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Sample records for latin-america current situation

  1. Critical care in Latin America: current situation.

    PubMed

    Celis-Rodriguez, Edgar; Rubiano, Sandra

    2006-07-01

    Critical care has grown significantly in Latin America. This grow this caused by the increase in the number of patients requiring this specialized care for whom excellent outcomes are achieved with the indisputable development of critical care. There is an increasing interest for the application of systems ensuring quality medical care, a reason why some countries have decided to make critical care part of their legislation. Because of the economic conditions in the region there is a marked difference in the number of intensive care beds among Latin American countries compared with European countries and the United States. Standards are being prepared to establish minimum human and physical resource requirements to ensure that existing beds are equipped as best as possible.

  2. [Management of anaphylaxis in Latin America: current situation].

    PubMed

    Cardona, Victoria; Álvarez-Perea, Alberto; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Latour-Staffeld, Patricia; Ivancevich, Juan Carlos; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Serrano, Carlos; Solé, Dirceu; Tanno, Luciana K

    2017-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a systemic and severe allergic reaction, which can be fatal. The first-line treatment of choice, according to international guidelines, is intramuscular adrenaline. However, different studies show that the performance of health professionals managing anaphylaxis is often inadequate. To assess the current resources available in Latin American countries for the diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis. Online survey promoted by the Latin American Society of Allergy and Immunology to representatives of the national allergy societies of Latin American countries. Responses were received from 10 countries out of the 14 countries invited to participate. Only five of the countries have clinical practice guidelines in anaphylaxis. Adrenaline autoinjectors are available only in two countries, Argentina and Brazil, but are not subsidized by public health systems. In all countries, adrenaline is available in ampoules, which is the presentation usually prescribed to patients for self-administration. The use of adrenaline was estimated to be less than 50 % of cases in five countries, while antihistamines and corticosteroids are almost always used. The determination of serum tryptase is possible in some health centers, often private, in five of the countries surveyed. It is necessary to improve resources related to the diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis in Latin American countries.

  3. [Current epidemiological situation of HIV/AIDS in Latin America: analysis of differences among countries].

    PubMed

    Teva, Inmaculada; Bermúdez, Maria Paz; Ramiro, Maria Teresa; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2012-01-01

    There is a great regional heterogeneity in the prevalence of HIV/ AIDS. To analyze the current situation of HIV/AIDS in Latin America by means of a comparative analysis among countries. In a descriptive study (document analysis), epidemiological data about HIV/AIDS in Latin America as well as population data were used. Prevalence indexes and the distribution of HIV/AIDS cases were compared according to gender, age and transmission mode. Dominican Republic, Panama, El Salvador and Honduras are the countries with the highest prevalence indexes. Colombia is in the first position in percentage of young men with HIV/AIDS and it is in the second position in percentage of children. Costa Rica is the second country for percentage of young men and male adults infected with HIV/AIDS. Paraguay is in the second place for children with HIV/AIDS and it is the third country in young men living with HIV/AIDS. Dominican Republic is in the first position in the percentage of young and adult females living with HIV/AIDS. The main transmission mode in all Latin American countries is sexual intercourse (heterosexual and homo/bisexual). Latin America is a heterogeneous region in HIV/AIDS which should be considered in the development and establishment of prevention strategies.

  4. Current situation of pests targeted by Bt crops in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Blanco, C A; Chiaravalle, W; Dalla-Rizza, M; Farias, J R; García-Degano, M F; Gastaminza, G; Mota-Sánchez, D; Murúa, M G; Omoto, C; Pieralisi, B K; Rodríguez, J; Rodríguez-Maciel, J C; Terán-Santofimio, H; Terán-Vargas, A P; Valencia, S J; Willink, E

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis- (Bt) insecticidal proteins (Bt crops) have provided useful pest management tools to growers for the past 20 years. Planting Bt crops has reduced the use of synthetic insecticides on cotton, maize and soybean fields in 11 countries throughout Latin America. One of the threats that could jeopardize the sustainability of Bt crops is the development of resistance by targeted pests. Governments of many countries require vigilance in measuring changes in Bt-susceptibility in order to proactively implement corrective measures before Bt-resistance is widespread, thus prolonging the usefulness of Bt crops. A pragmatic approach to obtain information on the effectiveness of Bt-crops is directly asking growers, crop consultants and academics about Bt-resistance problems in agricultural fields, first-hand information that not necessarily relies on susceptibility screens performed in laboratories. This type of information is presented in this report. Problematic pests of cotton and soybeans in five Latin American countries currently are effectively controlled by Bt crops. Growers that plant conventional (non-Bt) cotton or soybeans have to spray synthetic insecticides against multiple pests that otherwise are controlled by these Bt crops. A similar situation has been observed in six Latin American countries where Bt maize is planted. No synthetic insecticide applications are used to control corn pests because they are controlled by Bt maize, with the exception of Spodoptera frugiperda. While this insect in some countries is still effectively controlled by Bt maize, in others resistance has evolved and necessitates supplemental insecticide applications and/or the use of Bt maize cultivars that express multiple Bt proteins. Partial control of S. frugiperda in certain countries is due to its natural tolerance to the Bt bacterium. Of the 31 pests targeted and controlled by Bt crops in Latin America, only S. frugiperda has shown

  5. Epidemiology in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Sandhi M; Miranda, Jaime J; Figueroa, J Peter; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Munoz, Sergio; Kuri-Morales, P Pablo; Silva, Jarbas B

    2012-01-01

    Background This article analyses the epidemiological research developments in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It integrates the series commissioned by the International Epidemiological Association to all WHO Regions to identify global opportunities to promote the development of epidemiology. Methods Health situations of the regions were analysed based on published data on selected mortality, morbidity and risk factors. Epidemiological publication output by country was estimated by Medline bibliometrics. Internet and literature searches and data provided by key informants were used to describe perspectives on epidemiological training, research and funding. Findings Despite important advances in recent decades, LAC remains the world's most unequal region. In 2010, 10% of the LAC's people still lived in conditions of multidimensional poverty, with huge variation among countries. The region has experienced fast and complex epidemiological changes in past decades, combining increasing rates of non-communicable diseases and injuries, and keeping uncontrolled many existing endemic and emerging diseases. Overall, epidemiological publications per year increased from 160 articles between 1961 and 1970 to 2492 between 2001 and 2010. The increase in papers per million inhabitants in the past three decades varied from 57% in Panama to 1339% in Paraguay. Universities are the main epidemiological training providers. There are at least 34 universities and other institutions in the region that offer postgraduate programmes at the master’s and doctoral levels in epidemiology or public health. Most LAC countries rely largely on external funding and donors to initiate and sustain long-term research efforts. Despite the limited resources, the critical mass of LAC researchers has produced significant scientific contributions. Future needs The health research panorama of the region shows enormous regional discrepancies, but great prospects. Improving research and human resources

  6. Epidemiology in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation and challenges.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Sandhi M; Miranda, Jaime J; Figueroa, J Peter; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Munoz, Sergio; Kuri-Morales, P Pablo; Silva, Jarbas B

    2012-04-01

    This article analyses the epidemiological research developments in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It integrates the series commissioned by the International Epidemiological Association to all WHO Regions to identify global opportunities to promote the development of epidemiology. Health situations of the regions were analysed based on published data on selected mortality, morbidity and risk factors. Epidemiological publication output by country was estimated by Medline bibliometrics. Internet and literature searches and data provided by key informants were used to describe perspectives on epidemiological training, research and funding. Despite important advances in recent decades, LAC remains the world's most unequal region. In 2010, 10% of the LAC's people still lived in conditions of multidimensional poverty, with huge variation among countries. The region has experienced fast and complex epidemiological changes in past decades, combining increasing rates of non-communicable diseases and injuries, and keeping uncontrolled many existing endemic and emerging diseases. Overall, epidemiological publications per year increased from 160 articles between 1961 and 1970 to 2492 between 2001 and 2010. The increase in papers per million inhabitants in the past three decades varied from 57% in Panama to 1339% in Paraguay. Universities are the main epidemiological training providers. There are at least 34 universities and other institutions in the region that offer postgraduate programmes at the master's and doctoral levels in epidemiology or public health. Most LAC countries rely largely on external funding and donors to initiate and sustain long-term research efforts. Despite the limited resources, the critical mass of LAC researchers has produced significant scientific contributions. FUTURE NEEDS: The health research panorama of the region shows enormous regional discrepancies, but great prospects. Improving research and human resources capacity in the region will

  7. Nutrition situation in Latin America and the Caribbean: current scenario, past trends, and data gaps.

    PubMed

    Galicia, Luis; Grajeda, Rubén; de Romaña, Daniel López

    2016-08-01

    To determine the current nutritional status in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and identify data gaps and trends in nutrition surveillance. A systematic Internet search was conducted to identify official sources that allowed for monitoring of LAC countries' nutritional status, including progress toward World Health Organization Global Nutrition Targets 2025. Reports from national nutrition surveillance systems and reports on nationally representative surveys were collected and collated to 1) analyze nutritional status, based on life-course anthropometric indicators and biomarkers, and 2) identify gaps in data availability and trends in nutritional deficiencies. Information on iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate, and vitamin B12 deficiency was also collected and collated. Twenty-two of the 46 LAC countries/territories (48%) had information on undernutrition (stunting, underweight, and wasting) in children under 5 years old and women of reproductive age (WRA). Seventeen countries (38%) had information on anemia in children under 5 years old and WRA, and 12 (27%) had information on anemia in pregnant women. Although overall nutritional status has improved in the past few decades in all countries in the region, some LAC countries still had a high prevalence of stunting and anemia in children and WRA. Overweight affected at least 50% of WRA in nine countries with available data, and was increasing in children. Data for school-age children, adolescents, adult males, and older adults were scarce in the region. Overall nutritional status has improved in the LAC countries with available information, but more efforts are needed to scale up nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific interventions to tackle malnutrition in all its forms, as stunting, anemia, and vitamin A deficiency are still a public health problem in many countries, and overweight is an epidemic. Nutrition information systems are weak in the region, and countries need to strengthen their capacity to

  8. Voluntary reduction of trans-fatty acids in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Jacoby, Enrique; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2011-02-01

    As part of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Trans-Fat-Free Americas initiative, 12 representatives from food industries in Latin America and the Caribbean signed a declaration stating their intention to voluntarily eliminate industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) from the Americas. A year later, in order to document the extent of the voluntary reduction, each declarant was asked to describe all reformulations and reductions in the TFA content of their products. After up to six requests for data, only three declarants provided such information in detail, and three others offered an overall summary of their reformulations. Additionally, three declarants reported the barriers that limit this process: availability of oil substitutes, cost, and consumers' sensory acceptance. The content of TFA and saturated fat in the food supply in the Americas should be regulated and strictly monitored in order to adequately evaluate a reduction of TFA in the region.

  9. The current situation of meningococcal disease in Latin America and updated Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio P; O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela Bravo, Maria Teresa; Brandileone, Maria Cristina C; Gorla, Maria Cecília O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Moreno, Gabriela; Vazquez, Julio A; López, Eduardo L; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Borrow, Ray

    2015-11-27

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) was established in 2009 and comprises an international team of scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with expertise in meningococcal disease (MD). Its primary goal is to promote global prevention of MD through education, research, international cooperation, and developing recommendations that include decreasing the burden of severe disease. The group held its first roundtable meeting with experts from Latin American countries in 2011, and subsequently proposed several recommendations to reduce the regional burden of MD. A second roundtable meeting was convened with Latin American representatives in June 2013 to reassess MD epidemiology, vaccination strategies, and unmet needs in the region, as well as to update the earlier recommendations. Special emphasis was placed on the emergence and spread of serogroup W disease in Argentina and Chile, and the control measures put in place in Chile were a particular focus of discussions. The impact of routine meningococcal vaccination programs, notably in Brazil, was also evaluated. There have been considerable improvements in MD surveillance systems and diagnostic techniques in some countries (e.g., Brazil and Chile), but the lack of adequate infrastructure, trained personnel, and equipment/reagents remains a major barrier to progress in resource-poor countries. The Pan American Health Organization's Revolving Fund is likely to play an important role in improving access to meningococcal vaccines in Latin America. Additional innovative approaches are needed to redress the imbalance in expertise and resources between countries, and thereby improve the control of MD. In Latin America, the GMI recommends establishment of a detailed and comprehensive national/regional surveillance system, standardization of laboratory procedures, adoption of a uniform MD case definition, maintaining laboratory-based surveillance, replacement of polysaccharide vaccines with conjugate

  10. Current Vocational Training in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexim, Joao Carlos

    Vocational training (VT) programs in Latin America prepare workers to perform middle-level occupations or jobs. VT in Latin America is characterized by the existence of solid and autonomous national institutes linked to the logic of economic production, funded through a payroll levy grant, counting on a tripartite board, and related to ministries…

  11. Cancer clinical research in Latin America: current situation and opportunities. Expert opinion from the first ESMO workshop on clinical trials, Lima, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Rolfo, Christian; Caglevic, Christian; Bretel, Denisse; Hong, David; Raez, Luis E; Cardona, Andres F; Oton, Ana B; Gomez, Henry; Dafni, Urania; Vallejos, Carlos; Zielinski, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean have not yet developed strong clinical cancer research programmes. In order to improve this situation two international cancer organisations, the Latin American Society of Clinical Oncology (SLACOM) and the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) worked closely with the Peruvian Cooperative Oncology Group (GECOPERU) and organised a clinical cancer research workshop held in Lima, Peru, in October 2015. Many oncologists from different Latin American countries participated in this gathering. The opportunities for and strengths of clinical oncology research in Latin American and Caribbean countries were identified as the widespread use of the Spanish language, the high cancer burden, growing access to information, improving patient education, access to new drugs for research centres, regional networks and human resources. However, there are still many weaknesses and problems including the long timeline for regulatory approval, lack of economic investment, lack of training and lack of personnel participating in clinical research, lack of cancer registries, insufficient technology and insufficient supplies for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, few cancer specialists, low general levels of education and the negative attitude of government authorities towards clinical research. PMID:27843620

  12. Cancer clinical research in Latin America: current situation and opportunities. Expert opinion from the first ESMO workshop on clinical trials, Lima, 2015.

    PubMed

    Rolfo, Christian; Caglevic, Christian; Bretel, Denisse; Hong, David; Raez, Luis E; Cardona, Andres F; Oton, Ana B; Gomez, Henry; Dafni, Urania; Vallejos, Carlos; Zielinski, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean have not yet developed strong clinical cancer research programmes. In order to improve this situation two international cancer organisations, the Latin American Society of Clinical Oncology (SLACOM) and the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) worked closely with the Peruvian Cooperative Oncology Group (GECOPERU) and organised a clinical cancer research workshop held in Lima, Peru, in October 2015. Many oncologists from different Latin American countries participated in this gathering. The opportunities for and strengths of clinical oncology research in Latin American and Caribbean countries were identified as the widespread use of the Spanish language, the high cancer burden, growing access to information, improving patient education, access to new drugs for research centres, regional networks and human resources. However, there are still many weaknesses and problems including the long timeline for regulatory approval, lack of economic investment, lack of training and lack of personnel participating in clinical research, lack of cancer registries, insufficient technology and insufficient supplies for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, few cancer specialists, low general levels of education and the negative attitude of government authorities towards clinical research.

  13. Hypertension in Latin America: Current perspectives on trends and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ruilope, L M; Chagas, A C P; Brandão, A A; Gómez-Berroterán, R; Alcalá, J J A; Paris, J V; Cerda, J J O

    The region of Latin America, which includes Central America, the Caribbean and South America, is one that is rapidly developing. Signified by socio-economic growth, transition and development over the last few decades, living standards in countries like Brazil and Mexico have improved dramatically, including improvements in education and health care. An important marker of socio-economic change has been the epidemiological shift in disease burden. Cardiovascular disease is now the leading cause of death in Latin America, and the drop in prevalence of infectious diseases has been accompanied by a rise in non-communicable diseases. Hypertension is the major risk factor driving the cardiovascular disease continuum. In this article we aim to discuss the epidemiological and management trends and patterns in hypertension that may be specific or more common to Latin-American populations - what we term 'Latin American characteristics' of hypertension - via a review of the recent literature. Recognizing that there may be a specific profile of hypertension for Latin-American patients may help to improve their treatment, with the ultimate goal to reduce their cardiovascular risk. We focus somewhat on the countries of Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela, the experience of which may reflect other Latin American countries that currently have less published data regarding epidemiology and management practices. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. The cataract situation in Latin America: barriers to cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Batlle, Juan Francisco; Lansingh, Van Charles; Silva, Juan Carlos; Eckert, Kristen Allison; Resnikoff, Serge

    2014-08-01

    To provide an update of cataract data and barriers to cataract surgery in Latin America. Review and longitudinal study. Cataract surgery rates and other related indicators that have been reported to the VISION 2020 Latin America program since 2005 were reviewed. PubMed was searched for publications concerning regional epidemiologic studies related to cataract, cataract surgery, barriers, outcomes, and cataract prevalence between January 2012 and October 2013 to obtain the most up-to-date data from 19 countries. The weighted mean regional cataract surgery rate has increased by an impressive 70% since 2005, from 1562 to 2672 cataract surgeries per 1 million inhabitants. The weighted mean number of ophthalmologists per 1 million inhabitants in the region is approximately 62. Cataract surgery coverage varies widely in Latin America, from a meager 15% in El Salvador to a more satisfactory 77% in Uruguay. Five recent surveys indicate that lack of awareness of cataract and the surgery treatment option as well as the cost of the surgery are the main barriers to cataract surgery. In spite of the increasing rates of cataract surgery and the more-than-adequate number of ophthalmologists in Latin America, it is not known how many ophthalmologists actually perform surgery. Coverage remains less than satisfactory across the region. Barriers to cataract surgery hinder the efforts of eye care programming. More comprehensive eye care programs and training centers are needed so that they can focus on reaching the underserved and unaware communities, increase surgery output and uptake, and improve outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Five Studies on the Situation of Women in Latin America. Estudios e Informes de la CEPAL. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Commission for Latin America (UN), Santiago (Chile).

    Five studies on the situation of women in Latin America focus on (1) the integration of women in development, (2) the family as the immediate social framework of children and women, (3) some types of poor women in Latin America, (4) the educational situation of women, and (5) women in development and housework. An introductory section outlining…

  16. Soil ecotoxicology in Latin America: Current research and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Júlia Carina; Chelinho, Sónia; Sousa, José Paulo

    2017-07-01

    Soils from some Latin American countries support the highest biodiversity levels on the planet and simultaneously have some of the most serious environmental impacts attributed to both historical and current agricultural practices and industrial activities. Soil contamination has resulted from intensive use of pesticides, extensive mining and other industrial activities, and uncontrolled management of waste within inappropriate regulatory frameworks. The present study presents an overview of the scientific research on soil ecotoxicology conducted in Latin America, summarizing the recent advances and highlighting the needs for further refinements in this research field. Most of the contributions to the scientific literature have been from Brazil. The most investigated issue is the ecotoxicity of pesticides and earthworms, which were the organisms most frequently used as test species. Needs identified by Latin American researchers include methods and procedures for: 1) identifying and collecting natural soils to be used as reference test-substrates in tests, 2) identifying and discerning the range of sensitivities of native test species to soil contaminants, 3) developing environmental guidelines applicable to tropical/subtropical conditions, and 4) developing methods and procedures for higher tier testing for full development and implementation of environmental risk assessment schemes. The protection of Latin American soils, including provision of goods and services, is currently framed in legislation and other regulations, but implementation requires significant improvement and additional training programs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1795-1810. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  17. Current trends in Latin America and the Argentine perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Laredo, V.G.

    1992-12-31

    The authors discusses the changes that are taking place in Argentina as well as in all of Latin America today -- privatization, deregulation, and the modernization of the economy, changes which will serve to strengthen the governments and provide a better quality of life for all of them. He gives an insight into the factors which helped bring about these changes, the support they are receiving, the problems which persist, and the measures that still must be taken so that these positive changes remain in place. He offers some useful information that will perhaps contribute to their understanding of the vast area which he refers to as Latin America, and more specifically, gives a thumbnail sketch of what is happening today in the Republic of Argentina. For many years now, Latin American leaders have travelled to other parts of the world and spoken about the plans and expectations for the region`s future. When these well-intentioned projects and plans never materialized, partners and supporters in the United States and other countries were frustrated and disappointed by the failure to make things work. The author`s intention here today is to describe things as they are, not as they might be, to tell about what is already happening in the sphere of business and growth of the economies in Latin America.

  18. Economic evaluation guidelines in Latin America: a current snapshot.

    PubMed

    Augustovski, Federico; Garay, Osvaldo Ulises; Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Caporale, Joaquín E

    2010-10-01

    Economic evaluation guidelines are widespread in developed countries with fourth hurdle systems but as of yet not in Latin America. In the present article, a systematic search was conducted in order to retrieve regional guidelines in PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) and the gray literature. Four national guidelines were found: Brazil, Colombia, Cuba and Mexico. We report a thorough review of these documents, as well as a comparison among them. We conclude that, despite some differences found, they are broadly similar, and are broadly in accordance with international documents. The existence of these documents, together with other experiences in the region that explicitly use economic evaluation information for health decision making clearly shows that this global tendency is gaining momentum in Latin America, although there is still a long way to go. In the near future we will be able to see if these documents were successfully used and applied for transparent and evidence-based decision making.

  19. Applicability of the current hypertension guidelines in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Alcocer, Luis; Meaney, Eduardo; Hernandez-Hernandez, Hector

    2015-08-01

    Recent research has focused on the development of evidence-based guidelines that are intended to regulate the conduct of physicians in the diagnosis and control of hypertension, with the goal of achieving greater effectiveness and equity at the lowest possible cost. In Latin America, guidelines are available for the management of hypertension at three levels: national, regional and international. The national and regional Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) guidelines are in fact adaptations of the international guidelines. The potential benefit of applying guidelines developed in other regions to local healthcare decision making is that it will enable decision makers to take advantage of existing analyses and transfer or adapt them to their local contexts. However, this adaptation precludes the assessment of their generalizability and potential transferability. In addition, this region is characterized by wide socioeconomic differences between its inhabitants, both among and within nations. Therefore, new guidelines for the LAC region must include recommendations that are common to all hypertensive patients in the region. Moreover, we advocate the inclusion of a specific section that makes comprehensive recommendations and provides strategies for implementation according to the socioeconomic conditions of particular groups. In addition to developing guidelines that are truly applicable to the LAC region, it seems sensible to consider information that is specific to this region. Furthermore, developing evidence-based guidelines is not enough to affect positively the burden of disease caused by hypertension. Therefore, professional programs are required for the implementation of such guidelines as well as the auditing of their results. Achieving these ambitious goals will require collaborative efforts by many groups including policymakers, international organizations, healthcare providers, universities and society.

  20. The situation of nursing education in Latin America and the Caribbean towards universal health

    PubMed Central

    Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli; Wilson, Lynda Law; Mikael, Sabrina de Souza Elias; Peña, Laura Morán; Grajales, Rosa Amarilis Zarate; McCreary, Linda L.; Theus, Lisa; Agudelo, Maria del Carmen Gutierrez; Felix, Adriana da Silva; de Uriza, Jacqueline Molina; Gutierrez, Nathaly Rozo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: to assess the situation of nursing education and to analyze the extent to which baccalaureate level nursing education programs in Latin America and the Caribbean are preparing graduates to contribute to the achievement of Universal Health. Method: quantitative, descriptive/exploratory, cross-sectional study carried out in 25 countries. Results: a total of 246 nursing schools participated in the study. Faculty with doctoral level degrees totaled 31.3%, without Brazil this is reduced to 8.3%. The ratio of clinical experiences in primary health care services to hospital-based services was 0.63, indicating that students receive more clinical experiences in hospital settings. The results suggested a need for improvement in internet access; information technology; accessibility for the disabled; program, faculty and student evaluation; and teaching/learning methods. Conclusion: there is heterogeneity in nursing education in Latin America and the Caribbean. The nursing curricula generally includes the principles and values of Universal Health and primary health care, as well as those principles underpinning transformative education modalities such as critical and complex thinking development, problem-solving, evidence-based clinical decision-making, and lifelong learning. However, there is a need to promote a paradigm shift in nursing education to include more training in primary health care. PMID:28513769

  1. Current status of marine protected areas in latin america and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Guarderas, A Paulina; Hacker, Sally D; Lubchenco, Jane

    2008-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs), including no-take marine reserves (MRs), play an important role in the conservation of marine biodiversity. We document the status of MPAs and MRs in Latin America and the Caribbean, where little has been reported on the scope of such protection. Our survey of protected area databases, published and unpublished literature, and Internet searches yielded information from 30 countries and 12 overseas territories. At present more than 700 MPAs have been established, covering more than 300,000 km(2) or 1.5% of the coastal and shelf waters. We report on the status of 3 categories of protection: MPAs (limited take throughout the area), MRs (no-take throughout the area), and mixed-use (a limited-take MPA that contains an MR). The majority of protected areas in Latin America and the Caribbean are MPAs, which allow some or extensive extractive activities throughout the designated area. These 571 sites cover 51,505 km(2) or 0.3% of coastal and shelf waters. There are 98 MRs covering 16,862 km(2) or 0.1% of the coastal and shelf waters. Mixed-use MPAs are the fewest in number (87), but cover the largest area (236,853 km(2), 1.2%). Across Latin America and the Caribbean, many biogeographic provinces are underrepresented in these protected areas. Large coastal regions remain unprotected, in particular, the southern Pacific and southern Atlantic coasts of South America. Our analysis reveals multiple opportunities to strengthen marine conservation in Latin America and the Caribbean by improving implementation, management, and enforcement of existing MPAs; adding new MPAs and MRs strategically to enhance connectivity and sustainability of existing protection; and establishing new networks of MPAs and MRs or combinations thereof to enhance protection where little currently exists.

  2. The current status of ethnobiological research in Latin America: gaps and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent reviews have demonstrated an increase in the number of papers on ethnobiology in Latin America. Among factors that have influenced this increase are the biological and cultural diversity of these countries and the general scientific situation in some countries. This study aims to assess the panorama of ethnobiological research in Latin America by analyzing its evolution, trends, and future prospects. Methods To conduct this study, we searched for papers in the Scopus (http://www.scopus.com) and Web of Science (http://www.isiknowledge.com) databases. The search was performed using combinations of keywords and the name of each Latin American country. The following countries were included in this study: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela, and Uruguay. Results and conclusions According to our inclusion criteria, 679 ethnobiological studies conducted in Latin America were found for the period between 1963 and 2012. Of these studies, 289 (41%) were conducted in Brazil, 153 in Mexico (22%), 61 in Peru (9%), 58 in Argentina (8%), 45 in Bolivia (6%), and 97 (14%) in other Latin American countries. The increased number of publications related to this area of knowledge in recent years demonstrates the remarkable growth of ethnobiology as a science. Ethnobiological research may be stimulated by an increase in the number of scientific events and journals for study dissemination and by the creation of undergraduate courses and graduate programs to train ethnoscientists who will produce high-quality studies, especially in certain countries. PMID:24131758

  3. Serogroup W meningococcal disease: global spread and current affect on the Southern Cone in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Abad, R; López, E L; Debbag, R; Vázquez, J A

    2014-12-01

    Meningococcal serogroup W strains have been emerging throughout the current century with most of the isolates belonging to the sequence type (ST11)/electrophoretic type (ET37) clonal complex (ST11/E37 CC), particularly since the international outbreak following Hajj 2000. That outbreak appears to have triggered off that trend, contributing to the spread of W ST11/ET37 CC strains globally; however, local strains could be also responsible for increases in the percentage and/or incidence rates of this serogroup in some countries. More recently, unexpected increases in the percentage and incidence rate of W has been noticed in different countries located in the South Cone in Latin America, and W ST11/ET37 CC strains now appear as endemic in the region and an extensive immunization programme with tetravalent conjugate vaccine (covering serogroups A, C, Y and W) has been recently implemented in Chile. It is difficult to ascertain whether we are observing the emergence of W ST11 CC strains in different geographical areas or whether the Hajj 2000 strain is still spreading globally. Several aspects of the evolution of that situation are analysed in this paper, reviewing also the implications in immunization programmes. Closely related with the analysis of this potential evolution, it will be very interesting to monitor the evolution of serogroup W in the African meningitis belt after implementation of the extensive immunization programme with serogroup A conjugate vaccine that is currently underway. More data about carriers, transmission, clonal lineages, etc. are needed for taking decisions (target groups, outbreak control, defining the extent, etc.) to adapt the response strategy with potential interventions with broad coverage vaccines against the emergent serogroup W.

  4. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and…

  5. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Gerald Michael

    1986-01-01

    Notes the problematical elements of diversity within Latin America, establishes priorities for the social studies curriculum, and reviews what should be taught about its geography, resources, people, religion, customs, economics, politics, history, and international relationships. Lists Latin American Studies programs and published instructional…

  6. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Gerald Michael

    1986-01-01

    Notes the problematical elements of diversity within Latin America, establishes priorities for the social studies curriculum, and reviews what should be taught about its geography, resources, people, religion, customs, economics, politics, history, and international relationships. Lists Latin American Studies programs and published instructional…

  7. The current status of abortion laws in Latin America: prospects and strategies for change.

    PubMed

    Boland, Reed

    1993-01-01

    In order to explore ways of dealing with this phenomenon of illegal abortions and restrictive abortion laws in Latin America, several special sessions were held at last summer's international conference in Toronto, sponsored by the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics. The sessions brought together lawyers, health professionals, and reproductive rights advocates from a number of Latin American countries; their counterparts in the developed world; and representatives of non-governmental agencies concerned with this issue, including Catholics for a Free Choice. The goal of the sessions was to share information on the status of abortion in various countries and to try to devise strategies to make abortion law reform more palatable to Latin American governments and public opinion. One major component of the sessions was a series of papers prepared by some of the Latin American representatives describing and analyzing the situations in their countries. The papers illustrate some of the issues facing women in this part of the world.

  8. Current clinical nutrition practices in critically ill patients in Latin America: a multinational observational study.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Karin Papapietro; Martínez, Carolina Méndez; Matos Adames, Alfredo A; Fuchs-Tarlovsky, Vanessa; Nogales, Guillermo Carlos Contreras; Paz, Roger Enrique Riofrio; Perman, Mario Ignacio; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2017-08-25

    Malnutrition in critically ill adults in the intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with a significantly elevated risk of mortality. Adequate nutrition therapy is crucial to optimise outcomes. Currently, there is a paucity of such data in Latin America. Our aims were to characterise current clinical nutrition practices in the ICU setting in Latin America and evaluate whether current practices meet caloric and protein requirements in critically ill patients receiving nutrition therapy. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study in eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, and Peru). Eligible patients were critically ill adults hospitalised in the ICU and receiving enteral nutrition (EN) and/or parenteral nutrition (PN) on the Screening Day and the previous day (day -1). Caloric and protein balance on day -1, nutritional status, and prescribed nutrition therapy were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of reaching daily caloric and protein targets. The analysis included 1053 patients from 116 hospitals. Evaluation of nutritional status showed that 74.1% of patients had suspected/moderate or severe malnutrition according to the Subjective Global Assessment. Prescribed nutrition therapy included EN alone (79.9%), PN alone (9.4%), and EN + PN (10.7%). Caloric intake met >90% of the daily target in 59.7% of patients on day -1; a caloric deficit was present in 40.3%, with a mean (±SD) daily caloric deficit of -688.8 ± 455.2 kcal. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that combined administration of EN + PN was associated with a statistically significant increase in the probability of meeting >90% of daily caloric and protein targets compared with EN alone (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.39; p = 0.038). In the ICU setting in Latin America, malnutrition was highly prevalent and caloric

  9. Current challenges and future perspectives in the field of addiction psychiatry in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Attas, Javier Didia; de Pabón, Elvia Velázquez; Cueva, Rafael Navarro

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the addictions field in Latin America. Epidemiology, legal aspects, dual pathology, treatment, prevention and future directions are discussed. This increasing disease is one of the major contributors for mental health problems in the region. Efforts have been made in treatment and prevention but results and budgets are scarce. Dual pathology, new modalities such as injected heroin in countries such as Colombia, low coverage of programmes, training resources, research and publications are important challenges. The tendency to liberalize legal terms of use would require more effort for prevention and education. Based on relevant literature and a long and current experience in the area, the authors summarize this important theme.

  10. AIDS in Latin America: assessing the current status of the epidemic and the ongoing response.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Francisco I; Cáceres, Carlos; Galvão, Jane; Veras, Maria Amélia; Castilho, Euclides Ayres

    2008-08-01

    This article provides a summary of the current status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Latin America, as well as an outline of the diverse responses to it. A search of international databases (Pubmed and ISI-Web of Science), regional databases (Scielo and Lilacs), regional and national documents and UNAIDS reports. Data are presented according to subregion. In Mexico HIV remains concentrated among urban men who have sex with men (MSM), and has been growing among injecting drug users (IDU) and in rural areas in relation to migration. An increasing proportion of women among those affected is observed in all countries in Central America, the most affected region, as well as increasing the impact on other vulnerable groups, such as indigenous populations. The Andean Countries have urban epidemics concentrated among MSM. In Peru, non-traditional vulnerable populations were identified. In the Southern Cone heterosexual transmission became more relevant, probably in connection with IDU epidemics and is increasingly affecting lower income groups. Incidence rates have been declining since 2002 in Brazil, the first country to guarantee free, universal access to antiretrovirals, where one-third of drug-naïve patients are still initiating treatment at an advanced stage. Generally, access to treatment has improved as a result of support from the Global Fund and other initiatives, but there are concerns regarding coverage, equity and sustainability. HIV is still concentrated among MSM in Latin America. Non-traditional vulnerable groups such as migrants and lower income populations, usually considered part of the general population, deserve attention. Programmes confronting sexual exclusion are still needed. Access to treatment has improved over time, but inequalities persist.

  11. Current status and future perspectives of immunotherapy in Latin America and Cuba.

    PubMed

    Diaz Rodriguez, Alexander; Rosado, Alexis Labrada; Almarales, Raúl Lázaro Castro; Castelló, Mirta Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Most Latin-American countries use subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) extracts from the United States and Europe and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) from Europe, with the exception of Argentina, Brazil, Cuba and Mexico. The number of researches on immunotherapy (IT) in Latin America has increased extensively in the last years. Only few Latin American countries have their own guidelines on IT, and, in general, the economic resources for medical research on IT are still low in the area. A global approach for the future of IT in Latin America includes to improve standardization, quality control and the production of allergen products, to develop IT guidelines and clinical investigation by the highest number of countries, to improve the regulatory status for allergens products in the area, and to expand IT accessibility for low-income patients. In Cuba, the first registered allergen vaccines were developed and registered in 2006: a standardized (in biologic units) and freeze dried product for SCIT, with a sublingual version developed in 2009. As much as 23.000 IT treatments were applied in 2011, all provided to patients free of charge. In 2012, Cuban researchers developed an IT vaccine with adjuvant for subcutaneous route, which uses Neisseria meningitidis proteoliposome as an adjuvant, added to the purified Dermatophagoides siboney major allergens: Der s1 and Der s2. Since December 2012, this vaccine is in Phase I clinical trial, evaluating its safety, tolerability and immunogenicity in asthmatic patients sensitized to this allergen. Cuban perspectives on IT includes to work on new indications for IT, to investigate the preventive effect and cost-effectiveness for the current vaccines, to develop new products with mixed formulas of house dust mites for SLIT, to complete the phase I and II clinical study for dust mite plus adjuvant vaccine, to develop allergen vaccines for fungi allergy and to complete the Cuban guideline for allergen IT management.

  12. The situation of nursing education in Latin America and the Caribbean towards universal health.

    PubMed

    Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli; Wilson, Lynda Law; Mikael, Sabrina de Souza Elias; Peña, Laura Morán; Grajales, Rosa Amarilis Zarate; McCreary, Linda L; Theus, Lisa; Agudelo, Maria Del Carmen Gutierrez; Felix, Adriana da Silva; Uriza, Jacqueline Molina de; Gutierrez, Nathaly Rozo

    2017-05-11

    to assess the situation of nursing education and to analyze the extent to which baccalaureate level nursing education programs in Latin America and the Caribbean are preparing graduates to contribute to the achievement of Universal Health. quantitative, descriptive/exploratory, cross-sectional study carried out in 25 countries. a total of 246 nursing schools participated in the study. Faculty with doctoral level degrees totaled 31.3%, without Brazil this is reduced to 8.3%. The ratio of clinical experiences in primary health care services to hospital-based services was 0.63, indicating that students receive more clinical experiences in hospital settings. The results suggested a need for improvement in internet access; information technology; accessibility for the disabled; program, faculty and student evaluation; and teaching/learning methods. there is heterogeneity in nursing education in Latin America and the Caribbean. The nursing curricula generally includes the principles and values of Universal Health and primary health care, as well as those principles underpinning transformative education modalities such as critical and complex thinking development, problem-solving, evidence-based clinical decision-making, and lifelong learning. However, there is a need to promote a paradigm shift in nursing education to include more training in primary health care. avaliar a situação da educação em enfermagem e analisar o quanto os programas de educação em enfermagem, no nível de Bacharelado na América Latina e no Caribe, estão preparando graduados a contribuir para o alcance da Saúde Universal. estudo quantitativo, descritivo/exploratório, transversal, realizado em 25 países. um total de 246 escolas de enfermagem participaram do estudo. O corpo docente com nível de Doutorado totalizou 31,3%; sem o Brasil o número fica reduzido a 8,3%. A razão entre experiências clínicas nos serviços de atenção primária à saúde e nos serviços hospitalares foi de 0

  13. Status of palliative care in Latin America: looking through the Latin America Atlas of Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Pastrana, Tania; Eisenchlas, Jorge; Centeno, Carlos; De Lima, Liliana

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have been published reporting the status of palliative care in different countries of Latin America, but no studies have been published on the status of the discipline across the whole region. This article provides a summary of the current situation as reported in the Atlas of Palliative Care recently completed by the Latin American Association for Palliative Care. The aim of this project was to collect information on the degree of palliative care development, help create a network, and influence the progress of palliative care across Latin America. The Atlas provides an overview of the status of palliative care in Latin America according to the World Health Organization public health strategy for palliative care: policies, drug availability, education, and implementation of services. The results indicate that there is significant variation among countries in the region and that strategies to support and develop palliative care require tailored approaches to meet the needs of each. The information in this review gives a broad notion of the current status of palliative care in Latin America. The Atlas is expected to help the progress of palliative care and serve as a driver of the field in Latin America and other regions.

  14. Current status of nuclear cardiology practice in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Paez, Diana; Peix, Amalia; Orellana, Pilar; Vitola, Joao; Mut, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Claudia; Plaza, Crosby; Becic, Tarik; Dondi, Maurizio; Estrada, Enrique

    2017-02-01

    The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the world is ever growing. They represent the first cause of death worldwide and in Latin America. Nuclear cardiology has a well-established role in the management of patient with CVDs and is being increasingly integrated into the healthcare systems in the region. However, there remains variability as to the infrastructure available across the countries, in terms of existing technology, radiopharmaceuticals, and human resources. The approximate number of gamma (γ) cameras in the region is 1348, with an average of 2.25 per million population; Argentina and Brazil having the largest number. Nearly 80% of the existing cameras are single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), of which 8% are hybrid SPECT-CT systems. Positron emission tomography technology is steadily increasing, and currently, there is an average of 0.25 scanners per million inhabitants, indicating that there is a potential to expand the capacities in order to cover the needs. Four countries have nuclear reactors for research purposes, which allow the production of technetium-99 m (Argentina, Chile, Mexico and Peru), while four (Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, and Mexico) assemble (99)Mo-(99m)Tc generators. As for the nuclear cardiology studies, about 80% of studies performed are gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging; less than 10% are multi-gated acquisition (mainly for evaluation of cardiac toxicity in cancer patients), and the other 10% correspond to other types of studies, such as viability detection, and adrenergic innervation studies with (123)I-MIBG. Physical stress is preferred, when possible, based on the clinical condition of the patient. Regarding human resources, there is an average of 1.1 physicians and 1.3 technologists per γ camera, with 0.1 medical physicists and 0.1 radiopharmacists per center in the region. The future of nuclear cardiology in Latin America and the Caribbean is encouraging, with great potential and possibilities for growth

  15. Focus: global currents in national histories of science: the "global turn" and the history of science in Latin America.

    PubMed

    McCook, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    The "global turn" in the history of science offers new ways to think about how to do national and regional histories of science, in this case the history of science in Latin America. For example, it questions structuralist and diffusionist models of the spread of science and shows the often active role that people in Latin America (and the rest of the Global South) played in the construction of "universal" scientific knowledge. It suggests that even national or regional histories of science must be situated in a global context; all too often, such histories have treated global processes as a distant backdrop. At the same time, historians need to pay constant attention to the role of power in the construction of scientific knowledge. Finally, this essay highlights a methodological tool for writing globally inflected histories of science: the method of "following".

  16. The energy situation in Latin America and the Caribbean; An assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Sierra, G. )

    1989-01-01

    Energy consumption in Latin America and the Caribbean grew during the 1970s but fell during the 1980s due to reconstructing and recessionary effects. Despite efforts to limit vulnerability through diversification, increasing self-sufficiency has been limited by financial constraints, and rising oil prices have not had such significant impacts on consumption structure as in industrialized countries. Consumption of biomass, oil, and new renewable energy sources have contracted, coal production and use are growing, nuclear programs have been cut back by a factor of 25, and increased hydropower generation has lightened the thermoelectric demand, but severely intensified the debt burden. This paper presents an approach to energy planning which stresses the need to reflect rapid socioeconomic changes, satisfy the needs of the underprivileged, and make more efficient use of resources.

  17. Older women in Latin America: the health and socioeconomic situation of this important subgroup.

    PubMed

    Sennott-Miller, L

    1995-01-01

    The social and health consequences of aging, for women in Latin America, have been largely unexplored. This research reports the results of a review and secondary analysis of existing published and unpublished data. The analytical framework cross-classifies the data into three categories of age: midlife (40-59), young old (60-74), and old old (75+), and three categories of country type: highly rural, mixed, and highly urban. Findings revealed a group at severe disadvantage educationally, economically and, by virtue of their longevity, likely to end up widowed and suffering the physical effects of premature aging. Older women also bear the major burden for economic survival and emotional vitality of the family. The strategies they develop to respond to these necessities are innovative and often involve creation of new family forms based on cooperation among women. These deserve greater study as potential models for interventions to take advantage of the long-neglected ingenuity represented by this group.

  18. Influenza among adults in Latin America, current status, and future directions: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Bonvehí, Pablo E; Istúriz, Raúl E; Labarca, Jaime A; Rüttimann, Ricardo W; Vidal, Edison I; Vilar-Compte, Diana

    2012-06-01

    In Latin America, adult influenza is a serious disease that exacts a heavy burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost. Although much has been written about the disease itself, relatively little information has been compiled on what could be done to reduce its impact across the region, particularly from the perspective of clinicians with first-hand experience in confronting its effects. To fill this data gap, in 2011, the Pan American Health and Education Foundation (PAHEF) and the U.S.-based nonprofit Fighting Infectious Diseases in Emerging Countries (FIDEC) organized a conference and convened a panel of Latin American scientist-clinicians with experience and expertise in adult influenza in the region tol) discuss the major issues related to the disease and 2) develop and produce a consensus statement summarizing its impact as well as current efforts to diagnose, prevent, and treat it. The consensus panel concluded a more concerted and better-coordinated effort was needed to reduce the adverse impact of seasonal influenza and future pandemics, including more surveillance, more active involvement by both governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and a much greater effort to vaccinate more adults, especially those at high risk of contracting the disease. In addition, a new approach for diagnosing influenza was recommended.

  19. An Insider's Look at the Development and Current State of Community Psychology in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, Maritza

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the rich history of community psychology in Latin America, describing how the field was systematically built during the second half of the 20th century. Discussed are social and political influences such as the critique of individualistic emphasis dominant at that moment, Paulo Freire's popular education, critical sociology…

  20. An Insider's Look at the Development and Current State of Community Psychology in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, Maritza

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the rich history of community psychology in Latin America, describing how the field was systematically built during the second half of the 20th century. Discussed are social and political influences such as the critique of individualistic emphasis dominant at that moment, Paulo Freire's popular education, critical sociology…

  1. Profession of neuropsychology in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lillian; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Ardila, Alfredo; Rivera, Diego

    2016-06-09

    The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures used, rehabilitation techniques employed, population targeted, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. A total of 808 professionals working in neuropsychology from 17 countries in Latin America completed an online survey between July 2013 and January 2014. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 36.76 years (range 21-74 years). The majority of professionals working in neuropsychology in Latin America have a background in psychology, with some additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice, universities, or private clinics and are quite satisfied with their work. Those who identify themselves as clinicians primarily work with individuals with learning problems, ADHD, mental retardation, TBI, dementia, and stroke. The majority respondents cite the top barrier in the use of neuropsychological instruments to be the lack of normative data for their countries. The top perceived barriers to the field include: lack of academic training programs, lack of clinical training opportunities, lack of willingness to collaborate between professionals, and lack of access to neuropsychological instruments. There is a need in Latin America to increase regulation, improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally-relevant instruments.

  2. [The aging of the population in Latin America: demographic trends and the socioeconomic situation].

    PubMed

    Pelaez, C A; Arguello, O

    1982-12-01

    "The paper analyzes the demographic aspects of the aging of the population in Latin America. Aging is still incipient in the great majority of countries of the region, but it will become generalized and will be accentuated especially after the year 2000. The dependency relationship will continue to decrease until higher levels of aging are reached; the proportion of the aged in the potentially dependent population will increase and the relationship between the population from 15 to 59 years of age and over 60 will decrease. "At present, the proportion of single women [over 60] is much higher than that of single men. From the information on participation in the labour force and the access that the aged have to income or pension benefits, the paper also shows that most of the aged that continue to work do so because they require an income for subsistence. "The paper finally includes some conclusions on the causes and consequences of the aging of the population and the actions that would be necessary to broaden knowledge for the formulation of policies." (summary in ENG) excerpt

  3. SSA 04-4 CURRENT STATUS IN MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSION IN LATIN AMERICA.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Fernando Stuardo Wyss

    2016-09-01

    's goal is to improve CVD prevention and management, using hypertension as the entry point, by developing and implementing an approach for standardizing the management of hypertension and strengthening health systems at the primary care level. The SHTP Project design aims to be feasible and flexible for worldwide applicability and can be adapted to improve control of other NCDs. Rationale for Strengthening Healthcare DeliveryAbout the Systems for Hypertension Control, Strengthening of health systems can help address challenges to hypertension control by addressing a number of barriers to effective and sustained hypertension like a Patient barriers, Provider Barriers and Health System Barries to medication availabilities and affordabilitiesTo effectively reduce the burden of hypertension within a care delivery system, it is essential to develop and implement a multipronged strategy based on strong political will. This strategy should create an environment where hypertension control is a priority and specific stakeholders, as well as leaders and champions, are identified with clearly defined roles and responsibilities. Involved parties should include patients, clinicians, pharmacists, and social service workers, as well as others to comprise a multidisciplinary team. Concrete targets and goals and an accountability mechanism should be established at all levels with a plan to conduct monitoring and evaluation. Financial resources, including funding sources and procurement mechanisms, should be considered and mobilized. Furthermore, a formative assessment should be conducted prior to implementation to inform the needs for the program's success.We are currently working on developing 20 x 20 LASH, 25 x 25 WHF and many others in order to achieve a reduction of the impact of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, hypertension continues to grow and the prevalence is ever-increasing, Latin America occupies the highest prevalence rates and the worst controls, and if we do

  4. Current clinical advances and future perspectives in the psychiatry/mental health field of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cía, Alfredo H; Rojas, Rodrigo Córdoba; Adad, Miguel Abib

    2010-01-01

    The history of Mental Health in Latin America is relatively young. It dates back to the mid nineteenth century and widely developed during the twentieth century, with formidable scientific, social, political, and ethical challenges. Latin American psychiatry has contributed in the fields of epidemiology, phenomenology, social psychiatry, psychiatric and epistemological research, and clinical genetics as well. More recent advances can also be seen in clinical psychotherapy and psychopharmacology. Now, there is a formal and informal recognition of various areas of expertise, such as children and adolescents, addictions, anxiety disorders, among others. However, we need to solve the health problems resulting from mental illnesses as well as the disorders related to the social, environmental, political, and economic factors of a continent marked by the precariousness of underdevelopment, which have a high impact on population health. Therefore, considering and trying to minimize the impact of those factors, contributing to the destigmatization of mental illnesses and their consequences, together with the growing number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), human rights defenders, public figures, etc., and collaborating in building a society that guarantees the right to mental health and adequate treatment and rehabilitation are part of our present challenges in Latin America.

  5. University Libraries in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, Maria Elena Saucedo

    1983-01-01

    Provides brief description of recent situation of university libraries in Latin America and Caribbean, noting importance of education, characteristics of universities, and library services in supporting functions of universities. University library systems established in countries including Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, and Cuba are…

  6. Abuse and disrespect in childbirth process and abortion situation in Latin America and the Caribbean-systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Sofia; Pileggi, Vicky; Souza, João Paulo

    2017-08-03

    Studies show that a large number of women around the world have experienced situations of abuse, disrespect, abuse, and neglect during childbirth and/or abortion. This violence is a serious violation of the rights of women, especially because it is a period in which the woman is more physiologically, socially, and psychologically vulnerable. Although this type of violence is known, there is still no international consensus on the definition of such violence and its prevalence is not known. In this sense, this systematic review aims (1) to find quantitative data about abuse and disrespect in obstetric care (delivery and/or abortion) in Latin America and the Caribbean to estimate the average prevalence of this type of abuse and (2) to identify interventions-including programs, laws, and regulations-which have been implemented to prevent or respond to abuse and disrespect in childbirth process and abortion situation, evaluating its effectiveness on a global scale. For this, we will use a refined and pre-established strategy to search databases such as PubMed, Embase, LILACS, and Scielo, and the studies found will pass through a selection process to complete the screening stage. Data will be extracted using standardized forms with the following information: scope of study, sample characteristics, objectives, design, data collection, methods of analysis, data source, and results. Considering the heterogeneity of the definitions of abuse, disrespect, and mistreatment of women in labor or abortion, it may not be possible to carry out the meta-analysis of the frequency of events reported in the included articles. Events reported by the original articles will be classified according to a typology of abuse, disrespect, and maltreatment in the labor or abortion process described by Bohren et al. (PLoS Med, 2015). PROSPERO CRD42016038651.

  7. Management of transfusional iron overload in Latin America: current outlook and expert panel recommendations.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Aderson; Drelichman, Guillermo; Cançado, Rodolfo D; Watman, Nora; Magalhães, Silvia M M; Duhalde, Mauricio; Marfil, Javier; Feliú, Aurora; Clementina, Landolfi; Linares Ballesteros, Adriana; Di Stefano, Marco

    2009-02-01

    The results of a meeting of physicians convening in Latin America to develop expert opinions on the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of iron overload are as follows. An accurate diagnosis can be obtained by neonatal screening for haemoglobinopathies, especially sickle cell disease and the thalassaemias. Disease-specific registries are needed to demonstrate the extent of the problem to health authorities. Disparities in the quantity and quality of blood products must be addressed, and uniform transfusion guidelines are necessary. Serum ferritin level is a feasible marker for iron overload in the region, while magnetic resonance imaging assessment can improve the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiac and liver iron content. Medical specialists, including radiologists, pathologists and others, and health authorities, can help to implement these methods and provide adequate resources. The recently available oral deferasirox can be used to conveniently administer iron chelation to transfusional iron-overloaded patients.

  8. Cystic fibrosis in Latin America-Improving the awareness.

    PubMed

    Silva Filho, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro F; Castaños, Claudio; Ruíz, Héctor Hernán

    2016-11-01

    The burden of cystic fibrosis (CF) in Latin America is being increasingly recognized and is significant compared with other regions of the world. In this short communication, we assess the current situation in some Latin American countries and make suggestions for possible directions for future focus. We discuss the work that remains in deciphering how the various genetic, environmental and medical factors interact and influence outcomes in different ethnic groups. We also consider the need for consistency in both research and access to services across Latin America, including CF registries, neonatal screening programs, access to specialized CF healthcare practitioners, transition to adult clinics and treatment regimens. Progress in these areas is likely to build on the advances to date, and improve the lives of patients in Latin America who are affected by this debilitating and life-limiting disorder.

  9. [Prophylaxis in hemophilia: situation analysis and call-to-action in Latin America. A report from the GLAITH group].

    PubMed

    Mijares, Mercedes Elena; De Sánchez, Apsara Boadas

    2015-09-01

    Prophylactic treatment in the management of hemophilia has been a crucial factor in improving the prognosis and quality of life for people with hemophilia (PCH). However, it is not globally implemented. In Latin America it is difficult to assess the status of PCH and the its management does not conform to ideal standards. The GLAITH group discussed the problem in Latin America. A survey of its members and its findings were discussed at a meeting in Bogota in May 2013. Proportions of hemophilia A and B were 75-90% and 10-25% respectively. Severe hemophilia represents 26-55% of cases. A high percentage of PCH have hemophilic arthropathy. The general care and specific treatments of PCH vary by country, only 50-60% of the treatment is covered and in 85-95% of the cases are performed on an on- demand basis. Just 5-15% receives prophylaxis, most of them secondary. Few countries have a national program or homogeneous records. Finally the GLAITH group proceeded to develop a conclusion and call to action for the region where the following points are recommended: the establishment of a unified Latin American registry; prospective cost-effectiveness studies and evaluation criteria related to secondary prophylaxis; comparative studies of quality of life with and without prophylaxis in the region; promotion of individualization of treatment and, the increase of primary and secondary prophylaxis globally in Latin America.

  10. The urgent need to change the current medical approach on tobacco cessation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    Despite of the accumulation of scientific evidence confirming the health consequences of smoking and the new paradigm of smoking as a disease where nicotine is the drug that modifies the functional and morphological characteristics of the brain in dependent smokers, tobacco smoking continues as an important public health problem in many Latin American countries. In contrast with big advances in the tobacco control area, as an example the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control signed by 168 countries, the role of health professional in the fight against tobacco is still less than ideal. In many Latin American schools of medicine, deficiencies in medical education has led to insecure physicians when they have to motivate their patients to stop smoking or to prevent young people to begin tobacco consumption. If each general practitioner or specialist during their daily medical assistance could talk to their smoker patients about the big benefits of stop smoking and support them to get free of tobacco, we would be winning a battle against smoking. Also if we could achieve generations of young non smoking doctors, who could be a real example for patients, this could also impact the prevalence of smokers. In this article we analyze the neurobiological bases of nicotine addiction, which we think are missing in the medical curriculum and could help doctors to understand tobacco smoking as a disease rather than a risk factor, and discuss the main reasons supporting an urgent change in the medical approach of tobacco cessation in Latin America as well as the need to actualize the medical curriculum in order to give physicians the skills needed to intervene successfully with their smoker patients and to be themselves non smokers.

  11. Pinta: Latin America's Forgotten Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Lola V.

    2015-01-01

    Pinta is a neglected, chronic skin disease that was first described in the sixteenth century in Mexico. The World Health Organization lists 15 countries in Latin America where pinta was previously endemic. However, the current prevalence of pinta is unknown due to the lack of surveillance data. The etiological agent of pinta, Treponema carateum, cannot be distinguished morphologically or serologically from the not-yet-cultivable Treponema pallidum subspecies that cause venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel. Although genomic sequencing has enabled the development of molecular techniques to differentiate the T. pallidum subspecies, comparable information is not available for T. carateum. Because of the influx of migrants and refugees from Latin America, U.S. physicians should consider pinta in the differential diagnosis of skin diseases in children and adolescents who come from areas where pinta was previously endemic and have a positive reaction in serological tests for syphilis. All stages of pinta are treatable with a single intramuscular injection of penicillin. PMID:26304920

  12. Latin America: population and internal unrest.

    PubMed

    Wiarda, J H; Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1985-09-01

    This discussion of population and internal unrest in Latin America covers the following: pressures on land and agriculture; economic frustrations; the youth and radicalism; rising social tensions; and political instability. At current growth rates, Latin America's population is projected to increases between 1981 2001 by 225 million people. This staggering population growth is likely to have serious political, economic, social, strategic, and other implications. The strong opposition to family planning which came principally from nationlists, the military, and the church during the 1960s has changed to general support for voluntary family planning programs in much of Latin America. Too rapid population growth now is viewed widely as aggravating the problems of development and putting severe strains on services and facilities. The wish to limit family size is particularly strong among women. Most of Latin America's untapped land is unusable, either so steeply mountainous, densely tropical, or barren of topsoil that it cannot support life at even the most meager level of subsistence. Food production in most of Latin America has not kept pace with population growth. Since most new agricultural production is oriented toward exports rather than home consumption, conditions for most rural populations are worsening. Economic dilemmas facing Latin America include widespread poverty, the world's highest per capita debt, unemployment and underemployment that may reach between 40-50% of the workforce, negative economic growth rates over the past 5 years, immense income inequalities, declining terms of trade, extensive capital flight, little new investment or foreign assistance, increased protectionism on the part of those countriews with whom Latin America must trade, rising prices for the goods Latin America must import, and (in some countries) devastation of the economic infrastrucutre by guerrilla forces. The unprecedent flow from the countryside has made Latin America the

  13. Socio-economic determinants of mortality in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Behm, H

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics and sources of socioeconomic differentials of mortality in Latin America, in so far as they are currently known, are examined in an attempt to clarify the present situation and its perspectives. Mortality in a population is a function of the frequency of illness (incidence) and the probability of dying of the sick individual (lethality). Information on the socioeconomic differentials of mortality in Latin America is systematically reviewed with attention directed to the following: differentials among Latin American countries, regional differences within countries, urban-rural contrasts in mortality, mortality and income level and level of education, and mortality and ethnic groups. Latin America shows considerable heterogeneity with respect to the risk of dying, which varies from 202/1000 births in Bolivia to 38/1000 in Uruguay. It is estimated that more than 1/2 of the children born in Latin America are exposed to a mortality rate of over 120/1000. A study of the urban and rural populations of 12 Latin American countries revealed that the risk for rural populations exceeds that for urban populations by 30-60%. There is extensive evidence showing that mortality is higher in the working class and is associated with lower levels of education and income. Mortality was also higher in certain indigenous groups. Socioeconomic differentials of mortality are more marked in Latin America than in the developed nations. The mother's level of educational attainment is the variable most significantly associated with infant and child mortality. The prospect of reducing the current mortality levels is dependent primarily upon the implementation of policies aimed at a more egalitarian distribution of the benefits of socioeconomic development among the population.

  14. Science in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of science and technology in Latin America that begins with the Mayan civilization and progresses through the colonial period to the present. Compares increased scientific productivity in the Latin American and Caribbean regions to productivity in the United States and European Union. (LZ)

  15. Teaching About Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This publication is offered as a resource guide for teachers rather than as a prescriptive syllabus. No course of study is delineated and no course objectives are spelled out. Instead there are illustrative examples for applying discovery techniques to the study of Latin America, suggestions of various themes useful in organizing a course of study…

  16. Current practice in Latin America of flexible ureterorenoscopy with laser for treating kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Manzo, B O; Bertacchi, M; Lozada, E; Rasguido, A; Aleman, E; Cabrera, M; Rodríguez, A; Manzo, G; Sánchez, H; Blasco, J

    2016-05-01

    The use of flexible ureterorenoscopy for treating kidney stones has increased in recent years, with considerable worldwide variation in the surgical technique and indications. To determine the current practice, technique variations, use and indications of flexible ureterorenoscopy for treating kidney stones in Latin American. We sent (by email and web link) an anonymous questionnaire with 30 questions on flexible ureterorenoscopy for treating kidney stones to Latin American urologists from January 2015 to July 2015. We collected the responses through the Survey Monkey system. A total of 283 urologists in 15 Latin American countries participated (response rate, 10.8%); 254 answered the questionnaire completely; 52.8% were urologists from Mexico and 11% were from Argentina; 11.8% of the responders stated that they performed >100 cases per year; 15.2% considered ureterorenoscopy as the treatment of choice for stones >2cm, and 19.6% performed ureterorenoscopy in single stages for calculi measuring >2.5cm. Some 78.4% use fluoroscopy, 69.1% use a ureteral sheath in all cases, 55.8% place double-J catheters at the end of surgery, 37.3% considered a stone-free state to be 0 fragments, and 41.2% use plain radiography to assess the stone-free condition. Most participating urologists consider flexible ureterorenoscopy as the first-choice treatment for stones <2cm; a small percentage of these urologists perform >100 ureterorenoscopies per year. More than half of the urologists routinely used fluoroscopy and ureteral access sheath; the most common method for determining the stone-free state is plain abdominal radiography. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Asthma in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Cepeda, Alfonso; Yañez, Anahi; Solé, Dirceu; Cooper, Philip; Avila, Lydiana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the diversity of Latin America, there is profound variability in asthma burden among and within countries in this region. Regional variation in asthma prevalence is likely multifactorial and due to genetics, perinatal exposures, diet, obesity, tobacco use, indoor and outdoor pollutants, psychosocial stress, and microbial or parasitic infections. Similarly, nonuniform progress in asthma management leads to regional variability in disease morbidity. Future studies of distinct asthma phenotypes should follow up well-characterized Latin American subgroups and examine risk factors that are unique or common in Latin America (e.g. stress and violence, parasitic infections and use of biomass fuels for cooking). Because most Latin American countries share the same barriers to asthma management, concerted and multifaceted public health and research efforts are needed, including approaches to curtail tobacco use, campaigns to improve asthma treatment, broadening access to care and clinical trials of non-pharmacologic interventions (e.g. replacing biomass fuels with gas or electric stoves). PMID:26103996

  18. Hadron Therapy in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreiner, A. J.; Bergueiro, J.; Burlon, A. A.; Di Paolo, H.; Castell, W.; Thatar Vento, V.; Levinas, P.; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Valda, A. A.; Ilardo, J. C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Debray, M. E.; Somacal, H. R.; Minsky, D. M.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J. C.; Igarzabal, M.; Huck, H.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Lell, J.; Padulo, J.; Herrera, M.; Gonzalez, S. R.; Capoulat, M. E.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.

    2010-08-01

    The use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality in the first world, which is becoming increasingly widespread, due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we briefly describe the situation in Latin America and in particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The machine being currently designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a terminal at 0.6 MV as a smaller scale prototype. Since the concept is modular the same structure will be used for the 1.2 MV final accelerator.

  19. Hadron Therapy in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Kreiner, A. J.; Minsky, D. M.; Bergueiro, J.; Castell, W.; Thatar Vento, V.; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Ilardo, J. C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J. C.; Igarzabal, M.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Lell, J.; Padulo, J.; Herrera, M.

    2010-08-04

    The use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality in the first world, which is becoming increasingly widespread, due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we briefly describe the situation in Latin America and in particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The machine being currently designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a terminal at 0.6 MV as a smaller scale prototype. Since the concept is modular the same structure will be used for the 1.2 MV final accelerator.

  20. The Distributive Issue in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa, Adolfo

    1996-01-01

    Presents the central features of an economic theory of social equilibrium based on the theory of distributive equilibrium. Uses the situation in Latin America in the 1980s and 1990s to test the validity of the theory. Argues that excessive inequality cripples sustained growth and democratic movements. (MJP)

  1. Visceral leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for

  2. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for

  3. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillant, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the current challenges facing inclusive education in Latin America and explores some possible solutions. The author suggests that teachers play a key role in providing education that is inclusive for all. In Latin America, today, however, inclusive education often does not respond to the needs of children and young people,…

  4. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillant, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the current challenges facing inclusive education in Latin America and explores some possible solutions. The author suggests that teachers play a key role in providing education that is inclusive for all. In Latin America, today, however, inclusive education often does not respond to the needs of children and young people,…

  5. Re-Bordering Comparative Education in Latin America: Between Global Limits and Local Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Felicitas; Perez Centeno, Cristian G.

    2011-01-01

    Conceived for presentation at the XIV WCCES conference in Istanbul in 2010, the topic of which was "Bordering Comparative Education", this paper, within that framework, aims to present the current state of the discipline in Latin America in relation to a quick overview of its present-day situation at a global level. After providing an…

  6. Machismo and Virginidad: Sex Roles in Latin America. Discussion Paper 79-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones, Julio

    The purpose of this paper is to present a view of Latin American males and females that describes the situation in Latin America more accurately than the current stereotypical view accepted in the United States. The author discusses the roots of the North American misconception, citing differences between Latin American and North American cultures…

  7. Machismo and Virginidad: Sex Roles in Latin America. Discussion Paper 79-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones, Julio

    The purpose of this paper is to present a view of Latin American males and females that describes the situation in Latin America more accurately than the current stereotypical view accepted in the United States. The author discusses the roots of the North American misconception, citing differences between Latin American and North American cultures…

  8. Re-Bordering Comparative Education in Latin America: Between Global Limits and Local Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Felicitas; Perez Centeno, Cristian G.

    2011-01-01

    Conceived for presentation at the XIV WCCES conference in Istanbul in 2010, the topic of which was "Bordering Comparative Education", this paper, within that framework, aims to present the current state of the discipline in Latin America in relation to a quick overview of its present-day situation at a global level. After providing an…

  9. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  10. Prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America: epidemiology and screening

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho-Barbosa, Rafael Rocha; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima; Glina, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. Objective: to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Results: Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. Conclusion: prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits. PMID:27622278

  11. Prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America: epidemiology and screening.

    PubMed

    Tourinho-Barbosa, Rafael Rocha; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima; Glina, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  12. Research Trends in Latin America: Seminario 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    1981-01-01

    Describes a conference organized to examine the scope of educational research within Latin America. The article outlines the focus of current studies (education of disadvantaged children) and their design characteristics, regional information networks, local research organization and funding sources, and the socio-political impact of research in…

  13. The Community College Experiment in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Lori

    1998-01-01

    Discusses preconditions for exporting community colleges to developing countries, the historical development of higher education in Latin America, and the current favorable political and economic climate for housing colleges. Suggests using Argentina as a testing-ground for the community college system. (11 citations) (VWC)

  14. [International migration in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, A

    1995-12-01

    Trends in international migration in Latin America are reviewed using data from published sources. Aspects considered include historical views; migration according to occupational status and educational level; migration to the United States; migration characteristics in different regions of Latin America; and the crisis of the 1980s and its impact on population distribution.

  15. Fermilab and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  16. Hematopoietic cell transplantation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Eckrich, Michael; Pasquini, Marcelo

    2012-04-01

    The first bone marrow transplantation in Latin America was performed more than 30 years ago and since then several countries have started transplant programs. The Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research captured information on 13,473 transplants performed in Latin America from 1981 to 2009. The current report summarizes this activity. Argentina, Mexico, and Brazil have the largest activity in the region. Despite increase in the annual number of transplants, the activity is limited to sibling donor and autologous transplants. Indications are similar to other regions with a proportionally higher number of pediatric transplants for treatment of non-malignant diseases. Unrelated donor transplant activity is also increasing through collaborations with international donor registries and the development of the first national donor registry in Brazil. Umbilical cord transplants were also reported in Latin American centers, mainly in Brazil and most commonly used for treatment of children with malignant diseases. In conclusion, hematopoietic cell transplantation is routinely performed in several centers in Latin America. However, the activity is low compared to the population in need. Challenges with costs of transplantation, donor availability, number of centers of excellence, and trained personnel need to be addressed for further development of this field in the region. Additionally, more integration between countries and transplant centers is an important next step and can assist in improving awareness for the field and maximizing the transplant activity in Latin America.

  17. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Luciano; Shapira, Philip

    2009-02-01

    This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R&D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of development. On the other hand, we find that they coincide in having a modest industry participation in research and a low level of commercialization of nanotechnologies.

  18. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R&D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of development. On the other hand, we find that they coincide in having a modest industry participation in research and a low level of commercialization of nanotechnologies. PMID:21170134

  19. Antifungal pharmacodynamics: Latin America's perspective.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Javier M; Rodriguez, Carlos A; Agudelo, Maria; Zuluaga, Andres F; Vesga, Omar

    The current increment of invasive fungal infections and the availability of new broad-spectrum antifungal agents has increased the use of these agents by non-expert practitioners, without an impact on mortality. To improve efficacy while minimizing prescription errors and to reduce the high monetary cost to the health systems, the principles of pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) are necessary. A systematic review of the PD of antifungals agents was performed aiming at the practicing physician without expertise in this field. The initial section of this review focuses on the general concepts of antimicrobial PD. In vitro studies, fungal susceptibility and antifungal serum concentrations are related with different doses and dosing schedules, determining the PD indices and the magnitude required to obtain a specific outcome. Herein the PD of the most used antifungal drug classes in Latin America (polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins) is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Current challenges and future perspectives of the role of governments in the psychiatric/mental health systems of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Maass, Juan; Mella, Cesar; Risco, Luis

    2010-01-01

    The practices and systems of mental health in Latin America and the Caribbean are heterogeneous and are connected to dissociation between national macro systems and the complex quotidian that occurs in the daily attention of mental pathologies. The health care experiences in mental health are diverse and go back to the 1960s; these took a boost with the Caracas Declaration of 1990. The Health Care Reform has had several stages, lately focused in the strength that derives from a growing psychiatric epidemiology "base". In addition, it notes that the majority of countries have a National Plan of Mental Health, but they do not seem purposely deployed in local developmental plans or in other sectors. It is proposed the existence of a willing to discuss psychiatry, critical and bold; trans and intrasectoral face to the national and communal developments. Governments need to prioritize strategies in mental health as an integral part of another national project with regard for quality of life and productivity of citizens. The communication poses challenges for the next 15 years, with what is complete the first quarter of this century, proposing a series of measures even basic, but valid for this part of the continent.

  1. Education, Culture, and Development: Co-ordinated Policies and Strategies. The Situation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, J. C.

    This document is a brief presentation of the relation among education, culture, and development in the Latin American and Caribbean countries that focuses on two major aspects: (1) the new development strategies currently being implemented in the region, and (2) the educational actions being undertaken as an answer to the new challenges posed by…

  2. Educational Building in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baza, Jadille; Vaz, Rita de Cassia Alves; Millan, Eduardo; Almeida, Rodolfo

    2002-01-01

    Presents articles describing recent developments in three Latin American countries (Chile, Brazil, and Venezuela) to expand public education facilities, along with a report on UNESCO's recent seminar in Latin America on architecture for an inclusive education. (EV)

  3. Educational Building in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baza, Jadille; Vaz, Rita de Cassia Alves; Millan, Eduardo; Almeida, Rodolfo

    2002-01-01

    Presents articles describing recent developments in three Latin American countries (Chile, Brazil, and Venezuela) to expand public education facilities, along with a report on UNESCO's recent seminar in Latin America on architecture for an inclusive education. (EV)

  4. The Internet in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Suely; Maldonado, Alberto Efendy

    This article addresses the diverse patterns of internet access, uses and appropriations by different populations in Latin America. The correlation between nequalities in access and economic disparities is not sufficient to define or explain the region's complexity. In an attempt to avoid economic and technological determinism while simultaneously visualizing the general picture of the internet in Latin America without disregarding its finer grain idiosyncrasies, the text is organized in three sections. First, a brief overall picture of the global position of Latin America with respect to the internet. Second, a discussion of three profiles of internet penetration and appropriation vis a vis similar local socioeconomic conditions. Third, qualitatively significant examples of the forms of use and appropriation of the internet in Latin America.

  5. Latin America: A Different Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledesma, Joaquin Rafael

    2002-01-01

    Explores the diversity of contexts faced by higher education in Latin America, and the measurement of its quality. Describes a proposal designed by the Catholic University of Argentina whereby the indicators used in developed countries are applied. (EV)

  6. Vocational Training in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenborn, Manfred

    2001-01-01

    Explores historical development and weaknesses and change efforts in vocational training institutions in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Peru. Identifies future directions for the training enterprise in Latin America. (SK)

  7. Rabies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Marco; Chávez, Carlo Briones

    2010-04-01

    To review and discuss the available literature for rabies control in Latin America. A literature search was conducted in PubMed through October 2008. Articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese were reviewed. Recent reports indicate that the region is close to achieve the goal of eliminating human rabies transmitted by dogs even though there are some isolated cases reported. However, insectivorous and vampire bats continue to expose humans and animals. These cases have been reported with increasing frequency. Many challenges to the successful eradication of canine and non-canine rabies have been identified: among these are issues related to vaccine supply, the increase in transmission of canine rabies in certain areas, the presence of bat rabies in geographically inaccessible areas and lack of active action at local level. New strategies for systems information, networking and education are needed. Effective decentralization, adequate reallocation of resources, constant active surveillance, active local community participation and aggressive health education, might be some of the strategies that could prove to be helpful. More investment (funding and resources) and a very strong political commitment are needed to be able to eradicate this deadly disease.

  8. [Thinking about long-term care policies for Latin America].

    PubMed

    Matus-López, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    Latin America is aging. The process is occurring quickly and in unhealthy conditions with low levels of income. The number of older people who can no longer perform their daily activities will dramatically increase in the coming decades. Developed countries have already been facing this phenomenon over the last three decades, but Latin America has neither the resources nor the social protection systems of these countries. Formulating and planning health policies associated with this phenomenon should be a priority of the governments of Latin America. This paper defines what these care policies are, the models of care rich countries have developed, and the cost of such models. The situation in Latin America is then analyzed and conclusions and a series of discussions to address in the near future are proposed.

  9. Family planning in Latin America's barriadas.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    In Latin America, many rural people build dwellings in settlements on the cities' fringes without permission from the authorities. The authorities make several unsuccessful attempts to drive them away, but eventually ignore them. In the 1960s, family planning (FP) associations were concerned about how they can serve the shantytowns, which needed their services but had no social services at all, e.g., water supply and sanitation. In the early 1970s, PROFAMILIA Colombia began a new form of FP service delivery in rural areas by training someone from the community who believed in FP to distribution (CBD) programs provided more FP than all of PROFAMILIA's 60 clinics. In 1973, PROFAMILIA started its URBAN CBD program in the slums of Bogota and learned that the people wanted FP. The CBD movement spread throughout urban and rural Latin America. Brazil's BEMFAM developed the world's largest CBD program. By 1985, 10,365 distribution posts operated in Latin America and, by 1991, there were 26,423. In urban slums in the 1980s, Mexico's MEXFAM began using community doctors, who tend to be new medical graduates. Often the community and the doctors respect each other so much that many doctors remain in the shantytowns beyond their required time. The residents' acceptance of FP provided by people who understand the community shows how they want to plan their lives and better themselves. In addition, they have taken the chance to seek a better life by leaving hopeless situations in rural areas and by building dwellings for themselves, even though they had no money, land, or even basic necessities. In Peru, shantytown residents were moved to the desert and supplied with basic construction materials. They built a community, Villa El Salvador, now complete with tree-lined streets, shops, schools, and movies. Shantytown dwellers may have the solution to Latin America's problems.

  10. Nutrition status of children in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Garmendia, M. L.; Jones‐Smith, J.; Lutter, C. K.; Miranda, J. J.; Pedraza, L. S.; Popkin, B. M.; Ramirez‐Zea, M.; Salvo, D.; Stein, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Across the region, children face a dual burden of undernutrition and excess weight. While efforts to address undernutrition have made marked improvements, childhood obesity is on the rise as a result of diets that favour energy‐dense, nutrient‐poor foods and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle. Over the last decade, changes in socioeconomic conditions, urbanization, retail foods and public transportation have all contributed to childhood obesity in the region. Additional research and research capacity are needed to address this growing epidemic, particularly with respect to designing, implementing and evaluating the impact of evidence‐based obesity prevention interventions. PMID:28741907

  11. Nutrition status of children in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Corvalán, C; Garmendia, M L; Jones-Smith, J; Lutter, C K; Miranda, J J; Pedraza, L S; Popkin, B M; Ramirez-Zea, M; Salvo, D; Stein, A D

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Across the region, children face a dual burden of undernutrition and excess weight. While efforts to address undernutrition have made marked improvements, childhood obesity is on the rise as a result of diets that favour energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle. Over the last decade, changes in socioeconomic conditions, urbanization, retail foods and public transportation have all contributed to childhood obesity in the region. Additional research and research capacity are needed to address this growing epidemic, particularly with respect to designing, implementing and evaluating the impact of evidence-based obesity prevention interventions. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  12. [An overview of telehealth initiatives in Latin America].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alaneir de Fátima; D'Agostino, Marcelo; Bouskela, Maurício Simon; Fernandéz, Andrés; Messina, Luiz Ary; Alves, Humberto José

    2014-01-01

    This article aimed to systematize the views on telehealth in Latin America and to present the experience of building an instrument for monitoring the development of telehealth initiatives based on the reality of this region. A group was structured to coordinate telehealth efforts in Latin America, with members appointed by the ministries of health of 16 countries. Five thematic groups were also set up. Based on international experiences and focusing on the reality of telehealth in the continent, an instrument was created to monitor the development of telehealth in Latin America. Several countries have national telehealth projects: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama. Others are in the process of development and early deployment: Bolivia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Peru, Venezuela. The instrument described in the article, which is still being tested, proposes a characterization of countries according to their telehealth development stage: nonexistent, nascent, intermediate, advanced, and exemplary. Currently, important telehealth initiatives are already underway in Latin America.

  13. JPRS Report, Latin America.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-29

    Mario Fernandez Interview; Havana International Service, 23 May 87) 31 Campusano on Current Status, Activity of PCCH ( Julieta Campusano...place not given—recorded] [Text] [Esquivel] What is the situation of comrades Mireya Baltra and Julieta Campusano, whom the Pinochet regime sent to... Julieta , former senator of the Communist Party of Chile [PCCH], was initially sent to Punta Gorda in northern Chile, and then was transferred to the

  14. Newborn screening for lysosomal diseases: current status and potential interface with population medical genetics in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Giugliani, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    The aim of newborn screening (NBS) programs is to detect a condition in a presymptomatic baby and provide management measures which could significantly improve the natural history of the disease. NBS programs for metabolic diseases were first introduced in North America and Europe and in the 1960s for phenylketonuria, expanded a few years later to include congenital hypothyroidism, and have been growing steadily in terms of number of conditions tested for and number of countries and births covered. Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of around 50 genetic conditions in which a defect in a lysosomal function occurs. LSDs are progressive conditions, being usually asymptomatic at birth, but with clinical features becoming apparent in childhood, with severe manifestations in most instances, high morbidity and shortened life span. Although individually rare, the prevalence of LSDs is significant when the group is considered as a whole (around 1:4,000-1:9,000 live births). Several management techniques, including bone marrow transplantation, enzyme replacement therapy, substrate inhibition therapy, pharmacological chaperones and many other approaches are transforming the LSDs into treatable conditions. However, lack of awareness and lack of access to tests cause a significant delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Several lines of evidence showing that the earlier introduction of therapy may provide a better outcome, are bringing support to the idea of including LSDs in NBS programs. Due to advances in technology, high-throughput multiplex methods are now available for mass screening of several LSDs. Pilot projects were already developed in many countries for some LSDs, with interesting results. Although some NBS in Latin America has been carried out since the 1970s, it has so far been incorporated as a public health program in only a few countries in the region. It will probably take many years before NBS is implemented in most Latin American countries

  15. Developing obstetric medicine training in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Suarez, José; Suarez, Niza; Ateka-Barrutia, Oier

    2017-03-01

    Maternal mortality is an important indicator of health in populations around the world. The distribution of maternal mortality ratio globally shows that middle- and low-income countries have ∼99% of the mortality burden. Most countries of Latin America are considered to be middle- or low-income countries, as well as areas of major inequities among the different social classes. Medical problems in pregnancy remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this region. Previous data indicate the need for a call to action for adequate diagnosis and care of medical diseases in obstetric care. The impact of nonobstetric and medical pathologies on maternal mortality in Latin America is largely unknown. In Latin America, two educational initiatives have been proposed to improve skills in maternity care. The Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO®) was first started to address obstetric emergencies, and subsequently adapted for low-middle-income country settings as the Global ALSO®. In parallel, the Latin American obstetric anesthesia community has progressively focused on improvement of several intrapartum/intraoperative issues, which has secondarily taken them to embrace the obstetric medicine area on interest and join the former initiatives. In the present review, we summarize the available data regarding medical morbidity and mortality in pregnancy in Latin America, as well as the challenges, achievements, issues, initiatives, and future directions encouraging maternal health educators, health care trainers, and physicians in middle- and low-income countries, such as many Latin American ones, to improve and/or change attitudes, if needed, on current clinical practice.

  16. Internet Resources for Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Molly E., Comp.

    This directory compiles information products and services and other resources pertaining to Latin America that were available on the Internet as of February 1996. Part 1 lists 15 World Wide Web (WWW) URLs that link to other subject or geographical lists of Internet sites providing Latin American resources. Part 2 lists approximately 115…

  17. Cervical cancer in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Eluf-Neto, J; Nascimento, C M

    2001-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Latin America, the incidence rates in several cities are among the highest worldwide, probably due to a high frequency of risk factors and/or a low screening coverage for cervical cancer. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Latin America (and some in the Caribbean), that have investigated the main risk factors for the disease, as well as screening coverage by Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, were reviewed. The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women with negative Pap smears does not seem to explain the risk observed in Latin American countries. Results of some studies have suggested that reproductive factors and male sexual behavior might be responsible, at least partially, for the high occurrence of cervical cancer in Latin America. Concerning cytology screening, many women have a smear taken regularly (some every year). However, a significant proportion of women, probably those with a high risk of cancer of the cervix, have never had a Pap test. To reduce cervical cancer in these countries, screening programs in Latin America should have a wider coverage, especially reaching those women at higher risk. Semin Oncol 28:188-197.

  18. Language Politics in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…

  19. Language Politics in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…

  20. Abortion research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gaslonde Sainz, S

    1976-08-01

    Surveys dealing with abortion in Latin America have provided useful information despite problems in the collection and use of the data. Considerations that should be taken into account in designing abortion surveys and using the resultant information have been discussed here. Special attention has been paid to the need for a broad definition of "abortion" in order to overcome difficulties in gathering information about abortion in Latin America. Surveys have shown increasing incidence of abortion throughout Latin America in the recent past. In examining changes over time it is crucial to interpret clearly and carefully the summary measures of proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion and abortion rates per 1,000 women. It is also important to realize that the level and direction of change of the abortion rate depends on both the rate at which women are becoming pregnant and the proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion. Better survey design and techniques and more careful use of the resulting information will aid in the planning and evaluation of programs aimed at reducing abortion in Latin America.

  1. Building ESD in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    To encourage efforts for furthering the UN DESD agenda in Latin America, a meeting titled "Building Education for Sustainable Development" was held in Costa Rica from 31 October to 2 November 2006. Plenary sessions were interspersed with working groups to look at how ESD can be integrated in formal and non-formal education systems, and…

  2. Smoking and smoking cessation in Latin America: a review of the current situation and available treatments

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Fernando; Wehbe, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a growing problem throughout Latin American countries, especially in underdeveloped countries where poverty and lack of education about the dangers of smoking may make people more susceptible to becoming smokers. Moreover, the economies of many Latin American countries have become dependent on the production of tobacco. Furthermore, because of the associated promotion of tobacco, smoking has integrated into many Latin American cultures. Nevertheless, the harmful health effects of tobacco use are well documented, including greatly increased risks of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and many forms of cancer. The medical costs associated with treating these diseases far outweigh the economic benefits of producing and selling this deadly crop. To control the tobacco pandemic in Latin American countries, nicotine addiction must be recognized and treated as a disease. Governments, both national and local, need to be more involved in enacting anti-smoking policies such as higher tobacco taxation, control of illegal tobacco smuggling, and reimbursement of medical smoking cessation interventions. The training of health professions in the area of nicotine addiction must also be improved, so that they may better assist smokers in their quit attempts and advise patients on, and prescribe, effective smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. PMID:18686737

  3. Pertussis in Latin America: epidemiology and control strategies.

    PubMed

    Falleiros Arlant, Luiza Helena; de Colsa, Agustín; Flores, Dario; Brea, José; Avila Aguero, Maria L; Hozbor, Daniela Flavia

    2014-10-01

    Pertussis is a serious respiratory disease in infants that can also affect children and adults. Vaccination against pertussis was introduced in the 1950s and in the 1990s a resurgence of pertussis was observed worldwide. The aim of this work is to summarize the recent data concerning pertussis disease in different countries of Latin America. In this geographic region, pertussis is nationally notifiable and cases should be reported to the appropriate health department/Ministry. Though the surveillance systems are not the same among Latin America countries, over recent decades an increasing number of cases have been detected. Most of these cases correspond to patients younger than 6 months old who received fewer than three doses of vaccine. However, cases in adolescent and adults have also been detected. For this situation, which is not peculiar to Latin America countries, several explanations have been proposed.

  4. Challenges in Facing the Lung Cancer Epidemic and Treating Advanced Disease in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Raez, Luis E; Santos, Edgardo S; Rolfo, Christian; Lopes, Gilberto; Barrios, Carlos; Cardona, Andres; Mas, Luis A; Arrieta, Oscar; Richardet, Eduardo; Vallejos S, Carlos; Wistuba, Ignacio; Gandara, David; Hirsch, Fred R

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer, the deadliest cancer worldwide, is of particular concern in Latin America. The rising incidence poses a myriad of challenges for the region, which struggles with limited resources to meet the health care needs of its low- and middle-income populations. In this environment, we are concerned that governments are relatively unaware of the pressing need to implement effective strategies for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of lung cancer. The region has also been slow in adopting molecularly-based therapies in the treatment of advanced disease: testing for epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements are not routine, and access to targeted agents such as monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors is problematic. In this paper, we review the current situation in the management of lung cancer in Latin America, hoping that this initiative will help physicians, patient associations, industry, governments, and other stakeholders better face this epidemic in the near future.

  5. Re-bordering comparative education in Latin America: Between global limits and local characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Felicitas; Perez Centeno, Cristian G.

    2011-08-01

    Conceived for presentation at the XIV WCCES conference in Istanbul in 2010, the topic of which was "Bordering Comparative Education", this paper, within that framework, aims to present the current state of the discipline in Latin America in relation to a quick overview of its present-day situation at a global level. After providing an overview of the current debates on comparative education, with special emphasis on what the authors refer to as motor nuclei (a series of milestones or episodes which have become transdiscursive as the discipline has evolved), as well as pinpointing current challenges in the field, this paper looks into the development of the discipline in Latin America and how it has contributed to the understanding of the region's educational systems. The paper also examines the unique relationship between comparative studies and the field of educational planning in Latin America. The authors then go on to provide a thematic analysis, categorising the papers presented at three conferences held by the Sociedad Argentina de Estudios Comparados en Educación (SAECE, the Argentine Society for Comparative Education Studies) in 2005, 2007 and 2009. The paper closes with several conclusions regarding the current debate on the discipline in the region and its possibilities for the future.

  6. Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this publication contains a background paper, "The Health and Socioeconomic Situation of Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean" (Sennott-Miller). Part II includes and introduction and the following presentations: "Opening Statement" (Crooks); "Empowering Older Women: An Agenda for the…

  7. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmelkes, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a…

  8. Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this publication contains a background paper, "The Health and Socioeconomic Situation of Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean" (Sennott-Miller). Part II includes and introduction and the following presentations: "Opening Statement" (Crooks); "Empowering Older Women: An Agenda for the…

  9. Study Visit to Latin America: Three Examples of Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen-Bauer, Ingrid

    1976-01-01

    Three projects are described that were observed during a two-month study tour to Latin America in 1975: urban and rural community development in Bolivia; nonformal initial education in Peru; and international education in Argentina. The projects are carried out in situations involving particularly difficult social problems. (ND)

  10. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmelkes, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a…

  11. Population and Family Planning in Latin America. Report Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

    Analysis of Latin America's demographic situation has led many to believe that the present rapid rates of population growth, the highest anywhere in the world, must be reduced in order to prevent catastrophe. Family planning associations, affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), have been organized in 29 Latin…

  12. Populism in Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-20

    October 17, 2003 - June 6, 2005) and Eduardo Rodríguez Veltzé (June 9, 2005 - January 22, 2006).14 The current President of Ecuador, Rafael Correa ...took him 2 years to rise from instructor to his current position as Ecuadorian President. Before Rafael Correa in Ecuador there were several...Adolfo Rodriguez Saa (December 23 -- 30, 2001), Eduardo Oscar Camaño (December 31, 2001 – January 2, 2002), Eduardo Alberto Duhalde (January 2, 2002 – May

  13. A snapshot of gene therapy in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Rafael; Matte, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy attempts the insertion and expression of exogenous genetic material in cells for therapeutic purposes. Conceived in the 1960s, gene therapy reached its first clinical trial at the end of the 1980s and by December 2013 around 600 genuine open clinical trials of gene therapy were registered at NIH Clinical Trials Database. Here, we summarize the current efforts towards the development of gene therapy in Latin America. Our survey shows that the number of scientists involved in the development of gene therapy and DNA vaccines in Latin America is still very low. Higher levels of investment in this technology are necessary to boost the advancement of innovation and intellectual property in this field in a way that would ease both the social and financial burden of various medical conditions in Latin America. PMID:24764763

  14. A snapshot of gene therapy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Linden, Rafael; Matte, Ursula

    2014-03-01

    Gene therapy attempts the insertion and expression of exogenous genetic material in cells for therapeutic purposes. Conceived in the 1960s, gene therapy reached its first clinical trial at the end of the 1980s and by December 2013 around 600 genuine open clinical trials of gene therapy were registered at NIH Clinical Trials Database. Here, we summarize the current efforts towards the development of gene therapy in Latin America. Our survey shows that the number of scientists involved in the development of gene therapy and DNA vaccines in Latin America is still very low. Higher levels of investment in this technology are necessary to boost the advancement of innovation and intellectual property in this field in a way that would ease both the social and financial burden of various medical conditions in Latin America.

  15. Latin America second only to Asia in petrochemical prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Krenek, M.R.

    1995-04-17

    The opportunity in Asia for petrochemical companies generally is well known among global players in the industry. Conventional wisdom dictates that most companies at least consider investing in Asia, and for good reason, in most cases. The more aggressive, growth-oriented companies, however, already are attempting to discover the ``next Asia,`` if there is such a thing. Latin America has been nominated as one of the less developed regions that might inherit the Asia/Pacific region`s enviable position. This nomination, however, was made before the Mexican financial crisis and the burgeoning pressure on the currencies of Brazil and Argentina. In light of current events, can Latin America still be considered the next Asia, and, if so, what opportunities will follow the devaluation of the Mexican peso? An analysis of the economic and political factors affecting the petrochemical industry in Latin America indicates that the region still hold excellent prospects for petrochemical companies.

  16. Latin America's Emergence: Toward a U.S. Response. Headline Series 243.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Abraham F.; Fishlow, Albert

    In order to provide a basis for improving United States policies toward Latin America in the 1980s, the document examines past U.S. policy and relations, evaluates recent U.S. approaches, and offers a reassessment of current U.S. interests in Latin America. The book is divided into five chapters. Chapter I discusses social, economic, and political…

  17. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  18. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  19. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  20. Latin America's Emergence: Toward a U.S. Response. Headline Series 243.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Abraham F.; Fishlow, Albert

    In order to provide a basis for improving United States policies toward Latin America in the 1980s, the document examines past U.S. policy and relations, evaluates recent U.S. approaches, and offers a reassessment of current U.S. interests in Latin America. The book is divided into five chapters. Chapter I discusses social, economic, and political…

  1. [Population problems in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Faissol, S

    1990-01-01

    Accelerated urban growth is one of the main impediments to rapid development in Latin America. Birth rates are closely tied to development, and improved living standards in urban areas induce migration to cities. The Brazilian urban population exceeded 70% of the total population in 1980, while rural population declined. During the period of 1950-70 high demographic growth occurred as a result of high fertility and the drop of mortality. From the 1970s fertility declined from the under 20 years of age, a fact that will sustain high fertility for sometime. Education exerted an impact on fertility: in 1980 illiterate women averaged 6 children vs. 2.6 children for women with 8 years of education and 2.2 children for those with 12 years. Migration was another major factor: in 1950 the urban population of Latin America amounted to 40 million, and it reached 142 million in 1974. Every year about 8.7 million people are added to the urban population. In 1950 those who resided in an urban area made up 9.2%, in 1975 they increased to 22%, but all urban residents amount to about 40% of the total population. This urbanization has also produced major income differentials. In Argentina 20% of the poorest people get 4.5% of total income, while 10% of the richest get 35%. In Brazil 20% of the poorest receive 2% of income, while 10% of the richest get 50.5% of total income. Unfortunately, the Brazilian model is more typical of Latin America. It is a fundamental premise that balanced population growth and economic development go hand in hand, and the improvement of living standards is essential for the reduction of exponential population growth.

  2. Energy problems in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Goldemberg, J.

    1984-03-30

    Present energy consumption patterns, known reserves of conventional energy sources (oil, gas, coal, and hydroelectricity), and the impact of the oil crisis on the oil-importing countries of Latin America are discussed. New approaches to energy use, including improvements on end-use efficiency, fuel substitutions, nonconventional energy sources, and changes in consumption patterns, are important. Of particular significance are the alcohol program in Brazil and the possibilities for increased use of hydroelectricity. Investments needed to sustain a reasonable increase in production from conventional energy sources up to 1990 are presented. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  3. Movement disorders in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Troiano, André R; Micheli, Federico E; Alarcón, Fernando; Teive, Hélio A G

    2006-04-01

    The authors review some particularities of movement disorders (MDs) in the ethnically diverse population of Latin America. Although idiopathic diseases are evenly prevalent, access to treatment encounters difficulties that are worth discussing. Infectious-parasitic diseases observed throughout the continent occasionally present as MDs, and will be individually reviewed. Inherited MDs with regional foci of increased prevalence, particularly spinocerebellar ataxias, will also be considered. Whereas there is no treatment for genetic disorders, most of the other conditions are preventable or amenable to adequate treatment. Hope for better health standards for the Latin American population lies in profound social and political changes that are still to come.

  4. Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America and : Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ometto, J. P.; Bustamante, M.; Forti, M. C.; Peres, T.; Stein, A. F.; Jaramillo, V.; Perez, C.; Pinho, P. F.; Ascarrunz, N.; Austin, A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Latin America is at a crossroads where a balance should be found between production of the major agricultural commodities, reasonable and planned urbanization and conservation of its natural ecosystems and associated goods and services. Most of the natural biological fixation of the globe occurs in forests of Latin America. On the other hand, Latin America has one of the highest rate of deforestation in the world, and one of the highest increases in the use of nitrogen fertilizers. A better understanding of the responses of the N cycle to human impacts will allow better conservation of biodiversity and natural resources, with an improvement in food security and more effective land use choices in biofuel development. Latin America is a unique region in multiple aspects, and particularly relevant for this proposal are the broad climatic gradient and economic patterns that include a diverse range of natural ecosystems and socio-economic development pathways. Additionally, the region is impaired by the lack of information on actual impacts of human activity on N cycling across this diverse range of ecosystems. Finally, the large expanse of tropical ecosystems and reservoirs of biodiversity juxtaposed with an intense economic incentive for development make our understanding of human impacts in this context particularly important for global change research in the region. An evaluation of current and predicted changes in climate and land use on nitrogen stocks and fluxes in the region what is being develop by the Nnet network (Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America: Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities ). This presentation will bring the latest results of this integrative initiative in Latin America, focusing on the nitrogen budget associated to provision of ecosystem services and climate change.

  5. Gastroenterology training in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Henry; Saenz, Roque; de Almeida Troncon, Luiz E; Lizarzabal, Maribel; Olano, Carolina

    2011-05-14

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent's medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined, and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients' needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities. Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors' needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved.

  6. Gastroenterology training in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Henry; Saenz, Roque; de Almeida Troncon, Luiz E; Lizarzabal, Maribel; Olano, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent’s medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined, and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients’ needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities. Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors’ needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved. PMID:21633594

  7. Organ donation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Mizraji, R; Alvarez, I; Palacios, R I; Fajardo, C; Berrios, C; Morales, F; Luna, E; Milanés, C; Andrade, M; Duque, E; Giron, F; Alfonso, J; Herra, S; Soratti, C; Ibar, R; Garcia, V D

    2007-03-01

    Recently in Latin America, there has been a strong influence of the "Spanish model" of organ procurement. In 2001, The "Punta Cana Group" was created by Latin American transplantation coordinators with the objective of registering and improving the system of donation and procurement. In many countries there is no universal financial support from the government for medical treatment, including dialysis and transplantation. In other countries there is complete financial support for all of the population, including immunosuppressive drugs. Practically all countries have transplantation laws that follow ethical concepts, such as brain death diagnosis criteria, forms of consent, criteria of allocation, and inhibition of commerce. The rate of potential donors notified in countries that perform transplantations with deceased donors varied from 6 to 47 per million population yearly (pmp/y); The rate of effective donors varied from 1 to 20 pmp. In 2004, the mean rate of effective donors in Latin America was 5.4 pmp. The family refusal rate for the donation of organs varied from 28% in Uruguay to 70% in Peru. In some countries, such as Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Cuba, it was more than 15 pmp, whereas in others countries deceased donors were practically not used. The number of patients on the waiting list for solid organ transplants in 12 Latin American countries is 55,000. Although the donation rate has increased by 100% during the last 10 years, it is lower than that in Europe (15 pmm/y) or the United States (20 pmp/y).

  8. The emerging obesity problem in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Ada; Alvarez, Verónica; Olivos, Cristina

    2009-03-01

    Obesity and overweight prevalence is increasing rapidly in Latin America. This increase has been attributed to lifestyle changes occurring in recent decades related to rapid socioeconomic development, including a more Westernized diet, physical inactivity, urbanization, rural-urban migration and some maternal-fetal factors. In addition, genetic factors may have a role, inducing a higher predisposition to accumulate abdominal fat and develop metabolic syndrome. This increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome is leading to higher morbidity and mortality due to Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In a few poor countries, obesity coexists with undernutrition, making the situation even more difficult. Global intervention, from both governments and nongovernmental organizations, is necessary. They must play an active role, monitoring the food market and facilitating community-based initiatives that promote a healthy lifestyle.

  9. Education, democracy and development in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-11-01

    The education first brought to America by Europeans was hardly more than ornamental culture, literacy was generally unimportant, and African slaves were not educated at all. Only in this century did industrialization cause some governments to provide economic and technological support through training and education. In the last decade, the debt crisis curtailed spending, while numbers of students and teachers continued to rise. A comparison between Latin America and South Korea illustrates the former's relative decline in investment. The advent of populist and corporatist democracies did not alleviate the situation, although there is now some evidence of concern for basic education for poorer children. With economic adjustment programmes, little else has been done for those who have suffered the heaviest burdens, and no obvious solutions to poverty and technological obsolescence are in prospect. A major reform of State institutions is called for, including a commitment to education, a change in the economic model, and a recognition of global interdependence.

  10. High blood pressure in Latin America: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Adolfo; Alcocer, Luis; Chagas, Antonio

    2009-08-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is an enormous global problem, and is especially challenging for low- and middle-income countries such as those of Latin America. Although developed countries have benefited from significant reductions in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in recent decades, comparable reductions have not been achieved in Latin America. In fact, the prevalence of high BP is increasing in many Latin American countries, and the situation will worsen without definitive efforts to correct it. The growing preponderance of hypertension and chronic diseases, coupled with expected increases in population growth, present a mounting threat to Latin American economies. This report provides a comprehensive overview of the burden of high BP throughout Latin America, and presents recommendations for change. The dismal observations warrant a call to action for improved control of high BP and other cardiovascular risk factors across Latin America. Achieving these ambitious goals will require collaborative efforts by many groups, including policymakers, international organizations, healthcare providers, schools and society as a whole.

  11. Higher Education and Politics in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangemi, Joseph P.; Kowalski, Casimir J.

    1976-01-01

    The success of higher education depends upon its steering clear of political involvements, but in Latin America this appears to be different. There institutions of higher learning are inextricably wedded to politics and political movements. This article reviews and analyzes higher education and politics in Latin America. (Author)

  12. Fleets and fuel prices in Latin America Part II - Gasoline: Gallons of gasoline per week per passenger car selected countries in Latin America, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-31

    According to latest available statistics, one in fourteen persons in Latin America has a car and consumes 13 gallons of gasoline per week, on average. This is low but is likely to rise dramatically if current economic thinking holds.

  13. Cardiac rehabilitation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Anchique Santos, Claudia Victoria; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Benaim, Briseida; Burdiat, Gerard; Fernandez Coronado, Rosalia; Gonzalez, Graciela; Herdy, Arthur; Medina-Inojosa, Jose; Santibañez, Claudio; Uriona Villarroel, Juan E; Zeballos, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a description of the status of cardiovascular (CV) rehabilitation (CVR) in Latin America (LA) and the potential impact on CV disease in the region. We discuss the insufficient number of CVR programs in the region and describe the components of CVR that are more commonly available, like exercise interventions, medical assessment and patient education. Additionally, we discuss the heterogeneity in other components, like the evaluation of depression, sleep apnea, and smoking cessation programs. Lastly, we provide a brief review on the main characteristics of the health systems of each country regarding access to CVR programs and compare the average cost of CV procedures and treatments with CVR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cervical cancer control in Latin America: A call to action.

    PubMed

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Herold, Christina I; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Dizon, Don S; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Del Carmen, Marcela; Randall, Tom C; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline M; Goss, Paul E

    2016-02-15

    Cervical cancer (CC) is second most common cause of cancer in Latin America and is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women. In 2015, an estimated 74,488 women will be diagnosed with CC in Latin America and 31,303 will die of the disease. CC mortality is projected to increase by 45% by 2030 despite human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening efforts. In this setting, the goal was of the current study was to examine CC control efforts in Latin America and identify deficiencies in these efforts that could be addressed to reduce CC incidence and mortality. The authors found that HPV vaccination has been introduced in the majority of Latin American countries, and there is now a need to monitor the success (or shortcomings) of these programs and to ensure that these programs are sustainable. This topic was also reviewed in light of emerging data demonstrating that visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV DNA testing without Papanicolaou tests have efficacy from a screening perspective and are good alternatives to cytology-based screening programs. Overall, there is a need to build capacity for CC control in Latin America and the best strategy will depend on the country/region and must be tailored to meet the needs of the population as well as available resources.

  15. Mental health policy developments in Latin America.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167

  16. Capacity-building programmes in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. E.

    "If we do not support basic science, we might as well give up our idea of living in a civilized country". These words by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, President of Argentina, are from a speech he delivered in 1871, at the inauguration of the Córdoba Astronomical Observatory, first in Latin America. It contained in this way a response to critics saying that there were more pressing matters where to spend public funds than promoting scientific research and education. It also marked the beginning of capacity-building activities in Argentina. We shall review how these activities have developed in Argentina as well as the other Latin American countries, current programmes and the role that space activities play and can play in the future.

  17. LPG in Latin America: An overall view

    SciTech Connect

    Villaronga, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Latin America is about 2.2 times the size of the United States and, in population, it exceeds the U.S. by 165 million people. A relatively high population growth rate, together with its vast underdeveloped natural resources, gives Latin America a tremendous potential for progress. The desire of governments to advance economically, together with the proper stimuli to education and to the managerial resources, should translate this potential in reality. This is evident in a number of regions.

  18. [Psychology training in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Vilanova, A R

    1993-09-01

    Although there is not such a thing as a sole criterion to define the origins of Psychology as an autonomous discipline, it is the author's contention that the roots for such an autonomy are to be found in the emergence of professional psychologists in the USA by the turn of the 19th century. Latin America has based its academic courses on the utilitarian, professionally-oriented American pattern considering, however, European sources for designing curricula. Latin American countries with a higher development level such as Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil are endowed with an excellent level as regards both their advancements in research, and legal achievements. Despite the different national traits, Latin American Psychology as a whole shares common features such as: its being originated in Humanities Departments at universities, its evolution from Psychometrics to the fostering of human resources, and its struggles so that it could eventually be differentiated from other professions. It is rather difficult to issue reliable predictions for the time being since quite heterogeneous social as well as historical factors bear on Latin American science and Latin American professionals alike.

  19. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction.

  20. Educating cities in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-09-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate how this proposal was adopted in Latin America. After discussing the basic aims of educating cities, the paper focuses on the Latin American experience, giving examples of existing projects within the educating cities initiative. The authors are particularly interested in the contrast between the political intentions of educating cities on the one hand and the social, economic, political and cultural world on the other hand. They observe that in this context there is a danger of the individual being forgotten, which contradicts the actual intention of the educating city concept. They also discuss the problem of who should carry out the realisation of educating cities and how the various stakeholders might coordinate their actions. Contemplating new directions at the end of their paper, the authors sum up a number of guidelines and offer recommendations for action in developing educating cities.

  1. Updating Malthus in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Bilsborrow, R E

    1991-01-01

    Available arable land in Latin America is actually less than figures indicate, and it is being degraded at a rapid pace. Six Latin American countries are unable to meet their demand for fuelwood, and 10 more are depleting their forests at annual rates of up to 3.8% per year. Land extensification is a national policy in several countries as an alternative to land reform, or subdivision of large land holdings. Guatemala is a case in point. 48% of Guatemala's land is classified as arable, and 80% of this land was already enclosed as farms in the last agricultural census, in 1979. 60% of this land was actually being farmed. 60% of all farms encompass 3.7% of all the farm land, small holdings called minifundia. Between 1964 and 1979 farm numbers increased 45%, total area being farmed rose 13.5%, with an annual increase of 1.2%. Most new farms were settled in the northwestern highlands called the altiplano, where numbers of farms doubled and average size of smallholdings shrank from 0.7-0.45 ha between 1964-1979. The northern lowland tropical forest region, the Peten, is being cut for farmland at one of the fastest rates in the world. Flooding and erosion, as well as urbanization, are also causing irreplaceable loss of farmland. While environmental decline is being recognized in many Latin American countries, the causative role of population growth has not been mentioned in environmental declarations and action plans.

  2. Results of assisted reproduction techniques in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, F; Mackenna, A; Fernández, E; Sepúlveda, M S

    2001-01-01

    The fact that today it is possible to write a comprehensive report on assisted reproduction technologies in Latin America is the result of a serious and systematic effort, accomplished by more than 80 centres, from Mexico to Chile. Over the past 10 years, these centres representing the vast majority of assisted reproductive treatment cycles performed in Latin America, have agreed voluntarily to report their work to our regional registry using a pre-established format. Furthermore, during 1999 and part of 2000, all centres were visited by a team of biologists and clinicians, who evaluated for consistencies in the data reported. This activity also included an evaluation of personnel, facilities, etc. It can be proudly said that the data reported are a true reflection of the actual situation in our region.

  3. Illegal abortion in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Viel, B

    1982-08-01

    In Latin American countries abortion on demand is legal only in Cuba and must be performed there in hospitals within the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy. After the 1st trimester, it can be performed only for medical reasons. With regard to the other 18 Latin American countries, abortion is illegal in 2 of them even for saving the life of the pregnant women. In 9 countries therapeutic abortion is permitted only to save the woman's life. It is allowed in 4 countries in the case of severe disease that will be aggravated if the pregnancy continues. In the 3 remaining countries, in addition to medical reasons, it is legal if pregnancy is the consequence of incest or rape. Despite the law, induced abortion is often performed. The complications of illegal abortion are reviewed along with mortality and morbidity and abortions in adolescents. In Colombia in 1974, 58,717 women were hospitalized for complications of abortion. 42,160 women were hospitalized in Chile in 1974 with the same diagnosis. As Colombia and Chile both have family planning programs and effecive contraceptives are easily obtained, the rate could be even higher in those countries without programs or contraceptive availability. From surveys conducted in these 2 countries, it may be concluded that only 1 out of 3 induced abortions is complicated and requires hospitalization. The hospitalization for complications of abortion/1000 women of fertile age in Colombia and Chile suggests that there is an annual average of 15 hospitalized cases/1000 women of fertile age throughout Latin America. Presuming reasonable accuracy for these surveys, the rate of induced abortion in the entire continent can be estimated to be at least 45/1000 women of fertile age. From this, without considering Cuba, a conservative estimate of 3.4 million illegal induced abortions are performed annually in Latin America. It seems that illegal abortions are performed at an even higher rate than that observed in countries where abortion is legal and

  4. Higher Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeao, Jose Raymundo Martins

    2003-01-01

    Presents an analysis of, and proposals for, international cooperation in higher education. Focuses on Latin American higher education, its current situation, and the expected transformation of the goals of higher education in the context of international cooperation. Describes the challenges that globalization poses to Latin American higher…

  5. Healthy Municipios in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, H E; Llanos, G; Contreras, A; Rocabado, F; Gross, S; Suárez, J; González, J

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the Healthy Municipios movement in Latin America and gives examples of some PAHO projects that could become demonstration projects. The Healthy Municipios movement was established in the early 1990s. The movement aims to promote healthy municipalities according to objectives set forth in the 1987 Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion, the 1992 Declaration of Bogota, and the 1993 Caribbean Health Promotion Charter. The movement is a joint effort of government, the health sector, and the community in promoting health locally. Key features of the movement are its creativity, variety, political strength, and adaptation to local conditions. Technical cooperation serves the purpose of facilitating information exchange and promotes the use of modern techniques of analysis and scientific and technical information. All projects shared the following common features: initiation by the local community with strong political commitment, intersectoral organizational structure, widespread community mobilization and participation, problem solving activities, and a recognizable leader. Pioneering projects include the Comprehensive Project for Cienfuegos, Cuba; the Health Manizales, Colombia; the Network in Mexico; Baruta and El Hatillo, Venezuela; Valdivia, Chile; and San Carlos Canton, Costa Rica. It is concluded that these projects and most others aim to assure equity. These efforts are important for placing health on the political agenda and implementing healthy policies. The Valdivia project, for example, serves a population of about 120,000 in the urban city of Valdivia, the semi-urban area, and rural areas. The project was officially sanctioned by the President of Chile on World Health Day in 1993. Progress was reported in mass communication and school-based programs. Attention was directed also to prevention of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and to the problem of traffic accidents.

  6. Secondary Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Challenge of Growth and Reform. Sustainable Development Department Technical Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Laurence; Castro, Claudio de Moura

    This paper synthesizes the issues, problems, research, and current best practice in secondary education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Overall, Latin America and the Caribbean enroll much lower percentages of school age children in secondary education than the region's chief competitors, and the region's secondary education is inadequate by…

  7. Bat-borne rabies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as "Least Concern". According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  8. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  9. Bordering on trouble. Resources and politics in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, A.; Brown, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The authors say much of regions' social, economic, and political instability, can be traced back to poor resource management. Government, corporations, and individuals alike are misusing labor, natural resources, and investment capitals, and many current U.S. policies encourage this chaos. This book focuses on specific problems - from giant hydropower projects to fragile ecosystems overwhelmed by pollution - to capture the drama now unfolding in Latin America and to offer step-by-step solutions.

  10. Perception of Ethical Misconduct by Neuropsychology Professionals in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Panyavin, Ivan S; Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Rivera, Diego; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    To date, extremely limited research has focused on the ethical aspects of clinical neuropsychology practice in Latin America. The current study aimed to identify the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in a sample of 465 self-identified neuropsychology professionals from Latin America in order to better guide policies for training and begin to establish standards for practitioners in the region. Frequencies of neuropsychologists who knew another professional engaging in ethical misconduct ranged from 1.1% to 60.4% in the areas of research, clinical care, training, and professional relationships. The most frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional training and expertise, with nearly two thirds of participants knowing other professionals who do not possess adequate training to be working as neuropsychologists. The least frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional relationships. Nearly one third of participants indicated that they had never received formal training in professional ethics.

  11. History of primary vasculitis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Iglesias Gammara, Antonio; Coral, Paola; Quintana, Gerardo; Toro, Carlos E; Flores, Luis Felipe; Matteson, Eric L; Restrepo, José Félix

    2010-03-01

    A literature review utilizing Fepafem, Bireme, LiLacs, Scielo Colombia, Scielo Internacional, former MedLine, Pubmed, and BVS Colombia as well as manual searches in the libraries of major Latin American universities was performed to study vasculitis in Latin America. Since 1945, a total of 752 articles have been published by Latin American authors. However, only a minority are devoted to primary vasculitides, and even fewer have been published in indexed journals. Approximately 126 are in OLD, Medline, Pubmed, Bireme, and Scielo. Most publications are from Mexico, followed by Brazil and Colombia. Systematic studies of the epidemiology of primary idiopathic vasculitis are available for a few countries, i.e. Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, and Peru. Takayasu arteritis and ANCA-associated vasculitis are the best studied forms of vasculitis in Latin America. Interest and expertise in vasculitis is growing in Latin America, as reflected in the increased number of published articles from this region of the world in the last decade. Racial and environmental factors are possibly responsible for the differential expression of various types of primary vasculitis observed in Latin America. With time, the unique features, epidemiology, and better treatment strategies for idiopathic vasculitides in Latin America will emerge.

  12. [External evaluation of population-based cancer registries: the REDEPICAN Guide for Latin America].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Carmen; Molina, José Antonio; Barrios, Enrique; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Loria, Dora; Cueva, Patricia; Sánchez, María José; Chirlaque, María Dolores; Fernández, Leticia

    2013-11-01

    Evaluate the feasibility of the REDEPICAN Guide (Red Iberoamericana de Epidemiología y Sistemas de Información en Cáncer) and its adaptation to the current situation of population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) in Latin America and the Caribbean as a useful tool to improve these registries. Experts in cancer registries and health audits designed the guide and developed seven domains to evaluate in PBCRs. Several criteria were selected for each domain, with corresponding standards, scored according to three levels of compliance. Two training courses for external evaluators and three discussion panels for experts were organized. The guide was tested in six PBCRs in Latin America and Spain. The guide contains 68 criteria, 10 of which are considered essential for a PBCR. Based on its score, a registry is regarded as acceptable (41-199), good (200-299), or excellent (300-350). The registry methods domain accounts for 25% of the score, followed by completeness and validity (19%), dissemination of outcomes (19%), structure (13%), confidentiality and ethical aspects (11%), comparability (9%), and the procedures manual (3%). The pilot project enabled (1) enhancement of criteria and standards, (2) expansion of the quality concept to include client needs, and (3) strengthening the dissemination of outcomes section. Two of the Latin American registries that were evaluated improved their quality, meeting the standards of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Development of the REDEPICAN Guide has taken into account the context of the registries in Latin America and is a useful and innovative tool for improving the quality of PBCRs. Furthermore, it is ready for use in other countries and registries.

  13. Changes, trends and challenges of medical education in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Pulido M, Pablo A; Cravioto, Alejandro; Pereda, Ana; Rondón, Roberto; Pereira, Gloria

    2006-02-01

    This paper briefly reviews the current situation of Latin American medical schools and the search to improve the quality and professionalism of medical education through the region. Institutional evaluation and accreditation programs based on nationally ongoing developing standards have been accepted, now optimized and complemented by the framework of the Global & International Standards of Medical Education working jointly with the WFME. More recently, the process has evolved to look into the quality of the outcomes of the medicals as seen by examinations implemented at the end of medical studies and the initiation of medical practice. In addition, there is vision for the application of new programs such as the global minimum essential requirements advanced by the Institute for International Medical Education (IIME). The PanAmerican Federation of Associations of Medical Schools (PAFAMS), an academic, non-governmental organization, is fostering the exchange of ideas and experiences among members, associations and affiliated medical schools geared to focus on the quality and professionalism of the graduates of medical schools in Latin America. These actions also aim to consolidate databases of information on medical education and innovative endeavors in continuing professional education and development through e-learning projects in the region.

  14. Evolutionary Developmental Biology (Evo-Devo) Research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Marcellini, Sylvain; González, Favio; Sarrazin, Andres F; Pabón-Mora, Natalia; Benítez, Mariana; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Rezende, Gustavo L; Maldonado, Ernesto; Schneider, Patricia Neiva; Grizante, Mariana B; Da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Suaza-Gaviria, Vanessa; Zumajo-Cardona, Cecilia; Zattara, Eduardo E; Casasa, Sofia; Suárez-Baron, Harold; Brown, Federico D

    2017-01-01

    Famous for its blind cavefish and Darwin's finches, Latin America is home to some of the richest biodiversity hotspots of our planet. The Latin American fauna and flora inspired and captivated naturalists from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, including such notable pioneers such as Fritz Müller, Florentino Ameghino, and Léon Croizat who made a significant contribution to the study of embryology and evolutionary thinking. But, what are the historical and present contributions of the Latin American scientific community to Evo-Devo? Here, we provide the first comprehensive overview of the Evo-Devo laboratories based in Latin America and describe current lines of research based on endemic species, focusing on body plans and patterning, systematics, physiology, computational modeling approaches, ecology, and domestication. Literature searches reveal that Evo-Devo in Latin America is still in its early days; while showing encouraging indicators of productivity, it has not stabilized yet, because it relies on few and sparsely distributed laboratories. Coping with the rapid changes in national scientific policies and contributing to solve social and health issues specific to each region are among the main challenges faced by Latin American researchers. The 2015 inaugural meeting of the Pan-American Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology played a pivotal role in bringing together Latin American researchers eager to initiate and consolidate regional and worldwide collaborative networks. Such networks will undoubtedly advance research on the extremely high genetic and phenotypic biodiversity of Latin America, bound to be an almost infinite source of amazement and fascinating findings for the Evo-Devo community.

  15. Haematopoietic Cell Transplants in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Robert Peter; Seber, Adriana; Bonfim, Carmem; Pasquini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Haematopoietic cell transplants are done by more than 1500 transplant centres in 75 countries, mostly for life-threatening haematological disorders. However, transplant technology and access are not uniformly-distributed worldwide. Most transplants are done in predominately Europe, North America and some Asian countries. We review transplants activity in Latin America, a geographic region with a population of more than 600 million persons living in countries with diverse economic and social development levels. The data indicate a 20-40-fold lower frequency of transplants in Latin America compared with Europe and North America. We show that although economics, infrastructure and expertise are important limitations, other variables also operate. Changes in several of these variables may substantially increase transplant activity in Latin America. PMID:26999468

  16. Haematopoietic cell transplants in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gale, R P; Seber, A; Bonfim, C; Pasquini, M

    2016-07-01

    Haematopoietic cell transplants are done by more than 1500 transplant centres in 75 countries, mostly for life-threatening haematological disorders. However, transplant technology and access are not uniformly distributed worldwide. Most transplants are done predominately in Europe, North America and some Asian countries. We review transplant activity in Latin America, a geographic region with a population of >600 million persons living in countries with diverse economic and social development levels. These data indicate a 20-40-fold lower frequency of transplants in Latin America compared with Europe and North America. We show that although economics, infrastructure and expertise are important limitations, other variables also operate. Changes in several of these variables may substantially increase transplant activity in Latin America.

  17. Space, geophysical research related to Latin America - Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Blanca; Shea, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    For the last 25 years, every two to three years the Conferencia Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial (COLAGE) is held in one of the Latin American countries for the purpose of promoting scientific exchange among scientists of the region and to encourage continued research that is unique to this area of the world. At the more recent conference, the community realized that many individuals both within and outside Latin America have contributed greatly to the understanding of the space sciences in this area of the world. It was therefore decided to assemble a Special Issue Space and Geophysical Physics related to Latin America, presenting recent results and where submissions would be accepted from the world wide community of scientists involved in research appropriate to Latin America. Because of the large number of submissions, these papers have been printed in two separate issues. The first issue was published in Advances in Space Research, Vol. 57, number 6 and contained 15 papers. This is the second issue and contains 25 additional papers. These papers show the wide variety of research, both theoretical and applied, that is currently being developed or related to space and geophysical sciences in the Sub-Continent.

  18. The Enduring Effects of Smoking in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Beatriz; Pinto-Aguirre, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated smoking-attributable mortality, assessed the impact of past smoking on recent mortality, and computed expected future losses in life expectancy caused by past and current smoking behavior in Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods. We used a regression-based procedure to estimate smoking-attributable mortality and information for 6 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Uruguay) for the years 1980 through 2009 contained in the Latin American Mortality Database (LAMBdA). These countries jointly comprise more than two thirds of the adult population in Latin America and the Caribbean and have the region’s highest rates of smoking prevalence. Results. During the last 10 years, the impact of smoking was equivalent to losses in male (aged ≥ 50 years) life expectancy of about 2 to 6 years. These effects are likely to increase, particularly for females, both in the study countries and in those that joined the epidemic at later dates. Conclusions. Unless innovations in the detection and treatment of chronic diseases are introduced soon, continued gains in adult survival in Latin America and the Caribbean region may slow down considerably. PMID:25880938

  19. The enduring effects of smoking in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Palloni, Alberto; Novak, Beatriz; Pinto-Aguirre, Guido

    2015-06-01

    We estimated smoking-attributable mortality, assessed the impact of past smoking on recent mortality, and computed expected future losses in life expectancy caused by past and current smoking behavior in Latin America and the Caribbean. We used a regression-based procedure to estimate smoking-attributable mortality and information for 6 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Uruguay) for the years 1980 through 2009 contained in the Latin American Mortality Database (LAMBdA). These countries jointly comprise more than two thirds of the adult population in Latin America and the Caribbean and have the region's highest rates of smoking prevalence. During the last 10 years, the impact of smoking was equivalent to losses in male (aged ≥ 50 years) life expectancy of about 2 to 6 years. These effects are likely to increase, particularly for females, both in the study countries and in those that joined the epidemic at later dates. Unless innovations in the detection and treatment of chronic diseases are introduced soon, continued gains in adult survival in Latin America and the Caribbean region may slow down considerably.

  20. [Benzodiazepine use in elderly population in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Saúl; León, Tomás; Macuer, Maximiliano; Alves, Mariana; Ruiz, Sergio

    2017-03-01

    Growing information has emphasized the risk of benzodiazepines (BZD), particularly among the elderly. However, the information available in Latin America is scarce. to review the available information on the use of BZD in older adults in Latin America to achieve an overview of the information currently available, and a thorough understanding of this phenomenon in our region. A systematic review with MeSH terms “elderly”, “latinamerican” and “benzodiazepines” was performed in PubMed and with each Latin American country. A search in databases SciELO and LILACS was also performed. In all, 126 items of finally selected 21 that met the inclusion criteria. Studies show that consumption of benzodiazepines in the elderly population in Latin America is high, with a preponderance of long half-life benzodiazepines in women, and frequent self-medication. The revised articles establish the importance of further study of the phenomenon of the use of benzodiazepines in our elderly population. Strikingly, scientific information is scarce, with most studies coming from only one country (Brazil). Moreover, most of them are transversal and descriptive, with few studies that explore long-term side effects, or specific hypotheses. Further studies should address these important issues.

  1. Latin America looks to adolescent needs.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    64 representatives of UNFPA, Pathfinder, and the Johns Hopkins University, together with high-level representatives of Ministries of Health and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) from the Bahamas, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru attended a conference on advocating sexuality education in school programs in the region. The conference, held October 22-26, 1998, was organized by JOICFP and the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in collaboration with UNFPA and IPPF. Conference participants exchanged experiences upon sexuality education in school programs through group discussions and panel and country presentations. One goal of the conference was to strengthen the links between the various Ministries of Education and NGOs in the field of human sexuality. Recommendations for promoting adolescent reproductive health from Latin America and the Caribbean Region to ICPD+5 were made by 3 work groups and accepted by all participants as the outcome of the conference. Steps are currently being taken to develop and implement school curricula designed to raise the levels of awareness among youths of the important relationship between population and sustainable growth, as well as health issues and sexual equality.

  2. [Social class and health in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Rocha, Katia B; Borrell, Carme; Vallebuona, Clelia; Ibáñez, Ciro; Benach, Joan; Sollar, Orielle

    2012-02-01

    This paper reviews the principal concepts of social class, occupation, and social stratification, and their contribution to the analysis of the social determinants of health (SDH), and reviews empirical studies conducted in Latin America that use employment relations as an SDH. The review focuses on studies of the relationship between health and social class based on neo-Weberian or neo-Marxist perspectives. A search of the BIREME Virtual Health Library and the SciELO database found 28 articles meeting these characteristics. This relative dearth contrasts with the profusion of papers that use these approaches written in Europe and in the United States, with a long tradition in the analysis of SDH. In this regard, the political and programmatic implications of research on social class and employment relations are different from and complementary to studies of health gradients associated with income and education. Globalization of employment relations requires the development of new concepts to explain and measure the mechanisms of action of the SDH going beyond what is strictly labor related; in particular, the importance in the current Latin American reality of the impact of informal work on health.

  3. History of rehabilitation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Sotelano, Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Rehabilitation in Latin America was pioneered in the 1940s by orthopedists who envisioned the need for the integration of people with disabilities into society. The objective of this review is to discuss the evolution of rehabilitation in Latin America during the last few decades. This review is divided into the following sections: (1) prehistory, (2) the beginning, (3) common features in different countries, (4) the beginning and consolidation of the specialty, (5) the Latin American Medical Association of Rehabilitation, and (6) journals published by different countries.

  4. HRD in Latin America. Symposium 5. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document contains three papers on human resource development (HRD) in Latin America. "Looking at the Literature on Workplace Democracy in Latin America: Factors in Favor and Against It" (Max U. Montesino) discusses selected issues related to workplace democracy in Latin America and identifies salient issues for further research,…

  5. Evaluating Multigrade School Reform in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes three multigrade school reforms in Latin America: (1) Colombia's "Escuela Nueva", (2) Guatemala's "Nueva Escuela Unitaria", and (3) Chile's MECE-Rural. Each reform endowed primary teachers and students with special training and instructional materials, and encouraged new kinds of instruction in rural…

  6. ADULT BASIC EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CORTRIGHT, RICHARD W.

    THE AUTHOR BRIEFLY REVIEWS STUDIES AND REPORTS ON ADULT BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN LATIN AMERICA, WHERE IN MOST COUNTRIES AT LEAST 40 PERCENT OF THE ADULT POPULATION IS ILLITERATE. EDUCATION HAS BEEN RELATED TO NATIONAL ECONOMIES, HEALTH, AND SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PROBLEMS. NATIONAL BUDGETS FOR LITERACY PROGRAMS ARE GROWING AND IN SOME COUNTRIES…

  7. The Scientific Institutions of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Ronald

    This book is a comprehensive survey of the scientific institutions and science information facilities of Latin America and the Caribbean. The organization of the book is by countries and by institutions within each country. The section on each country begins with a description of the country and its scientific organizations. A series of…

  8. Latin America: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This learning aid is intended to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with Latin Americans. The book consists of the following: (1) a map of Latin America, with area and population statistics for the various countries; (2) a brief description of the land, the people, the economy, diet, religion, government,…

  9. Obesity prevention lessons from Latin America.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Michael; Charvel Orozco, Ana Sofia; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2014-12-01

    This is an invited commentary for the Active Living Research (ALR) special issue. The commentary focuses on the lessons that can be learned from Latin America regarding obesity prevention. Examples from Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia that may inform US policy are described. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Epilepsy and mortality in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Escalaya, Alejandro L; Tellez-Zenteno, Jose F; Steven, David A; Burneo, Jorge G

    2015-02-01

    To assess the mortality related to epilepsy in Latin America. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS from inception to December 2013 for articles evaluating mortality in patients with epilepsy in Latin America. Studies were included if they evaluated any mortality outcome, included a population of subjects with recurrent seizures or epilepsy, and contained original data analysis. The search strategy yielded 177 publications in MEDLINE and EMBASE, and 59 publications in LILACS; of which 18 met inclusion criteria for our overall review of epilepsy and mortality in Latin America. Most excluded studies did not report the mortality or lacked original data. We also included two references obtained from 2 non-systematic reviews fulfilling our inclusion criteria, and able to provide data for our analyses. Five studies reported Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR), and demonstrated that people with epilepsy had a higher risk of death than the general population. The SMRs reported in two community-based studies were 1.34 and 2.45. The information about mortality in epilepsy in Latin America is very scarce. Comparisons cannot be made among studies due to methodological differences. More studies are needed. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Latin America: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This learning aid is intended to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with Latin Americans. The book consists of the following: (1) a map of Latin America, with area and population statistics for the various countries; (2) a brief description of the land, the people, the economy, diet, religion, government,…

  12. Counseling: A New Priority in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espin, Oliva M.; Renner, Richard R.

    1974-01-01

    This brief survey is an effort to inform counselors about some of the recent developments in Latin America that relate to their profession. The article explains some of the underlying social, cultural, and educational conditions that have helped shape recent trends. Despite the problem of underprofessionalization, the field of vocational guidance…

  13. Latin America: The Revolution of Hope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcedo, Jose Joaquin; And Others

    Latin America is a continent with a great deal of poverty, ignorance, and violence. This book describes the problems that plague the region and explains how and why they have gone unsolved. Change can come about only through real and effective participation by men and women in the political and economic activities of their nations. Organized into…

  14. ADULT BASIC EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CORTRIGHT, RICHARD W.

    THE AUTHOR BRIEFLY REVIEWS STUDIES AND REPORTS ON ADULT BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN LATIN AMERICA, WHERE IN MOST COUNTRIES AT LEAST 40 PERCENT OF THE ADULT POPULATION IS ILLITERATE. EDUCATION HAS BEEN RELATED TO NATIONAL ECONOMIES, HEALTH, AND SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PROBLEMS. NATIONAL BUDGETS FOR LITERACY PROGRAMS ARE GROWING AND IN SOME COUNTRIES…

  15. A World of Hurt: Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Massive socioeconomic problems have left Latin American education in a dire condition, and decades behind the rest of the globe in integrating technology into teaching and learning. But a few spots in the region offer signs of hope. In this article, the author describes several efforts at tech-based educational reform in Latin America.

  16. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1993-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of 33 publications from 24 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America that deal with topics such as health, housing, the environment, contraception, and trade. Statistical yearbooks and bulletins are highlighted as essential categories of government publishing. (LRW)

  17. Gender, Innovation and Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Ingrid, Ed.; King, Linda, Ed.

    This document contains 19 papers on gender, innovation, and education in Latin America. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Ingrid Jung); "Reflections on the Gender Perspective in Experiences of Non-Formal Education with Women" (Lilian Celiberti); "Gender and Innovation" (Graciela Messina);…

  18. Ophthalmic pathology laboratories in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Contreras, F

    1993-02-01

    Ocular pathology laboratories have been one of the main reasons for the progress and evolution of ophthalmology in Latin America. This has been made possible through pathologic reports, meetings, and seminars and through the valuable help of basic teaching in residency programs in ophthalmology.

  19. Station Climatic Summaries Latin America. Addendum 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    Latin America is 032, Europe is 033, and so on); only the year of issue changes . The map shows regional boundanes corresponding to each numbered volume...DAY OR < 12 MONTH/YEAR SOURCE(S): 1. USAFETAC DATSAV POR JAN 73 - JUL 85 2. NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY 13-39 YEARS 3. WORLDWIDE AIRFIELD CIMATIC DATA

  20. Future of Science in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the small contribution to science and technology from Latin America which is essential for promoting the economic and social development of the region. Reviews the origin of Latin American educational and research systems, and the obstacles faced by the scientific communities in the recent past. (LZ)

  1. Vocational Training in Latin America. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexim, Joao Carlos; And Others

    This monograph summarizes the main structural and operational components of the framework for the development of vocational training in Latin America. Part 1, "Economic Framework and Population" (Orlando Luebbert), is an overview of social and economic indicators: population, agriculture, industry and productivity, the informal sector,…

  2. A World of Hurt: Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Massive socioeconomic problems have left Latin American education in a dire condition, and decades behind the rest of the globe in integrating technology into teaching and learning. But a few spots in the region offer signs of hope. In this article, the author describes several efforts at tech-based educational reform in Latin America.

  3. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Marcio; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Echevarría, Juan; Sifuentes, Jose; Zurita, Jeannete; Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of adults who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in patients with candidemia. This manuscript is the second of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  4. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    PubMed

    Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of neonates who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, central venous catheter management, and management of complications. This manuscript is the fourth of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America'.

  5. Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Zurita, Jeannete; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Santolaya, María E; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Echevarría, Juan; Sifuentes, Jose; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the diagnosis of candidemia, as well as on the usefulness and application of susceptibility testing in patients who have a confirmed diagnosis of candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America' includes diagnostic methods used to detect candidemia, Candida species identification, and susceptibility testing. The availability of methods, their costs and treatment settings are considered. This manuscript is the first of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  6. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    PubMed

    Santolaya, María E; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Alvarado Matute, Tito; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of children who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in children with candidemia. This manuscript is the third of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound practice survey in latin america.

    PubMed

    Drigo, Juliana Marques; Castillo, Cecilia; Wever, Wallia; Obaldía, José Ricardo Ruíz; Fillipi, Sheila; Ribeiro, Manoel C S A; Rossini, Lucio G B

    2013-10-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important imaging modality for the diagnosis, staging and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, no official data exists regarding clinical EUS practice in Latin America (LA). This study assessed current EUS practice and training. A direct mail survey questionnaire was sent to 268 Capítulo Latino Americano de Ultrasonido Endoscópico members between August 2012 and January 2013. The questionnaire was sent out in English, Spanish and Portuguese languages and was available through the following site: http://www.cleus-encuesta.com. Responses were requested only from physicians who perform EUS. A total of 70 LA physicians answered the questionnaire until January 2013. Most of the participants were under 42 years of age (53%) and 80% were men. Most participants (45.7%) perform EUS in Brazil, 53% work in a private hospital. The majority (70%) also perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A total 42% had performed EUS for 2 years or less and 22.7% for 11 years or more. Only 10% performed more than 5000 EUS. The most common indication was an evaluation of pancreatic-biliary-ampullary lesions. Regarding training, 48.6% had more than 6 months of dedicated hands-on EUS and 37% think that at least 6 months of formal training is necessary to acquire competence. Furthermore, 64% think that more than 50 procedures for pancreatic-biliary lesions are necessary. This survey provides insight into the status of EUS in LA. EUS is performed mostly by young endoscopists in LA. Diagnostic upper EUS is the most common EUS procedure. Most endosonographers believe that formal training is necessary to acquire competence.

  8. Endoscopic Ultrasound Practice Survey in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Drigo, Juliana Marques; Castillo, Cecilia; Wever, Wallia; Obaldía, José Ricardo Ruíz; Fillipi, Sheila; Ribeiro, Manoel C. S. A.; Rossini, Lucio G. B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important imaging modality for the diagnosis, staging and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, no official data exists regarding clinical EUS practice in Latin America (LA). This study assessed current EUS practice and training. Patients and Methods: A direct mail survey questionnaire was sent to 268 Capítulo Latino Americano de Ultrasonido Endoscópico members between August 2012 and January 2013. The questionnaire was sent out in English, Spanish and Portuguese languages and was available through the following site: http://www.cleus-encuesta.com. Responses were requested only from physicians who perform EUS. Results: A total of 70 LA physicians answered the questionnaire until January 2013. Most of the participants were under 42 years of age (53%) and 80% were men. Most participants (45.7%) perform EUS in Brazil, 53% work in a private hospital. The majority (70%) also perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A total 42% had performed EUS for 2 years or less and 22.7% for 11 years or more. Only 10% performed more than 5000 EUS. The most common indication was an evaluation of pancreatic-biliary-ampullary lesions. Regarding training, 48.6% had more than 6 months of dedicated hands-on EUS and 37% think that at least 6 months of formal training is necessary to acquire competence. Furthermore, 64% think that more than 50 procedures for pancreatic-biliary lesions are necessary. Conclusion: This survey provides insight into the status of EUS in LA. EUS is performed mostly by young endoscopists in LA. Diagnostic upper EUS is the most common EUS procedure. Most endosonographers believe that formal training is necessary to acquire competence. PMID:24949398

  9. [Peasant women and agrarian life in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Arizpe, L

    1985-01-01

    The great agrarian transformation in favor of capitalist agriculture that has occurred over the past few decades in the dependent countries of Latin America has modified the traditional production of foodstuffs, the mode of work, and the social reproduction of peasant women belonging to the social groups with the lowest levels of income. Policies of centralized industrialization which have excluded agricultural manpower have affected Latin American women, accounting for their greater tendency to migrate to cities. Migrant peasant women participate in 3 principal characteristics of the dependent development of Latin America: the rural exodus, the burgeoning of the tertiary sector, and marginality. The consequences of unequal capitalist agrarian development in the formation of a female rural proletariat have not been well studies, resulting in a tendency to disregard the heterogeneity of situations in which peasant women find themselves and to confuse 3 aspects of their condition as members of rural families, as workers, and as women. As family members, peasant women find family income declining, leading to increases in their unpaid labor time and declining standards of nutrition and health. The agrarian economies of Latin America and the Caribbean show a certain homogeneity in the sexual division of labor. Their historical development after their insertion as colonial regions in the world economy produced 3 well-defined forms of agricultural economy: haciendas, plantations, and peasant communities, each with its own forms of family and kinship relationships which reflected adjustments between sexual division of labor and production or manpower needs. Concerning the participation of women, there are curerntly 3 specific types of agricultural production characteristic of Latin America and the Caribbean: peasant family units usually belonging to communities in which women primarily perform the tasks of "reproduction", rural family units which rely on the external labor

  10. [Bioethics in Latin America: legal perspective].

    PubMed

    Figueroa Yáñez, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    The jurist's work is to detect the legal guiding principles, analize them and to anticipate what kind of acceptance they will have. The legislator must be prudent if the subject studied is changeable as it happens with the norms applied in Bioethics. This detection process is more delicate if the guiding principles that have to be detected are valid for such an extensive region, as it is Latin America, where the legislation of the different countries that form it would adopt them. The two problems that will be studied here are: a) if it is advisable or not to raise some Bioethic basic principles to the constitutional level. b) which are the main principles that have been adopted by the juridical legislations of Latin America and who, in some way, guide the legal regulation.

  11. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Capote Negrin, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    The basic aspects of the descriptive epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America are presented. A decrease in the incidence and mortality rates has been observed in the period from 2000 to 2012 in all countries across the region, this has not occurred at the same proportions, and in many countries, observed figures of incidence and mortality are among the highest levels in the world. In Latin America, calculating a mean measure of the numbers from the GLOBOCAN data from 2000 to 2012, we can observe a difference of up to fivefold of the incidence (Puerto Rico 9,73 Vs Bolivia 50,73) and almost seven times for mortality (Puerto Rico 3,3 Vs Nicaragua 21,67). A report of the epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of screening procedures regarding the possible impact of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine I in the prevention of cervical cancer is presented. PMID:26557875

  12. Urban employment: research and policy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Tokman, V E

    1988-04-01

    Trends in urban employment policy research and design in Latin America are discussed. "This article is organized into three main parts.... The first reviews research and policies in the 1970s, while the second deals with the 1980s. The two periods are set off by different economic conditions and, particularly, by the severe crisis which has affected the region since the beginning of the present decade. Finally, in the third part the nature of the current debate on the subject will be outlined." excerpt

  13. [Geography and health: themes and perspectives in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Iñiguez Rojas, L

    1998-01-01

    Relations between geography and health have been recognized since ancient times. Investigation of such relations has been characterized by isolated and scant efforts. This article aims to explore potential links between geography's theoretical and methodological frame of reference and knowledge and interpretation of the population's health. It approaches the antecedents of medical or health-related geography and the use of the theoretical and methodological framework of geographic space, as well as identifying alternatives for its implementation. Finally, it raises several points relating to current development in the relations between geography and health in Latin America, as well as alternatives for such development.

  14. Latin America Report, No. 2713

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-27

    various dates) 79 MIRROR Attack on STANDARD, Editorial PNC Organ’s Blast OPEN WORD Slap at MIRROR, Editorial - c MIRROR Rejoinder, Editorial...Paredes (Julio M. Aldrete; MATUTINO, 28 Jun 83) 122 Briefs Colon Economic Situation 124 Terror, Inflation Afflicting Country ( Enrique Vails...Barrancas and Papayal, which would receive economic and social benefits. Proposals Enrique Danies Rincon, CARBOCOL general manager, stressed the

  15. [The feeding of children in Latin America].

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, A M

    1988-09-01

    Nutritional and dietary recommendations are given for infants, preschool and school children in Latin America, based on known and prevailing nutritional deficiencies, and on the prevention of degenerative diseases in adulthood. Special emphasis is placed on dietary iron and zinc deficiencies, as well as on the prevention of obesity and atherosclerosis, diseases which are seriously affecting medium and high socioeconomic levels of the Latin American population.

  16. Civilian-Military Relations in Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    exercise of human, political, and social rights by individuals and groups in a democracy. the combination of threats in contemporary Central...and the 39 percent concern level was the highest of any country in latin america regarding crime. in “the age of insecurity; violence and Social ...Brasil y Chile en la reconstruccion de Haiti: intereses y motivaciones en la participacion conjunta,” paper prepared for latin american Studies

  17. Challenges for Scientists in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kalergis, Alexis M; Lacerda, Marcus; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Rosenstein, Yvonne

    2016-09-01

    Despite political turmoil and economical crisis, research in Latin America has considerably advanced over recent decades. The present 'Point of View' outlines our perspectives on the working conditions, successes, difficulties, limitations, and challenges of biomedical scientific communities in four Latin American countries: Argentina (G.A.R.), Brazil (M.L.), Chile (A.K.), and Mexico (Y.R.). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Threat of Latin America Populism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-07

    Horowitz, Populism in Latin America, (Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama, 1999) 23. 8 Alberto Paz , "Tango Lyrics in Spanish and English", February...December 5, 2008, http ://www.argentina.ar/ es/ciencia-y- educacion /C343 -invap-tecnologia -de-avanzada -a- medida.php (accessed December 15, 2009...andresoppenheimer.blogspotcom/2006_12_0l_archive.html. Paz Alberto, "Tango Lyrics in Spanish and English" , February 27, 2008, http://www.planet

  19. Evolution of technology transfer in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Kahl, L.F. )

    1989-07-01

    The author discusses how Latin American countries have grown up buying technology, transferring technology from more developed nations, and attempting to adapt it to their own countries for their own environment. Although this is the approach that was and is necessary, there are still some shortfalls that have occurred in the process of licensing and acquisition of technology. Governments around the world also have had powerful impacts on technology transfer. Those in Latin America are no exception.

  20. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-23

    percent), Digitel (8.5 percent), and 60 percent of D. R. Vasconcelos (optics, Optronics, precision mechanics, and robotics). Accord- ing to Muniz...its equipment. 5058 CSO: 3699/0013 120 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER LATIN AMERICA BRAZILIAN SPACE COOPERATION WITH USSR, PRC San Jose dos Campos ESPACIAL...of spelling out Brazilian participation in space cooperation with the USSR. For 2 weeks in March 1987, researchers Jose Marques da Costa, head of

  1. Latin America's present and future challenges in toxicology education.

    PubMed

    Rojas, M

    2005-09-01

    Industrialization that Latin America has experienced during the past 50 years, the increase of population and the growth of chemical-related industries has generated a variety of environmental problems that must be addressed. After assessing these profound changes, greater emphasis should be placed on the study of environmental health and toxicology. Latin American countries face many problems that are common to other developing nations. Therefore, there is a demand for safety assessment and regulatory control of chemicals that create a need for increasing numbers of toxicologists. To meet this demand, educational programs in toxicology have to be designed. This paper utilizes a consultation questionnaire that includes toxicology-network members, scientists and educational institutions where toxicology is taught. An analysis of the information collected is made, with an emphasis on what we currently lack and on future challenges for toxicology professionals. Although the response from the study institutions was 65% (13 countries out of 20), the paper aims to assess the present situation of toxicology. The convenience for a certification/recognition for toxicologists is also evaluated. Action needs to be taken to promote scientific development based on regional specific needs that require increasing at the number of toxicology programs, and promoting of cooperation between academics and researchers. Among the limitations we have are the variability of curricula, objectives and priorities. The increasing globalization of markets and regulations requires the harmonization of graduate/postgraduate programs to ensure that risk assessment and management are dealt with uniformly. Cooperation among our countries and international assistance should play a more prominent role in the promotion of regional integration and the more efficient utilization of international experience in defining educational policies.

  2. Latin America's present and future challenges in toxicology education

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, M. . E-mail: martini@telcel.net.ve

    2005-09-01

    Industrialization that Latin America has experienced during the past 50 years, the increase of population and the growth of chemical-related industries has generated a variety of environmental problems that must be addressed. After assessing these profound changes, greater emphasis should be placed on the study of environmental health and toxicology. Latin American countries face many problems that are common to other developing nations. Therefore, there is a demand for safety assessment and regulatory control of chemicals that create a need for increasing numbers of toxicologists. To meet this demand, educational programs in toxicology have to be designed. This paper utilizes a consultation questionnaire that includes toxicology-network members, scientists and educational institutions where toxicology is taught. An analysis of the information collected is made, with an emphasis on what we currently lack and on future challenges for toxicology professionals. Although the response from the study institutions was 65% (13 countries out of 20), the paper aims to assess the present situation of toxicology. The convenience for a certification/recognition for toxicologists is also evaluated. Action needs to be taken to promote scientific development based on regional specific needs that require increasing at the number of toxicology programs, and promoting of cooperation between academics and researchers. Among the limitations we have are the variability of curricula, objectives and priorities. The increasing globalization of markets and regulations requires the harmonization of graduate/postgraduate programs to ensure that risk assessment and management are dealt with uniformly. Cooperation among our countries and international assistance should play a more prominent role in the promotion of regional integration and the more efficient utilization of international experience in defining educational policies.

  3. Alternatives across Latin America: catalysing change in the curriculum.

    PubMed

    Jukes, Nick

    2009-01-01

    A 6-week series of seminars addressing replacement of harmful animal use in education and training was held across Latin America in March-April 2008. Organised by InterNICHE and partner organisations in Bolivia, Peru, Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, the events built on the experience of previous major outreach in Russia and India. Up to 6 full-day seminars were held at universities and independent venues in each country. Smaller meetings with campaigners, teachers and professional bodies complemented the large presentations. All events included spoken presentations, demonstrations and free trials of a wide range of alternatives. Speakers included InterNICHE experts and those from the host countries who are involved in replacement work. Partner organisations were empowered through the process of planning and execution of the seminars, and the tour helped to identify and provide support to others who are progressing humane education initiatives. Further collaboration is now planned. Information on the current situation concerning animal use and alternatives, including laws and regulations, was also gathered from each country. The tour succeeded in raising awareness and generating interest in replacement alternatives, also by national-level interviews and media coverage. Information and freeware alternatives were widely distributed, and further translations of material into Spanish and Portuguese are in progress. To continue the hands-on access to alternatives provided at the seminars, a Mexican / Central American Alternatives Loan System has been established, and others are being built in Peru and Brasil. The donation of computers and alternatives to selected universities is also being planned in order to establish multimedia laboratories that will promote alternatives through example.

  4. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  5. Latin America Report No. 2702.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    explanation of the situation which has occurred in the case of exports and the countervailing imports of petroleum, engineer Leonel Lopez Rodas, 31...EL PETROLEO (8) CONVERTIDO A ELECTRICIDAD (%) ESS SECTOR INDUSTRIAL 41.1* ■K SECTOR COMERCIAL 20.1% E2S SECTOR RtltDENCIAL ST...10.5% 3U "An analysis of the transportation sector," Lopez Rodas stated, "shows us that it alone annually consumes the equivalent of $112 million

  6. Latin America Report No. 2723

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Reyes Valero, technical chief of the Cuban contingent; Juan Manuel Hernandez Rodriguez, chief of the airport’s engineer- ing department; and Enrique...Asphalt Plant Comrade Jose Manuel de la Nuez ("Manolo") is chief of industrial production, a department which•includes the asphalt plant, the stone...the Supreme Court of Justice headed by Dr Leonel Carias Delgado , we can say that it acted during difficult times and despite this situation it

  7. [Medical justice as a priority for Latin America].

    PubMed

    Santos y Vargas, L

    1997-12-01

    The need for an ethics of medical justice in Latin America is asserted in the context of a review of concepts of justice throughout history and of changing governmental perspectives on provision of health care in the US and other developed countries. The current view that individuals are primarily human resources is at odds with a long tradition asserting the intrinsic dignity of human beings. English-speaking bioethicists began in the 1960s to stress the principal of autonomy of patients, recognizing their right to make decisions on their own lives and medical care equally with the physician. At the same time, the US has approved no legislation establishing a right to health care, which is rather regarded as a private good. Governments are increasingly inclined to renounce their role as direct providers of health care. The liberal democratic state until recently understood that it fulfilled its ethical commitment to promoting social justice through provision of health care. Nevertheless, societies that stress the importance of the individual in decision-making and that conceive of health as a private good are confronted with the contradiction of apparently irreconcilable visions. With infinite demand for health services and limited health resources, the discourse of autonomy has slowly been replaced by a discourse of distributive justice. The most appropriate version of distributive justice for Latin America is probably that which affirms the duty of assisting those most in need. The prevalence of malnutrition, misery, and premature death in the world is a clear sign of imbalance. If the essential dignity of all human beings and not just of the elite is to be affirmed, medical justice must become the most urgent priority of Latin America.

  8. Where does human plague still persist in Latin America?

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Galan, Deise I; Bertherat, Eric; Ruiz, Alfonso; Dumit, Elsy; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Espinal, Marcos A

    2014-02-01

    Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention. Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties). Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described. Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899-2012). Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level. Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested.

  9. Where Does Human Plague Still Persist in Latin America?

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Galan, Deise I.; Bertherat, Eric; Ruiz, Alfonso; Dumit, Elsy; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. Aims The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention. Methods Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties). Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described. Results Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899–2012). Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level. Discussion Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested. PMID:24516682

  10. Social Work Education in Latin America and the United States: A Look to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Rosa Perla

    1980-01-01

    The historical relationship between social work education in Latin America and the United States is analyzed. New social work strategies have produced innovative approaches to curriculum development and content, interdisciplinary collaboration, and the social worker's role. Translating these approaches to the American situation is discussed.…

  11. [Population and nutrition in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, S

    1984-04-01

    This discussion of food and population in Latin America consists of 5 sections covering food and the population debate since Malthus, basic data on nutrition problems in Latin America, the demographic impact, food production, and future prospects. The present position in favor of limitation of population growth is based on the view that continued rapid population increase must inevitably bring a crisis of disequilibrium of food, natural resources, and ecological and economic security within about 100 years. The common element uniting those opposed to or indifferent to population control is a belief that science and technology can predict and satisfy the essential food needs of a burgeoning population. All developed countries have per capita caloric availabilities of over 3000/day, compared to an average of 2465 for Latin American as a whole. Only Barbados and Argentina have 3000 calories/day available. The daily average per capita protein consumption of 65.7 grams in Latin America is above the 54 gr/day recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organiation. In Latin America the average daily per capita consumption from animal protein is 496 calories, compared to 1331 in the US. The nutrition status of different Latin American countries varies, with minimal caloric intakes of 1880-2170 calories/day in some Central American and Caribbean countries. Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Ecuador, and Bolivia have frank protein deficits. Within countries, there may be large food gaps between regions, rural and urban populations, and social classes. The FAO estimated that 41 million Latin Americans representing 13% of the population are undernourished. 38% of Guatemalans, Hondurans, and Haitians, 30% of Ecuadoreans, and 23% of Peruvians are believed to be inadequately nourished. The quality of the diet varies widely between countries and regions because of a multitude of cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. In

  12. Tackling malnutrition in Latin America and the Caribbean: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Galicia, Luis; de Romaña, Daniel López; Harding, Kimberly B; De-Regil, Luz María; Grajeda, Rubén

    2016-08-01

    Undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are still a public health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions. To assess the nutrition landscape in LAC countries and guide future nutrition efforts and investments, the Pan American Health Organization and the Micronutrient Initiative joined efforts to 1) identify information gaps and describe the current nutritional situation in the region; 2) map existing policies to address malnutrition in Latin America; 3) describe the impact of conditional cash transfer programs (CCTs) on nutrition and health outcomes; and 4) identify the challenges and opportunities to address malnutrition in the region. This article summarizes the methods and key findings from that research and describes the current challenges and opportunities in addressing malnutrition in the LAC region. LAC countries have advanced in reducing undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, but important gaps in information are a major concern. These countries have policies to address undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, but comprehensive and intersectoral policies to tackle obesity are lacking. CCTs in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico have been reported to have a positive impact on child nutrition and health outcomes, providing an opportunity to integrate nutrition actions in intersectoral platforms. The current epidemiological situation and policy options offer an opportunity for countries, technical agencies, donors, and other stakeholders to jointly scale up nutrition actions. This can support the development of comprehensive and intersectoral policies to tackle the double burden of malnutrition, strengthen national nutrition surveillance systems, incorporate monitoring and evaluation as systematic components of policies and programs, document and increase investments in nutrition, and assess the effectiveness of such policies to support political commitment and guarantee

  13. [Prevention strategies for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carlos; Labarca, Jaime; Salles, Mauro

    2010-08-01

    After the first reports of the emergence of MRSA in the 1970s, numerous measures intended to prevent its transmission were initiated in hospitals. However, in most cases, large-scale measures failed to be implemented and the transmission of MRSA has since led to a global pandemic. Presently, doubts still remain about the best approach to prevent and control MRSA and more often than not, control measures are not implemented. Therefore, we review here the current situation in Latin America with respect to existing policies for control of MRSA, and evaluate the evidence for control measures in hospitals and the community. We look at the risk factors for infection and transmission of MRSA between hospital patients and within specific populations in the community, and at the effect of antibiotic usage on the spread of MRSA in these settings. Finally, we summarize recommendations for the prevention and control of MRSA, which can be applied to the Latin American hospital environment and community setting.

  14. Cardiovascular disease research in Latin America: A comparative bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jahangir, Eiman; Comandé, Daniel; Rubinstein, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the number of publications in cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin America and the Caribbean over the last decade. METHODS: We performed a bibliometric analysis in PubMed from 2001 to 2010 for Latin America and the Caribbean, the United States, Canada, Europe, China, and India. RESULTS: Latin America published 4% of articles compared with 26% from the United States/Canada and 42% from Europe. In CVD, Latin America published 4% of articles vs 23% from the United States/Canada and 40% from Europe. The number of publications in CVD in Latin America increased from 41 in 2001 to 726 in 2010. CONCLUSION: Latin America, while publishing more articles than previously, lags behind developed countries. Further advances in research infrastructure are necessary to develop prevention strategies for this region. PMID:22216374

  15. Latin America Report No. 2672.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-28

    someone to take the lead a little ahead of the rest of the leaders. I see now that none of the current leaders knows how to have this vision of the whole...the towns of Tijuana and Mexicali. In Puebla the PRI admits that "if a good candidate is not chosen, we may lose the capital. The blue and white is

  16. Determinants of human papillomavirus vaccine acceptability in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Jennifer L; Wittet, Scott; Bartolini, Rosario M; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Lewis-Bell, Karen; Lewis, Merle J; Penny, Mary E

    2008-08-19

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide promise as a key component of future cervical cancer prevention programs in the Latin America and the Caribbean region. The successful introduction and acceptance of these vaccines will depend on a range of factors including awareness of cervical cancer as a problem, affordability of the vaccine, political will, competition with other vaccines, feasibility of vaccine delivery and acceptability of the vaccine among the range of groups who will influence uptake. While existing data about acceptability from Latin America and the Caribbean is scarce, it is clear that health policymakers, providers and the general public lack knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer. Furthermore, they would value more local epidemiologic data related to cervical cancer. Price is currently a major barrier to vaccine acceptability and a priority for advocacy. More research is required in Latin America and the Caribbean to determine what messages and strategies will work in these communities.

  17. Review on space weather in Latin America. 1. The beginning from space science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. Americo

    2016-11-01

    The present work is the first of a three-part review on space weather in Latin America. It comprises the evolution of several Latin American institutions investing in space science since the 1960s, focusing on the solar-terrestrial interactions, which today is commonly called space weather. Despite recognizing advances in space research in all of Latin America, this review is restricted to the development observed in three countries in particular (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico), due to the fact that these countries have recently developed operational centers for monitoring space weather. The review starts with a brief summary of the first groups to start working with space science in Latin America. This first part of the review closes with the current status and the research interests of these groups, which are described in relation to the most significant works and challenges of the next decade in order to aid in the solving of space weather open issues.

  18. [Intellectual exchange between Germany and Latin America: an interview with Stefan Rinke].

    PubMed

    Rinke, Stefan; da Silva, André Felipe Cândido; Junghans, Miriam; Cavalcanti, Juliana Manzoni; de Muñoz, Pedro Felipe Neves

    2014-01-01

    Current and former students of the Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz interviewed German historian Stefan Rinke, of the Freie Universität Berlin, who specializes in examining the historical development of Latin America as it fits into the international context. Rinke's work uses dimensions such as economic and diplomatic relations, migratory flows, and ethnic conflict as tools in his analyses of the networks of interdependence that have tied Latin America to Europe and the USA. His lens goes beyond the Latin American continent to approach globalization as a historical process, with national and regional contexts placed within a general framework. In this interview, Rinke talks about his academic career, global and transnational history, and joint projects between Germany and Latin America.

  19. Folate and Vitamin B12 Status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Update.

    PubMed

    Brito, Alex; Mujica-Coopman, Maria F; López de Romaña, Daniel; Cori, Héctor; Allen, Lindsay H

    2015-06-01

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before and after the introduction of folic acid fortification. A systematic review was conducted in 2012 and updated in 2014. Studies and surveys using biochemical biomarkers and conducted in apparently healthy individuals were identified. Folate deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean appears not to be a public health problem (prevalence < 5%) after the introduction of folic acid fortification. However, there is some indication that high rates of low or marginal vitamin B12 status remain in most locations and across population groups. Adding vitamin B12 as a fortificant with folic acid may be the best strategy in areas where vitamin B12 deficiency is an established concern.

  20. Latin America Report, No. 2761

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-08

    publication be cited. Current JPRS publications are announced in Government Reports Announcements issued semi-monthly by the National Technical...Deficit Forecast Cooperation in Petroleum Deficiencies in Manufacturing Labor, Other Cost Factors Government Rules Out School Feeding Program for...the rest of the year, it would cost the country some US$1 million. .. ..-.--<? The Ministry source could not say if the additional’ cost for

  1. The importance of systematizing migration information for making policy: recent initiatives and possibilities for Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Maguid, A

    1993-12-01

    The case is made for developing a reliable system of data on international migration in Latin America and the Caribbean which would enable countries in the region to develop appropriate migration policies. The author describes the systems that currently exist in Europe and Latin America and "explores the possibility of implementing a regional registry and information system for migrations in the region." Locating the proposed system within the UN regional operation in Santiago, Chile, is proposed. excerpt

  2. U.S. Security Assistance to Latin America.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    SECURITY ASSISTANCE TO LATIN AMERICA THESIS Valerie S. Payne, Captain, USAF AFIT/GTM/LAL/95S-11 DTI« QUALITY INSPECTED 3 DEPARTMENT OF THE...Avail and/or Special r^ELECTE| 1%N0V 0 6 1995i U.S. SECURITY ASSISTANCE TO LATIN AMERICA THESIS Valerie S. Payne, Captain, USAF AFIT/GTM/LAL...Foreign Policy 17 Security Assistance in Latin America 19 Summary 21 IV. Foreign Policy Toward Latin America 23 World War II and the 1950s

  3. Paratuberculosis in Latin America: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Espeschit, I F; Schwarz, D G G; Faria, A C S; Souza, M C C; Paolicchi, F A; Juste, R A; Carvalho, I A; Moreira, M A S

    2017-09-07

    Latin America is the definition of the American group, where languages of Latin origin are spoken, including countries in South, Central, and North America. Paratuberculosis is a gastrointestinal contagious chronic disease that affects ruminants, whose etiological agent is the bacilli Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Paratuberculosis is characterized by intermittent diarrhea, decreased milk production, dehydration, and progressive weight loss and is possibly involved in Crohn's disease, a human intestinal disease. MAP is resistant to environmental factors, pasteurization, and water disinfection, which coupled with the subclinical-clinical nature of the disease, and makes paratuberculosis a relevant socioeconomic and public health issue, justifying the descriptive review of research on the disease carried out in Latin American countries. A survey of articles, published until September 2016, on the Scopus database, PubMed, Agris, and Science Direct, about detection of the agent and the disease in Latin America, without restrictions to the date of the research was performed. The keywords were as follows: "paratuberculosis," "Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis," "cattle," "milk," "wildlife," "goat," "ovine," "dairy," and the name of each country in English. Studies found from nine of the 20 Latin America countries, 31 related to Brazil, 17 to Argentina, 14 to Chile, eight to Colombia, six to Mexico, two to Peru, two to Venezuela, and one to Panama and to Bolivia, each. The agent was detected in cattle, goats, sheep, domesticated water buffalo, and wild animals. Microbiological culture, PCR, and ELISA were the frequent techniques. The small number of studies may result in overestimation or underestimation of the real scenario.

  4. Physical Activity Interventions in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Azevedo, Mario R.; Hino, Adriano A.; Soares, Jesus; Hallal, Pedro C.; Simões, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Systematic reviews of public health interventions are useful for identifying effective strategies for informing policy and practice. The goals of this review were to (1) update a previous systematic review of physical activity interventions in Latin America which found that only school-based physical education had sufficient evidence to recommend widespread adoption; (2) assess the reporting of external validity elements; and (3) develop and apply an evidence typology for classifying interventions. Evidence acquisition In 2010–2011, community-level, physical activity intervention studies from Latin America were identified, categorized, and screened based on the peer-reviewed literature or Brazilian theses published between 2006 and 2010. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated using U.S. Community Guide methods. External validity reporting was assessed among a subset of articles reviewed to date. An evidence rating typology was developed and applied to classify interventions along a continuum based on evidence about their effectiveness in the U.S. context, reach, adoption, implementation, institutionalization, and benefits and costs. Evidence synthesis Thirteen articles published between 2006 and 2010 met inclusion criteria and were abstracted systematically, yet when combined with evidence from articles from the previous systematic review, no additional interventions could be recommended for practice. Moreover, the reporting of external validity elements was low among a subset of 19 studies published to date (median=21% of elements reported). By applying the expanded evidence rating typology, one intervention was classified as evidence-based, seven as promising, and one as emerging. Conclusions Several physical activity interventions have been identified as promising for future research and implementation in Latin America. Enhanced reporting of external validity elements will inform the translation of research into practice. PMID:23415133

  5. Commentary: improving the health of neglected populations in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Jones, Danielle; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2007-01-23

    Neglected diseases encompass a group of pathologies that disproportionally affect resource-constrained areas of the world. In tropical and subtropical areas in Latin America, the vicious cycle of poverty, disease and underdevelopment is widespread. The burden of disease associated to neglected diseases in this region is mainly expressed through diseases such as malaria, dengue, intestinal parasitic infections, Chagas' disease, and many others. These maladies have burdened Latin America throughout centuries and have directly influenced their ability to develop and become competitive societies in the current climate of globalization. Therefore, the need for a new paradigm that integrates various public health policies, programs, and a strategy with the collaboration of all responsible sectors is long overdue. In this regard, innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, sustainable, and locally acceptable strategies to improve the health of neglected populations to prevent, control, and potentially eliminate neglected diseases. Improving the health of these forgotten populations will place them in an environment more conducive to development and will likely contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in this area of the globe.

  6. Suicide in Latin America: a growing public health issue.

    PubMed

    Mascayano, Franco; Irrazabal, Matias; D Emilia, Wyatt; Vaner, Sidney Jane; Sapag, Jaime C; Alvarado, Ruben; Yang, Lawrence Hsin; Sinah, Binoy

    2015-01-01

    Suicide has become an international public mental health challenge, resulting in a need for interventions to address it as an individual, family, and community levels. The current scope review assesses trends regarding suicide within Latin America and the Caribbean: risk factors, protective factors, and mediators of suicidal ideation and behavior. Body: Our review is split into three sections, as a way of addressing the complex topic of suicide in an organized, comprehensive manner: (i) epidemiology of suicide in Latin America and Caribbean; (ii) factors associated to suicide ideation and attempts; and (iii) cultural factors as a predictors and mediators of suicide. Further, proper evidence about the association between suicide and cultural dimensions such as Familismo, Machismo/Marianismo, Religion and Acculturation is provided. Upon analyzing trends of and factors associated with suicide, we offer recommendations regarding future studies and intervention programs. We conclude that interventions and research should be based on and in response to cultural values and norms related to suicide within each community, in order to make more culturally-specific programs.

  7. Epidemiology of periodontal diseases in adults from Latin America.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Rui V; Haas, Alex N; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Susin, Cristiano

    2015-02-01

    A decade has passed since we first reviewed the epidemiology of periodontal diseases in Latin America. At that time, lack of population-based studies was the norm and our conclusions were based on very limited evidence. The aim of the present comprehensive review was to update and expand our previous work by providing a broad overview of Latin America and its current social, economic and demographic status and by focusing on the epidemiology of periodontal diseases in Latin American adults published in the last 15 years. The amount of periodontal epidemiological data available has increased but is still restricted to a few countries only. The scope of the literature available has also broadened to include oral health-related quality of life and systemic interactions; however, most studies had methodological limitations that might have biased their results. In general, periodontitis was very prevalent, but severe periodontal destruction was localized. Besides being associated with well-established risk factors, periodontitis was associated with demographics and socio-economic factors in Latin American populations. To advance epidemiological knowledge, population-based cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, using appropriate methodologies, should be the future focus of the research agenda of researchers and public health planners in Latin American countries.

  8. End-of-Life Care in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; Pastrana, Tania; Ruiz-Mendoza, Rossana; Bukowski, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Cancer has become a global pandemic with disproportionately higher mortality rates in low- and middle- income countries, where a large fraction of patients present in advanced stages and in need of end-of-life care. Globally, the number of adults needing end-of-life care is greater than 19 million, and up to 78% of these patients are living in low- and middle- income countries. In the Americas alone, more than one million people are in need of end-of-life care, placing an enormous burden on local health systems, which are often unprepared to meet the challenge presented by this complex patient population. In Latin America, cancer care is characterized by the presence of vast inequalities between and within countries, and the provision of end-of-life care is no exception. Disparities in access to advanced care planning, with a lack of provision of adequate palliative care and pain medication, are common in the region. These shortcomings are related in large part to inadequate or inappropriate legislation, lack of comprehensive national palliative care plans, insufficient infrastructure, lack of opportunities for clinical training, unreliable reporting of data, and cultural barriers. This report reviews the current status of end-of-life care in Latin America, focusing on identifying existing deficiencies and providing a framework for improvement. PMID:28717769

  9. Nephrology in Latin America, with special emphasis on Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zatz, Roberto; Romão, J E; Noronha, I L

    2003-02-01

    Latin America constitutes a complex universe that shows extreme variation regarding socioeconomic and human development. Brazil is the largest and most populous Latin American country, and combines characteristics encountered in developed countries with problems typically associated with the poorest regions of the world. These disparities condition the profile of renal disease in Brazil, with glomerulonephritis still the leading cause of ESRD. Little is known about the epidemiology of renal disease in the Brazilian (or Latin American) native population, which is numerous in some Central and South American countries, but constitute a very small minority in Brazil. However, interesting information has been obtained from the Yanomamis, a tribe living in Northern Brazil and Southern Venezuela. Hypertension is virtually absent among these people, who ingest very little sodium, lending strong support to the concept that sodium retention, a "civilization" factor, plays a role in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. Despite Brazil's striking socioeconomic disparities, access to RRT is in principle accessible to all those in need of it. The dialysis units have been modernized in recent years, whereas the Government covers most expenses related to RRT. However, the prevalence of RRT in Brazil is currently approximately 320 per million population, less than one third as high as in the US, suggesting that ESRD may be underdiagnosed in the country. Much effort is still needed to limit the prevalence of renal disease and to improve the quality and the reach of RRT in Brazil and in Latin America.

  10. Epidemiology of food allergy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Sánchez, A

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is growing worldwide at an alarming rate. A group of eight foods account for over 90% of the reactions in Europe and the United States. However, little is known about the frequency of sensitization to these foods in Latin American, and if other native foods from this region are an important source of sensitization. The objective of this review was to analyse the epidemiological studies in Latin America about food allergy and to compare them with the studies in the United States and Europe.

  11. Characterizing commercial oil palm expansion in Latin America: land use change and trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furumo, Paul Richard; Aide, T. Mitchell

    2017-02-01

    Commodity crop expansion has increased with the globalization of production systems and consumer demand, linking distant socio-ecological systems. Oil palm plantations are expanding in the tropics to satisfy growing oilseed and biofuel markets, and much of this expansion has caused extensive deforestation, especially in Asia. In Latin America, palm oil output has doubled since 2001, and the majority of expansion seems to be occurring on non-forested lands. We used MODIS satellite imagery (250 m resolution) to map current oil palm plantations in Latin America and determined prior land use and land cover (LULC) using high-resolution images in Google Earth. In addition, we compiled trade data to determine where Latin American palm oil flows, in order to better understand the underlying drivers of expansion in the region. Based on a sample of 342 032 ha of oil palm plantations across Latin America, we found that 79% replaced previously intervened lands (e.g. pastures, croplands, bananas), primarily cattle pastures (56%). The remaining 21% came from areas that were classified as woody vegetation (e.g. forests), most notably in the Amazon and the Petén region in northern Guatemala. Latin America is a net exporter of palm oil but the majority of palm oil exports (70%) stayed within the region, with Mexico importing about half. Growth of the oil palm sector may be driven by global factors, but environmental and economic outcomes vary between regions (i.e. Asia and Latin America), within regions (i.e. Colombia and Peru), and within single countries (i.e. Guatemala), suggesting that local conditions are influential. The present trend of oil palm expanding onto previously cleared lands, guided by roundtable certifications programs, provides an opportunity for more sustainable development of the oil palm sector in Latin America.

  12. Arsenic Exposure in Latin America: Biomarkers, Risk Assessments and Related Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Chen, Yu; Bundschuh, Jochen; Oliver, John T.; Navoni, Julio; Olmos, Valentina; Lepori, Edda Villaamil; Ahsan, Habibul; Parvez, Faruque

    2013-01-01

    In Latin America, several regions have a long history of widespread arsenic (As) contamination from both natural and anthropological sources. Yet, relatively little is known about the extent of As exposure from drinking water and its related health consequences in these countries. It has been estimated that at least 4.5 million people in Latin America are chronically exposed to high levels of As (>50µg/L), some to as high as 2000 µg/L - 200 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional standard for drinking water. We conducted a systematic review of 82 peer reviewed papers and reports to fully explore the current understanding of As exposure and its health effects, as well as the influence of genetic factors that modulate those effects in the populations of Latin America. Despite some methodological limitations, these studies suggested important links between high levels of chronic As exposure and elevated risks of numerous adverse health outcomes in Latin America - including internal and external cancers, reproductive outcomes, and childhood cognitive function. Several studies demonstrated genetic polymorphisms that influence susceptibility to these and other disease states through their modulation of As metabolism, with As methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and genes of one-carbon metabolism being specifically implicated. While the full extent and nature of the health burden are yet to be known in Latin America, these studies have significantly enriched knowledge of As toxicity and led to subsequent research. Targeted future studies will not only yield a better understanding of the public health impact of As in Latin America populations, but also allow for effective and timely mitigation efforts. PMID:22119448

  13. Use of Opioids in Latin America: The Need of an Evidence-Based Change.

    PubMed

    Rico, María Antonieta; Kraychete, Durval Campos; Iskandar, Aziza Jreige; Colimon, Frantz; Lara-Solares, Argelia; Cantisani, José Alberto Flores; Amescua-García, César; Núñez, María del Rocío Guillén; Bonilla, Patricia; Lech, Osvandré; Hernández-Castro, John Jairo; Guerrero, Carlos; Barrera, William Delgado; Gallegos, Manuel Sempértegui; Cook, María Berenguel; Garcia, João Batista Santos; Hernández, Concepción Pérez

    2016-04-01

    The subject of this publication has been focused on local considerations for facilitating regional best practice, including identifying and uniformly adopting the most relevant international guidelines on opioid use (OU) in chronic pain management. The Change Pain Latin America (CPLA) Advisory Panel conducted a comprehensive, robust, and critical analysis of published national and international reviews and guidelines of OU, considering those most appropriate for Latin America. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms "opioid," "chronic," and "pain" and then refined using the filters "practice guidelines" and "within the last 5 years" (2007-2012). Once the publications were identified, they were selected using five key criteria: "Evidence based," "Comprehensive," "From a well-recognized source," "Current publications," and "Based on best practice" and then critically analyzed considering 10 key criteria for determining the most relevant guidelines to be applied in Latin America. The initial PubMed search identified 177 reviews and guidelines, which was reduced to 16 articles using the five preliminary criteria. After a secondary analysis according to the 10 key criteria specific to OU in Latin America, 10 publications were selected for critical review and discussion. The CPLA advisory panel considered the "Safe and effective use of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain" (published in 2010 by the NOUGG of Canada) to be valid, relevant to Latin America, practical, evidence-based, concise, unambiguous, and sufficiently educational to provide clear instruction on OU and pain management and, thus, recommended for uniform adoption across the Latin America region. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Psychosocial aspects of vasectomy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, A; Goldberg, R J

    1974-11-01

    Social constraints, the structure of the Latin American family, and the "machismo" cult are some of the reasons for the scarcity of vasectomy programs in Latin America. If processes of screening and counseling, and selfselection are employed, vasectomy programs can be just as successful in Latin America as in other countries. Some psychological factors will always have to be considered. One theory by Desmond Morris holds that the primitive behavior patterns of man, which evolved to protect the young, still persists today although they are no longer necessary. One study showed that men who had received vasectomies were socially more aggressive and assertive as compensatory behavior. The Spanish tradition of patriachy combined with the Roman Catholic tradition of male dominance determines the culture in which machismo is a natural outgrowth. The woman is regarded as property. For the woman, bearing children is the reason for existence. It is possible that all men view vasectomy as castration on the subconscious level. In most Latin American countries the laws are against voluntary contraceptive sterilization, but the laws are not enforced.

  15. Barriers to Clinical Research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Chomsky-Higgins, Kathryn; Miclau, Theodore A; Mackechnie, Madeline C; Aguilar, Dino; Avila, Jorge Rubio; Dos Reis, Fernando Baldy; Balmaseda, Roberto; Barquet, Antonio; Ceballos, Alfredo; Contreras, Fernando; Escalante, Igor; Elias, Nelson; Vincenti, Sergio Iriarte; Lozano, Christian; Medina, Fryda; Merchan, Gavino; Segovia, Julio; Guerado, Enrique; Quintero, Jose Eduardo; Morshed, Saam; Bhandari, Mohit; Miclau, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing health research capacity in developing countries is a global health priority. Understanding the orthopedic burden of disease in Latin America will require close partnership between more-developed and less-developed countries. To this end, the Osteosynthesis and Trauma Care Foundation assembled a research consortium of Latin-American orthopedic leaders. Prior to the meeting, we surveyed attendees on perceived barriers to conducting research at their institutions. During the event, working groups discussed these barriers, developed strategies for addressing them, and planned future steps for collaboration. The participants established the need for global relationships that allow colleagues from Latin America to access to training and established investigational infrastructure of North American centers to address research questions relevant to their communities. As a result of the discussion, the International Orthopaedic Multicenter Study (INORMUS) in Fracture Care was initiated. Since then, an expanded international working group, Associación de Cirujanos Traumatológicos en las Americas (ACTUAR), has been created with the purpose of promoting increased global partnership for research capacity development.

  16. Barriers to Clinical Research in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Chomsky-Higgins, Kathryn; Miclau, Theodore A.; Mackechnie, Madeline C.; Aguilar, Dino; Avila, Jorge Rubio; dos Reis, Fernando Baldy; Balmaseda, Roberto; Barquet, Antonio; Ceballos, Alfredo; Contreras, Fernando; Escalante, Igor; Elias, Nelson; Vincenti, Sergio Iriarte; Lozano, Christian; Medina, Fryda; Merchan, Gavino; Segovia, Julio; Guerado, Enrique; Quintero, Jose Eduardo; Morshed, Saam; Bhandari, Mohit; Miclau, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing health research capacity in developing countries is a global health priority. Understanding the orthopedic burden of disease in Latin America will require close partnership between more-developed and less-developed countries. To this end, the Osteosynthesis and Trauma Care Foundation assembled a research consortium of Latin-American orthopedic leaders. Prior to the meeting, we surveyed attendees on perceived barriers to conducting research at their institutions. During the event, working groups discussed these barriers, developed strategies for addressing them, and planned future steps for collaboration. The participants established the need for global relationships that allow colleagues from Latin America to access to training and established investigational infrastructure of North American centers to address research questions relevant to their communities. As a result of the discussion, the International Orthopaedic Multicenter Study (INORMUS) in Fracture Care was initiated. Since then, an expanded international working group, Associación de Cirujanos Traumatológicos en las Americas (ACTUAR), has been created with the purpose of promoting increased global partnership for research capacity development. PMID:28459047

  17. Recent tuberculosis advances in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Pelly, Tom; Moore, David A.J.; Gilman, Robert; Evans, Carlton

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Tuberculosis kills more people than any other infection. Despite advances in diagnostic methods and greater understanding of the reasons for treatment failure, tuberculosis remains common throughout Latin America. Recent findings The impact of HIV and multidrug resistance on tuberculosis control has been enormous. HIV-positive patients may be at 10 times greater risk of multidrug resistant tuberculosis than HIV- negative patients. Hopefully, improved diagnostic techniques will allow more rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis and new colorimetric systems are being developed that will enable expedited drug-sensitivity testing. However, in alarming reports, only 58% of patients were treated with the recommended treatment regime in a Brazilian study, and dropout from treatment in parts of Bolivia was common. Many failings could be combated by rigorous education of patients and physicians. In an encouraging advance, multidrug resistant tuberculosis was successfully treated in a community-based programme, saving an estimated 90% of the cost of hospital-based treatment. An opportunity to identify treatment failure earlier is demonstrated by the finding that 2 months after the initiation of therapy, positive smears were found in only 3% of those whose treatment was successful, but 74% of those whose treatment failed. Summary The importance of inexpensive and widely available drugs to treat HIV and multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Latin America is clear. The need for rapid, affordable tests for tuberculosis diagnosis, and for easy drug sensitivity testing is also evident. Finally, improving treatment success is achievable even in the resource poor setting. PMID:15353958

  18. Age at menopause in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Branco, Camil; Blümel, Juan E; Chedraui, Peter; Calle, Andrés; Bocanera, Roberto; Depiano, Eduardo; Figueroa-Casas, Pedro; Gonzalez, Carlos; Martino, Mabel; Royer, Monique; Zuñiga, Cristina; Dulon, Alfredo; Espinoza, María T; Futchner, Carlos; Mostajo, Desireé; Soto, Edwin; Albernaz, Marco A; Marco, Aurélio A; Aravena, Hernán; Busquets, Maritza; Campodonico, Italo; Germain, Alfredo; Alba, Alcira; Baron, Germán; Gomez, Gustavo; Monterrosa, Alvaro; Onatra, Williams; Broutin, Gerardo; Manzano, Blanca; Gabriela, Ayala; Hidalgo, Luis; Leon, Patricia; Orbea, Marcos; Sanchez, Hugo; Vallejo, Soledad; Vallecillo, Gaspar; Hernandez-Bueno, José; Hernandez-Bueno, Jose A; Motta, Eduardo; Andrade, Rafael; Tserotas, Konstantinos; Gonzalez, Mario C; Gonzalez, Carlos M; Benitez, Zully; Calle, Elena; Danckers, Luis; Del Castillo, Angélica; Izaguirre, Humberto; Ojeda, Eliana; Rojas, Juan; Bencosme, Ascanio; Lima, Selva; Motta, Eduardo; Figueroa-Casas, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    To assess the age at menopause (AM) in Latin America urban areas. A total of 17,150 healthy women, aged 40 to 59 years, accompanying patients to healthcare centers in 47 cities of 15 Latin American countries, were surveyed regarding their age, educational level, healthcare coverage, history of gynecological surgery, smoking habit, presence of menses, and the use of contraception or hormone therapy at menopause. The AM was calculated using logit analysis. The mean age of the entire sample was 49.4 +/- 5.5 years. Mean educational level was 9.9 +/- 4.5 years, and the use of hormone therapy and oral contraception was 22.1% and 7.9%, respectively. The median AM of women in all centers was 48.6 years, ranging from 43.8 years in Asuncion (Paraguay) to 53 years in Cartagena de Indias (Colombia). Logistic regression analysis determined that women aged 49 living in cities at 2,000 meters or more above sea level (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-2.9, P < 0.001) and those with lower educational level (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.8, P < 0.001) or living in countries with low gross national product (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.5-2.9, P < 0.001) were more prone to an earlier onset of menopause. The AM varies widely in Latin America. Lower income and related poverty conditions influence the onset of menopause.

  19. [Clostridum difficile associated disease in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Ponce-de-León, Alfredo; Sifuentes-Osornio, José

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD) has shown a sustained increase worldwide over the last ten years. However, there are few studies on this topic in Latin America. We conducted a comprehensive literature review using medical databases of Latin American countries. We found only seven recent papers in which clinical characteristics and risk factors were analyzed; some included outcome variables. Of these articles, only one was prospective, while the rest were either retrospective, cross-sectional or case-control studies. Most studies were done among hospitalized adult patients, even though patients 13+ years were also included in some reports. Only two recent clinical studies used cell culture to determine a cytopathic effect and the rest included immunoenzymatic assays. In general, all the studies we reviewed showed that the use of fluorquinolones, clindamycin, and cephalosporins were the antibiotics mostly associated with CDAD. Treatment schedules generally included metronidazol, although vancomycin was reported in one. Attributable mortality was lower than the mortality described in previous reports from hospitals in developed countries. Studies where this outcome was included did not surpass 4%, a significant difference from the findings from developed countries. In Latin America there are few studies that describe this clinical problem, they generally include small sample sizes and most are retrospective. There is a clear need to design and carry out prospective studies that will allow us to determine the true prevalence of this health problem

  20. [Pediatric residency programs in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Mendoza, H

    1991-01-01

    Prior to 1960 pediatric hospital residency programs were scarce in Latin America, but at present only one country lacks such a program. The first push for development of pediatric residency programs began in the 1960s and was aided by visits of Latin American medical professionals to the US under sponsorship of the Committee for Development of Pediatric Residency Programs (COPREP) of the American Academy of Pediatrics. COPREP meetings in Colombia in 1970 and in Brazil in 1975 coincided with a stage of accelerated progress in establishing and improving pediatric residency programs. After the 1975 meeting, COPREP activity declined, probably because of loss of financial support from the American Academy of Pediatrics. The Pediatric Residency Committee of the Latin American Pediatric Association (ALAPE) met in Santo Domingo in 1981 to approve an outline of objectives and activities, set minimum requirements for pediatric residency programs, and establish elements for quality control. The ALAPE Pediatric Residency Committee has also been greatly weakened since 1981, probably because of inadequate financial assistance and an overly ambitious program. The weakness of the Pediatric Residency Committees has impeded development of programs in Latin America. Pediatric residency programs in the region are heterogeneous in objectives and structure because of the differing national health structures in which they are embedded. Periodic exchanges of experience at the national and regional levels might help strengthen the pediatric residency programs.

  1. Adult education and indigenous peoples in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelkes, Sylvia

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a potential way out of educational stagnation of indigenous adults, which is one of the challenges clearly formulated by UNESCO member states during CONFINTEA VI as a priority to be faced. The article concludes arguing the case for intercultural education, not only among indigenous peoples, but for the whole of the population, to be a guiding philosophy for education in general and adult education in particular in Latin American countries. It emphasises the fact that this cannot be achieved without the active participation of indigenous peoples themselves.

  2. The Major Project of Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This bulletin contains information about important educational strategies that have had an impact in South America. In "Current Trends in Educational Reforms," Juan Carlos Tedesco examines the major lessons that educational reforms have produced. "Education and Changes in the Latin America's Social Structure" (German Rama)…

  3. Directory of Schools of Librarianship and Information Sciences in Latin America--Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian M.

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces a directory of Schools of Librarianship and Information Sciences in Latin America. This was based on existing printed directories, and an extensive web search in January 2007. An appended directory lists 127 institutions in the region that have or are currently offering courses in the subject, of which 100 appear to be active.…

  4. Teaching Beyond the Borders: A Review of the Global Studies Latin America Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Julian

    The New York City Board of Education's unit on Latin America (Global Studies Grade 9) is a welcome and useful aid to teachers seeking to develop a social studies curriculum with a global perspective. Besides the contemporary relevance, the methodology of the curriculum closely adheres to current thinking on teaching social studies. The lessons and…

  5. Early Child Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: List of Projects with World Bank Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

    In recent years the World Bank, currently the largest single funding source for education and health programs in the world, has put new emphasis on reaching children in the years before they enter school. Despite the acknowledged benefits to be gained from investing in education, schooling in Latin America has failed to keep pace with the…

  6. Educational Research in Latin America: Review and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkari, Abdeljalil; Perez, Soledad

    1998-01-01

    Describes the historical context of educational research in Latin America and focuses on the theoretical frameworks applied to educational research in the area. Identifies the primary institutions involved in educational research in Latin America and suggests priorities for future research. (SLD)

  7. Latin America: A Student's Guide to Reference Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Suzy M., Comp.

    Reference materials in the social sciences on the study of Latin America for university students are listed in this guide. The citations are of a general nature; materials dealing with individual countries of Latin America have not been listed. Each citation is organized within major categories, including biography, handbooks and encyclopedias,…

  8. Background Briefing for Student Teachers Going to Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Bernadine

    A guide for student teachers planning to travel or work in Latin America contains general information about living in Latin America and profiles of Mexico and the Dominican Republic. The general information addresses these issues: travel, what to take along, culture shock, greetings, generalizations about Hispanic culture, values, given names and…

  9. Multilateral Agencies and Higher Education Reform in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Gomez, Roberto; Alcantara, Armando

    2001-01-01

    Using recent policy proposals, including joint efforts, by four multilateral agencies--two international in scope (UNESCO, World Bank) and two regional (Economic Commission for Latin America, Interamerican Development Bank)--discusses agencies' position on higher education reform in Latin America. Examines each agency's focus and identifies…

  10. Background Briefing for Student Teachers Going to Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Bernadine

    A guide for student teachers planning to travel or work in Latin America contains general information about living in Latin America and profiles of Mexico and the Dominican Republic. The general information addresses these issues: travel, what to take along, culture shock, greetings, generalizations about Hispanic culture, values, given names and…

  11. The Prospects for a Women's Liberation Movement in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Evelyn P.

    1973-01-01

    Women's liberation movement is seen as a political problem of mobilization and participation. Social and economic conditions of Latin America are briefly analyzed and compared with those of North Atlantic socieites leading to the conclusion that a repetition of the pattern is not likely to occur soon in Latin America. (Author)

  12. Education, Human Resources, and Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America, New York, NY.

    This report combined all information and research data compiled by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Latin American Institute for Economic and Social Planning about human resources, education, and development for Latin America. The first section examines the demands of development on the educational system in terms of training…

  13. Community Colleges: A Viable Solution for Latin America?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Claudio de Moura; Bernasconi, Andres

    This paper analyzes the United States community college as a model for adaptation in Latin America. The author argues that there is a growing frustration with the lack of responsiveness of universities to the development needs of societies in Latin America. Higher education continues to be accessible only to the privileged segments of society…

  14. Latin America -- Struggle for Stability. Social Studies: 6478.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantera, Bonnie

    This quinmester course guide for grades seven through nine examines Latin America and the United States/Latin America relationship through the concept of stability as influenced by various social, economic, and political factors. The goals of the course are for the student to discover the diversity of backgrounds, aspirations, and customs of the…

  15. Latin America: A Selected Functional and Country Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    This bibliography, one of a series prepared for use in training, has as its main topic Latin America. It is divided into two main sections. The first includes general information about Latin America--history, government, education and intellectual trends, military, religion, the arts, and international relations. The second contains sections on…

  16. Integrating Latin America and the Caribbean into Global History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahn, Lance

    1997-01-01

    Argues that global studies courses often leave out Third World countries, especially those in Latin America and the Caribbean. Presents a proposal for integrating Latin America and the Caribbean into global history curricula through the thematic categories of economics, politics, and ideas. Provides annotated reading lists. (16 citations) (AJL)

  17. Multilateral Agencies and Higher Education Reform in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Gomez, Roberto; Alcantara, Armando

    2001-01-01

    Using recent policy proposals, including joint efforts, by four multilateral agencies--two international in scope (UNESCO, World Bank) and two regional (Economic Commission for Latin America, Interamerican Development Bank)--discusses agencies' position on higher education reform in Latin America. Examines each agency's focus and identifies…

  18. Abortion in Latin America is a matter of desperation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, D

    1990-01-01

    For North Americans, the abortion debate is one of rights: the fetus' right to be born versus the mother's right to control her body. But for Latin American women, debating rights is a luxury that has little to do with the brutal reality of becoming pregnant and knowing it will be impossible to feed yet another child, says Sylvia Marcos. A Mexican psychotherapist who has taught at Harvard University, Marcos works with women in squatters' camps throughout Mexico. "If you want to end abortion in Latin America, you will have to change the whole economic system," said Marcos in an interview. Unfortunately, Marcos said, abortion foes have failed to come up with answers to the poverty that drives Latin American women to have what she estimates are 12 million illegal abortions a year. Women in Latin America, most of them Catholic, are expected to marry young and have many children. Most women choose abortion only after having many children and deciding it would be impossible to feed another, Marcos said. The combination of Catholicism and culture--extolling the virtues of large families--and women's utter lack of means to provide is devastating psychologically and physically, she said. Furthermore, about 1/2 of all Latin American women are raising children alone. "It's so unjust," said Marcos. The 12 million abortions reflect desperation--not an anti-life orientation, she said. "When you are hungry, you do not debate the ethics of when life begins," said Marcos. "If we had enough to eat, then we could care." Women who have abortions continue to call themselves Catholic but often quit going to communion. "Not only do they have a hard time recovering physically from illegal abortions, but they are denied spiritual enjoyment," Marcos said. Trapped in desperate situations, women ignore church teachings about abortion--particularly if they are Indians who still identify strongly with traditions that uphold different ideas about when life begins. Both prochoice and prolife

  19. Review: Malaria Chemoprophylaxis for Travelers to Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Steinhardt, Laura C.; Magill, Alan J.; Arguin, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Because of recent declining malaria transmission in Latin America, some authorities have recommended against chemoprophylaxis for most travelers to this region. However, the predominant parasite species in Latin America, Plasmodium vivax, can form hypnozoites sequestered in the liver, causing malaria relapses. Additionally, new evidence shows the potential severity of vivax infections, warranting continued consideration of prophylaxis for travel to Latin America. Individualized travel risk assessments are recommended and should consider travel locations, type, length, and season, as well as probability of itinerary changes. Travel recommendations might include no precautions, mosquito avoidance only, or mosquito avoidance and chemoprophylaxis. There are a range of good options for chemoprophylaxis in Latin America, including atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, and—in selected areas—chloroquine. Primaquine should be strongly considered for nonpregnant, G6PD-nondeficient patients traveling to vivax-endemic areas of Latin America, and it has the added benefit of being the only drug to protect against malaria relapses. PMID:22144437

  20. [Burden of disease in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Gómez Dantés, Héctor; Castro, Ma Victoria; Franco-Marina, Francisco; Bedregal, Paula; Rodríguez García, Jesús; Espinoza, Azalea; Valdez Huarcaya, William; Lozano, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    To describe the burden of disease studies made in the region, identify the main priorities in health from the indicator Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). By the use of DALYs identify the burden of disease in the countries in the network. DALYs emphasize the emergency of mental disorders, diabetes mellitus in women and the disorders associated with alcohol consumption and injuries in men. Latin America is the region with more national studies of burden of disease, using a standardized methodology, that allows identifying new health priorities which are pressing to the health services; for that reason these results constitute an element to take into account in the establishment of public policies in each country.

  1. [The cultural psychiatry in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Villaseñor-Bayardo, Sergio J; Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Aceves-Pulido, Martha P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents only some of the most important contributions in the development of cultural psychiatry in Latin America. The continental efforts to understand the role that culture plays in the manifestation and treatment of mental disorders have been fruitful. The authors included are: Fernando Pagés of Argentina; Mario G. Hollweg of Bolivia; Rubim Alvaro de Pinho and Adalberto Barreto of Brazil; Carlos A. Leon and Carlos A. Uribe of Colombia; Antonio José A. Bustamante and Santa Cruz de Cuba, Carlos Leon Andrade of Ecuador, Guatemala Cristina Chavez; Sergio Villasenor J. Bayardo of Mexico; Carlos A. Seguin, Hermilio Valdizán and Javier Mariátegui in Peru; Y. Bespaldi of Consens of Uruguay; Rojas and Carlos Malpica and Jacqueline Briceño Clarac of Venezuela.

  2. Public health nutrition in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2003-01-01

    An inquiry into options for Masters-level training and into attitudes and perceptions among a convenience sample of nutrition students and professionals from 11 countries suggests that the term, "Public Health Nutrition", as such, is poorly represented and poorly understood in the Latin American region. At least six countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico) at seven sites have Masters programs to provide training for nutrition in a public health context or public health with an emphasis in nutrition. Exploring alliances from the Americas with the formal PHN discipline emerging in Europe should enrich the mutual perspective on curriculum design. However, the form and context of postgraduate training in Latin America must consider first and foremost its own job-markets, diverse public health needs, and resource allocations in building or transforming training programs.

  3. Latin America's Decontamination and Decommissioning Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, J.V.; Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.; Mayerle, M.

    1998-10-20

    Throughout this project, the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology's (HCET) goal was to initiate a comprehensive research program on sustainable development, environmental protection, and the market for environmental technologies in Latin America and the Caribbean. The data resulting from the work associated with this project has been entered into an information system which supplies useful and accurate data knowledge to interested parties. When relevant information has been found to be insufficient and/or not readily available, HCET has investigated, conducted research, and subsequently made this information available to the public. During FY96, HCET completed numerous tasks to contribute to this body of knowledge. This initiative will continue throughout 1997. Highlights of FY96 are described.

  4. Implementation of HPV testing in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Jeronimo, Jose; Holme, Francesca; Slavkovsky, Rose; Camel, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading killers among women in Latin America, a region where most countries have not been successful in implementing population-level cytology-based screening programs. This disease is caused by persistent infection with oncogenic HPV; in recent years, more HPV tests have become available and prices have dropped significantly, making it possible for countries to adopt these technologies. Pilot programs that took place in Nicaragua, Mexico, and Argentina showed a high level of efficacy in detecting precancerous cervical lesions and good feasibility and acceptance of self-sampling. El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua are beginning to institutionalize HPV testing at the population level. The experience from the different countries has created rich information about the barriers and requirements for implementing HPV screening at large scale in these resource-constrained countries. There are several challenges for implementation, including a need to update screening guidelines, strengthen treatment capacity, and develop a comprehensive quality assurance plan for the HPV testing. At the same time, there are several opportunities in Latin America that make the process more feasible and faster than in other regions of the world: most Latin American countries already have screening programs funded by their national governments, several countries in the region are already implementing HPV testing, and there is a regional pooled procurement mechanism that could facilitate the purchase of HPV tests at an accessible price. We envision that most countries in the region will include HPV testing in their national program within the next three to five years.

  5. Liver transplantation in Latin America: the state-of-the-art and future trends.

    PubMed

    Salvalaggio, Paolo R; Caicedo, Juan C; de Albuquerque, Luiz Carneiro; Contreras, Alan; Garcia, Valter D; Felga, Guilherme E; Maurette, Rafael J; Medina-Pestana, José O; Niño-Murcia, Alejandro; Pacheco-Moreira, Lucio F; Rocca, Juan; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel; Ruf, Andres; Rusca, Luis A Caicedo; Vilatoba, Mario

    2014-08-15

    We reviewed the current status of liver transplantation in Latin America. We used data from the Latin American and Caribbean Transplant Society and national organizations and societies, as well as information obtained from local transplant leaders. Latin America has a population of 589 million (8.5% of world population) and more than 2,500 liver transplantations are performed yearly (17% of world activity), resulting in 4.4 liver transplants per million people (pmp) per year. The number of liver transplantations grows at 6% per year in the region, particularly in Brazil. The top liver transplant rates were found in Argentina (10.4 pmp), Brazil (8.4 pmp), and Uruguay (5.5 pmp). The state of liver transplantation in some countries rivals those in developed countries. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-based allocation, split, domino, and living-donor adult and pediatric transplantations are now routinely performed with outcomes comparable to those in advanced economies. In contrast, liver transplantation is not performed in 35% of Latin American countries and lags adequate resources in many others. The lack of adequate financial coverage, education, and organization is still the main limiting factor in the development of liver transplantation in Latin America. The liver transplant community in the region should push health care leaders and authorities to comply with the Madrid and Istambul resolutions on organ donation and transplantation. It must pursue fiercely the development of registries to advance the science and quality control of liver transplant activities in Latin America.

  6. Epidemiology of eating disorders in Latin America: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kolar, David R; Rodriguez, Dania L Mejía; Chams, Moises Mebarak; Hoek, Hans W

    2016-11-01

    Eating disorders are currently not considered to be limited to Western culture. We systematically reviewed the existing literature on the prevalence of eating disorders in Latin America. Of 1583 records screened, 17 studies from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela were included in the analysis. Most studies reported point-prevalence rates and only three studies provided lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates. We found a mean point-prevalence rate of 0.1% for anorexia nervosa, 1.16% for bulimia nervosa, and 3.53% for binge-eating disorder (BED) in the general population. Heterogeneity for bulimia nervosa and BED was large. This meta-analysis indicates that the prevalence of anorexia nervosa seems to be lower, whereas the prevalence of bulimia nervosa and especially of BED seems to be higher in Latin America than in Western countries. Our findings show that eating disorders are common mental disorders in Latin America. However, some facets of Latin American culture might be protective for the development of anorexia nervosa and increase the risk for bulimia nervosa and BED. Further studies investigating the epidemiology of eating disorders and their relation to culture in Latin America are needed. SPANISH ABSTRACT.

  7. National working conditions surveys in Latin America: comparison of methodological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Salazar, Pamela; Artazcoz, Lucía; Campos-Serna, Javier; Gimeno, David; Benavides, Fernando G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High-quality and comparable data to monitor working conditions and health in Latin America are not currently available. In 2007, multiple Latin American countries started implementing national working conditions surveys. However, little is known about their methodological characteristics. Objective: To identify commonalities and differences in the methodologies of working conditions surveys (WCSs) conducted in Latin America through 2013. Methods: The study critically examined WCSs in Latin America between 2007 and 2013. Sampling design, data collection, and questionnaire content were compared. Results: Two types of surveys were identified: (1) surveys covering the entire working population and administered at the respondent's home and (2) surveys administered at the workplace. There was considerable overlap in the topics covered by the dimensions of employment and working conditions measured, but less overlap in terms of health outcomes, prevention resources, and activities. Conclusions: Although WCSs from Latin America are similar, there was heterogeneity across surveyed populations and location of the interview. Reducing differences in surveys between countries will increase comparability and allow for a more comprehensive understanding of occupational health in the region. PMID:26079314

  8. National working conditions surveys in Latin America: comparison of methodological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Merino-Salazar, Pamela; Artazcoz, Lucía; Campos-Serna, Javier; Gimeno, David; Benavides, Fernando G

    2015-01-01

    High-quality and comparable data to monitor working conditions and health in Latin America are not currently available. In 2007, multiple Latin American countries started implementing national working conditions surveys. However, little is known about their methodological characteristics. To identify commonalities and differences in the methodologies of working conditions surveys (WCSs) conducted in Latin America through 2013. The study critically examined WCSs in Latin America between 2007 and 2013. Sampling design, data collection, and questionnaire content were compared. Two types of surveys were identified: (1) surveys covering the entire working population and administered at the respondent's home and (2) surveys administered at the workplace. There was considerable overlap in the topics covered by the dimensions of employment and working conditions measured, but less overlap in terms of health outcomes, prevention resources, and activities. Although WCSs from Latin America are similar, there was heterogeneity across surveyed populations and location of the interview. Reducing differences in surveys between countries will increase comparability and allow for a more comprehensive understanding of occupational health in the region.

  9. Dissemination of nonpandemic Caribbean HIV-1 subtype B clades in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Marina; Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; Bello, Gonzalo

    2015-02-20

    To estimate the prevalence of the HIV-1 subtype B pandemic (BPANDEMIC) and Caribbean (BCAR) clades in Latin America and to reconstruct the spatiotemporal dynamics of dissemination of the BCAR clades in the region. A total of 7654 HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences collected from 18 different Latin American countries between 1989 and 2011 were analyzed together with subtype B reference sequences representative of the BPANDEMIC (US/France = 300) and the BCAR (Caribbean = 279, Panama = 37) clades. Phylogeographic and evolutionary parameters were estimated from sequence data using maximum likelihood and Bayesian coalescent-based methods. Nonpandemic BCAR strains were probably disseminated from the Caribbean islands of Hispaniola and Trinidad and Tobago into Latin America since the early 1970s. The BCAR strains reached nearly all countries from Latin America here analyzed and in some of them were spread locally, although their overall prevalence in the region is low. The BPANDEMIC clade comprises more than 90% of subtype B infections in most countries analyzed, with exception of Suriname, French Guyana and probably Guyana, where both BPANDEMIC and BCAR clades seem to circulate at a similar prevalence. This study demonstrates that nonpandemic subtype B lineages of Caribbean origin have been disseminated into Latin America shortly after the estimated introduction of subtype B in the continent. Despite their early dissemination, the BCAR strains account for a minor fraction of current HIV-1 subtype B infections in the region that are mainly driven by spreading of the globally disseminated BPANDEMIC clade.

  10. Reducing Latin America’s Bumper Crop: Babies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    birth control measures. Data was gathered using a literature search which relied heavily on periodicals and materials written as a result of on site research in Latin America by the American Universities Field Staff. The high birth rate in Latin America is caused primarily either by the prohibitions of the Catholic Church against artifical contraceptive methods nor by cultural attitudes towards large families. High birth rates are caused primarily by poverty, illiteracy, and underdevelopment. Where socioechnomic conditions have improved in Latin America birth rates have

  11. Private hospitals in Latin America - An investor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Cleaton-Jones, Ioan P

    2015-01-01

    Private hospitals are expanding in Latin America, but the industry is less developed in this region than in some other emerging markets. Groups of hospitals are emerging in countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Colombia and Peru. However, they haven't reached the size of hospital groups in Malaysia, India and South Africa. They also remain domestically focused, while companies from the aforementioned three emerging markets outside Latin America have expanded to multiple other countries and have listed on stock exchanges to access more capital to finance their expansion. It is very likely that these trends seen in other emerging markets will manifest in Latin America as it continues to develop.

  12. Ideas on Policy toward Latin America for the New Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-24

    St ra te gy Re se ar ch Pr oj ec t IDEAS ON POLICY TOWARD LATIN AMERICA FOR THE NEW ADMINISTRATION BY COLONEL BRIAN J. BUTCHER United States Army...CONTRACT NUMBER Ideas on Policy Toward Latin America for the New Administration 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...IDEAS ON POLICY TOWARD LATIN AMERICA FOR THE NEW ADMINISTRATION by Colonel Brian J. Butcher United States Army Colonel Glenn A. Crowther United States

  13. Some thoughts about the IAU Strategic Plan in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Peimbert, Silvia

    2015-03-01

    The distribution of overall education and culture among the population in Latin America and the Caribbean has a very wide range; this is also the case for astronomical engagement. The route to follow in the strategic plan needs to address this situation, for the different levels of development. In particular, guidelines should be established for the regional node(s) where achievable goals should be set up and evaluated periodically. I present a set of ideas on this subject.

  14. Between the national and the universal: natural history networks in Latin America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Regina Horta

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the twentieth centuries. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history.

  15. EPA Efforts in Latin America and the Caribbean

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) program provides environmental tools and information to build the capacity of LAC governments and civil society organizations to reduce environmental degradation and its impacts on public health.

  16. Where Is Community Development Going in Latin America?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Gorman, Frances

    1994-01-01

    Reviews community development in Latin America (self-help local improvement projects, popular education, nongovernmental organizations). Identifies challenges--increasing the participation of all levels, reorganizing priorities, and supporting the development of economic democracy. (SK)

  17. Barriers to conducting clinical research in reproductive medicine: Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Societies in Latin America are not scientifically driven and therefore, the allocation of human and economic resources to research is meager, as a reflection of this as well as other cultural and economic realities.

  18. Professions and Educational Counseling in Mexico and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Leticia; Blanco-Beledo, Ricardo

    1993-01-01

    In the past, educational counseling in Latin America has been used to limit economic and political participation and maintain unequal resource distribution. Modernization, the new free trade agreement, and other changes are changing the role of counseling. (SK)

  19. Professions and Educational Counseling in Mexico and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Leticia; Blanco-Beledo, Ricardo

    1993-01-01

    In the past, educational counseling in Latin America has been used to limit economic and political participation and maintain unequal resource distribution. Modernization, the new free trade agreement, and other changes are changing the role of counseling. (SK)

  20. [Scientific journals of medical students in Latin-America].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Samith, Ignacio; Oróstegui-Pinilla, Diana; Angulo-Bazán, Yolanda; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2010-11-01

    This article deals with the history and evolution of student's scientific journals in Latin-America, their beginnings, how many still exist and which is their future projection. Relevant events show the growth of student's scientific journals in Latin-America and how are they working together to improve their quality. This article is addressed not only for Latin American readers but also to worldwide readers. Latin American medical students are consistently working together to publish scientific research, whose quality is constantly improving.

  1. Cervical cancer prevention and treatment in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Melissa S; Baker, Ellen S; Maza, Mauricio; Fontes-Cintra, Georgia; Lopez, Aldo; Carvajal, Juan M; Nozar, Fernanda; Fiol, Veronica; Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2017-02-07

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a known etiology (human papillomavirus), effective preventive vaccines, excellent screening methods, and a treatable pre-invasive phase. Surgery is the primary treatment for pre-invasive and early-stage disease and can safely be performed in many low-resource settings. However, cervical cancer rates remain high in many areas of Latin America. This article presents a number of evidence-based strategies being implemented to improve cervical cancer outcomes in Latin America.

  2. Biomedical engineering undergraduate education in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende, R.; Morales, D.; Avendano, G.; Chabert, S.

    2007-11-01

    As in other parts of the World, in recent times there has been an increasing interest on Biomedical Engineering (BME) in Latin America (LA). This interest grows from the need for a larger number of such specialists, originated in a spreading use of health technologies. Indeed, at many universities, biomedical engineering departments have been created, which also brought along discussions on strategies to achieve the best education possible for both undergraduate and graduate programs. In these settings, different positions were taken as regards which subject to emphasize. In such a context, this work aimed to make a survey on the "state-of-the-art" of undergraduate BME education in LA, and to analyze the observed differences. Broadly speaking, similar education profiles are perceived in the entire continent, with main emphasis on electronics and bioinstrumentation, biology and informatics respectively. Much less relevance is given to biomechanics and biomaterials. This tendency is similar in Departments with many decades of experience or in newly opened ones.

  3. Latin America: A Development Pole for Phenomics

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Anyela V.; Lobos, Gustavo A.

    2016-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has long been associated with the production and export of a diverse range of agricultural commodities. Due to its strategic geographic location, which encompasses a wide range of climates, it is possible to produce almost any crop. The climate diversity in LAC is a major factor in its agricultural potential but this also means climate change represents a real threat to the region. Therefore, LAC farming must prepare and quickly adapt to an environment that is likely to feature long periods of drought, excessive rainfall and extreme temperatures. With the aim of moving toward a more resilient agriculture, LAC scientists have created the Latin American Plant Phenomics Network (LatPPN) which focuses on LAC's economically important crops. LatPPN's key strategies to achieve its main goal are: (1) training of LAC members on plant phenomics and phenotyping, (2) establish international and multidisciplinary collaborations, (3) develop standards for data exchange and research protocols, (4) share equipment and infrastructure, (5) disseminate data and research results, (6) identify funding opportunities and (7) develop strategies to guarantee LatPPN's relevance and sustainability across time. Despite the challenges ahead, LatPPN represents a big step forward toward the consolidation of a common mind-set in the field of plant phenotyping and phenomics in LAC. PMID:27999577

  4. Latin America: A Development Pole for Phenomics.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Anyela V; Lobos, Gustavo A

    2016-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has long been associated with the production and export of a diverse range of agricultural commodities. Due to its strategic geographic location, which encompasses a wide range of climates, it is possible to produce almost any crop. The climate diversity in LAC is a major factor in its agricultural potential but this also means climate change represents a real threat to the region. Therefore, LAC farming must prepare and quickly adapt to an environment that is likely to feature long periods of drought, excessive rainfall and extreme temperatures. With the aim of moving toward a more resilient agriculture, LAC scientists have created the Latin American Plant Phenomics Network (LatPPN) which focuses on LAC's economically important crops. LatPPN's key strategies to achieve its main goal are: (1) training of LAC members on plant phenomics and phenotyping, (2) establish international and multidisciplinary collaborations, (3) develop standards for data exchange and research protocols, (4) share equipment and infrastructure, (5) disseminate data and research results, (6) identify funding opportunities and (7) develop strategies to guarantee LatPPN's relevance and sustainability across time. Despite the challenges ahead, LatPPN represents a big step forward toward the consolidation of a common mind-set in the field of plant phenotyping and phenomics in LAC.

  5. [The transcultural process in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Yampey, N

    1981-07-01

    Are we living in an age of rapid changes, or are we actually experiencing an existencial mutation? The author believes the analysis of today's transcultural processes in Latin America to be vital to the understanding of the society which is an emergent of these processes. He defines the concepts of transculturation, aculturation, adaptation creative integration and of assimilation in its biological, cultural and religious aspects. He outlines the general characteristics of a complex problem: the unity or heterogenity of the Latin American people with relation to the interaction, juxtaposition or synthesis of their different indigenous, european and african cultures over a period of four centuries. He classifies five ideological proposals which have arisen from this process: 1) the ultraconservative proposal; 2) the nationalistic proposal; 3) the indigenistic proposal; 4) the proposal of imitation; 5) the proposal of a transcendent synthesis. The subject is the transcultural process in persons who have migrated from rural areas to large cities, and from one country to another. The author describes four adoptive or integrative phases; he emphasizes that this experience implies mourning, transition and working-through for both the individual and the community. Migrants are faced with "horizontal" as well as "vertical" mobility, thus having to deal with a mobilization implying changes which may cause persecutory, depresive and confusional anxieties. These crises test the person's degree of individuation and identity, as reflected in different types of behavior.

  6. [Investigation needs on carotenoids in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Muñoz de Chávez, M; Chávez, A; Calvo, C

    1999-09-01

    Many recent papers show the important role of bioactive phytochemicals to maintain a good health status. Among them the carotenoids are the best known. About 637 have been described and possibly 70 of them could have an important role in human health, 16 have been found in human brain in high amounts. Most of the studies have found relations between the carotenoids and chronic non-communicable diseases like several types of cancer, atherogenic disease and some degenerative pathology of the eye. This relation is mediated by genes and age. Studies of carotenoids are of scientific and economic interest for Latin America as many tropical products are high sources of these compounds. Therefore the first task is to analyze them and iniciate some evaluation on its metabolic availability. A coordinated regional work is proposed, in which 40 or 50 fruits and vegetables are analyzed in terms of the seven carotenoids most related to human health. At the same time it will be important to start epidemiological studies that will compare groups with different levels of consumption of fruits and vegetables and make chronic disease risk analysis. In some countries of the Latin American region, with the support of FAO and INFOODS, some courses and meetings are taking place so that in a short time period the carotenoid composition of the important regional foods will be completed and a carotenoid regional food composition table be published.

  7. Problems of venereal infections in Latin America and the Caribbean and means of fighting them.

    PubMed

    Acuña, H R

    1978-01-01

    Rather than providing a comprehensive overview of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) picture in the Americas, this presentation contrasts the STD problem in Latin America and the Caribbean with the situation in both less developed and more developed regions of the world. It also points out three areas of opportunity for improving preventive and curative STD services, specifically: (1) more effective utilization of social security institutions in Latin America, (2) incorporation of STD services into primary health care programs, and (3) development of pilot projects in the smaller Caribbean territories. It is noted, in addition, that the more developed countries of the region are showing increased interest in sexually transmitted diseases. Among other things, the recruitment of a PAHO epidemiologist in venereal diseases on Jamaica--to assist in the development of a national STD program--opens up a new area for PAHO technical assistance which, if successful, may be extended elsewhere.

  8. Abortion in Latin America: changes in practice, growing conflict, and recent policy developments.

    PubMed

    Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2011-09-01

    Latin America is undergoing profound social, economic, political, demographic, and epidemiologic change. Reproductive health indicators have generally improved over the past two decades, but most pregnancies are still unintended and more than 4 million are terminated annually. Clandestine abortions necessitated by restrictive legal and social structures cause more than 1,000 deaths and 500,000 hospitalizations per year, primarily among poor and marginalized women. Abortions are becoming safer and less frequent, however, as a consequence of increased modern contraceptive use, misoprostol adoption, emergency contraception availability, and postabortion care provision, notwithstanding many impediments to these changes. Advocacy and conflict over abortion have grown. The contested policy shifts include Mexico City's 2007 legalization of first-trimester abortion. Drawing on numerous sources of evidence, this article provides a regional analysis of the rapidly changing practice and context of abortion in Latin America, and examines emerging issues, legal and policy developments, and contrasting country situations.

  9. Child Labour and Basic Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Proposed UNICEF Initiative. Innocenti Essays No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himes, James R.; And Others

    Following background information on primary school completion rates in Latin America and the Caribbean, this report discusses: (1) the problems of child labor in these regions; (2) a proposed action program for UNICEF and its partners; (3) an analysis of the child labor situation, including research and evaluation; and (4) possible solution…

  10. The World of Work between the Personal and the Collective: A Demand for Social Justice and Guidance for Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, Julio Gonzalez; Chacón, Omaira

    2015-01-01

    The struggle for justice has been permanent for a very long period of time. In this sense, it could be said that since Plato conceived it as one of the fundamental virtues, justice has constituted a goal to achieve for any society. In the case of justice, related to social aspects, the situation has been overwhelming in Latin America. Based on a…

  11. The World of Work between the Personal and the Collective: A Demand for Social Justice and Guidance for Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, Julio Gonzalez; Chacón, Omaira

    2015-01-01

    The struggle for justice has been permanent for a very long period of time. In this sense, it could be said that since Plato conceived it as one of the fundamental virtues, justice has constituted a goal to achieve for any society. In the case of justice, related to social aspects, the situation has been overwhelming in Latin America. Based on a…

  12. Prevention of transfusional Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Schmunis, G A

    1999-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan infection widely spread in Latin America, from Mexico in the north to Argentina and Chile in the south. The second most important way of acquiring the infection is by blood transfusion. Even if most countries of Latin America have law/decree/norms, that make mandatory the screening of blood donors for infectious diseases, including T. cruzi (El Salvador and Nicaragua do not have laws on the subject), there is usually no enforcement or it is very lax. Analysis of published serologic surveys of T. cruzi antibodies in blood donors done in 1993, indicating the number of donors and screening coverage for T. cruzi in ten countries of Central and South America indicated that the probability of receiving a potentially infected transfusion unit in each country varied from 1,096 per 10,000 transfusions in Bolivia, the highest, to 13.02 or 13.86 per 10,000 transfusions in Honduras and Venezuela respectively, where screening coverage was 100%. On the other hand the probability of transmitting a T. cruzi infected unit was 219/10,000 in Bolivia, 24/10,000 in Colombia, 17/10,000 in El Salvador, and around 2-12/10,000 for the seven other countries. Infectivity risks defined as the likelihood of being infected when receiving an infected transfusion unit were assumed to be 20% for T. cruzi. Based on this, estimates of the absolute number of infections induced by transfusion indicated that they were 832, 236, and 875 in Bolivia, Chile and Colombia respectively. In all the other countries varied from seven in Honduras to 85 in El Salvador. Since 1993, the situation has improved. At that time only Honduras and Venezuela screened 100% of donors, while seven countries, Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Honduras, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela, did the same in 1996. In Central America, without information from Guatemala, the screening of donors for T. cruzi prevented the transfusion of 1,481 infected units and the potential infection of 300 individuals in

  13. Contribution of Latin America to pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    González, Juan Camilo; Arango, Victoria E; Einarson, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance activities have been ongoing for 4 decades. However, little is known (especially outside of the area) about the contribution of Latin America to this field. To review and quantify the published literature on pharmacovigilance in Latin American countries. We searched electronic databases including MEDLINE (1966-2004), EMBASE (1980-2004), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-2004), Toxline (1992-2004), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (1982-2004), Sistema de Información Esencial en Terapéutica y Salud (1980-2004), and the Pan American Health Organization Web site (1970-2004) for articles on pharmacovigilance or adverse drug reactions in any of the 19 major Latin American countries. Papers were retrieved and categorized according to content and country of origin by 2 independent reviewers. There were 195 usable articles from 13 countries. Fifty-one of the papers retrieved dealt with pharmacovigilance centers (15 national centers, 10 hospitals, 26 other), 55 covered pharmacovigilance itself (21 theoretical papers, 9 with description of models, 25 educational papers), and 89 were pharmacoepidemiologic studies of adverse drug reactions (69 case reports, 13 observational cohorts, 2 cohort studies, 1 randomized clinical trial, 4 clinical papers on adverse reaction management). Studies have increased exponentially since 1980. Five countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Venezuela) published reports from national centers. No studies were found from 6 countries: Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, or Uruguay. Most studied categories were antiinfectives and drugs affecting the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and musculoskeletal system. Contributions of Latin American countries to the field of pharmacovigilence have been remarkable, considering the constraints on these countries. A need exists for an increased number of formal pharmacovigilance studies and research

  14. Eastern equine encephalitis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Jean-Paul; Forrester, Naomi; Wang, Eryu; Vittor, Amy Y; Haddow, Andrew D; López-Vergès, Sandra; Abadía, Ivan; Castaño, Elizabeth; Sosa, Nestor; Báez, Carmen; Estripeaut, Dora; Díaz, Yamilka; Beltrán, Davis; Cisneros, Julio; Cedeño, Hector G; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P; Hernandez, Humberto; Martínez-Torres, Alex O; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2013-08-22

    The eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses are pathogens that infect humans and horses in the Americas. Outbreaks of neurologic disease in humans and horses were reported in Panama from May through early August 2010. We performed antibody assays and tests to detect viral RNA and isolate the viruses in serum samples from hospitalized patients. Additional cases were identified with enhanced surveillance. A total of 19 patients were hospitalized for encephalitis. Among them, 7 had confirmed EEE, 3 had VEE, and 1 was infected with both viruses; 3 patients died, 1 of whom had confirmed VEE. The clinical findings for patients with EEE included brain lesions, seizures that evolved to status epilepticus, and neurologic sequelae. An additional 99 suspected or probable cases of alphavirus infection were detected during active surveillance. In total, 13 cases were confirmed as EEE, along with 11 cases of VEE and 1 case of dual infection. A total of 50 cases in horses were confirmed as EEE and 8 as VEE; mixed etiologic factors were associated with 11 cases in horses. Phylogenetic analyses of isolates from 2 cases of equine infection with the EEE virus and 1 case of human infection with the VEE virus indicated that the viruses were of enzootic lineages previously identified in Panama rather than new introductions. Cases of EEE in humans in Latin America may be the result of ecologic changes that increased human contact with enzootic transmission cycles, genetic changes in EEE viral strains that resulted in increased human virulence, or an altered host range. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Panama.).

  15. Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Jean-Paul; Forrester, Naomi; Wang, Eryu; Vittor, Amy Y.; Haddow, Andrew D.; López-Vergès, Sandra; Abadía, Ivan; Castaño, Elizabeth; Sosa, Nestor; Báez, Carmen; Estripeaut, Dora; Díaz, Yamilka; Beltrán, Davis; Cisneros, Julio; Cedeño, Hector G.; da Rosa, Amelia P. Travassos; Hernandez, Humberto; Martínez-Torres, Alex O.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses are pathogens that infect humans and horses in the Americas. Outbreaks of neurologic disease in humans and horses were reported in Panama from May through early August 2010. METHODS We performed antibody assays and tests to detect viral RNA and isolate the viruses in serum samples from hospitalized patients. Additional cases were identified with enhanced surveillance. RESULTS A total of 19 patients were hospitalized for encephalitis. Among them, 7 had confirmed EEE, 3 had VEE, and 1 was infected with both viruses; 3 patients died, 1 of whom had confirmed VEE. The clinical findings for patients with EEE included brain lesions, seizures that evolved to status epilepticus, and neurologic sequelae. An additional 99 suspected or probable cases of alphavirus infection were detected during active surveillance. In total, 13 cases were confirmed as EEE, along with 11 cases of VEE and 1 case of dual infection. A total of 50 cases in horses were confirmed as EEE and 8 as VEE; mixed etiologic factors were associated with 11 cases in horses. Phylogenetic analyses of isolates from 2 cases of equine infection with the EEE virus and 1 case of human infection with the VEE virus indicated that the viruses were of enzootic lineages previously identified in Panama rather than new introductions. CONCLUSIONS Cases of EEE in humans in Latin America may be the result of ecologic changes that increased human contact with enzootic transmission cycles, genetic changes in EEE viral strains that resulted in increased human virulence, or an altered host range. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Panama.) PMID:23964935

  16. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Iannella, Hernán A; Luna, Carlos M

    2016-12-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region. Poverty, socioeconomic factors, and malnutrition influence the incidence and outcome of CAP in LAC. In LAC, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microorganism responsible for CAP, (incidence: 24-78%); the incidence of atypical microorganisms is similar to other regions of the world. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing problem in the LAC region, with the Caribbean being the second most affected area worldwide after Sub-Saharan Africa. Pneumococcal pneumonia remains the most common cause of CAP in HIV-infected patients, but Pneumocystis jirovecii and tuberculosis (TB) are also common in this population. The heterogeneity of the health care systems and social inequity between different countries in LAC, and even between different settings inside the same country, is a difficult issue. TB, including multidrug-resistant TB, is several times more common in South American and Central American countries compared with North America. Furthermore, hantaviruses circulating in the Americas (new world hantaviruses) generate a severe respiratory disease called hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, with an associated mortality as high as 50%. More than 30 hantaviruses have been reported in the Western Hemisphere, with more frequent cases registered in the southern cone (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil). Respiratory viruses (particularly influenza) remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. Low rates of vaccination (against influenza as well as pneumococcus) may heighten the risk of these infections in low- and middle-income countries. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Omnibus Report: Europe, Middle East, Africa, East Asia and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, C F; Nolte, R H; Liebenow, J G; Ravenholt, A; Handelman, H

    1979-01-01

    5 papers deal respectively with economic development in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, East Asia, and Latin America. In Europe, basic problems include increasing political and military weakness; the high costs of social democracy; problems of the welfare state; the trend toward low or no-growth population rates; declining fertility combined with increasing longevity; increasing demand for social services and health care; industrial decline; continuing decline in economic indices; integration of the Left in European politics; and a pervasive trend toward neoconservatism. The paper on the Middle East focuses on Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the recent Egypt-Israel Treaty, in terms of assessment of the present situation followed by a prognosis for the future. The paper on Africa discusses 4 crises of development: 1) the crisis of national identity; 2) the crisis of poverty; 3) the crisis of colonialism and neocolonialism; and 4) the crisis of popular control over government. The paper on east Asia discusses the "economic miracles" and whether or not they are replicable elsewhere in the Pacific and Asia. Finally, the paper on Latin America focuses on the fact that despite expansion of the urban middle class through economic development and modernization, little economic improvement has resulted. The challenge of the 1980s will be to see whether Latin America can put its economies back on track while managing to channel more of the economic benefits to the "have-nots" and to allow more open, participatory systems.

  18. A Review of Breast Cancer Care and Outcomes in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Wilking, Nils; Jönsson, Bengt; Luciani, Silvana; Cazap, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This review presents an overview of breast cancer care, burden, and outcomes in Latin America, as well as the challenges and opportunities for improvement. Information was gleaned through a review of the literature, public databases, and conference presentations, in addition to a survey of clinical experts and patient organizations from the region. Breast cancer annual incidence (114,900 cases) and mortality (37,000 deaths) are the highest of all women's cancers in Latin America, and they are increasing. Twice as many breast cancer deaths are expected by 2030. In Peru, Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil, diagnosis and death at younger ages deprives society of numerous productive years, as does high disease occurrence in Argentina and Uruguay. Approximately 30%–40% of diagnoses are metastatic disease. High mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) in Latin America indicate poor survival, partly because of the late stage at diagnosis and poorer access to treatment. Between 2002 and 2008, MIRs decreased in all countries, albeit unevenly. Costa Rica's change in MIR outpaced incidence growth, indicating impressive progress in breast cancer survival. The situation is similar, although to a lesser extent, in Colombia and Ecuador. The marginal drops of MIRs in Brazil and Mexico mainly reflect incidence growth rather than progress in outcomes. Panama's MIR is still high. Epidemiological data are scattered and of varying quality in Latin America. However, one could ascertain that the burden of breast cancer in the region is considerable and growing due to demographic changes, particularly the aging population, and socioeconomic development. Early diagnosis and population-wide access to evidence-based treatment remain unresolved problems, despite progress achieved by some countries. PMID:23442305

  19. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2014-03-01

    The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws.

  20. Report on the First PANLAR Rheumatology Review Course Rheumatoid Arthritis: Challenges and Solutions in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Carlos; Caballero-Uribe, Carlo V; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Cazenave, Tomás; Cardiel, Mario H; Levy, Roger; Espada, Graciela; Rose, Carlos; Santos-Moreno, Pedro; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Muñoz-Louis, Roberto; Soriano, Enrique R; Reveille, John D

    2015-12-01

    The First PANLAR Rheumatology Review Course was held in Barranquilla, Colombia, in April 2015. Researchers, rheumatologists, epidemiologists, and a variety of allied professionals and patients attended the meeting. The scientific program included plenary sessions and symposia delivered by renowned experts in the field, followed by an interactive forum of discussion during 2 days.A broad spectrum of topics was discussed, reflecting the current challenges and opportunities for diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Latin America. The scientific program included not only traditional disease aspects, but also social implications, research projects, and educational characteristics, patient perspectives, and novel care models, emphasizing the need for training human resources and proposing unique approaches to RA health care in Latin America, therefore helping us to increase and improve the knowledge and understanding of the characteristics of this health condition in the region, thus promoting and encouraging equity, quality, and efficiency of RA health care.

  1. Review on space weather in Latin America. 2. The research networks ready for space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. Americo

    2016-11-01

    The present work is the second of a three-part review of space weather in Latin America, specifically observing its evolution in three countries (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico). This work comprises a summary of scientific challenges in space weather research that are considered to be open scientific questions and how they are being addressed in terms of instrumentation by the international community, including the Latin American groups. We also provide an inventory of the networks and collaborations being constructed in Latin America, including details on the data processing, capabilities and a basic description of the resulting variables. These instrumental networks currently used for space science research are gradually being incorporated into the space weather monitoring data pipelines as their data provides key variables for monitoring and forecasting space weather, which allow these centers to monitor space weather and issue watches, warnings and alerts.

  2. Distributing and transferring medical technology. A view from Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Peña-Mohr, J

    1987-01-01

    Great variation exists in the health care delivery systems throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. In general, medical technology is concentrated in large cities at private hospitals that serve a small, elite segment of the population. What is missing in most of these countries is a clearly defined social policy guaranteeing distribution of medical technology to all segments of society. While data is scarce, it appears that political and economic concerns, rather than medical concerns, determine what and how much technology will be available to all segments of the society. Products are sometimes imported that compete with domestically produced ones. Moreover, transfers of technology often fail to include the necessary knowledge to make imported technology truly useful. However, current economic crises throughout the region are forcing changes in policies; as a result, there is a new emphasis on domestic production of technology over imports and the evaluation of medical technology for its appropriate use in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  3. Nursing in the 21st century in Latin America: Part I--Education.

    PubMed

    de Monterrossa, E; Lange, I; Chompré, R R

    1990-01-01

    Despite cultural differences the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean have been marked by the same historical factors in their development: loss of cultural background through colonization, high economic dependence on the colonizing and then developed countries and periods of strong, anti-democratic governments. The result has been unstable economic, social and political structures. The current tendency, however, is toward a new social order in which civil institutions are being strengthened and the role of the state is being redefined. In this context, health stands out as one of the emerging priorities. And in this maelstrom of change, Latin American nurses are vying for their rightful position in the health care hierarchy. To understand their needs, INR begins its first installment of an analysis of nursing in Latin America.

  4. Whither Latin America? Trends and challenges of science in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Santos, Natacha C F; Alencastro, Antonieta C R; Ferreira, Sergio T

    2007-01-01

    Science in Latin America has experienced vigorous growth in the past decade, as demonstrated by the fact that the Latin American share of the world's scientific publications increased from 1.8% in 1991-1995 to 3.4% in 1999-2003. Significant growth has also taken place in the numbers of PhDs in science and engineering (S&E) awarded in Latin American countries in recent years, including those in the natural sciences. Importantly, albeit at different rates, growth has been verified in almost all countries in the region, indicating a general effort to promote the development of S&E. In most research fields, however, the recognition or relative impact of Latin American science, as measured by the average number of citations received by published articles (CpP), is still below world averages and much lower than in developed nations. We show that average CpP values for a set of 34 representative developing and developed countries correlate significantly with gross expenditure in research and development (GERD), with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and with the number of researchers per million inhabitants (RpM). Among those countries, Latin American nations present some of the lowest average values of CpP (<6), GERD (< or =1% of GDP) and RpM (<2,000). We also examined recent trends in scientific activity in Latin America, with focus on the natural sciences and on biochemistry and molecular biology (BMB). In terms of citation scores, publications in BMB compare favorably to those in other research fields within Latin America. At the same time, however, Latin American BMB is one of the areas for which relative impact--compared to developed nations or normalized to world averages--is lowest. These observations clearly indicate the need to establish effective policies to increase competitiveness in terms of the quality and international recognition of Latin American natural sciences in general, and BMB in particular, as opposed to merely increasing the absolute

  5. Changes in Latin America: consequences for human development.

    PubMed

    Weisbrot, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at Latin America's political shift over the last several years. The author argues that these changes have largely been misunderstood and underestimated in the United States for a number of reasons. First, Latin America's unprecedented growth failure over the past 25 years is a major cause of these political changes and has not been well-understood. Second, the collapse of the International Monetary Fund's influence in Latin America, and in middle-income countries, is an epoch-making change. Third, the availability of alternative sources of finance, especially from the reserves of the Venezuelan government, has become very important. Finally, the increasing assertion of national control over natural resources is an important part of the new relationship between Latin America and the United States. For these and other reasons, the relationship between Latin America and the United States has undergone a fundamental and possibly irreversible change, and one that opens the way to new and mostly more successful economic policies.

  6. Overview of newborn hearing screening activities in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gerner de Garcia, Barbara; Gaffney, Claudia; Chacon, Susan; Gaffney, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    Ascertain the status of early hearing detection and intervention services in Latin America. Between June and November 2007, Gallaudet University, in collaboration with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Diversity Committee, disseminated a survey to 11 Latin American countries. It included questions about newborn hearing screening (NHS) procedures, the availability of intervention services for infants with hearing loss, and challenges in identifying infants with hearing loss. In addition, a literature review was conducted to help identify the status of NHS efforts in Latin America. Six countries (Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, and Uruguay) and one U.S. territory (Puerto Rico) responded to the survey. Responses indicated that efforts to identify infants with hearing loss vary within and across countries in Latin America. In some countries, activities have been implemented at a national level; in others, activities have been implemented at a single hospital or region within a country. Common barriers to implementation of NHS programs include a lack of funding, screening and diagnostic equipment, public awareness, and personnel qualified to work with infants and young children. In spite of several barriers, NHS programs have been implemented in at least some facilities and regions in Latin America. Additional efforts are needed to expand NHS activities in Latin America.

  7. Latin America: the next region for haematopoietic transplant progress.

    PubMed

    Jaimovich, G; Martinez Rolon, J; Baldomero, H; Rivas, M; Hanesman, I; Bouzas, L; Bonfim, C; Palma, J; Kardus-Urueta, A; Ubidia, D; Bujan-Boza, W; Gonzalez-Ramella, O; Ruiz-Argüelles, G; Gomez-Almaguer, D; Espino, G; Fanilla, E; Gonzalez, D; Carrasco, A; Galeano, S; Borelli, G; Hernandez-Gimenez, M; Pasquini, M; Kodera, Y; Gratwohl, A; Gratwohl, M; Nuñez, J; Szer, J; Gale, R P; Niederwieser, D; Seber, A

    2017-05-01

    Haematopoietic cell transplant activity in the 28 countries comprising Latin America is poorly defined. We conducted a voluntary survey of members of the Latin American Bone Marrow Transplantation Group regarding transplant activity 2009-2012. Collated responses were compared with data of transplant rates from the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation for other geographic regions. Several socio-economic variables were analysed to determine correlations with transplant rates. In total, 94 teams from 12 countries reported 11 519 transplants including 7033 autotransplants and 4486 allotransplants. Annual activity increased from 2517 transplants in 2009 to 3263 in 2012, a 30% increase. Median transplants rate (transplant per million inhabitants) in 2012 was 64 (autotransplants, median 40; allotransplants, median 24). This rate is substantially lower than that in North America and European regions (482 and 378) but higher than that in the Eastern Mediterranean and Asia Pacific regions (30 and 45). However, the Latin America transplant rate is 5-8-fold lower than that in America and Europe, suggesting a need to increase transplant availability. Transplant team density in Latin America (teams per million population; 1.8) is 3-4-fold lower than that in North America (6.2) or Europe (7.6). Within Latin America, there is substantial diversity in transplant rates by country partially explained by diverse socio-economic variables including per capita gross national income, health expenditure and physician density. These data should help inform future health-care policy in Latin America.

  8. Influence of poverty and infection on asthma in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Philip J; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2012-04-01

    Asthma in Latin America is a growing public health problem and seems to be most prevalent and cause most morbidity among poor urban populations. This article will review the findings of recent human studies of the associations of asthma prevalence in Latin America with factors associated with poverty and inequality including childhood infections, stress, environment, nutrition and diet. Most asthma in childhood in Latin America is nonatopic and has been associated with exposures related to environmental dirt, diet and psychosocial distress. These factors are strongly linked to poverty and inequality. Interestingly, infections with bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens in childhood appear to attenuate atopy in childhood but have no effect on asthma symptoms. There are biologically plausible mechanisms by which dirt exposures (e.g. endotoxin and other microbial products and nonmicrobial irritants), diet and obesity and psychosocial stress may cause airways inflammation. Most childhood asthma in Latin America is nonatopic for which important risk factors are those of poverty including poor hygiene (i.e. dirt), poor diet and obesity and psychosocial stress. There is evidence that exposures to infections in early childhood reduce atopy but not asthma. Research is needed to identify causes of nonatopic asthma that may be suitable for primary prevention or other public health intervention strategies for asthma in Latin America.

  9. Gene therapy coming of age in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Podhajcer, Osvaldo; Pitossi, Fernando; Agilar-Cordova, Estuardo

    2002-08-01

    "Gene Therapy in Latin America: From the Bench to the Clinic," a meeting sponsored by the Wellcome Trust and the United Nations University through the Biotechnology Program for Latin America and the Caribbean, took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina from May 20 to 22. This symposium, which was hosted by Osvaldo Podhajcer and Fernando Pitossi,had more than 150 basic scientists and physician-scientists from academia, government and industry in Latin America, similar to the first meeting of the Asociacion Iberoamericana de Terapia Génica (Iberoamerican Society of Gene Therapy, AITG) held in Guadalajara, México, two years ago. Participants represented Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guatemala, with guests from the United States and Europe. All came together to discuss the latest developments in this field in the region. A primary objective of this gathering was to bring together Latin American scientists involved in gene therapy to strengthen continental collaborations and to further disseminate the scientific expertise available in Latin America. The symposium was followed by a 10-day practical course for 25 students from all over Latin America.

  10. [Economic adjustment and its demographic consequences in Latin America: an overview].

    PubMed

    Bajraj, R F; Bravo, J H

    1994-06-01

    This work reviews the available literature on short and medium term demographic responses to the economic adjustment processes occurring in Latin America during the 1980s. The first section describes the immediate causes and scope of the economic crisis of the 1980s in Latin America and the measures taken to correct imbalances. An external crisis rendered the current accounts deficit of the early 1980s no longer sustainable, interest rates and commercial conditions deteriorated, and a recessive adjustment of enormous magnitude occurred. The term "adjustment" covers a wide and varied array of economic changes, fiscal and social policy reforms, and changes in international commerce. The structural adjustment measures caused deterioration in investment and in equity. Real purchasing power declined more than per capita product in most Latin American countries between 1980 and 1990. Primary income distribution underwent regressive changes. In most cases the deterioration was not compensated by social spending. As a result of the fiscal adjustment and reduced public sector spending, per capita investment in health and education was less in 1990 than in 1980 in almost all countries. The demographic consequences of the adjustment processes are difficult to gauge precisely because the experiences of individual countries were heterogeneous and because no single definition of adjustment exists that would serve as a point of reference for comparison of situations without adjustment or with different types of adjustment. Nevertheless, some studies have attempted to specify terms of comparison. Some have compared conditions before the crisis or adjustments with conditions later, and others have analyzed short term fluctuations in demographic variables from their medium or long term trends. Such works suggest that nuptiality is the variable responding most intensely, systematically, and immediately to short term economic fluctuations. Fertility also appears to have responded

  11. Research capacity for childhood obesity prevention in Latin America: an area for growth.

    PubMed

    Parra, Diana C; Vorkoper, Susan; Kohl, Harold W; Caballero, Benjamin; Batis, Carolina; Jauregui, Alejandra; Mason, Jessica; Pratt, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The rise of childhood obesity in Latin America calls for research capacity to understand, monitor and implement strategies, policies and programmes to address it. The objective of the study was to assess current research capacity in Latin America related to childhood obesity, nutrition and physical activity. We conducted a search of peer-reviewed articles on childhood obesity in Latin America with at least one Latin American author from 2010 to May 2015. We coded 484 published articles for author affiliation, study subjects' nationality, research topic and study design and extracted a series of networks per research topic, study design and collaborating country for each of the countries. Obesity is the most frequently explored topic. Nutrition and obesity are somewhat better developed compared with physical activity and sedentary behaviour. There are numerous observational and cross-sectional studies, indicating either a lack of capacity required for more complex research or the extent of the problem and associated factors is still unknown. The low number of intervention studies and the near absence of policy articles suggest a void in research capacity. For childhood obesity, there is a clear need to build research capacity that documents the current state of the problem and design evidence-based prevention and intervention efforts. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  12. Social Security privatization in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kritzer, B E

    2000-01-01

    The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for

  13. Women's work and development in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Draper, E

    1985-01-01

    The discussion explores the problem of women's employment patterns under capitalist development in Latin America, first by analyzing the way in which women's work has been conceptualized within modernization theory. It then goes on to examine the 2 types of work in which most Latin American women are engaged -- domestic service and informal work such as selling produce and taking in laundry -- to provide evidence for challenging modernization theory and for developing a more useful approach. Subsequently, the discussion considers women's domestic and informal work within the context of capitalist development, which provides some insight into the broader structures shaping women's employment. Finally, the discussion proposes some reconceptualizations of women's work and development. Modernization theorists analyze women's work in the cities within a variety of constructs, interpreting it as a backward manifestation of traditional society, a reflection of women's inadequate training for the modern sector, an indication of women's primary orientation to the family, or as a phenomenon that is too tangential to warrant examination. The primary assumption is that modernization improves women's status and the conditions of their lives as it brings greater productivity, more advanced technology, and more highly differentiated institutions. Assumptions concerning women's absorption into the modern sector and the equalization of work roles between men and women are not borne out by actual employment trends, which reveal the persistent concentration of women in domestic work, informal jobs, and the lower-paying service jobs. Despite their predominance, domestic service and informal jobs are infrequently included in employment statistics and are virtually ignored in studies of development, yet these 2 types of work are the primary forms of work for Latin American women. Even when modernization theorists recognize the proliferation of informal and domestic service jobs, they

  14. Addressing psychiatric education in Latin America: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fahrer, Rodolfo; Jorge, Miguel R; Ruiz, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    This article is about the psychiatric educational components in the field of psychiatry. Currently the training and educational objectives focus on five major areas: undergraduate education (medical students); graduate education (psychiatric residents); psychiatric education for primary care physicians, as well as physicians in other medical specializations (psychosomatic training); public health and public education at large, and patient and family education, and the promotion of 'mental health' at a community level. Given the strong globalization process observed in all regions of the world in the past two or three decades, it is very important for Latin America to constantly review and update its psychiatric and behavioural sciences curriculum across all medical institutions and universities of the continent. New methods of teaching and novel approaches to education in the field of psychiatry are currently based on models that are also in use in other parts of the world, especially in the USA. Boards of certification for psychiatrists are being implemented all over the continent. Sound certification guarantees that the professional has followed and passed an educational training plan to make him/her qualified to start practising the profession. The future of psychiatric training will be closely bound to the future of the practice of psychiatry, and will have to get ahead of the challenges the specialism will face during the next decades.

  15. Need of righteous attitudes towards eradication of hepatitis C virus infection in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Panduro, Arturo; Roman, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, we have expanded our knowledge on numerous facets of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Beginning with its discovery and viral life cycle, its impact on health, the development of liver disease and currently, effective antiviral treatments. The latter point has become of great interest throughout the developed world, where the possible eradication of HCV through specific strategies to reach all HCV-infected people has been announced. However, this scenario is very different in the countries of Latin America (LA), in which < 2% of infected patients requiring treatment have access to HCV medications. It has been estimated that at least ten million Latin Americans may be infected with HCV. Despite the numbers, viral hepatitis does not seem to be considered a health problem in this region of the world. This reality poses a challenge for politicians and governments of these countries, as well as to the pharmaceutical industry, the medical practitioners, and academics in LA. In this editorial, we state the need for alterations in the attitudes of the integral players involved in this situation. A recognition shift could help to create preventive strategies of viral hepatitis and to advocate for accessibility to new HCV treatments. PMID:27298556

  16. Need of righteous attitudes towards eradication of hepatitis C virus infection in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Panduro, Arturo; Roman, Sonia

    2016-06-14

    Over the last few years, we have expanded our knowledge on numerous facets of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Beginning with its discovery and viral life cycle, its impact on health, the development of liver disease and currently, effective antiviral treatments. The latter point has become of great interest throughout the developed world, where the possible eradication of HCV through specific strategies to reach all HCV-infected people has been announced. However, this scenario is very different in the countries of Latin America (LA), in which < 2% of infected patients requiring treatment have access to HCV medications. It has been estimated that at least ten million Latin Americans may be infected with HCV. Despite the numbers, viral hepatitis does not seem to be considered a health problem in this region of the world. This reality poses a challenge for politicians and governments of these countries, as well as to the pharmaceutical industry, the medical practitioners, and academics in LA. In this editorial, we state the need for alterations in the attitudes of the integral players involved in this situation. A recognition shift could help to create preventive strategies of viral hepatitis and to advocate for accessibility to new HCV treatments.

  17. Epidemiology of endemic systemic fungal infections in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Tobón, Angela; Restrepo, Angela; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio; Nucci, Marcio

    2011-11-01

    Although endemic mycoses are a frequent health problem in Latin American countries, clinical and epidemiological data remain scarce and fragmentary. These mycoses have a significant impact on public health, and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment remain important. The target population for endemic disease in Latin America is mostly represented by low-income rural workers with limited access to a public or private health system. Unfortunately, diagnostic tools are not widely available in medical centers in Latin America; consequently, by the time patients are diagnosed with fungal infection, many are already severely ill. Among immunocompromised patients, endemic mycoses usually behave as opportunistic infections causing disseminated rather than localized disease. This paper reviews the epidemiology of the most clinically significant endemic mycoses in Latin America: paracoccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and coccidioidomycosis. The burdens of disease, typically affected populations, and clinical outcomes also are discussed.

  18. Outlook for hydropower in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Sierra, G. )

    1993-02-01

    In the last two decades, the Latin America/Carribean region has become increasingly dependent on electricity to meet growing demands for energy. Hydropower is the prevailing source for meeting this need. Hydroelectric generation increased at an annual average rate of nearly 9% between 1971 and 1989. HYdro now provides more than two-thirds of total electric power generated in Latin America and the Caribbean. The only other predominant source used for electric generation is fossil fuels. In this region there are several trends developing. They include: developing more small hydro facilities, opportunities for sharing water resources, an interest in changing the approach to water use regulation, and possibilities for more participation by the private sector. Overall, hydro appears to have a favorable competitive position in the power industry in the Latin America/Caribbean region.

  19. The first cataract surgeons in Latin America: 1611–1830

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T; Wainsztein, Ricardo D

    2016-01-01

    We strove to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in Latin America. Probably by 1611, the Genovese oculist Francisco Drago was couching cataracts in Mexico City. The surgeon Melchor Vásquez de Valenzuela probably performed cataract couching in Lima by 1697. Juan Peré of France demonstrated cataract couching in Veracruz and Mexico City between 1779 and 1784. Juan Ablanedo of Spain performed couching in Veracruz in 1791. Cataract extraction might have been performed in Havana and Caracas by 1793 and in Mexico by 1797. The earliest contemporaneously documented cataract extractions in Latin America were performed in Guatemala City by Narciso Esparragosa in 1797. In addition to Esparragosa, surgeons born in the New World who established the academic teaching of cataract surgery included José Miguel Muñoz in Mexico and José María Vargas in Caracas. Although cataract surgery came quite early to Latin America, its availability was initially inconsistent and limited. PMID:27143845

  20. [Social capital and health promotion in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Sapag, Jaime C; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2007-02-01

    Latin America faces common development and health problems and equity and overcoming poverty are crucial in the search for comprehensive and high impact solutions. The article analyzes the definition of social capital, its relationship with health, its limitations and potentialities from a perspective of community development and health promotion in Latin America. High-priority challenges are also identified as well as possible ways to better measure and to strengthen social capital. Particularly, it is discussed how and why social capital may be critical in a global health promotion strategy, where empowerment and community participation, interdisciplinary and intersectorial work would help to achieve Public Health aims and a sustainable positive change for the global development. Also, some potential limitations of the social capital concept in the context of health promotion in Latin America are identified.

  1. [Governance and political economy of PHC policies in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2011-06-01

    The development of implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America, is a challenge yet to be tackled. It is necessary to acknowledge the political economy related to the implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America from a governance perspective, characterized by the regulatory strategies used and the political processes. The promotion of social values, organizational policies or the introduction of new financial incentives are components of different forms of governance used in health system reforms. The institutional factors of social protection systems in Latin America are considered. Their potential, redistribution limitations and the political economy disputes of the reform strategies are explained by the conflict between the economic and related interests and values of the actors involved. This dynamic of the political process influences regulatory modes inherent in the processes of implementation of PHC policies. The State's governing capacity and levels of health system segmentation impinge on the effectiveness of reform strategies for resolving the conflicts in the policies implemented.

  2. Development of pediatric and congenital heart surgery in latin america: accomplishments and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, Christian; Capelli, Horacio; Sandoval, Nestor; Jatene, Marcelo; Kreutzer, Guillermo

    2011-04-01

    In the last 70 years, congenital heart surgery has dramatically evolved, and Latin America has completed this journey with unique regional features. Since the first ligation of a patent arterial duct by Enrique Finochietto in 1941 in Buenos Aires, the development of congenital heart surgery was deeply influenced by funding restrictions and scarcity of technology. However, the determined work of cardiovascular surgery pioneers as Hugo Filipozzi, Euriclides Zerbini, and Adib Jatene in Brazil; Helmut Jaeger in Chile; Hugo Baz and Clemente Robles in Mexico; Alberto Bejarano in Colombia; and Mario Brea and Fernando Tricerri in Argentina made cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass available by the late 1950s. In the following five decades new generations of cardiovascular surgeons received the legacy of these outstanding leaders and made several important contributions to the field in tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, tricuspid atresia, single ventricle, truncus arteriosus, heart transplantation, and many others. Many centers in Latin America routinely perform congenital heart disease surgery with excellent results, covering the entire spectrum from the newborn to the adult congenital heart patient. The most important challenge that remains is to provide access to care to all children with congenital heart disease in Latin America, since currently only 42% of them receive surgical treatment.

  3. A systematic review of leptospirosis on dogs, pigs, and horses in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Priscila S; Libonati, Hugo; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2017-02-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis which can affect many species. Control programs need accurate diagnosis to be successful, and currently, diagnosis relies on serology. It presents three main issues: the sampling, the antigen panel, and the cutoff point. Herein, we propose a systematic review on leptospirosis among dogs, pigs, and horses in Latin America in order to improve the understanding of the seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in these species in the region as well as the temporal development of the research on this topic and, consequently, improve the chances of success on control programs. Internet databases were consulted over 2015. Inclusion criteria included serosurvey using MAT; a relevant number of animals; the presence in the antigen panel of at least one representative of serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola for dogs, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Australis, and Pomona for pigs, and Icterohaemorrhagiae and Australis for horses; and a cutoff point of ≥100. Overall, 240 papers were studied, of which 87 referred to dogs, 66 to pigs, 39 to horses, and 48 to more than one of the studied species. In relation to those that met all the inclusion criteria, it was 45 (66.2%) in dogs, 23 (41.8%) in pigs, and 23 (63.9%) in horses. Leptospirosis is widespread in Latin America. Predominant serogroups are Canicola to dogs and Icterohaemorrhagiae to pigs and horses. Therefore, research on animal leptospirosis should be encouraged in Latin America, in order to reach a greater standardization in studies and then achieve better results on control programs.

  4. Preface: Space and geophysical research related to Latin America - Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Blanca

    2016-03-01

    For the last 25 years, every two to three years the Conferencia Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial (COLAGE) is held in one of the Latin American countries for the purpose of promoting scientific exchange among scientists of the region and to encourage continued research that is unique to this area of the world. At the more recent conference, the community realized that many individuals both within and outside Latin America have contributed greatly to the understanding of the space sciences in this area of the world. It was therefore decided to assemble a Special Issue Space and Geophysical Physics related to Latin America, presenting recent results and where submissions would be accepted from the world wide community of scientists involved in research appropriate to Latin America. Because of the large number of submissions, these papers will be printed in two separate issues; this is Part 1. These papers show the wide variety of research, both theoretical and applied, that is currently being developed in the Sub-Continent.

  5. Planning cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Goss, Paul E; Lee, Brittany L; Badovinac-Crnjevic, Tanja; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; St Louis, Jessica; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Ferreyra, Mayra; Debiasi, Márcio; Liedke, Pedro E R; Touya, Diego; Werutsky, Gustavo; Higgins, Michaela; Fan, Lei; Vasconcelos, Claudia; Cazap, Eduardo; Vallejos, Carlos; Mohar, Alejandro; Knaul, Felicia; Arreola, Hector; Batura, Rekha; Luciani, Silvana; Sullivan, Richard; Finkelstein, Dianne; Simon, Sergio; Barrios, Carlos; Kightlinger, Rebecca; Gelrud, Andres; Bychkovsky, Vladimir; Lopes, Gilberto; Stefani, Stephen; Blaya, Marcelo; Souza, Fabiano Hahn; Santos, Franklin Santana; Kaemmerer, Alberto; de Azambuja, Evandro; Zorilla, Andres Felipe Cardona; Murillo, Raul; Jeronimo, Jose; Tsu, Vivien; Carvalho, Andre; Gil, Carlos Ferreira; Sternberg, Cinthya; Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Sgroi, Dennis; Cuello, Mauricio; Fresco, Rodrigo; Reis, Rui Manuel; Masera, Guiseppe; Gabús, Raúl; Ribeiro, Raul; Knust, Renata; Ismael, Gustavo; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Roth, Berta; Villa, Luisa; Solares, Argelia Lara; Leon, Marta Ximena; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Covarrubias-Gomez, Alfredo; Hernández, Andrés; Bertolino, Mariela; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Santillana, Sergio; Esteva, Francisco; Fein, Luis; Mano, Max; Gomez, Henry; Hurlbert, Marc; Durstine, Alessandra; Azenha, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    Non-communicable diseases, including cancer, are overtaking infectious disease as the leading health-care threat in middle-income and low-income countries. Latin American and Caribbean countries are struggling to respond to increasing morbidity and death from advanced disease. Health ministries and health-care systems in these countries face many challenges caring for patients with advanced cancer: inadequate funding; inequitable distribution of resources and services; inadequate numbers, training, and distribution of health-care personnel and equipment; lack of adequate care for many populations based on socioeconomic, geographic, ethnic, and other factors; and current systems geared toward the needs of wealthy, urban minorities at a cost to the entire population. This burgeoning cancer problem threatens to cause widespread suffering and economic peril to the countries of Latin America. Prompt and deliberate actions must be taken to avoid this scenario. Increasing efforts towards prevention of cancer and avoidance of advanced, stage IV disease will reduce suffering and mortality and will make overall cancer care more affordable. We hope the findings of our Commission and our recommendations will inspire Latin American stakeholders to redouble their efforts to address this increasing cancer burden and to prevent it from worsening and threatening their societies.

  6. [New technologies: needs and challenges in radiotherapy in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Castellanos, María Esperanza

    2006-01-01

    The cumulative experience gathered over more than a century of practice of radiotherapy has demonstrated the latter's importance not only for the palliative treatment of a fraction of cancer cases, but mainly for the curative treatment of an even greater proportion of such cases. In light of the changes in technology, the ever-increasing access developing countries to such technology, and its current coverage in Latin America, any efforts in this area should be aimed at improving the quality of the radiotherapy services and centers that are already in place. This involves developing their technological assets to the fullest, expanding their services, and complying with the minimum quality requirements established for second-level facilities. Each center should be equipped to carry out all stages of the radiotherapy process, from simulation through treatment verification and patient follow-up, with a high level of quality (level 2). To achieve this, it should possess the necessary technology and properly-trained staff that are required for the purpose. Collaborative efforts in the Region should also prioritize helping countries implement national treatment standards for all stages of the radiotherapy process and promoting the implementation of validated quality assurance programs.

  7. Access and barriers to MS care in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), an epidemiologically emergent disorder in Latin America (LATAM), poses substantial socioeconomic challenges to a region where most countries remain as economies in development. MS is not health priority despite its economic and communitarian impact with a relatively low prevalence. MS treatments in LATAM have evolved from earlier long-term oral steroids and immunosuppression protocols, to platform disease modifying therapies (DMTs), to the current landscape with more advanced therapeutic molecules. Following FDA approval, a DMT may eventually become available in LATAM conditioned to industrial marketing interest. Most countries do not count all medications in their armamentarium. Access to therapy by the MS population in the region is low (9.5%–42.8%). Generic treatments, biosimilars, and follow-on complex non-biological drugs (CNBD) are commonly available in institutional formularies in LATAM despite their lack of supportive efficacy and safety data and reported molecular differences with the innovators. Savings to health systems thus far have been negligible. Medicine licensing agencies in LATAM, despite limitations in resources, have considerably improved their assessments by incorporating more modern criteria and methodology. Access to symptomatic management, rehabilitation procedures, and the role of patients associations are discussed. PMID:28607755

  8. Identification of biomedical journals in Spain and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Bonfill, Xavier; Osorio, Dimelza; Posso, Margarita; Solà, Ivan; Rada, Gabriel; Torres, Ania; García Dieguez, Marcelo; Piña-Pozas, Maricela; Díaz-García, Luisa; Tristán, Mario; Gandarilla, Omar; Rincón-Valenzuela, David A; Martí, Arturo; Hidalgo, Ricardo; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; López, Luis; Correa, Ricardo; Rojas-De-Arias, Antonieta; Loza, César; Gianneo, Óscar; Pardo, Hector

    2015-12-01

    Journals in languages other than English that publish original clinical research are often not well covered in the main biomedical databases and therefore often not included in systematic reviews. This study aimed to identify Spanish language biomedical journals from Spain and Latin America and to describe their main features. Journals were identified in electronic databases, publishers' catalogues and local registries. Eligibility was determined by assessing data from these sources or the journals' websites, when available. A total of 2457 journals were initially identified; 1498 met inclusion criteria. Spain (27.3%), Mexico (16.0%), Argentina (15.1%) and Chile (11.9%) had the highest number of journals. Most (85.8%) are currently active; 87.8% have an ISSN. The median and mean length of publication were 22 and 29 years, respectively. A total of 66.0% were indexed in at least one database; 3.0% had an impact factor in 2012. A total of 845 journals had websites (56.4%), of which 700 (82.8%) were searchable and 681 (80.6%) free of charge. Most of the identified journals have no impact factor or are not indexed in any of the major databases. The list of identified biomedical journals can be a useful resource when conducting hand searching activities and identifying clinical trials that otherwise would not be retrieved. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  9. West Nile virus activity in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Komar, Nicholas; Clark, Gary G

    2006-02-01

    West Nile virus (Flavivirus: Flaviviridae; WNV) has spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Basin since its initial detection there in 2001. This report summarizes our current knowledge of WNV transmission in tropical America. We reviewed the published literature and consulted with key public health officials to obtain unpublished data. West Nile virus infections first appeared in human residents of the Cayman Islands and the Florida Keys in 2001, and in apparently healthy Jamaican birds sampled early in 2002. Serologic evidence of WNV infection in 2002 was detected in horses, chickens and resident free-ranging birds in Guadeloupe, the Dominican Republic, and eastern Mexico. In 2003, WNV spread in Mexico and northern Central America, and serologic evidence was detected in the Bahamas, Puerto Rico and Cuba. In 2004, the first serologic evidence of WNV activity in South American ecosystems surfaced in September-October in Colombia and Trinidad, where domestic animals circulated WNV-neutralizing antibodies. The sparse reports of equine, human and avian disease in Latin America and the Caribbean is puzzling. Isolates are needed to evaluate viral attenuation or other possible explanations for reduced disease burden in tropical ecosystems.

  10. Zinc Deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Cediel, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Cori, Héctor; López de Romaña, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Zinc deficiency affects multiple vital functions in the life cycle, especially growth. Limited information is available on the magnitude of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. To examine the latest available information on both the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was identified through a systematic review looking for the latest available data on serum zinc concentrations from surveys or studies with national representativeness conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. The risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean was estimated based on dietary zinc inadequacy (according to the 2011 National Food Balance Sheets) and stunting in children under 5 years of age. Only four countries had available national biochemical data. Mexican, Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Guatemalan children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age had a high prevalence of zinc deficiency (19.1% to 56.3%). The countries with the highest risk of zinc deficiency (estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake > 25% plus prevalence of stunting > 20%) were Belize, Bolivia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Zinc dietary inadequacy was directly correlated with stunting (r = 0.64, p < .001). Prevalence data from the four available Latin America and Caribbean national surveys indicate a high prevalence of zinc deficiency in children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age. High rates of both estimated zinc dietary inadequacy and stunting were also reported in most Latin America and Caribbean countries.

  11. Sickle cell in Latin America and the United States [corrected].

    PubMed

    Huttle, Alexandra; Maestre, Gladys E; Lantigua, Rafael; Green, Nancy S

    2015-07-01

    Latin Americans are an underappreciated population affected by sickle cell disease (SCD). Sickle trait and SCD exist throughout Latin America and U.S. Latino communities. We describe the epidemiology and genetic heterogeneity of SCD among Latin Americans, and fetal hemoglobin expression. National population-based newborn screening for SCD is limited to Brazil, Costa Rica, and the U.S. Available and extrapolated data suggest that over 6,000 annual births and 100,000-150,000 Latin Americans are affected by SCD. This comprehensive review highlights the substantial numbers and population distribution of SCD and sickle trait in Latin America, and where national newborn screening programs for SCD exist.

  12. The study of processes of medicalization in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Murguía, Adriana; Ordorika, Teresa; Lendo, León F

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, an ever-increasing cluster of phenomena has attracted the attention of social scientists and historians of medicine: processes of medicalization. As in other regions, Latin America has been affected by these phenomena. This article surveys recent literature involving sociological studies of these processes in the region, in order to provide an overview of the issue. It explores the theoretical transformations linked to the concept of medicalization in the contexts where they originated. It then analyzes the ways in which the concept has been appropriated by the social sciences in Latin America in order to describe the various phenomena associated with medicalization in the subcontinent.

  13. Energy and development in Latin America: perspectives for public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Choucri, N.

    1982-01-01

    This book, the third in a research program on energy and international development, examines energy profiles and prospects of Latin America, economic problems posed by the oil price increases of 1973, and attendant political dislocations. A particular emphasis is placed on the transportation sector as one of the major claimants on energy use. The individual countries' policy responses to new constraints are outlined both with respect to transport policy and to development policy more broadly defined. Some basic conclusions about energy, economy, and policy in Latin America provide a comprehensive perspective on the region's energy-related predicaments and insights into new policy imperatives. 503 references, 2 figures, 28 tables.

  14. WE-AB-213-02: Status of Medical Physics Collaborations, and Projects in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, S.

    2015-06-15

    AAPM projects and collaborations in Africa Adam Shulman (AA-SC Chair) The African Affairs Subcommittee (AA-SC) of the AAPM will present a multi-institutional approach to medical physics support in Africa. Current work to increase the quality of care and level of safety for the medical physics practice in Senegal, Ghana, and Zimbabwe will be presented, along with preliminary projects in Nigeria and Botswana. Because the task of addressing the needs of medical physics in countries across Africa is larger than one entity can accomplish on its own, the AA-SC has taken the approach of joining forces with multiple organizations such as Radiating Hope and TreatSafely (NGO’s), the IAEA, companies like BrainLab, Varian and Elekta, medical volunteers and academic institutions such as NYU and Washington University. Elements of current projects include: 1) Distance training and evaluation of the quality of contouring and treatment planning, teaching treatment planning and other subjects, and troubleshooting using modern telecommunications technology in Senegal, Ghana, and Zimbabwe; 2) Assistance in the transition from 2D to 3D in Senegal and Zimbabwe; 3) Assistance in the transition from 3D to IMRT using in-house compensators in Senegal; 4) Modernizing the cancer center in Senegal and increasing safety and; 5) Training on on 3D techniques in Ghana; 6) Assisting a teaching and training radiation oncology center to be built in Zimbabwe; 7) Working with the ISEP Program in Sub-Saharan Africa; 8) Creating instructional videos on linac commissioning; 9) Working on a possible collaboration to train physicists in Nigeria. Building on past achievements, the subcommittee seeks to make a larger impact on the continent, as the number and size of projects increases and more human resources become available. The State of Medical Physics Collaborations and Projects in Latin America Sandra Guzman (Peru) The lack of Medical Physicists (MP) in many Latin American (LA) countries leads to

  15. Education, Policy, and Social Change: Experiences from Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Gomez, Daniel A., Ed.; Torres, Carlos Alberto, Ed.

    Using both a retrospective and a prospective view, this book examines the links joining research, policy, and change in education in Latin America. It inquires about the relationships among the economy, politics, and the state. It reviews the praxis of education in Latin American countries and in the context of the development trends of the 1980s.…

  16. Spanish Bilateral Initiatives for Education in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortina, Regina; Sanchez, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The research presented in this article concerns la Agencia Espanola de Cooperacion Internacional (Spanish Agency for International Cooperation--AECI) and its growing presence in Latin America since the late 1990s. The aim is to evaluate the transformative potential that bilateral funding can have on educational reform in the region. The article…

  17. Algunos Animales de Latino America = Some Animals of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kathryn F. B.

    Developed by the Latin American Culture Studies Project for educators of elementary level children, these materials are designed to teach students the Spanish and English names of animals found in Latin America. The lesson includes coloring sheets, duplicating masters, fact sheets, the card game Maymayguashi, and directions for preparation. (DB)

  18. Immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean: A Socioeconomic Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaut, Ruben G.

    This paper seeks to make sense of the new diversity in the United States, with a focus on immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean. Some key facts and figures about contemporary immigrants are presented, looking at their patterns of settlement and comparing their distinctive social and economic characteristics to major U.S. racial-ethnic…

  19. The Foundations of Telegraphy and Telephony in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baur, Cynthia

    1994-01-01

    Synthesizes empirical evidence on the participation of state and capital in the establishment of domestic telegraphic and telephonic communication in Latin America. Suggests that, in many ways, the contemporary period of telecommunication system organization in the region parallels the early years of telegraphy and telephony. Discusses these…

  20. Internationalizing Business Education in Latin America: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elahee, Mohammad; Norbis, Mario

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent of internationalization of business education in Latin America and identifies the key challenges facing the Latin American business schools. Based on a survey of the business schools that are members of CLADEA (Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administracion--Latin American Council of Management Schools), and…

  1. Women of the World: Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Elsa M.

    The first in a series of five handbooks designed to present and analyze statistical data on women in various regions of the world, this handbook focuses on women in 21 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Beginning with an overview of population characteristics of the regions, the analysis continues with a description of women's literacy…

  2. Internationalizing Business Education in Latin America: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elahee, Mohammad; Norbis, Mario

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent of internationalization of business education in Latin America and identifies the key challenges facing the Latin American business schools. Based on a survey of the business schools that are members of CLADEA (Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administracion--Latin American Council of Management Schools), and…

  3. The Reality and Future of Latin America: An Educational Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Oscar

    1993-01-01

    Third World countries have lacked the resources to invest in economic and academic development. The source lies in gross inequities between industrialized and developing countries. Globalization of markets has not benefited Latin America. Militarism, corruption, poverty, and social injustice can only be eradicated by incorporating strong…

  4. US-LA CRN Clinical Cancer Research in Latin America

    Cancer.gov

    The United States – Latin America Cancer Research Network (US-LA CRN) convened its Annual Meeting, in coordination with the Ministry of Health of Chile to discuss the Network’s first multilateral clinical research study: Molecular Profiling of Breast Cancer (MPBC).

  5. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    This document contains reproducible maps, charts and graphs of Latin America for use by teachers and students. The maps are divided into five categories (1) the land; (2) peoples, countries, cities, and governments; (3) the national economies, product, trade, agriculture, and resources; (4) energy, education, employment, illicit drugs, consumer…

  6. Adult Education as Public Policy: A Perspective from Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1988-01-01

    Discusses policies concerning adult education which have been designed and carried out in Latin America. Contends that the adult basic education policy does not provide the clientele with better tools to face the challenges of society. Calls for an understanding of the inner rationality of adult education programs. (KO)

  7. Introduction: The Process of Social Urbanization in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolies, Luise

    1979-01-01

    Social urbanization denotes the socioeconomic transformation of space and the ideological extension of the urban system to former hinterlands. Social urbanization has occurred on the basis of large scale internal migration and has had a similar impact throughout Latin America. (Author/GC)

  8. ESD: Power, Politics, and Policy: "Tragic Optimism" from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Gaudiano, Edgar J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the challenging developmental issues confronting the countries of Latin America, this response article analyzes the power and resistance of education for sustainable development from both theoretical and policy perspectives. Of particular concern are the neo-productivist strategies driving the latest stage of capitalist development.…

  9. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their…

  10. The Development of Marine Science in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Francisco J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the maritime history of Latin America and its development of marine science. The need for the Latin American nations to incorporate the oceans into their development process is emphasized in order for them to continue and expand exploitation of living resources. (Author/SA)

  11. The Development of Marine Science in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Francisco J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the maritime history of Latin America and its development of marine science. The need for the Latin American nations to incorporate the oceans into their development process is emphasized in order for them to continue and expand exploitation of living resources. (Author/SA)

  12. Emergent Evaluation and Educational Reforms in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinic, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to characterize educational reforms in Latin America over the last 25 years, and the way they reflect the role, method, and use of evaluation processes. The main theoretical and methodological tensions that are created by the development of evaluations will be reviewed, concluding with the identification of some of the…

  13. Communication Efforts against AIDS in Latin America: An Updated Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; And Others

    This paper presents recent information on the use of mass communication to combat the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in Latin America. The paper takes up the following topics: (1) communication as anti-AIDS weapon; (2) the information effort lag; (3) targeting AIDS information; (4) delivering the message to health…

  14. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Latin America (defined as consisting of the countries of Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and…

  15. Bringing Latin America to Life with Films in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanden, Harry E.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author points out that in this increasingly visual world, outstanding films can engage classes and lift the curtain on the cultures and modern history of Latin America. He recommends some of the most gripping and perceptive films on this topic, and offers advice on how teachers can provide the background to these dramas and…

  16. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their…

  17. The Administration of Educational Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivera, Carlos E.

    Based on the realization that 20 years of educational development efforts in Latin America have had little result, this author identified problems in educational administration at the national and regional levels that are largely responsible for the lack of progress. A number of structural and legal problems were identified, including the…

  18. Education in Latin America: A Selected Bibliography (1986-1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aedo-Richmond, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a selected bibliography of books, theses, articles, and dissertations concerning education in Latin America. Includes separate sections on Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. All selections are in…

  19. Latin America: Curriculum Materials for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Virginia G., Ed.

    Self-contained activities that will help social studies or Spanish foreign language students in grades 6-8 learn about the history and culture of Latin America are provided. Following an introductory unit, the activities, ranging from easy to complex, are organized by the following countries and areas: Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean,…

  20. How Effective Are Private Schools in Latin America?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Marie-Andree; McEwan, Patrick J.; Willms, J. Douglas

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, the Santiago office of UNESCO implemented an assessment of student achievement in Latin America, working in collaboration with 13 Latin American ministries of education. Using a common sampling methodology and survey instruments, researchers in each country collected representative samples of data on third- and fourth-grade achievement in…

  1. Algunos Animales de Latino America = Some Animals of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kathryn F. B.

    Developed by the Latin American Culture Studies Project for educators of elementary level children, these materials are designed to teach students the Spanish and English names of animals found in Latin America. The lesson includes coloring sheets, duplicating masters, fact sheets, the card game Maymayguashi, and directions for preparation. (DB)

  2. Literacy in Latin America: Progress, Problems, and Perspectives. Literacy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roca, Miguel Soler

    Latin America continues to have about 44 million illiterate people. Since the 1950s, education went from being a requisite of national identity to being recognized as an instrument of power, an important factor of development, the dispenser of human resources, and the guarantor of the continuity of the entire local scene. Important post-World War…

  3. Communist China’s National Strategy in Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    Foreign Languages Press, "Support the Cuban and Other Latin American Peoples’ Just Struggle Against US Imperialism," p. 95. ^ Salvador de Madariaga ...F1414 M3 c.3) 46. Madariaga , Salvador de. Latin America Between the Eagle and the Bear. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1962. (F1408 M28) 83 47

  4. Education, Policy, and Social Change: Experiences from Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Gomez, Daniel A., Ed.; Torres, Carlos Alberto, Ed.

    Using both a retrospective and a prospective view, this book examines the links joining research, policy, and change in education in Latin America. It inquires about the relationships among the economy, politics, and the state. It reviews the praxis of education in Latin American countries and in the context of the development trends of the 1980s.…

  5. ESD: Power, Politics, and Policy: "Tragic Optimism" from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Gaudiano, Edgar J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the challenging developmental issues confronting the countries of Latin America, this response article analyzes the power and resistance of education for sustainable development from both theoretical and policy perspectives. Of particular concern are the neo-productivist strategies driving the latest stage of capitalist development.…

  6. School Readiness Research in Latin America: Findings and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Katherine; Rolla, Andrea; Romero-Contreras, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Educational results in Latin America (LA) are well below those of developed countries. One factor that influences how well children do at school is school readiness. In this article, we review studies conducted in LA on the readiness skills of preschool children. We begin by discussing contextual factors that affect what is expected of children…

  7. Latin America in World Geography Textbooks for the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andereck, Mary E.; Dixon, Clifton V., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyze the Latin American content of contemporary world geography textbooks published for United States secondary schools. A preliminary review of the literature indicated that Latin America was generally omitted from world geography texts, Central America was given minimal attention, and…

  8. The Case of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Jairo

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the history of population education programs in Latin America and the Caribbean from 1970 to 1992 and changes in fertility, mortality, and migration during that period. Considers issues such as government styles and motivations, staff shortages, cooperation among administrators, teacher training, distance education, and new management…

  9. Strategies and Tactics for Community Mobilization. 1981 Latin America Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John R. A.

    Three seminars examined strategies and tactics for community mobilization in Latin America. The sessions--which were held in Bogota, Columbia; Quito, Ecuador; and Recife, Brazil--involved a total of 75 participants from 27 organizations. Addressed during the seminars were development, leadership, mobilization, and learning in the context of…

  10. Latin America: Curriculum Materials for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Virginia G., Ed.

    Self-contained activities that will help social studies or Spanish foreign language students in grades 6-8 learn about the history and culture of Latin America are provided. Following an introductory unit, the activities, ranging from easy to complex, are organized by the following countries and areas: Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean,…

  11. Introduction: The Process of Social Urbanization in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolies, Luise

    1979-01-01

    Social urbanization denotes the socioeconomic transformation of space and the ideological extension of the urban system to former hinterlands. Social urbanization has occurred on the basis of large scale internal migration and has had a similar impact throughout Latin America. (Author/GC)

  12. The Catholic Church, Moral Education and Citizenship in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaiber, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The Catholic Church, with deep roots in the history of Latin America, exercises considerable influence on all levels of society. Especially after the Second Vatican Council and the bishops' conference at Medellin (1968) the Church took up the banner of human rights and the cause of the poor. During the dictatorships and in the midst of the…

  13. Strategy for the Development of Sex Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation meeting report places priority on the development of sex education programs in Latin America. While regional and national circumstances clearly differ, it was felt that the steps described provide valuable guidelines on how a sex education program can be evolved while utilizing formal and non-formal…

  14. A.I.D. Economic Data Book: Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This data book, updating a December 1968 publication, is designed to serve the internal program and operational needs of the Agency for International Development. More than 19 Latin American republics are referred to in major sections on: (1) Latin America in the Free World: population and production, (2) summary of basic data, (3) population…

  15. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    This document contains reproducible maps, charts and graphs of Latin America for use by teachers and students. The maps are divided into five categories (1) the land; (2) peoples, countries, cities, and governments; (3) the national economies, product, trade, agriculture, and resources; (4) energy, education, employment, illicit drugs, consumer…

  16. Poverty in Latin America: A Critical Analysis of Three Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltvinik, Julio

    1996-01-01

    Critically evaluates the methodologies used in three recent studies on poverty in Latin America. Maintains that some studies measure the relative nature of nutritional poverty while others record the absolute nature of nutritional poverty (physical survival). Includes a comparative analysis of the studies' results. (MJP)

  17. World Bank's role in electric power projects in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, N. de )

    1994-06-01

    This article examines the impacts of changing energy policy in Latin America to the development of electrical infrastructure, interconnections, and electrical exchanges in the area. The topics of the article include energy as a commodity, hydroelectric capacity potential, growth and investment, natural gas reserves and regional interconnections.

  18. KEY IDEAS ABOUT LATIN AMERICA, BULLETIN NUMBER 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CONROY, WILLIAM; GILL, CLARK C.

    SELECTED KEY IDEAS CONTAINED IN THIS BULLETIN ABOUT LATIN AMERICA ARE ORGANIZED AROUND SIX CATEGORIES AND ARE MEANT AS SUGGESTIONS FOR CURRICULUM BUILDING AND EMPHASIS IN A SOCIAL STUDIES CLASS. THE SIX CATEGORIES ARE--(1) THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT, (2) HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDS, (3) CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY AND THE FAMILY, (4) CONTEMPORARY CULTURE, (5)…

  19. Secondary Education, Social Structure and Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    This work is an attempt to analyze the development of education, particularly secondary education, in order to identify the special features of educational structure in Latin America. The educational systems are examined within the following contexts: Literacy Training; Educational Levels (which considers the question of access to formal…

  20. Writing the Pentecostal History of Africa, Asia and Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Allan

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the writing of Pentecostal history and in particular, the biases and presuppositions associated with it. The problem of sources and the neglect of the important role of indigenous ("native") workers in the historiography of Pentecostalism in Africa, Asia and Latin America is the main focus. It refutes the idea of an…

  1. The importance of rheumatology biologic registries in Latin America.

    PubMed

    de la Vega, Maria; da Silveira de Carvalho, Hellen M; Ventura Ríos, Lucio; Goycochea Robles, Maria V; Casado, Gustavo C

    2013-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by joint articular pain and disability. Although there is scarcity of data available on the incidence and prevalence of RA in Latin America, there is a growing recognition of this disease where chronic diseases are on the rise and infectious disease on the decline. RA is a substantial burden to patients, society, and the healthcare system. The heterogeneity identified within RA presents an opportunity for personalized medicine, especially in regions with such demographic diversity as that of Latin America. To understand the long-term effects of treatment for RA especially on safety, registries have been established, a number of which have been created in Latin America. Despite their weaknesses (e.g., lack of controls and randomization), registries have provided additional and complementary information on the use of biologics in clinical practice in Latin America and other regions. Although certain challenges remain in the implementation and maintenance of registries, they continue to provide real-life data to clinical practice contributing to improved patient care.

  2. The Catholic Church, Moral Education and Citizenship in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaiber, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The Catholic Church, with deep roots in the history of Latin America, exercises considerable influence on all levels of society. Especially after the Second Vatican Council and the bishops' conference at Medellin (1968) the Church took up the banner of human rights and the cause of the poor. During the dictatorships and in the midst of the…

  3. Bringing Latin America to Life with Films in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanden, Harry E.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author points out that in this increasingly visual world, outstanding films can engage classes and lift the curtain on the cultures and modern history of Latin America. He recommends some of the most gripping and perceptive films on this topic, and offers advice on how teachers can provide the background to these dramas and…

  4. Communist Subversion, A Serious Threat to Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-02

    going to continue to grow. JACK E FINCI- IA Colonel, US Army 14 FOOTNOTES 1. Nelson A. Rocketeller, The Rockefeller Report on the Americas pp 34-35. 2...Morris. SovieL Penetration of Latin America. University of Miami Center for Advance Studies, 1975. 25. Hammond, Thomas T. The Anato y of Comurlnist

  5. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  6. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Latin America (defined as consisting of the countries of Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and…

  7. Education in Latin America: A Selected Bibliography (1986-1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aedo-Richmond, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a selected bibliography of books, theses, articles, and dissertations concerning education in Latin America. Includes separate sections on Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. All selections are in…

  8. Writing the Pentecostal History of Africa, Asia and Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Allan

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the writing of Pentecostal history and in particular, the biases and presuppositions associated with it. The problem of sources and the neglect of the important role of indigenous ("native") workers in the historiography of Pentecostalism in Africa, Asia and Latin America is the main focus. It refutes the idea of an…

  9. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  10. Higher Education Reforms: Latin America in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernasconi, Andrés; Celis, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a special issue of EPAA/AAPE devoted to recent higher education reforms in Latin America. The last two decades have seen much policy development in higher education in the region, examined and discussed by scholars in each country, but dialog with the international literature on higher education reform, or an explicit…

  11. Spanish Bilateral Initiatives for Education in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortina, Regina; Sanchez, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The research presented in this article concerns la Agencia Espanola de Cooperacion Internacional (Spanish Agency for International Cooperation--AECI) and its growing presence in Latin America since the late 1990s. The aim is to evaluate the transformative potential that bilateral funding can have on educational reform in the region. The article…

  12. Merging Computers and Communication: A Case Study in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeffinger, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses access to information through merging computers and new communications technology and its influence in developing nations. Highlights include a case study of InterNet/LACRIP (Latin American Cancer Research Information Project), a microcomputer-based international network involving institutions in the United States and Latin America that…

  13. The Foundations of Telegraphy and Telephony in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baur, Cynthia

    1994-01-01

    Synthesizes empirical evidence on the participation of state and capital in the establishment of domestic telegraphic and telephonic communication in Latin America. Suggests that, in many ways, the contemporary period of telecommunication system organization in the region parallels the early years of telegraphy and telephony. Discusses these…

  14. School Readiness Research in Latin America: Findings and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Katherine; Rolla, Andrea; Romero-Contreras, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Educational results in Latin America (LA) are well below those of developed countries. One factor that influences how well children do at school is school readiness. In this article, we review studies conducted in LA on the readiness skills of preschool children. We begin by discussing contextual factors that affect what is expected of children…

  15. Education and Development in Latin America (1950-1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rama, German W.; Tedesco, Juan Carlos

    1979-01-01

    In relation to economic and social trends in Latin America over the last 25 years, the authors analyze expansion and change in primary, secondary, and higher education in this region. Tables of income, enrollment, literacy, drop-out, and occupational data for Latin American countries are appended. (SJL)

  16. Short-Cycle Postsecondary Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorana, S. V.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes Latin America's increased use of short-cycle education in the face of economic growth, demographic shifts, and national development. Discusses various aspects of short-cycle education in several Latin American countries, including: its attraction, varieties of approaches, institutional characteristics, and relationship to other…

  17. A.I.D. Economic Data Book: Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This data book, updating a December 1968 publication, is designed to serve the internal program and operational needs of the Agency for International Development. More than 19 Latin American republics are referred to in major sections on: (1) Latin America in the Free World: population and production, (2) summary of basic data, (3) population…

  18. Strategy to increase research in Latin America: project on education in research by AOSpine Latin America.

    PubMed

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Martins Filho, Délio Eulálio; Avila, José María Jiménez; Guyot, Juan Pablo; Gonzáles, Alvaro Silva; Riew, Daniel K

    2015-07-01

    The emancipatory nature of education requires research as its fundamental base, because physicians can only improve their skills and knowledge through enquiry. The number and quality of scientific publications by Latin-American spine surgeons found in the Medline database was low between 2000 and 2011. Nevertheless, the research Bank Survey of AOSpine Latin America (AOSLA) members showed that 96% of responders were very interested and motivated to perform scientific research. The research officer of AOSLA together with the Country Council and the AOSpine Research Commission established a competency-based curriculum to improve understanding of what is necessary to produce research and the best methods to achieve this goal. The research curriculum was divided into four main components: (1) research educational plan, (2) performing research, (3) technical and professional support and (4) assessment. The competences, learning outcomes and a syllabus on knowledge in research were developed to enable the participants to understand and perform investigations effectively. The eLearning module was designed to improve the competences to access, evaluate and use scientific information available in the main databases efficiently. Research courses were given as an isolated activity four times in Brazil and Mexico and as precourse activities six times in Brazil, Mexico and Peru. The result was an increased number of articles published and works presented at congresses. The project of education in research can be effectively disseminated and applied across regions, across students and across specialties.

  19. An overview on the Space Weather in Latin America: from Space Research to Space Weather and its Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Nardin, C. M.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Dasso, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview on the Space Weather in Latin America, highlighting the main findings from our review the recent advances in the space science investigations in Latin America focusing in the solar-terrestrial interactions, modernly named space weather, which leaded to the creation of forecast centers. Despite recognizing advances in the space research over the whole Latin America, this review is restricted to the evolution observed in three countries (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico) only, due to the fact that these countries have recently developed operational center for monitoring the space weather. The work starts with briefly mentioning the first groups that started the space science in Latin America. The current status and research interest of such groups are then described together with the most referenced works and the challenges for the next decade to solve space weather puzzles. A small inventory of the networks and collaborations being built is also described. Finally, the decision process for spinning off the space weather prediction centers from the space science groups is reported with an interpretation of the reason/opportunities that lead to it. Lastly, the constraints for the progress in the space weather monitoring, research, and forecast are listed with recommendations to overcome them.

  20. Cancer burden in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Curado, Maria Paula; de Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, the epidemiological transition has been occurring in an unequal manner. Infectious-contagious diseases share space with the increase of chronic nontransmissible diseases, such as cancer, which already represents the second most common cause of death, after cardiovascular illnesses. This study provides a global picture of the burden of cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as the challenges faced when controlling this disease in these regions. Epidemiological information on cancer in Latin America originates mainly from mortality registries and from a limited number of population-based cancer registries. Estimates indicate increases of 72% in the incidence of cancer and 78% in the mortality of men between 2012 and 2030, and for women the rates are 62% and 74%, respectively. These increases in incidence rates, accompanied by disproportionally high mortality rates, when compared with other regions of the world, reveal the magnitude of the challenge of controlling cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean. Although neoplasms are among the main causes of death, the control strategies are faced with issues such as organization and development of the health system, and the public policy formulation mechanism. Establishing knowledge on the real impact of incidence, mortality, and survival in Latin America and the Caribbean is quite a challenge due to the lack of an updated and dynamic information system on mortality and incidence, although some improvement has been made in the information systems of some countries within the most recent decade. Other obstacles for cancer control are the uneven allocation of resources, lack of investments in equipment and infrastructure, and the concentration of health care professionals in large urban centers, which contribute to the reproduction of socioeconomic iniquities in the assistance of populations that suffer from cancer. Copyright © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

  1. [Antibacterial drug resistance in Latin America: consequences for infectious disease control].

    PubMed

    Casellas, José María

    2011-12-01

    Antibacterial drug resistance is a particularly significant issue in Latin America. This article explores antimicrobial resistance in three classes of clinically important bacteria: gram-positive bacteria, enterobacteria, and nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli. The gram-positive bacteria frequently responsible for infections in humans are for the most part cocci: staphylococci, streptococci (including pneumococci), and enterococci, in both community and hospital settings. This situation is no different in the Region of the Americas. Among the gram-positive bacteria, the causative agents of bacteremia are most commonly strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, followed by enterococci. This report explores the resistance of these species to different antimicrobial drugs, resistance mechanisms in community and hospital strains, and new drugs for treating infections caused by these bacteria. In Latin America, antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus strains is still a minor problem compared to the situation in the United States. The strains of the genus Streptococcus isolated from respiratory infections are still sensitive to penicillin. Furthermore, the resistance of enterobacteria is extremely important in the Region, particularly because of the broad dissemination of CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), some of which originated in Latin America. This article analyzes the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic streptococci, and viridans group streptococci. Among the nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains remain the leading cause of bacteremia, infections caused by strains of Acinetobacter spp. have proliferated extensively in some areas. With regard to antibiotics, several options are available for treating gram-positive bacterial infections. The same cannot be said for infections caused by enterobacteria and nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli, where options for the effective treatment of patients

  2. Antiretroviral adherence during pregnancy and postpartum in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kreitchmann, Regis; Harris, D Robert; Kakehasi, Fabiana; Haberer, Jessica E; Cahn, Pedro; Losso, Marcelo; Teles, Elizabete; Pilotto, Jose H; Hofer, Cristina B; Read, Jennifer S

    2012-08-01

    Adherence to antiretrovirals by pregnant women (and postpartum women if breastfeeding) is crucial to effectively decrease maternal viral load and decrease the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Our objectives were to describe self-reported adherence to antiretrovirals during the antepartum (after 22 weeks of pregnancy) and postpartum periods (6-12 weeks and 6 months), and identify predictors of adherence among HIV-infected women enrolled and followed in a prospective cohort study from June 2008 to June 2010 at multiple sites in Latin America. Adherence was evaluated using the number of missed and expected doses during the 3 days before the study visit. At the pre-delivery visit, 340 of 376 women (90%) reported perfect adherence. This rate significantly decreased by 6-12 weeks (171/214 [80%]) and 6 months postpartum (163/199 [82%], p<0.01). The odds for less than perfect adherence at the pre-delivery visit was significantly higher for pregnant women with current tobacco use (odds ratio [OR]=2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-6.14; p=0.0029). At 6-12 weeks postpartum, the probability of non-perfect adherence increased by 6% for each 1 year increase in age (OR=1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.12, p=0.0497). At 6 months postpartum, the odds of nonperfect adherence was higher for those who were currently using alcohol (OR=3.04, 95% CI: 1.34-6.90; p=0.0079). Although a self-report measure of adherence based on only 3 days may lead to overestimation of actual adherence over time, women with perfect adherence had lower viral loads and higher CD4 counts. Adherence to antiretrovirals decreased significantly postpartum. Interventions should target women at high risk for lower adherence during pregnancy and postpartum, including tobacco and alcohol users.

  3. Antiretroviral Adherence During Pregnancy and Postpartum in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Harris, D. Robert; Kakehasi, Fabiana; Haberer, Jessica E.; Cahn, Pedro; Losso, Marcelo; Teles, Elizabete; Pilotto, Jose H.; Hofer, Cristina B.; Read, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adherence to antiretrovirals by pregnant women (and postpartum women if breastfeeding) is crucial to effectively decrease maternal viral load and decrease the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Our objectives were to describe self-reported adherence to antiretrovirals during the antepartum (after 22 weeks of pregnancy) and postpartum periods (6–12 weeks and 6 months), and identify predictors of adherence among HIV-infected women enrolled and followed in a prospective cohort study from June 2008 to June 2010 at multiple sites in Latin America. Adherence was evaluated using the number of missed and expected doses during the 3 days before the study visit. At the pre-delivery visit, 340 of 376 women (90%) reported perfect adherence. This rate significantly decreased by 6–12 weeks (171/214 [80%]) and 6 months postpartum (163/199 [82%], p<0.01). The odds for less than perfect adherence at the pre-delivery visit was significantly higher for pregnant women with current tobacco use (odds ratio [OR]=2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–6.14; p=0.0029). At 6–12 weeks postpartum, the probability of non-perfect adherence increased by 6% for each 1 year increase in age (OR=1.06, 95% CI: 1.00–1.12, p=0.0497). At 6 months postpartum, the odds of nonperfect adherence was higher for those who were currently using alcohol (OR=3.04, 95% CI: 1.34–6.90; p=0.0079). Although a self-report measure of adherence based on only 3 days may lead to overestimation of actual adherence over time, women with perfect adherence had lower viral loads and higher CD4 counts. Adherence to antiretrovirals decreased significantly postpartum. Interventions should target women at high risk for lower adherence during pregnancy and postpartum, including tobacco and alcohol users. PMID:22663185

  4. Proyecto Principal de Educacion en America Latina y El Caribe. Boletin 15 (Main Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bulletin 15).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean face severe financial restrictions in educational funding. Responses to these restrictions are complex and require strong experimental efforts and adaptation to distinct and changing national situations. The articles in this bulletin respond to various proposals and situations that illustrate the search…

  5. Proyecto Principal de Educacion en America Latina y El Caribe. Boletin 15 (Main Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bulletin 15).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean face severe financial restrictions in educational funding. Responses to these restrictions are complex and require strong experimental efforts and adaptation to distinct and changing national situations. The articles in this bulletin respond to various proposals and situations that illustrate the search…

  6. The cost of diabetes in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed Central

    Barceló, Alberto; Aedo, Cristian; Rajpathak, Swapnil; Robles, Sylvia

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the economic burden associated with diabetes mellitus in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: Prevalence estimates of diabetes for the year 2000 were used to calculated direct and indirect costs of diabetes mellitus. Direct costs included costs due to drugs, hospitalizations, consultations and management of complications. The human capital approach was used to calculate indirect costs and included calculations of forgone earnings due to premature mortality and disability attributed to diabetes mellitus. Mortality and disability attributed to causes other than diabetes were subtracted from estimates to consider only the excess burden due to diabetes. A 3% discount rate was used to convert future earnings to current value. FINDINGS: The annual number of deaths in 2000 caused by diabetes mellitus was estimated at 339,035. This represented a loss of 757,096 discounted years of productive life among persons younger than 65 years (> billion US dollars). Permanent disability caused a loss of 12,699,087 years and over 50 billion US dollars, and temporary disability caused a loss of 136,701 years in the working population and over 763 million US dollars. Costs associated with insulin and oral medications were 4720 million US dollars, hospitalizations 1012 million US dollars, consultations 2508 million US dollars and care for complications 2,480 million US dollars. The total annual cost associated with diabetes was estimated as 65,216 million US dollars (direct 10,721 US dollars; indirect 54,496 US dollars). CONCLUSION: Despite limitations of the data, diabetes imposes a high economic burden to individuals and society in all countries and to Latin American and the Caribbean as whole. PMID:12640472

  7. Observational study of multiple myeloma in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Hungria, Vania T M; Maiolino, Angelo; Martinez, Gracia; Duarte, Gislaine Oliveira; Bittencourt, Rosane; Peters, Lygia; Colleoni, Gisele; Oliveira, Luciana C O; Crusoé, Edvan; Coelho, Érika O D M; Pasquini, Ricardo; Magalhães, Sílvia M M; Nunes, Renata; Neto, Jorge V Pinto; Faria, Rosa Malena O; Souza, Mair; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Flantl, Dorotea; Navarro, J R; Conte, Guillermo; Gomez-Almaguer, David; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo; Durie, Brian G M

    2017-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the outcomes of multiple myeloma in Latin America, a world region where incorporation of novel agents is generally slow. In the current retrospective-prospective study, we aimed to describe the patterns of care and treatment results in five Latin American countries. Between April 2007 and October 2009, patients who had been diagnosed from January 2005 to December 2007 were registered at 23 institutions from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Peru. We divided patients into two cohorts, according to transplantation eligibility, and analyzed them with regard to first-line treatment and overall survival (OS). We analyzed a total of 852 patients, 46.9 % of whom were female. The median follow-up was 62 months. Among transplantation-ineligible patients (N = 461), the mean age was 67.4 years, approximately one third of patients received a thalidomide-based treatment in the first line, and the median OS was 43.0 months. Transplantation-eligible patients (N = 391) had a mean age of 54.7 years and a median OS of 73.6 months. Autologous transplantation was performed in 58.6 % of the patients for whom this procedure was initially planned and in only 26.9 % of the overall patients. Our long-term results reflect the contemporary literature for patients with multiple myeloma treated with autologous transplantation and thalidomide-based regimens in clinical trials and observational studies. However, further efforts are needed to approve and incorporate novel agents in Latin American countries, as well as to increase access to transplantation, in order to achieve the expected improvements in patient outcomes.

  8. Interpretation of Serum Retinol Data From Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Cediel, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Lòpez de Romaña, Daniel; Cori, Héctor; La Frano, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, the general socioeconomic situation in Latin America and the Caribbean countries has improved, and many vitamin A programs have been implemented in an attempt to reduce vitamin A deficiency in the region. To examine vitamin A status in Latin America and the Caribbean based on serum retinol concentrations and to contrast available data published before and after 1998. A systematic review was performed. National surveys or representative studies that reported vitamin A status were selected. Ten national surveys and six representative studies were identified. Data for children under 6 years of age indicate that Guatemala and Nicaragua have practically eradicated vitamin A deficiency (less than 2% prevalence of serum retinol < 20 μg/dL). In Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, and Panama, the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency ranged from 2.8% to 9.4%. In Peru, Honduras, Argentina, Ecuador, and Brazil, vitamin A deficiency is a moderate public health problem (prevalence from 14.0% to 17.4%), while in Colombia, Mexico, and Haiti it is a severe public health problem (prevalence from 24.3% to 32.0%). Disadvantaged groups (indigenous people and those of Afro-Colombian descent) have the highest rates of deficiency. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency is under 20% in school-children and adult women. When data published before and after 1998 for children under 6 years of age were compared, most Central American countries had a reduction in the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (p < .05), whereas in South American countries, the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency increased over time (p < .05). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children under 6 years of age has decreased in many Central American countries, but vitamin A deficiency still remains a public health problem in numerous Latin America and Caribbean countries, especially among disadvantaged and vulnerable groups. Because of issues with the accuracy of the serum retinol biomarker reflecting body

  9. [Changes in the patterns of food consumption in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Tagle, M A

    1988-09-01

    Food consumption patterns have suffered important although not generalized changes in recent years. A series of factors favor these changes, such as variations in family income, rural-urban migration, increase of tertiary activities related to foods, and exposure to commercial propaganda. All of these factors, when compared among them, do not have the same impact or validity. Thus, while the first two induce changes in the food pattern, the last two guide the consumer to certain food products. Modernization of the food pattern in Latin America and the Caribbean has been inspired by the USA food pattern of the previous decade, which from the nutritional and economic points of view, does not prove to be desirable. The average USA diet is rich in both saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fats, as well as in refined sugar and all types of additives. It is poor in carbohydrates, particular in those of the complex type; most of its protein is of animal origin. It may also be rich in salt and poor in fiber, as it is made up by well-diversified industrialized foods in their presentation, manufactured and marketed by a highly industrialized production-distribution capitalized structure. The adopted model is not in correspondence with out countries' natural resources; it produces a displacement of the consumption patterns based on autochthonous and/or traditional components, and induces an increase in food imports. Since Latin American countries are of poor economic resources, and the model renders expensive products, these are absorbed by the socioeconomic group able to pay for them and/or--intermittently--as a high-cost product by calorie delivered, by the poor groups who are most in need, a situation which would imply serious damage on the quality and quantity of their diet. Changes in food habits and in food consumption patterns are related to a certain socio-demographic process which cannot be stopped. Consequently, this process should be carefully analyzed and

  10. The Current Situation in Latin American Education. Bulletin, 1963, No. 21. OE-14060

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauch, Charles C.

    1962-01-01

    The brief description of education in Latin American presented here is based on information available to the Office of Education, much of it in unpublished form, and provides an overview of the general situation of education in Latin America. Document contents include: (1) Introduction: Some Background Factors--historical,…

  11. The Latin America and the Caribbean search strategy proposal.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Eloy F; Proaño, Alvaro; Proaño, Diego; Torres-Román, Junior Smith; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-08-04

    Latin America and the Caribbean's public health literature is not widely recognized. Science in this region has even been compared to a night sky with just a few specks of light. To make those lights as reachable as possible, we developed the Latin America and the Caribbean Search Strategy (LACSS). This is a new method to utilize our region's health promotion results within MEDLINE/PubMed. In contrast to a typical MeSH query, LACSS retrieves up to six times more publication results regarding non-communicable diseases, neglected tropical diseases, injuries and other important public health relevant topics in the region. We believe that global health promotion will be improved in this region by improving its visibility, and this search strategy will contribute to this. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. An overview of raptor biology and conservation in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Prior to the last decade, biological studies of raptorial birds in Latin America were, with a few exceptions, nonexistent. For many species all that was known was the general range and habitat type. While the logistical and political challenges are still present, the last few years has seen the opening of a door to what will almost surely be a flood of scientific investigations. From over 40,000 ground miles traveled in 16 countries, field contact with over two thirds of the raptor species, and interviews with conservation officers in 10 nations, I will report on some raptor concentration areas, identify topics for future research, and generalize on raptor conservation issues. I will also briefly mention some recent biological studies and touch briefly on the challenges awaiting the biologist who tries his or her hand at reaping the rewards that are present in abundance for those who engage in raptor studies in Latin America.

  13. Epidemic cholera in Latin America: spread and routes of transmission.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, J P

    1995-12-01

    In the most recent epidemic of cholera in Latin America, nearly a million cases were reported and almost 9000 people died between January 1991 and December 1993. The epidemic spread rapidly from country to country, affecting in three years all the countries of Latin America except Uruguay and the Caribbean. Case-control studies carried out in Peru showed a significant association between drinking water and risk of disease. Cholera was associated with the consumption of unwashed fruit and vegetables, with eating food from street vendors and with contaminated crabmeat transported in travellers' luggage. This article documents the spread of the epidemic and its routes of transmission and discusses whether the introduction of the epidemic to Peru and its subsequent spread throughout the continent could have been prevented.

  14. An overview of raptor conservation in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Prior to the last decade, biological studies of raptorial birds in Latin America were almost nonexistent. For many species little more was known than their general range and habitat type. The last few years have seen the opening of a door to what will surely be a flood of scientific investigations. Ultimately, the survival of raptor communities in Latin America depends not only on research but also on several other equally significant conservation efforts. These typically appear in the following order: first, appropriate legislation must be enacted and enforced to provide legal protection; second, the public must be educated concerning the value of wildlife; third, substantial blocks of favourable habitat must be identified and preserved; fourth, economic incentives must be generated so that the local human populations actually benefit from the preservation of vulnerable wildlife and natural habitats; and finally, the long-term success of all of these efforts in each nation depends on the attainment of political, economic and social stability.

  15. Impact of Malaria in Pregnancy as Latin America Approaches Elimination.

    PubMed

    Yanow, Stephanie K; Gavina, Kenneth; Gnidehou, Sedami; Maestre, Amanda

    2016-05-01

    In Latin America, four million pregnancies are at risk of malaria annually, but malaria in pregnancy is largely overlooked. As countries progress toward malaria elimination, targeting reservoirs of transmission is a priority. Pregnant women are an important risk group because they harbor asymptomatic infections and dormant liver stages of Plasmodium vivax that cause relapses. Of significant concern is the discovery that most infections in pregnant women fail to be detected by routine diagnostics. We review here recent findings on malaria in pregnancy within Latin America. We focus on the Amazon basin and Northwest Colombia, areas that harbor the greatest burden of malaria, and propose that more sensitive diagnostics and active surveillance at antenatal clinics will be necessary to eliminate malaria from these final frontiers.

  16. [Critical overview of theories of development in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Ominami, C

    1979-01-01

    The author reviews the 3 principal theoretical orientations of thought regarding the economic development of Latin America: the theory of evolution of development, the theory expounded by CEPAL (Economic Commission for Latin America), and the theory of dependent economy. The article is obviously directed to the specialist in Latin American economics, and quotes at length from published work on the subject. One of the problems involved seems to be the contradictions between the various economic propositions, and the existence of a social and political environment favorable to their realization. Countries such as Brazil and Mexico still maintain their superior position in terms of capital and manpower, but countries such as Ecuador, Colombia, and Costa Rica have already enormously improved their position as capitalistic nations. At the present time there is no economic theory capable of explaining the complex phenomenon of Latin American development and underdevelopment.

  17. Fertility changes in Latin America in periods of economic uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Adsera, Alicia; Menendez, Alicia

    2011-03-01

    We explored the relation between fertility and the business cycle in Latin America. First, we used aggregate data on fertility rates and economic performance for 18 countries. We then studied these same associations in the transitions to first, second, and third births with DHS individual data for ten countries. The results show that in general, childbearing declined during economic downturns. The decline was mainly associated with increasing unemployment rather than slowdowns in the growth of gross domestic product, although there was a positive relationship between first-birth rates and growth. While periods of unemployment may be a good time to have children because opportunity costs are lower, in fact childbearing was reduced or postponed, especially among the most recent cohorts and among urban and more educated women. The finding is consistent with the contention that, during this particular period in Latin America, income effects were dominant.

  18. Geriatric education in undergraduate and graduate levels in Latin America.

    PubMed

    López, Jorge H; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    A recent dramatic increase in the elderly population has not been accompanied by a parallel increase in specialized health care professionals in Latin America. The main purpose of this work was to determine the stage of geriatrics teaching for undergraduate and graduate medical levels in Latin America. Using a questionnaire given in person and online, the authors surveyed geriatricians from 16 countries: eight from South America and eight from Central America. Among 308 medical schools, 35% taught undergraduate geriatrics, ranging from none in Uruguay, Venezuela, and Guatemala to 82% in Mexico. The authors identified 36 programs in 12 countries with graduate medical education in geriatrics, ranging from 2 to 5 years of training. The authors conclude that although the population is aging rapidly in Latin American countries, there has been a slow development of geriatrics teaching at undergraduate and postgraduate levels in the region.

  19. Advances(?) in mitigating volcano hazards in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The 1980's were incredible years for volcanology. As a consequence of the Mount St. Helens and other eruptions, major advances in our understanding of volcanic processes and eruption dynamics were made. the decade also witnessed the greatest death toll caused by volcanism since 1902. Following Mount St. Helens, awareness of volcano hazards increased throughout the world; however, in Latin America, subsequent events showed that much was still to be learned. 

  20. The challenges of organizing an international course in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Vairo, Filippo; López, Mónica Luján; Cruz, Carolina Uribe; Corrêa, Priscila Gomes; Baldo, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) is the main course of its kind in the genetics field in Latin America. Here we describe the main challenges regarding the organization of such event, including how we obtain funding and how we proceed with student selection. Thus, we aim to share our experience with other groups that intend to follow this format to create similar events in other areas in this region of the world. PMID:24764750

  1. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  2. The challenges of biomedical engineering education in latin america.

    PubMed

    Monzon, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The broad scope of Biomedical Engineering requires careful planning when designing educational programs of the discipline, which must prepare students for a successful professional performance in a constantly changing field. Throughout the world, BME education must adapt to the dynamic concept of the profession and its scope. In this paper we present the issues that should be addressed for the successful preparation of future BM engineers in Latin America.

  3. Transmission of rabies by bats in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Victor

    1954-01-01

    This article reviews the literature dealing with the role of haematophagous bats in the spread of rabies among cattle in Latin America since 1911, when the association between Desmodontidae and rabies epizootics in Brazil was first suspected. Efforts to control the problem by destruction of the vectors and vaccination of bovines are described, and the suitability of chick-embryo vaccine is considered. PMID:13182599

  4. Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII <1%) without inhibitors (<0.6 BU mL(-1) ) and were ≥5 years of age. Musculoskeletal status was compared between three groups of countries, based primarily on differences in the availability of long-term prophylaxis. Overall, 143 patients (5-66 years of age) were enrolled from nine countries. In countries where long-term prophylaxis had been available for at least 10 years (Group A), patients aged 5-10 years had significantly better mean World Federation of Hemophilia clinical scores, fewer target joints and fewer affected joints than patients from countries where long-term prophylaxis has been available for about 5 years (Group B) or was not available (Group C). In Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated.

  5. Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2013-01-01

    Summary There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII <1%) without inhibitors (<0.6 BU mL−1) and were ≥5 years of age. Musculoskeletal status was compared between three groups of countries, based primarily on differences in the availability of long-term prophylaxis. Overall, 143 patients (5–66 years of age) were enrolled from nine countries. In countries where long-term prophylaxis had been available for at least 10 years (Group A), patients aged 5–10 years had significantly better mean World Federation of Hemophilia clinical scores, fewer target joints and fewer affected joints than patients from countries where long-term prophylaxis has been available for about 5 years (Group B) or was not available (Group C). In Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated. PMID:24354487

  6. Program for the elimination of urban rabies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Escobar Cifuentes, E

    1988-01-01

    The status of rabies in Latin America and the Caribbean is described. The probable evolution of rabies is described. The probable evolution of rabies is analyzed, especially with respect to the effect of urbanization in the large cities of the hemisphere and its possible impact on the epidemiology of urban rabies. Several alternatives for the control of rabies are discussed, as are the strategies for their implementation at the continental, subregional, and country levels.

  7. [Advancing public mental health research in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Susser, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    This special issue on Mental Health of the Journal of the School of Medicine, represents a significant contribution to the advance of public mental health research and training in Latin America. The editors (as well as the authors) deserve much credit for having conceived and implemented the joint publication of these papers. In this brief introduction, I draw attention to four ways in which their effort is likely to accelerate progress in this field.

  8. The challenges of organizing an international course in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Vairo, Filippo; López, Mónica Luján; Cruz, Carolina Uribe; Corrêa, Priscila Gomes; Baldo, Guilherme

    2014-03-01

    The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) is the main course of its kind in the genetics field in Latin America. Here we describe the main challenges regarding the organization of such event, including how we obtain funding and how we proceed with student selection. Thus, we aim to share our experience with other groups that intend to follow this format to create similar events in other areas in this region of the world.

  9. The future of nuclear power in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Eibenschutz, J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the future prospects of nuclear power in Latin America. As part of the developing world, Latin America has a great potential for energy growth. Although there are substantial differences among the different countries of the area, one common denominator is the relatively low per-capita energy consumption. As in many other regions of the world, nuclear power makes sense to complement hydro and fossil-fueled power generation. One of the main restrictions to the growth of nuclear power has been the relatively small size of some electric system. As in most developing countries, the damage to the environment due to the energy-producing systems is very important. In countries like Cuba, nuclear power is clearly the most economical source, since the country lacks indigenous energy resources and the need to import primary energy sources favors nuclear power. The problem of the Latin American region is a severe shortage of financial resources. Standardization has been recognized as one of the better mechanisms to lower nuclear power costs. Argentina has been proposing the construction of CANDU-type reactors as the basis for their standard program, and some years ago Mexico took steps to launch a program for the installation of {approx}20 identical units. As in the whole world, the general public is reluctant to accept nuclear power. So far, nuclear power plants have been important to Latin America, with varying levels of local participation, but with imported technology. Unless a major scientific breakthrough takes place, nuclear power will constitute an important component of the energy system in Latin America.

  10. Lower inflation in Latin America: Economic recovery begins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-30

    Throughout the 1980s, Latin American countries struggled with economic stagnation compounded by hyperinflation. A report by the Inter-American Development Bank finds marked improvement in the economies of Latin America, based upon its analysis of 1991 statistics. This issue taps two recent studies of the region, and its own Fuel Price/Tax Series, to track the trends for a view of a brighter future.

  11. Medical ethics in Latin America: a new interest and commitment.

    PubMed

    Drane, James F; Fuenzalida, Hernán L

    1991-12-01

    Recent visits to five Latin American nations indicate that some medical professionals are eager to increase the role of bioethics in their countries. Conversations with key figures there point up similarities and differences among Latin nations, and between Latin countries and the United States, in their approaches to ethics. Opportunities exist for U.S. bioethicists to help get bioethics teaching and research off the ground in Latin America.

  12. The Welfare State in Latin America: reform, innovation and fatigue.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Sonia

    2017-07-27

    This paper analyses the challenges of building the Welfare State in late democracies in Latin America. The author shows how the literature has identified different social protection patterns in the region and how recent reform models have transformed institutions, in an unfavorable socioeconomic context. The results point to the emergence of a mixture of social protection measures that have increased coverage and reduced poverty, but are unable to guarantee universal citizens' rights and longevity.

  13. Security Assistance in Latin America: Paradox and Dilemma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-21

    the Third World." Parameters, March 1990, pp. 38-47. Starr, Richard F., ed. Yearbook on International Communist Affairs. Stanford: Hoover Institutional...distribuition is unlinuited 4. PERFPORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMIER( S ) S MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) 69. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...11. TITLE (bnckud Secuity Clawficationy SECURITY ASSISTANCE IN LATIN AMERICA: PARADOX AND DILEMNA (UNCLASSIFIED) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) iKAJOR ROBERT

  14. Pediatric and neonatal transport in Spain, Portugal and Latin America.

    PubMed

    de la Mata, S; Escobar, M; Cabrerizo, M; Gómez, M; González, R; López-Herce Cid, J

    2017-04-01

    To study the organization of inter-hospital transport of pediatric and neonatal patients in Spain, Portugal and Latin America. An observational study was performed. An on-line survey was sent by email including questions about characteristics of national, regional and local health transport systems, vehicles, material, and composition of the transport team and their training. Hospital pediatric healthcare professionals treating children in Spain, Portugal and Latin America RESULTS: A total of 117 surveys from 15 countries were analyzed. Of them, 55 (47%) come from 15 regions of Spain and the rest from Portugal and 13 Latin American countries. The inter-hospital transport of pediatric patients is unified only in the Spanish regions of Baleares and Cataluña and in Portugal. Chile has a mixed unified transport system for pediatric and adult patients. Only 51.4% of responders have an educational program for the transport personnel, and only in 36.4% of them the educational program is specific for pediatric patients. In Spain and Portugal the transport is executed mostly by public entities, while in Latin America public and private systems coexist. Specific pediatric equipment is more frequent in the transport teams in the Iberian Peninsula than in Latin American teams. The specific pediatric transport training is less frequent for teams in Latin America than on Spain and Portugal. There is a great variation in the organization of children transport in each country and region. Most of countries and cities do not have unified and specific teams of pediatric transport, with pediatric qualified personnel and specific material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  15. The HIV care continuum in Latin America: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Piñeirúa, Alicia; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Cahn, Pedro; Guevara Palmero, Rafael Napoleón; Martínez Buitrago, Ernesto; Young, Benjamin; Del Rio, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), also known as highly active antiretroviral therapy, provides clinical and immunological benefits for people living with HIV and is an effective strategy to prevent HIV transmission at the individual level. Early initiation of ART as part of a test and treat approach might decrease HIV transmission at the population level, but to do so the HIV continuum of care, from diagnosis to viral suppression, should be optimised. Access to ART has improved greatly in Latin America, and about 600,000 people are on treatment. However, health-care systems are deficient in different stages of the HIV continuum of care, and in some cases only a small proportion of individuals achieve the desired outcome of virological suppression. At present, data for most Latin American countries are not sufficient to build reliable metrics. Available data and estimates show that many people living with HIV in Latin America are unaware of their status, are diagnosed late, and enter into care late. Stigma, administrative barriers, and economic limitations seem to be important determinants of late diagnosis and failure to be linked to and retained in care. Policy makers need reliable data to optimise the HIV care continuum and improve individual-based and population-based outcomes of ART in Latin America. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Understanding snake venoms: 50 years of research in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, José María

    2002-06-01

    As a tribute to Revista de Biología Tropical in its 50th anniversary, this review describes some of the main research efforts carried out in the study of the chemical composition and the mechanism of action of toxins present in the venoms of snakes distributed in Latin America. Venom proteins involved in neurotoxicity, coagulopathies, hemorrhage and muscle necrosis are discussed, together with a description of the inflammatory reactions elicited by these venoms and toxins. In addition, the search for inhibitory substances present in plants and animals that may be utilized in the neutralization of venoms is analyzed. Some of the clinical studies performed on snakebite envenomations in Latin America are also reviewed, together with the development of technologies aimed at improving the quality of antivenoms produced in the region. Toxinology has become a fruitful and stimulating research field in Latin America which has contributed to a better understanding of snake venoms as well as to an improved management of snake bitten patients.

  17. Periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Botero, Javier E; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Duque, Andres; Jaramillo, Adriana; Contreras, Adolfo

    2015-02-01

    Periodontal diseases are a group of infectious diseases that mainly include gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the most prevalent form of periodontal disease in subjects of all ages, including children and adolescents. Less frequent types of periodontal disease include aggressive periodontitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and various diseases of herpesviral and fungal origin. This review aimed to retrieve relevant information from Latin America on the prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents of the region. Gingivitis was detected in 35% of young Latin American subjects and showed the highest frequencies in Colombia (77%) and Bolivia (73%) and the lowest frequency in Mexico (23%). The frequency of gingivitis in subjects from other Latin American countries was between 31% and 56%. Periodontitis may affect <10% of the young population in Latin America, but the data are based on only a few studies. A more precise assessment of the distribution and severity of periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America may help policy makers and dentists to institute more effective public health measures to prevent and treat the disease at an early age to avoid major damage to the permanent dentition.

  18. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Focus on Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Massaro, Ayrton R.; Lippp, Gregory Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, with an estimated prevalence of 1-2% in North America and Europe. The increased prevalence of AF in Latin America is associated with an ageing general population, along with poor control of key risk factors, including hypertension. As a result, stroke prevalence and associated mortality have increased dramatically in the region. Therefore, the need for effective anticoagulation strategies in Latin America is clear. The aim of this review is to provide a contemporary overview of anticoagulants for stroke prevention. The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs, eg, warfarin) and aspirin in the prevention of stroke in patients with AF in Latin America remains common, although around one fifth of all AF patients receive no anticoagulation. Warfarin use is complicated by a lack of access to effective monitoring services coupled with an unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile. The overuse of aspirin is associated with significant bleeding risks and reduced efficacy for stroke prevention in this patient group. The non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACbs) represent a potential means of overcoming many limitations associated with VKA and aspirin use, including a reduction in the need for monitoring and a reduced risk of hemorrhagic events. The ultimate decision of which anticoagulant drug to utilize in AF patients depends on a multitude of factors. More research is needed to appreciate the impact of these factors in the Latin American population and thereby reduce the burden of AF-associated stroke in this region. PMID:27533256

  19. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Romieu, I.; Weitzenfeld, H.; Finkelman, J. )

    1991-09-01

    Urban air pollution has become an increasing problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. One reason is the rapid expansion in the size of the urban population. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the number of vehicles and in energy utilization which, in addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, are the primary sources of air pollution i n Latin American cities. The air quality standards established in such countries are frequently exceeded although control programs have been implemented. The urban areas more affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are Sao Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Mexico City. In Latin America, the population of cities with high priority air pollution problems include approximately 81 million people or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America, corresponding to 30 million children (<15 years), 47 million adults (15-59 years) and 4 million elderly people ({ge}60 years) who are exposed to air pollutant levels that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for adequate health protection.

  20. Children's health in Latin America: the influence of environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Laborde, Amalia; Tomasina, Fernando; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bruné, Marie-Noel; Buka, Irena; Comba, Pietro; Corra, Lilian; Cori, Liliana; Duffert, Christin Maria; Harari, Raul; Iavarone, Ivano; McDiarmid, Melissa A; Gray, Kimberly A; Sly, Peter D; Soares, Agnes; Suk, William A; Landrigan, Philip J

    2015-03-01

    Chronic diseases are increasing among children in Latin America. To examine environmental risk factors for chronic disease in Latin American children and to develop a strategic initiative for control of these exposures, the World Health Organization (WHO) including the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Collegium Ramazzini, and Latin American scientists reviewed regional and relevant global data. Industrial development and urbanization are proceeding rapidly in Latin America, and environmental pollution has become widespread. Environmental threats to children's health include traditional hazards such as indoor air pollution and drinking-water contamination; the newer hazards of urban air pollution; toxic chemicals such as lead, asbestos, mercury, arsenic, and pesticides; hazardous and electronic waste; and climate change. The mix of traditional and modern hazards varies greatly across and within countries reflecting industrialization, urbanization, and socioeconomic forces. To control environmental threats to children's health in Latin America, WHO, including PAHO, will focus on the most highly prevalent and serious hazards-indoor and outdoor air pollution, water pollution, and toxic chemicals. Strategies for controlling these hazards include developing tracking data on regional trends in children's environmental health (CEH), building a network of Collaborating Centres, promoting biomedical research in CEH, building regional capacity, supporting development of evidence-based prevention policies, studying the economic costs of chronic diseases in children, and developing platforms for dialogue with relevant stakeholders.

  1. Policy for Research and Innovation in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre-Bastos, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Latin America (LAC) is renewing efforts to build-up research and innovation (R&I) capacities, guided by policies that consider the need to transform the traditional science system into a more dynamic entity. Policies permitted the generation of new spaces to develop science, strengthen scientific communities, improve university-enterprise linkages, establish common agendas between public and private sectors, earmark special budgets, build new infrastructure, and improve the number and quality of scientific publications. In spite of much progress, LAC lags much behind developed countries, their universities rank lower than their international counterparts, the number of researchers is small and funding is below an appropriate threshold. Some countries have innovated in few economic sectors, while others remain technologically underdeveloped and much of the countries' innovative capacities remain untapped. It is believed that policies still have little influence on social and economic development and there exists dissatisfaction in the academic and entrepreneurial sectors with their quality and relevance or with the political will of governments to execute them. On the other hand, in the past decades, the complexity of innovation systems has increased considerably, and has yet to be taken fully into account in LAC policy definitions. The situation calls for decision makers to shape new framework conditions for R&I in a way that both processes co-evolve and are stimulated and guided on solutions to the major problems of society. Considering the main features of complex systems, self- organization, emergence and non-linearity, R&I policy measures need to be seen as interventions in such a system, as the use of traditional leverage effects used in the past for policy decisions are more and more obsolete. Policies must now use ``weak coordination mechanisms,'' foresight, mission statements, and visions. It is obvious that due to nonlinearities in the system, adaptive

  2. The case of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Palacio, J

    1993-03-01

    Population education programs in Latin America and the Caribbean are traced from their first inception around 1970 and express the diversity of strategies that would be appropriate to the variety of cultures, development styles, climates, and geography. In the early 1970s, this region had the highest growth rates in the world. The thinking embodied the notion that large populations were a sign of progress and geopolitical power; size was relevant only to the physical space available. The connections between population and economic development were not being made explicitly in policy or sectoral planning. There was some contention surrounding urban growth and the ability to meet the needs and the imbalance in the age structure. Initially, educational sectors did not take population into accounting; international agencies were responsible for promoting attention to demographics. It was the medical profession that mobilized the education sector to start sex and family education, due to the increasing number of abortions and their consequences. By 1974, education departments were engaged in curricula that included sex and family life issues, in teacher education, and training staff to implement these programs. The demographic situation has changed over the past 20 years, and not includes reduced mortality and the beginning of fertility decline. Growth rates are now 1.9% annually compared with 2.8% in 1970, and population increases by 9 million/year. Population education is described in terms of styles, motivations, human resources, administrative awareness, teacher training, training strategies and research needs, and future management. Population education has advanced, but the need is still there to reduce fertility among large numbers of people who "leave procreation to chance and fate." Education serves the purpose of changing values, attitudes, and knowledge that entails a different view of the value of children, the relations between the sexes, and the adoption

  3. [Women, development and population in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Bravo, R

    1989-12-01

    Women's situation as defined according to cultural factors which are present both in the division of labor by sex and in the power relationships, has its own specificities in the different social groups of a society. This happens for material reasons as well as because prevalent ideologies vary, among the different groups, from very traditional models of sexual roles to others which allow a greater flexibility in these roles. The consequences are reflected in the reproductive behavior. A woman's social insertion affects her specific situation, through a set of closely related variables: the educational opportunities, the quantity and characteristics of the domestic work they must carry out and the opportunities to participate in paid work. These variables influence demographic behavior through the age at 1st marriage, infant mortality, the values assigned to children and the capacity of taking reproductive decisions. In order to improve the situation of poorer women it is necessary that the economic, social and cultural development give special benefits to that sector, greater educational opportunities which could lead to possibilities of stable and well remunerated work. In these conditions women could achieve a greater self-determination to establish more equitable conjugal relationships and to decide with more freedom the number of their children.

  4. Developing multicenter consortia in liver disease in Latin America: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mendizabal, Manuel; Silva, Marcelo O

    2017-09-01

    The development of consortia has been useful for exploring challenging scenarios and uncharted territories in liver disease treatments. Several consortia already developed in the United States and Europe have become key factors in patient care decision-making processes and medical education, and they have also impacted policy makers' decisions. In Latin America, the situation is different. As a result of a combination of different factors, our region has not been able to develop networking advantages in research and education in liver diseases. Thus far, most of the initial experiences focused on the development of collaborative groups established to investigate a particular topic, which were dissolved once the questions were answered. It is the aim of this review to describe those difficulties we confront in developing multicenter liver consortia in Latin America, to identify those challenges we face, and also to describe the opportunities we have for improvement. Liver Transplantation 23 1210-1215 2017 AASLD. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  5. Cervical cancer in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia: Regional inequalities and changing trends.

    PubMed

    Vaccarella, S; Laversanne, M; Ferlay, J; Bray, F

    2017-11-15

    The vast majority (86% or 453,000 cases) of the global burden of cervical cancer occurs in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia, where one in nine new cancer cases are of the cervix. Although the disease has become rare in high-resource settings (e.g., in North America, parts of Europe, Japan) that have historically invested in effective screening programs, the patterns and trends are variable elsewhere. While favourable incidence trends have been recorded in many populations in Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean in the past decades, rising rates have been observed in sub-Saharan African countries, where high quality incidence series are available. The challenge for countries heavily affected by the disease in these regions is to ensure resource-dependent programmes of screening and vaccination are implemented to transform the situation, so that accelerated declines in cervical cancer are not the preserve of high-income countries, but become the norm in all populations worldwide. © 2017 IARC/WHO.

  6. [Child survival: magnitude of the problem in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Behm-Rosas, H

    1988-01-01

    This document summarizes the most relevant epidemiologic characteristics of infant and child mortality in Latin America. The gap in infant mortality rates between Latin America and the developed countries is wide and appears to be increasing. In the developed countries, 980 of each 1000 infants survive to the age of 5, but only 900 did so in Latin America in 1975-80. Infant mortality declined in Latin America between 1950-55 and 1980-85 from 128 to 63/1000 live births, with a slight increase in the rate of decline over the past decade. The great differences in social and economic development within Latin America are reflected in mortality rates before the age of 5 that also vary widely, from 34/1000 in Cuba to 221/1000 in Bolivia in 1975-80. Latin American countries with moderate risk of early childhood mortality are led by Cuba and Costa Rica, with rates of 34-35/1000. The 2 countries are very different politically but both have implemented vigorous social policies that benefitted their entire populations. Both had sustained mortality declines between 1955-80. Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Panama had mortality rates of 46-56/1000. Within the region, 16.4% of births and 8% of deaths in children under 5 are estimated to occur in these 7 countries. The countries of very high mortality include the least developed Caribbean, Central American, and Andean countries: Haiti, guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Peru. 3 of these countries contain large indigenous populations that have largely remained outside the development process. Their average rate of infant mortality is 162/1000. 14.7% of births and 27.0% of deaths in children under 5 in Latin America occur in these 6 countries. The intermediate group contains the 2 most populated countries of the region, Brazil and Mexico. The risk of death under age 5 ranges from 74 to 114/1000 and averages 99/1000. The 7 countries account for 68.9% of births and 68% of deaths in children under 5. The rate of

  7. Palliative care education in Latin America: A systematic review of training programs for healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Vindrola-Padros, Cecilia; Mertnoff, Rosa; Lasmarias, Cristina; Gómez-Batiste, Xavier

    2017-07-11

    The integration of palliative care (PC) education into medical and nursing curricula has been identified as an international priority. PC education has undergone significant development in Latin America, but gaps in the integration of PC courses into undergraduate and postgraduate curricula remain. The aim of our review was to systematically examine the delivery of PC education in Latin America in order to explore the content and method of delivery of current PC programs, identify gaps in the availability of education opportunities, and document common barriers encountered in the course of their implementation. We carried out a systematic review of peer-reviewed academic articles and grey literature. Peer-reviewed articles were obtained from the following databases: CINAHL Plus, Embase, the Web of Science, and Medline. Grey literature was obtained from the following directories: the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care's Global Directory of Education in Palliative Care, the Worldwide Hospice Palliative Care Alliance's lists of palliative care resources, the Latin American Association for Palliative Care's training resources, and the Latin American Atlas of Palliative Care. The inclusion criteria were that the work: (1) focused on describing PC courses; (2) was aimed at healthcare professionals; and (3) was implemented in Latin America. The PRISMA checklist was employed to guide the reporting of methods and findings. We found 36 programs that were delivered in 8 countries. Most of the programs were composed of interdisciplinary teams, taught at a postgraduate level, focused on pain and symptom management, and utilized classroom-based methods. The tools for evaluating the courses were rarely reported. The main barriers during implementation included: a lack of recognition of the importance of PC education, a lack of funding, and the unavailability of trained teaching staff. Considerable work needs to be done to improve the delivery of PC

  8. Fracture risk assessment in Latin America: is Frax an adaptable instrument for the region?

    PubMed

    Morales-Torres, Jorge; Clark, Patricia; Delezé-Hinojosa, Margarita; Cons-Molina, Fidencio; Messina, Osvaldo Daniel; Hernández, Jaime; Jaller-Raad, Juan José; Quevedo-Solidoro, Héctor; Radominski, Sebastiao Cezar

    2010-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a generalized disease of bone that increases fracture risk. Multiple factors influence this risk, besides low bone mass. To decrease osteoporotic fractures, those patients who require preventive management should be readily identified. This paper aims to review current information on the use of the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) in Latin America. Bone mineral density measurement is currently the method of reference for evaluating the fracture risk and opting for treatment; but, it misses a notable proportion of individuals who have clinical risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures. FRAX was designed to predict the 10-year absolute risk of sustaining a major osteoporotic fracture or a hip fracture. Although data is available for several countries, from Latin America, only Argentina appears in the current version of the tool. Its present use in other Latin American countries is possible with some adaptations based in similarities of epidemiological information of each country with some of the existing databases. The cutoff value beyond which treatment should be initiated needs to be determined, based not only on clinical criteria, but also on economic considerations.

  9. School Facility Projects in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Jeffrey; de Cassia Alves Vaz, Rita; Honorio, Joao; Baza, Jadille; Origel, Ricardo; Gomez, Fredys

    2004-01-01

    Many Latin American countries are undertaking projects, in line with practices disseminated by PEB, to share school facilities with the local community, to adapt traditional schools for students with disabilities, and to collaborate with private companies to finance educational buildings. The articles below describe current initiatives in five…

  10. School Facility Projects in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Jeffrey; de Cassia Alves Vaz, Rita; Honorio, Joao; Baza, Jadille; Origel, Ricardo; Gomez, Fredys

    2004-01-01

    Many Latin American countries are undertaking projects, in line with practices disseminated by PEB, to share school facilities with the local community, to adapt traditional schools for students with disabilities, and to collaborate with private companies to finance educational buildings. The articles below describe current initiatives in five…

  11. Education, Democracy, and Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-01-01

    Examines the historical context of the current Latin American educational crisis from the colonial era to the 1980s, comparing it to the educational investment undertaken by the Republic of Korea in a similar crisis. Calls for reform in state institutions, including a commitment to education, change in the economic model, and recognition of global…

  12. Education, Democracy, and Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-01-01

    Examines the historical context of the current Latin American educational crisis from the colonial era to the 1980s, comparing it to the educational investment undertaken by the Republic of Korea in a similar crisis. Calls for reform in state institutions, including a commitment to education, change in the economic model, and recognition of global…

  13. Iran and Latin America: Strategic Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    television, Verstrynge lauded Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda for creating a new type of warfare that is "de- territorialized , de-stateized and de...Central America, from Costa Rica/Nicaragua, currently in dispute, to Guatemala/Mexico, where the Zetas DTO controls most of the territory . The odds of... Desarrollo (BID) in Venezuela, a wholly owned Iranian bank operating in Venezuela which, after several years of operation, was formally sanctioned by

  14. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-06

    Grissonnanche, consultant at XP Conseil , leader of the MAP 1009B and 1009D projects, and president of Teletrust: "Security Research of Europe’s...transferred to an information and organization advisory company, called XP Conseil , which the project leader designate, Andre Grissonnanche, joined. Among...Teletrust This project previously called OSIS and currently headed by Andre Grissonnanche/XP Conseil (France), aims at: • proposing a universal system

  15. A HISTORICAL SURVEY OF PATTERNS AND TECHNIQUES OF INSURGENCY CONFLICTS IN POST-1900 LATIN AMERICA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of this report is to identify patterns and techniques of national and lower-scale insurgency conflicts in Latin America since 1900 in...order to derive data of assistance to U.S. planning for R+D requirements of military counterinsurgency operations in Latin America. Specific features of...insurgency in Latin America make it desirable that the report utilize the term insurgency in a broad sense and as inclusive of all types of violent

  16. [Key points for the management of dermatitis in Latin America. The SLAAI Consensus].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jorge; Páez, Bruno; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; De Falco, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of atopic dermatitis in Latin America, as in other regions, has been increasing in recent years. The SLAAI consensus is based on a systematic search for articles related to dermatitis, with focus in the pathophysiology and treatment and its impact on Latin America, and reviewed using the Delphi methodology (Revista Alergia Mexico 2014;61:178-211). In this article we highlight the key points of consensus and particular considerations in Latin America.

  17. Changing Dynamics of the U.S.-China-Latin America Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    OF THE U.S.–CHINA–LATIN AMERICA RELATIONSHIP by Shaun M. Geary March 2016 Thesis Advisor: Rodrigo Nieto-Gomez Second Reader: Tristan...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHANGING DYNAMICS OF THE U.S.–CHINA–LATIN AMERICA RELATIONSHIP 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...Latin America . However, the hegemonic geopolitical influence the United States once exerted is arguably fading, and Beijing offers an alternative to

  18. Migratory peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus, accumulate pesticides in Latin America during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Ward, F.P.; Riddle, K.E.; Prouty, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Blood samples from 433 Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) during fall and spring migrations, 1976-80, indicated that most of their pesticide burden, primarily DDE, was accumulated on wintering grounds in Latin America. DDE in spring migrants returning from Latin America for the first time declined significantly from 1979 to 1980. Only about 10% of breeding-age females contained organochlorine residues likely to adversely affect reproduction. The organochlorine pesticide threat in Latin America may be diminishing.

  19. U.S. Security Strategies: Trade Policy Implications for Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Strategies: Trade Policy Implications for Latin America Compiled by Dr. Max G. Manwaring Key Points: • Security was defi ned as “freedom from...attended. In the recent past, the security focus as it pertained to Latin America centered primarily on the Drug War, Colombia, and Plan Colombia. But...when key economies in Latin America and the Caribbean are in decline, and nothing is being done to improve strategic security . There was also a

  20. Rabies transmitted by vampire bats to humans: an emerging zoonotic disease in Latin America?

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Romijn, Phyllis Catharina; Uieda, Wilson; Tamayo, Hugo; da Silva, Daniela Fernandes; Belotto, Albino; da Silva, Jarbas Barbosa; Leanes, Luis Fernando

    2009-03-01

    Human rabies transmitted by vampire bats reached new heights in Latin America in 2005. A total of 55 human cases were reported in several outbreaks, 41 of them in the Amazon region of Brazil. Peru and Brazil had the highest number of reported cases from 1975 to 2006. In Peru, outbreaks involving more than 20 cases of bat-transmitted human rabies were reported during the 1980s and 1990s. During this period, a smaller number of cases were reported from outbreaks in Brazil. A comparison of data from field studies conducted in Brazil in 2005 with those from the previous decade suggests similar bat-bite situations at the local level. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiological situation and, on the basis of this information, discuss possible factors associated with the outbreaks. Prevention and control measures already recommended for dealing with this problem are also reviewed, and some further suggestions are provided.

  1. Assessment and monitoring of onchocerciasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Real-Najarro, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Onchocerciasis has historically been one of the leading causes of infectious blindness worldwide. It is endemic to tropical regions both in Africa and Latin America and in the Yemen. In Latin America, it is found in 13 foci located in 6 different countries. The epidemiologically most important focus of onchocerciasis in the Americas is located in a region spanning the border between Guatemala and Mexico. However, the Amazonian focus straddling the border of Venezuela and Brazil is larger in overall area because the Yanomami populations are scattered over a very large geographical region. Onchocerciasis is caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is spread through the bites of an insect vector, black flies of the genus Simulium. In Africa, the major vectors are members of the S. damnosum complex, while numerous species serve as vectors of the parasite in Latin America. Latin America has had a long history of attempts to control onchocerciasis, stretching back almost 100 years. The earliest programmes used a strategy of surgical removal of the adult parasites from affected individuals. However, because many of the adult parasites lodge in undetectable and inaccessible areas of the body, the overall effect of this strategy on the prevalence of infection was relatively minor. In 1988, a new drug, ivermectin, was introduced that effectively killed the larval stage (microfilaria) of the parasite in infected humans. As the microfilaria is both the stage that is transmitted by the vector fly and the cause of most of the pathologies associated with the infection, ivermectin opened up a new strategy for the control of onchocerciasis. Concurrent with the use of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis, a number of sensitive new diagnostic tools were developed (both serological and nucleic acid based) that provided the efficiency, sensitivity and specificity necessary to monitor the decline and eventual elimination of

  2. Twelve years of Fogarty-funded bioethics training in Latin America and the Caribbean: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Carla; Heitman, Elizabeth; Luna, Florencia; Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth W; Macklin, Ruth

    2014-04-01

    The landscape in research ethics has changed significantly in Latin America and the Caribbean over the past two decades. Research ethics has gone from being a largely foreign concept and unfamiliar practice to an integral and growing feature of regional health research systems. Four bioethics training programs have been funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) in this region in the past 12 years. Overall, they have contributed significantly to changing the face of research ethics through the creation of locally relevant training materials and courses (including distance learning), academic publications, workshops, and conferences in Spanish, and strengthening ethics review committees and national systems of governance. This paper outlines their achievements and challenges, and reflects on current regional needs and what the future may hold for research ethics and bioethics training in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  3. Twelve Years of Fogarty-Funded Bioethics Training in Latin America and the Caribbean: Achievements and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Saenz, Carla; Heitman, Elizabeth; Luna, Florencia; Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth W.; Macklin, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    The landscape in research ethics has changed significantly in Latin America and the Caribbean over the past two decades. Research ethics has gone from being a largely foreign concept and unfamiliar practice to an integral and growing feature of regional health research systems. Four bioethics training programs have been funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) in this region in the past 12 years. Overall, they have contributed significantly to changing the face of research ethics through the creation of locally relevant training materials and courses (including distance learning), academic publications, workshops, and conferences in Spanish, and strengthening ethics review committees and national systems of governance. This paper outlines their achievements and challenges, and reflects on current regional needs and what the future may hold for research ethics and bioethics training in Latin America and the Caribbean. PMID:24782074

  4. Admixture in Latin America: geographic structure, phenotypic diversity and self-perception of ancestry based on 7,342 individuals.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Everardo, Paola; de Avila, Francisco; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; León-Mimila, Paola; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C; Burley, Mari-Wyn; Konca, Esra; de Oliveira, Marcelo Zagonel; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; Rubio-Codina, Marta; Attanasio, Orazio; Gibbon, Sahra; Ray, Nicolas; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rosique, Javier; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Balding, David; Gonzalez-José, Rolando

    2014-09-01

    The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú). These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry.

  5. Planning for life in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Pick De Weiss, S; Perez, I

    1991-12-01

    The Instituto Mexicano de Investigacion de Familia y Poblacion conducted a study of 12-19 year old girls from lower middle to lower socioeconomic classes in Mexico City to determine knowledge level of sexuality and current sexual and contraceptive practices. Researchers wanted to use the information to create a sex education program and then evaluate the program's effect. The findings showed a need to obliterate false beliefs, to provide detailed and practical information about sexual behavior, and to expand sex education by stressing clarification of values, assertiveness, decision making, support networks among peers, and communication with family, partner, and peers. They developed a program called Planning Your Life. It was designed to make the best use of adolescents' cognitive abilities and to involve parents, teachers, and the community in the process by reinforcing newly learned attitudes and behaviors. Students rendered the new concepts into action by participating in group and individual exercises. They were also to leave the classes daily and practice their new skills and abilities. Knowledge increased significantly in students who attended the course. Further adolescents, particularly boys, who took part in the course before beginning sexual relations were more likely to use contraceptives than those who had already begun sexual relations. Thus children should receive sex education before they begin sexual activity. Effective sex education should equip children with skills to communicate with others in constructive and healthy ways, to make decisions which match their knowledge, to recognize traditional sexual roles and values, to pursue higher education, to strengthen family ties, to plan for the future, and to be cognizant of the likely effect of their present behavior.

  6. CSM in Latin America: new developments.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    SOMARC is currently providing support to contraceptive social marketing efforts in Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay. The distinctly different family planning climates in these 3 countries have provided SOMARC with an opportunity to practice programmatic flexibility in project strategy and design. In Bolivia, the SOMARC strategy for implementing contraceptive social marketing is primarily a private sector venture in which donated products will be imported by local distributors and sold through the traditional channels. Distribution services through a network of local private family planning groups will provide SOMARC with direct access to Bolivian trade unions and work organizations. These family planning groups will in turn be strengthened by their association with the social marketing program as a potential source of revenue. In Brazil, where many low-priced contraceptives are already on the market, SOMARC's role will be in the areas of communication and promotion to increase contraceptive prevalence. The first task will be to identify target areas where there is a combination of low prevalence and an existing market infrastructure. A Brazil Contraceptive Social Marketing Program Advisory Council has been formed to provide a consolidated approach to family planning activities. Efforts toward developing a contraceptive social marketing program in Paraguay remain at an exploratory level. The introduction of social marketing in Paraguay is complicated by the existence of a pervasive contraband system. Although consumer awareness of contraception is high, the contraceptive prevalence rate is low. Efforts in all 3 countries reflect SOMAR's strategy of broadening the scope of project alternatives to meet the special needs of each nation.

  7. [Optimizing post-operative pain management in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Garcia, João Batista Santos; Bonilla, Patricia; Kraychette, Durval Campos; Flores, Fernando Cantú; Valtolina, Elizabeth Diaz Perez de; Guerrero, Carlos

    Post-operative pain management is a significant problem in clinical practice in Latin America. Insufficient or inappropriate pain management is in large part due to insufficient knowledge, attitudes and education, and poor communications at various levels. In addition, the lack of awareness of the availability and importance of clear policies and guidelines for recording pain intensity, the use of specific analgesics and the proper approach to patient education have led to the consistent under-treatment of pain management in the region. However, these problems are not insurmountable and can be addressed at both the provider and patient level. Robust policies and guidelines can help insure continuity of care and reduce unnecessary variations in practice. The objective of this paper is to call attention to the problems associated with Acute Post-Operative Pain (APOP) and to suggest recommendations for their solutions in Latin America. A group of experts on anesthesiology, surgery and pain developed recommendations that will lead to more efficient and effective pain management. It will be necessary to change the knowledge and behavior of health professionals and patients, and to obtain a commitment of policy makers. Success will depend on a positive attitude and the commitment of each party through the development of policies, programs and the promotion of a more efficient and effective system for the delivery of APOP services as recommended by the authors of this paper. The writing group believes that implementation of these recommendations should significantly enhance efficient and effective post-operative pain management in Latin America. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Latin America: how a region surprised the experts.

    PubMed

    De Sherbinin, A

    1993-02-01

    In 1960-1970, family planning specialists and demographers worried that poverty, limited education, Latin machismo, and strong catholic ideals would obstruct family planning efforts to reduce high fertility in Latin America. It had the highest annual population growth rate in the world (2.8%), which would increase the population 2-fold in 25 years. Yet, the UN's 1992 population projection for Latin America and the Caribbean in the year 2000 was about 20% lower than its 1963 projection (just over 500 vs. 638 million). Since life expectancy increased simultaneously from 57 to 68 years, this reduced projection was caused directly by a large decline in fertility from 5.9 to 3. A regression analysis of 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries revealed that differences in the contraceptive prevalence rates accounted for 90% of the variation in the total fertility rate between countries. Thus, contraception played a key role in the fertility decline. The second most significant determinant of fertility decline was an increase in the average age at first marriage from about 20 to 23 years. Induced abortion and breast feeding did not contribute significantly to fertility decline. The major socioeconomic factors responsible for the decline included economic development and urbanization, resulting in improvements in health care, reduced infant and child mortality, and increases in female literacy, education, and labor force participation. Public and private family planning programs also contributed significantly to the decline. They expanded from cities to remote rural areas, thereby increasing access to contraception. By the early 1990s, Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia had among the lowest levels of unmet need (13-24%) in developing countries. Other key factors of fertility decline were political commitment, strong communication efforts, and stress on quality services. Latin America provides hope to other regions where religion and culture promote a large family size.

  9. The pharmacoeconomics of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Norberto; Micone, Paula; Gentile, Angela

    2011-09-14

    Streptococcus pneumoniae continues to be the most important causative agent of invasive bacterial infections in children and is the most common cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in children less than 5 years of age. Due to some conditions in the Latin America region, economic assessments of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have unique characteristics. First, distribution of S. pneumoniae serotypes, and thus coverage by vaccines that incorporate certain serotypes, varies within the region and compared with other parts of the world. Second, the mortality rate of pneumococcal infections in developing countries is significantly higher than in the US and Europe. Third, the economies of the Latin American region are very different from those of developed countries. For these reasons, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is promoting the need for economic valuation studies of the impact of pneumococcal vaccines Latin America. Given the importance of pneumonia in the burden of pneumococcal disease in Latin America, the number of pneumonia cases prevented by the vaccine has a large impact on the economic valuation of PCVs, due to a strong correlation with numbers of deaths averted, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained or disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) avoided. In terms of cost, analysis of impact on acute otitis media (short-term) and sequelae (long-term) show a significant and important expenditure avoided by vaccination. Cost-effectiveness is significantly modified by vaccine cost, mortality due to pneumonia, vaccine efficacy/effectiveness and herd immunity. Finally the validity of certain assumptions based on the uncertainty of the data should be considered in economic assessments of new PCVs. These include assumptions related to the impact on otitis media, estimates of efficacy/effectiveness based on measured antibody levels and the extrapolation to PCV10 and PCV13 of previous experience with PCV7.

  10. Arsenic in volcanic geothermal fluids of Latin America.

    PubMed

    López, Dina L; Bundschuh, Jochen; Birkle, Peter; Armienta, Maria Aurora; Cumbal, Luis; Sracek, Ondra; Cornejo, Lorena; Ormachea, Mauricio

    2012-07-01

    Numerous volcanoes, hot springs, fumaroles, and geothermal wells occur in the Pacific region of Latin America. These systems are characterized by high As concentrations and other typical geothermal elements such as Li and B. This paper presents a review of the available data on As concentrations in geothermal systems and their surficial discharges and As data on volcanic gases of Latin America. Data for geothermal systems in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile are presented. Two sources of As can be recognized in the investigated sites: Arsenic partitioned into volcanic gases and emitted in plumes and fumaroles, and arsenic in rocks of volcanic edifices that are leached by groundwaters enriched in volcanic gases. Water containing the most elevated concentrations of As are mature Na-Cl fluids with relatively low sulfate content and As concentrations reaching up to 73.6 mg L⁻¹ (Los Humeros geothermal field in Mexico), but more commonly ranging from a few mg L⁻¹ to tens of mg L⁻¹. Fluids derived from Na-Cl enriched waters formed through evaporation and condensation at shallower depths have As levels of only a few μg L⁻¹. Mixing of Na-Cl waters with shallower meteoric waters results in low to intermediate As concentrations (up to a few mg L⁻¹). After the waters are discharged at the ground surface, As(III) oxidizes to As(V) and attenuation of As concentration can occur due to sorption and co-precipitation processes with iron minerals and organic matter present in sediments. Understanding the mechanisms of As enrichment in geothermal waters and their fate upon mixing with shallower groundwater and surface waters is important for the protection of water resources in Latin America. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Asthma: epidemiology of disease control in Latin America - short review.

    PubMed

    Solé, Dirceu; Aranda, Carolina Sanchez; Wandalsen, Gustavo Falbo

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is reported as one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, impairing the quality of life of patients and their families and incurring high costs to the healthcare system and society. Despite the development of new drugs and the availability of international treatment guidelines, asthma is still poorly controlled, especially in Latin America. Original and review articles on asthma control or epidemiology with high levels of evidence have been selected for analysis among those published in PubMed referenced journals during the last 20 years, using the following keywords: "asthma control" combined with "Latin America", " epidemiology", "prevalence", "burden", "mortality", "treatment and unmet needs", "children", "adolescents", and "infants". There was a high prevalence and severity of asthma during the period analyzed, especially in children and adolescents. Wheezing in infants was a significant reason for seeking medical care in Latin American health centers. Moreover, the frequent use of quick-relief bronchodilators and oral corticosteroids by these patients indicates the lack of a policy for providing better care for asthmatic patients, as well as poor asthma control. Among adults, studies document poor treatment and control of the disease, as revealed by low adherence to routine anti-inflammatory medications and high rates of emergency care visits and hospitalization. In conclusion, although rare, studies on asthma control in Latin America repeatedly show that patients are inadequately controlled and frequently overestimate their degree of asthma control according to the criteria used by international asthma treatment guidelines. Additional education for doctors and patients is essential for adequate control of this illness, and therefore also for reduction of the individual and social burden of asthma.

  12. Understanding the uneven distribution of the incidence of homicide in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, Roberto; Villaveces, Andrés; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-08-01

    Throughout the final years of the twentieth century and into the beginning of the twenty-first, violence has been one of the main public health issues in Latin America, a region which has some of the highest mortality rates due to violence in the world. However, there seems to be an uneven geographical distribution of such instances. We reviewed epidemiological data on violence globally and in Latin America, and here, we discuss differences between the Latin American countries in the context of a sociological framework as well as from a public health perspective. Our results indicate marked differences by country in terms of rates of violence. Countries such as Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Uruguay, have low violence mortality rates; Peru, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Dominican Republic, Panama, and Paraguay have moderate rates, and Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, El Salvador, Honduras and Venezuela have high to extremely high mortality rates. Factors related to violence include social inequalities, lack of employment opportunities, urban segregation, a culture of masculinity, local drug markets, and the availability of firearms and widespread use of alcohol. The observed homicide variability between Latin American countries can be explained largely by differences in the countries' social contexts and political models. In those countries where homicide rates are extremely high, governments should review their current policies and take preventive actions. Fortunately increasingly nowadays there are promising advancements in that direction.

  13. Existing Instrumentation and Scientific Drivers for a Subduction Zone Observatory in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassetto, A.; Woodward, R.; Detrick, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The subduction zones along the western shore of the Americas provide numerous societally relevant scientific questions that have yet to be fully explored and would make an excellent target for a comprehensive, integrated Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO). Further, recent discussions in Latin America indicate that there are a large number of existing stations that could serve as a backbone for an SZO. Such preexisting geophysical infrastructure commonly plays a vital role in new science initiatives, from small PI-led experiments to the establishment of the USArray Transportable Array, Reference Network, Cascadia Amphibious Array, and the redeployment of EarthScope Transportable Array stations to Alaska. Creating an SZO along the western coast of the Americas could strongly leverage the portfolio of existing seismic and geodetic stations across regions of interest. In this presentation, we will discuss the concept and experience of leveraging existing infrastructure in major new observational programs, outline the state of geophysical networks in the Americas (emphasizing current seismic networks but also looking back on historical temporary deployments), and provide an overview of potential scientific targets in the Americas that encompass a sampling of recently produced research results and datasets. Additionally, we will reflect on strategies for establishing meaningful collaborations across Latin America, an aspect that will be critical to the international partnerships, and associated capacity building, needed for a successful SZO initiative.

  14. An international survey of screening and management of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Mateus Fernandes da Silva; Cerqueira, Taise Lima de Oliveira; Silva Junior, Joaquim Custódio; Amaral, Magali Teresopolis Reis; Vaidya, Bijay; Poppe, Kris Gustave; Carvalho, Gisah Amaral de; Gutierrez, Silvia; Alcaraz, Graciela; Abalovich, Marcos; Ramos, Helton Estrela

    2014-12-01

    To determine how endocrinologists in Latin America deal with clinical case scenarios related to hypothyroidism and pregnancy. In January 2013, we sent an electronic questionnaire on current practice relating to management of hypothyroidism in pregnancy to 856 members of the Latin American Thyroid Society (LATS) who manage pregnant patients with thyroid disease. Subsequently, we have analyzed responses from physician members. Two hundred and ninety-three responders represent clinicians from 13 countries. All were directly involved in the management of maternal hypothyroidism and 90.7% were endocrinologists. The recommendation of a starting dose of L-thyoxine for a woman diagnosed with overt hypothyroidism in pregnancy, preconception management of euthyroid women with known thyroid autoimmunity and approach related to ovarian hyperstimulation in women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies were widely variable. For women with known hypothyroidism, 34.6% of responders would increase L-thyroxine dose by 30-50% as soon as pregnancy is confirmed. With regard to screening, 42.7% of responders perform universal evaluation and 70% recommend TSH < 2.5 mUI/L in the first trimester and TSH < 3 mUI/L in the second and third trimester as target results in known hypothyroid pregnant women. Deficiencies in diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism during pregnancy were observed in our survey, highlighting the need for improvement of specialist education and quality of care offered to patients with thyroid disease during pregnancy in Latin America.

  15. [Social protection in Latin America and the Caribbean: changes, contradictions, and limits].

    PubMed

    Viana, Ana Luiza d'Avila; Fonseca, Ana Maria Medeiros da; Silva, Hudson Pacifico da

    2017-07-27

    Recent studies suggest that governments in the majority of Latin American and Caribbean countries were able to expand social investments and introduce innovations in social protection policies in the last two decades with positive results in the actions' coverage and impact. However, the restrictions imposed by the current fiscal crisis and the rise of governments more ideologically aligned with the neoliberal discourse in various countries in the region point to a new retreat of the state from the social area, thereby compromising recent advances. The article aims to discuss the changes, contradictions, and limits of recent social protection standards in Latin America and the Caribbean. The discussion includes three items: a description of the history of social protection in the region, seeking to identify its principal historical periods and characteristics (benefits, target public, and financing); the social protection models that have been implemented in the region; and the specific case of health. We argue that although countries have adopted different solutions in the field of social protection, the policies' hybrid nature (with extensive private sector participation in the financing, supply, and management of services) and the prevalence of segmented models (with differential access according to individuals' social status) have been predominant traits in social protection in Latin America and the Caribbean, thus limiting the possibilities for greater equity and social justice.

  16. Reaching remote areas in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Jaimes, R

    1994-01-01

    Poor communities in remote and inaccessible areas tend to not only be cut off from family planning education and services, but they are also deprived of basic primary health care services. Efforts to bring family planning to such communities and populations should therefore be linked with other services. The author presents three examples of programs to bring effective family planning services to remote communities in Central and South America. Outside of the municipal center in the Tuxtlas region of Mexico, education and health levels are low and people live according to ancient customs. Ten years ago with the help of MEXFAM, the IPPF affiliate in Mexico, two social promoters established themselves in the town of Catemaco to develop a community program of family planning and health care offering education and prevention to improve the quality of people's lives. Through their health brigades taking health services to towns without an established health center, the program has influenced an estimated 100,000 people in 50 villages and towns. The program also has a clinic. In Guatemala, the Family Welfare Association (APROFAM) gave bicycles to 240 volunteer health care workers to facilitate their outreach work in rural areas. APROFAM since 1988 has operated an integrated program to treat intestinal parasites and promote family planning in San Lucas de Toliman, an Indian town close to Lake Atitlan. Providing health care to more than 10,000 people, the volunteer staff has covered the entire department of Solola, reaching each family in the area. Field educators travel on motorcycles through the rural areas of Guatemala coordinating with the health volunteers the distribution of contraceptives at the community level. The Integrated Project's Clinic was founded in 1992 and currently carries out pregnancy and Pap tests, as well as general lab tests. Finally, Puna is an island in the middle of the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Women on the island typically have 10

  17. [Healthcare rights and conditional cash transfers in Latin America].

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Ana Maria Medeiros; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Avila

    2007-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer programs in Latin America impose specific requirements and responsibilities on beneficiary households, in order to upgrade education levels, improve drop-out rates and eliminate child labor, while enhancing health and nutrition indicators. Although counterpart healthcare conditions are common to all these programs, government strategies differ in terms of reaching their goals, at times even undermining improvements in the living conditions of more vulnerable segments of the population. Instead of upholding rights to healthcare, such initiatives may well trigger a new cycle of tightly-focused basic care through provisional programs.

  18. The future of urban water services in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Wade, Jeffry S

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, problems with the provision of drinking water and sanitation services around the world have increasingly been addressed by attempts at privatisation, recasting clean water as an essentially economic, rather than public, good. This approach gained particular acceptance in Latin America, but with limited success. In order to address the full range of social, economic and environmental values necessary to sustain water resources over time, public and governmental involvement in establishing integrated water management, pursuing ‘soft path’ approaches, assuring stakeholder input and setting policy will be essential to the process.

  19. Latin America: native populations affected by early onset periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Nowzari, Hessam; Botero, Javier Enrique

    2011-06-01

    Millions of individuals are affected by early onset periodontal disease in Latin America, a continent that includes more than 20 countries. The decision-makers claim that the disease is not commonly encountered. In 2009, 280,919 authorized immigrants were registered in the United States versus 5,460,000 unauthorized (2,600,000 in California). The objective of the present article is to raise awareness about the high prevalence of the disease among Latin Americans and the good prognosis of preventive measures associated with minimal financial cost.

  20. Economic Burden of Herpes Zoster ("culebrilla") in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rampakakis, Emmanouil; Pollock, Clare; Vujacich, Claudia; Toniolo Neto, Joao; Ortiz Covarrubias, Alejandro; Monsanto, Homero; Johnson, Kelly D

    2017-05-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is characterized by debilitating pain and blistering dermatomal rash. The most common complication of HZ is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), a persistent pain that can substantially affect patients' quality of life. HZ has significant impact on patients' lives with considerable implications for healthcare systems and society. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and medical costs associated with HZ in Latin America. We conducted a pooled-analysis of three prospective cohort studies of HZ patients ≥50 years of age in Argentina (n=96); Brazil (n=145) and Mexico (n=142). Patients were recruited at different time-points during their HZ episode and were followed for six months. The incidence of PHN was defined as a worst ZBPI pain score of ≥3, persisting or appearing more than 90 days after the onset of rash. Work effectiveness was measured on a 100-point Likert scale where 100 was described as completely effective (able to work like before HZ began) and 0 as not effective at all. Direct costs included costs due to use of antiviral medications and all medical services used to treat HZ. Indirect cost was based on foregone earnings from patients due to work loss and presenteeism, and work loss by family caretakers. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impact on total costs. All costs are reported in 2015 USD currency. 383 HZ patients were included and PHN incidence was 38.6%. The most commonly used resources were visits to the doctor's office (79.1% of patients), the emergency room (48.8%) and a specialist (37.9%); hospitalization was reported for 5.7% of patients. The overall direct cost per case was $763.19 USD, indirect cost was $701.40, for a total of $1,464.59 per HZ episode in Latin America. Total cost associated with HZ in patients with PHN was markedly higher compared to patients without PHN ($2,001.13 vs. $867.72, respectively) with indirect costs accounting for the most part

  1. [The need to develop demographic census systems for Latin America].

    PubMed

    Silva, A

    1987-01-01

    The author presents the case for developing new software packages specifically designed to process population census information for Latin America. The focus is on the problems faced by developing countries in handling vast amounts of data in an efficient way. First, the basic methods of census data processing are discussed, then brief descriptions of some of the available software are included. Finally, ways in which data processing programs could be geared toward and utilized for improving the accuracy of Latin American censuses in the 1990s are proposed.

  2. Trypanosomiasis vector control in Africa and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Chris J; Kabayo, John P

    2008-01-01

    Vectors of trypanosomiasis – tsetse (Glossinidae) in Africa, kissing-bugs (Triatominae) in Latin America – are very different insects but share demographic characteristics that render them highly vulnerable to available control methods. For both, the main operational problems relate to re-invasion of treated areas, and the solution seems to be in very large-scale interventions covering biologically-relevant areas rather than adhering to administrative boundaries. In this review we present the underlying rationale, operational background and progress of the various trypanosomiasis vector control initiatives active in both continents. PMID:18673535

  3. New global change research effort launched in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, Michael E.; Galarraga, Remigio H.

    Latin America's mountains extend in a nearly unbroken chain from Mexico to Chile and reach elevations above 6000 m.The valleys of these mountains have seen the evolution of diverse and unique ecosystems, as well as the development of several of the region's most celebrated pre-Columbian civilizations.Today these same valleys contain some of Earth's most rapidly changing landscapes, as urban and agricultural frontiers expand and historical land use changes in response to new pressures from economic globalization.These valleys also face poorly understood threats linked to global climate change.

  4. The meanings of universal health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Clark, Mary A

    2015-02-01

    In Latin America, competing definitions of universal health care are found. Variants include traditional universalism, basic universalism, and minimal or residual universalism. These definitions are informed by European traditions, a renewed emphasis on equity among Latin American social policy experts, and World Bank strategy. This essay explores these definitions as well as areas of overlap and points of difference between and among them using examples from several Latin American countries. The most important difference concerns the preventive and curative services not covered by the benefits packages of minimal universal programs, a gap expected to grow increasingly costly for patients. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  5. The role of tramadol in pain management in Latin America: a report by the Change Pain Latin America Advisory Panel.

    PubMed

    Santos Garcia, Joäo Batista; Lech, Osvandré; Campos Kraychete, Durval; Rico, María Antonieta; Hernández-Castro, John Jairo; Colimon, Frantz; Guerrero, Carlos; Sempértegui Gallegos, Manuel; Lara-Solares, Argelia; Flores Cantisani, José Alberto; Amescua-Garcia, César; Guillén Núñez, María Del Rocío; Berenguel Cook, María Del Rosario; Jreige Iskandar, Aziza; Bonilla Sierra, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    Change Pain Latin America (CPLA) was created to enhance chronic pain understanding and develop pain management improving strategies in this region. During its seventh meeting (August 2016), the main objective was to discuss tramadol's role in treating pain in Latin America. Furthermore, potential pain management consequences were considered, if tramadol was to become more stringently controlled. Key topics discussed were: main indications for prescribing tramadol, its pharmacological characteristics, safety and tolerability, effects of restrictions on its availability and use, and consequent impact on pain care quality. The experts agreed that tramadol is used to treat a wide spectrum of non-oncological pain conditions (e.g. post-surgical, musculoskeletal, post-traumatic, neuropathic, fibromyalgia), as well as cancer pain. Its relevance when treating special patient groups (e.g. the elderly) is recognized. The main reasons for tramadol's high significance as a treatment option are: its broad efficacy, an inconspicuous safety profile and its availability, considering that access to strong analgesics - mainly controlled drugs (classical opioids) - is highly restricted in some countries. The CPLA also agreed that tramadol is well tolerated, without the safety issues associated with long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, with fewer opioid-like side effects than classical opioids and lower abuse risk. In Latin America, tramadol is a valuable and frequently used medication for treating moderate to severe pain. More stringent regulations would have significant impact on its availability, especially for outpatients. This could cause regression to older and frequently inadequate pain management methods, resulting in unnecessary suffering for many Latin American patients.

  6. Steroid Use for Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Latin America: A Potentially Dangerous Practice Guided by Fear of Lawsuit.

    PubMed

    Teles, Alisson R; Cabrera, Jorge; Riew, K Daniel; Falavigna, Asdrubal

    2016-04-01

    Current international guidelines do not recommend the routine administration of methylprednisolone (MP) in patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Its use is known to be associated with complications and death. To identify patterns of practice and reasons for MP prescription for acute SCI in Latin America. Portuguese- and Spanish-modified versions of a previously published questionnaire were used to evaluate opinions about the administration of MP for acute SCI in Latin America. This Internet-based survey was conducted with members of AOSpine Latin America. A total of 970 AOSpine Latin America members from 20 countries answered the electronic questionnaire. Of the total sample, 834 surgeons (86%) reported that they routinely treat patients with acute SCI, and 56.1% of them reported routine administration of MP for these patients. Use of MP was associated with country, specialty, length of clinical practice, and number of SCI treated yearly. Among the 468 surgeons who report routine administration of MP, 56.1% believe in the clinical benefit, 29.3% do this because of fear of litigation, 27.1% because this is a protocol in their hospital, 3.5% because they believe that MP has no major adverse effects. Despite increasing evidence against the routine administration of MP in patients with SCI and international guidelines that do not recommend its use, this potentially dangerous practice remains common on this continent. The Latin American medical associations need to produce guidelines to standardize practices with acute SCI. Moreover, educational campaigns might reduce practices guided mainly by misperception of legal issues instead of clinical benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of low back pain in Latin America: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Joao Batista S; Hernandez-Castro, John J; Nunez, Rocio G; Pazos, Maria Ar; Aguirre, Jorge O; Jreige, Asisa; Delgado, Willian; Serpentegui, Manuel; Berenguel, Maria; Cantemir, Catalin

    2014-01-01

    was estimated to be around 10.5%. Some risk factors reported by the authors are long working hours with the worker in the sitting position, obesity and overweight, pregnancy, smoking, advanced age, lifting and carrying heavy loads, domestic work, sedentary lifestyles, and duration of current employment. A subgroup analysis of the population under study yielded an estimated prevalence of low back pain of 16.7% for the population exposed to a lower number of risk factors and 65% for the higher risk subgroup. In this review, we made an exhaustive search of studies evaluating the epidemiology of chronic low back pain in the Latin America region. The large topographic and chronologic variability in definitions of low back pain, interviewer bias, and subject selection bias. Despite the sparse information and the methodological heterogeneity of the studies, pooled results allowed for an indirect estimation of the prevalence of low back pain in the region that was pretty consistent with the published results obtained from other settings. New studies need to be carried out to supplement and overcome the methodological weaknesses of those previously conducted.

  8. Epidemiological Characteristics of Dengue Disease in Latin America and in the Caribbean: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Jaime Rafael; Orduna, Tomás Agustín; Piña-Pozas, Maricela; Vázquez-Vega, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Dengue, an important mosquito-borne virus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti, is a major public health issue in Latin America and the Caribbean. National epidemiological surveillance systems, usually based on passive detection of symptomatic cases, while underestimating the true burden of dengue disease, can provide valuable insight into disease trends and excess reporting and potential outbreaks. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to characterize the recent epidemiology of dengue disease in Latin America and the English-speaking and Hispanic Caribbean Islands. We identified 530 articles, 60 of which met criteria for inclusion. In general, dengue seropositivity across the region was high and increased with age. All four virus serotypes were reported to circulate in the region. These observations varied considerably between and within countries and over time, potentially due to climatic factors (temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity) and their effect on mosquito densities and differences in socioeconomic factors. This review provides important insight into the major epidemiological characteristics of dengue in distinct regions of Latin America and the Caribbean, allowing gaps in current knowledge and future research needs to be identified. PMID:28392806

  9. Epidemiological Characteristics of Dengue Disease in Latin America and in the Caribbean: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jaime Rafael; Orduna, Tomás Agustín; Piña-Pozas, Maricela; Vázquez-Vega, Daniela; Sarti, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Dengue, an important mosquito-borne virus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti, is a major public health issue in Latin America and the Caribbean. National epidemiological surveillance systems, usually based on passive detection of symptomatic cases, while underestimating the true burden of dengue disease, can provide valuable insight into disease trends and excess reporting and potential outbreaks. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to characterize the recent epidemiology of dengue disease in Latin America and the English-speaking and Hispanic Caribbean Islands. We identified 530 articles, 60 of which met criteria for inclusion. In general, dengue seropositivity across the region was high and increased with age. All four virus serotypes were reported to circulate in the region. These observations varied considerably between and within countries and over time, potentially due to climatic factors (temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity) and their effect on mosquito densities and differences in socioeconomic factors. This review provides important insight into the major epidemiological characteristics of dengue in distinct regions of Latin America and the Caribbean, allowing gaps in current knowledge and future research needs to be identified.

  10. Life course socioeconomic adversity and age at natural menopause in women from Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Maria P; Alvarado, Beatriz; Lord, Catherine; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between life course socioeconomic adversity and age at menopause in Latin America and the Caribbean. Data from 4,056 women aged 60 to 79 years randomly selected from seven cities in Latin America and the Caribbean were analyzed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the probability of age at menopause by indicators of life course socioeconomic adversity. Median age at menopause was 50 years. The following life course socioeonomic indicators were associated with earlier age at menopause: low education (hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.26) and manual occupation/housewives (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.20). Other factors associated with earlier age at menopause were current smoking (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.27), nulliparity (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02-1.28), and multiparity (five children or more; HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.24). There was a cumulative effect of socioeconomic adversities across the life course. The median age at menopause was lower for women with six indicators of life course socioeconomic adversity compared with women with no adversities (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.10-1.77). Median age at menopause occurs several years earlier in women from Latin America and the Caribbean compared with women from high-income countries. The results support the association between life course socioeconomic adversity and age at menopause.

  11. Hepatitis E virus: An ancient hidden enemy in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Fierro, Nora A; Realpe, Mauricio; Meraz-Medina, Tzintli; Roman, Sonia; Panduro, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute clinical hepatitis worldwide. HEV is an RNA-containing virus and the only member of the genus Hepevirus in the family Hepeviridae. Human HEV is classified into four genotypes widely distributed across the world. The virus is mainly transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and water-borne epidemics have become characteristic of hepatitis E in developing countries, including those in Latin America. The zoonotic potential of HEV is broadly recognized. Thus, there is an urgent need to re-evaluate virus transmission scenarios and to enforce epidemiological surveillance systems. Additionally, it is known that HEV infections, initially defined as self-limiting, can also take chronic courses in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, we recently reported a high seroprevalence of HEV in samples from cirrhotic patients with no other etiological agents present, suggesting the potential role of HEV in the development of chronic liver illness. In this review, HEV genomic variability, transmission, chronic infectious course, zoonotic potential and treatment are discussed. Focus is placed on the impact of HEV infection in Latin America, to support the development of specific control strategies and the handling of this important and typically imperceptible viral infection. PMID:26900289

  12. Overcoming social segregation in health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cotlear, Daniel; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia; Atun, Rifat; Barreto, Ivana C H C; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Cueto, Marcos; Francke, Pedro; Frenz, Patricia; Guerrero, Ramiro; Lozano, Rafael; Marten, Robert; Sáenz, Rocío

    2015-03-28

    Latin America continues to segregate different social groups into separate health-system segments, including two separate public sector blocks: a well resourced social security for salaried workers and their families and a Ministry of Health serving poor and vulnerable people with low standards of quality and needing a frequently impoverishing payment at point of service. This segregation shows Latin America's longstanding economic and social inequality, cemented by an economic framework that predicted that economic growth would lead to rapid formalisation of the economy. Today, the institutional setup that organises the social segregation in health care is perceived, despite improved life expectancy and other advances, as a barrier to fulfilling the right to health, embodied in the legislation of many Latin American countries. This Series paper outlines four phases in the history of Latin American countries that explain the roots of segmentation in health care and describe three paths taken by countries seeking to overcome it: unification of the funds used to finance both social security and Ministry of Health services (one public payer); free choice of provider or insurer; and expansion of services to poor people and the non-salaried population by making explicit the health-care benefits to which all citizens are entitled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental education: a fast-growing field in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Wood, D W

    1989-01-01

    Private conservation organizations have become more prevalent throughout Latin America in the last decade. They range from well organized and financed, internationally-recognized organizations, to small volunteer groups. They are committed to preserving the natural resources and cover national park management, the protection of wildlife, reforestation, environmental contamination and other issues. Also in Latin America environmental education has become an important part of the resource conservation programs. One of the most advanced and successful programs is in Ecuador and is called Natura. It has produced many educational materials including slide programs, television spots and programs, booklets, a complete primary school curriculum, posters, radio programs and a profile of Ecuador's environment. Their programs have been successful because they analyze their target audience and tailor the program to their needs and desires. They also follow up with evaluation questionnaires and testing for each program. It has been difficult for organizations such as these to implement programs in rural areas. There are some groups developing environmental education programs in rural areas through alliances with development assistance organizations. There are essential for the protection of wild areas where human needs must be balanced with longterm ecological priorities.

  14. Psychiatric rehabilitation in Latin America: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Restrepo, J M; Escobar, M L; Cubillos, L

    2016-11-17

    Comprehensive psychiatric rehabilitation programs in Latin America have been designed across several countries in the region without yet achieving full implementation. Facing an increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders, including alcohol and substance use disorders, the region has responded unevenly to the challenge. Moreover, low priority for mental health in national policies and insufficient funding for mental health services are common barriers for the much-needed mental health services reforms. Reestablishing a primary care community-based model of care has been a shared aspiration for most countries during the last two decades. Comprehensive models of psychiatric rehabilitation developed predominantly in high-income countries need to be culturally adapted to local contexts, while strengthening health systems research will provide evidence on the efficiency of locally designed interventions and on the critical milestones to succeed in the scaling up strategies. Increasing participation of patients and their families in the mental health delivery system is another key factor in order to ensure comprehensive patient-centred psychosocial rehabilitation programs in Latin America.

  15. Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Díaz, Rita Angélica; Garibay-Nieto, Nayely; Wacher-Rodarte, Niels; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos Alberto

    2014-03-01

    Latin America is among the regions with the highest diabetes-related burden. Research and treatment programs have increased in number and complexity in recent years, but they are focused in type 2 diabetes, because this condition explains a large proportion of the cases. In contrast, the information regarding the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes is scant in this area. Here, we analyze the available information on this topic and identify potential areas of opportunity to generate new knowledge through the study of type 1 diabetes in Latin Americans. Both, the prevalence and the incidence of type 1 diabetes, are lower in Latin American countries compared to that reported in Europe, North America, southern Asia and northern Africa. Biologic and methodological factors may explain the smaller contribution of type 1. The presence of some putative 'protective' environmental exposures or the absence of those prevalent in a region may explain the lower type 1 diabetes prevalence observed in most Latin American countries. However, the number and quality of the diabetes registries are not enough in this region. During the past decade, the incidence of type 1 diabetes has grown worldwide. The same trend has been reported in Latin America. This epidemiologic transition is a unique opportunity to identify interactions between rapidly changing environmental factors in subjects with different genetic backgrounds (such as the admixed Latin American populations). Finally, on-going therapeutic initiatives in this region are highlighted.

  16. Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Suding, P.H.

    1995-12-31

    There is a marked difference between the perception of the sustainable development problem in the industrialized countries and that prevailing in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C). Whereas the industrialized countries seem concerned about the sustainability of their development in view of global climate change, developing countries in LA&C are looking for a sustainable development course that will lead them out of poverty and away from the destruction of the local environment. The industrialized countries perspective is apparent in the titles of the papers being presented at the IAEE Conference under the topic: Harmonizing Energy Policy, Environment, and Sustainable Economic Growth. A great number of titles and sessions focus on the apparent antagonism between economic growth and the environment. By environment one seems to primarily mean emissions into the air, especially greenhouse gas emissions. Probably the majority of the energy community of the industrial countries regards Latin America, on the one hand, as a holder of a large CO{sub 2} sink in danger of extinction and, on the other hand, as a potential new large contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Socioeconomic determinants of cervical cancer screening in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Fukui, Natsu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of health care access and socioeconomic determinants on Pap smear screening in Latin America. Methods Individual-level data was collected from the Demographic and Health Surveys in Bolivia, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago between 1987 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify socioeconomic and health care determinants of two outcomes: knowledge of Pap smears and recent Pap smear screening. Results In all countries, the proportion of women with a recent Pap smear screening remained below 55%. Key determinants of knowledge of Pap smears were age, education, and recent doctor’s visit. For recent Pap smear screening, key determinants were wealth and recent doctor’s visit. Women were between 1.47 and 3.44 times more likely to have received a recent Pap smear if they had a recent doctor’s visit. Even the poorest women with a recent doctor’s visit were more likely to screen than the richest women without a recent visit. Conclusions These data suggest that visiting a doctor is an important determinant of cervical cancer screening in Latin America. Because screening may coincide with other medical visits, physicians could effectively encourage screening. PMID:23698136

  18. Hepatitis E virus: An ancient hidden enemy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Nora A; Realpe, Mauricio; Meraz-Medina, Tzintli; Roman, Sonia; Panduro, Arturo

    2016-02-21

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute clinical hepatitis worldwide. HEV is an RNA-containing virus and the only member of the genus Hepevirus in the family Hepeviridae. Human HEV is classified into four genotypes widely distributed across the world. The virus is mainly transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and water-borne epidemics have become characteristic of hepatitis E in developing countries, including those in Latin America. The zoonotic potential of HEV is broadly recognized. Thus, there is an urgent need to re-evaluate virus transmission scenarios and to enforce epidemiological surveillance systems. Additionally, it is known that HEV infections, initially defined as self-limiting, can also take chronic courses in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, we recently reported a high seroprevalence of HEV in samples from cirrhotic patients with no other etiological agents present, suggesting the potential role of HEV in the development of chronic liver illness. In this review, HEV genomic variability, transmission, chronic infectious course, zoonotic potential and treatment are discussed. Focus is placed on the impact of HEV infection in Latin America, to support the development of specific control strategies and the handling of this important and typically imperceptible viral infection.

  19. Helminth parasites of finfish commercial aquaculture in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Soler-Jiménez, L C; Paredes-Trujillo, A I; Vidal-Martínez, V M

    2017-03-01

    Latin America has tripled production by aquaculture up to 78 million tonnes in the past 20 years. However, one of the problems that aquaculture is facing is the presence of helminth parasites and the diseases caused by them in the region. In this review we have collected all the available information on helminths affecting commercial aquaculture in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), emphasizing those causing serious economic losses. Monogeneans are by far the most common and aggressive parasites affecting farmed fish in LAC. They have been recognized as serious pathogens in intensive fish culture because they reach high levels of infection rapidly, and can infect other phylogenetically related fish species. The next most important group comprises the larval stages of digeneans (metacercariae) such as Diplostomum sp. and Centrocestus formosanus, which cause serious damage to farmed fish. Since LAC aquaculture has been based mainly on exotic species (tilapia, salmon, trout and carp), most of their parasites have been brought into the region together with the fish for aquaculture. Recently, one of us (A.I.P.-T.) has suggested that monogeneans, which have generally been considered to be harmless, can produce serious effects on the growth of cultured Nile tilapia. Therefore, the introduction of fish together with their 'harmless' parasites into new sites, regions or countries in LAC should be considered a breakdown of biosecurity in those countries involved. Therefore, the application of quarantine procedures and preventive therapeutic treatments should be considered before allowing these introductions into a country.

  20. [Liaison psychiatry: a new perspective on mental health in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Bórquez Rojas, E; Torres, P; Tapia, L; Rodríguez, A; Rocha, P; Larrea, J; Yulis, J; Bórquez, J A

    1989-01-01

    The situation of Mental Health in Latin America is analyzed. Urgently creating a system able at handling the psychiatric disease increase in the years to come is a conclusion this paper strongly aims at. The beginning of Psychiatry is reviewed, and the importance of Psychiatry at the General Hospital is outlined as well as its rapprochement toward the community, which led to a better control and prevention in the field of Mental Health. A definition of Psychiatry is proposed, as a branch of Medicine which stands in between mental hospitals and communities. Active teamwork, coupled with the physician's work and the tasks other members of the health personnel are engaged in, has led to a more integrated approach onto the ill thus benefiting not only patients but also the whole community.