influenced by the stress and strain distributions in and around the gauge, plasticity effects, material properties, and emplacement conditions. [copyright]American Institute of Physics

  7. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  8. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, W.J.

    1982-09-24

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  9. Lateral Skull Base Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Manolidis, Spiros; Jackson, C. Gary; Von Doersten, Peter G.; Pappas, Dennis; Glasscock, Michael E.

    1997-01-01

    Lateral skull base surgery has remained the surgical frontier of new developments in the treatment of lesions heretofore difficult to access. Examination of surgical results stimulates technical innovation and provides an intervention risk-benefit ratio assessment for particular lesions useful in management planning. With this in mind, we report the updated collective experience with lateral skull base surgery at the Otology Group over the past 20 years. Two hundred ninety-eight patients underwent surgical intervention for lateral skull base lesions. In 81 patients these lesions were malignant; in 217, benign. Of the benign lesions, 165 were glomus tumors: 139 glomus jugulare, 19 glomus vagale, and 7 glomus tympanicum. The remainder comprised 21 menigniomas, 14 neuromas, two neurofibromas, and a small group of much rarer entities. The philosophy of surgical approach, results, and follow-up are discussed. PMID:17171022

  10. Bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.

    PubMed

    Govil, Somya; Gupta, Vishesh; Misra, Neeta; Misra, Pradyumna

    2013-05-10

    The bilateral lateral periodontal cyst is a rare nasological entity, which despite clinical and radiological presentation is being diagnosed by histological characteristics. It is asymptomatic in nature and is observed in routine radiography. The aim and objective of this article is to present a rare case of bilateral lateral periodontal cyst in a 14-year-old child. The clinical and radiographical findings, along with its management have been discussed. Enucleation of bilateral cyst without extraction of the adjacent tooth was performed. Lesion samples were sent for histopathological analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed a thin, non keratinised stratified squamous epithelium resembling reduced enamel epithelium. Epithelial plaques were also seen. A clinicopathological correlation incorporating the surgical, radiographical and gold standard histopathological findings was obtained to suggest the final diagnosis of the bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.

  11. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  12. Laterality and reproductive indices.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid; Kobyliansky, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Several previous studies support the association between manual dominance and age at menarche or age at menopause. The aim of the present study was to estimate the association between indices of laterality and reproductive indices. The studied sample comprised 650 Chuvashian women aged 18 to 80 years (mean, 46.9; SD = 16.2). The independent-sample t test was used to compare the age at menarche or age at menopause between individuals with right or left dominance of handedness, dominant eye, hand clasping, and arm folding. No significant differences in age at menarche or age at menopause between women with right and left dominance in any of the studied laterality indices were found. This is the first study that simultaneously evaluates the association between dominance in four laterality indices (handedness, dominant eye, hand clasping, and arm folding) and two reproductive indices (age at menarche and age at menopause). Result of our study do not support the hypothesis of a possible association between handedness (and other indices of laterality) and an early age at menarche or age at natural menopause.

  13. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, W.J.

    1985-07-02

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making laterial turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rolles which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  14. Laterality and prematurity.

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, N; Roberts, B L; Cooke, R W

    1989-01-01

    Lateral preferences were determined by postal questionnaire for 240 children, without major neurological impairment, who were born at less than 31 weeks' gestation to examine the association between neonatal brain injuries and later lateral preference. Left hand preference was reported in 64 (26.7%) children at a median age of 52 months (range: 24-104 months). Left foot preference was shown by 70 (29.2%) and left eye preference by 86 (35.8%). Significantly more preterm children were left handed compared with parents or siblings in whom expected frequencies of left handedness were found. All index children had serial neonatal cerebral ultrasound examinations, of which 95 were abnormal. Left preference occurred at similar frequencies in those with normal neonatal scans (26.9%), bilateral lesions (28.3%), left sided lesions (23.8%), and right lesions (23.8%). Lateral preference appears to be unaffected by the side or extent of neonatal brain injury in children without major impairments. PMID:2696435

  15. The development of laterality.

    PubMed

    Perelle, I B; Ehrman, L

    1983-10-01

    Experimental data, primarily from experiments with Drosophila, and observational data, primarily from human beings, are presented to show if their is a genetic basis for laterality. The evidence was found to be inconclusive. It is proposed that there for three etiologies of lefthandedness in human beings: pathological, natural, and learned.

  16. Onset dominance in lateralization.

    PubMed

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C

    1997-03-01

    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  17. "Ictal" lateralized periodic discharges.

    PubMed

    Sen-Gupta, Indranil; Schuele, Stephan U; Macken, Micheal P; Kwasny, Mary J; Gerard, Elizabeth E

    2014-07-01

    Whether lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) represent ictal or interictal phenomena, and even the circumstances in which they may represent one or the other, remains highly controversial. Lateralized periodic discharges are, however, widely accepted as being ictal when they are time-locked to clinically apparent symptoms. We sought to investigate the characteristics of "ictal" lateralized periodic discharges (ILPDs) defined by time-locked clinical symptoms in order to explore the utility of using this definition to dichotomize LPDs into "ictal" and "nonictal" categories. Our archive of all continuous EEG (cEEG) reports of adult inpatients undergoing prolonged EEG monitoring for nonelective indications between 2007 and 2011 was searched to identify all reports describing LPDs. Lateralized periodic discharges were considered ILPDs when they were reported as being consistently time-locked to clinical symptoms; LPDs lacking a clear time-locked correlate were considered to be "nonictal" lateralized periodic discharges (NILPDs). Patient charts and available neuroimaging studies were also reviewed. Neurophysiologic localization of LPDs, imaging findings, presence of seizures, discharge outcomes, and other demographic factors were compared between patients with ILPDs and those with NILPDs. p-Values were adjusted for false discovery rate (FDR). One thousand four hundred fifty-two patients underwent cEEG monitoring at our institution between 2007 and 2011. Lateralized periodic discharges were reported in 90 patients, 10 of whom met criteria for ILPDs. Nine of the patients with ILPDs demonstrated motor symptoms, and the remaining patient experienced stereotyped sensory symptoms. Ictal lateralized periodic discharges had significantly increased odds for involving central head regions (odds ratio [OR]=11; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.16-62.6; p=0.018, FDR adjusted), with a trend towards higher proportion of lesions involving the primary sensorimotor cortex (p=0.09, FDR

  18. Lateral flow assays

    PubMed Central

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  19. Lateral Attitude Change.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. Lateral View of Occator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-09

    A group of scientists from NASA's Dawn mission suggests that when sunlight reaches Ceres' Occator Crater, a kind of thin haze of dust and evaporating water forms there. This haze only becomes dense enough to be seen by looking at it laterally, as in this image, the scientists wrote in the journal Nature in December 2015. Occator measures about 60 miles (90 kilometers) wide, and contains the brightest material seen on Ceres. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20181

  1. Conjugal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dewitt, John D.; Kwon, Julia; Burton, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The incidence of sporadic ALS is 1.5 to 2.7 in 100,000, and the prevalence is 5.2 to 6.0 in 100,000. Conjugal ALS is even rarer than sporadic ALS. We report a case of conjugal ALS encountered in our outpatient neurology clinic. PMID:22275781

  2. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Malik, Rabia; Lui, Andrew; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting 20,000 to 30,000 people in the United States. The mainstay of care of patients affected by this disease is supportive and given the multifaceted nature of their needs is provided most efficiently through multidisciplinary clinics that have shown to prolong survival and improve quality of life. The authors discuss in detail evidence-based management of individuals affected by this condition.

  3. Hemispheric lateralization in reasoning.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin O; Marinsek, Nicole; Ryhal, Emily; Miller, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reasoning in humans relies on a number of related processes whose neural loci are largely lateralized to one hemisphere or the other. A recent review of this evidence concluded that the patterns of lateralization observed are organized according to two complementary tendencies. The left hemisphere attempts to reduce uncertainty by drawing inferences or creating explanations, even at the cost of ignoring conflicting evidence or generating implausible explanations. Conversely, the right hemisphere aims to reduce conflict by rejecting or refining explanations that are no longer tenable in the face of new evidence. In healthy adults, the hemispheres work together to achieve a balance between certainty and consistency, and a wealth of neuropsychological research supports the notion that upsetting this balance results in various failures in reasoning, including delusions. However, support for this model from the neuroimaging literature is mixed. Here, we examine the evidence for this framework from multiple research domains, including an activation likelihood estimation analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of reasoning. Our results suggest a need to either revise this model as it applies to healthy adults or to develop better tools for assessing lateralization in these individuals.

  4. Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bhabra, Gev; Wang, Allan; Ebert, Jay R.; Edwards, Peter; Zheng, Monica; Zheng, Ming H.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral elbow tendinopathy, commonly known as tennis elbow, is a condition that can cause significant functional impairment in working-age patients. The term tendinopathy is used to describe chronic overuse tendon disorders encompassing a group of pathologies, a spectrum of disease. This review details the pathophysiology of tendinopathy and tendon healing as an introduction for a system grading the severity of tendinopathy, with each of the 4 grades displaying distinct histopathological features. Currently, there are a large number of nonoperative treatments available for lateral elbow tendinopathy, with little guidance as to when and how to use them. In fact, an appraisal of the clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses studying these treatment modalities reveals that no single treatment reliably achieves outstanding results. This may be due in part to the majority of clinical studies to date including all patients with chronic tendinopathy rather than attempting to categorize patients according to the severity of disease. We relate the pathophysiology of the different grades of tendinopathy to the basic science principles that underpin the mechanisms of action of the nonoperative treatments available to propose a treatment algorithm guiding the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy depending on severity. We believe that this system will be useful both in clinical practice and for the future investigation of the efficacy of treatments. PMID:27833925

  5. Cerebral Lateralities and Individualized Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    To ascertain whether cerebral lateralities can be considered aptitudes or individual difference measures within an aptitude-treatment-interaction (ATI) framework, hemispheric asymmetries and cognitive psychometric tests were administered to 50 right-handed, Caucasian, male Navy recruits. Principal factor analysis with varimax rotation was computed…

  6. Lateral gene transfer, rearrangement, reconciliation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Models of ancestral gene order reconstruction have progressively integrated different evolutionary patterns and processes such as unequal gene content, gene duplications, and implicitly sequence evolution via reconciled gene trees. These models have so far ignored lateral gene transfer, even though in unicellular organisms it can have an important confounding effect, and can be a rich source of information on the function of genes through the detection of transfers of clusters of genes. Result We report an algorithm together with its implementation, DeCoLT, that reconstructs ancestral genome organization based on reconciled gene trees which summarize information on sequence evolution, gene origination, duplication, loss, and lateral transfer. DeCoLT optimizes in polynomial time on the number of rearrangements, computed as the number of gains and breakages of adjacencies between pairs of genes. We apply DeCoLT to 1099 gene families from 36 cyanobacteria genomes. Conclusion DeCoLT is able to reconstruct adjacencies in 35 ancestral bacterial genomes with a thousand gene families in a few hours, and detects clusters of co-transferred genes. DeCoLT may also be used with any relationship between genes instead of adjacencies, to reconstruct ancestral interactions, functions or complexes. Availability http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/software/DeCoLT/ PMID:24564205

  7. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y. -H.; Bi, B.; Golding, B.

    2015-02-24

    A method of diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth is demonstrated which utilizes a photolithographic metal mask to pattern a thin (001) epitaxial diamond surface. Significant structural improvement was found, with a threading dislocation density reduced by two orders of magnitude at the top surface of a thick overgrown diamond layer. In the initial stage of overgrowth, a reduction of diamond Raman linewidth in the overgrown area was also realized. Thermally-induced stress and internal stress were determined by Raman spectroscopy of adhering and delaminated diamond films. As a result, the internal stress is found to decrease as sample thickness increases.

  8. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Y. -H.; Bi, B.; Golding, B.

    2015-02-24

    A method of diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth is demonstrated which utilizes a photolithographic metal mask to pattern a thin (001) epitaxial diamond surface. Significant structural improvement was found, with a threading dislocation density reduced by two orders of magnitude at the top surface of a thick overgrown diamond layer. In the initial stage of overgrowth, a reduction of diamond Raman linewidth in the overgrown area was also realized. Thermally-induced stress and internal stress were determined by Raman spectroscopy of adhering and delaminated diamond films. As a result, the internal stress is found to decrease as sample thickness increases.

  9. Penetration and lateral diffusion characteristics of polycrystalline graphene barriers.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Taeshik; Mun, Jeong Hun; Cho, Byung Jin; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2014-01-07

    We report penetration and lateral diffusion behavior of environmental molecules on synthesized polycrystalline graphene. Penetration occurs through graphene grain boundaries resulting in local oxidation. However, when the penetrated molecules diffuse laterally, the oxidation region will expand. Therefore, we measured the lateral diffusion rate along the graphene-copper interface for the first time by the environment-assisted crack growth test. It is clearly shown that the lateral diffusion is suppressed due to the high van der Waals interaction. Finally, we employed bilayer graphene for a perfect diffusion barrier facilitated by decreased defect density and increased lateral diffusion path.

  10. 8. PIER, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL BRACE, LATERAL GUSSET PLATE, FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PIER, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL BRACE, LATERAL GUSSET PLATE, FLOOR BEAM AND STRINGER - CAMELBACK TRUSS - Parker Bridge, Spanning Verdigris River 1.5 miles Southeast of Coffeyville, Coffeyville, Montgomery County, KS

  11. 8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, ONE DIAGONAL BRACE - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  12. Lower lateral crural reverse plasty.

    PubMed

    Kubilay, Utku; Azizli, Elad; Erdoğdu, Suleyman

    2013-11-01

    The lateral crus plays a significant role in the aesthetic appearance of the nose. Excessive concavities of the lower lateral crura can lead to heavy aesthetic disfigurement of the nasal tip and to insufficiencies of the external nasal valve. The lateral crus of the alar cartilage may also cause a concavity of the alar rim and even collapse of the alar rim in severe cases. Surgical techniques performed on the lateral crus help to treat both functional and aesthetic deformities of the lateral nasal tip. We present a reverse plasty technique for the lateral crus, and we evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of the technique.

  13. Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Statland, Jeffrey M.; Barohn, Richard J.; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Floeter, Mary Kay; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is characterized by insidious onset of progressive upper motor neuron dysfunction in the absence of clinical signs of lower motor neuron involvement. Patients experience stiffness, decreased balance and coordination, and mild weakness, and if the bulbar region is affected, difficulty speaking and swallowing, and emotional lability. The diagnosis is made based on clinical history, typical exam findings, and diagnostic testing negative for other causes of upper motor neuron dysfunction. EMG is normal, or only shows mild neurogenic findings in a few muscles, not meeting El Escorial criteria. Although no test is specific for PLS, some neurodiagnostic tests are supportive: including absent or delayed central motor conduction times; and changes in the precentral gyrus or corticospinal tracts on MRI, DTI or MR Spectroscopy. Treatment is largely supportive, and includes medications for spasticity, baclofen pump, and treatment for pseudobulbar affect. The prognosis in PLS is more benign than ALS, making this a useful diagnostic category. PMID:26515619

  14. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hardiman, Orla; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Chio, Adriano; Corr, Emma M; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Robberecht, Wim; Shaw, Pamela J; Simmons, Zachary; van den Berg, Leonard H

    2017-10-05

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease, is characterized by the degeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons, which leads to muscle weakness and eventual paralysis. Until recently, ALS was classified primarily within the neuromuscular domain, although new imaging and neuropathological data have indicated the involvement of the non-motor neuraxis in disease pathology. In most patients, the mechanisms underlying the development of ALS are poorly understood, although a subset of patients have familial disease and harbour mutations in genes that have various roles in neuronal function. Two possible disease-modifying therapies that can slow disease progression are available for ALS, but patient management is largely mediated by symptomatic therapies, such as the use of muscle relaxants for spasticity and speech therapy for dysarthria.

  15. Money Now, Money Later.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P; Jennings, Wesley G

    2016-12-01

    Two prominent criminological theories offer time discounting, or the preference for an immediate reward over a later one, as a central part of understanding involvement in criminal activity. Yet, there exist only a few studies investigating this issue, and they are limited in a few respects. The current study extends prior work in this area by using multiple measures of time discounting collected at three different periods of the life course to examine the link to criminal offending into late middle adulthood in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Results show that greater time discounting is positively related to a higher number of criminal convictions by late middle adulthood, and this effect remains after controlling for early life-course individual and environmental risk in a multivariate framework. Study limitations and implications are also discussed.

  16. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K [Albuquerque, NM; Carroll, Malcolm S [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  17. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  18. Reflexive Planning for Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Margaret A.; Kemp, Candace L.; French, Susan; Gafni, Amiram; Joshi, Anju; Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; Davies, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Informed by Giddens' (1991) concept of "reflexive life" planning and the notion of later life as a time of increasing social and financial risk, this research explores the idea of "reflexive planning for later life". We utilize a conceptual model that incorporates three types of planning for later life: public protection, self-insurance, and…

  19. Lateral Thinking and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Shlomo

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of technology education and its relevance to lateral thinking. Discusses prospects for utilizing technology education as a platform and a contextual domain for nurturing lateral thinking. Argues that technology education is an appropriate environment for developing complementary incorporation of vertical and lateral thinking.…

  20. Penetration and lateral diffusion characteristics of polycrystalline graphene barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Taeshik; Mun, Jeong Hun; Cho, Byung Jin; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2013-12-01

    We report penetration and lateral diffusion behavior of environmental molecules on synthesized polycrystalline graphene. Penetration occurs through graphene grain boundaries resulting in local oxidation. However, when the penetrated molecules diffuse laterally, the oxidation region will expand. Therefore, we measured the lateral diffusion rate along the graphene-copper interface for the first time by the environment-assisted crack growth test. It is clearly shown that the lateral diffusion is suppressed due to the high van der Waals interaction. Finally, we employed bilayer graphene for a perfect diffusion barrier facilitated by decreased defect density and increased lateral diffusion path.We report penetration and lateral diffusion behavior of environmental molecules on synthesized polycrystalline graphene. Penetration occurs through graphene grain boundaries resulting in local oxidation. However, when the penetrated molecules diffuse laterally, the oxidation region will expand. Therefore, we measured the lateral diffusion rate along the graphene-copper interface for the first time by the environment-assisted crack growth test. It is clearly shown that the lateral diffusion is suppressed due to the high van der Waals interaction. Finally, we employed bilayer graphene for a perfect diffusion barrier facilitated by decreased defect density and increased lateral diffusion path. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03849a

  1. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yung-Hsiu

    This dissertation describes improvements in the growth of single crystal diamond by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Heteroepitaxial (001) diamond was grown on 1 cm. 2 a-plane sapphiresubstrates using an epitaxial (001) Ir thin-film as a buffer layer. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir layer, a process known as bias-enhanced nucleation, is a key step in achieving a high density of diamond nuclei. Bias conditions were optimized to form uniformly-high nucleation densities across the substrates, which led to well-coalesced diamond thin films after short growth times. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) was used as a means of decreasing diamond internal stress by impeding the propagation of threading dislocations into the growing material. Its use in diamond growth requires adaptation to the aggressive chemical and thermal environment of the hydrogen plasma in a CVD reactor. Three ELO variants were developed. The most successful utilized a gold (Au) mask prepared by vacuum evaporation onto the surface of a thin heteroepitaxial diamond layer. The Au mask pattern, a series of parallel stripes on the micrometer scale, was produced by standard lift-off photolithography. When diamond overgrows the mask, dislocations are largely confined to the substrate. Differing degrees of confinement were studied by varying the stripe geometry and orientation. Significant improvement in diamond quality was found in the overgrown regions, as evidenced by reduction of the Raman scattering linewidth. The Au layer was found to remain intact during diamond overgrowth and did not chemically bond with the diamond surface. Besides impeding the propagation of threading dislocations, it was discovered that the thermally-induced stress in the CVD diamond was significantly reduced as a result of the ductile Au layer. Cracking and delamination of the diamond from the substrate was mostly eliminated. When diamond was grown to thicknesses above 0.1 mm it was found that

  2. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty. PMID:27462563

  3. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wijesekera, Lokesh C; Leigh, P Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year) and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000) are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1). Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset) and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43) gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease) by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions in

  4. Lateral Entry of Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    concluded that the militaty services use lateral entry in a very limited way. Lateral-entry programs are used most often in recrioing for the health ...the health professions. 3 Of course, the reserves rely heavily on lateral entry from the active components. Most of these people received their initial...a result of the Armed Forces Health Professionals Scholarship Program, which offers tuition and expenses for civilian I training in return for a

  5. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...research programs such as the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program (ALSRP) is allo- cated via specific guidance from Congress. Proposal

  6. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  7. [Lateral mandibular deviations].

    PubMed

    Gotte, P

    1980-01-01

    The mandibular laterodeviation is one of the most evident malformations of the face, because it alters the lower third of the face. Etiologically it can be classified into: Static laterodeviations caused by teeth; Static laterodeviations caused by skeleton change: by monolateral hypertrophy (condyle, condyle and neck of the condyle, half mandible hypertrophy); by monolateral hypertrophy (congenital pathological); Dinamic laterodeviations functional. The midline displacement with posterior monolateral cross bite is caused by width discrepancy between the upper and lower dental arch resulting in a lateral shifting of the mandible. This laterodeviation is also called "laterale forced bite" or "articular cross bite". Articular cross bite is generally corrected by orthodontics during the interceptive period when the growth of the jaws is still present. In the author's opinion the orthognathic surgery is absolutely necessary for adult dental laterodeviation already stabilized. The skeletal laterodeviation must always be treated by orthognathic surgery. It is the author's practice to use the sagittal bilateral osteotomy at the angle and ramus level whose lines of osteotomy at the angle are different from one another depending on the displacement and rotation which one must do to the mandible to get contact surfaces which are larger enough to ensure proper union because the two mandibular halves have different lengths and different angles. This kind of operation normalizes the occlusion and is sometime sufficient to harmonize the oval of the lower third of the face. In the anterior part of the chin is still laterodeviated one continues with a wedge shaped osteotomy at the tip of the chin in order to reposition the tip to the midline and with an additional osteotomy at the hypertrophied angle level. If laterodeviation is joined by other bone malformations in can be considered a symptom which is more or less marked. In this case, therefore, laterodeviation is a part of a

  8. Aerodynamic interactions from reaction controls for lateral control of the M2-F2 lifting-body entry configuration at transonic and supersonic and supersonic Mach numbers. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. O.; Brownson, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Ames 6 by 6 foot wind tunnel to determine the interaction of reaction jets for roll control on the M2-F2 lifting-body entry vehicle. Moment interactions are presented for a Mach number range of 0.6 to 1.7, a Reynolds number range of 1.2 x 10 to the 6th power to 1.6 x 10 to the 6th power (based on model reference length), an angle-of-attack range of -9 deg to 20 deg, and an angle-of-sideslip range of -6 deg to 6 deg at an angle of attack of 6 deg. The reaction jets produce roll control with small adverse yawing moment, which can be offset by horizontal thrust component of canted jets.

  9. Biphasic cell responses on laterally mobile films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourouklis, Andreas; Lerum, Ronald; Bermudez, Harry

    2013-03-01

    The engineering of polymer surfaces or matrices that are capable of controlling cell adhesion has been widely explored. In nearly all of these works, the polymer chains (and ligands) are chemically attached to the underlying substrate, and therefore these systems are inherently static. By contrast, cellular environments such as the extracellular matrix (ECM) are dynamic and remodeled by biochemical reactions and biophysical forces. Borrowing this concept from Nature, we created polymer films by an interfacial self-assembly process, whereby individual chains can exhibit lateral mobility (in-plane diffusive motion). NIH 3T3 fibroblasts seeded on such RGD-presenting polymer films show biphasic responses in spreading and adhesion strength to lateral mobility, with a minimal response for intermediate mobility values. Futhermore, preliminary immuno-staining experiments reveal that the total area of focal adhesions demonstrates a similar biphasic trend to the cellular-scale behaviors. In contrast, actin filaments or stress fibers appear to be unaffected by the substrate lateral mobility. These results show that lateral mobility is an important, although not fully explored aspect of mechano-sensing by cells, and can potentially give new perspectives on cell-ECM interactions. National Science Foundation

  10. Non-contact lateral force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymouth, A. J.

    2017-08-01

    The goal of atomic force microscopy (AFM) is to measure the short-range forces that act between the tip and the surface. The signal recorded, however, includes long-range forces that are often an unwanted background. Lateral force microscopy (LFM) is a branch of AFM in which a component of force perpendicular to the surface normal is measured. If we consider the interaction between tip and sample in terms of forces, which have both direction and magnitude, then we can make a very simple yet profound observation: over a flat surface, long-range forces that do not yield topographic contrast have no lateral component. Short-range interactions, on the other hand, do. Although contact-mode is the most common LFM technique, true non-contact AFM techniques can be applied to perform LFM without the tip depressing upon the sample. Non-contact lateral force microscopy (nc-LFM) is therefore ideal to study short-range forces of interest. One of the first applications of nc-LFM was the study of non-contact friction. A similar setup is used in magnetic resonance force microscopy to detect spin flipping. More recently, nc-LFM has been used as a true microscopy technique to systems unsuitable for normal force microscopy.

  11. Non-contact lateral force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Weymouth, A J

    2017-08-16

    The goal of atomic force microscopy (AFM) is to measure the short-range forces that act between the tip and the surface. The signal recorded, however, includes long-range forces that are often an unwanted background. Lateral force microscopy (LFM) is a branch of AFM in which a component of force perpendicular to the surface normal is measured. If we consider the interaction between tip and sample in terms of forces, which have both direction and magnitude, then we can make a very simple yet profound observation: over a flat surface, long-range forces that do not yield topographic contrast have no lateral component. Short-range interactions, on the other hand, do. Although contact-mode is the most common LFM technique, true non-contact AFM techniques can be applied to perform LFM without the tip depressing upon the sample. Non-contact lateral force microscopy (nc-LFM) is therefore ideal to study short-range forces of interest. One of the first applications of nc-LFM was the study of non-contact friction. A similar setup is used in magnetic resonance force microscopy to detect spin flipping. More recently, nc-LFM has been used as a true microscopy technique to systems unsuitable for normal force microscopy.

  12. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  13. Cerebral Laterality Effects in the Dual Processing of Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1984-01-01

    The degree to which concreteness of prose material presented in an auditory fashion would interact with learners' lateral preference under different right hemispheric presentation conditions was investigated with 96 adults. Subjects recalled a greater number of ideas when the passage was concrete. Abstractness interacted with cerebral dominance.…

  14. Simulation of transient dynamic behavior in laterally coupled VCSEL arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyopoulos, Spilios

    2002-06-01

    A novel, fast simulation tool for transient response is developed to study jitter and noise caused by lateral cavity interactions in VCSEL arrays. The cavity mode profiles, obtained from a paraxial eigenmode analysis, are used to derive fast 1-D rate equations that implement gain confinement, edge clipping, wide angle scattering and diffraction (self-interference) losses. These equations are augmented by lateral coupling terms describing the interactions among nearest neighbor cavities. Slow time scale coupling describes interactions of phase-shifted cavities via mutually induced electric polarization, cross-hole burning and cross-cavity gain due to optical fringe-field interactions. The tool is used to study cavity cross-talk, lateral bit pattern error effects, and the possibility of excitation of long range modulations over the array. Conclusions relating VCSEL packing density to BER, bit suppression by neighboring cavities, and array phase locking are given.

  15. Intraspecific competition and coordination in the evolution of lateralization

    PubMed Central

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Frasnelli, Elisa; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a variety of left–right asymmetries among vertebrates and invertebrates. In many species, left- and right-lateralized individuals coexist, but in unequal numbers (‘population-level’ lateralization). It has been argued that brain lateralization increases individual efficiency (e.g. avoiding unnecessary duplication of neural circuitry and reducing interference between functions), thus counteracting the ecological disadvantages of lateral biases in behaviour (making individual behaviour more predictable to other organisms). However, individual efficiency does not require a definite proportion of left- and right-lateralized individuals. Thus, such arguments do not explain population-level lateralization. We have previously shown that, in the context of prey–predator interactions, population-level lateralization can arise as an evolutionarily stable strategy when individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. Here, we extend our model showing that populations consisting of left- and right-lateralized individuals in unequal numbers can be evolutionarily stable, based solely on strategic factors arising from the balance between antagonistic (competitive) and synergistic (cooperative) interactions. PMID:19064359

  16. Abnormal band of lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Brian; Goldblatt, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a case of an "abnormal band" of the lateral meniscus, extending from the posterior horn of the true lateral meniscus to its antero-mid portion, observed during arthroscopy in a 45-year-old white man of Bosnian descent. The periphery of the aberrant lateral meniscus was freely mobile, and not connected to the underlying true lateral meniscus. Preoperative physical examination findings were consistent with medial-sided meniscal pathology only; however, evidence of an anomalous lateral meniscus was seen with magnetic resonance imaging. This anatomical pattern is rare and has been reported in the literature only once, in a report of 2 Asian patients. This article illustrates an anatomical variant of the lateral meniscus in a non-Asian patient with a clinical presentation that has not been previously described. In addition to the case report, the article presents a comprehensive review of the existing body of literature on anomalous lateral meniscus patterns. We believe that the definitions of the types of aberrant meniscus can be clarified to establish improved accuracy in reporting.

  17. What causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sarah; Al Khleifat, Ahmad; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease predominantly affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure within 2 to 3 years. The peak age of onset is 55 to 70 years, with a male predominance. The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are only partly known, but they include some environmental risk factors as well as several genes that have been identified as harbouring disease-associated variation. Here we review the nature, epidemiology, genetic associations, and environmental exposures associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:28408982

  18. Lateral Dominance and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.

    1979-01-01

    Theory and research on the relation of lateral dominance to the causation of reading disability are reviewed. Both direct and indirect measures of cerebral hemisphere functioning are considered. (SBH)

  19. CT navigated lateral interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Drazin, Doniel; Liu, John C; Acosta, Frank L

    2013-10-01

    Lateral interbody fusion techniques are heavily reliant on fluoroscopy for retractor docking and graft placement, which expose both the patient and surgeon to high doses of radiation. Use of image-guided technologies with CT-based images, however, can eliminate this radiation exposure for the surgeon. We describe the surgical technique of performing lateral lumbar interbody fusion using CT navigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lidar for Lateral Mixing (LATMIX)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    km, i.e., the “ submesoscale ”. We aim to understand the underlying mechanisms and forcing, as well as the temporal, spatial, and scale variability of...the overall objectives of the Lateral Mixing DRI to try to determine the extent to which submesoscale stirring is driven by a cascade of energy down...technical goal of our work is to develop the use of airborne LIDAR surveys of evolving dye experiments as a tool for studying submesoscale lateral dispersion

  1. Interaction between orexin A and cannabinoid system in the lateral hypothalamus of rats and effects of subchronic intraperitoneal administration of cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist on food intake and the nutritive utilization of protein.

    PubMed

    Merroun, I; El Mlili, N; Martinez, R; Porres, J M; Llopis, J; Ahabrach, H; Aranda, P; Sanchez Gonzalez, C; Errami, M; Lopez-Jurado, M

    2015-04-01

    Crosstalk may occur between cannabinoids and other systems controlling appetite, since cannabinoid receptors are present in hypothalamic circuits involved in feeding regulation, and likely to interact with orexin. In this study, an immunohistochemical approach was used to examine the effect of the intracerebroventricular administration of cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist AM 251 on orexin neuropeptide in the hypothalamic system. AM-activated neurons were identified using c-Fos as a marker of neuronal activity. The results obtained show that AM 251 decreases orexin A immunoreactivity, and that it increases c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons within the hypothalamus when compared with the vehicle-injected control group. We also studied the effects of subchronic intraperitoneal administration of AM 251 on food intake, body weight, and protein utilization. The administration of AM 251 at 1, 2, or 5 mg/kg led to a significant reduction in food intake, along with a significant decrease in the digestive utilization of protein in the groups injected with 1 and 2 mg/kg. There was a dose-related slowdown in weight gain, especially at the doses of 2 and 5 mg/kg, during the initial days of the trial. The absence of this effect in the pair-fed group reveals that any impairment to digestibility was the result of administering AM 251. These data support our conclusion that hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides are involved in the reduction of appetite and mediated by the cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist. Furthermore, the subchronic administration of AM 251, in addition to its effect on food intake, has significant effects on the digestive utilization of protein.

  2. Phaseolus vulgaris RbohB functions in lateral root development.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Quinto, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) catalyze the reduction of oxygen to generate superoxide anion, a kind of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS produced by RBOHs play essential roles in diverse processes, such as root hair development, stomata closure and signaling mechanisms in response to abiotic stimuli and during plant-pathogen interactions. Recently, we found that PvRbohB silencing in transgenic Phaseolus vulgaris roots had a negative impact on lateral root density. In this work, we show that the downregulation of PvRbohB affects both the growth and ROS levels in recently emerged lateral roots. In addition, we found that the PvRbohB promoter was activated during lateral root primordium initiation in the pericycle, and remained active throughout lateral root development. This study identifies RBOHs as potentially important players in lateral root development in P. vulgaris.

  3. Phaseolus vulgaris RbohB functions in lateral root development

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Quinto, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) catalyze the reduction of oxygen to generate superoxide anion, a kind of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS produced by RBOHs play essential roles in diverse processes, such as root hair development, stomata closure and signaling mechanisms in response to abiotic stimuli and during plant-pathogen interactions. Recently, we found that PvRbohB silencing in transgenic Phaseolus vulgaris roots had a negative impact on lateral root density. In this work, we show that the downregulation of PvRbohB affects both the growth and ROS levels in recently emerged lateral roots. In addition, we found that the PvRbohB promoter was activated during lateral root primordium initiation in the pericycle, and remained active throughout lateral root development. This study identifies RBOHs as potentially important players in lateral root development in P. vulgaris. PMID:23221754

  4. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p < .01, η2 = 0.55) This relationship prevailed across hand preference and level of skill in the hands itself. We propose that motor and speech laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. A new mechanism for spatial pattern formation via lateral and protrusion-mediated lateral signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Ginger L.; Baum, Buzz

    2016-01-01

    Tissue organization and patterning are critical during development when genetically identical cells take on different fates. Lateral signalling plays an important role in this process by helping to generate self-organized spatial patterns in an otherwise uniform collection of cells. Recent data suggest that lateral signalling can be mediated both by junctional contacts between neighbouring cells and via cellular protrusions that allow non-neighbouring cells to interact with one another at a distance. However, it remains unclear precisely how signalling mediated by these distinct types of cell–cell contact can physically contribute to the generation of complex patterns without the assistance of diffusible morphogens or pre-patterns. To explore this question, in this work we develop a model of lateral signalling based on a single receptor/ligand pair as exemplified by Notch and Delta. We show that allowing the signalling kinetics to differ at junctional versus protrusion-mediated contacts, an assumption inspired by recent data which show that the cleavage of Notch in several systems requires both Delta binding and the application of mechanical force, permits individual cells to act to promote both lateral activation and lateral inhibition. Strikingly, under this model, in which Delta can sequester Notch, a variety of patterns resembling those typical of reaction–diffusion systems is observed, together with more unusual patterns that arise when we consider changes in signalling kinetics, and in the length and distribution of protrusions. Importantly, these patterns are self-organizing—so that local interactions drive tissue-scale patterning. Together, these data show that protrusions can, in principle, generate different types of patterns in addition to contributing to long-range signalling and to pattern refinement. PMID:27807273

  6. Lateral topological crystalline insulator heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Niu, Chengwang; Ma, Yandong; Wei, Wei; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of lateral heterostructures fabricated by two-dimensional building blocks brings many exciting realms in material science and device physics. Enriching available nanomaterials for creating such heterostructures and enabling the underlying new physics is highly coveted for the integration of next-generation devices. Here, we report a breakthrough in lateral heterostructure based on the monolayer square transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M  =  W, X  =  S/Se) modules. Our results reveal that the MX2 lateral heterostructure (1S-MX2 LHS) can possess excellent thermal and dynamical stability. Remarkably, the highly desired two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase is confirmed by the calculated mirror Chern number {{n}\\text{M}}=-1 . A nontrivial band gap of 65 meV is obtained with SOC, indicating the potential for room-temperature observation and applications. The topologically protected edge states emerge at the edges of two different nanoribbons between the bulk band gap, which is consistent with the mirror Chern number. In addition, a strain-induced topological phase transition in 1S-MX2 LHS is also revealed, endowing the potential utilities in electronics and spintronics. Our predictions not only introduce new member and vitality into the studies of lateral heterostructures, but also highlight the promise of lateral heterostructure as appealing topological crystalline insulator platforms with excellent stability for future devices.

  7. Optineurin and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi

    2013-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating disease, and thus it is important to identify the causative gene and resolve the mechanism of the disease. We identified optineurin as a causative gene for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We found three types of mutations: a homozygous deletion of exon 5, a homozygous Q398X nonsense mutation and a heterozygous E478G missense mutation within its ubiquitin-binding domain. Optineurin negatively regulates the tumor necrosis factor-α-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Nonsense and missense mutations abolished this function. Mutations related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also negated the inhibition of interferon regulatory factor-3. The missense mutation showed a cyotoplasmic distribution different from that of the wild type. There are no specific clinical symptoms related to optineurin. However, severe brain atrophy was detected in patients with homozygous deletion. Neuropathologically, an E478G patient showed transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa-positive neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions in the spinal and medullary motor neurons. Furthermore, Golgi fragmentation was identified in 73% of this patient's anterior horn cells. In addition, optineurin is colocalized with fused in sarcoma in the basophilic inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with fused in sarcoma mutations, and in basophilic inclusion body disease. These findings strongly suggest that optineurin is involved in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Lateral regulation of synaptic transmission by astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Covelo, A; Araque, A

    2016-05-26

    Fifteen years ago the concept of the "tripartite synapse" was proposed to conceptualize the functional view that astrocytes are integral elements of synapses. The signaling exchange between astrocytes and neurons within the tripartite synapse results in the synaptic regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity through an autocrine form of communication. However, recent evidence indicates that the astrocyte synaptic regulation is not restricted to the active tripartite synapse but can be manifested through astrocyte signaling at synapses relatively distant from active synapses, a process termed lateral astrocyte synaptic regulation. This phenomenon resembles the classical heterosynaptic modulation but is mechanistically different because it involves astrocytes and its properties critically depend on the morphological and functional features of astrocytes. Therefore, the functional concept of the tripartite synapse as a fundamental unit must be expanded to include the interaction between tripartite synapses. Through lateral synaptic regulation, astrocytes serve as an active processing bridge for synaptic interaction and crosstalk between synapses with no direct neuronal connectivity, supporting the idea that neural network function results from the coordinated activity of astrocytes and neurons.

  9. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Rick; Jennings, John; Sewards, J Milo

    2013-04-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow," is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Repetitive occupational or athletic activities involving wrist extension and supination are thought to be causative. The typical symptoms include lateral elbow pain, pain with wrist extension, and weakened grip strength. The diagnosis is made clinically through history and physical examination; however, a thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary testing and therapies. Most patients improve with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, physical therapy, and injections. A small percentage of patients will require surgical release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Common methods of release may be performed via percutaneous, arthroscopic, or open approaches.

  10. Lateral Diffusion in an Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Lateral diffusion of molecules in lipid bilayer membranes can be hindered by the presence of impermeable domains of gel-phase lipid or of proteins. Effective-medium theory and percolation theory are used to evaluate the effective lateral diffusion constant as a function of the area fraction of fluid-phase lipid and the permeability of the obstructions to the diffusing species. Applications include the estimation of the minimum fraction of fluid lipid needed for bacterial growth, and the enhancement of diffusion-controlled reactions by the channeling effect of solid patches of lipid. PMID:7052153

  11. Lateral and cross-lateral focusing of spherical particles in a square microchannel.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Seo, Kyung-Won; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2011-02-07

    The inertial migration of particles in micro-scale flows has received much attention due to its promising applications, such as the membrane-free passive separation of particles or cells. The particles suspended in rectangular channels are known to be focused near the center of each channel face as the channel Reynolds number (R(C)) increases due to the lift force balance and the hydrodynamic interactions of the particles with the wall. In this study, the three-dimensional positions of neutrally buoyant spherical particles inside a square microchannel are measured using the digital holographic microscopy technique, and a transition from the lateral tubular pinch to the cross-lateral focusing with increasing R(C) is reported. The particles are found to migrate first in the lateral direction and then cross-laterally toward the four equilibrium positions. A general criterion that can be used to secure the fully developed state of particle focusing in Lab-on-a-Chip applications is also derived. This criterion could be helpful for the accurate estimation of the design parameters of inertial microfluidic devices, such as R(C), channel length and width, and particle diameter.

  12. School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C.; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S.; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista

    2007-01-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for…

  13. Hyperaldosteronism: diagnosis, lateralization, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Adrian M

    2014-06-01

    Primary hyperaldosteronism is an important and commonly unrecognized secondary cause of hypertension. This article provides an overview of the current literature with respect to screening, diagnosis, and lateralization. Selection and outcomes of medical and surgical treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis has many broad implications for the patient and the neurologist. Potentially curative treatments exist for certain ALS mimic syndromes, but delay in starting these therapies may have an unfavorable effect on outcome. Hence, it is important to exclude similar conditions. In this review, we discuss some of the important mimics of ALS. PMID:27326363

  15. Lateral inhibition during nociceptive processing.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, Alexandre S; Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Andersen, Ole K; Coghill, Robert C

    2017-06-01

    Spatial summation of pain (SSP) is the increase of perceived intensity that occurs as the stimulated area increases. Spatial summation of pain is subadditive in that increasing the stimulus area produces a disproportionately small increase in the perceived intensity of pain. A possible explanation for subadditive summation may be that convergent excitatory information is modulated by lateral inhibition. To test the hypothesis that lateral inhibition may limit SSP, we delivered different patterns of noxious thermal stimuli to the abdomens of 15 subjects using a computer-controlled CO2 laser. Lines (5 mm wide) of variable lengths (4, 8 cm) were compared with 2-point stimuli delivered at the same position/separation as the length of lines. When compared with one-point control stimuli, 2-point stimulus patterns produced statistically significant SSP, while no such summation was detected during line stimulus patterns. Direct comparison of pain intensity evoked by 2-point pattern stimuli with line pattern stimuli revealed that 2-point patterns were perceived as significantly more painful, despite the fact that the 2-point pattern stimulated far smaller areas of skin. Thus, the stimulation of the skin region between the endpoints of the lines appears to produce inhibition. These findings indicate that lateral inhibition limits SSP and is an intrinsic component of nociceptive information processing. Disruption of such lateral inhibition may contribute substantially to the radiation of some types of chronic pain.

  16. Anxiety and Lateral Cerebral Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Don M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examines the effect of stressful and nonstressful experimental situations upon the processing capacity of each cerebral hemisphere, through observing the differential performance tasks presented to right and left visual half-fields (VHFs). Also examines attentional bias and lateral eye movements. (Author/RK)

  17. Laterality of Basic Auditory Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sininger, Yvonne S.; Bhatara, Anjali

    2010-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: 1) gap detection 2) frequency discrimination and 3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000 and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was: processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by 1) spectral width, a narrow band noise (NBN) of 450 Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination and 2) stimulus duration, 200, 500 and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. Results A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterized as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli. PMID:22385138

  18. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... primary lateral sclerosis juvenile Merck Manual Consumer Version: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Diseases Patient Support and ... domains, is mutated in a form of recessive amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat Genet. 2001 Oct;29(2):160-5. ...

  20. Gene regularity interactions at lateral organ buondaries in maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize leaves have distinct tissues that serve specific purposes. The blade tilts back to photosynthesize and the sheath wraps around the stem to provide structural support and protect young leaves. At the junction between blade and sheath are the ligule and auricles, both of which are absent in the ...

  1. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero-Picado, Alfonso; Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as ‘tennis elbow’, is a very common condition affecting mainly middle-aged patients. The pathogenesis remains unknown but there appears to be a combination of local tendon pathology, alteration in pain perception and motor impairment. The diagnosis is usually clinical but some patients may benefit from additional imaging for a specific differential diagnosis. The disease has a self-limiting course of between 12 and 18 months, but in some patients, symptoms can be persistent and refractory to treatment. Most patients are well-managed with non-operative treatment and activity modification. Many surgical techniques have been proposed for patients with refractory symptoms. New non-operative treatment alternatives with promising results have been developed in recent years. Cite this article: Vaquero-Picado A, Barco R, Antuña SA. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:391-397. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000049. PMID:28461918

  2. Sexual behavior in later life.

    PubMed

    DeLamater, John; Moorman, Sara M

    2007-12-01

    This research tests the influences of age, biological, and psychosocial factors on sexual expression in later life. The American Association of Retired Persons Modern Maturity Sexuality Survey collected data on diagnosed illnesses, treated illnesses, sexual desire, sexual attitudes, partner circumstances, and sexual behavior from 1,384 persons ages 45 and older. Ordered logistic regression models estimate the associations of age, biological, and psychosocial factors with the frequency of five sexual behaviors. Diagnosed illnesses and treatments are generally unrelated to frequency of sexual activity. Sexual attitudes are related to frequency of partnered behavior and sexual desire is related to frequency of masturbation among both women and men. Satisfaction with the physical relationship with a partner is strongly related to behavior. Age remains significant after all other factors are controlled. The authors conclude that the nature of sexual expression in later life reflects the interplay of body, mind, and social context.

  3. Transient response of lateral photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, E. H.; Hieronymi, F.; Kuhl, D.; Dröge, E.; Bimberg, D.

    1993-05-01

    A two-dimensional physical device model for characterizing the transient operation of lateral photodetectors is presented. It is based upon a corpuscular approach where the impulse response is constituted by the superposition of a large number of photocurrent pulses originating from spatially distributed discrete electron-hole pairs generated by an optical impulse. The motion of photogenerated carriers and the resulting photocurrent pulses in the external circuit are related by Ramo's theorem which is shown to be fundamental for gaining a correct understanding of the time response of lateral detectors. The accuracy of the predictions obtained from the modeling is underpinned by their excellent agreement with experimental data on the impulse response of InP:Fe/InGaAs:Fe metal-semiconductor-metal detectors.

  4. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  5. Severe hypoxia impairs lateralization in a marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Nati, Julie J H; Blasco, Felipe Rocco; Johansen, Jacob L; Steffensen, John F; Domenici, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    In intertidal environments, the recurring hypoxic condition at low tide is one of the main factors affecting fish behaviour, causing broad effects on ecological interactions. We assessed the effects of hypoxia on lateralization (e.g. the tendency to turn left or right), a behaviour related to brain functional asymmetry, which is thought to play a key role in several life history aspects of fish. Using staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), a benthic fish that typically inhabits the intertidal zone, we found that hypoxia affects behavioural lateralization at the population level. On average, staghorn sculpins showed a distinct preference for right turns under normoxic conditions (>90% oxygen saturation), but an equal probability of turning right or left after exposure to hypoxia for 2 h (20% oxygen saturation). The specific turning preference observed in the staghorn sculpin control population is likely to have an adaptive value, for example in predator-prey interactions by enhancing attack success or survival from predatory attacks. Therefore the alteration of lateralization expressed by staghorn sculpins under hypoxic conditions may have far-reaching implications for species ecology and trophic interactions. Moreover, our work raises the need to study this effect in other species, in which a hypoxia-driven disruption of lateralization could affect a wider range of behaviours, such as social interactions and schooling. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. 49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lateral motion. 229.63 Section 229.63....63 Lateral motion. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), the total uncontrolled lateral motion... powered axles. (b) The total uncontrolled lateral motion may not exceed 11/4 inches on the center axle of...

  7. The Evolution of Lateralization in Group Hunting Sailfish.

    PubMed

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Krause, Stefan; Viblanc, Paul E; Herbert-Read, James E; Zaslansky, Paul; Domenici, Paolo; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John F; Svendsen, Morten B S; Wilson, Alexander D M; Couillaud, Pierre; Boswell, Kevin M; Krause, Jens

    2017-02-20

    Lateralization is widespread throughout the animal kingdom [1-7] and can increase task efficiency via shortening reaction times and saving on neural tissue [8-16]. However, lateralization might be costly because it increases predictability [17-21]. In predator-prey interactions, for example, predators might increase capture success because of specialization in a lateralized attack, but at the cost of increased predictability to their prey, constraining the evolution of lateralization. One unexplored mechanism for evading such costs is group hunting: this would allow individual-level specialization, while still allowing for group-level unpredictability. We investigated this mechanism in group hunting sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus, attacking schooling sardines, Sardinella aurita. During these attacks, sailfish alternate in attacking the prey using their elongated bills to slash or tap the prey [22-24]. This rapid bill movement is either leftward or rightward. Using behavioral observations of identifiable individual sailfish hunting in groups, we provide evidence for individual-level attack lateralization in sailfish. More strongly lateralized individuals had a higher capture success. Further evidence of lateralization comes from morphological analyses of sailfish bills that show strong evidence of one-sided micro-teeth abrasions. Finally, we show that attacks by single sailfish are indeed highly predictable, but predictability rapidly declines with increasing group size because of a lack of population-level lateralization. Our results present a novel benefit of group hunting: by alternating attacks, individual-level attack lateralization can evolve, without the negative consequences of individual-level predictability. More generally, our results suggest that group hunting in predators might provide more suitable conditions for the evolution of strategy diversity compared to solitary life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity.

    PubMed

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks.

  9. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths

    PubMed Central

    Greeter, Jeremy S. M.; Hedrick, Tyson L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. ‘sideslips’, of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573

  10. Diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rowland, L P

    1998-10-01

    This review of the differential diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis focuses on two themes. The first is practical, how to establish the diagnosis based primarily on clinical findings buttressed by electrodiagnosis. The main considerations are multifocal motor neuropathy and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The second theme is the relationship of motor neuron disease to other conditions, including benign fasciculation (Denny-Brown, Foley syndrome), paraneoplastic syndromes, lymphoproliferative disease, radiation damage, monomelic amyotrophy (Hirayama syndrome), as well as an association with parkinsonism, dementia and multisystem disorders of the central nervous system.

  11. Compactness of lateral shearing interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrec, Yann; Taboury, Jean; Sauer, Hervé; Chavel, Pierre

    2011-08-01

    Imaging lateral shearing interferometers are good candidates for airborne or spaceborne Fourier-transform spectral imaging. For such applications, compactness is one key parameter. In this article, we compare the size of four mirror-based interferometers, the Michelson interferometer with roof-top (or corner-cube) mirrors, and the cyclic interferometers with two, three, and four mirrors, focusing more particularly on the last two designs. We give the expression of the translation they induce between the two exiting rays. We then show that the cyclic interferometer with three mirrors can be made quite compact. Nevertheless, the Michelson interferometer is the most compact solution, especially for highly diverging beams.

  12. Compactness of lateral shearing interferometers.

    PubMed

    Ferrec, Yann; Taboury, Jean; Sauer, Hervé; Chavel, Pierre

    2011-08-10

    Imaging lateral shearing interferometers are good candidates for airborne or spaceborne Fourier-transform spectral imaging. For such applications, compactness is one key parameter. In this article, we compare the size of four mirror-based interferometers, the Michelson interferometer with roof-top (or corner-cube) mirrors, and the cyclic interferometers with two, three, and four mirrors, focusing more particularly on the last two designs. We give the expression of the translation they induce between the two exiting rays. We then show that the cyclic interferometer with three mirrors can be made quite compact. Nevertheless, the Michelson interferometer is the most compact solution, especially for highly diverging beams.

  13. Clinical Neurogenetics: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Matthew B.; Baloh, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, about which our understanding is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways for target for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS, provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. PMID:24176417

  14. Lateral masking effects on contrast sensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kurylo, Daniel D; Yeturo, Sowmya; Lanza, Joseph; Bukhari, Farhan

    2017-09-29

    Changes in target visibility may be produced by additional stimulus elements at adjacent locations. Such contextual effects may reflect lateral interactions of stimulus representations in early cortical areas. It has been reported that the organization of orientation preference found in primates and cats visual cortex differs from that found in rodents, suggesting functional distinctions across species. In order to examine effects of lateral interactions at a perceptual level, contrast sensitivity in rats was measured for Gabor patches masked by two additional patches. Rats responded to target onset, and perceptual indices were based upon reaction time distributions across levels of luminance contrast. It was found that contrast sensitivity of targets without lateral masks corresponded to levels previously reported. For all measurements, the presence of sustained lateral masks systematically reduced sensitivity to targets, demonstrating interference by adjacent elements across levels of contrast. Effects of mask orientation or separation were not observed. These results may reflect reported non-systematic topography of orientation tuning across the cortex in rodents. Results suggest that intrinsic lateral connections in early processing areas play a minimal role in stimulus integration for rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tar DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), 14-3-3 proteins and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) interact to modulate NFL mRNA stability. Implications for altered RNA processing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Volkening, Kathryn; Leystra-Lantz, Cheryl; Yang, Wenchang; Jaffee, Howard; Strong, Michael J

    2009-12-11

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological disease characterized by progressive motor neuron degeneration in association with neurofilament (NF) aggregate formation. This process is accompanied by an alteration in the stoichiometry of NF subunit protein expression such that the steady state levels of the low molecular weight NF (NFL) mRNA levels are selectively suppressed. We have previously shown that each of TDP-43, 14-3-3 and mutant SOD1 can function as NFL mRNA 3'UTR binding proteins that directly affect the stability of NFL transcripts. In this study, we demonstrate that the interaction of TDP-43 with the NFL mRNA 3' UTR involves ribonucleotide (UG) motifs present on stem loops of the 3'UTR as well as the RRM1 and RRM2 motifs of TDP-43. Ex vivo, TDP-43, 14-3-3 and SOD1 proteins interact to modulate NFL mRNA stability, although in vivo, only TDP-43 and either mutant or wild-type SOD1 co-localize in ALS motor neurons. TDP-43 was observed to co-localize to RNA transport granules (Staufen immunoreactive) in both control and ALS spinal motor neurons. In contrast, both stress granules (TIA-1 immunoreactive) and processing bodies (P-bodies; XRN-1 immunoreactive) were more prevalent in ALS motor neurons than in controls and demonstrated strong co-localization with TDP-43. Using RNA-IP-PCR, we further demonstrate that NFL mRNA is preferentially sequestered to both stress granules and P-bodies in ALS. These data suggest that NFL mRNA processing is fundamentally altered in ALS spinal motor neurons to favour compartmentalization within both stress granules and P-bodies, and that TDP-43 plays a fundamental role in this process.

  16. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Vaquero-Picado, Alfonso; Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A

    2016-11-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as 'tennis elbow', is a very common condition affecting mainly middle-aged patients.The pathogenesis remains unknown but there appears to be a combination of local tendon pathology, alteration in pain perception and motor impairment.The diagnosis is usually clinical but some patients may benefit from additional imaging for a specific differential diagnosis.The disease has a self-limiting course of between 12 and 18 months, but in some patients, symptoms can be persistent and refractory to treatment.Most patients are well-managed with non-operative treatment and activity modification. Many surgical techniques have been proposed for patients with refractory symptoms.New non-operative treatment alternatives with promising results have been developed in recent years. Cite this article: Vaquero-Picado A, Barco R, Antuña SA. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:391-397. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000049.

  17. Measurement of laterally induced optical forces at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fei; Tamma, Venkata Ananth; Rajaei, Mohsen; Almajhadi, Mohammad; Kumar Wickramasinghe, H.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate the measurement of laterally induced optical forces using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The lateral electric field distribution between a gold coated AFM probe and a single nano-aperture in a gold film is mapped by measuring the lateral optical force between the apex of the AFM probe and the nano-aperture. The fundamental torsional eigen-mode of an AFM cantilever probe was used to detect the laterally induced optical forces. We engineered the cantilever shape using focused ion beam milling to improve the detected signal to noise ratio. The measured distributions of lateral optical force agree well with electromagnetic simulations of the metal coated AFM probe interacting with the nano-aperture. This technique can be extended to simultaneously detect both lateral and longitudinal optical forces at the nanoscale by using an AFM cantilever as a multi-channel detector. This will enable simultaneous Photon Induced Force Microscopy detection of molecular responses with different incident field polarizations. The technique can be implemented on both cantilever and tuning fork based AFMs.

  18. Enhanced schooling performance in lateralized fishes

    PubMed Central

    Bisazza, Angelo; Dadda, Marco

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of functional left–right cerebral asymmetries has been documented in a wide range of animals, suggesting that the lateralization of cognitive functions enjoys some kind of selective advantage over the bilateral control of the same functions. Here, we compared schooling performance of fishes with high or low degree of lateralization, which were obtained through selective breeding. Schools of lateralized fishes moving in a novel environment showed significantly more cohesion and coordination than schools of non-lateralized (NL) fishes. Pairs of fishes lateralized in opposite directions were as efficient as pairs of same laterality, suggesting that the performance of lateralized fishes derives from a computational advantage rather than being the consequence of a behavioural similarity among schoolmates. In schools composed of both lateralized and NL fishes, the latter were more often at the periphery of the school while lateralized fishes occupied the core, a position normally safer and energetically less expensive. PMID:16087422

  19. Laterality in visual speech perception.

    PubMed

    Smeele, P M; Massaro, D W; Cohen, M M; Sittig, A C

    1998-08-01

    The lateralization of visual speech perception was examined in 3 experiments. Participants were presented with a realistic computer-animated face articulating 1 of 4 consonant-vowel syllables without sound. The face appeared at 1 of 5 locations in the visual field. The participants' task was to identify each test syllable. To prevent eye movement during the presentation of the face, participants had to carry out a fixation task simultaneously with the speechreading task. In one study, an eccentricity effect was found along with a small but significant difference in favor of the right visual field (left hemisphere). The same results were found with the face articulating nonlinguistic mouth movements (e.g., kiss). These results suggest that the left-hemisphere advantage is based on the processing of dynamic visual information rather than on the extraction of linguistic significance from facial movements.

  20. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2012-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  1. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature. PMID:27047843

  2. Relativism in Feyerabend's later writings.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reconstructs, and distinguishes between, Feyerabend's different forms of relativism in his later writings. Science in a Free Society remains close to familiar forms of relativism, while, at the same time, developing an original but under-argued form of political relativism, and rejecting "conversion" models of cultural exchange. Farewell to Reason moves away from common renderings of relativism, and develops a range of different new forms. Central here are links between relativism, skepticism and infallibilism. In the last six years of his life, Feyerabend often criticizes a peculiar radical form of relativism that arguably no-one has ever proposed or defended. In the same context, Feyerabend sketches an "ontological" form of relativism. It combines "Kantian humility", metaphysical pluralism and constructivism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sibling interaction.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Rosemary H

    2013-01-01

    Sibling interactions traditionally were conceived psychoanalytically in "vertical" and parentified oedipal terms and overlooked in their own right, for complicated reasons (Colonna and Newman 1983). Important work has been done to right this, from the 1980s and onward, with conferences and writings. Juliet Mitchell's 2000 and, in particular, her 2003 books, for example, have brought "lateral" sibling relations forcefully to the forefront of insights, especially about sex and violence, with the added interdisciplinary impact of illuminating upheaval in global community interactions as well as having implications for clinicians. A clinical example from the analysis of an adult woman with a ten-years-younger sister will show here how we need both concepts to help us understand complex individual psychic life. The newer "lateral" sibling emphasis, including Mitchell's "Law of the Mother" and "seriality," can be used to inform the older "vertical" take, to enrich the full dimensions of intersubjective oedipal and preoedipal reciprocities that have been foundational in shaping that particular analysand's inner landscape. Some technical recommendations for heightening sensitivity to the import of these dynamics will be offered along the way here, by invoking Hans Loewald's useful metaphor of the analytic situation as theater.

  4. Imaging lesions of the lateral hip.

    PubMed

    Pan, Judong; Bredella, Miriam A

    2013-07-01

    The lateral aspect of the hip is composed of a complex array of osseous and soft tissue structures. Both common and uncommon clinical entities are encountered in the lateral hip. This article briefly introduces fundamental imaging anatomy and the functional roles of different osseous and soft tissue structures in the lateral aspect of the hip, followed by a discussion of relevant imaging findings of lateral hip pathology. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is frequently encountered in patients with lateral hip pain and encompasses a spectrum of soft tissue abnormalities including trochanteric and subgluteal bursitis, and tendinopathy or tears of the gluteal tendons. In addition, different types of injuries to the gluteal myotendinous unit and injuries to the indirect head of the rectus femoris, proximal iliotibial band, and the lateral joint capsular ligaments can present with lateral hip pain. Some of the less common soft tissue abnormalities of the lateral hip include Morel-Lavallée lesion and meralgia paresthetica.

  5. Signaling Delays Preclude Defects in Lateral Inhibition Patterning.

    PubMed

    Glass, David S; Jin, Xiaofan; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H

    2016-03-25

    Lateral inhibition represents a well-studied example of biology's ability to self-organize multicellular spatial patterns with single-cell precision. Despite established biochemical mechanisms for lateral inhibition (e.g., Delta-Notch), it remains unclear how cell-cell signaling delays inherent to these mechanisms affect patterning outcomes. We investigate a compact model of lateral inhibition highlighting these delays and find, remarkably, that long delays can ensure defect-free patterning. This effect is underscored by an interplay with synchronous oscillations, cis interactions, and signaling strength. Our results suggest that signaling delays, though previously posited as a source of developmental defects, may in fact be a general regulatory knob for tuning developmental robustness.

  6. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  7. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  8. CEP5 and XIP1/CEPR1 regulate lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Ianto; Smith, Stephanie; Stes, Elisabeth; De Rybel, Bert; Staes, An; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Njo, Maria Fransiska; Dedeyne, Lise; Demol, Hans; Lavenus, Julien; Audenaert, Dominique; Gevaert, Kris; Beeckman, Tom; De Smet, Ive

    2016-01-01

    Roots explore the soil for water and nutrients through the continuous production of lateral roots. Lateral roots are formed at regular distances in a steadily elongating organ, but how future sites for lateral root formation become established is not yet understood. Here, we identified C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE 5 (CEP5) as a novel, auxin-repressed and phloem pole-expressed signal assisting in the formation of lateral roots. In addition, based on genetic and expression data, we found evidence for the involvement of its proposed receptor, XYLEM INTERMIXED WITH PHLOEM 1 (XIP1)/CEP RECEPTOR 1 (CEPR1), during the process of lateral root initiation. In conclusion, we report here on the existence of a peptide ligand−receptor kinase interaction that impacts lateral root initiation. Our results represent an important step towards the understanding of the cellular communication implicated in the early phases of lateral root formation. PMID:27296247

  9. A Lateralization of Function Approach to Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Reexamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilea, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    The current study assessed the lateralization of function hypothesis (Rilea, S. L., Roskos-Ewoldsen, B., & Boles, D. (2004). "Sex differences in spatial ability: A lateralization of function approach." "Brain and Cognition," 56, 332-343) which suggested that it was the interaction of brain organization and the type of spatial task that led to sex…

  10. A Lateralization of Function Approach to Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Reexamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilea, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    The current study assessed the lateralization of function hypothesis (Rilea, S. L., Roskos-Ewoldsen, B., & Boles, D. (2004). "Sex differences in spatial ability: A lateralization of function approach." "Brain and Cognition," 56, 332-343) which suggested that it was the interaction of brain organization and the type of spatial task that led to sex…

  11. Exercise and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, J P Lopes; Silvestre, R; Pinto, A C; de Carvalho, M

    2012-02-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease in which much burden is geared towards end-of-life care. Particularly in the earlier stages of ALS, many people have found both physiological and psychological boosts from various types of physical exercise for disused muscles. Proper exercise is important for preventing atrophy of muscles from disuse-a key for remaining mobile for as long as possible-and as long as it is possible to exercise comfortably and safely, for preserving cardiovascular fitness. However, the typical neuromuscular patient features a great physical inactivity and disuse weakness, and for that reason many controversial authors have contested exercise in these patients during years, especially in ALS which is rapidly progressive. There is an urgent need for dissecting in detail the real risks or benefits of exercise in controlled clinical trials to demystify this ancient paradigm. Yet, recent research studies document significant benefits in terms of survival and quality of life in ALS, poor cooperation, small sample size, uncontrolled and short-duration trials, remain the main handicaps. Sedentary barriers such as early fatigue and inherent muscle misuse should be overcome, for instance with body-weight supporting systems or non-invasive ventilation, and exercise should be faced as a potential non-monotonous way for contributing to better health-related quality of life.

  12. Pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sarah; Orrell, Richard W

    2016-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or motor neuron disease is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The primary involvement is of motor neurons in the brain, spinal cord and peripherally. There is secondary weakness of muscles and primary involvement of other brain regions, especially involving cognition. Peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews. PubMed.gov The pathogenesis of ALS remains largely unknown. There are a wide range of potential mechanisms related to neurodegeneration. An increasing number of genetic factors are recognized. There remains controversy, or lack of knowledge, in explaining how cellular events manifest as the complex human disease. There is controversy as to how well cellular and animal models of disease relate to the human disease. Large-scale international collaborative genetic epidemiological studies are replacing local studies. Therapies related to pathogenesis remain elusive, with the greatest advances to date relating to provision of care (including multidisciplinary management) and supportive care (nutrition and respiratory support). The identification of C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeats as the most frequent genetic background to ALS, and the association with frontotemporal dementia, gives the potential of a genetic background against which to study other risk factors, triggers and pathogenic mechanisms, and to develop potential therapies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [Epidemiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Soriani, M-H; Desnuelle, C

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. Loss of pyramidal and anterior horn motor neurons leads to progressive limb weakness, disability, dysarthria, dysphagia and respiratory insufficiency with a progressive fatal course. The incidence of ALS ranges between 1.5 to 2.5 for 100,000 per year. Although there are familial cases of ALS, about 90% are sporadic and of unknown etiology. Several exogenous risk factors have been documented. However, no convincing evidence has demonstrated in a reproducible manner an association between an environmental or lifestyle risk factor and ALS. Disease duration varies considerably, ranging from a few months to 10-15 years with a mean survival of about 36 months. Prognostic factors such as age, site of disease onset, nutritional, functional and respiratory status at the diagnosis or delay between beginning of the disease and diagnosis have been reported but they appear to be insufficient to explain prognostic variability. These last 15 years, development of supportive care for ALS patients and management in ALS centers may have contributed to improve survival. Finally, ALS centres, and particularly French ALS centres, have developed databases to improve our knowledge of ALS, phenotypic characterization, more accurate phenotype-genotype correlations and thus contribute to new therapeutics developments.

  14. Lateral violence in the perioperative setting.

    PubMed

    Bigony, Lorraine; Lipke, Tammy G; Lundberg, Ashley; McGraw, Carrie A; Pagac, Gretchen L; Rogers, Anne

    2009-04-01

    Lateral violence is disruptive, bullying, intimidating, or unsettling behavior that occurs between nurses in the workplace. The perioperative setting fosters lateral violence because of the inherent stress of performing surgery; high patient acuity; a shortage of experienced personnel; work demands; and the restriction and isolation of the OR, which allows negative behaviors to be concealed more easily. Lateral violence affects nurses' health and well-being and their ability to care for patients. Interventions to reduce lateral violence include empowerment of staff members and zero tolerance for lateral violence.

  15. Embryonic exposure to predator odour modulates visual lateralization in cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Hébert, Marie

    2013-02-07

    Predation pressure acts on the behaviour and morphology of prey species. In fish, the degree of lateralization varies between high- and low-predation populations. While lateralization appears to be widespread in invertebrates, we do not know whether heredity and early experience interact during development as in vertebrates. Here we show, for the first time, that an exposure to predator odour prior to hatching modulates visual lateralization in newly hatched cuttlefish. Only cuttlefish that have been exposed to predator odour display a left-turning bias when tested with blank seawater in a T-shaped apparatus. Exposure to predator odour all the incubation long could appear as an acute predictor of a high-predation surrounding environment. In addition, cuttlefish of all groups display a left-turning preference when tested with predator odour in the apparatus. This suggests the ability of cuttlefish to innately recognize predator odour. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that lateralization is vulnerable to ecological challenges encountered during embryonic life, and that environmental stimulation of the embryo through the olfactory system could influence the development of subsequent visual lateralization.

  16. Embryonic exposure to predator odour modulates visual lateralization in cuttlefish

    PubMed Central

    Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Hébert, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Predation pressure acts on the behaviour and morphology of prey species. In fish, the degree of lateralization varies between high- and low-predation populations. While lateralization appears to be widespread in invertebrates, we do not know whether heredity and early experience interact during development as in vertebrates. Here we show, for the first time, that an exposure to predator odour prior to hatching modulates visual lateralization in newly hatched cuttlefish. Only cuttlefish that have been exposed to predator odour display a left-turning bias when tested with blank seawater in a T-shaped apparatus. Exposure to predator odour all the incubation long could appear as an acute predictor of a high-predation surrounding environment. In addition, cuttlefish of all groups display a left-turning preference when tested with predator odour in the apparatus. This suggests the ability of cuttlefish to innately recognize predator odour. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that lateralization is vulnerable to ecological challenges encountered during embryonic life, and that environmental stimulation of the embryo through the olfactory system could influence the development of subsequent visual lateralization. PMID:23235708

  17. Effects of lateral osteotomy on surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T F M; Pereira-Filho, V A; Gabrielli, M A C; Gonçales, E S; Santos-Pinto, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential effects of two different osteotomy designs of the maxillary lateral wall on dental and skeletal changes after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). Thirty adult patients were divided into two groups according to the lateral osteotomy design: group 1 (n=16) underwent lateral osteotomy performed in a horizontal straight fashion, and group 2 (n=14) underwent lateral osteotomy performed in parallel to the occlusal plane with a step at the zygomatic buttress. Cone beam computed tomography scans were obtained preoperatively (T1), immediately after expansion (T2), and 6 months after expansion (T3). Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed no significant interaction effect between groups and time points. Therefore, maxillary expansion was effective in both groups. Statistically significant increases in all dental and skeletal measurements were observed immediately after expansion (P<0.001). Relapse of the nasal floor width, tipping of the supporting teeth, and an increase in root distance in molars occurred at T3 (P<0.05). In summary, the maxillary lateral osteotomy design did not influence the results of SARME, which occurred mainly through the inclination of maxillary segments.

  18. Persistence and fluctuation of lateral dimorphism in fishes.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Mifuyu; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Hori, Michio

    2004-05-01

    Two morphological types ("righty" and "lefty") have been discovered in several fish species and are referred to as a typical example of antisymmetry. It has been suggested, first, that this dimorphism (called laterality) is inheritable; second, that the frequencies of laterality in each species fluctuate around 0.5; and third, that predators mainly exploit prey of the opposite laterality; that is, lefty and righty predators prey on righties and lefties, respectively. The latter is defined as "cross predation"; the antonym "parallel predation" means predation within the same laterality. We hypothesized that cross predation drives alternation of the survival and reproductive advantages between two morphological types, leading to frequency-dependent selection that maintains the dimorphism. To investigate this, we constructed mathematical models of population dynamics of one prey/one predator systems and three-trophic-level systems with omnivory. Mathematical analysis and computer simulations explained the behavior of the laterality frequency in nature well, insofar as cross predation dominated over parallel predation. Furthermore, the simulations showed that when only one of the morphological types exists in a species, the other type can invade. This suggests that dimorphism is maintained in all interacting species.

  19. Examining lateral violence in the nursing workforce.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Karen M; Martin, Mary M; Nemeth, Lynne S; Michel, Yvonne; Welton, John M

    2007-11-01

    The decision to examine the phenomenon of lateral violence within the nursing workforce of a Southeastern tertiary care medical center evolved from the strong response of attendees to a nursing presentation on lateral violence. This paper describes the development and testing of the Lateral Violence in Nursing Survey. This questionnaire, designed to measure perceived incidence and severity of lateral violence, was administered online to 663 nursing staff participants. Forty-six percent of the study participants reported lateral violence as a "very serious" or "somewhat serious" problem, and 65% reported frequently observing lateral violence behaviors among coworkers. Education and effective leadership were found to mediate oppressive and negative behaviors, whereas ineffective leadership was found to exacerbate lateral violence.

  20. Lateral excitonic switching in vertically stacked quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Jarzynka, Jarosław R.; McDonald, Peter G.; Galbraith, Ian; Shumway, John

    2016-06-14

    We show that the application of a vertical electric field to the Coulomb interacting system in stacked quantum dots leads to a 90° in-plane switching of charge probability distribution in contrast to a single dot, where no such switching exists. Results are obtained using path integral quantum Monte Carlo with realistic dot geometry, alloy composition, and piezo-electric potential profiles. The origin of the switching lies in the strain interactions between the stacked dots hence the need for more than one layer of dots. The lateral polarization and electric field dependence of the radiative lifetimes of the excitonic switch are also discussed.

  1. Future talk in later life.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Isabella; Gomes, Sandra

    2014-04-01

    This article focuses on the relevance that the dimension of the future has for promoting healthy and active aging. Older people generally have difficulties in talking about the future and when they do they generally express very negative perspectives on it. The data analyzed in this paper are part of an on-going interdisciplinary research project: "Aging, poverty and social exclusion: an interdisciplinary study on innovative support services" (https://apseclunl.wordpress.com/). The project aims at documenting good practices in social intervention with older people who are at risk of exclusion. This study describes and critically discusses an activity carried out in Portugal among older women in a poor area in the suburb of Lisbon entitled "self-awareness workshop on the future". Through a detailed discourse analysis within an ethnomethodological framework the study shows age membership categorizations in use and categorization processes, examining the workshop interaction. In particular, the article describes how the psychologist works at deconstructing and problematizing the negative connotations related to age membership categories. Taking into consideration the interactionally constructed nature of aging and the material consequences that different attitudes towards aging can imply is very important in particular in relation to the provision of services to older people.

  2. Early growth and development of later life metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Foo, Joo-Pin; Mantzoros, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Growth is effected via a complex interaction of genetic, nutritional, environmental and growth factors. Hormonal factors such as the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system, the human placental lactogen, and insulin play an integral role in early growth. Genetic factors affecting the GH-IGF system and insulin secretion and actions, and epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation have been further implicated as contributory factors. These hormonal systems, on a background of genetic susceptibility, together with other factors including maternal nutrition, placental and environmental factors, regulate not only early growth but also development. These interactions may impact on later health consequences in adult life. Accumulating data in the last few decades on developmental programming and later life metabolic disorders has provided a novel perspective on the possible pathogenesis of metabolic dysregulation. Despite postulations put forward to elucidate the mechanism underlying the association between early growth and later life metabolic disorders, it remains unclear what the dominant factor(s) would be, how any underlying mechanisms interact, or whether these mechanisms are truly causal.

  3. Lateral Control Jets for Finned Bodies: A Numerical Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Mary Jane; Weinacht, Paul; Brandeis, Julius

    1999-11-01

    The typical jet interaction flow field is complicated due to the jet's interruption of the oncoming external flow. The qualitative features of the jet interaction flow field include regions of shock/boundary layer interaction and flow separation that have an effect on the large regions of the flow field around the body. A detailed numerical study of the interaction between a lateral jet and the external flow has been performed for a variety of missile body geometries at varying Mach numbers. The missile geometries include non-finned axisymmetric bodies and finned bodies with either strakes or aft-mounted tail fins. To obtain the numerical results, both Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and Euler techniques have been applied. The computational results were compared with results from a previously published wind tunnel study that consisted primarily of global force and moment measurements. Good agreement between numerical prediction and experimental results is found.

  4. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans.

    PubMed

    Chapelain, Amandine; Pimbert, Pauline; Aube, Lydiane; Perrocheau, Océane; Debunne, Gilles; Bellido, Alain; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes)? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a) there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b) there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures.

  5. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chapelain, Amandine; Pimbert, Pauline; Aube, Lydiane; Perrocheau, Océane; Debunne, Gilles; Bellido, Alain; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes)? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a) there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b) there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures. PMID:26270648

  6. An Investigation of Lateral Modes in FBAR Resonators.

    PubMed

    Jamneala, Tiberiu; Bradley, Paul; Shirakawa, Alexandre; Thalhammer, Robert; Ruby, Richard

    2016-02-24

    Using first principles and the constitutive equations for a piezoelectric, we solve the 2D acoustic wave inside a single, infinite, piezoelectric membrane in order to study the dispersion of Thin Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) lateral modes, with and without infinitely-thin electrodes. The acoustic eigenfunction is a dual wave, composed of longitudinal and shear components, able to satisfy the 2D acoustic boundary conditions at the vacuum interfaces. For the single piezoelectric slab we obtain analytical expressions of the dispersion for frequencies near the longitudinal resonant frequency (Fs) of the resonator. These expressions are more useful for the understanding of dispersion in FBARs and more elegant than numerical methods like Finite Element Modeling (FEM) and various matrix methods. We additionally find that the interaction between the resonator's electrodes and the acoustic wave modifies the lateral mode dispersion when compared to the case with no electrodes. When correctly accounting for these interactions the dispersion zero is placed clearly at Fs, unlike what is calculated from a 2D model without electrodes where the dispersion zero is placed at Fp. This is important since all experimental evidence of measures FBAR resonators shows that the dispersion zero is at Fs. Furthermore, we introduce an electrical current flow model for the propagating acoustic wave inside the electroded piezoelectric and based on this model we can discuss an electrode-loss mechanism for FBAR lateral modes which depends on dispersion. From our model it results that lateral modes with real kx have higher electrode dissipation if they are closer to the resonant frequency. This is consistent with the typical behavior of measured FBAR filters where the maximum lateral mode damage on the insertion loss takes place for frequencies immediately below Fs.

  7. Summary of lateral-control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, Thomas A

    1947-01-01

    A summary has been made of the available information on lateral control. A discussion is given of the criterions used in lateral-control specifications, of the factors involved in obtaining satisfactory lateral control, and of the methods employed in making lateral-control investigations in flight and in wind tunnels. The available data on conventional flap-type ailerons having various types of aerodynamic balance are presented in a form convenient for use in design. The characteristics of spoiler devices and booster mechanisms are discussed. The effects of Mach number, boundary layer, and distortion of the wing or of the lateral-control system are considered insofar as the available information permits. An example is included to illustrate the use of the design data. The limitations of the available information and some of the lateral-control problems that remain to be solved are indicated.

  8. Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spread Displacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    DISPLACEMENT Abstract Lateral ground displacements generated by liquefaction-induced lateral spread are a severe threat to the Navy’s shore facilities. During...past earthquakes, lateral spread displace - ments have pulled apart or sheared shallow and deep foundations of buildings, several pipelines and other...structures and utilities that transect the ground displacement zone. buckle bridges or other structures constructed across the toe, and toppled

  9. Laterality of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Daigo; Ikeuchi, Kazuma; Kojima, Toshihisa; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Amano, Takafumi; Tsuboi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yukiharu

    2017-05-01

    There are few reports of the laterality in radiological knee osteoarthritis (ROA). This study aimed to evaluate laterality in terms of the minimum joint space width (mJSW) and osteophyte areas (OFs) in a cross-sectorial general population screen and elucidate the association between laterality and risk of osteoarthritis. We enrolled 330 participants (mean age 64.6 years) and examined the presence of ROA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≧ 2) laterality in terms of the mJSW and OF on the medial tibia using auto-measuring software. Moreover, we examined the association between laterality and leg dominance. The right and left medial mJSWs were 4.02 ± 0.98 mm and 4.05 ± 1.01 mm, respectively, showing no laterality; the laterals were also similar. The participants who had osteophytes ≥1 mm(2) in the right, left, and bilateral knees were 15, 37, and 57 respectively, with osteophytes being significantly more common in the left knee. The OF was significantly larger in the left knee. Conversely, the medial and lateral mJSWs and OF did not differ according to leg dominance. The prevalence of ROA was higher and the OF was more pronounced in the left knee. However, the mJSW showed no laterality. Additionally, the mJSW and OF showed no differences according to leg dominance.

  10. Acoustic reflex patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Canale, Andrea; Albera, Roberto; Lacilla, Michelangelo; Canosa, Antonio; Albera, Andrea; Sacco, Francesca; Chiò, Adriano; Calvo, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate acoustic reflex testing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Amplitude, latency, and rise time of stapedial reflex were recorded for 500 and 1000 Hz contralateral stimulus. Statistical analysis was performed by the Wilcoxon test and the level of significance was set at 5 %. Fifty-one amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and ten sex- and age-matched control subjects were studied. Patients were further divided in two groups: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-bulbar (38 cases, with bulbar signs at evaluation) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal (13 cases, without bulbar signs at evaluation). Stapedial reflex was present in all patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean amplitude, latency, and rise time between the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients as compared with the controls. Amplitude was lower in both the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-bulbar and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal patients than in the controls (p < 0.05) and rise time was longer in both patient groups compared with the controls (p < 0.05). These results confirm the presence of abnormal acoustic reflex patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases with bulbar signs and, moreover, suggesting a possible subclinical involvement of the stapedial motor neuron even in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal patients. Amplitude and rise time seem to be good sensitive parameters for investigating subclinical bulbar involvement.

  11. Epidemiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kurtzke, J F

    1982-01-01

    Motor neuron disease (MND) is used in this paper as the generic label, encompassing the clinical variants of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progressive myelopathic muscular atrophy (PMMA), and progressive bulbar palsy (PBP). ALS is limited to instances of anterior horn cell plus pyramidal tract involvement. When only anterior horn cell lesions are inferred, either PMMA or PBP is used, depending on the levels of involvement; when both cord and brain stem are affected. PBP is the designation. Mortality data on MND have been available for a number of countries since 1949. The coding used under international rules has varied considerably over this interval. Before 1969, hereditary muscular atrophies were included. Since 1979, no subdivision by type of MND is possible. International death rates for MND have all been rather close to 1 per 100,000 population per year, though perhaps nearer to 1.4 on the average in recent years. There has been an increasing proportion of MND deaths coded to ALS between 1949 and 1977. There is no notable geographic variation among countries, nor within countries such as the U.S. and Denmark. A slight upward trend in death rates over time in the U.S. is matched by a slight decrease in Denmark. Death rates from all sources indicate a male preponderance for ALS or MND as a whole, at about 1.5 to 1, male to female. There is also a consistent predilection by age, with few deaths under age 50 or so and a clear maximum in age-specific death rates at about age 70. This holds for both sexes. In the U.S., there is also a white-nonwhite difference, with a ratio of about 1.6:1 but with age and sex differences similar to whites. Average annual incidence rates from among white occidental populations range mostly between 0.6 and 1.8 per 100,000 population for MND and about 0.8 and 1.5 per 100,000 for ALS. Again a male predilection is seen. There is a clear maximum in age-specific incidence rates at about age 65 in all surveys except that of

  12. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  13. Modulation of membrane protein lateral mobility by polyphosphates and polyamines.

    PubMed

    Schindler, M; Koppel, D E; Sheetz, M P

    1980-03-01

    The lateral mobility of fluorescein-labeled membrane glycoproteins was measured in whole unlysed erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts by the technique of "fluorescence redistribution after fusion." Measurements were made on polyethylene glycol-fused cell pairs in which only one member of the couplet was initially fluorescently labeled. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from the rate of fluorescence redistribution determined from successive scans with a focused laser beam across individual fused pairs. This technique allows for the analysis of diffusion within cell membranes without the possible damaging photochemical events caused by photobleaching. It was found that lateral mobility of erythrocyte proteins can be increased by the addition of polyphosphates (i.e., ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) and decreased by the addition of organic polyamines (i.e., neomycin and spermine). This control is exerted by these molecules only when they contact the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and is not dependent upon high-energy phosphates. Microviscosity experiments employing diphenylhexatriene demonstrated no changes in membrane lipid state as a function of these reagents. Our results, in conjunction with data on the physical interactions of cytoskeletal proteins, suggest that the diffusion effector molecules alter the lateral mobility of erythrocyte membrane proteins through modifications of interactions in the shell, which is composed of spectrin, actin, and component 4.1.

  14. Lateral manipulation of atomic vacancies in ultrathin insulating films.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Chen, Hsin-Yi Tiffany; Schouteden, Koen; Lauwaet, Koen; Janssens, Ewald; Van Haesendonck, Chris; Pacchioni, Gianfranco; Lievens, Peter

    2015-05-26

    During the last 20 years, using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy, scientists have successfully achieved vertical and lateral repositioning of individual atoms on and in different types of surfaces. Such atom manipulation allows the bottom-up assembly of novel nanostructures that can otherwise not be fabricated. It is therefore surprising that controlled repositioning of virtual atoms, i.e., atomic vacancies, across atomic lattices has not yet been achieved experimentally. Here we use STM at liquid helium temperature (4.5 K) to create individual Cl vacancies and subsequently to laterally manipulate them across the surface of ultrathin sodium chloride films. This allows monitoring the interactions between two neighboring vacancies with different separations. Our findings are corroborated by density functional theory calculations and STM image simulations. The lateral manipulation of atomic vacancies opens up a new playground for the investigation of fundamental physical properties of vacancy nanostructures of any size and shape and their coupling with the supporting substrate, and of the interaction of various deposits with charged vacancies.

  15. Modulation of Membrane Protein Lateral Mobility by Polyphosphates and Polyamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Melvin; Koppel, Dennis E.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    1980-03-01

    The lateral mobility of fluorescein-labeled membrane glycoproteins was measured in whole unlysed erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts by the technique of ``fluorescence redistribution after fusion.'' Measurements were made on polyethylene glycol-fused cell pairs in which only one member of the couplet was initially fluorescently labeled. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from the rate of fluorescence redistribution determined from successive scans with a focused laser beam across individual fused pairs. This technique allows for the analysis of diffusion within cell membranes without the possible damaging photochemical events caused by photobleaching. It was found that lateral mobility of erythrocyte proteins can be increased by the addition of polyphosphates (i.e., ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) and decreased by the addition of organic polyamines (i.e., neomycin and spermine). This control is exerted by these molecules only when they contact the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and is not dependent upon high-energy phosphates. Microviscosity experiments employing diphenylhexatriene demonstrated no changes in membrane lipid state as a function of these reagents. Our results, in conjunction with data on the physical interactions of cytoskeletal proteins, suggest that the diffusion effector molecules alter the lateral mobility of erythrocyte membrane proteins through modifications of interactions in the shell, which is composed of spectrin, actin, and component 4.1.

  16. Conservative treatment of acute lateral ankle sprains.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jason M; Maleski, Richard M

    2002-04-01

    Lateral ankle sprains are among the most common sports injuries. Although ankle sprains are treated conservatively at the present time, for years the treatment was based on acute repair of the ruptured ligaments. Several differing opinions currently exist as to the treatment of lateral ankle sprains. A review of the literature and explanation of the benefits and risks of each treatment protocol is undertaken.

  17. Gender and Marital Happiness in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Gayle; Taniguchi, Hiromi

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the effect of gender ideology on marital happiness in later life. Studies of marital satisfaction in later life have tended to neglect such attitudes, although they have received increasing attention in the literature on younger marriages. The authors use data from married individuals who range in age from 51 to…

  18. Later Life: A Time to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Helen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an emerging framework for investigating and interpreting the experiences of learning in later life is presented. This framework is contextualized by a study in which the lived experiences of later-life computer learners were investigated. Significant ontological and existential interpretations from the study provided insights into…

  19. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  20. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  1. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  2. Lateral Asymmetries in Infant Melody Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balaban, Marie T.; Anderson, Linda M.; Wisniewski, Amy B.

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments investigated lateral asymmetries in eight-month-olds' perception of contour-altered and contour-preserved melody changes. Found that infants who heard a contour-altered change showed a left-ear advantage, whereas infants who heard a contour-preserved change showed a right-ear advantage. The pattern of lateralization for melody…

  3. Laterality and Reading Proficiency in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some current concepts of the laterality/reading relationship. An overview of Samuel T. Orton's hypotheses of cerebral dominance and "strephosymbolia" is provided, and both visual half-field and dichotic listening studies as direct, empirical tests of laterality are discussed. (MKM)

  4. Laterality and Dyslexia: A Critical View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscock, Merrill; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1982-01-01

    Research is reviewed concerning the current state of knowledge about normal hemispheric specialization; distinctions among such terms as dominance, laterality, and lateralization; and models of abnormal cerebral organization in dyslexic children. The question of dyslexic subtypes is undertaken along such dimensions as handedness, eyedness, and…

  5. Factors Affecting Lateral Stability and Controllability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Toll, Thomas A

    1948-01-01

    The effects on dynamic lateral stability and controllability of some of the important aerodynamic and mass characteristics are discussed and methods are presented for estimating the various stability parameters to be used in the calculation of the dynamic lateral stability of airplanes with swept and low-aspect-ratio wings.

  6. Toward Optimizing Cognitive Competence In Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    1976-01-01

    Reviews evidence showing the view of pervasive decrement in later life is being challenged. Evidence is accumulated that the intellectual performance of the older adult responds favorably to a variety of ecological, training, and motivational conditions, and that intellectual development in later life is characterized by plasticity not universal…

  7. Aeromonas hydrophila Lateral Flagellar Gene Transcriptional Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelms, Markus; Gonzalez, Victor; Merino, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 lateral flagella are not assembled when bacteria grow in liquid media; however, lateral flagellar genes are transcribed. Our results indicate that A. hydrophila lateral flagellar genes are transcribed at three levels (class I to III genes) and share some similarities with, but have many important differences from, genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A. hydrophila lateral flagellum class I gene transcription is σ70 dependent, which is consistent with the fact that lateral flagellum is constitutively transcribed, in contrast to the characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus. The fact that multiple genes are included in class I highlights that lateral flagellar genes are less hierarchically transcribed than polar flagellum genes. The A. hydrophila lafK-fliEJL gene cluster (where the subscript L distinguishes genes for lateral flagella from those for polar flagella) is exclusively from class I and is in V. parahaemolyticus class I and II. Furthermore, the A. hydrophila flgAMNL cluster is not transcribed from the σ54/LafK-dependent promoter and does not contain class II genes. Here, we propose a gene transcriptional hierarchy for the A. hydrophila lateral flagella. PMID:23335410

  8. Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duden, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

  9. [Lateral ligament injuries of the ankle joint].

    PubMed

    Walther, M; Kriegelstein, S; Altenberger, S; Volkering, C; Röser, A; Wölfel, R

    2013-09-01

    Lateral ligament injuries are the most common sports injury and have a high incidence even in non-sportive activities. Although lateral ligament injuries are very common there is still a controversial debate on the best management. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and X-ray images help to rule out fractures. Further imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to diagnose associated injuries. According to the recommendations of the various scientific societies the primary therapy of lateral ligament injuries is conservative. Chronic ankle instability develops in 10-20 % of patients and the instability can be a result of sensomotoric deficits or insufficient healing of the lateral ligament complex. If the patient does not respond to an intensive rehabilitation program an operative reconstruction of the lateral ligaments has to be considered. Most of the procedures currently performed are anatomical reconstructions due to better long-term results compared to tenodesis procedures.

  10. Ultrasonographic Differentiation of Lateral Elbow Pain

    PubMed Central

    Obuchowicz, R.; Bonczar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral elbow pain is often attributed to degenerative or posttraumatic impairment of the common extensor tendon. Ultrasonography assesses the soft tissue structures of the lateral elbow, allowing the differentiation between various underlying processes, including angiofibroblastic degeneration, hyaline degeneration, and inflammation, and exclusion of other possible causes of pain such as posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial nerve compression. Furthermore, the real-time imaging nature of ultrasonography enables the detection of impingement of the lateral synovial fold, degenerative changes in the elbow recess, and elbow posterolateral instability during dynamic maneuvers. Ultrasonography is widely accessible and well tolerated by patients, making it a perfect method for establishing an initial diagnosis and monitoring the healing process. This review describes the possible causes of lateral elbow pain and their ultrasonographic differentiation. PMID:27689169

  11. Associations between schizotypy and cerebral laterality.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeme R P; Waldie, Karen E

    2017-03-01

    Atypical lateralization for language has been found in schizophrenia, suggesting that language and thought disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum may be due to left hemispheric dysfunction. However, research with those with non-clinical schizotypy has been inconsistent, with some studies finding reduced or reversed language laterality (particularly with positive schizotypal traits), and others finding typical left hemispheric specialization. The aim of the current study was to use both a behavioural (dual reading-finger tapping) task and an functional magnetic resonance imaging lexical decision task to investigate language laterality in a university sample of high- and low-schizotypal adults. Findings revealed no evidence for atypical lateralization in our sample for both overall schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and positive schizotypy (measured by the Unusual Experiences subscale) groups. Our findings provide further evidence that non-clinical schizotypy is not associated with atypical language laterality.

  12. Rhinoplasty: the lateral crura-alar ring.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Rollin K; Palhazi, Peter; Gerbault, Olivier; Kosins, Aaron M

    2014-05-01

    Rhinoplasty surgeons routinely excise or incise the lateral crura despite nostril rim retraction, bossa, and collapse. Given recent emphasis on preserving the lateral crura, a review of the lateral crura's anatomy is warranted. The authors quantify specific anatomical aspects of the lateral crura in cadavers and clinical patients. This was a 2-part investigation, consisting of a prospective clinical measurement study of 40 consecutive rhinoplasty patients (all women) and 20 fresh cadaver dissections (13 males, 1 female). In the clinical phase, the alar cartilages were photographed intraoperatively and alar position (ie, orientation), axis, and width were measured. Cadaver dissections concentrated on parts of the lateral crura (alar cartilages and alar ring) that were inaccessible clinically. Average clinical patient age was 28 years (range, 14-51 years). Average cadaver age was 74 (range, 57-88 years). Clinically, the distance of the lateral crura from the mid-nostril point averaged 5.9 mm, and the cephalic orientation averaged 43.6 degrees. The most frequent configuration of the axis was smooth-straight in the horizontal axis and a cephalic border higher than the caudal border in the vertical axis. Maximal lateral crura width averaged 10.1 mm. In the cadavers, average lateral crural dimensions were 23.4 mm long, 6.4 mm wide at the domal notch, 11.1 mm wide at the so-designated turning point (TP), and 0.5 mm thickness. The accessory cartilage chain was present in all dissections. The lateral crura-alar ring was present in all dissections as a circular ring continuing around toward the anterior nasal spine but not abutting the pyriform. The lateral crura (1) begins at the domal notch and ends at the accessory cartilages, (2) exhibits a distinct TP from the caudal border, (3) has distinct horizontal and vertical vectors, and (4) should have a caudal border higher than the cephalic border. Alar malposition may be associated with position, orientation, or configuration.

  13. Lateral acetabular labral length is inversely related to acetabular coverage as measured by lateral center edge angle of Wiberg

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Brian D.; Wolf, Bryan; Lambert, Jeffrey R.; Clayton, Carolyn W.; Glueck, Deborah H.; Jesse, Mary Kristen; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip often have compensatory labral hypertrophy, which presumably lends stability to an unstable joint. Conversely, patients with acetabular overcoverage may have small or ossified labra. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction of labral length with the degree of acetabular hip coverage. A retrospective cohort of patients with hip pain presenting to a hip preservation center, who had undergone hip magnetic resonance imaging and AP pelvis radiographs were studied. General linear multivariate models were used to assess the association between three measures of labral length (lateral, anterior and anterior inferior locations along the acetabular rim) and the X-ray derived lateral center edge angle (LCEA) of Wiberg. Of the three acetabular labral locations measured, only the lateral labrum was associated with LCEA Wiberg (P = 0.0008). Lateral labral length increases as LCEA of Wiberg decreases. The anterior and anterior inferior labral locations did not show a predictable increase in labral length as LCEA Wiberg decreased. PMID:27583157

  14. Lateral-drag propulsion forces induced by anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Nefedov, Igor S; Rubi, J Miguel

    2017-07-21

    We predict the existence of lateral drag forces near the flat surface of an absorbing slab made of an anisotropic material. The forces originate from the fluctuations of the electromagnetic field, when the anisotropy axis of the material forms a certain angle with the surface. In this situation, the spatial spectra of the fluctuating electromagnetic fields becomes asymmetric, different for positive and negative transverse wave vectors components. Differently from the case of van der Waals interactions in which the forward-backward symmetry is broken due to the particle movement, in our case the lateral motion results merely from the anisotropy of the slab. This new effect, of particular significance in hyperbolic materials, could be used for the manipulation of nanoparticles.

  15. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  16. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay.

    PubMed

    Lin, Robert; Skandarajah, Arunan; Gerver, Rachel E; Neira, Hector D; Fletcher, Daniel A; Herr, Amy E

    2015-03-21

    Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a "lateral e-flow assay" and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to selectively immobilize unmodified capture antigen along the microchannel in a barcode-like pattern. The channel-filling polyacrylamide hydrogel incorporates a photoactive moiety (benzophenone) to immobilize capture antigen to the hydrogel without a priori antigen modification. We report a heterogeneous sandwich assay using low-power electrophoresis to drive biospecimen through the capture antigen barcode. Fluorescence barcode readout is collected via a low-resource appropriate imaging system (CellScope). We characterize lateral e-flow assay performance and demonstrate a serum assay for antibodies to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In a pilot study, the lateral e-flow assay positively identifies HCV+ human sera in 60 min. The lateral e-flow assay provides a flexible format for conducting multiplexed immunoassays relevant to confirmatory diagnosis in near-patient settings.

  17. Olfactory coding in the honeybee lateral horn.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Edith; Carcaud, Julie; Combe, Maud; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-03-03

    Olfactory systems dynamically encode odor information in the nervous system. Insects constitute a well-established model for the study of the neural processes underlying olfactory perception. In insects, odors are detected by sensory neurons located in the antennae, whose axons project to a primary processing center, the antennal lobe. There, the olfactory message is reshaped and further conveyed to higher-order centers, the mushroom bodies and the lateral horn. Previous work has intensively analyzed the principles of olfactory processing in the antennal lobe and in the mushroom bodies. However, how the lateral horn participates in olfactory coding remains comparatively more enigmatic. We studied odor representation at the input to the lateral horn of the honeybee, a social insect that relies on both floral odors for foraging and pheromones for social communication. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show consistent neural activity in the honeybee lateral horn upon stimulation with both floral volatiles and social pheromones. Recordings reveal odor-specific maps in this brain region as stimulations with the same odorant elicit more similar spatial activity patterns than stimulations with different odorants. Odor-similarity relationships are mostly conserved between antennal lobe and lateral horn, so that odor maps recorded in the lateral horn allow predicting bees' behavioral responses to floral odorants. In addition, a clear segregation of odorants based on pheromone type is found in both structures. The lateral horn thus contains an odor-specific map with distinct representations for the different bee pheromones, a prerequisite for eliciting specific behaviors.

  18. Function of lateral line canal morphology.

    PubMed

    Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-01-01

    Fish perceive water motions and pressure gradients with their lateral line. Lateral line information is used for prey detection, spatial orientation, predator avoidance, schooling behavior, intraspecific communication and station holding. The lateral line of most fishes consists of superficial neuromasts (SNs) and canal neuromasts (CNs). The distribution of SNs and CNs shows a high degree of variation among fishes. Researchers have speculated for decades about the functional significance of this diversity, often without any conclusive answers. Klein et al. (2013) examined how tubules, pore number and pore patterns affect the filter properties of lateral line canals in a marine teleost, the black prickleback (Xiphister atropurpureus). A preliminary mathematical model was formulated and biomimetic sensors were built. For the present study the mathematical model was extended to understand the major underlying principle of how canal dimensions influence the filter properties of the lateral line. Both the extended mathematical model and the sensor experiments show that the number and distribution of pores determine the spatial filter properties of the lateral line. In an environment with little hydrodynamic noise, simple and complex lateral line canals have comparable response properties. However, if exposed to highly turbulent conditions, canals with numerous widely spaced pores increase the signal to noise ratio significantly. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia: an anatomical insight.

    PubMed

    Dias Filho, L C; Valença, M M; Guimarães Filho, F A V; Medeiros, R C; Silva, R A M; Morais, M G V; Valente, F P; França, S M L

    2003-07-01

    A detailed anatomic study was carried out on the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to better understand the etiology and treatment of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. As it passed from the pelvis into the thigh, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve ran through an "aponeuroticofascial tunnel," beginning at the iliopubic tract and ending at the inguinal ligament; as it passed through the tunnel, an enlargement in its side-to-side diameter was observed, suggesting that the fascial structures proximal to the inguinal ligament may be implicated in the genesis of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. The finding of pseudoneuromas at this location, distant from the inguinal ligament, supports this hypothesis. The anterior superior iliac spine is located approximately 0.7 cm from the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and serves as the bony landmark for nerve localization. Within the first 3 cm of leaving the pelvis, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was observed deep to the fascia lata; therefore, surgical dissection within the subcutaneous fascia may be conducted with relative impunity near the anterior superior iliac spine just inferior to the inguinal ligament. In 36% of cases there was no posterior branch of the nerve, which is correlated to lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia symptoms often being limited to the anterior branch region. An accessory nerve was found in 30% of cases. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Whole-body response to pure lateral impact.

    PubMed

    Lessley, David; Shaw, Greg; Parent, Daniel; Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Kindig, Matthew; Riley, Patrick; Purtsezov, Sergey; Sochor, Mark; Gochenour, Thomas; Bolton, James; Subit, Damien; Crandall, Jeff; Takayama, Shinichi; Ono, Koshiro; Kamiji, Koichi; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 ± 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband. Following the impact the subject was captured in an energy-absorbing net that provided a controlled non-injurious deceleration. The wall maintained nearly constant velocity throughout the impact event. One of the tested subjects sustained 16 rib fractures as well as injury to the struck shoulder while the other two tested subjects sustained no injuries. The collected response data suggest that the shoulder injury may have contributed to the rib fractures in the injured subject. The results suggest that the shoulder presents a substantial load path and may play an important role in transmitting lateral forces to the spine, shielding and protecting the ribcage. This characterization of whole-body, lateral impact response provides quantified subject responses and boundary condition interactions that are currently unavailable for whole-body, lateral impacts at impact speeds less than 6.7 m/s.

  1. Ankle instability and arthroscopic lateral ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Jorge I; Mangone, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the surgical management of chronic lateral ankle ligament insufficiency has focused on 2 main categories: local soft-tissue reconstruction and tendon grafts/transfer procedures. There is an increasing interest in the arthroscopic solutions for chronic instability of the ankle. Recent biomechanical studies suggest the at least one of the arthroscopic techniques can provide equivalent results to current open local soft-tissue reconstruction (such as the modified Brostrom technique). Arthroscopic lateral ankle ligament reconstruction is becoming an increasingly acceptable method for the surgical management of chronic lateral ankle instability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Advantages of having a lateralized brain.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Lesley J; Zucca, Paolo; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    Brain lateralization is common among vertebrates. However, despite its implications for higher-order cognitive functions, almost no empirical evidence has been provided to show that it may confer any advantage to the functioning of the brain. Here, we show in the domestic chick (Gallus gallus domesticus) that cerebral lateralization is associated with an enhanced ability to perform two tasks simultaneously: finding food and being vigilant for predators. This finding suggests that cerebral lateralization enhances brain efficiency in cognitive tasks that demand the simultaneous but different use of both hemispheres. PMID:15801592

  3. Lateral open bite: treatment and stability.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Marise de Castro; Cabrera, Carlos Alberto Gregório; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Janson, Guilherme; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Because of their multifactorial etiologies, dental and skeletal open bites are among the most difficult malocclusions to treat to a successful and stable result. Etiologic factors include vertical maxillary excess, skeletal pattern, abnormalities in dental eruption, and tongue-thrust problems. The purpose of this article was to report the treatment of an adult patient with a lateral open bite and a unilateral posterior crossbite. The treatment involved nonextraction therapy, including intermaxillary elastics, to obtain dentoalveolar extrusion in the region of the lateral open bite. The treatment results were successful and remained stable 2 years later. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Augmentation of lateral tarsorrhaphy in lagophthalmos.

    PubMed

    Nemet, Arie Y

    2014-08-01

    Lagophthalmos, the inability to close the eyelids completely, is a serious condition caused by orbicularis oculi muscle paresis or paralysis. The standard lateral tarsorrhaphy may leave the eye open with corneal exposure. In those cases, we suggest that better approximation of the upper and lower eyelids will be achieved when the lower lid is retracted laterally and the upper lid medially. This yields satisfactory closure of the eyelids. I report herein four patients who were successfully treated with permanent lateral tarsorrhaphy with this approximation of the upper and lower eyelids with effective, satisfactory outcomes.

  5. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Lateral Canthoplasty to Lengthen the Lateral Canthal Angle and Correct the Outer Tail of the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Byung Min

    2016-01-01

    There are many women who want larger and brighter eyes that will give a favorable impression. Surgical methods that make the eye larger and brighter include double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, as well as lateral canthoplasty. Double eyelidplasty produces changes in the vertical dimension of the eyes, whereas epicanthoplasty and lateral canthoplasty create changes in the horizontal dimension of the eyes. Epicanthoplasty, a surgical procedure which enlarges the eye horizontally, is performed at the inner corner of the eye, whereas lateral canthoplasty enlarges the outer edge of the eye. In particular, if the slant of the palpebral fissure is raised and the horizontal dimension of the palpebral fissure is short, adjusting the slant of the palpebral fissure through lateral canthoplasty can achieve an enlargement of eye width and smoother features. Depending on the patient's condition, even better results can be achieved if this procedure is performed in conjunction with other procedures, such as double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, eye roll formation surgery, fat graft, and facial bone contouring surgery. In this paper, the authors will introduce in detail their surgical method for a cosmetic lateral canthoplasty that lengthens the lateral canthal angle and corrects the outer tail of the eyes, in order to ease the unfavorable impression. PMID:27462564

  6. Laterality and Lateralization in Autism Spectrum Disorder, Using a Standardized Neuro-Psychomotor Assessment.

    PubMed

    Paquet, A; Golse, B; Girard, M; Olliac, B; Vaivre-Douret, L

    2017-01-01

    A detailed assessment of laterality in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was realized, including handedness and other measures (muscle tone, manual performance, dominant eye), using a standardized battery for the developmental assessment of neuro-psychomotor functions. The results of the laterality tests relating to cerebral hemisphere organization (spontaneous gestural laterality and tonic laterality) were different in ASD children, and indicate that the cerebral organization could be disrupted. These assessments, added to the observations of usual laterality most often reported in the literature, provide better understanding of the developmental organization from the pathophysiological point of view in children with ASD.

  7. Individualized optimal surgical extent of the lateral neck in papillary thyroid cancer with lateral cervical metastasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Yong; Koo, Bon Seok

    2014-06-01

    Despite an excellent prognosis, cervical lymph node (LN) metastases are common in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The presence of metastasis is associated with an increased risk of locoregional recurrence, which significantly impairs quality of life and may decrease survival. Therefore, it has been an important determinant of the extent of lateral LN dissection in the initial treatment of PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis. However, the optimal extent of therapeutic lateral neck dissection (ND) remains controversial. Optimizing the surgical extent of LN dissection is fundamental for balancing the surgical morbidity and oncological benefits of ND in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. We reviewed the currently available literature regarding the optimal extent of lateral LN dissection in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Even in cases with suspicion of metastatic LN at the single lateral level or isolated metastatic lateral LN, the application of ND including all sublevels from IIa and IIb to Va and Vb may be overtreatment, due to the surgical morbidity. When there is no suspicion of LN metastasis at levels II and V, or when multilevel aggressive neck metastasis is not found, sublevel IIb and Va dissection may not be necessary in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Thus consideration of the individualized optimal surgical extent of lateral ND is important when treating PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... amytrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, regulates endosomal trafficking. Hum Mol Genet. 2014 Jul 1;23(13): ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...

  9. Lateralized courtship in a parasitic wasp.

    PubMed

    Romano, Donato; Donati, Elisa; Canale, Angelo; Messing, Russell H; Benelli, Giovanni; Stefanini, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Lateralization (i.e. left-right asymmetries in the brain and behaviour) of courtship displays has been examined in a growing number vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is limited. In this study, we investigated lateralization of courtship and mating displays in the parasitic wasp Leptomastidea abnormis. Results showed a population-level lateralization of male courtship displays. Male antennal tapping on the female's head was right-biased. However, right-biased male courtship acts were not characterized by higher male antennal tapping frequencies, nor success in mating although antennal tapping frequency was higher in males with mating success with respect to unsuccessful males. Overall, our results add basic knowledge to the behavioural ecology of insect parasitoids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of behavioural lateralization in parasitic Hymenoptera.

  10. The laterality effect: myth or truth?

    PubMed

    Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2008-03-01

    Tzelgov and colleagues [Tzelgov, J., Meyer, J., and Henik, A. (1992). Automatic and intentional processing of numerical information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 18, 166-179.], offered the existence of the laterality effect as a post-hoc explanation for their results. According to this effect, numbers are classified automatically as small/large versus a standard point under autonomous processing of numerical information. However, the genuinity of the laterality effect was never examined, or was confounded with the numerical distance effect. In the current study, I controlled the numerical distance effect and observed that the laterality effect does exist, and affects the processing of automatic numerical information. The current results suggest that the laterality effect should be taken into account when using paradigms that require automatic numerical processing such as Stroop-like or priming tasks.

  11. Quantum Hall ferrimagnetism in lateral quantum dot molecules.

    PubMed

    Abolfath, Ramin M; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2006-11-03

    We demonstrate the existence of ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic phases in a spin phase diagram of coupled lateral quantum dot molecules in the quantum Hall regime. The spin phase diagram is determined from the Hartree-Fock configuration interaction method as a function of electron number N and magnetic field B. The quantum Hall ferrimagnetic phase corresponds to spatially imbalanced spin droplets resulting from strong interdot coupling of identical dots. The quantum Hall ferromagnetic phases correspond to ferromagnetic coupling of spin polarization at filling factors between nu=2 and nu=1.

  12. Lateral epicondylitis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Mohd; Nuhmani, S; Ram, C S; Sachin, Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow) is the most frequent type of myotendinosis and can be responsible for substantial pain and loss of function of the affected limb. Muscular biomechanics characteristics and equipment are important in preventing the conditions. This article present on overview of the current knowledge on lateral Epicondylitis and focuses on Etiology, Diagnosis and treatment strategies, conservative treatment are discussed and recent surgical techniques are outlined. This information should assist health care practitioners who treat patients with this disorder.

  13. The lateralization of symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P; Fleminger, J J

    1981-03-01

    An awareness of symptoms being lateralized was established in almost half of a series of 60 acutely ll schizophrenics and is reported in a further series of 16 patients with this disorder. Case illustrations are given. The symptoms most commonly showing this phenomenon were hypochondriacal delusions and hallucinations, usually of an auditory kind. Possible mechanisms underlying the phenomenon are discussed. Some evidence was found for a difference between the sexes in the direction of lateralization symptoms.

  14. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the

  15. Management of horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor

    PubMed Central

    Katta, Anil Kumar; Peddu, Revathi; Vannala, Venkataramana; Dasari, Vaishnavi

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary lateral incisor with odontome and retained deciduous tooth is not often seen in regular dental practice. Impaction of anterior teeth cause generalized spacing which affects the esthetics of the face. Here we report a case of an 18-year-old patient with horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor, which was bought into occlusion with the help of orthodontic tooth movement within a span of 18 months. PMID:26538954

  16. Transcript profiling of early lateral root initiation.

    PubMed

    Himanen, Kristiina; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Vanneste, Steffen; Vercruysse, Steven; Boucheron, Elodie; Alard, Philippe; Chriqui, Dominique; Van Montagu, Marc; Inzé, Dirk; Beeckman, Tom

    2004-04-06

    At the onset of lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana, the phytohormone auxin activates xylem pole pericycle cells for asymmetric cell division. However, the molecular events leading from auxin to lateral root initiation are poorly understood, in part because the few responsive cells in the process are embedded in the root and are thus difficult to access. A lateral root induction system, in which most xylem pole pericycle cells were synchronously activated by auxin transport inhibition followed by auxin application, was used for microarray transcript profiling. Of 4,600 genes analyzed, 906 significantly differentially regulated genes were identified that could be grouped into six major clusters. Basically, three major patterns were discerned representing induced, repressed, and transiently expressed genes. Analysis of the coregulated genes, which were specific for each time point, provided new insight into the molecular regulation and signal transduction preceding lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis. The reproducible expression profiles during a time course allowed us to define four stages that precede the cell division in the pericycle. These early stages were characterized by G1 cell cycle block, auxin perception, and signal transduction, followed by progression over G1/S transition and G2/M transition. All these processes took place within 6 h after transfer from N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid to 1-naphthalene acetic acid. These results indicate that this lateral root induction system represents a unique synchronized system that allows the systematic study of the developmental program upstream of the cell cycle activation during lateral root initiation.

  17. Listeners' impressions of speakers with lateral lisps.

    PubMed

    Silverman, E M

    1976-11-01

    This paper reports research conducted to determine whether the lateral lisp is a speech defect. The specific purpose of this research was to determine whether the lateral lisp calls adverse attention to the speaker. Two groups of broadcast communication students rates the concept "The Person Speaking" on a 49-scale semantic differential. One group performed the task after listening to a tape recording of a young woman reading contextual material with a simulated lateral lisp. The other group performed the task after listening to a recording of the same woman reading the material in a normal manner. Analyses of the scale values computed for the two conditions indicated that the lateral lisp called adverse attention to the speaker. A systematic replication was undertaken to assess the generality of this finding. The procedures of the original investigation were followed except that business administration students served as judges. The results replicated those of the original investigation. These data indicate that the lateral lisp is probably a speech defect and suggest that the practice of eliminating school speech services for children whose only speech difference is a lateral lisp should be reconsidered.

  18. Displacing lateral meniscus masquerading as patella dislocation.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Elizabeth A; Fontboté, Cristián A; Rohr, Sara R

    2014-10-01

    To alert the treating clinician to an uncommon knee meniscal condition that often masquerades as a more common patella condition. Retrospective chart review of a series of cases was undertaken. A series of 12 knees in 11 patients were referred to an orthopaedic surgeon with a diagnosis of recurrent lateral patella dislocation. Three knees had undergone patella realignment surgery with continuance of symptoms. Eight patients had prior magnetic resonance images read as no meniscal pathology and no acute patella/patella retinacular injury. All patients presented for a consult with a similar history. Under anaesthesia, all knees had a stable patella as judged by physical examination. At the time of surgery, six patients had a frank tear in the lateral meniscus, all of which were readily displaceable. Six knees showed a displaceable lateral meniscus with attenuation but not a visible frank tear. Ten menisci were treated with repair, and two knees underwent partial lateral meniscectomies. Patient follow-up of minimally 18 months revealed no further episodes of "knee-cap dislocation" or symptoms of catching and locking. The clinician treating a patient with a history of a knee locking in flexion should have a high index of suspicion for a lateral meniscus tear or an unstable hypermobile lateral meniscus, despite patient report of perceived patella movement. History of symptoms occurring in knee flexion and attention to patella physical examination should be key factors in this diagnostic conundrum. Retrospective chart review, Level IV.

  19. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots

    PubMed Central

    Magat, Maria; Brown, Culum

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without contralateral interference. Here, we examined the influence of lateralization on problem solving by Australian parrots. The first task, a pebble-seed discrimination test, was designed for small parrot species that feed predominately on small seeds, which do not require any significant manipulation with the foot prior to ingestion. The second task, a string-pull problem, was designed for larger bodied species that regularly use their feet to manipulate food objects. In both cases, strongly lateralized individuals (those showing significant foot and eye biases) outperformed less strongly lateralized individuals, and this relationship was substantially stronger in the more demanding task. These results suggest that cerebral lateralization is a ubiquitous trait among Australian parrots and conveys a significant foraging advantage. Our results provide strong support for the enhanced cognitive function hypothesis. PMID:19726480

  20. Endoscope-assisted thoracolumbar lateral corpectomy.

    PubMed

    Carozzo, Claude; Maitre, Pierre; Genevois, Jean-Pierre; Gabanou, Pierre-Alexandre; Fau, Didier; Viguier, Eric

    2011-08-01

    To report an endoscope-assisted lateral approach to expose the intervertebral foramen and disk and perform lateral corpectomy of thoracolumbar disks in dogs. Cadaver study. Fresh canine cadavers (n=6). A thoracic (T10-T11) and a lumbar (L3-L4) lateral approach were made on 6 fresh canine mixed breed cadavers. Through a limited skin incision, musculature was dissected and retracted using a neurosurgical self-retaining retractor and lateral corpectomy performed. The approach and bone removal, both performed under endoscopic control, were assessed. The foramen and intervertebral disk were clearly observed in all specimens without any iatrogenic injury of the ventral and dorsal nerve branches. Access to the foramen was possible in all specimens; in the thoracic area the head of the rib was always partially excised to observe the intervertebral disk medially. Lateral corpectomy was easily performed in all cadavers and spinal cord observation was good. Extension to foraminotomy or mini hemilaminectomy could easily be performed through the same limited approach. Endoscopic exploration provided a good viewing of the intervertebral disk and/or foramen. An endoscope-assisted thoracolumbar lateral corpectomy could effectively be performed through a limited approach to the thoracolumbar disks and allowed good ventral spinal cord assessment. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Lateral thinking about leptin: a review of leptin action via the lateral hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Leinninger, Gina M

    2011-09-26

    The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) was initially described as a "feeding center" but we are now beginning to understand that the LHA contributes to other aspects of physiology as well. Indeed, the best-characterized neuronal populations of the LHA (which contain melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) or the hypocretins/orexins (OX)) are not strictly orexigenic, but also have roles in regulation of the autonomic and sympathetic nervous systems as well as in modulating motivated behavior. Leptin is an anorectic hormone that regulates energy homeostasis and the mesolimbic DA system (which transduces the wanting of food, drugs of abuse, and sex) in part, via actions at the LHA. At least three populations of LHA neurons are regulated by leptin: those containing MCH, OX or the long form of the leptin receptor, LepRb. The emerging picture of leptin interaction with these LHA populations suggests that the LHA is not merely regulating feeding, but is a crucial integrator of energy balance and motivated behavior.

  2. Field verification of lateral-torsional coupling effects on rotor instabilities in centrifugal compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wachel, J. C.; Szenasi, F. R.

    1980-01-01

    Lateral and torsional vibration data obtained on a centrifugal compressor train which had shaft instabilities and gear failures is examined. The field data verifies that the stability of centrifugal compressors can be adversely affected by coincidence of torsional natural frequencies with lateral instability frequencies. The data also indicates that excitation energy from gear boxes can reduce stability margins if energy is transmitted either laterally or torsionally to the compressors. The lateral and torsional coupling mechanisms of shaft systems is discussed. The coupling mechanisms in a large industrial compressor train are documented and the potential effect on rotor stability is demonstrated. Guidelines are set forth to eliminate these potential problems by minimizing the interaction of torsional and lateral responses and their effect on rotor stability.

  3. Medio-lateral postural instability in subjects with tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Lê, Thanh-Thuan; Vernet, Marine; Berbey, Nolwenn; Orssaud, Christophe; Londero, Alain; Bonfils, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration, and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor) and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus. Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right, and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40 cm for 51 s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40 Hz) for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx). This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx) and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory-tinnitus eye position and attention.

  4. Medio-Lateral Postural Instability in Subjects with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Lê, Thanh-Thuan; Vernet, Marine; Berbey, Nolwenn; Orssaud, Christophe; Londero, Alain; Bonfils, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration, and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor) and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus. Methods: Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right, and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40 cm for 51 s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40 Hz) for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Results: For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx). This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx) and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Conclusion: Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory–tinnitus eye position and attention. PMID:21647364

  5. Visual search performance in infants associates with later ASD diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, C H M; Bedford, R; Johnson, M H; Charman, T; Gliga, T

    2016-09-30

    An enhanced ability to detect visual targets amongst distractors, known as visual search (VS), has often been documented in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Yet, it is unclear when this behaviour emerges in development and if it is specific to ASD. We followed up infants at high and low familial risk for ASD to investigate how early VS abilities links to later ASD diagnosis, the potential underlying mechanisms of this association and the specificity of superior VS to ASD. Clinical diagnosis of ASD as well as dimensional measures of ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms were ascertained at 3 years. At 9 and 15 months, but not at age 2 years, high-risk children who later met clinical criteria for ASD (HR-ASD) had better VS performance than those without later diagnosis and low-risk controls. Although HR-ASD children were also more attentive to the task at 9 months, this did not explain search performance. Superior VS specifically predicted 3 year-old ASD but not ADHD or anxiety symptoms. Our results demonstrate that atypical perception and core ASD symptoms of social interaction and communication are closely and selectively associated during early development, and suggest causal links between perceptual and social features of ASD. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity of fate outcomes in cell pairs under lateral inhibition.

    PubMed

    Guisoni, Nara; Martinez-Corral, Rosa; Garcia Ojalvo, Jordi; de Navascués, Joaquín

    2017-02-07

    Cell fate determination by lateral inhibition via Notch/Delta signalling has been extensively studied. Most formalised models consider Notch/Delta interactions in fields of cells, with parameters that typically lead to symmetry breaking of signalling states between neighbouring cells, commonly resulting in salt-and-pepper fate patterns. Here we consider the case of signalling between isolated cell pairs, and find that the bifurcation properties of a standard mathematical model of lateral inhibition can lead to stable symmetric signalling states. We apply this model to the adult intestinal stem cell (ISC) of Drosophila, whose fate is stochastic but dependent on the Notch/Delta pathway. We observe a correlation between signalling state in cell pairs and their contact area. We interpret this behaviour in terms of the properties of our model in the presence of population variability in contact areas, which affects the effective signalling threshold of individual cells. Our results suggest that the dynamics of Notch/Delta signalling can contribute to explain stochasticity in stem cell fate decisions, and that the standard model for lateral inhibition can account for a wider range of developmental outcomes than previously considered.

  7. Lateral organization of complex lipid mixtures from multiscale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumaneng, Paul W.; Pandit, Sagar A.; Zhao, Guijun; Scott, H. L.

    2010-02-01

    The organizational properties of complex lipid mixtures can give rise to functionally important structures in cell membranes. In model membranes, ternary lipid-cholesterol (CHOL) mixtures are often used as representative systems to investigate the formation and stabilization of localized structural domains ("rafts"). In this work, we describe a self-consistent mean-field model that builds on molecular dynamics simulations to incorporate multiple lipid components and to investigate the lateral organization of such mixtures. The model predictions reveal regions of bimodal order on ternary plots that are in good agreement with experiment. Specifically, we have applied the model to ternary mixtures composed of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine:18:0 sphingomyelin:CHOL. This work provides insight into the specific intermolecular interactions that drive the formation of localized domains in these mixtures. The model makes use of molecular dynamics simulations to extract interaction parameters and to provide chain configuration order parameter libraries.

  8. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    DOEpatents

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  9. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.

    PubMed

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2015-05-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation.

  10. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  11. Assessment and analysis of human laterality for manipulation and communication using the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Prieur, Jacques; Barbu, Stéphanie; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    Despite significant scientific advances, the nature of the left-hemispheric systems involved in language (speech and gesture) and manual actions is still unclear. To date, investigations of human laterality focused mainly on non-communication functions. Although gestural laterality data have been published for infants and children, relatively little is known about laterality of human gestural communication. This study investigated human laterality in depth considering non-communication manipulation actions and various gesture types involving hands, feet, face and ears. We constructed an online laterality questionnaire including 60 items related to daily activities. We collected 317 594 item responses by 5904 randomly selected participants. The highest percentages of strong left-lateralized (6.76%) and strong right-lateralized participants (75.19%) were for manipulation actions. The highest percentages of mixed left-lateralized (12.30%) and ambidextrous (50.23%) participants were found for head-related gestures. The highest percentage of mixed right-lateralized participants (55.33%) was found for auditory gestures. Every behavioural category showed a significant population-level right-side bias. More precisely, participants were predominantly right-lateralized for non-communication manual actions, for visual iconic, visual symbolic, visual deictic (with and without speech), tactile and auditory manual gestures as well as for podial and head-related gestures. Our findings support previous studies reporting that humans have left-brain predominance for gestures and complex motor activities such as tool-use. Our study shows that the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire is a useful research instrument to assess and analyse human laterality for both manipulation and communication functions.

  12. Assessment and analysis of human laterality for manipulation and communication using the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Despite significant scientific advances, the nature of the left-hemispheric systems involved in language (speech and gesture) and manual actions is still unclear. To date, investigations of human laterality focused mainly on non-communication functions. Although gestural laterality data have been published for infants and children, relatively little is known about laterality of human gestural communication. This study investigated human laterality in depth considering non-communication manipulation actions and various gesture types involving hands, feet, face and ears. We constructed an online laterality questionnaire including 60 items related to daily activities. We collected 317 594 item responses by 5904 randomly selected participants. The highest percentages of strong left-lateralized (6.76%) and strong right-lateralized participants (75.19%) were for manipulation actions. The highest percentages of mixed left-lateralized (12.30%) and ambidextrous (50.23%) participants were found for head-related gestures. The highest percentage of mixed right-lateralized participants (55.33%) was found for auditory gestures. Every behavioural category showed a significant population-level right-side bias. More precisely, participants were predominantly right-lateralized for non-communication manual actions, for visual iconic, visual symbolic, visual deictic (with and without speech), tactile and auditory manual gestures as well as for podial and head-related gestures. Our findings support previous studies reporting that humans have left-brain predominance for gestures and complex motor activities such as tool-use. Our study shows that the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire is a useful research instrument to assess and analyse human laterality for both manipulation and communication functions. PMID:28878966

  13. Occupant injury severity from lateral collisions: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Laberge-Nadeau, Claire; Bellavance, François; Messier, Stéphane; Vézina, Lyne; Pichette, Fernand

    2009-01-01

    Side impacts are a serious automotive injury problem; they represent about 30% of all fatalities for passenger vehicle occupants. This literature review focuses on occupant injuries resulting from real lateral collisions. It emphasizes the interaction between injury patterns and crash factors, taking into account type of injuries and their severity. It highlights what is known on the subject and suggests further studies. We reviewed papers identified by searches in two electronic databases for the 1996-2009 publication period, and in specific journals and conference proceedings. Studies on the Primary Direction of Force (PDOF) have revealed that fatal crashes occur most frequently when the PDOF is at 3 or 9 o'clock. The risk of serious injury is two to three times higher for the near-side occupant than for the far-side occupant. Head injuries predominate in oblique impacts and thoracic injuries in perpendicular ones. A few results are also reported on side airbag protection. This literature review presents an overall picture of the injuries caused by lateral collisions, though each of the papers or articles examined focuses mostly on some particular aspect of the problem. The incidence of specific injuries depends on the data source used. Very few population-based analyses of lateral collision injuries were found. New studies are needed to evaluate new protective devices (e.g., lateral airbags, inflatable curtains). Without interfering with their care duties, Emergency Medical Technicians could be systematically trained to observe the collision's specific characteristics and to report all their relevant observations to the emergency physicians to increase the likelihood of prompt diagnosis and proper care.

  14. The relationship between reading ability and lateralized lexical decision.

    PubMed

    Weems, Scott A; Zaidel, Eran

    2004-08-01

    Although lexical decision remains one of the most extensively studied cognitive tasks, very little is known about its relationship to broader linguistic performance such as reading ability. In a correlational study, several aspects of lateralized lexical decision performance were related to vocabulary and reading comprehension measures, as assessed using the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. This lateralized lexical decision task has been previously shown to demonstrate (1) independent contributions from both hemispheres, as well as (2) interhemispheric interactions during word recognition. Lexical decision performance showed strong relationships with both reading measures. Specifically, vocabulary performance correlated significantly with left visual field (LVF) word accuracy and LVF non-word latency, both measures of right hemisphere performance. There were also significant, though somewhat weaker, correlations between reading comprehension and RVF non-word latency. Lexicality priming, a measure of interhemispheric communication during lexical decision, was also correlated with reading comprehension. These results suggest that hemispheric interaction during word recognition is common, and that lexical processing contribution from the right hemisphere, something commonly taken as minor and inconsequential, can lead to significant performance benefits and to individual differences in reading.

  15. Lateral Membrane Diffusion Modulated by a Minimal Actin Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Fabian; Vogel, Sven K.; Schwille, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion of lipids and proteins within the cell membrane is essential for numerous membrane-dependent processes including signaling and molecular interactions. It is assumed that the membrane-associated cytoskeleton modulates lateral diffusion. Here, we use a minimal actin cortex to directly study proposed effects of an actin meshwork on the diffusion in a well-defined system. The lateral diffusion of a lipid and a protein probe at varying densities of membrane-bound actin was characterized by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). A clear correlation of actin density and reduction in mobility was observed for both the lipid and the protein probe. At high actin densities, the effect on the protein probe was ∼3.5-fold stronger compared to the lipid. Moreover, addition of myosin filaments, which contract the actin mesh, allowed switching between fast and slow diffusion in the minimal system. Spot variation FCS was in accordance with a model of fast microscopic diffusion and slower macroscopic diffusion. Complementing Monte Carlo simulations support the analysis of the experimental FCS data. Our results suggest a stronger interaction of the actin mesh with the larger protein probe compared to the lipid. This might point toward a mechanism where cortical actin controls membrane diffusion in a strong size-dependent manner. PMID:23561523

  16. Identification of genetic risk factors for maxillary lateral incisor agenesis.

    PubMed

    Alves-Ferreira, M; Pinho, T; Sousa, A; Sequeiros, J; Lemos, C; Alonso, I

    2014-05-01

    Tooth agenesis affects 20% of the world population, and maxillary lateral incisors agenesis (MLIA) is one of the most frequent subtypes, characterized by the absence of formation of deciduous or permanent lateral incisors. Odontogenesis is a complex mechanism regulated by sequential and reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, controlled by activators and inhibitors involved in several pathways. Disturbances in these signaling cascades can lead to abnormalities in odontogenesis, resulting in alterations in the formation of the normal teeth number. Our aim was to study a large number of genes encoding either transcription factors or key components in signaling pathways shown to be involved in tooth odontogenesis. We selected 8 genes-MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, EDA, SPRY2, TGFA, SPRY4, and WNT10A-and performed one of the largest case-control studies taking into account the number of genes and variants assessed, aiming at the identification of MLIA susceptibility factors. We show the involvement of PAX9, EDA, SPRY2, SPRY4, and WNT10A as risk factors for MLIA. Additionally, we uncovered 3 strong synergistic interactions between MLIA liability and MSX1-TGFA, AXIN2-TGFA, and SPRY2-SPRY4 gene pairs. We report the first evidence of the involvement of sprouty genes in MLIA susceptibility. This large study results in a better understanding of the genetic components and mechanisms underlying this trait.

  17. Differential regulation of the lateral mobility of plasma membrane phospholipids by the extracellular matrix and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Ramprasad, O G; Rangaraj, Nandini; Srinivas, G; Thiery, Jean Paul; Dufour, Sylvie; Pande, Gopal

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we compared qualitative and quantitative changes in the lateral mobility of phospholipid molecules in the plasma membrane of intact cells under various conditions of specific interaction of integrins in the cell membrane with two extracellular matrix (ECM) components viz. fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN). We found a strong and specific correlation between the lower lateral mobility of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and higher lateral mobility of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) when cells were expressing high levels of alpha5beta1 integrin and thus were adherent and motile on FN. The interaction between PC and FN in alpha5 integrin expressing cells was aided by the strong affinity of alpha5 integrin to the FN matrix. Cholesterol was involved in regulating the lateral mobility of PC to a great extent and of PE to a lesser extent without affecting the overall microviscosity of the plasma membrane or the distribution of caveolin-marked domains. The distribution and mobility of PC and PE molecules in the lamellipodial regions differed from that in the rest of the membrane and also in the more motile and in the less motile cells. We propose that these differences in distribution of PC and PE in different regions of cell membrane and their respective lateral mobility are observed due to the specific interaction of PC molecules with FN molecules in the ECM. Our results outline a new role of integrin-matrix interactions in the regulation of membrane phospholipid behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Maintenance of electrostatic stabilization in altered tubulin lateral contacts may facilitate formation of helical filaments in foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    Bassen, David M.; Hou, Yubo; Bowser, Samuel S.; Banavali, Nilesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules in foraminiferan protists (forams) can convert into helical filament structures, in which longitudinal intraprotofilament interactions between tubulin heterodimers are thought to be lost, while lateral contacts across protofilaments are still maintained. The coarse geometric features of helical filaments are known through low-resolution negative stain electron microscopy (EM). In this study, geometric restraints derived from these experimental data were used to generate an average atomic-scale helical filament model, which anticipated a modest reorientation in the lateral tubulin heterodimer interface. Restrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the nearest neighbor interactions combined with a Genalized Born implicit solvent model were used to assess the lateral, longitudinal, and seam contacts in 13-3 microtubules and the reoriented lateral contacts in the helical filament model. This electrostatic analysis suggests that the change in the lateral interface in the helical filament does not greatly diminish the lateral electrostatic interaction. After longitudinal dissociation, the 13-3 seam interaction is much weaker than the reoriented lateral interface in the helical filament model, providing a plausible atomic-detail explanation for seam-to-lateral contact transition that enables the transition to a helical filament structure. PMID:27539392

  19. Maintenance of electrostatic stabilization in altered tubulin lateral contacts may facilitate formation of helical filaments in foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassen, David M.; Hou, Yubo; Bowser, Samuel S.; Banavali, Nilesh K.

    2016-08-01

    Microtubules in foraminiferan protists (forams) can convert into helical filament structures, in which longitudinal intraprotofilament interactions between tubulin heterodimers are thought to be lost, while lateral contacts across protofilaments are still maintained. The coarse geometric features of helical filaments are known through low-resolution negative stain electron microscopy (EM). In this study, geometric restraints derived from these experimental data were used to generate an average atomic-scale helical filament model, which anticipated a modest reorientation in the lateral tubulin heterodimer interface. Restrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the nearest neighbor interactions combined with a Genalized Born implicit solvent model were used to assess the lateral, longitudinal, and seam contacts in 13-3 microtubules and the reoriented lateral contacts in the helical filament model. This electrostatic analysis suggests that the change in the lateral interface in the helical filament does not greatly diminish the lateral electrostatic interaction. After longitudinal dissociation, the 13-3 seam interaction is much weaker than the reoriented lateral interface in the helical filament model, providing a plausible atomic-detail explanation for seam-to-lateral contact transition that enables the transition to a helical filament structure.

  20. Maintenance of electrostatic stabilization in altered tubulin lateral contacts may facilitate formation of helical filaments in foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Bassen, David M; Hou, Yubo; Bowser, Samuel S; Banavali, Nilesh K

    2016-08-19

    Microtubules in foraminiferan protists (forams) can convert into helical filament structures, in which longitudinal intraprotofilament interactions between tubulin heterodimers are thought to be lost, while lateral contacts across protofilaments are still maintained. The coarse geometric features of helical filaments are known through low-resolution negative stain electron microscopy (EM). In this study, geometric restraints derived from these experimental data were used to generate an average atomic-scale helical filament model, which anticipated a modest reorientation in the lateral tubulin heterodimer interface. Restrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the nearest neighbor interactions combined with a Genalized Born implicit solvent model were used to assess the lateral, longitudinal, and seam contacts in 13-3 microtubules and the reoriented lateral contacts in the helical filament model. This electrostatic analysis suggests that the change in the lateral interface in the helical filament does not greatly diminish the lateral electrostatic interaction. After longitudinal dissociation, the 13-3 seam interaction is much weaker than the reoriented lateral interface in the helical filament model, providing a plausible atomic-detail explanation for seam-to-lateral contact transition that enables the transition to a helical filament structure.

  1. Evaluation and management of lateral ankle injuries.

    PubMed

    Lee, M S; Hofbauer, M H

    1999-10-01

    The diagnosis and management of lateral ankle injuries require the physician to obtain an accurate history, complete a thorough physical examination, and institute appropriate treatment protocol. Labeling all acute lateral ankle injuries as ankle sprains can lead to long-term mechanical and functional instability and chronic pain around the ankle. Appropriate and aggressive functional rehabilitation of the acute ankle limits the postinjury convalescence and need for surgical reconstruction. If surgical repair of the chronic or acute ankle is warranted, the Brostrom-Gould procedure serves as a highly successful anatomic repair. Lateral ankle tenodesing procedures also are effective; however, in most cases, the loss of rearfoot motion limits this procedure to a secondary reconstructive procedure.

  2. The Lateral Instability of Deep Rectangular Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, C; Hill, H N

    1937-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies were made of solid and hollow deep rectangular beams to study their lateral instability under various conditions of loading and restraint. The tests were made on bars and tubes of 17ST aluminum alloy. Failure by lateral buckling occurred only in tests on the solid beams. It was found that, within the elastic range, the test results were in agreement with the classical theory for the lateral buckling of deep beams as given by Prandtl, Mitchell, and Timoshenko. The tests were extended to the inelastic range, where it was found that the substitution for Young's modulus of an average modulus of elasticity derived from the stress-strain curve made it possible to predict instability at high stresses.

  3. Lateral force microscopy of multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Lievonen, J; Ahlskog, M

    2009-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes are usually imaged with the atomic force microscope (AFM) in non-contact mode. However, in many applications, such as mechanical manipulation or elasticity measurements, contact mode is used. The forces affecting the nanotube are then considerable and not fully understood. In this work lateral forces were measured during contact mode imaging with an AFM across a carbon nanotube. We found that, qualitatively, both magnitude and sign of the lateral forces to the AFM tip were independent of scan direction and can be concluded to arise from the tip slipping on the round edges of the nanotube. The dependence on the normal force applied to the tip and on the ratio between nanotube diameter and tip radius was studied. We show that for small values of this ratio, the lateral force signal can be explained with a simple geometrical model.

  4. Knee ligament injury during lateral impact.

    PubMed

    Hearon, B F; Brinkley, J W; Raddin, J H; Fleming, B W

    1985-01-01

    A volunteer woman subject incurred injury to her right knee consisting of a torn anterior cruciate ligament and stretched medial collateral ligament during a lateral (+Gy) impact test. Similar injury has not been reported in the English-language literature an accidental sideward automotive crashes or lateral impact experimentation involving humans. The primary mechanism which produced this injury was external tibial rotation on the femur with the knee flexed. The factors contributing to the injury included extraordinarily forceful leg bracing by the subject, her knee joint laxity or hypermobility, and the absence of side supports to limit lower extremity flailing during the impact response. In future lateral impact tests, women subjects should be used with caution and any subject with abnormal joint mobility should be excluded from participation.

  5. Lateral stress evolution in Chromium Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petel, Oren; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Hameed, Amer; Capozzi, Alexander; Frost, David; Hazell, Paul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the shock response of chromium sulfide, a cermet of potential interest as a matrix material for ballistic applications, has been investigated. Compacts with a Chromium:Sulfur ratio of 1.15:1 were investigated via the plate-impact technique. These experiments allowed the material to be loaded under a one-dimensional state of strain. Embedded manganin stress gauges were employed to monitor the temporal evolution of longitudinal and lateral components of stress. Comparison of these two components has allowed assessment of the variation of material shear strength both with impact pressure/strain-rate and time. Interestingly tentative evidence of what appeared to be an elastic-plastic transition was noted on the lateral traces, despite the absence of a lateral shock.

  6. Laterality, spatial abilities, and accident proneness.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.

  7. Stress and laterality - The comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Korte, S Mechiel; Peterburs, Jutta; Wolf, Oliver T; Güntürkün, Onur

    2016-10-01

    Functional hemispheric asymmetries can vary over time and steroid hormones have been shown to be one of the factors that can modulate them. Research into this matter has mainly focused on sex steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestogens), although there is increasing evidence that glucocorticoids which are related to the body's response to stress (e.g. cortisol or corticosterone) might also modulate functional hemispheric asymmetries. Here, we review studies in humans and non-human model species investigating the relation of stress and laterality. Results indicate a dual relationship of the two parameters. Both acute and chronic stress can affect different forms of lateralization in the human brain, often (but not always) resulting in greater involvement of the right hemisphere. Moreover, lateralization as a form of functional brain architecture can also represent a protective factor against adverse effects of stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lateral ligament reconstruction procedures for the ankle.

    PubMed

    Tourné, Y; Mabit, C

    2017-02-01

    Capsule/ligament lesions of the lateral compartment of the ankle lead to lateral laxity, which is a prime contributor to chronic ankle instability. Lateral ligament reconstruction stabilizes the joint. Exhaustive preoperative clinical and paraclinical work-up is essential. The present article classifies, presents and criticizes the main techniques in terms of long-term stabilization and reduction of osteoarthritis risk. Anatomic ligament repair with reinforcement (mainly extensor retinaculum) or anatomic ligament reconstruction are the two recommended options. Non-anatomic reconstructions using the peroneus brevis should be abandoned. Arthroscopy is increasingly being developed, but results need assessment on longer follow-up than presently available. Postoperative neuromuscular reprogramming is fundamental to optimal recovery. Finally, the concept of complex ankle instability is discussed from the diagnostic and therapeutic points of view. The various forms of ligament reconstruction failure and corresponding treatments are reported.

  9. Autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization.

    PubMed

    Budny, Adam M; Schuberth, John M

    2012-01-01

    Lateral ankle instability is a common clinical entity, and a variety of surgical procedures are available for stabilization after conservative management fails. Herein the authors reviewed outcomes after performing autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization, using a previously described surgical technique to anatomically recreate the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments. Twenty-five consecutive patients from 2 surgeons' practices underwent reconstruction between March 2007 and January 2011 with a minimum follow-up of 12 (range 12 to 51) months (mean 29.5 months). Follow-up interviews demonstrated 92.0% good or excellent outcomes with only 8.0% rating the outcome as fair and none as poor; 92.0% had no recurrent sprains or difficulty going up or down hills; 88.0% related no difficulty with uneven ground. The authors conclude that the autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization results in a stable ankle with a low rate of complications and high patient satisfaction.

  10. Levitation and lateral forces between a point magnetic dipole and a superconducting sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H, M. Al-Khateeb; M, K. Alqadi; F, Y. Alzoubi; B, Albiss; M, K. Hasan (Qaseer; N, Y. Ayoub

    2016-05-01

    The dipole-dipole interaction model is employed to investigate the angular dependence of the levitation and lateral forces acting on a small magnet in an anti-symmetric magnet/superconducting sphere system. Breaking the symmetry of the system enables us to study the lateral force which is important in the stability of the magnet above a superconducting sphere in the Meissner state. Under the assumption that the lateral displacement of the magnet is small compared to the physical dimensions of our proposed system, analytical expressions are obtained for the levitation and lateral forces as a function of the geometrical parameters of the superconductor as well as the height, the lateral displacement, and the orientation of the magnetic moment of the magnet. The dependence of the levitation force on the height of the levitating magnet is similar to that in the symmetric magnet/superconducting sphere system within the range of proposed lateral displacements. It is found that the levitation force is linearly dependent on the lateral displacement whereas the lateral force is independent of this displacement. A sinusoidal variation of both forces as a function of the polar and azimuthal angles specifying the orientation of the magnetic moment is observed. The relationship between the stability and the orientation of the magnetic moment is discussed for different orientations.

  11. Lateral jet injection into swirling combustor flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, David G.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to ascertain the effects of the number of lateral jets, the jet velocity ratio, and the crossflow swirl strength, on the isothermal flowfield patterns in jets injected normally to a round-section crossflow. Attention has been given to the trajectory, penetration, and mixing efficiency of the lateral injection, using flow visualization, pitot-probe and hot-wire methods. In addition, such predictive techniques as a simple, explicit, fully three-dimensional turbulent computer code have been employed.

  12. Bone suture and lateral sinus lift surgery.

    PubMed

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-01-01

    Bone suture in lateral sinus lift has four indications. Three of them depend on creating a hole in the lateral maxillary sinus wall above the antrostomy window for securing the elevated medial maxillary sinus membrane to manage perforated Schneiderian membrane. Covering the buccal antrostomy window with the buccal fat pad (BFP) for better nourishment of the inserted graft and as an alternative for bone tags in fixation of collagen membrane has been reported previously. A new indication for firmly anchoring the BFP to the medial maxillary sinus wall as the last resort for the management of perforated Schneiderian membrane is explained in this article.

  13. Psychiatric disorders prior to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Goldacre, Raph; Talbot, Kevin; Goldacre, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    It is recognized that neuropsychiatric conditions are overrepresented in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient kindreds and psychiatric symptoms may precede the onset of motor symptoms. Using a hospital record linkage database, hospitalization with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or anxiety was significantly associated with a first diagnosis of ALS within the following year. This is likely to specifically reflect the clinicopathological overlap of ALS with frontotemporal dementia. A diagnosis of depression was significantly associated with a first record of ALS ≥5 years later, in keeping with growing evidence for major depressive disorder as an early marker of cerebral neurodegeneration. Ann Neurol 2016;80:935–938 PMID:27761925

  14. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan S; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    This article looks back in time to see where the foundational basis for the understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis originated. This foundation was created primarily in France by Jean-Martin Charcot and his fellow countrymen and disciples, along with key contributions from early clinicians in England and Germany. The early work on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis provides a useful foundation for today's clinicians with respect to tying together genetic and biologic aspects of the disorder that have been discovered over the past few decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Lateral chest X-rays. Radiographic anatomy].

    PubMed

    García Villafañe, C; Pedrosa, C S

    2014-01-01

    Lateral chest views constitute an essential part of chest X-ray examinations, so it is fundamental to know the anatomy on these images and to be able to detect the variations manifested on these images in different diseases. The aim of this article is to review the normal anatomy and main normal variants seen on lateral chest views. For teaching purposes, we divide the thorax into different spaces and analyze each in an orderly way, especially emphasizing the anatomic details that are most helpful for locating lesions that have already been detected in the posteroanterior view or for detecting lesions that can be missed in the posteroanterior view.

  16. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum crosstalk in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Giovanni; Kawamata, Hibiki

    2016-06-01

    Physical and functional interactions between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are crucial for cell life. These two organelles are intimately connected and collaborate to essential processes, such as calcium homeostasis and phospholipid biosynthesis. The connections between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum occur through structures named mitochondria associated membranes (MAMs), which contain lipid rafts and a large number of proteins, many of which serve multiple functions at different cellular sites. Growing evidence strongly suggests that alterations of ER-mitochondria interactions are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating and rapidly fatal motor neuron disease. Mutations in proteins that participate in ER-mitochondria interactions and MAM functions are increasingly being associated with genetic forms of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. This evidence strongly suggests that, rather than considering the two organelles separately, a better understanding of the disease process can derive from studying the alterations in their crosstalk. In this review we discuss normal and pathological ER-mitochondria interactions and the evidence that link them to ALS.

  17. The Assessment of Cerebral Laterality: The Sherman-Kulhavy Laterality Assessment Inventory. Technical Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jay L.; Kulhavy, Raymond W.

    The Sherman-Kulhavy Laterality Assessment Inventory (LAI), an instrument for determining cerebral laterality, was administered to 1,000 undergraduates to determine the ability of the LAI to discriminate between right- and left-dominant groups. Each S was administered the LAI, a 45-item verbal report instrument which assesses both fine and gross…

  18. Laterality and directionality--optometric clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Suchoff, I B

    1978-01-01

    Five rationales for the optometric evaluation of laterality and directionality are identified in this paper. These include an application of particular studies in the infant's vision literature along with theories of Hershenson, Piaget, Gesell and Kephart and the phenomenon of reversal confusion frequently associated with learning-disabled children. Selected optometric testing procedures are viewed in the context of these rationales.

  19. Modeling lateral acceleration effects on pilot performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korn, J.; Kleinan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Attendant to the direct side force maneuver of a Vectored Force Fighter is the transverse acceleration imposed on the pilot. This lateral acceleration (Gy), when combind with a positive Gz stress, is a potential source of pilot tracking performance impairment. A research effort to investigate these performance decrements includes experimental as well as anaytical pilot performance modeling using the Optimal Control Model.

  20. The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

  1. Laparoscopic versus open left lateral segmentectomy

    PubMed Central

    Carswell, Kirstin A; Sagias, Filippos G; Murgatroyd, Beth; Rela, Mohamed; Heaton, Nigel; Patel, Ameet G

    2009-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic liver surgery is becoming increasingly common. This cohort study was designed to directly compare perioperative outcomes of the left lateral segmentectomy via laparoscopic and open approach. Methods Between 2002 and 2006 43 left lateral segmentectomies were performed at King's College Hospital. Those excluded from analysis included previous liver resections, polycystic liver disease, liver cirrhosis and synchronous operations. Of 20 patients analysed, laparoscopic (n = 10) were compared with open left lateral segmentectomy (n = 10). Both groups had similar patient characteristics. Results Morbidity rates were similar with no wound or chest infection in either group. The conversion rate was 10% (1/10). There was no difference in operating time between the groups (median time 220 minutes versus 179 minutes, p = 0.315). Surgical margins for all lesions were clear. Less postoperative opiate analgesics were required in the laparoscopic group (median 2 days versus 5 days, p = 0.005). The median postoperative in-hospital stay was less in the laparoscopic group (6 days vs 9 days, p = 0.005). There was no mortality. Conclusion Laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy is safe and feasible. Laparoscopic patients may benefit from requiring less postoperative opiate analgesia and a shorter post-operative in-hospital stay. PMID:19735573

  2. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  3. Cerebral Lateralization and Its Effect on Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Yvonne A.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of both sides of the brain for the development of drawing skills but notes that the left brain can inhibit the action of the right brain. Provides a discussion of cerebral lateralization and child development. Suggests five drawing exercises to help develop hemispheric cooperation. (SB)

  4. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    SciTech Connect

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

    2011-01-01

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  5. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Welniarz, Quentin; Dusart, Isabelle; Gallea, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital “mirror movements” and model rodents with a “hopping gait”. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the “hopping gait”. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: (i) lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and (ii) unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output. PMID:26082690

  6. Lateralized Temporal Order Judgement in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to the…

  7. Defining Mental Health in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualls, Sara Honn

    2002-01-01

    Traditional models for defining mental health have used statistical definitions and symptom-based definitions. In a lifespan psychological approach, mental health in later life is defined as acceptance of the aging self as an active being who creates meaning, maintains maximum autonomy, and sustains positive relationships. (Contains 12…

  8. Preparing Future Faculty: Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sean P.; Aiossa, Elizabeth; Winter, Mary Mugica

    2010-01-01

    When Sean Murphy designed the Graduate Student Internship Program at the College of Lake County (CLC), his 2001 TETYC article about the then two-year-old program detailed his programmatic response to the job market. Ten years later, the CLC-DePaul University partnership remains the strongest of the original dozen cross-sector relationships CLC…

  9. Control augmentation for lateral control wheel steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulkes, R. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Flight control system design for lateral control wheel steering is discussed. Two alternate designs are presented. The first design is a roll-rate command, bank-angle hold system with a wings-level track-hold submode. The second is a curved-track-hold system. Design details and real-time flight simulator results are included.

  10. Cerebral Lateralization and Its Effect on Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Yvonne A.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of both sides of the brain for the development of drawing skills but notes that the left brain can inhibit the action of the right brain. Provides a discussion of cerebral lateralization and child development. Suggests five drawing exercises to help develop hemispheric cooperation. (SB)

  11. Religious Attendance and Loneliness in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social…

  12. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M

    2016-05-12

    Critically ill patients require regular body position changes to minimize the adverse effects of bed rest, inactivity and immobilization. However, uncertainty surrounds the effectiveness of lateral positioning for improving pulmonary gas exchange, aiding drainage of tracheobronchial secretions and preventing morbidity. In addition, it is unclear whether the perceived risk levied by respiratory and haemodynamic instability upon turning critically ill patients outweighs the respiratory benefits of side-to-side rotation. Thus, lack of certainty may contribute to variation in positioning practice and equivocal patient outcomes. To evaluate effects of the lateral position compared with other body positions on patient outcomes (mortality, morbidity and clinical adverse events) in critically ill adult patients. (Clinical adverse events include hypoxaemia, hypotension, low oxygen delivery and global indicators of impaired tissue oxygenation.) We examined single use of the lateral position (i.e. on the right or left side) and repeat use of the lateral position (i.e. lateral positioning) within a positioning schedule. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to 23 May 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1937 to 23 May 2015), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1984 to 23 May 2015), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1901 to 23 May 2015), Web of Science (1945 to 23 May 2015), Index to Theses in Great Britain and Ireland (1950 to 23 May 2015), Trove (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Australasian Digital Theses Program (1997 to December 2008)) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to 23 May 2015)). We handsearched the reference lists of potentially relevant reports and two nursing journals. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials examining effects of

  13. Parameter Estimation of Lateral Spacecraft Fuel Slosh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudermann, James E.; Schlee, Keith L.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting the effect of fuel slosh on the attitude control system of a spacecraft or launch vehicle is a very important and challenging task. Whether the spacecraft is spinning or moving laterally, the dynamic effect of the fuel slosh helps determine whether the spacecraft will remain on its intended trajectory. Three categories of slosh can be caused by launch vehicle or spacecraft maneuvers when the fuel is in the presence of an acceleration field. These are bulk-fluid motion, subsurface wave motion (currents), and free-surface slosh. Each of these slosh types has a periodic component defined by either a spinning or a lateral motion. For spinning spacecraft, all three types of slosh can greatly affect stability. Bulk-fluid motion and free-surface slosh can affect the lateral-slosh characteristics. For either condition, an unpredicted coupled resonance between the spacecraft and its onboard fuel could threaten a mission. This ongoing research effort seeks to improve the accuracy and efficiency of modeling techniques used to predict these types of fluid motions for lateral motion. Particular efforts focus on analyzing the effects of viscoelastic diaphragms on slosh dynamics.

  14. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons have...

  15. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons have...

  16. Piston measurement by quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry.

    PubMed

    Mousset, Soazic; Rouyer, Claude; Marre, Gabrielle; Blanchot, Nathalie; Montant, Sébastien; Wattellier, Benoit

    2006-09-01

    We present what is to our knowledge a new method for measuring the relative piston between two independent beams separated by a physical gap, typical of petawatt facilities. The feasibility of this measurement, based on quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry, has been demonstrated experimentally: piston has been measured with accuracy and sensitivity better than 50 nm.

  17. Lateral Eye Movement Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    1980-01-01

    The conjugate lateral eye movement phenomenon was investigated for 52 children aged 2 through 10 using both spatial and verbal-analytic questions. The phenomenon was observed in 50 subjects and appeared well-established by age 3 1/2. Some interesting developmental findings and discrepancies with the results of adult studies are noted. (Author/SJL)

  18. The potential lateral growth of lithalsas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissart, Albert; Calmels, Fabrice; Wastiaux, Cécile

    2011-03-01

    The lithalsas in the Hudson Bay region of northern Québec, Canada, are the closest modern analogs of ancient features that collapsed to form conspicuous circular depressions ("viviers") common in the Hautes-Fagnes, a region in Belgium. Observations made in both regions are complementary and suggest that these mounds formed by frost heaving displacing soil not only upward, as previously assumed, but also laterally. This lateral displacement is consistent with diverse observations and inferences, which include (1) the simple rounded outline, either circular or oval, typical of both active and relic lithalsas; (2) evidence of local lateral extension inferred from exposures of the relic forms; (3) the relative inefficiency of solifluction in accumulating surface material to form the peripheral ramparts of remnant lithalsas due to the very gentle slopes of the mounds; and (4) the dip of ice lenses within a lithalsa in the Hudson Bay region, perhaps indicating that the freezing front dipped outward along its periphery. The growth of segregation ice is the primary driver for the vertical growth and lateral enlargement of a lithalsa.

  19. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the role of exercise.

    PubMed

    Lisle, Stuart; Tennison, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting both the upper and lower motor neurons. Given the deterioration of skeletal muscle function, historically there has been concern regarding exercise and its affect on ALS. This article reviews and explains current research, helping patients, caregivers, and providers be equipped better to make decisions regarding the treatment of ALS with exercise.

  20. Clinical Psychology and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pagnini, Francesco; Rossi, Gabriella; Lunetta, Christian; Banfi, Paolo; Corbo, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal and progressive disease, characterized by progressive muscles weakness, with consequent loss of physical capacities. Psychologists can play an important role in ALS care, by providing clinical activities in every step of the disease, including support and counseling activities directed to patients, their caregivers and to physicians. PMID:21833203

  1. Lateral Biases in Assumptions of Lighting Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Lorin J.; Robinson, Brent M.

    2005-01-01

    People presume that the light source in pictures comes from above, and there is some evidence that this phenomenon also demonstrates lateral biases. When investigators present multiple ambiguous stimuli or visually complex objects, people assume that the source of light is from above, and to the left. However, when single relatively simple stimuli…

  2. The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

  3. Imaging appearances of lateral ankle ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chien, Alexander J; Jacobson, Jon A; Jamadar, David A; Brigido, Monica Kalume; Femino, John E; Hayes, Curtis W

    2004-01-01

    Six patients were retrospectively identified as having undergone lateral ligament reconstruction surgery. The surgical procedures were categorized into four groups: direct lateral ligament repair, peroneus brevis tendon rerouting, peroneus brevis tendon loop, and peroneus brevis tendon split and rerouting. At radiography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the presence of one or more suture anchors in the region of the anterior talofibular ligament indicates direct ligament repair, whereas a fibular tunnel indicates peroneus brevis tendon rerouting or loop. Both ultrasonography (US) and MR imaging demonstrate rerouted tendons as part of lateral ankle reconstruction; however, MR imaging can also depict the rerouted tendon within an osseous tunnel if present, especially if T1-weighted sequences are used. Artifact from suture material may obscure the tendon at MR imaging but not at US. With both modalities, the integrity of the rerouted peroneus brevis tendon is best evaluated by following the tendon proximally from its distal attachment site, which typically remains unchanged. The rerouted tendon or portion of the tendon can then be traced proximally to its reattachment site. Familiarity with the surgical procedures most commonly used for lateral ankle ligament reconstruction, and with the imaging features of these procedures, is essential for avoiding diagnostic pitfalls and ensuring accurate assessment of the ligament reconstruction.

  4. Lateral drug diffusion in human nails.

    PubMed

    Palliyil, Biji B; Li, Cong; Owaisat, Suzan; Lebo, David B

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the current work is to demonstrate the process of passive lateral diffusion in the human nail plate and its effect on the passive transungual permeation of antifungal drug ciclopirox olamine (CPO). A water soluble dye, methyl red sodium salt (MR) was used to visualize the process of lateral diffusion using a novel suspended nail experiment. The decline in concentration of CPO correlates with that of concentration of MR from the proximal to the distal end of the nail in suspended nail study. Three toenails each were trimmed to 5 mm × 5 mm (25 mm(2)), 7 mm × 7 mm (49 mm(2)), and 9 mm × 9 mm (81 mm(2)) to study the extent and effect of lateral diffusion of the CPO on its in vitro transungual permeation. The permeation flux of CPO decreased as the surface area of the toenail increased. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of CPO and MR in the area of application and in the peripheral area of the toenails of the three surface areas, confirming the findings in the suspended nail experiment. Profound lateral diffusion of CPO was demonstrated and shown to reduce the in vitro passive transungual drug permeation and prolong the lag-time in human toenails. The study data implies that during passive in vitro transungual permeation experiments, the peripheral nail around the area of drug application has to be kept to a minimum, in order to get reliable data which mimics the in vivo situation.

  5. Laterality, Implicit Memory, and Attention Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Geraldine A.; Brown, Geoffrey

    1991-01-01

    Presents study showing children with behaviors characteristic of attention disorder/hyperactivity deficit and high intelligence have more mixed laterality and allergies. Finds these children gather and use more diverse nonverbal and poorly focused information. Concludes such children use uncommon information when exhibiting novelty in nonverbal…

  6. iPS Cells 10 Years Later.

    PubMed

    2016-09-08

    In 2006, Takahashi and Yamanaka reported the breakthrough discovery of induction of pluripotent stem cells from fibroblasts by a combination of defined factors. Ten years later, Cell editor João Monteiro brings together Shinya Yamanaka and Hans Schöler, one the original reviewers of the landmark study, to revisit the history behind the paper and its long-lasting legacy.

  7. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    ScienceCinema

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

    2016-07-12

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  8. Adolescent Sexual Debut and Later Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Stacy; Haynie, Dana L.

    2007-01-01

    Does sexual debut (i.e., experiencing sexual intercourse for the first time) increase the risks of participating in later delinquent behavior? Does this risk increase if adolescents experience early sexual debut relative to the timing experienced by one's peers? Although many factors have been linked to sexual debut, little research has examined…

  9. Depression in Later Life: Recognition and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; And Others

    This guide is designed to help readers understand depression and factors related to its onset in later life; recognize signs of depression and potential suicide; and know actions they can take if they suspect an older family member or friend may be depressed or contemplating suicide. Following a brief introduction, a chapter on depression…

  10. Lateral Hip Pain in an Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Grumet, Robert C.; Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Historically, the term greater trochanteric pain syndrome has been used to describe a spectrum of conditions that cause lateral-sided hip pain, including greater trochanteric bursitis, snapping iliotibial band, and/or strains or tendinopathy of the abductor mechanism. Diagnosis of these conditions may be difficult because clinical presentations are variable and sometimes inconclusive. Especially difficult is differentiating intrinsic pain from pain referred to the greater trochanteric region. The purposes of this article are to review the relevant anatomy and pathophysiology of the lateral hip. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search of all relevant papers between 1980 and January 2010. Results: Recent advances in imaging and an improved understanding of pathomechanics have helped to guide the evaluation, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment for patients presenting with lateral hip pain. Conclusion: Various diagnostic tools and treatment modalities can be used to effectively manage the athletic patient presenting with lateral hip pain. PMID:23015937

  11. Active Children: Healthy Now And Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linley; Musumeci, Josephine

    2005-01-01

    Current research is revealing that physical activity can protect against a range of lifestyle diseases and illnesses. Consequently, early childhood practitioners and parents need to adopt guidelines and practices which encourage children of all ages to be physically active. In "Active children: Healthy Now and Later," authors Linley…

  12. Gender difference and laterality of sleep position.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Hiroaki; Akita, Miwaoki

    2017-08-29

    A higher incidence in women (approximately 7:3) and a predominant involvement of the right ear (approximately 7:5) are interesting features of BPPV (benign paroxysmal positional vertigo). It is speculated that these features are related to sleep position. The first aim of this study was to compare the frequency of position shifts during sleep between men and women. The second aim was to elucidate any differences in sleep position between men and women. The third aim was to clarify the laterality of sleep position. We retrospectively selected the data of 30 males (mean, 53.1 years) and 22 females (mean, 50.6 years) diagnosed as mild or moderate obstructive sleep apnea. A position sensor was attached to the patient's anterior chest. Supine position was defined as less than 45° tilt, and lateral position was defined as more than 45° tilt. A single overnight laboratory polysomnography provided the number of position shifts, total sleep time, sleep time spent in the supine position (S), sleep time spent in the right-side-down lateral position (R), and sleep time spent in the left-side-down lateral position (L). The mean value and standard deviation of the number of position shifts per hour was 2.4±1.3 in males, and 2.3±1.1 in females. There was no significant difference between males and females. Twelve cases (40%) were lateral type (SR+L) in males. Ten cases (45%) were lateral type, and 12 (55%) were supine type in females. There was no significant difference between males and females. Seventeen cases (56.6%) were right-dominant type (R-L>0), and 13 (43.3%) were left-dominant type (R-L<0) in males. Thirteen cases (59%) were right-dominant type, and 9 (41%) were left-dominant type in females. Body position and the number of position shifts during sleep differ substantially between individuals. There is no gender difference in the frequency of position shifts. Although the supine type is more common than the lateral type, there

  13. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 2-Deficiency Leads to Neuronal Degeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis through Altered AMPA Receptor Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chen; Xie, Chengsong; McCormack, Stefanie G.; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Michalak, Marta K.; Lin, Xian; Chandran, Jayanth; Shim, Hoon; Shimoji, Mika; Cookson, Mark R.; Huganir, Richard L.; Rothstein, Jeffrey D.; Price, Donald L.; Wong, Philip C.; Martin, Lee J.; Zhu, J. Julius; Cai, Huaibin

    2008-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease is caused by a selective loss of motor neurons. One form of juvenile onset autosomal recessive ALS (ALS2) has been linked to the loss of function of the ALS2 gene. The pathogenic mechanism of ALS2-deficiency, however, remains unclear. To further understand the function of alsin that is encoded by the full-length ALS2 gene, we screened proteins interacting with alsin. Here, we report that alsin interacted with glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) both in vitro and in vivo, and colocalized with GRIP1 in neurons. In support of the physiological interaction between alsin and GRIP1, the subcellular distribution of GRIP1 was altered in ALS2-/- spinal motor neurons, which correlates with a significant reduction of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) at the synaptic/cell surface of ALS2-/- neurons. The decrease of calcium-impermeable GluR2-containing AMPA receptors at the cell/synaptic surface rendered ALS2-/- neurons more susceptible to glutamate receptor-mediated neurotoxicity. Our findings reveal a novel function of alsin in AMPA receptor trafficking and provide a novel pathogenic link between ALS2-deficiency and motor neuron degeneration, suggesting a protective role of alsin in maintaining the survival of motor neurons. PMID:17093100

  14. Revision stapes surgery: the "lateralized piston syndrome".

    PubMed

    Lagleyre, Sebastien; Calmels, Marie-Noelle; Escude, Bernard; Deguine, Olivier; Fraysse, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    The need for revision stapes surgery has many causes, and among these, we describe a particular displacement of the piston: the "lateralized piston syndrome". The goal of this study is to define criteria and surgical management of this syndrome. Retrospective study over 13 years. Tertiary reference center. A review of 1,289 consecutive stapes operations revealed 119 revisions (9%) from which 22 cases (18.5%) could be classified under the lateralized piston syndrome. Revision stapedotomy. Medical files, preoperative and postoperative audiograms, computed tomographic scans, and operative reports. The 22 cases presented as a delayed conductive hearing loss in 95.5% of cases. Preoperative computed tomographic scans showed a lateralized piston out of the stapedotomy in 81% of cases and touching the tympanic membrane in 54.5% of cases. Revisions revealed a lateral displacement of the piston out of the entire oval window in 86% of cases, with closure of the stapedotomy in all cases and incus necrosis in 77% of cases. Conventional pistons were fitted in 12 cases. In case of a significantly eroded incus, total prostheses (TORPs) in 6 cases and offset pistons in 4 cases were placed. Air-bone gap (ABG) was closed to within 20 dB in 82% of cases. Air-conduction puretone audiometry improvement was 17.2 dB (standard deviation [SD], 19.2), with a mean postoperative ABG of 16.2 dB (SD, 12.7). Only 1 ear, operated with TORP, had a sensorineural deterioration of 20 dB. With offset pistons, ABG was closed to within 20 dB in 100% of cases with a mean postoperative ABG of 8.8 dB (SD, 7.2). The lateralized piston syndrome was found in 18.5% of stapes surgery revisions. Surgical management was effective in correcting the conductive hearing loss. In the event of significant eroded incus, we observed better results with offset pistons than with TORPs.

  15. Inhibition processes are dissociable and lateralized in human prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Cipolotti, Lisa; Spanò, Barbara; Healy, Colm; Tudor-Sfetea, Carina; Chan, Edgar; White, Mark; Biondo, Francesca; Duncan, John; Shallice, Tim; Bozzali, Marco

    2016-12-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is known to make fundamental contributions to executive functions. However, the precise nature of these contributions is incompletely understood. We focused on a specific executive function, inhibition, the ability to suppress a pre-potent response. Functional imaging and animal studies have studied inhibition. However, there are only few lesion studies, typically reporting discrepant findings. For the first time, we conducted cognitive and neuroimaging investigations on patients with focal unilateral PFC lesions across two widely used inhibitory tasks requiring a verbal response: The Hayling Part 2 and Stroop Colour-Word Tests. We systematically explored the relationship between inhibition, fluid intelligence and lesion location using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM). We found that PFC patients were significantly impaired compared with healthy comparison group (HC) on both suppression measures of the Hayling and on the Stroop, even when performance on a fluid intelligence test was covaried. No significant relationship was found between patients' performance on each Hayling suppression measure and the Stroop, once fluid intelligence was partialled out, suggesting that the two tests may involve different kinds of inhibition. After accounting for fluid intelligence, we found a significant interaction between tests, Hayling or Stroop, and site, left or right, of PFC damage. This finding suggesting lateralized functional organization was complemented and extended by our VLSM results. We found that performance on both Hayling suppression measures significantly relied on the integrity of a similar and relatively circumscribed region within the right lateral PFC, in the right lateral superior and middle frontal gyri. In stark contrast, performance on the Stroop relies on the integrity of left lateral superior and middle frontal gyri. Thus, lesion location, right or left PFC, is critical in producing impairments on two inhibitory tasks

  16. Response format, magnitude of laterality effects, and sex differences in laterality.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the evidence for the claim that response format might affect the magnitude of laterality effects by means of a meta-analysis. The analysis included the 396 effect sizes drawn from 266 studies retrieved by Voyer (1996) and relevant to the main effect of laterality and sex differences in laterality for verbal and non-verbal tasks in the auditory, tactile, and visual sensory modality. The response format used in specific studies was the only moderator variable of interest in the present analysis, resulting in four broad response categories (oral, written, computer, and pointing). A meta-analysis analogue to ANOVA showed no significant influence of response format on either the main effect of laterality or sex differences in laterality when all sensory modalities were combined. However, when modalities were considered separately, response format affected the main effect of laterality in the visual modality, with a clear advantage for written responses. Further pointed analyses revealed some specific differences among response formats. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the measurement of laterality.

  17. Measuring acetabular component position on lateral radiographs - ischio-lateral method.

    PubMed

    Pulos, Nicholas; Tiberi Iii, John V; Schmalzried, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    The standard method for the evaluation of arthritis and postoperative assessment of arthroplasty treatment is observation and measurement from plain films, using the flm edge for orientation. A more recent employment of an anatomical landmark, the ischial tuberosity, has come into use as orientation for evaluation and is called the ischio-lateral method. In this study, the use of this method was evaluated as a first report to the literature on acetabular component measurement using a skeletal reference with lateral radiographs. Postoperative radiographs of 52 hips, with at least three true lateral radiographs taken at different time periods, were analyzed. Component position was measured with the historical method (using the flm edge for orientation) and with the new method using the ischio-lateral method. The mean standard deviation (SD) for the historical approach was 3.7° and for the ischio-lateral method, 2.2° (p < 0.001). With the historical method, 19 (36.5%) hips had a SD greater than ± 4°, compared to six hips (11.5%) with the ischio-lateral method. By using a skeletal reference, the ischio-lateral method provides a more consistent measurement of acetabular component position. The high intra-class correlation coefficients for both intra- and inter-observer reliability indicate that the angle measured with this simple method, which employs no further technology, increased time, or cost, is consistent and reproducible for multiple observers.

  18. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant

    PubMed Central

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no

  19. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-07-01

    The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no influences observed on the root apical meristem

  20. Parametric resonance of flexible footbridges under crowd-induced lateral excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardo, Giuseppe; Tubino, Federica

    2008-03-01

    The excessive lateral sway motion caused by crowds walking across footbridges has attracted great public attention in the past few years. Three possible mechanisms responsible for such lateral vibrations have been investigated in the literature: direct resonance, dynamic interaction, and internal resonance. In this paper, starting from a critical review of the mechanisms proposed in the literature, a parametric excitation mechanism is analyzed, based on a forcing model whose amplitude is a function of deck oscillations. A stability criterion is identified, depending on the ratio between the structural and excitation frequencies, on the ratio of the structural and pedestrian masses, and on the structural damping. The proposed mechanism can be achieved for very flexible footbridges, with a lateral natural frequency around 0.5 Hz, corresponding to a half of the lateral walking frequency. This situation can occur in modern structures, such as in the case of the London Millennium Footbridge.

  1. Cloud Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 1 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    This image was acquired during mid-spring near the North Pole. The linear water-ice clouds are now regional in extent and often interact with neighboring cloud system, as seen in this image. The bottom of the image shows how the interaction can destroy the linear nature. While the surface is still visible through most of the clouds, there is evidence that dust is also starting to enter the atmosphere.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 258.8 East (101.2 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration

  2. Lateral ankle triad: the triple injury of ankle synovitis, lateral ankle instability, and peroneal tendon tear.

    PubMed

    Franson, Justin; Baravarian, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Many articles have been published that discuss various lateral ankle injuries and specific lateral ankle pathology. The purpose of this article is to explore and present a specific combination of findings that the author's multiphysician practice has noticed on a frequently recurring basis. The triple injury of ankle synovitis, ankle instability, and peroneal tendon tear can be termed the Lateral Ankle Triad. While it is common to find each of these specific injuries individually, they are often found in combination. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Lateral cephalometric radiograph versus lateral nasopharyngeal radiograph for quantitative evaluation of nasopharyngeal airway space

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Suelen Cristina da Costa; Beltrão, Rejane Targino Soares; Janson, Guilherme; Garib, Daniela Gamba

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compared lateral radiographs of the nasopharynx (LN) and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LC) used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space in children. Material and Methods One examiner measured the nasopharyngeal space of 15 oral breathing patients aged between 5 and 11 years old by using LN and LC. Both assessments were made twice with a 15-day interval in between. Intergroup comparison was performed with t-tests (P < 0.05). Results Comparison between LN and LC measurements showed no significant differences. Conclusion Lateral cephalometric radiograph is an acceptable method used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space. PMID:25279526

  4. Lateralization of brain activity pattern during unilateral movement in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Hou, Yanan; Hallett, Mark; Zhang, Jiarong; Chan, Piu

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the lateralization of brain activity pattern during performance of unilateral movement in drug-naïve Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with only right hemiparkinsonian symptoms. Functional MRI was obtained when the subjects performed strictly unilateral right hand movement. A laterality index was calculated to examine the lateralization. Patients had decreased activity in the left putamen and left supplementary motor area, but had increased activity in the right primary motor cortex, right premotor cortex, left postcentral gyrus, and bilateral cerebellum. The laterality index was significantly decreased in PD patients compared with controls (0.41 ± 0.14 vs. 0.84 ± 0.09). The connectivity from the left putamen to cortical motor regions and cerebellum was decreased, while the interactions between the cortical motor regions, cerebellum, and right putamen were increased. Our study demonstrates that in early PD, the lateralization of brain activity during unilateral movement is significantly reduced. The dysfunction of the striatum-cortical circuit, decreased transcallosal inhibition, and compensatory efforts from cortical motor regions, cerebellum, and the less affected striatum are likely reasons contributing to the reduced motor lateralization. The disruption of the lateralized brain activity pattern might be a reason underlying some motor deficits in PD, like mirror movements or impaired bilateral motor coordination.

  5. Early play may predict later dominance relationships in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris).

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Chung, Lawrance K; Smith, Jennifer E

    2013-05-22

    Play has been defined as apparently functionless behaviour, yet since play is costly, models of adaptive evolution predict that it should have some beneficial function (or functions) that outweigh its costs. We provide strong evidence for a long-standing, but poorly supported hypothesis: that early social play is practice for later dominance relationships. We calculated the relative dominance rank by observing the directional outcome of playful interactions in juvenile and yearling yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and found that these rank relationships were correlated with later dominance ranks calculated from agonistic interactions, however, the strength of this relationship attenuated over time. While play may have multiple functions, one of them may be to establish later dominance relationships in a minimally costly way.

  6. Early play may predict later dominance relationships in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris)

    PubMed Central

    Blumstein, Daniel T.; Chung, Lawrance K.; Smith, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Play has been defined as apparently functionless behaviour, yet since play is costly, models of adaptive evolution predict that it should have some beneficial function (or functions) that outweigh its costs. We provide strong evidence for a long-standing, but poorly supported hypothesis: that early social play is practice for later dominance relationships. We calculated the relative dominance rank by observing the directional outcome of playful interactions in juvenile and yearling yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and found that these rank relationships were correlated with later dominance ranks calculated from agonistic interactions, however, the strength of this relationship attenuated over time. While play may have multiple functions, one of them may be to establish later dominance relationships in a minimally costly way. PMID:23536602

  7. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Freire, Óscar; Jaafar, Miriam; Berganza, Eider; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm) topographic (magnetic) lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media) by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft) cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market.

  8. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Miriam; Berganza, Eider; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    Summary Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm) topographic (magnetic) lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media) by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft) cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market. PMID:27547625

  9. Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teerhuis, A. P.; Jansen, S. T. H.

    2012-08-01

    The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the roll angle and tyre slip is not available; therefore, a method of model-based estimation is developed to estimate the state of a motorcycle. This paper investigates the feasibility of such a motorcycle state estimator (MCSE). A simplified analytic model of a motorcycle is developed by comparison to an extended multi-body model of the motorcycle, designed in Matlab/SimMechanics. The analytic model is used inside an extended Kalman filter. Experimental results of an instrumented Yamaha FJR1300 motorcycle show that the MCSE is a feasible concept for obtaining signals related to the lateral dynamics of the motorcycle.

  10. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    PubMed Central

    De Cosmi, Valentina; Scaglioni, Silvia; Agostoni, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia). While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment. PMID:28165384

  11. Robust lateral control of highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H.; Abdallah, C.

    1994-08-01

    Vehicle lateral dynamics are affected by vehicle mass, longitudinal velocity, vehicle inertia, and the cornering stiffness of the tires. All of these parameters are subject to variation, even over the course of a single trip. Therefore, a practical lateral control system must guarantee stability, and hopefully ride comfort, over a wide range of parameter changes. This paper describes a robust controller which theoretically guarantees stability over a wide range of parameter changes. The robust controller is designed using a frequency domain transfer function approach. An uncertainty band in the frequency domain is determined using simulations over the range of expected parameter variations. Based on this bound, a robust controller is designed by solving the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem. The performance of the robust controller is then evaluated over the range of parameter variations through simulations.

  12. Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

  13. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Marco Antonio; Ramalho, Gabriel Cardoso; Manzi, Marcello Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics. PMID:27433360

  14. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices.

    PubMed

    De Cosmi, Valentina; Scaglioni, Silvia; Agostoni, Carlo

    2017-02-04

    Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia). While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children's willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  15. Epidural Abscess Masquerading as Lateral Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Brodner, David C.; Cutler, Jeff; Gianoli, Gerard J.; Amedee, Ronald G.

    2000-01-01

    Controversy regarding the use of anticoagulants, the evacuation of the sinus, or the use of medical treatment alone surrounds the treatment of lateral sinus thrombosis. Treatment of an epidural abscess associated with coalescent mastoiditis is much less controversial-drainage is usually recommended. The differing treatments of these complications mandate accurate diagnosis. The advent of more sophisticated radiological studies has facilitated diagnosis of these complications; however, tests are not infallible. We present three cases in which preoperative imaging demonstrates an epidural abscess mimicking lateral sinus thrombosis by compression of the vessel. A false-positive computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study may lead to the wrong diagnosis and, consequently, improper treatment. In light of this possibility, we recommend surgical exploration in all such cases. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:17171148

  16. [Lateral humeral epicondylitis--"tennis elbow"].

    PubMed

    Jensen, B; Bliddal, H; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    2001-03-05

    There is a great variety of potential therapies in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis, surgical intervention being the most invasive. The most frequently applied therapies are corticosteroid injections, pain-relieving medication (NSAID) and physical therapy. Though many studies have been conducted, a "gold standard" in the treatment of LE is not available. Perhaps this is explained by a lack of methodological quality of many of these studies.

  17. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  18. Early nutrition and later diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Knip, Mikael; Akerblom, Hans K

    2005-01-01

    Early feeding may modify the risk of both type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) later in life. The information generated so far is, however, controversial. When evaluating studies on the impact of early feeding on risk of later diabetes, the data have to be assessed critically and possible confounding factors have to be considered. The study design may induce biases and there are considerable differences in early feeding practices across various countries and cultures. Accordingly it may not be possible to generalise observations based on one population. Long breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding in particular, and supplementation with vitamin D in infancy have been reported to confer partial protection against beta-cell autoimmunity and TID. In contrast, early exposure to cow's milk proteins and cereals and heavy weight in infancy have been implicated as risk factors for T1D. Long breastfeeding has also been observed to protect against T2D in aboriginal populations. Poor fetal nutrition resulting in low birth weight has been identified as a factor contributing to later insulin resistance and T2D. Recent data indicate that current overweight and obesity are stronger determinants of insulin resistance than birth weight among preschool children. High-nutrient diet and rapid growth in early infancy have been reported to adversely programme the principal components of the metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance and T2D. It is an important scientific and public-health objective to define protective and predisposing effects of early nutrition on the development of diabetes, since early feeding can potentially be modified to minimise the risk of later chronic diseases.

  19. A lateralized brain network for visuospatial attention.

    PubMed

    Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Forkel, Stephanie J; Simmons, Andrew; Vergani, Francesco; Murphy, Declan G M; Catani, Marco

    2011-09-18

    Right hemisphere dominance for visuospatial attention is characteristic of most humans, but its anatomical basis remains unknown. We report the first evidence in humans for a larger parieto-frontal network in the right than left hemisphere, and a significant correlation between the degree of anatomical lateralization and asymmetry of performance on visuospatial tasks. Our results suggest that hemispheric specialization is associated with an unbalanced speed of visuospatial processing.

  20. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  1. [Surgical anatomy of the lateral ventricles].

    PubMed

    Lejeune, J-P; Baroncini, M; Peltier, J; Le Gars, D

    2011-01-01

    The lateral ventricle is a deep-seated cavity, overlayed by a cortical mantle which contains eloquent areas, especially on the dominant hemisphere, and surrounded by the optic radiations. The surgical approach requires a thorough preoperative reflexion based on magnetic resonance imaging, in order to understand the site of origin and the vascular pedicles of the tumor. Surgical approaches to the frontal horn, temporal horn and atrium are successively described.

  2. Evaluation and management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Valadi, Nojan

    2015-06-01

    Motor neuron diseases can cause progressive impairment of voluntary muscles of movement, respiration, speech, and swallowing. This review discusses the most common motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It reviews the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of ALS, and its epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. A coordinated approach by the primary care physician and neurologist is necessary with a focus on treatment options, durable medical equipment needs, and end-of-life discussions.

  3. Serial Testing of Postural Control After Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, W. E.; Denegar, Craig R.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To identify subjects' changes in postural control during single-leg stance in the 4 weeks after acute lateral ankle sprain. Design and Setting: We used a 2 × 2 × 3 (side-by-plane-by-session) within-subjects design with repeated measures on all 3 factors. All tests were performed in a university laboratory. Subjects: Seventeen young adults (9 men, 8 women; age, 21.8 ± 5.9 years; mass, 74.9 ± 10.5 kg; height, 176.9 ± 7.1 cm) who had sustained unilateral acute mild or moderate lateral ankle sprains. Measurements: Measures of center-of-pressure excursion length, root mean square velocity of center-of-pressure excursions (VEL), and range of center-of-pressure excursions (RANGE) were calculated separately in the frontal and sagittal planes during 5-second trials of static single-leg stance. Results: We noted significant side-by-plane-by-session interactions for magnitude of center-of-pressure excursions in a given trial (PSL) (P = .004), VEL (P = .011), and RANGE (P = .009). Both PSL and VEL in the frontal plane were greater in the injured limbs compared with the uninjured limbs on day 1 and during week 2 but not during week 4, whereas sagittal-plane differences existed during all 3 testing sessions. Injured-limb, frontal-plane RANGE scores were greater than uninjured values at day 1 but not during weeks 2 or 4. No significant differences in sagittal-plane RANGE scores were seen. Conclusions: Postural control was significantly impaired in the injured limbs at day 1 and during week 2 after lateral ankle sprain but not during week 4. Consistent improvement in postural control measures on both injured and uninjured limbs was seen throughout the 4 weeks after ankle sprain. PMID:12937477

  4. Lateral Diffusion of Bedload Transport under Laminar Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, C. P.; Houssais, M.; Purohit, P. K.; Durian, D. J.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Lateral sediment transport is a key momentum-exchange mechanism to model equilibrium channel geometry and channel bar evolution. We study sediment transport from a statistical mechanical point of view akin to Furbish et al. 2012. This approach holds promise for linking grain-scale motion to macroscopic transport, but there are few data to definitively develop and test such models. We study an experimental model river, composed of monodisperse acrylic spheres dispersed in silicon oil, driven by a layer of fluid under steady shear. We choose to drive fluid flow in the laminar regime (Re < 1) to suppress fluid turbulence and isolate granular and bed structure controls. We use a refractive-index-matched laser scanning technique to observe the motion of particles at the surface of the bed as well as the particle dynamics below the surface. We study how the probability distribution of displacements varies as a function of distance from the bed surface and as a function of distance to the channel center. In the streamwise direction, in agreement with Furbish et al. 2012, we find that the dynamics can be decomposed into an advection and a diffusion term. In the lateral direction, we find a competition between diffusion and an elastic-like interaction with the bed. We study this lateral stochastic process and find a need to introduce two parameters to quantify this competition. The first parameter describes the tendency for particles to reside near the center of the channel and the second parameter describes the kinetic energy distribution of the particles. We study how the requisite averaging scales and ensemble sizes to achieve statistically convergent parameters, and we explore how these parameters depend on the driving rate.

  5. Lateral approach for supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, DK; Sahu, Anjana

    2010-01-01

    A lateral approach described by Volker Hempel and Dr. Dilip Kotharihas been further studied, evaluated and described in detail in the present study. The aim of this study was to evaluate lateral approach of supraclavicular brachial plexus block, mainly in terms of successes rate and complication rate. The study was conducted in secondary level hospital and tertiary level hospital from 2004 to 2008. It was a prospective nonrandomized open-level study. Eighty-two patients of both sexes, aged between 18 and 65 years with ASA Grade I and II scheduled to undergo elective major surgery of the upper limb below the midarm, were selected for this new lateral approach of brachial plexus block. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block, any complications and need for supplement anaesthesia were observed. Success and complication rate were calculated in percentage. Average onset and duration of sensory and motor block was calculated as mean ± SD and percentage. Out of 82 patients, 75 (92%) have got successful block with no significant complication in any case. PMID:20885867

  6. Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Wilzeck, Christiane; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Güntürkün, Onur; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Prior, Helmut

    2010-04-06

    The aim of our study was to test for lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in pigeons. Having shown that pigeons are capable of learning magnetic compass directions in an operant task, we wanted to know whether the brain hemispheres contribute differently and how the lateralization pattern relates to findings in other avian species. Birds that had learnt to locate food in an operant chamber by means of magnetic directions were tested for lateralization of magnetic compass orientation by temporarily covering one eye. Successful orientation occurred under all conditions of viewing. Thus, pigeons can perceive and process magnetic compass directions with the right eye and left brain hemisphere as well as the left eye and right brain hemisphere. However, while the right brain hemisphere tended to confuse the learned direction with its opposite (axial response), the left brain hemisphere specifically preferred the correct direction. Our findings demonstrate bilateral processing of magnetic information, but also suggest qualitative differences in how the left and the right brain deal with magnetic cues.

  7. Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Wilzeck, Christiane; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Güntürkün, Onur; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Prior, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study was to test for lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in pigeons. Having shown that pigeons are capable of learning magnetic compass directions in an operant task, we wanted to know whether the brain hemispheres contribute differently and how the lateralization pattern relates to findings in other avian species. Birds that had learnt to locate food in an operant chamber by means of magnetic directions were tested for lateralization of magnetic compass orientation by temporarily covering one eye. Successful orientation occurred under all conditions of viewing. Thus, pigeons can perceive and process magnetic compass directions with the right eye and left brain hemisphere as well as the left eye and right brain hemisphere. However, while the right brain hemisphere tended to confuse the learned direction with its opposite (axial response), the left brain hemisphere specifically preferred the correct direction. Our findings demonstrate bilateral processing of magnetic information, but also suggest qualitative differences in how the left and the right brain deal with magnetic cues. PMID:20053653

  8. Laterally-biased quantum dot infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardimona, D. A.; Morath, C. P.; Guidry, D. H.; Cowan, V. M.

    2013-07-01

    At the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, we are interested in improving the performance of or modifying the capabilities of infrared detectors in order to locate and identify dim and/or distant objects in space. One characteristic we are very interested in is multicolor detection. To this end, we have turned to a novel detector design that we have come to call a Lateral Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (LQDIP). In this design, InAs quantum dots are buried in a GaAs quantum well, which in turn is tunnel-coupled to another GaAs quantum well. Photoexcited electrons from the quantum dots tunnel over to the second well and are then swept out via a lateral (perpendicular to the growth direction) bias voltage. This architecture should exhibit the ability to tune to select infrared frequencies with reduced dark current and unity gain. The lateral photocurrent is directed by a vertical (parallel to the growth direction) gate voltage. We will discuss this detector architecture and the LQDIP operating principles and conditions, and we will present some preliminary results of current-voltage, photocurrent, differential conductance, and spectral measurements.

  9. Misleading EEG Lateralization Associated With Midline Shift.

    PubMed

    Ghearing, Gena R; Abramovici, Sergiu; Popescu, Alexandra; Baldwin, Maria E

    2017-07-04

    Midline discharges, lateralized periodic discharges, and seizures have been described with ipsilateral lesions that result in midline shift (MLS). Periodic discharges and seizures arising contralateral to a known lesion have not previously been described as a sign of MLS. We present four patients with focal brain lesions, resulting in MLS and epileptiform discharges arising from the contralateral hemisphere. Patient 1 underwent a right anterior temporal lobectomy. On postoperative day 2, computed tomography demonstrated a right to left MLS of 12 mm, and EEG was remarkable for left temporal nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Patient 2 experienced a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which was more prominent on the left. Computed tomography after craniotomy demonstrated left to right MLS of 6 mm, and EEG was remarkable for right lateralized periodic discharges. Patient 3 had a right subdural hematoma and underwent craniotomy for evacuation. On postoperative day 3, computed tomography demonstrated a right MLS of 7 mm, and EEG was remarkable for left temporal nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Patient 4 had traumatic brain hemorrhages with maximal left frontotemporal involvement. Six days after the trauma, computed tomography was significant for left to right MLS of 9 mm, and EEG showed right lateralized periodic discharges. Epileptiform discharges and seizures occurring contralateral to a known lesion may be an indicator of MLS.

  10. Perturbations Caused by Lateral Stress Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, R. E.; Harris, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    In principle, stress gauges mounted to measure lateral stresses in a shocked matrix allow the shear strength of the material to be determined. Interpreting the records from lateral stress gauges is hindered by the fact that the stress field in the insulating layer in which the gauges are mounted can differ signifcantly from the stress field that would be generated in the sample if no gauge were present. A series of high resolution Eulerian code calculations have been run which suggest that the stresses in the insulating layer vary with distance and time in a way that depends on the thickness of the layer, the shock strength, and the elastic and plastic properties of both the layer and the matrix. In particular, if the shock velocity in the matrix material is high the stress at a typical gauge position initially rises to a sharp peak then falls with time, but when the shock velocity in the matrix is low the stress rises relatively gradually throughout the time of interest. The shapes of the stress-time profiles predicted by the hydrocode compare well with the results of lateral gauge experiments on several different materials.

  11. Lateral balance control for robotic gait training.

    PubMed

    Koopman, B; Meuleman, J H; van Asseldonk, E H F; van der Kooij, H

    2013-06-01

    For the rehabilitation of neurological patients robot-aided gait training is increasingly being used. Lack of balance training in these robotic gait trainers might contribute to the fact that they do not live up to the expectations. Therefore, in this study we developed and evaluated an algorithm to support lateral balance during walking, through controlling pelvis motions. This algorithm assists the pelvis, according to a natural pelvic sway pattern, rather than attracting it to the middle of the treadmill. The support algorithm was tested on six healthy young subjects who walked on a treadmill, while different support gains were introduced. Using a higher support gain resulted in a closer approximation of the pelvic sway towards the reference pattern. Step width and step width variability reduced when the external stabilization was provided, and the stability margin increased. This indicates that artificial stabilization reduces the need for active lateral balance control. The presented algorithm to support lateral balance provides a way to assist balance in a more physiological way, compared to attracting the subject to the centre of the treadmill. Here the user is attracted/assisted towards a more natural weight shift pattern. This also facilitates a more natural input of the load receptors, which are largely involved in the regulation of muscle activation patterns and the transitions between the different gait phases.

  12. Lateral flow immunoassay using magnetoresistive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taton, Kristin; Johnson, Diane; Guire, Patrick; Lange, Erik; Tondra, Mark

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic particles have been adapted for use as labels in biochemical lateral flow strip tests. Standard gold particle lateral flow assays are generally qualitative; however, with magnetic particles, quantitative results can be obtained by using electronic detection systems with giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. As described here, these small integrated sensor chips can detect the presence of magnetic labels in capture spots whose volume is approximately 150 μm×150 μm×150 μm. The range of linear detection is better than two orders of magnitude; the total range is up to four orders of magnitude. The system was demonstrated with both indirect and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for protein detection of rabbit IgG and interferon-γ, respectively, achieving detection of 12 pg/ml protein. Ultimately, the goal is for the detector to be fully integrated into the lateral flow strip backing to form a single consumable item that is interrogated by a handheld electronic reader.

  13. Lateral jet injection into typical combustor flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental problem of lateral jet injection into typical flow fields in the absence of combustion was studied. All flow fields being investigated have no expansion of the crossflow (the test section to swirler diameter ratio D/d = 1), after its passage through an optional swirler (with swirl vane angle phi = 0 (swirler removed), 45, and 70 degree). The lateral jet(s) is(are) located one test-section diameter downstream of the test-section inlet (x/D = 1). The lateral jets have round-sectioned nozzles, each of which has an area of 1/100th of the cross sectional area of the crossflow (A sub j/A sub c = 1/100). Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of R = v sub j/u sub o = 2, 4, and 6 were investigated. Helium-bubble low visualization, five-hole pitot probe time-mean velocity measurements, and single-wire time-mean velocity and normal and shear stress turbulence data were obtained in the research program.

  14. Learning in Later Life: A Bicultural Perspective from Aotearoa/New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findsen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This article is concerned with how learning in later life has been constructed and practised by the two most numerous ethnic groups in Aotearoa/New Zealand, "Pakeha" (Europeans) and "Maori" (Indigenous people). It is argued that learning is heavily influenced by historic features of interaction between these two groups; Pakeha…

  15. Learning in Later Life: A Bicultural Perspective from Aotearoa/New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findsen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This article is concerned with how learning in later life has been constructed and practised by the two most numerous ethnic groups in Aotearoa/New Zealand, "Pakeha" (Europeans) and "Maori" (Indigenous people). It is argued that learning is heavily influenced by historic features of interaction between these two groups; Pakeha…

  16. Defining and measuring the mean residence time of lateral surface transient storage zones in small streams

    Treesearch

    T.R. Jackson; R. Haggerty; S.V. Apte; A. Coleman; K.J. Drost

    2012-01-01

    Surface transient storage (STS) has functional significance in stream ecosystems because it increases solute interaction with sediments. After volume, mean residence time is the most important metric of STS, but it is unclear how this can be measured accurately or related to other timescales and field-measureable parameters. We studied mean residence time of lateral...

  17. The Southpaw Advantage? - Lateral Preference in Mixed Martial Arts

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph; Schorer, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Performers with a left-orientation have a greater likelihood of obtaining elite levels of performance in many interactive sports. This study examined whether combat stance orientation was related to skill and success in Mixed Martial Arts fighters. Data were extracted for 1468 mixed martial artists from a reliable and valid online data source. Measures included fighting stance, win percentage and an ordinal measure of skill based on number of fights. The overall analysis revealed that the fraction of fighters using a southpaw stance was greater than the fraction of left-handers in the general population, but the relationship between stance and hand-preference is not well-understood. Furthermore, t-tests found no statistically significant relationship between laterality and winning percentage, although there was a significant difference between stances for number of fights. Southpaw fighters had a greater number of fights than those using an orthodox stance. These results contribute to an expanding database on the influence of laterality on sport performance and a relatively limited database on variables associated with success in mixed martial arts. PMID:24260301

  18. The southpaw advantage? Lateral preference in mixed martial arts.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph; Schorer, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Performers with a left-orientation have a greater likelihood of obtaining elite levels of performance in many interactive sports. This study examined whether combat stance orientation was related to skill and success in Mixed Martial Arts fighters. Data were extracted for 1468 mixed martial artists from a reliable and valid online data source. Measures included fighting stance, win percentage and an ordinal measure of skill based on number of fights. The overall analysis revealed that the fraction of fighters using a southpaw stance was greater than the fraction of left-handers in the general population, but the relationship between stance and hand-preference is not well-understood. Furthermore, t-tests found no statistically significant relationship between laterality and winning percentage, although there was a significant difference between stances for number of fights. Southpaw fighters had a greater number of fights than those using an orthodox stance. These results contribute to an expanding database on the influence of laterality on sport performance and a relatively limited database on variables associated with success in mixed martial arts.

  19. Lateral migration of particles in the Newtonian fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, M.

    2014-04-01

    Studying of lateral migration of particles has a long history in fluid mechanics. In the Stokes approximation, noncharged rigid spherical particle in dilute solution does not migrate to a direction perpendicular to external field. For example, the spherical particle is placed in the vicinity of the wall. The particle doesn't move when a flow field, which is parallel to the wall, is applied. However, the lateral migrations are observed in dispersions of non-spherical and deformable particles. Blood is a multi-phase dispersion and is composed of red blood cells, leukocytes, platelets and so on dispersed in plasma. The leukocytes and the platelets move to the vicinity of the wall when the blood flows in tube. It is called `margination'. In this study, the migrations of binary droplet dispersion with different radii and surface tension coefficient are examined by computer simulations. The interaction among droplets causes a segregation of some kind of particles. The binary droplets dispersion system under Couette flow is simulated and the mean positions of the droplets are evaluated. The margination of small droplets is observed when the surface tension coefficient of the large droplets is small. On the other hand, the margination of large droplets is not observed when the large droplet is stiff.

  20. Suicide later in life: challenges and priorities for prevention.

    PubMed

    Conwell, Yeates

    2014-09-01

    Suicide in later life is a major public health concern in the U.S., where more than 6,000 older adults take their own lives every year. Suicide prevention in this age group is made challenging by the high lethality of older adults' suicidal behavior; few survive their first attempt to harm themselves. Research has revealed that factors in each of five domains place older adults at increased risk for suicide-psychiatric illness, personality traits and coping styles, medical illness, life stressors and social disconnectedness, and functional impairment. Little research has examined the effectiveness of interventions to reduce the toll of suicide in older adulthood. The study of strategies to decrease suicide deaths in later life should emphasize four areas. First is approaches to early detection of older people at risk through improved understanding of multi-dimensional determinants and their interactions. Second is research on the impact of general health promotion that optimizes well-being and independent functioning for older adults on suicide outcomes. Third concerns the study of approaches to the provision of mental health care that is evidence-based, accessible, affordable, acceptable, and integrated with other aspects of care. The fourth area of high priority for research is approaches to improvement of social connectedness and its impact on suicide in older adults. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Specificity of serotoninergic inhibition in Limulus lateral eye.

    PubMed

    Adolph, A R; Kass, L

    1979-11-01

    The receptor specificity for synaptically mediated lateral inhibition in Limulus lateral eye retina was studied by structure-activity correlations of the action of the putative indoleaminergic neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT), and its isomers and structural analogs, tryptamine (TRYP), 6-hydroxytryptamine (6HT), 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine (5,6-DHT), 5-hydroxydimethyltryptamine (5-HDMT), and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). The 5-HT blockers, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), bromo-LSD (BOL), and cinanserin, were also tested. The inhibitory action of the indoleaminergic agonists is highly structure-specific. An hydroxyl group in the 5 position of the indole nucleus, sterically unencumbered by hydroxyls in neighboing positions, is essential. In order of decreasing potency, 5-HT, 5-HDMT, and 5-HTP are active agonists; TRYP, 6-HT, and 5,6-DHT are inactive. Configuration and mobility of the side chains of the active agonists also affect the interaction, and these side-chain characteristics correlate with agonist potency. The receptors for inhibitory action and for transmembranal transport in reuptake are different. Both active agonists and inactive analogs appear to be taken up (Adolph and Ehinger, 1975. Cell Tissue Res. 163:1-14). LSD and BOL have bimodal actions: direct inhibition and agonist blockade. These actions may be mediated via low-specificity presynaptic uptake receptor sites rather than highly specific, postsynaptic, agonist receptor sites.

  2. Putative synaptic mechanisms of inhibition in Limulus lateral eye.

    PubMed

    Adolph, A R

    1976-04-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) perfusion of a thin section of Limulus lateral eye hyperpolarizes retinular and eccentric cell membrane potential, and blocks spike action potentials fired by the eccenteric cell. The indoleamine does not directly affect retinular cell receptor potential or eccenteric cell generator potential in response to light stimuli. LSD perfusion blocks both this inhibitory action of 5-HT and light-evoked, synaptically mediated, lateral inhibition. Iontophoretic application of 5-HT to the synaptic neuropil produces shorter latency and duration and larger amplitude of inhibition than does the perfusion technique. This inhibition is dose dependent; the accompanying inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) appears to have an equilibrium potential more hyperpolarized than normal resting potential levels of ca. -50 mV. IPSP amplitude is sensitive to extracellular potassium ion concentration: it increases with decreased [K+]0 and decreases with increased [K+]0. LSD blocks the inhibition produced by iontophoretic application of 5-HT. Interaction between light-evoked, natural synaptic transmitter-mediated IPSP's and 5-HT IPSP's suggests a common postsynaptic receptor or transmitter-receptor-permeability change mechanism.

  3. Lateral Programmable Metallization Cell Devices And Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Minghan

    2011-12-01

    Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a technology platform which utilizes mass transport in solid or liquid electrolyte coupled with electrochemical (redox) reactions to form or remove nanoscale metallic electrodeposits on or in the electrolyte. The ability to redistribute metal mass and form metallic nanostructure in or on a structure in situ, via the application of a bias on laterally placed electrodes, creates a large number of promising applications. A novel PMC-based lateral microwave switch was fabricated and characterized for use in microwave systems. It has demonstrated low insertion loss, high isolation, low voltage operation, low power and low energy consumption, and excellent linearity. Due to its non-volatile nature the switch operates with fewer biases and its simple planar geometry makes possible innovative device structures which can be potentially integrated into microwave power distribution circuits. PMC technology is also used to develop lateral dendritic metal electrodes. A lateral metallic dendritic network can be grown in a solid electrolyte (GeSe) or electrodeposited on SiO2 or Si using a water-mediated method. These dendritic electrodes grown in a solid electrolyte (GeSe) can be used to lower resistances for applications like self-healing interconnects despite its relatively low light transparency; while the dendritic electrodes grown using water-mediated method can be potentially integrated into solar cell applications, like replacing conventional Ag screen-printed top electrodes as they not only reduce resistances but also are highly transparent. This research effort also laid a solid foundation for developing dendritic plasmonic structures. A PMC-based lateral dendritic plasmonic structure is a device that has metallic dendritic networks grown electrochemically on SiO2 with a thin layer of surface metal nanoparticles in liquid electrolyte. These structures increase the distribution of particle sizes by connecting pre-deposited Ag

  4. Lateral modes of broad area semiconductor lasers - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J.; Larsson, Anders G.; Cody, Jeffrey G.

    1991-01-01

    Calculations of the lateral modes of an ideal broad area laser, including the nonlinear interaction between the carriers and the optical field, are made. The results include periodically modulated near fields and single- and double-lobed far fields similar to those previously measured. The unsaturable losses are higher and quantum efficiencies are lower than those determined from plane-wave approximations. Broad area InGaAs-GaAlAs-GaAs quantum-well lasers were fabricated and measured and found to closely agree with the theory in near, far, and spectrally resolved near fields. An occultation experiment on the far field confirms previously predicted unstable resonatorlike modes with V-shaped fronts.

  5. Screening for TARDBP mutations in Japanese familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Masaki; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Eiji; Morino, Hiroyuki; Wate, Reika; Ito, Hidefumi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Kawano, Yuji; Miki, Tetsuro; Nodera, Hiroyuki; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji; Kawakami, Hideshi

    2009-09-15

    TAR-DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), encoded by the TARDBP gene on chromosome 1p36.22, has been identified as the major pathological protein in abnormal inclusions in neurons and glial cells in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS), SOD1-negative familial ALS (FALS) and frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD). Twenty mutations of TARDBP in SOD1-negative FALS and SALS cases have been reported so far. To investigate the presence and frequency of TARDBP mutations in Japanese SOD1-negative FALS patients, we performed mutational screening of TARDBP in 30 SOD1-negative FALS patients. An N352S mutation was found in one case of FALS, but no TARDBP mutations were found in cases of SALS. It was thought that this mutation increases TDP-43 phosphorylation. This might lead to impaired nuclear cytoplasmic transport or protein-protein interaction, thereby leading to TDP-43 accumulation.

  6. An organic donor/acceptor lateral superlattice at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Otero, Roberto; Ecija, David; Fernandez, Gustavo; Gallego, José María; Sanchez, Luis; Martín, Nazario; Miranda, Rodolfo

    2007-09-01

    A precise control of the nanometer-scale morphology in systems containing mixtures of donor/acceptor molecules is a key factor to improve the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices. Here we report on a scanning tunneling microscopy study of the first stages of growth of 2-[9-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)anthracen-10(9H)-ylidene]-1,3-dithiole, as electron donor, and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, as electron acceptor, on a Au(111) substrate under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Due to differences in bonding strength with the substrate and different interactions with the Au(111) herringbone surface reconstruction, mixed thin films spontaneously segregate into a lateral superlattice of interdigitated nanoscale stripes with a characteristic width of about 10-20 nm, a morphology that has been predicted to optimize the efficiency of organic solar cells.

  7. Lateral shear-moraines and lateral marginal-moraines of palaeo-ice streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, C. L.; Dowdeswell, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    An understanding of the nature of sedimentation at ice-stream lateral margins is important in reconstructing the dynamics of former ice sheets and modelling the mechanisms by which sediment is transported beneath contemporary ice streams. Theories of the formation of ice-stream lateral moraines (ISLMs) have hitherto been based on a relatively limited number of terrestrial and marine examples. Here, an inventory of ISLMs is compiled from available studies, together with independent analysis of seismic-reflection and bathymetric datasets. The locations and dimensions of 70 ISLMs, alongside a synthesis of their key architectural and geomorphic characteristics, are presented. Two different types of ISLMs are identified. Type 1 ISLMs are up to 3.5 km wide and 60 m thick. They maintain a constant width, thickness and cross-sectional shape along their length. Type 1 ISLMs are interpreted and referred to as ice-stream lateral shear-moraines that form subglacially in the shear zone between ice streams and slower-flowing regions of an ice sheet. In contrast, Type 2 ISLMs are up to 50 km wide and 300 m thick. They are only identified close to the shelf break in the marine environment. Type 2 ISLMs exhibit an increase in width and thickness along their length and their distal slopes become steeper in a seaward direction. They contain internal dipping reflections that indicate sediment progradation away from the former ice stream. Type 2 ISLMs are interpreted and referred to as ice-stream lateral marginal-moraines that were formed at the lateral boundary between ice streams and seafloor terrain that was free of grounded ice. We suggest that, using bathymetric images and acoustic profiles, it is possible to differentiate between ice-stream lateral shear-moraines and lateral marginal-moraines in the geological record. This distinction is important for understanding the mechanisms of sediment transfer beneath ice streams and for making inferences about the conditions that existed

  8. Partial lateral patellar facetectomy for treatment of arthritis due to lateral patellar compression syndrome.

    PubMed

    Paulos, Lonnie E; O'Connor, Daryl L; Karistinos, Anastassios

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intermediate-term results of a retrospective clinical trial designed to establish the value of lateral retinaculum release of the patella in conjunction with partial lateral patella facetectomy in patients with stage III or stage IV patellofemoral arthritis. Between October 1992 and January 2005, all patients undergoing arthroscopy, lateral patellar retinaculum release, and lateral patella facetectomy were evaluated. In total, 66 knees in 63 patients (89%) were available for evaluation at a mean of 60 months after the index surgery. Evaluations consisted of preoperative and postoperative questionnaires, physical examinations, and radiographs. The main outcome measure was the Kujala patellofemoral score. For those patients not undergoing total knee arthroplasty before evaluation, the mean Kujala score was 45.6 preoperatively and 72.0 postoperatively (P < .001); subjectively, 56% of patients were very satisfied, 32% satisfied and would repeat the procedure, 5% were indifferent, and 7% were dissatisfied and would not repeat the procedure. Including all patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty before evaluation and those who would not repeat the procedure or were indifferent, our accumulative failure rate was 17%. Correlations of several measures with the Kujala score, as well as subgroup comparisons of several measures between patients who were satisfied and those who were not satisfied with their reconstructions, were performed. However, all of these failed to achieve statistical significance after adjustment for multiple comparisons and so are not reported in this report. Lateral patella retinaculum release and partial lateral patella facetectomy for end-stage patellofemoral disease provides up to 5 years of symptomatic relief in over 80% of carefully selected patients who do not have significant arthritis (grade IV) in the medial or lateral knee compartments. Significant lateral facet patellofemoral arthritis

  9. Clinical performance of lateralized versus non-lateralized reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Stefan; Schmidt, Christian; Herrmann, Sebastian; Pauly, Stephan; Perka, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is an established therapeutic option in the treatment of cuff tear arthropathy (CTA). Recent studies have described a positive effect of lateralization of the center of rotation, especially on postoperative rotational function. The goal of this study is to compare the outcome of non-lateralized versus lateralized RSA with particular regard to rotational function in patients with CTA. Thirty-four patients underwent implantation of RSA either with lateralization (n = 17) or without lateralization (n = 17) by use of a 1-cm autologous bone graft ("bony increased offset") of the humeral head for CTA. Clinical outcomes were measured with the Constant score; the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score; and the Activities of Daily Living Requiring External Rotation score, as well as measurement of external rotation and determination of the external rotation lag sign with the arm at the side and at 90° of abduction, at 1 year postoperatively and at final follow-up. Computed tomography scan evaluation was performed in all patients preoperatively and at 1 year postoperatively to assess preoperative fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff and bony integration of the graft postoperatively. At final follow-up, all patients showed significantly increased functional results. There were no significant differences in the evaluated parameters. If patients with degenerative changes of the teres minor were excluded, the lateralized group showed significantly increased external rotation. Bony integration of the graft could be verified on postoperative computed tomography scans in all patients. RSA with bony lateralization shows a trend toward improved external rotation in lateralized RSA, with a statistically significant improvement in external rotation in patients with an intact teres minor. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Kotnis, Nikhil A; Chiavaras, Mary M; Harish, Srinivasan

    2012-04-01

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis.

  11. STRUCTURAL RESPONSE OF THE DIII-D TOROIDAL FIELD COIL TO INCREASED LATERAL LOADS

    SciTech Connect

    REIS,E.E; CHIN,E

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 Recent calibration shots in which full toroidal field (TF) coil current interacted with the maximum poloidal field coils have produced increased lateral loads on the outer sections of the TF-coil. The increased lateral loads have resulted in deflections that have been sufficient to cause the TF-coil to contact adjacent equipment and produce a transient short to ground within the coil. The six outer turns of each TF-coil bundle are clamped together by insulated preloaded studs to provide increased bending stiffness. These sections of the outer bundles depend on friction to react the lateral loads as a bundle rather than six individual turns. A major concern is that the increased loads will produce slip between turns resulting in excessive lateral deflections and possible damage to the insulating sleeve on the preloaded studs. A finite element structural model of the TF-coil was developed for the calculation of deflections and the shear load distribution throughout the coil for the applied lateral loads from a full current calibration shot. The purpose of the updated structural model is to correlate the applied lateral loads to the total shear force between the unbonded sections of the outer turns. An allowable integrated lateral load applied to the outer turns is established based on the maximum shear force that can be reacted by friction. A program that calculates the magnetic fields and integrated lateral load along the outer turns can be incorporated into the plasma control system. The integrated load can then be compared to the calculated allowable value prior to execution of calibration shots. Calibration shots with a calculated total lateral load greater than the allowable value will be prevented.

  12. [How to understand the excessive lateral rectus muscle recession].

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaoli; Wei, Yan

    2014-07-01

    Surgical treatments of intermittent exotropia include symmetric bilateral lateral rectus recession, symmetric bilateral medial rectus resection, asymmetric monocular lateral rectus recession and/or medial rectus resection, in which lateral rectus recession is the most common method. The maximum amount of lateral rectus recession, however, is still controversial. Bilateral lateral rectus recession 7-8 mm for 35(Δ)-40(Δ) exotropia and unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection for exotropia larger than 40(Δ) are suggested by most doctor usually. But some other doctors advocated augmented bilateral lateral rectus recession (9-14 mm ) for exotropia larger than 50(Δ) or augmented unilateral lateral rectus recession for moderate angle exotropia (30(Δ)-35(Δ)), which brought confusion in practical clinical work. In this paper, we'll focus on the amount of lateral rectus recession, and discuss several common issues related to augmented lateral rectus recession, in order to provide references for the majority of clinicians.

  13. Etiology and treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rafael, Hernando; David, Juan Oscar; Vilca, Antonio Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Background: To date all researchers conclude that the etiology of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not known. On the contrary, since August 2009, we believe that disease is of ischemic origin in the anterior surface of the medulla oblongata. Material and method: We present our surgical experience into 45 patients with ALS (bulbar form in 36 cases and spinal form in 9). Preoperative MRI scans revealed microinfarcts in the medulla oblongata and/or cervical cord. During surgery we found: 1) poor quality of omentum in most cases; 2) degenerative changes in the cervical spine; 3) anatomical anomalies at the V4 segments of the vertebral arteries; 4) moderate to severe atherosclerosis at both V4 segments; 5) unilateral absence or stenosis in the anterior-ventral spinal arteries (AVSAs). All patients received omentum on the anterior, lateral and posterior surface of the medulla oblongata, and in 9 cases, an additional segment at the C5-C6 level. Results: Neurological improvement was better during the first days or weeks after surgery than in the following months or years, in all patients. However, 13 patients suffered neurological impairment in about 4 months later, due to greater deterioration of the cervical spine, by contrast, 7 patients with mild ALS have experienced neurological improvement by 80 to 100% during a follow-up of 4 and 6 years. Conclusions: These results confirm that ALS is of ischemic origin in the intraparenchymal territory of the AVSAs and/or in anterior spinal artery caused by atherosclerosis and associated to anatomical variants in the V4 segments of the vertebral arteries. Because in contrast to this, its revascularization by means of omentum can cure (mild degree) or improve this disease. PMID:28533943

  14. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  15. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  16. Etiology and treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Hernando; David, Juan Oscar; Vilca, Antonio Santiago

    2017-01-01

    To date all researchers conclude that the etiology of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not known. On the contrary, since August 2009, we believe that disease is of ischemic origin in the anterior surface of the medulla oblongata. We present our surgical experience into 45 patients with ALS (bulbar form in 36 cases and spinal form in 9). Preoperative MRI scans revealed microinfarcts in the medulla oblongata and/or cervical cord. During surgery we found: 1) poor quality of omentum in most cases; 2) degenerative changes in the cervical spine; 3) anatomical anomalies at the V4 segments of the vertebral arteries; 4) moderate to severe atherosclerosis at both V4 segments; 5) unilateral absence or stenosis in the anterior-ventral spinal arteries (AVSAs). All patients received omentum on the anterior, lateral and posterior surface of the medulla oblongata, and in 9 cases, an additional segment at the C5-C6 level. Neurological improvement was better during the first days or weeks after surgery than in the following months or years, in all patients. However, 13 patients suffered neurological impairment in about 4 months later, due to greater deterioration of the cervical spine, by contrast, 7 patients with mild ALS have experienced neurological improvement by 80 to 100% during a follow-up of 4 and 6 years. These results confirm that ALS is of ischemic origin in the intraparenchymal territory of the AVSAs and/or in anterior spinal artery caused by atherosclerosis and associated to anatomical variants in the V4 segments of the vertebral arteries. Because in contrast to this, its revascularization by means of omentum can cure (mild degree) or improve this disease.

  17. Lateralization of cortical negative motor areas.

    PubMed

    Borggraefe, Ingo; Catarino, Claudia B; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Peraud, Aurelia; Winkler, Peter A; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-10-01

    The lateral and mesial aspects of the central and frontal cortex were studied by direct electrical stimulation of the cortex in epilepsy surgery candidates in order to determine the localization of unilateral and bilateral negative motor responses. Results of electrical cortical stimulation were examined in epilepsy surgery candidates in whom invasive electrodes were implanted. The exact localization of subdural electrodes was defined by fusion of 3-dimensional reconstructed MRI and CT images in 13 patients and by analysis of plane skull X-rays and intraoperative visual localization of the electrodes in another 7 patients. Results of electrical stimulation of the cortex were evaluated in a total of 128 patients in whom invasive electrodes were implanted for planning resective epilepsy surgery. Twenty patients, in whom negative motor responses were obtained, were included in the study. Bilateral upper limb negative motor responses were more often elicited from stimulation of the mesial frontal cortex whereas stimulation of the lateral central cortex leads to contralateral upper limb negative motor responses (p<0.0001). Bilateral negative motor responses were exclusively found in the superior frontal gyrus whereas contralateral negative motor responses localized predominantly in the anterior part of the precentral gyrus (p<0.0001). Exact localization using 3-D fusion methods revealed that negative motor areas are widely distributed throughout the precentral gyrus and the mesial fronto-central cortex showing functional differences with regard to unilateral and bilateral upper limb representation. The lateral fronto-central negative motor area serves predominantly contralateral upper limb motor control whereas the mesial frontal negative motor area represents bilateral upper limb movement control. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Shallow HEMTs For Lateral Magnetic Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinter, R.; Stillrich, H.; Heyn, Ch.; Pütter, S.; Oepen, H. P.; Hansen, W.; Frömsdorf, A.; Förster, S.; Lee, W.; Nielsch, K.

    2007-04-01

    We study two-dimensional electron gases subjected to modulated potentials and magnetic fields. With mask techniques it is possible to prepare lateral magnetic superlattices with periods below 100 nm. For a sufficiently strong modulation of the magnetic field at the location of the 2DEG at such small periods, optimized heterostructures with extremely shallow 2DEGs are required. Here, we report on the development of shallow HEMTs containing 2DEGs less than 20 nm below the surface and compatible deposition techniques for the magnetic layers.

  19. Spontaneous Polariton Currents in Periodic Lateral Chains.

    PubMed

    Nalitov, A V; Liew, T C H; Kavokin, A V; Altshuler, B L; Rubo, Y G

    2017-08-11

    We predict spontaneous generation of superfluid polariton currents in planar microcavities with lateral periodic modulation of both the potential and decay rate. A spontaneous breaking of spatial inversion symmetry of a polariton condensate emerges at a critical pumping, and the current direction is stochastically chosen. We analyze the stability of the current with respect to the fluctuations of the condensate. A peculiar spatial current domain structure emerges, where the current direction is switched at the domain walls, and the characteristic domain size and lifetime scale with the pumping power.

  20. Auditory lateralization: an effect of rhythm.

    PubMed

    Buxton, H

    1983-03-01

    Recall of monaurally presented semantically anomalous sentences, which had either neutral or rhythmic timing, was tested at the right ear, at the left ear, and on transfer from one ear to the other. The component words, being computer stored digitized waveforms, had identical acoustic structure in the two conditions. In the rhythmic condition there was not only an overall advantage in the second half of the experiment but also an asymmetric transfer effect such that this advantage did not appear when the left ear was tested after the right. It is proposed that functional lateralization be viewed as an adaptive, dynamic, organizational factor.

  1. Pemphigus vulgaris and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Matin, Marzieh; Rajati, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune bullous and erosive mucocutaneous disease. Rarely, it occurs in patients with other autoimmune disease. The relation between PV and neurological disorders is unclear and needs to be more studied. Here, we report a case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), followed by dermatologic involvement. Histopathological evidence and direct immunofluorescence are consistent with PV. Systemic corticosteroid and azathioprine were effective in the treatment of mucocutaneous lesions. PV seems to be accidentally associated with ALS. Expression of major histocompatibility complex Class II in autoimmune disease and production of autoantibodies have been proposed to describe the association of PV with ALS. PMID:28163728

  2. Responsiveness-to-Intervention: A Decade Later

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction to this special issue, “A Decade Later,” we provide an overview of the accomplishments as well as the persistent questions surrounding RTI. We organize this discussion within 3 categories: assessment, instruction, and policy. Within each of these sections, we also highlight how the articles in the present special issue expand upon the key issues. Developed initially for the early grades (kindergarten through third grade) and primarily in the area of reading, many-although not all-of these issues speak to the expansion of RTI to address a broader set of academic content areas and the full range of grade levels. PMID:22539056

  3. Spontaneous Polariton Currents in Periodic Lateral Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalitov, A. V.; Liew, T. C. H.; Kavokin, A. V.; Altshuler, B. L.; Rubo, Y. G.

    2017-08-01

    We predict spontaneous generation of superfluid polariton currents in planar microcavities with lateral periodic modulation of both the potential and decay rate. A spontaneous breaking of spatial inversion symmetry of a polariton condensate emerges at a critical pumping, and the current direction is stochastically chosen. We analyze the stability of the current with respect to the fluctuations of the condensate. A peculiar spatial current domain structure emerges, where the current direction is switched at the domain walls, and the characteristic domain size and lifetime scale with the pumping power.

  4. Lateral chirality-sorting optical forces

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Amaury; Mueller, J. P. Balthasar; Capasso, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The transverse component of the spin angular momentum of evanescent waves gives rise to lateral optical forces on chiral particles, which have the unusual property of acting in a direction in which there is neither a field gradient nor wave propagation. Because their direction and strength depends on the chiral polarizability of the particle, they act as chirality-sorting and may offer a mechanism for passive chirality spectroscopy. The absolute strength of the forces also substantially exceeds that of other recently predicted sideways optical forces. PMID:26453555

  5. Lateral stress evolution in Chromium Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petel, O. E.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hameed, A.; Capozzi, A.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.; Hazell, P. J.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the shock response of CrS, a cermet of potential interest as a matrix material for ballistic applications, has been investigated. Compacts with a Chromium: Sulfur ratio of 1.15:1 were investigated via the plate-impact technique. These experiments allowed the material to be loaded under a one-dimensional state of strain. Embedded manganin stress gauges were employed to monitor the temporal evolution of longitudinal and lateral components of stress. Comparison of these two components has allowed assessment of the variation of material shear strength both with impact pressure/strain-rate and time.

  6. Quantifying Disease Progression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Neil G; Turner, Martin R; Vucic, Steve; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shefner, Jeremy; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibits characteristic variability of onset and rate of disease progression, with inherent clinical heterogeneity making disease quantitation difficult. Recent advances in understanding pathogenic mechanisms linked to the development of ALS impose an increasing need to develop strategies to predict and more objectively measure disease progression. This review explores phenotypic and genetic determinants of disease progression in ALS, and examines established and evolving biomarkers that may contribute to robust measurement in longitudinal clinical studies. With targeted neuroprotective strategies on the horizon, developing efficiencies in clinical trial design may facilitate timely entry of novel treatments into the clinic. PMID:25223628

  7. Quantifying disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Simon, Neil G; Turner, Martin R; Vucic, Steve; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shefner, Jeremy; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2014-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibits characteristic variability of onset and rate of disease progression, with inherent clinical heterogeneity making disease quantitation difficult. Recent advances in understanding pathogenic mechanisms linked to the development of ALS impose an increasing need to develop strategies to predict and more objectively measure disease progression. This review explores phenotypic and genetic determinants of disease progression in ALS, and examines established and evolving biomarkers that may contribute to robust measurement in longitudinal clinical studies. With targeted neuroprotective strategies on the horizon, developing efficiencies in clinical trial design may facilitate timely entry of novel treatments into the clinic.

  8. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Durkan, Colm Zhang, Qian

    2014-08-25

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  9. The changing scene of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Robberecht, Wim; Philips, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Several recent breakthroughs have provided notable insights into the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), with some even shifting our thinking about this neurodegenerative disease and raising the question as to whether this disorder is a proteinopathy, a ribonucleopathy or both. In addition, these breakthroughs have revealed mechanistic links between ALS and frontotemporal dementia, as well as between ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases, such as the cerebellar atrophies, myotonic dystrophy and inclusion body myositis. Here, we summarize the new findings in ALS research, discuss what they have taught us about this disease and examine issues that are still outstanding.

  10. Psychotherapists and the clergy: Fifty years later.

    PubMed

    Spiegelman, J M

    1984-03-01

    Jung's two powerful articles on psychotherapy and the clergy, written in 1928 and 1932. are looked at from the vantage point of fifty years later and the author's experience in conducting analysis with many people from both vocations. He notes that relatively few people achieve the kind of integration of the ego that Jung writes about-an essentially religious experience-wherein the center of their existence now gravitates about the Self. Yet Jung's work and views have had a profound effect on spiritually inclined people of all ages. The predictions of Jung's articles, regarding therapy, the dissemination of pyschology to the masses, and other issues are examined.

  11. Lateral elbow tendinopathy: Evidence of physiotherapy management

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) is a common musculoskeletal/sports injury. A plethora of physiotherapy techniques has been proposed in the management of LET. The exercise programme is the most common treatment in the management of LET. The optimal protocol of exercise programme is still unknown. The effectiveness of the exercise programme is low when it is applied as monotherapy. Therefore, exercise programme is combined with other physiotherapy modalities such as soft tissue techniques, external support, acupuncture, manual therapy and electrotherapy, in the treatment of LET. Future research is needed to determine which treatment strategy combined with exercise programme will provide the best results in LET rehabilitation. PMID:27622145

  12. The lateral line confers evolutionarily derived sleep loss in the Mexican cavefish.

    PubMed

    Jaggard, James; Robinson, Beatriz G; Stahl, Bethany A; Oh, Ian; Masek, Pavel; Yoshizawa, Masato; Keene, Alex C

    2017-01-15

    Sleep is an essential behavior exhibited by nearly all animals, and disruption of this process is associated with an array of physiological and behavioral deficits. Sleep is defined by changes in sensory gating that reduce sensory input to the brain, but little is known about the neural basis for interactions between sleep and sensory processing. Blind Mexican cavefish comprise an extant surface dwelling form and 29 cave morphs that have independently evolved increased numbers of mechanoreceptive lateral line neuromasts and convergent evolution of sleep loss. Ablation of the lateral line enhanced sleep in the Pachón cavefish population, suggesting that heightened sensory input underlies evolutionarily derived sleep loss. Targeted lateral line ablation and behavioral analysis localized the wake-promoting neuromasts in Pachón cavefish to superficial neuromasts of the trunk and cranial regions. Strikingly, lateral line ablation did not affect sleep in four other cavefish populations, suggesting that distinct neural mechanisms regulate the evolution of sleep loss in independently derived cavefish populations. Cavefish are subject to seasonal changes in food availability, raising the possibility that sensory modulation of sleep is influenced by metabolic state. We found that starvation promotes sleep in Pachón cavefish, and is not enhanced by lateral line ablation, suggesting that functional interactions occur between sensory and metabolic regulation of sleep. Taken together, these findings support a model where sensory processing contributes to evolutionarily derived changes in sleep that are modulated in accordance with food availability.

  13. Lateral root initiation in Marsilea quadrifolia. I. Origin and histogensis of lateral roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, B. L.; Raghavan, V.

    1991-01-01

    In Marsilea quadrifolia, lateral roots arise from modified single cells of the endodermis located opposite the protoxylem poles within the meristematic region of the parent root. The initial cell divides in four specific planes to establish a five-celled lateral root primordium, with a tetrahedral apical cell in the centre and the oldest merophytes and the root cap along the sides. The cells of the merophyte divide in a precise pattern to give rise to the cells of the cortex, endodermis, pericycle, and vascular tissues of the emerging lateral root. Although the construction of the parent root is more complicated than that of lateral roots, patterns of cell division and tissue formation are similar in both types of roots, with the various tissues being arranged in similar positions in relation to the central axis. Vascular connection between the lateral root primordium and the parent root is derived from the pericycle cells lying between the former and the protoxylem members of the latter. It is proposed that the central axis of the root is not only a geometric centre, but also a physiological centre which determines the fate of the different cell types.

  14. Balance problems after unilateral lateral ankle sprains.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohammad; Karimi, Hossein; Farahini, Hossein; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2006-01-01

    Abstract-Ankle ligament injury is the most common injury in athletic activities. This study examined balance problems in athletes with acute lateral ankle sprains. Thirty male athletes aged 20 to 35 years with right dominant side and traumatic ankle sprain were recruited through simple nonprobability sampling. We measured the sway index and limits of stability with the Biodex Balance System under different conditions. Functional balance was evaluated with two clinical tests: the Functional Reach Test and the Star-Excursion Balance Test. The results showed that balance ability in patients with acute lateral ankle sprain was significantly weaker under closed- versus open-eye conditions. Symmetry of weight-bearing on involved and sound limb in bilateral standing was not significantly different, but weight-bearing on the nondominant limb was significantly higher than on the dominant limb. We can conclude that balance problems occur after acute ankle sprains because of proprioception deficits and that the unconscious (reflexive) aspect of proprioception is more severely affected than the conscious (voluntary) aspect.

  15. Piano Transcription with Convolutional Sparse Lateral Inhibition

    DOE PAGES

    Cogliati, Andrea; Duan, Zhiyao; Wohlberg, Brendt Egon

    2017-02-08

    This paper extends our prior work on contextdependent piano transcription to estimate the length of the notes in addition to their pitch and onset. This approach employs convolutional sparse coding along with lateral inhibition constraints to approximate a musical signal as the sum of piano note waveforms (dictionary elements) convolved with their temporal activations. The waveforms are pre-recorded for the specific piano to be transcribed in the specific environment. A dictionary containing multiple waveforms per pitch is generated by truncating a long waveform for each pitch to different lengths. During transcription, the dictionary elements are fixed and their temporal activationsmore » are estimated and post-processed to obtain the pitch, onset and note length estimation. A sparsity penalty promotes globally sparse activations of the dictionary elements, and a lateral inhibition term penalizes concurrent activations of different waveforms corresponding to the same pitch within a temporal neighborhood, to achieve note length estimation. Experiments on the MAPS dataset show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms a state-of-the-art music transcription method trained in the same context-dependent setting in transcription accuracy.« less

  16. ERAMOSA controls lateral branching in snapdragon

    PubMed Central

    Mizzotti, Chiara; Galliani, Bianca M.; Dreni, Ludovico; Sommer, Hans; Bombarely, Aureliano; Masiero, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Plant forms display a wide variety of architectures, depending on the number of lateral branches, internode elongation and phyllotaxy. These are in turn determined by the number, the position and the fate of the Axillary Meristems (AMs). Mutants that affect AM determination during the vegetative phase have been isolated in several model plants. Among these genes, the GRAS transcription factor LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (Ls) plays a pivotal role in AM determination during the vegetative phase. Hereby we characterize the phylogenetic orthologue of Ls in Antirrhinum, ERAMOSA (ERA). Our data supported ERA control of AM formation during both the vegetative and the reproductive phase in snapdragon. A phylogenetic analysis combined with an analysis of the synteny of Ls in several species strongly supported the hypothesis that ERA is a phylogenetic orthologue of Ls, although it plays a broader role. During the reproductive phase ERA promotes the establishment of the stem niche at the bract axis but, after the reproductive transition, it is antagonized by the MADS box transcription factor SQUAMOSA (SQUA). Surprisingly double mutant era squa plants display a squa phenotype developing axillary meristems, which can eventually turn into inflorescences or flowers. PMID:28145519

  17. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: one or multiple causes?

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Aline Furtado; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Dionis; Mello, Mariana Pimentel; Nader, Sergio; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; da Silva Catharino, Antonio M.; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Pereira, Alessandra; Pessoa, Luciane Lacerda; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Leite, Marco Araújo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease in the adulthood, and it is characterized by rapid and progressive compromise of the upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of the cases of ALS are classified as sporadic and, until now, a specific cause for these cases still is unknown. To present the different hypotheses on the etiology of ALS. It was carried out a search in the databases: Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed, in the period of 1987 to 2011, using the following keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, etiology, causes and epidemiology and its similar in Portuguese and Spanish. It did not have consensus as regards the etiology of ALS. Researches demonstrates evidences as regards intoxication by heavy metals, environmental and occupational causes, genetic mutations (superoxide dismutase 1), certain viral infections and the accomplishment of vigorous physical activity for the development of the disease. There is still no consensus regarding the involved factors in the etiology of ALS. In this way, new research about these etiologies are necessary, for a better approach of the patients, promoting preventive programs for the disease and improving the quality of life of the patients. PMID:21785676

  18. Lateral Gene Transfer from the Dead

    PubMed Central

    Szöllősi, Gergely J.; Tannier, Eric; Lartillot, Nicolas; Daubin, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    In phylogenetic studies, the evolution of molecular sequences is assumed to have taken place along the phylogeny traced by the ancestors of extant species. In the presence of lateral gene transfer, however, this may not be the case, because the species lineage from which a gene was transferred may have gone extinct or not have been sampled. Because it is not feasible to specify or reconstruct the complete phylogeny of all species, we must describe the evolution of genes outside the represented phylogeny by modeling the speciation dynamics that gave rise to the complete phylogeny. We demonstrate that if the number of sampled species is small compared with the total number of existing species, the overwhelming majority of gene transfers involve speciation to and evolution along extinct or unsampled lineages. We show that the evolution of genes along extinct or unsampled lineages can to good approximation be treated as those of independently evolving lineages described by a few global parameters. Using this result, we derive an algorithm to calculate the probability of a gene tree and recover the maximum-likelihood reconciliation given the phylogeny of the sampled species. Examining 473 near-universal gene families from 36 cyanobacteria, we find that nearly a third of transfer events (28%) appear to have topological signatures of evolution along extinct species, but only approximately 6% of transfers trace their ancestry to before the common ancestor of the sampled cyanobacteria. [Gene tree reconciliation; lateral gene transfer; macroevolution; phylogeny.] PMID:23355531

  19. Dual-domain lateral shearing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2004-03-16

    The phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) was developed to address the problem of at-wavelength metrology of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems. Although extremely accurate, the fact that the PS/PDI is limited to use with coherent EUV sources, such as undulator radiation, is a drawback for its widespread use. An alternative to the PS/PDI, with relaxed coherence requirements, is lateral shearing interferometry (LSI). The use of a cross-grating, carrier-frequency configuration to characterize a large-field 4.times.-reduction EUV lithography optic is demonstrated. The results obtained are directly compared with PS/PDI measurements. A defocused implementation of the lateral shearing interferometer in which an image-plane filter allows both phase-shifting and Fourier wavefront recovery. The two wavefront recovery methods can be combined in a dual-domain technique providing suppression of noise added by self-interference of high-frequency components in the test-optic wavefront.

  20. Localizing and lateralizing value of ictal flatulence.

    PubMed

    Strzelczyk, Adam; Nowak, Mareike; Bauer, Sebastian; Reif, Philipp S; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Knake, Susanne; Hamer, Hajo M; Rosenow, Felix

    2010-02-01

    Autonomic seizures have been associated with seizure onset in the temporal or insular lobe and consist of variations in blood pressure and heart rate, sweating, flushing, piloerection, hypersalivation, vomiting, spitting, and alterations in bladder and bowel functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the localizing and lateralizing value of ictal flatulence. Medical records of patients with focal epilepsies who were monitored at the Interdisciplinary Epilepsy Center Marburg between 2006 and 2009 were reviewed for the occurrence of ictal flatulence. Clinical, electrophysiological, and imaging data were reviewed and compared with data for previously reported cases of ictal flatulence. Two patients with ictal flatulence were identified (0.6%). In both patients, ictal flatulence was associated with a seizure pattern in the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere. Our cases and previously reported cases point toward activation of insular cortex because of such additional autonomic symptoms as unilateral piloerection, tachycardia, profound sweating, and flushing of the face. Ictal flatulence is a rare manifestation of autonomic seizures and a localizing sign for temporal or/and insular lobe epilepsies. In general, ictal flatulence seems to have no lateralizing value. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lateral epicondylalgia: midlife crisis of a tendon.

    PubMed

    Luk, James K H; Tsang, Raymond C C; Leung, H B

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis and management of lateral epicondylalgia, or tennis elbow, a common ailment affecting middle-aged subjects of both genders continue to provoke controversy. Currently it is thought to be due to local tendon pathology, pain system changes, and motor system impairment. Its diagnosis is usually clinical, based on a classical history, as well as symptoms and signs. In selected cases, additional imaging (X-rays, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging) can help to confirm the diagnosis. Different treatment modalities have been described, including the use of orthotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid injections, topical glyceryl trinitrate, exercise therapy, manual therapy, ultrasound therapy, laser therapy, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, acupuncture, taping, platelet-rich plasma injections, hyaluronan gel injections, botulinum toxin injections, and surgery. Nevertheless, evidence to select the best treatment is lacking and the choice of therapy depends on the experience of the management team, availability of the equipment and expertise, and patient response. This article provides a snapshot of current medical practice for lateral epicondylalgia management.

  2. Confronting the Material Convoy in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gabriella V.; Ekerdt, David J.

    2011-01-01

    We adapt a metaphor from life course studies to designate the whole of one’s possessions, across time, as a convoy of material support. This dynamic collection of things supports daily life and the self, but it can also present difficulty in later life. To alleviate the purported burdens of the material convoy, a discourse has arisen that urges elders and their family members to reduce the volume of possessions. An analysis of 11 such possession management texts shows authors addressing two distinct audiences about elders’ need to downsize: family members and elders themselves. Authors who speak to family members do so with an urgent, unsentimental tone that echoes mainstream clutter-control advice about disorderly, overfull households. In texts for elders, the standard critique about consumption and unruly lives is gentler, more sensitive to the meaning of things, and underplays the emotions of divestment. There is stress on the responsibility to spare the next generation and control one’s legacy. These latter texts seem to respect that downsizing in later life symbolizes a narrowing of the life world. PMID:21822336

  3. Neural fields, spectral responses and lateral connections

    PubMed Central

    Pinotsis, D.A.; Friston, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a neural field model for local (mesoscopic) dynamics on the cortical surface. Our focus is on sparse intrinsic connections that are characteristic of real cortical microcircuits. This sparsity is modelled with radial connectivity functions or kernels with non-central peaks. The ensuing analysis allows one to generate or predict spectral responses to known exogenous input or random fluctuations. Here, we characterise the effect of different connectivity architectures (the range, dispersion and propagation speed of intrinsic or lateral connections) and synaptic gains on spatiotemporal dynamics. Specifically, we look at spectral responses to random fluctuations and examine the ability of synaptic gain and connectivity parameters to induce Turing instabilities. We find that although the spatial deployment and speed of lateral connections can have a profound affect on the behaviour of spatial modes over different scales, only synaptic gain is capable of producing phase-transitions. We discuss the implications of these findings for the use of neural fields as generative models in dynamic causal modeling (DCM). PMID:21138771

  4. Lateral vision in horses: a behavioral investigation.

    PubMed

    Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated lateral vision in horses (Equus caballus) for the first time from a behavioral point of view. Three horses were tested using a novel experimental design to determine the range of their lateral and caudolateral vision with respect to stimulus detection and discrimination. Real-life stimuli were presented along a curvilinear wall in one of four different positions (A, B, C, D) and one of two height locations (Top, Bottom) on both sides of the horse. To test for stimulus detection, the correct stimulus was paired against a control; for stimulus discrimination, the correct stimulus was paired against another object. To indicate that the correct stimulus was detected or discriminated, the horses pushed one of two paddles. All horses scored significantly above chance on stimulus detection trials regardless of stimulus position or location. They also accurately discriminated between stimuli when objects appeared in positions A, B, and C for the top or bottom locations; however, they failed to discriminate these stimuli at position D. This study supports physiological descriptions of the equine eye and provides new behavioral data showing that horses can detect the appearance of objects within an almost fully encompassing circle and are able to identify objects within most but not all of their panoramic field of view.

  5. Field dependence, laterality and the EEG.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, K P; Shaw, J C

    1978-03-01

    There is evidence that an individual's 'cognitive style' is related to lateralization of function in the brain, and that this in turn is associated with characteristic EEG coherence spectra. We tested the hypothesis that field dependence (a measure of cognitive organization) and hand preference (a measure of functional organisation) relate to EEG coherence measures in a specific way. The predicted associations were based on the proposal that right preferent individuals have a more specific, and left preferents a more diffuse, system of functional units in the cortex. The association between alpha band resting EEG coherence (sampled on two occasions for both hemispheres from 12 right and 12 left preferent individuals), field dependence (Nyborg's criterion of frame dependence on a rod and frame test), and laterality scores (questionnaire and manual performance), was measured by Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W). Significant associations support the proposed model except for coherence within the left preferents' right hemisphere. It is argued that the right hemisphere is more specifically organised in strong sinistrals than the general model would predict. These and other results support the use of EEC coherence measures in the study of cerebral functional organisation.

  6. Lateral weathering gradients in glaciated catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, K. J.; Bailey, S. W.; Ross, D. S.; Strahm, B. D.; Schreiber, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Mineral dissolution and the distribution of weathering products are fundamental processes that drive development and habitability of the Earth's critical zone; yet, the spatial configuration of these processes in some systems is not well understood. Feedbacks between hydrologic flows and weathering fluxes are necessary to understanding how the critical zone develops. In upland glaciated catchments of the northeastern USA, primary mineral dissolution and the distribution of weathering products are spatially distinct and predictable over short distances. Hillslopes, where shallow soils force lateral hydrologic fluxes through accumulated organic matter, produce downslope gradients in mineral depletion, weathering product accumulation, soil development, and solute chemistry. We propose that linked gradients in hydrologic flow paths, soil depth, and vegetation lead to predictable differences in the location and extent of mineral dissolution in regolith (soil, subsoil, and rock fragments) and bedrock, and that headwater catchments within the upland glaciated northeast show a common architecture across hillslopes as a result. Examples of these patterns and processes will be illustrated using observations from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire where laterally distinct soils with strong morphological and biogeochemical gradients have been documented. Patterns in mineral depletion and product accumulation are essential in predicting how ecosystems will respond to stresses, disturbance, and management.

  7. Prototype cantilevers for quantitative lateral force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reitsma, Mark G.; Gates, Richard S.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Cook, Robert F.

    2011-09-15

    Prototype cantilevers are presented that enable quantitative surface force measurements using contact-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ''hammerhead'' cantilevers facilitate precise optical lever system calibrations for cantilever flexure and torsion, enabling quantifiable adhesion measurements and friction measurements by lateral force microscopy (LFM). Critically, a single hammerhead cantilever of known flexural stiffness and probe length dimension can be used to perform both a system calibration as well as surface force measurements in situ, which greatly increases force measurement precision and accuracy. During LFM calibration mode, a hammerhead cantilever allows an optical lever ''torque sensitivity'' to be generated for the quantification of LFM friction forces. Precise calibrations were performed on two different AFM instruments, in which torque sensitivity values were specified with sub-percent relative uncertainty. To examine the potential for accurate lateral force measurements using the prototype cantilevers, finite element analysis predicted measurement errors of a few percent or less, which could be reduced via refinement of calibration methodology or cantilever design. The cantilevers are compatible with commercial AFM instrumentation and can be used for other AFM techniques such as contact imaging and dynamic mode measurements.

  8. Non-lateralized auditory input enhances averaged vectors in the oculomotor system.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, N; Nijboer, T C W; Van der Stigchel, S

    2012-09-01

    The decision about which location should be the goal of the next eye movement is known to be determined by the interaction between auditory and visual input. This interaction can be explained by the vector theory that states that each element (either visual or auditory) in a scene evokes a vector in the oculomotor system. These vectors determine the direction in which the eye movement is initiated. Because auditory input is lateralized and localizable in most studies, it is currently unclear how non-lateralized auditory input interacts with the vectors evoked by visual input. In the current study, we investigated the influence of a non-lateralized auditory non-target on saccade accuracy (saccade angle deviation from the target) and latency in a single-target condition in Experiment 1 and a double-target condition in Experiment 2. The visual targets in Experiment 2 were positioned in such a way that saccades on average landed in between the two targets (i.e., a global effect). There was no effect of the auditory input on saccade accuracy in the single-target condition, but auditory input did influence saccade accuracy in the double-target condition. In both experiments, saccade latency increased when auditory input accompanied the visual target(s). Together, these findings show that non-lateralized auditory input enhances all vectors evoked by visual input. The results will be discussed in terms of their possible neural substrates.

  9. Lateral diffusion of bilayer lipids measured via (31)P CODEX NMR.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Qasim; Lai, Angel; Morales, Hannah H; Macdonald, Peter M

    2012-10-01

    We have employed (31)P CODEX (centre-band-only-detection-of-exchange) NMR to measure lateral diffusion coefficients of phospholipids in unilamellar lipid bilayer vesicles consisting of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), alone or in mixtures with 30 mol% 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) or cholesterol (CHOL). The lateral diffusion coefficients of POPC and POPG were extracted from experimental CODEX signal decays as a function of increasing mixing time, after accounting for the vesicle's size and size distribution, as determined via dynamic light scattering, and the viscosity of the vesicular suspension, as determined via (1)H pulsed field gradient NMR. Lateral diffusion coefficients for POPC and POPG determined in this fashion fell in the range 1.0-3.2 × 10(-12) m(2) s(-1) at 10 °C, depending on the vesicular composition, in good agreement with accepted values. Thus, two advantages of (31)P CODEX NMR for phospholipid lateral diffusion measurements are demonstrated: no labelling of the molecule of interest is necessary, and multiple lateral diffusion coefficients can be measured simultaneously. It is expected that this approach will prove particularly useful in diagnosing heterogeneities in lateral diffusion behaviours, such as might be expected for specific lipid-lipid or lipid-protein interactions, and thermotropic or electrostatically induced phase inhomogeneities.

  10. Membrane bending by protein crowding is affected by protein lateral confinement.

    PubMed

    Derganc, Jure; Čopič, Alenka

    2016-06-01

    Crowding of asymmetrically-distributed membrane proteins has been recently recognized as an important factor in remodeling of biological membranes, for example during transport vesicle formation. In this paper, we theoretically analyze the effect of protein crowding on membrane bending and examine its dependence on protein size, shape, transmembrane asymmetry and lateral confinement. We consider three scenarios of protein lateral organization, which are highly relevant for cellular membranes in general: freely diffusing membrane proteins without lateral confinement, the presence of a diffusion barrier and interactions with a vesicular coat. We show that protein crowding affects vesicle formation even if the proteins are distributed symmetrically across the membrane and that this effect depends significantly on lateral confinement. The largest crowding effect is predicted for the proteins that are confined to the forming vesicle by a diffusion barrier. We calculate the bending properties of a crowded membrane and find that its spontaneous curvature depends primarily on the degree of transmembrane asymmetry, and its effective bending modulus on the type of lateral confinement. Using the example of COPII vesicle formation from the endoplasmic reticulum, we analyze the energetic cost of vesicle formation. The results provide a novel insight into the effects of lateral and transmembrane organization of membrane proteins, and can guide data interpretation and future experimental approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Revisiting cognitive rehearsal as an intervention against incivility and lateral violence in nursing: 10 years later.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Martha; Clark, Cynthia M

    2014-12-01

    Ten years ago, Griffin wrote an article on the use of cognitive rehearsal as a shield for lateral violence. Since then, cognitive rehearsal has been used successfully in several studies as an evidence-based strategy to address uncivil and bullying behaviors in nursing. In the original study, 26 newly licensed nurses learned about lateral violence and used cognitive rehearsal techniques as an intervention for nurse-to-nurse incivility. The newly licensed nurses described using the rehearsed strategies as difficult, yet successful in reducing or eliminating incivility and lateral violence. This article updates the literature on cognitive rehearsal and reviews the use of cognitive rehearsal as an evidence-based strategy to address incivility and bullvina behaviors in nursing.

  12. Summary of Methods for Calculating Dynamic Lateral Stability and Response and for Estimating Lateral Stability Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Mckinney, Marion O

    1951-01-01

    A summary of methods for making dynamic lateral stability and response calculations and for estimating the aerodynamic stability derivatives required for use in these calculations is presented. The processes of performing calculations of the time histories of lateral motions, of the period and damping of these motions, and of the lateral stability boundaries are presented as a series of simple straightforward steps. Existing methods for estimating the stability derivatives are summarized and, in some cases, simple new empirical formulas are presented. Reference is also made to reports presenting experimental data that should be useful in making estimates of the derivatives. Detailed estimating methods are presented for low-subsonic-speed conditions but only a brief discussion and a list of references are given for transonic- and supersonic-speed conditions.

  13. Lateralization of behavior in dairy cows in response to conspecifics and novel persons.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C J C; Oevermans, H; Syrett, K L; Jespersen, A Y; Pearce, G P

    2015-04-01

    The right brain hemisphere, connected to the left eye, coordinates fight and flight behaviors in a wide variety of vertebrate species. We investigated whether left eye vision predominates in dairy cows' interactions with other cows and humans, and whether dominance status affects the extent of visual lateralization. Although we found no overall lateralization of eye use to view other cows during interactions, cows that were submissive in an interaction were more likely to use their left eye to view a dominant animal. Both subordinate and older cows were more likely to use their left eye to view other cattle during interactions. Cows that predominantly used their left eye during aggressive interactions were more likely to use their left eye to view a person in unfamiliar clothing in the middle of a track by passing them on the right side. However, a person in familiar clothing was viewed predominantly with the right eye when they passed mainly on the left side. Cows predominantly using their left eyes in cow-to-cow interactions showed more overt responses to restraint in a crush compared with cows who predominantly used their right eyes during interactions (crush scores: left eye users 7.9, right eye users 6.4, standard error of the difference=0.72). Thus, interactions between 2 cows and between cows and people were visually lateralized, with losing and subordinate cows being more likely to use their left eyes to view winning and dominant cattle and unfamiliar humans. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Postural laterality in Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica: effects of age, sex and nursing suggest stress and social information.

    PubMed

    Sarasa, Mathieu; Soriguer, Ramón C; Serrano, Emmanuel; Granados, José-Enrique; Pérez, Jesús M

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of lateralized behaviour have to date focused on active behaviour such as sensorial perception and locomotion and little is known about lateralized postures, such as lying, that can potentially magnify the effectiveness of lateralized perception and reaction. Moreover, the relative importance of factors such as sex, age and the stress associated with social status in laterality is now a subject of increasing interest. In this study, we assess the importance of sex, age and reproductive investment in females in lying laterality in the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Using generalized additive models under an information-theoretic approach based on the Akaike information criterion, we analyzed lying laterality of 78 individually marked ibexes. Sex, age and nursing appeared as key factors associated, in interaction and non-linearly, with lying laterality. Beyond the benefits of studying laterality with non-linear models, our results highlight the fact that a combination of static factors such as sex, and dynamic factors such as age and stress associated with parental care, are associated with postural laterality.

  15. Observation and Numerical Modeling of Channel-Trapped Lateral Velocity Front in an Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jiayi; Lai, Wenfeng

    2017-04-01

    A cruise survey to sample salinity, temperature, and velocity was implemented in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). The observation shows that in channel location appeared a strong lateral velocity convergence front in ebb tide and a divergence in flood. Some SAR images also exhibit this ebb lateral velocity convergence. To identify dynamic mechanisms of the velocity convergence and divergence, we use and run the free surface Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) for the PRE domain. The modelling results indicate that the lateral baroclinic and barotropic forcing is a critical mechanism of the lateral velocity convergence and divergence. Then, idealized experiments with a triangular estuary domain are conducted for the forcing scenarios of tide-only, the river discharge-only, and the combination of the river discharge and the tide. The results show that lateral baroclinicity arising from the estuarine gravitational current can cause the lateral velocity convergence in the surface and divergence in the bottom at the channel location even without the tidal forcing. Under the forcing of the barotropic tide, the lateral velocity convergence appears on ebb and divergence on flood. The interaction between the tide and river discharge may enhance the surface convergence in the ebb tide and lead to the surface divergence in the flood. The further analysis suggests that the along-estuary change in channel depth and width is responsible for the barotropic tide-induced lateral velocity convergence and divergence in the channel location. *This study is supported by General Research Fund of Hong Kong Research Grants Council (RGC) under Grants CUHK 402912 and 403113 and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Projects 41376035).

  16. The effects of bilateral presentations on lateralized lexical decision.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Iacoboni, Marco; Zaidel, Eran

    2007-06-01

    We investigated how lateralized lexical decision is affected by the presence of distractors in the visual hemifield contralateral to the target. The study had three goals: first, to determine how the presence of a distractor (either a word or a pseudoword) affects visual field differences in the processing of the target; second, to identify the stage of the process in which the distractor is affecting the decision about the target; and third, to determine whether the interaction between the lexicality of the target and the lexicality of the distractor ("lexical redundancy effect") is due to facilitation or inhibition of lexical processing. Unilateral and bilateral trials were presented in separate blocks. Target stimuli were always underlined. Regarding our first goal, we found that bilateral presentations (a) increased the effect of visual hemifield of presentation (right visual field advantage) for words by slowing down the processing of word targets presented to the left visual field, and (b) produced an interaction between visual hemifield of presentation (VF) and target lexicality (TLex), which implies the use of different strategies by the two hemispheres in lexical processing. For our second goal of determining the processing stage that is affected by the distractor, we introduced a third condition in which targets were always accompanied by "perceptual" distractors consisting of sequences of the letter "x" (e.g., xxxx). Performance on these trials indicated that most of the interaction occurs during lexical access (after basic perceptual analysis but before response programming). Finally, a comparison between performance patterns on the trials containing perceptual and lexical distractors indicated that the lexical redundancy effect is mainly due to inhibition of word processing by pseudoword distractors.

  17. A rare cause of lateral facial swelling

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sujata; Gulati, Ujjwal; Vandana; Singh, Sapna

    2014-01-01

    A case of chronic, recurrent and asymptomatic facial swelling in a young male is presented. Swelling extended from lower midface to upper lateral neck and right commissure to anterior massetric border. History, clinical signs and symptoms and examination pointed towards the benign nature of the swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology tapered the diagnostic possibilities to a salivary cyst or pseudocyst. Ultrasonography identified the lesion to contain echogenic fluid with irregular borders. “Tail sign” was absent on contrast magnetic resonance imaging, excluding the involvement of the sublingual gland. Surgical excision of the lesion was done along with submandibular gland as both were in continuity via a bottle-neck tract. Final histopathological diagnosis was that of the submandibular gland extravasation phenomenon. As per the best of our knowledge, it is the first case report of a submandibular gland extravasation causing swelling in a retrograde direction onto the face. PMID:25593883

  18. A comprehensive review of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Sara; Carr, Karen; Reiley, Luz; Diaz, Kelvin; Guerra, Orleiquis; Altamirano, Pablo Fernandez; Pagani, Wilfredo; Lodin, Daud; Orozco, Gloria; Chinea, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons with an incidence of about 1/100,000. Most ALS cases are sporadic, but 5–10% of the cases are familial ALS. Both sporadic and familial ALS (FALS) are associated with degeneration of cortical and spinal motor neurons. The etiology of ALS remains unknown. However, mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 have been known as the most common cause of FALS. In this study, we provide a comprehensive review of ALS. We cover all aspects of the disease including epidemiology, comorbidities, environmental risk factor, molecular mechanism, genetic factors, symptoms, diagnostic, treatment, and even the available supplement and management of ALS. This will provide the reader with an advantage of receiving a broad range of information about the disease. PMID:26629397

  19. Dysarthria in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A review.

    PubMed

    Tomik, Barbara; Guiloff, Roberto J

    2010-01-01

    Dysarthria is a motor disorder of speech characterized by abnormalities of the articulation and intelligibility of speech. Phonation and the rate of facial movements may also be affected. Understanding the nature and course of dysarthria in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is important because loss of communication prevents patients from participating in many activities, may lead to social isolation, and reduces the quality of life. The goal of management of dysarthria in ALS patients is to optimize communication effectiveness for as long as possible. The information about dysarthria in ALS is dispersed in physiological, pathological, speech therapy, otorhinolaringological and neurological publications. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the clinical features, differential diagnosis, pathophysiology, investigations and management of dysarthria in ALS patients. There is a need to compare the different methods used to assess dysarthria and for controlled clinical trials to assess therapeutic strategies.

  20. Large-scale lateral nanowire arrays nanogenerators

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong L; Xu, Chen; Qin, Yong; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Rusen; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-07

    In a method of making a generating device, a plurality of spaced apart elongated seen members are deposited onto a surface of a flexible non-conductive substrate. An elongated conductive layer is applied to a top surface and a first side of each seed member, thereby leaving an exposed second side opposite the first side. A plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures is grown laterally from the second side of each seed layer. A second conductive material is deposited onto the substrate adjacent each elongated first conductive layer so as to be soupled the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures. The second conductive material is selected so as to form a Schottky barrier between the second conductive material and the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures and so as to form an electrical contact with the first conductive layer.