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Sample records for latin-america current situation

  1. AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation.

    PubMed

    1992-03-01

    HIV and AIDS first affected the countries of North America and the Caribbean. By now, all countries in the region have been affected, but the magnitude and distribution of HIV's impact vary between subregions and countries. Conservative estimates tally 750,000 infected with HIV in Brazil, 120,800 in the Latin Caribbean, 91,250 in the Andean area, 80,000 in Mexico, 41,400 in the Southern Cone, 30,800 in the Central American Isthmus, and 8300 in the Caribbean. 48,767 AIDS cases were reported in Latin America and the Caribbean by the end of 1991. 46.3% of cases were in Brazil, 18.6% in Mexico, 9.8% in Latin Caribbean, 8.4% in the Andean area, 7.0% in the Caribbean, 5.7% in the Central American Isthmus, and 4.3% in the Southern Cone. Compared to figures for 1990, incidence in the Southern Cone increased by 155%, 82% in the Central American Isthmus, 60% in Mexico, 40% in the Andean area, and 25% in Brazil. Incidence may have decreased by 9.7% in the Latin Caribbean and 0.3% in North America. Reporting remains delayed and incomplete for many of these countries. Further, only 50% of AIDS cases in Latin America may actually be reported. Incidence and prevalence data should, therefore, be treated with caution. HIV and AIDS are discussed in detail on a subregional basis.

  2. Current situation of pests targeted by Bt crops in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Blanco, C A; Chiaravalle, W; Dalla-Rizza, M; Farias, J R; García-Degano, M F; Gastaminza, G; Mota-Sánchez, D; Murúa, M G; Omoto, C; Pieralisi, B K; Rodríguez, J; Rodríguez-Maciel, J C; Terán-Santofimio, H; Terán-Vargas, A P; Valencia, S J; Willink, E

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis- (Bt) insecticidal proteins (Bt crops) have provided useful pest management tools to growers for the past 20 years. Planting Bt crops has reduced the use of synthetic insecticides on cotton, maize and soybean fields in 11 countries throughout Latin America. One of the threats that could jeopardize the sustainability of Bt crops is the development of resistance by targeted pests. Governments of many countries require vigilance in measuring changes in Bt-susceptibility in order to proactively implement corrective measures before Bt-resistance is widespread, thus prolonging the usefulness of Bt crops. A pragmatic approach to obtain information on the effectiveness of Bt-crops is directly asking growers, crop consultants and academics about Bt-resistance problems in agricultural fields, first-hand information that not necessarily relies on susceptibility screens performed in laboratories. This type of information is presented in this report. Problematic pests of cotton and soybeans in five Latin American countries currently are effectively controlled by Bt crops. Growers that plant conventional (non-Bt) cotton or soybeans have to spray synthetic insecticides against multiple pests that otherwise are controlled by these Bt crops. A similar situation has been observed in six Latin American countries where Bt maize is planted. No synthetic insecticide applications are used to control corn pests because they are controlled by Bt maize, with the exception of Spodoptera frugiperda. While this insect in some countries is still effectively controlled by Bt maize, in others resistance has evolved and necessitates supplemental insecticide applications and/or the use of Bt maize cultivars that express multiple Bt proteins. Partial control of S. frugiperda in certain countries is due to its natural tolerance to the Bt bacterium. Of the 31 pests targeted and controlled by Bt crops in Latin America, only S. frugiperda has shown

  3. Epidemiology in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Sandhi M; Miranda, Jaime J; Figueroa, J Peter; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Munoz, Sergio; Kuri-Morales, P Pablo; Silva, Jarbas B

    2012-01-01

    Background This article analyses the epidemiological research developments in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It integrates the series commissioned by the International Epidemiological Association to all WHO Regions to identify global opportunities to promote the development of epidemiology. Methods Health situations of the regions were analysed based on published data on selected mortality, morbidity and risk factors. Epidemiological publication output by country was estimated by Medline bibliometrics. Internet and literature searches and data provided by key informants were used to describe perspectives on epidemiological training, research and funding. Findings Despite important advances in recent decades, LAC remains the world's most unequal region. In 2010, 10% of the LAC's people still lived in conditions of multidimensional poverty, with huge variation among countries. The region has experienced fast and complex epidemiological changes in past decades, combining increasing rates of non-communicable diseases and injuries, and keeping uncontrolled many existing endemic and emerging diseases. Overall, epidemiological publications per year increased from 160 articles between 1961 and 1970 to 2492 between 2001 and 2010. The increase in papers per million inhabitants in the past three decades varied from 57% in Panama to 1339% in Paraguay. Universities are the main epidemiological training providers. There are at least 34 universities and other institutions in the region that offer postgraduate programmes at the master’s and doctoral levels in epidemiology or public health. Most LAC countries rely largely on external funding and donors to initiate and sustain long-term research efforts. Despite the limited resources, the critical mass of LAC researchers has produced significant scientific contributions. Future needs The health research panorama of the region shows enormous regional discrepancies, but great prospects. Improving research and human resources

  4. The current situation of meningococcal disease in Latin America and updated Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio P; O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela Bravo, Maria Teresa; Brandileone, Maria Cristina C; Gorla, Maria Cecília O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Moreno, Gabriela; Vazquez, Julio A; López, Eduardo L; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Borrow, Ray

    2015-11-27

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) was established in 2009 and comprises an international team of scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with expertise in meningococcal disease (MD). Its primary goal is to promote global prevention of MD through education, research, international cooperation, and developing recommendations that include decreasing the burden of severe disease. The group held its first roundtable meeting with experts from Latin American countries in 2011, and subsequently proposed several recommendations to reduce the regional burden of MD. A second roundtable meeting was convened with Latin American representatives in June 2013 to reassess MD epidemiology, vaccination strategies, and unmet needs in the region, as well as to update the earlier recommendations. Special emphasis was placed on the emergence and spread of serogroup W disease in Argentina and Chile, and the control measures put in place in Chile were a particular focus of discussions. The impact of routine meningococcal vaccination programs, notably in Brazil, was also evaluated. There have been considerable improvements in MD surveillance systems and diagnostic techniques in some countries (e.g., Brazil and Chile), but the lack of adequate infrastructure, trained personnel, and equipment/reagents remains a major barrier to progress in resource-poor countries. The Pan American Health Organization's Revolving Fund is likely to play an important role in improving access to meningococcal vaccines in Latin America. Additional innovative approaches are needed to redress the imbalance in expertise and resources between countries, and thereby improve the control of MD. In Latin America, the GMI recommends establishment of a detailed and comprehensive national/regional surveillance system, standardization of laboratory procedures, adoption of a uniform MD case definition, maintaining laboratory-based surveillance, replacement of polysaccharide vaccines with conjugate

  5. The current situation of meningococcal disease in Latin America and updated Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio P; O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela Bravo, Maria Teresa; Brandileone, Maria Cristina C; Gorla, Maria Cecília O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Moreno, Gabriela; Vazquez, Julio A; López, Eduardo L; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Borrow, Ray

    2015-11-27

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) was established in 2009 and comprises an international team of scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with expertise in meningococcal disease (MD). Its primary goal is to promote global prevention of MD through education, research, international cooperation, and developing recommendations that include decreasing the burden of severe disease. The group held its first roundtable meeting with experts from Latin American countries in 2011, and subsequently proposed several recommendations to reduce the regional burden of MD. A second roundtable meeting was convened with Latin American representatives in June 2013 to reassess MD epidemiology, vaccination strategies, and unmet needs in the region, as well as to update the earlier recommendations. Special emphasis was placed on the emergence and spread of serogroup W disease in Argentina and Chile, and the control measures put in place in Chile were a particular focus of discussions. The impact of routine meningococcal vaccination programs, notably in Brazil, was also evaluated. There have been considerable improvements in MD surveillance systems and diagnostic techniques in some countries (e.g., Brazil and Chile), but the lack of adequate infrastructure, trained personnel, and equipment/reagents remains a major barrier to progress in resource-poor countries. The Pan American Health Organization's Revolving Fund is likely to play an important role in improving access to meningococcal vaccines in Latin America. Additional innovative approaches are needed to redress the imbalance in expertise and resources between countries, and thereby improve the control of MD. In Latin America, the GMI recommends establishment of a detailed and comprehensive national/regional surveillance system, standardization of laboratory procedures, adoption of a uniform MD case definition, maintaining laboratory-based surveillance, replacement of polysaccharide vaccines with conjugate

  6. Current Vocational Training in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexim, Joao Carlos

    Vocational training (VT) programs in Latin America prepare workers to perform middle-level occupations or jobs. VT in Latin America is characterized by the existence of solid and autonomous national institutes linked to the logic of economic production, funded through a payroll levy grant, counting on a tripartite board, and related to ministries…

  7. Current status of carbapenemases in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Maya, Juan J; Ruiz, Sory J; Blanco, Victor M; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Labarca, Jaime; Salles, Mauro; Quinn, John P; Villegas, Maria V

    2013-07-01

    Enterobacteriaceae and non fermenting Gram-negative bacilli have become a threat to public health, in part due to their resistance to multiple antibiotic classes, which ultimately have led to an increase in morbidity and mortality. β-lactams are currently the mainstay for combating infections caused by these microorganisms, and β-lactamases are the major mechanism of resistance to this class of antibiotics. Within the β-lactamases, carbapenemases pose one of the gravest threats, as they compromise one of our most potent lines of defense, the carbapenems. Carbapenemases are being continuously identified worldwide; and in Latin America, numerous members of these enzymes have been reported. In this region, the high incidence of reports implies that carbapenemases have become a menace and that they are an issue that must be carefully studied and analyzed. PMID:23879607

  8. Current status of carbapenemases in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Maya, Juan J; Ruiz, Sory J; Blanco, Victor M; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Labarca, Jaime; Salles, Mauro; Quinn, John P; Villegas, Maria V

    2013-07-01

    Enterobacteriaceae and non fermenting Gram-negative bacilli have become a threat to public health, in part due to their resistance to multiple antibiotic classes, which ultimately have led to an increase in morbidity and mortality. β-lactams are currently the mainstay for combating infections caused by these microorganisms, and β-lactamases are the major mechanism of resistance to this class of antibiotics. Within the β-lactamases, carbapenemases pose one of the gravest threats, as they compromise one of our most potent lines of defense, the carbapenems. Carbapenemases are being continuously identified worldwide; and in Latin America, numerous members of these enzymes have been reported. In this region, the high incidence of reports implies that carbapenemases have become a menace and that they are an issue that must be carefully studied and analyzed.

  9. Five Studies on the Situation of Women in Latin America. Estudios e Informes de la CEPAL. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Commission for Latin America (UN), Santiago (Chile).

    Five studies on the situation of women in Latin America focus on (1) the integration of women in development, (2) the family as the immediate social framework of children and women, (3) some types of poor women in Latin America, (4) the educational situation of women, and (5) women in development and housework. An introductory section outlining…

  10. Current trends in Latin America and the Argentine perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Laredo, V.G.

    1992-12-31

    The authors discusses the changes that are taking place in Argentina as well as in all of Latin America today -- privatization, deregulation, and the modernization of the economy, changes which will serve to strengthen the governments and provide a better quality of life for all of them. He gives an insight into the factors which helped bring about these changes, the support they are receiving, the problems which persist, and the measures that still must be taken so that these positive changes remain in place. He offers some useful information that will perhaps contribute to their understanding of the vast area which he refers to as Latin America, and more specifically, gives a thumbnail sketch of what is happening today in the Republic of Argentina. For many years now, Latin American leaders have travelled to other parts of the world and spoken about the plans and expectations for the region`s future. When these well-intentioned projects and plans never materialized, partners and supporters in the United States and other countries were frustrated and disappointed by the failure to make things work. The author`s intention here today is to describe things as they are, not as they might be, to tell about what is already happening in the sphere of business and growth of the economies in Latin America.

  11. [Latin America's general situation and its impact on maternal-child health].

    PubMed

    Quezada Aliff, T

    1989-01-01

    Latin America's current economic, social, and political situation is characterized by significantly deteriorating exchange rates, increasing inflation in most countries, and increases in unemployment and underemployment. The additional effects of the crushing external debt and its conditions of renegotiation cannot fail to effect the health of the most vulnerable population groups, women and children. The crisis is affecting middle income as well as low income groups. Latin America as a whole underwent impressive economic growth and modernization through the late 1970s. Most countries were transformed from agrarian to urban-industrial societies with growth in their secondary and tertiary sectors stimulating social mobility. But problems of unequal income distribution, increasing absolute numbers of poor including 51.3 million under 15, and insufficient demand for labor continue to plague the region. Substantial improvements were made in both health status and health care delivery through the late 1970s in most of the region, but the prolonged economic crisis of the 1980s has led among other things to decreasing governmental expenditures for social services, cuts in food subsidies, decreased social spending per capita, and deteriorating basic infrastructure and health and educational services. Declining quality and quantity of health services have been accompanied by a growing trend to private services as a way of decreasing government expenditures even further. It is possible that the health indicators currently in use do not adequately reflect the total consequences of the economic crisis. Health conditions do not depend on the situation of the moment but on a certain accumulated social capital. Moreover, massive vaccination programs and other campaigns sponsored by international and national organizations have continued despite the crisis. Limitations in the timeliness and quality of data may obscure the true gravity of the health situation. Studies in the region

  12. The current situation of meningococcal disease in Latin America and recommendations for a new case definition from the Global Meningococcal Initiative.

    PubMed

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio P; de los Monteros, Luz Elena Espinosa; López, Eduardo Luis; Sàez-Llorens, Xavier; Lemos, Ana Paula; Moreno-Espinosa, Sarbelio; Ayala, Silvia González; Torres, Juan Pablo; de Moraes, José Cassio; Vázquez, Julio Alberto

    2013-08-01

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is an international group of scientists and clinicians with expertise in meningococcal disease (MD). It promotes MD prevention through education and research. Given geographic differences in disease epidemiology, prevention strategies (e.g., vaccination) should be country-specific to ensure local needs are met. However, regional policies/recommendations and standardized disease diagnostic criteria should be implemented to improve surveillance and control strategies, and allow for more robust data comparisons. Consequently, the GMI convened a meeting with Latin American representatives to discuss the burden of MD and vaccination practices/policies, and consider if the global GMI recommendations could be tailored. The group determined that as robust, uniform epidemiologic data are required to make informed health-policy decisions, it would be useful to first summarize the regional situation herein (including disease surveillance, case definitions, epidemiology, vaccination and outbreak control strategies) and then determine a consensus-based meningococcal case definition for use throughout the region.

  13. Applicability of the current hypertension guidelines in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Alcocer, Luis; Meaney, Eduardo; Hernandez-Hernandez, Hector

    2015-08-01

    Recent research has focused on the development of evidence-based guidelines that are intended to regulate the conduct of physicians in the diagnosis and control of hypertension, with the goal of achieving greater effectiveness and equity at the lowest possible cost. In Latin America, guidelines are available for the management of hypertension at three levels: national, regional and international. The national and regional Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) guidelines are in fact adaptations of the international guidelines. The potential benefit of applying guidelines developed in other regions to local healthcare decision making is that it will enable decision makers to take advantage of existing analyses and transfer or adapt them to their local contexts. However, this adaptation precludes the assessment of their generalizability and potential transferability. In addition, this region is characterized by wide socioeconomic differences between its inhabitants, both among and within nations. Therefore, new guidelines for the LAC region must include recommendations that are common to all hypertensive patients in the region. Moreover, we advocate the inclusion of a specific section that makes comprehensive recommendations and provides strategies for implementation according to the socioeconomic conditions of particular groups. In addition to developing guidelines that are truly applicable to the LAC region, it seems sensible to consider information that is specific to this region. Furthermore, developing evidence-based guidelines is not enough to affect positively the burden of disease caused by hypertension. Therefore, professional programs are required for the implementation of such guidelines as well as the auditing of their results. Achieving these ambitious goals will require collaborative efforts by many groups including policymakers, international organizations, healthcare providers, universities and society.

  14. TP53 mutations as biomarkers for cancer epidemiology in Latin America: current knowledge and perspectives.

    PubMed

    de Moura Gallo, Claudia Vitória; Azevedo E Silva Mendonça, Gulnar; de Moraes, Emanuela; Olivier, Magali; Hainaut, Pierre

    2005-05-01

    Due to particular social and economical development, and to the impact of globalization of lifestyles, Latin America shows a superposition of cancers that are frequent in low resource countries (gastric, oesophageal squamous cell and cervical cancers) and high resource countries (cancers of breast, colon and rectum, lung and prostate). Latin America thus offers opportunities for investigating the impact on changing lifestyle patterns on the occurrence of cancer. At the molecular level, mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 are common in many cancers and their distribution can be informative of the nature of the mutagenic mechanisms, thus giving clues to cancer etiology and molecular pathogenesis. However most of the data available are derived from studies in industrialized countries. In this review, we discuss current trends on cancer occurrence in Latin American countries, and we review the literature available on TP53 mutations and polymorphisms in patients from Latin America. Overall, a total of 285 mutations have been described in 1213 patients in 20 publications, representing 1.5% of the total number of mutations reported world-wide. Except for hematological cancers, TP53 mutation frequencies are similar to those reported in other regions of the world. The only tumor site presenting significant differences in mutation pattern as compared to other parts of the world is colon and rectum. However, this difference is based on a single study with 35 patients. Recently, a characteristic TP53 mutation at codon 337 (R337H) has been identified in the germline of children with adrenocortical carcinoma in Southern Brazil. Further and better focused analyses of TP53 mutation patterns in the context of epidemiological studies, should help to improve our understanding of cancer etiology in order to develop appropriate health policies and public health programs in Latin America.

  15. The current status of ethnobiological research in Latin America: gaps and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent reviews have demonstrated an increase in the number of papers on ethnobiology in Latin America. Among factors that have influenced this increase are the biological and cultural diversity of these countries and the general scientific situation in some countries. This study aims to assess the panorama of ethnobiological research in Latin America by analyzing its evolution, trends, and future prospects. Methods To conduct this study, we searched for papers in the Scopus (http://www.scopus.com) and Web of Science (http://www.isiknowledge.com) databases. The search was performed using combinations of keywords and the name of each Latin American country. The following countries were included in this study: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela, and Uruguay. Results and conclusions According to our inclusion criteria, 679 ethnobiological studies conducted in Latin America were found for the period between 1963 and 2012. Of these studies, 289 (41%) were conducted in Brazil, 153 in Mexico (22%), 61 in Peru (9%), 58 in Argentina (8%), 45 in Bolivia (6%), and 97 (14%) in other Latin American countries. The increased number of publications related to this area of knowledge in recent years demonstrates the remarkable growth of ethnobiology as a science. Ethnobiological research may be stimulated by an increase in the number of scientific events and journals for study dissemination and by the creation of undergraduate courses and graduate programs to train ethnoscientists who will produce high-quality studies, especially in certain countries. PMID:24131758

  16. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and Portuguese…

  17. Current status and future perspectives for psychiatry/mental health research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Carla; Tohen, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Working towards mentally healthy societies is fundamental for Latin American countries, in order to keep the pace of development. Although awareness about the importance of mental health research is increasing in Latin America, the mismatch between needs and investment (the 10/90 gap) is still present. During recent years, many initiatives have been fostered to promote mental health research in the region. This paper summarizes the information collected through those efforts, in addition to presenting the current state of research in the field of psychiatry and mental health in Latin American countries. Future perspectives for the field in the region are discussed in terms of funding, research priorities and research resources, as well as the potential of Latin American countries to insert themselves within global psychiatry/mental health research efforts. PMID:20874069

  18. Focus: global currents in national histories of science: the "global turn" and the history of science in Latin America.

    PubMed

    McCook, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    The "global turn" in the history of science offers new ways to think about how to do national and regional histories of science, in this case the history of science in Latin America. For example, it questions structuralist and diffusionist models of the spread of science and shows the often active role that people in Latin America (and the rest of the Global South) played in the construction of "universal" scientific knowledge. It suggests that even national or regional histories of science must be situated in a global context; all too often, such histories have treated global processes as a distant backdrop. At the same time, historians need to pay constant attention to the role of power in the construction of scientific knowledge. Finally, this essay highlights a methodological tool for writing globally inflected histories of science: the method of "following".

  19. An Insider's Look at the Development and Current State of Community Psychology in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, Maritza

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the rich history of community psychology in Latin America, describing how the field was systematically built during the second half of the 20th century. Discussed are social and political influences such as the critique of individualistic emphasis dominant at that moment, Paulo Freire's popular education, critical sociology…

  20. SSA 04-4 CURRENT STATUS IN MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSION IN LATIN AMERICA.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Fernando Stuardo Wyss

    2016-09-01

    's goal is to improve CVD prevention and management, using hypertension as the entry point, by developing and implementing an approach for standardizing the management of hypertension and strengthening health systems at the primary care level. The SHTP Project design aims to be feasible and flexible for worldwide applicability and can be adapted to improve control of other NCDs. Rationale for Strengthening Healthcare DeliveryAbout the Systems for Hypertension Control, Strengthening of health systems can help address challenges to hypertension control by addressing a number of barriers to effective and sustained hypertension like a Patient barriers, Provider Barriers and Health System Barries to medication availabilities and affordabilitiesTo effectively reduce the burden of hypertension within a care delivery system, it is essential to develop and implement a multipronged strategy based on strong political will. This strategy should create an environment where hypertension control is a priority and specific stakeholders, as well as leaders and champions, are identified with clearly defined roles and responsibilities. Involved parties should include patients, clinicians, pharmacists, and social service workers, as well as others to comprise a multidisciplinary team. Concrete targets and goals and an accountability mechanism should be established at all levels with a plan to conduct monitoring and evaluation. Financial resources, including funding sources and procurement mechanisms, should be considered and mobilized. Furthermore, a formative assessment should be conducted prior to implementation to inform the needs for the program's success.We are currently working on developing 20 x 20 LASH, 25 x 25 WHF and many others in order to achieve a reduction of the impact of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, hypertension continues to grow and the prevalence is ever-increasing, Latin America occupies the highest prevalence rates and the worst controls, and if we do

  1. SSA 04-4 CURRENT STATUS IN MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSION IN LATIN AMERICA.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Fernando Stuardo Wyss

    2016-09-01

    's goal is to improve CVD prevention and management, using hypertension as the entry point, by developing and implementing an approach for standardizing the management of hypertension and strengthening health systems at the primary care level. The SHTP Project design aims to be feasible and flexible for worldwide applicability and can be adapted to improve control of other NCDs. Rationale for Strengthening Healthcare DeliveryAbout the Systems for Hypertension Control, Strengthening of health systems can help address challenges to hypertension control by addressing a number of barriers to effective and sustained hypertension like a Patient barriers, Provider Barriers and Health System Barries to medication availabilities and affordabilitiesTo effectively reduce the burden of hypertension within a care delivery system, it is essential to develop and implement a multipronged strategy based on strong political will. This strategy should create an environment where hypertension control is a priority and specific stakeholders, as well as leaders and champions, are identified with clearly defined roles and responsibilities. Involved parties should include patients, clinicians, pharmacists, and social service workers, as well as others to comprise a multidisciplinary team. Concrete targets and goals and an accountability mechanism should be established at all levels with a plan to conduct monitoring and evaluation. Financial resources, including funding sources and procurement mechanisms, should be considered and mobilized. Furthermore, a formative assessment should be conducted prior to implementation to inform the needs for the program's success.We are currently working on developing 20 x 20 LASH, 25 x 25 WHF and many others in order to achieve a reduction of the impact of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, hypertension continues to grow and the prevalence is ever-increasing, Latin America occupies the highest prevalence rates and the worst controls, and if we do

  2. Current clinical advances and future perspectives in the psychiatry/mental health field of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cía, Alfredo H; Rojas, Rodrigo Córdoba; Adad, Miguel Abib

    2010-01-01

    The history of Mental Health in Latin America is relatively young. It dates back to the mid nineteenth century and widely developed during the twentieth century, with formidable scientific, social, political, and ethical challenges. Latin American psychiatry has contributed in the fields of epidemiology, phenomenology, social psychiatry, psychiatric and epistemological research, and clinical genetics as well. More recent advances can also be seen in clinical psychotherapy and psychopharmacology. Now, there is a formal and informal recognition of various areas of expertise, such as children and adolescents, addictions, anxiety disorders, among others. However, we need to solve the health problems resulting from mental illnesses as well as the disorders related to the social, environmental, political, and economic factors of a continent marked by the precariousness of underdevelopment, which have a high impact on population health. Therefore, considering and trying to minimize the impact of those factors, contributing to the destigmatization of mental illnesses and their consequences, together with the growing number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), human rights defenders, public figures, etc., and collaborating in building a society that guarantees the right to mental health and adequate treatment and rehabilitation are part of our present challenges in Latin America.

  3. Stroke in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Erica C S; Bacheschi, Luiz A; Massaro, Ayrton R

    2005-05-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality in Latin America, with variable incidence and prevalence throughout the continent reflecting regional socioeconomic differences. In Latin America, uncontrolled hypertension is one of the major causes of stroke, but other modifiable risk factors also play a role, such as heavy alcohol consumption and smoking. Intracerebral hemorrhage and lacunar stroke are more frequent in Latin America than in North America and Europe. There are multiple causes of stroke that are endemic to Latin America, including neurocysticercosis, Chagas' disease, sickle cell anemia, malaria, hemorrhagic fever, and snake bites.

  4. The urgent need to change the current medical approach on tobacco cessation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    Despite of the accumulation of scientific evidence confirming the health consequences of smoking and the new paradigm of smoking as a disease where nicotine is the drug that modifies the functional and morphological characteristics of the brain in dependent smokers, tobacco smoking continues as an important public health problem in many Latin American countries. In contrast with big advances in the tobacco control area, as an example the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control signed by 168 countries, the role of health professional in the fight against tobacco is still less than ideal. In many Latin American schools of medicine, deficiencies in medical education has led to insecure physicians when they have to motivate their patients to stop smoking or to prevent young people to begin tobacco consumption. If each general practitioner or specialist during their daily medical assistance could talk to their smoker patients about the big benefits of stop smoking and support them to get free of tobacco, we would be winning a battle against smoking. Also if we could achieve generations of young non smoking doctors, who could be a real example for patients, this could also impact the prevalence of smokers. In this article we analyze the neurobiological bases of nicotine addiction, which we think are missing in the medical curriculum and could help doctors to understand tobacco smoking as a disease rather than a risk factor, and discuss the main reasons supporting an urgent change in the medical approach of tobacco cessation in Latin America as well as the need to actualize the medical curriculum in order to give physicians the skills needed to intervene successfully with their smoker patients and to be themselves non smokers.

  5. The urgent need to change the current medical approach on tobacco cessation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    Despite of the accumulation of scientific evidence confirming the health consequences of smoking and the new paradigm of smoking as a disease where nicotine is the drug that modifies the functional and morphological characteristics of the brain in dependent smokers, tobacco smoking continues as an important public health problem in many Latin American countries. In contrast with big advances in the tobacco control area, as an example the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control signed by 168 countries, the role of health professional in the fight against tobacco is still less than ideal. In many Latin American schools of medicine, deficiencies in medical education has led to insecure physicians when they have to motivate their patients to stop smoking or to prevent young people to begin tobacco consumption. If each general practitioner or specialist during their daily medical assistance could talk to their smoker patients about the big benefits of stop smoking and support them to get free of tobacco, we would be winning a battle against smoking. Also if we could achieve generations of young non smoking doctors, who could be a real example for patients, this could also impact the prevalence of smokers. In this article we analyze the neurobiological bases of nicotine addiction, which we think are missing in the medical curriculum and could help doctors to understand tobacco smoking as a disease rather than a risk factor, and discuss the main reasons supporting an urgent change in the medical approach of tobacco cessation in Latin America as well as the need to actualize the medical curriculum in order to give physicians the skills needed to intervene successfully with their smoker patients and to be themselves non smokers. PMID:21243210

  6. [Prophylaxis in hemophilia: situation analysis and call-to-action in Latin America. A report from the GLAITH group].

    PubMed

    Mijares, Mercedes Elena; De Sánchez, Apsara Boadas

    2015-09-01

    Prophylactic treatment in the management of hemophilia has been a crucial factor in improving the prognosis and quality of life for people with hemophilia (PCH). However, it is not globally implemented. In Latin America it is difficult to assess the status of PCH and the its management does not conform to ideal standards. The GLAITH group discussed the problem in Latin America. A survey of its members and its findings were discussed at a meeting in Bogota in May 2013. Proportions of hemophilia A and B were 75-90% and 10-25% respectively. Severe hemophilia represents 26-55% of cases. A high percentage of PCH have hemophilic arthropathy. The general care and specific treatments of PCH vary by country, only 50-60% of the treatment is covered and in 85-95% of the cases are performed on an on- demand basis. Just 5-15% receives prophylaxis, most of them secondary. Few countries have a national program or homogeneous records. Finally the GLAITH group proceeded to develop a conclusion and call to action for the region where the following points are recommended: the establishment of a unified Latin American registry; prospective cost-effectiveness studies and evaluation criteria related to secondary prophylaxis; comparative studies of quality of life with and without prophylaxis in the region; promotion of individualization of treatment and, the increase of primary and secondary prophylaxis globally in Latin America.

  7. Pinta: Latin America's Forgotten Disease?

    PubMed

    Stamm, Lola V

    2015-11-01

    Pinta is a neglected, chronic skin disease that was first described in the sixteenth century in Mexico. The World Health Organization lists 15 countries in Latin America where pinta was previously endemic. However, the current prevalence of pinta is unknown due to the lack of surveillance data. The etiological agent of pinta, Treponema carateum, cannot be distinguished morphologically or serologically from the not-yet-cultivable Treponema pallidum subspecies that cause venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel. Although genomic sequencing has enabled the development of molecular techniques to differentiate the T. pallidum subspecies, comparable information is not available for T. carateum. Because of the influx of migrants and refugees from Latin America, U.S. physicians should consider pinta in the differential diagnosis of skin diseases in children and adolescents who come from areas where pinta was previously endemic and have a positive reaction in serological tests for syphilis. All stages of pinta are treatable with a single intramuscular injection of penicillin. PMID:26304920

  8. Latin America: population and internal unrest.

    PubMed

    Wiarda, J H; Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1985-09-01

    This discussion of population and internal unrest in Latin America covers the following: pressures on land and agriculture; economic frustrations; the youth and radicalism; rising social tensions; and political instability. At current growth rates, Latin America's population is projected to increases between 1981 2001 by 225 million people. This staggering population growth is likely to have serious political, economic, social, strategic, and other implications. The strong opposition to family planning which came principally from nationlists, the military, and the church during the 1960s has changed to general support for voluntary family planning programs in much of Latin America. Too rapid population growth now is viewed widely as aggravating the problems of development and putting severe strains on services and facilities. The wish to limit family size is particularly strong among women. Most of Latin America's untapped land is unusable, either so steeply mountainous, densely tropical, or barren of topsoil that it cannot support life at even the most meager level of subsistence. Food production in most of Latin America has not kept pace with population growth. Since most new agricultural production is oriented toward exports rather than home consumption, conditions for most rural populations are worsening. Economic dilemmas facing Latin America include widespread poverty, the world's highest per capita debt, unemployment and underemployment that may reach between 40-50% of the workforce, negative economic growth rates over the past 5 years, immense income inequalities, declining terms of trade, extensive capital flight, little new investment or foreign assistance, increased protectionism on the part of those countriews with whom Latin America must trade, rising prices for the goods Latin America must import, and (in some countries) devastation of the economic infrastrucutre by guerrilla forces. The unprecedent flow from the countryside has made Latin America the

  9. Teaching About Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This publication is offered as a resource guide for teachers rather than as a prescriptive syllabus. No course of study is delineated and no course objectives are spelled out. Instead there are illustrative examples for applying discovery techniques to the study of Latin America, suggestions of various themes useful in organizing a course of study…

  10. Plasma physics in Latin America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, A. B.

    1995-02-01

    The status of plasma physics in Latin America is reviewed. The review surveys the history and present situation of the regional activities in high-temperature plasma research, plasma astrophysics, and technological applications of plasma physics. In particular, it presents data on the trends of evolution of scientific staff, annual operating budget, and publication rate for the major Latin American plasma groups during the decade 1983 - 1992. On this basis, the prospects for further growth and the potential for regional contribution to the mainstream of international plasma research and development are discussed.

  11. Asthma in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Cepeda, Alfonso; Yañez, Anahi; Solé, Dirceu; Cooper, Philip; Avila, Lydiana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the diversity of Latin America, there is profound variability in asthma burden among and within countries in this region. Regional variation in asthma prevalence is likely multifactorial and due to genetics, perinatal exposures, diet, obesity, tobacco use, indoor and outdoor pollutants, psychosocial stress, and microbial or parasitic infections. Similarly, nonuniform progress in asthma management leads to regional variability in disease morbidity. Future studies of distinct asthma phenotypes should follow up well-characterized Latin American subgroups and examine risk factors that are unique or common in Latin America (e.g. stress and violence, parasitic infections and use of biomass fuels for cooking). Because most Latin American countries share the same barriers to asthma management, concerted and multifaceted public health and research efforts are needed, including approaches to curtail tobacco use, campaigns to improve asthma treatment, broadening access to care and clinical trials of non-pharmacologic interventions (e.g. replacing biomass fuels with gas or electric stoves). PMID:26103996

  12. Asthma in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Cepeda, Alfonso; Yañez, Anahi; Solé, Dirceu; Cooper, Philip; Avila, Lydiana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-09-01

    Consistent with the diversity of Latin America, there is profound variability in asthma burden among and within countries in this region. Regional variation in asthma prevalence is likely multifactorial and due to genetics, perinatal exposures, diet, obesity, tobacco use, indoor and outdoor pollutants, psychosocial stress and microbial or parasitic infections. Similarly, non-uniform progress in asthma management leads to regional variability in disease morbidity. Future studies of distinct asthma phenotypes should follow-up well-characterised Latin American subgroups and examine risk factors that are unique or common in Latin America (eg, stress and violence, parasitic infections and use of biomass fuels for cooking). Because most Latin American countries share the same barriers to asthma management, concerted and multifaceted public health and research efforts are needed, including approaches to curtail tobacco use, campaigns to improve asthma treatment, broadening access to care and clinical trials of non-pharmacological interventions (eg, replacing biomass fuels with gas or electric stoves).

  13. Hadron Therapy in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreiner, A. J.; Bergueiro, J.; Burlon, A. A.; Di Paolo, H.; Castell, W.; Thatar Vento, V.; Levinas, P.; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Valda, A. A.; Ilardo, J. C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Debray, M. E.; Somacal, H. R.; Minsky, D. M.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J. C.; Igarzabal, M.; Huck, H.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Lell, J.; Padulo, J.; Herrera, M.; Gonzalez, S. R.; Capoulat, M. E.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.

    2010-08-01

    The use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality in the first world, which is becoming increasingly widespread, due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we briefly describe the situation in Latin America and in particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The machine being currently designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a terminal at 0.6 MV as a smaller scale prototype. Since the concept is modular the same structure will be used for the 1.2 MV final accelerator.

  14. Hadron Therapy in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Kreiner, A. J.; Minsky, D. M.; Bergueiro, J.; Castell, W.; Thatar Vento, V.; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Ilardo, J. C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J. C.; Igarzabal, M.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Lell, J.; Padulo, J.; Herrera, M.

    2010-08-04

    The use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality in the first world, which is becoming increasingly widespread, due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we briefly describe the situation in Latin America and in particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The machine being currently designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a terminal at 0.6 MV as a smaller scale prototype. Since the concept is modular the same structure will be used for the 1.2 MV final accelerator.

  15. Air pollution problems in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzenfeld, H. )

    1992-01-01

    Air pollution and associated health problems in Latin America are on the rise. This article provides an overview of conditions indicated by the admittedly limited data available, notes some of the present situation's health implications, and points out areas where air pollution data procurement and control measures could be improved.

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for

  17. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillant, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the current challenges facing inclusive education in Latin America and explores some possible solutions. The author suggests that teachers play a key role in providing education that is inclusive for all. In Latin America, today, however, inclusive education often does not respond to the needs of children and young people,…

  18. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  19. Re-Bordering Comparative Education in Latin America: Between Global Limits and Local Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Felicitas; Perez Centeno, Cristian G.

    2011-01-01

    Conceived for presentation at the XIV WCCES conference in Istanbul in 2010, the topic of which was "Bordering Comparative Education", this paper, within that framework, aims to present the current state of the discipline in Latin America in relation to a quick overview of its present-day situation at a global level. After providing an overview of…

  20. Machismo and Virginidad: Sex Roles in Latin America. Discussion Paper 79-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones, Julio

    The purpose of this paper is to present a view of Latin American males and females that describes the situation in Latin America more accurately than the current stereotypical view accepted in the United States. The author discusses the roots of the North American misconception, citing differences between Latin American and North American cultures…

  1. The Community College Experiment in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Lori

    1998-01-01

    Discusses preconditions for exporting community colleges to developing countries, the historical development of higher education in Latin America, and the current favorable political and economic climate for housing colleges. Suggests using Argentina as a testing-ground for the community college system. (11 citations) (VWC)

  2. Fermilab and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  3. Fermilab and Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-25

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  4. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R&D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of development. On the other hand, we find that they coincide in having a modest industry participation in research and a low level of commercialization of nanotechnologies. PMID:21170134

  5. Fermilab-Latin America collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, R.

    1994-12-31

    Fermilab`s program of collaboration with Latin America was initiated by then-Director Leon Lederman about 1980. His goal was to aid Latin American physics, and particularly its particle physics; this latter aim is in keeping with the Laboratory`s particle physics mission. The reasons for collaboration between institutions in the US and Latin America are many, including geographic and cultural, together with the existence of many talented scientists and many centers of excellence in the region. There are also broader reasons; for example, it has been stated frequently that physics is the basis of much technology, and advanced technology is a necessity for a country`s development. There is nothing unique about Fermilab`s program; other US institutions can carry out similar activities, and some have carried out individual items in the past. On the Latin American side, such collaboration enables institutions there to carry out forefront physics research, and also to have the advantages of particle physics spin-offs, both in expertise in related technologies and in scientist training. In addition to particle physics, collaboration is possible in many other related areas. Although particle physics is frequently viewed as {open_quotes}big science{close_quotes}, all of the large research groups in the field are composed of many small university groups, each of which contributes to the experiment, the analysis and the physics. Fermilab is an international laboratory, open to all users; a research proposal is accepted on scientific merit and technical competence, not on the country of origin of the scientists making the proposal. Currently, of Fermilab`s approximately 1400 users, about 30% are from non-US institutions. It should be noted here that Fermilab`s funds, which come from the US government, are for particle physics only; however, there is some flexibility in interpretation of this.

  6. Latin America: A Different Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledesma, Joaquin Rafael

    2002-01-01

    Explores the diversity of contexts faced by higher education in Latin America, and the measurement of its quality. Describes a proposal designed by the Catholic University of Argentina whereby the indicators used in developed countries are applied. (EV)

  7. Educational Building in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baza, Jadille; Vaz, Rita de Cassia Alves; Millan, Eduardo; Almeida, Rodolfo

    2002-01-01

    Presents articles describing recent developments in three Latin American countries (Chile, Brazil, and Venezuela) to expand public education facilities, along with a report on UNESCO's recent seminar in Latin America on architecture for an inclusive education. (EV)

  8. [Thinking about long-term care policies for Latin America].

    PubMed

    Matus-López, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    Latin America is aging. The process is occurring quickly and in unhealthy conditions with low levels of income. The number of older people who can no longer perform their daily activities will dramatically increase in the coming decades. Developed countries have already been facing this phenomenon over the last three decades, but Latin America has neither the resources nor the social protection systems of these countries. Formulating and planning health policies associated with this phenomenon should be a priority of the governments of Latin America. This paper defines what these care policies are, the models of care rich countries have developed, and the cost of such models. The situation in Latin America is then analyzed and conclusions and a series of discussions to address in the near future are proposed.

  9. Family planning in Latin America's barriadas.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    In Latin America, many rural people build dwellings in settlements on the cities' fringes without permission from the authorities. The authorities make several unsuccessful attempts to drive them away, but eventually ignore them. In the 1960s, family planning (FP) associations were concerned about how they can serve the shantytowns, which needed their services but had no social services at all, e.g., water supply and sanitation. In the early 1970s, PROFAMILIA Colombia began a new form of FP service delivery in rural areas by training someone from the community who believed in FP to distribution (CBD) programs provided more FP than all of PROFAMILIA's 60 clinics. In 1973, PROFAMILIA started its URBAN CBD program in the slums of Bogota and learned that the people wanted FP. The CBD movement spread throughout urban and rural Latin America. Brazil's BEMFAM developed the world's largest CBD program. By 1985, 10,365 distribution posts operated in Latin America and, by 1991, there were 26,423. In urban slums in the 1980s, Mexico's MEXFAM began using community doctors, who tend to be new medical graduates. Often the community and the doctors respect each other so much that many doctors remain in the shantytowns beyond their required time. The residents' acceptance of FP provided by people who understand the community shows how they want to plan their lives and better themselves. In addition, they have taken the chance to seek a better life by leaving hopeless situations in rural areas and by building dwellings for themselves, even though they had no money, land, or even basic necessities. In Peru, shantytown residents were moved to the desert and supplied with basic construction materials. They built a community, Villa El Salvador, now complete with tree-lined streets, shops, schools, and movies. Shantytown dwellers may have the solution to Latin America's problems.

  10. [An overview of telehealth initiatives in Latin America].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alaneir de Fátima; D'Agostino, Marcelo; Bouskela, Maurício Simon; Fernandéz, Andrés; Messina, Luiz Ary; Alves, Humberto José

    2014-01-01

    This article aimed to systematize the views on telehealth in Latin America and to present the experience of building an instrument for monitoring the development of telehealth initiatives based on the reality of this region. A group was structured to coordinate telehealth efforts in Latin America, with members appointed by the ministries of health of 16 countries. Five thematic groups were also set up. Based on international experiences and focusing on the reality of telehealth in the continent, an instrument was created to monitor the development of telehealth in Latin America. Several countries have national telehealth projects: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama. Others are in the process of development and early deployment: Bolivia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Peru, Venezuela. The instrument described in the article, which is still being tested, proposes a characterization of countries according to their telehealth development stage: nonexistent, nascent, intermediate, advanced, and exemplary. Currently, important telehealth initiatives are already underway in Latin America.

  11. Newborn screening for lysosomal diseases: current status and potential interface with population medical genetics in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Giugliani, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    The aim of newborn screening (NBS) programs is to detect a condition in a presymptomatic baby and provide management measures which could significantly improve the natural history of the disease. NBS programs for metabolic diseases were first introduced in North America and Europe and in the 1960s for phenylketonuria, expanded a few years later to include congenital hypothyroidism, and have been growing steadily in terms of number of conditions tested for and number of countries and births covered. Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of around 50 genetic conditions in which a defect in a lysosomal function occurs. LSDs are progressive conditions, being usually asymptomatic at birth, but with clinical features becoming apparent in childhood, with severe manifestations in most instances, high morbidity and shortened life span. Although individually rare, the prevalence of LSDs is significant when the group is considered as a whole (around 1:4,000-1:9,000 live births). Several management techniques, including bone marrow transplantation, enzyme replacement therapy, substrate inhibition therapy, pharmacological chaperones and many other approaches are transforming the LSDs into treatable conditions. However, lack of awareness and lack of access to tests cause a significant delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Several lines of evidence showing that the earlier introduction of therapy may provide a better outcome, are bringing support to the idea of including LSDs in NBS programs. Due to advances in technology, high-throughput multiplex methods are now available for mass screening of several LSDs. Pilot projects were already developed in many countries for some LSDs, with interesting results. Although some NBS in Latin America has been carried out since the 1970s, it has so far been incorporated as a public health program in only a few countries in the region. It will probably take many years before NBS is implemented in most Latin American countries

  12. Ecosystem approaches and health in Latin America.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; de Oliveira, Simone Gomes; Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo; Freitas, Marcelo Bessa; Camponovo, Mariana Panchita Gómez

    2007-02-01

    Important environmental changes that have become increasingly pronounced in the last two centuries and that are seriously affecting human health require the development of integrated and participatory scientific approaches that can result in proposals for institutional and public policy changes. The purpose of this article is to offer some elements that can contribute to a line of reflection based on studies with ecosystem approaches in the Latin America context. The authors begin with a brief description of current scientific literature in public health that links ecosystems and human health in Latin America; next, they describe and compare the two prevailing trends that form the basis for the theoretical and methodological debates on ecosystem approaches; they also review the empirical research in Latin America or concerning Latin American countries in which an ecosystem approach has been adopted. The results point to limited scientific output on the interface between ecosystems and human health; aspects involving public participation and implementation of institutional changes and public policies are still in a rather incipient stage.

  13. Health perceptions in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Lora, Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    The influence of cultural patterns and economic conditions on health perceptions in Latin America is studied using the results of the 2007 Gallup World Poll. The differences in health satisfaction between countries around the world have a robust association with variables that may reflect cultural differences rather than with aggregate economic variables or traditional health indicators. Simple health self-rating indicators reveal huge cultural differences in health perceptions in Latin America. However, within each country, differences correlate strongly with individuals' economic and health conditions. Lower-income groups recognize more health problems, but are less tolerant of some of them than the rich. PMID:22198965

  14. Goals in maternal and perinatal care in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Belizán, José M; Cafferata, María L; Belizán, María; Tomasso, Giselle; Chalmers, Beverley

    2005-09-01

    Ten goals have been developed to guide perinatal caregivers by the Latin American Centre for Perinatology (CLAP), a PAHO/WHO unit dedicated to improving perinatal care in Latin America and The Caribbean. The goals were inspired by the current troubled perinatal care situation, the need to make significant changes, principles of evidence-based medicine, and reviews of many sources from other regions or countries.

  15. Language Politics in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…

  16. Abortion research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gaslonde Sainz, S

    1976-08-01

    Surveys dealing with abortion in Latin America have provided useful information despite problems in the collection and use of the data. Considerations that should be taken into account in designing abortion surveys and using the resultant information have been discussed here. Special attention has been paid to the need for a broad definition of "abortion" in order to overcome difficulties in gathering information about abortion in Latin America. Surveys have shown increasing incidence of abortion throughout Latin America in the recent past. In examining changes over time it is crucial to interpret clearly and carefully the summary measures of proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion and abortion rates per 1,000 women. It is also important to realize that the level and direction of change of the abortion rate depends on both the rate at which women are becoming pregnant and the proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion. Better survey design and techniques and more careful use of the resulting information will aid in the planning and evaluation of programs aimed at reducing abortion in Latin America. PMID:960180

  17. Internet Resources for Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Molly E., Comp.

    This directory compiles information products and services and other resources pertaining to Latin America that were available on the Internet as of February 1996. Part 1 lists 15 World Wide Web (WWW) URLs that link to other subject or geographical lists of Internet sites providing Latin American resources. Part 2 lists approximately 115…

  18. Building ESD in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    To encourage efforts for furthering the UN DESD agenda in Latin America, a meeting titled "Building Education for Sustainable Development" was held in Costa Rica from 31 October to 2 November 2006. Plenary sessions were interspersed with working groups to look at how ESD can be integrated in formal and non-formal education systems, and to make…

  19. [Cigarette labeling policies: current situation in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Sebrié, Ernesto M

    2012-06-01

    In 2002, Brazil became the first country in the region to implement pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packages. Since the adoption of the FCTC/WHO in 2005, nine more countries adopted pictorial labels and six passed legislation that is pending of implementation. The message content and the picture style vary across countries. Seventeen countries have banned brand descriptors and nine require a qualitative label with information on constituents and emissions. Since 2005, important progress has been achieved in the region. However, countries that have ratified the FCTC have not yet implemented all the recommendations of Article 11 Guidelines.

  20. Smoking and smoking cessation in Latin America: a review of the current situation and available treatments

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Fernando; Wehbe, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a growing problem throughout Latin American countries, especially in underdeveloped countries where poverty and lack of education about the dangers of smoking may make people more susceptible to becoming smokers. Moreover, the economies of many Latin American countries have become dependent on the production of tobacco. Furthermore, because of the associated promotion of tobacco, smoking has integrated into many Latin American cultures. Nevertheless, the harmful health effects of tobacco use are well documented, including greatly increased risks of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and many forms of cancer. The medical costs associated with treating these diseases far outweigh the economic benefits of producing and selling this deadly crop. To control the tobacco pandemic in Latin American countries, nicotine addiction must be recognized and treated as a disease. Governments, both national and local, need to be more involved in enacting anti-smoking policies such as higher tobacco taxation, control of illegal tobacco smuggling, and reimbursement of medical smoking cessation interventions. The training of health professions in the area of nicotine addiction must also be improved, so that they may better assist smokers in their quit attempts and advise patients on, and prescribe, effective smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. PMID:18686737

  1. Pertussis in Latin America: epidemiology and control strategies.

    PubMed

    Falleiros Arlant, Luiza Helena; de Colsa, Agustín; Flores, Dario; Brea, José; Avila Aguero, Maria L; Hozbor, Daniela Flavia

    2014-10-01

    Pertussis is a serious respiratory disease in infants that can also affect children and adults. Vaccination against pertussis was introduced in the 1950s and in the 1990s a resurgence of pertussis was observed worldwide. The aim of this work is to summarize the recent data concerning pertussis disease in different countries of Latin America. In this geographic region, pertussis is nationally notifiable and cases should be reported to the appropriate health department/Ministry. Though the surveillance systems are not the same among Latin America countries, over recent decades an increasing number of cases have been detected. Most of these cases correspond to patients younger than 6 months old who received fewer than three doses of vaccine. However, cases in adolescent and adults have also been detected. For this situation, which is not peculiar to Latin America countries, several explanations have been proposed.

  2. Re-bordering comparative education in Latin America: Between global limits and local characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Felicitas; Perez Centeno, Cristian G.

    2011-08-01

    Conceived for presentation at the XIV WCCES conference in Istanbul in 2010, the topic of which was "Bordering Comparative Education", this paper, within that framework, aims to present the current state of the discipline in Latin America in relation to a quick overview of its present-day situation at a global level. After providing an overview of the current debates on comparative education, with special emphasis on what the authors refer to as motor nuclei (a series of milestones or episodes which have become transdiscursive as the discipline has evolved), as well as pinpointing current challenges in the field, this paper looks into the development of the discipline in Latin America and how it has contributed to the understanding of the region's educational systems. The paper also examines the unique relationship between comparative studies and the field of educational planning in Latin America. The authors then go on to provide a thematic analysis, categorising the papers presented at three conferences held by the Sociedad Argentina de Estudios Comparados en Educación (SAECE, the Argentine Society for Comparative Education Studies) in 2005, 2007 and 2009. The paper closes with several conclusions regarding the current debate on the discipline in the region and its possibilities for the future.

  3. Population and Family Planning in Latin America. Report Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

    Analysis of Latin America's demographic situation has led many to believe that the present rapid rates of population growth, the highest anywhere in the world, must be reduced in order to prevent catastrophe. Family planning associations, affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), have been organized in 29 Latin…

  4. Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this publication contains a background paper, "The Health and Socioeconomic Situation of Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean" (Sennott-Miller). Part II includes and introduction and the following presentations: "Opening Statement" (Crooks); "Empowering Older Women: An Agenda for the '90s" (de Alvarez);…

  5. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmelkes, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a…

  6. Latin America second only to Asia in petrochemical prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Krenek, M.R.

    1995-04-17

    The opportunity in Asia for petrochemical companies generally is well known among global players in the industry. Conventional wisdom dictates that most companies at least consider investing in Asia, and for good reason, in most cases. The more aggressive, growth-oriented companies, however, already are attempting to discover the ``next Asia,`` if there is such a thing. Latin America has been nominated as one of the less developed regions that might inherit the Asia/Pacific region`s enviable position. This nomination, however, was made before the Mexican financial crisis and the burgeoning pressure on the currencies of Brazil and Argentina. In light of current events, can Latin America still be considered the next Asia, and, if so, what opportunities will follow the devaluation of the Mexican peso? An analysis of the economic and political factors affecting the petrochemical industry in Latin America indicates that the region still hold excellent prospects for petrochemical companies.

  7. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  8. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  9. HBV epidemiology in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Paraná, Raymundo; Almeida, Delvone

    2005-12-01

    In Latin America, despite the paucity of population studies, hepatitis B is considered endemic. The western Amazonia is a highly endemic area where hepatitis D is also prevalent. In this area, outbreaks of fulminant hepatitis due to H13V and HDV are frequently reported. Non-safe sexual activity seems to be the most important transmission route, but intrafamilial transmission, during early childhood, is extremely significant in Amazonia. The H13V genotype distribution is heterogeneous with a high prevalence of genotype F in the Amazonian region and genotype A in all other areas. In the region where Asian and Italian immigration occurred, genotypes B, C and D are also described.

  10. Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America and : Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ometto, J. P.; Bustamante, M.; Forti, M. C.; Peres, T.; Stein, A. F.; Jaramillo, V.; Perez, C.; Pinho, P. F.; Ascarrunz, N.; Austin, A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Latin America is at a crossroads where a balance should be found between production of the major agricultural commodities, reasonable and planned urbanization and conservation of its natural ecosystems and associated goods and services. Most of the natural biological fixation of the globe occurs in forests of Latin America. On the other hand, Latin America has one of the highest rate of deforestation in the world, and one of the highest increases in the use of nitrogen fertilizers. A better understanding of the responses of the N cycle to human impacts will allow better conservation of biodiversity and natural resources, with an improvement in food security and more effective land use choices in biofuel development. Latin America is a unique region in multiple aspects, and particularly relevant for this proposal are the broad climatic gradient and economic patterns that include a diverse range of natural ecosystems and socio-economic development pathways. Additionally, the region is impaired by the lack of information on actual impacts of human activity on N cycling across this diverse range of ecosystems. Finally, the large expanse of tropical ecosystems and reservoirs of biodiversity juxtaposed with an intense economic incentive for development make our understanding of human impacts in this context particularly important for global change research in the region. An evaluation of current and predicted changes in climate and land use on nitrogen stocks and fluxes in the region what is being develop by the Nnet network (Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America: Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities ). This presentation will bring the latest results of this integrative initiative in Latin America, focusing on the nitrogen budget associated to provision of ecosystem services and climate change.

  11. Health planning in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, J L

    1975-10-01

    Health planning in Latin America became an organized activity with the Charter of Punta del Este in 1961. The charter's 10-Year Public Health Program set forth a series of objectives that stressed international cooperation, the link of public health with economic development, and assistance from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the U.N. through Economic Commission for Latin America. The basis for most planning efforts in the region has been the PAHO/Center for Development Studies (CENDES) method, a joint venture of WHO and the Central University of Venezuela. This methodology suggests health programs that are organized from the bottom up beginning with "program areas" for populations that lie not more than 2 hours from a health clinic. The program areas comprise a regional area, which in turn is serviced by specialized clinics not affordable in program areas. The regional areas serve as the building blocks for the national programs. Beginning in 1963, several countries undertook planning activities using the PAHO/CENDES procedures. In many countries, however, the evolution of the planning process did not measure up to the expectations of 1961; only a few countries actually completed the program cycle. The problems confronted by these programs demonstrated that health planning has to be more than the intermittent exercise of preparing plans and documents.

  12. Gastroenterology training in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Henry; Saenz, Roque; de Almeida Troncon, Luiz E; Lizarzabal, Maribel; Olano, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent’s medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined, and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients’ needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities. Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors’ needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved. PMID:21633594

  13. Education, democracy and development in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-11-01

    The education first brought to America by Europeans was hardly more than ornamental culture, literacy was generally unimportant, and African slaves were not educated at all. Only in this century did industrialization cause some governments to provide economic and technological support through training and education. In the last decade, the debt crisis curtailed spending, while numbers of students and teachers continued to rise. A comparison between Latin America and South Korea illustrates the former's relative decline in investment. The advent of populist and corporatist democracies did not alleviate the situation, although there is now some evidence of concern for basic education for poorer children. With economic adjustment programmes, little else has been done for those who have suffered the heaviest burdens, and no obvious solutions to poverty and technological obsolescence are in prospect. A major reform of State institutions is called for, including a commitment to education, a change in the economic model, and a recognition of global interdependence.

  14. Industrialization in Latin America: Successes and Failures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Werner

    1984-01-01

    Industrialization in Latin America and how it has influenced growth, employment, and income distribution are examined. The role played by multinational companies in industrialization is discussed. The future of Latin America's growth possibilities is evaluated in the light of the Asian export-industrialization models. (Author/RM)

  15. The Growth of Communication Research in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Palacio, Carlos; Jara, J. Ruben

    This paper analyzes the origins, growth, and present state of communication research in Latin America. Based on empirical data, the paper identifies: (1) the factors that determined the kinds of studies that emerged in the region; (2) the major research topics; (3) the most influential scholars; and (4) the main currents of theoretical influence…

  16. Fleets and fuel prices in Latin America Part II - Gasoline: Gallons of gasoline per week per passenger car selected countries in Latin America, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-31

    According to latest available statistics, one in fourteen persons in Latin America has a car and consumes 13 gallons of gasoline per week, on average. This is low but is likely to rise dramatically if current economic thinking holds.

  17. [The demographic transition in Latin America and Europe].

    PubMed

    Zavala De Cosio, M E

    1992-12-01

    This work describes and analyzes the "European model of demographic transition" and compares it to the fertility transition in Latin America, arguing that two different types of demographic transition coexist in Latin America. Chesnais has defined 3 principal postulates of the theory of demographic transition that he believes are universally valid: the precedence in time of mortality decline; the occurrence of reproductive transition in 2 phases, limitation of marriages followed by limitation of births; and the influence of economic growth on the initiation of the secular fertiilty decline. This work is largely limited to discussion of the first 2 postulates. In all the European transitions analyzed, mortality has declined before the occurrence of fertility changes. Exceptions cited in the literature have probably been caused by omissions or other problems in the data. The level of mortality at the beginning of the transition and the rate of decline differ, giving unique character to each transition. Imbalances resulting from mortality decline are at the root of modern fertility transitions. The French demographic transition was distinguished by early appearance of birth limitation by married couples, as part of the regulation of population growth. In the rest of Europe, during the pretransitional period, the traditional system of reproduction was regulated primarily by control of nuptiality. Only at a second stage was marital fertiity controlled, when limitation of marriage was no longer sufficient or had exceeded the limits of social acceptability. All countries of Northern and Western Europe recorded increased proportions definitively single as the demographic situation began to change, until the moment when couples began to limit births. The demographic transition in Latin America began at the end of the 19th century, with mortality decline. Fertility increased initially in Latin America as it had in Europe and for the same reasons, but the impact was greater

  18. Cervical cancer control in Latin America: A call to action.

    PubMed

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Herold, Christina I; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Dizon, Don S; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Del Carmen, Marcela; Randall, Tom C; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline M; Goss, Paul E

    2016-02-15

    Cervical cancer (CC) is second most common cause of cancer in Latin America and is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women. In 2015, an estimated 74,488 women will be diagnosed with CC in Latin America and 31,303 will die of the disease. CC mortality is projected to increase by 45% by 2030 despite human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening efforts. In this setting, the goal was of the current study was to examine CC control efforts in Latin America and identify deficiencies in these efforts that could be addressed to reduce CC incidence and mortality. The authors found that HPV vaccination has been introduced in the majority of Latin American countries, and there is now a need to monitor the success (or shortcomings) of these programs and to ensure that these programs are sustainable. This topic was also reviewed in light of emerging data demonstrating that visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV DNA testing without Papanicolaou tests have efficacy from a screening perspective and are good alternatives to cytology-based screening programs. Overall, there is a need to build capacity for CC control in Latin America and the best strategy will depend on the country/region and must be tailored to meet the needs of the population as well as available resources.

  19. Mental health policy developments in Latin America.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167

  20. Capacity-building programmes in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. E.

    "If we do not support basic science, we might as well give up our idea of living in a civilized country". These words by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, President of Argentina, are from a speech he delivered in 1871, at the inauguration of the Córdoba Astronomical Observatory, first in Latin America. It contained in this way a response to critics saying that there were more pressing matters where to spend public funds than promoting scientific research and education. It also marked the beginning of capacity-building activities in Argentina. We shall review how these activities have developed in Argentina as well as the other Latin American countries, current programmes and the role that space activities play and can play in the future.

  1. Educating cities in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-09-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate how this proposal was adopted in Latin America. After discussing the basic aims of educating cities, the paper focuses on the Latin American experience, giving examples of existing projects within the educating cities initiative. The authors are particularly interested in the contrast between the political intentions of educating cities on the one hand and the social, economic, political and cultural world on the other hand. They observe that in this context there is a danger of the individual being forgotten, which contradicts the actual intention of the educating city concept. They also discuss the problem of who should carry out the realisation of educating cities and how the various stakeholders might coordinate their actions. Contemplating new directions at the end of their paper, the authors sum up a number of guidelines and offer recommendations for action in developing educating cities.

  2. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction. PMID:22889430

  3. [Prenatal care in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Buekens, P; Hernández, P; Infante, C

    1990-01-01

    Available data on the coverage of prenatal care in Latin America were reviewed. In recent years, only Bolivia had a coverage of prenatal care of less than 50 per cent. More than 90 per cent of pregnant women received prenatal care in Chile, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. Prenatal care increased between the 1970 and 1980 in the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru. The coverage of prenatal care decreased in Bolivia and Colombia. The mean number of visits increased in Cuba and Puerto Rico. The increase of prenatal care in Guatemala and Honduras is due to increased care by traditional birth attendants, compared to the role of health care institutions. We compared the more recent data on tetanus immunization of pregnant women to the more recent data on prenatal care. The rates of tetanus immunization are always lower than the rates of prenatal care attendance, except in Costa Rica. The rates of tetanus immunization was less than half as compared to the rates of prenatal care in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru. To improve the content of prenatal care should be an objective complementary to the increase of the number of attending women.

  4. Secondary Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Challenge of Growth and Reform. Sustainable Development Department Technical Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Laurence; Castro, Claudio de Moura

    This paper synthesizes the issues, problems, research, and current best practice in secondary education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Overall, Latin America and the Caribbean enroll much lower percentages of school age children in secondary education than the region's chief competitors, and the region's secondary education is inadequate by…

  5. Bat-borne rabies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as "Least Concern". According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  6. Bat-borne rabies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as "Least Concern". According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  7. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  8. State of lead additive use, 1995: Two gasoline systems in Latin America, Part I

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    Unleaded gasoline in Latin America is taking market share away from leaded as automobile manufacturers, refiners, marketers, and consumers accommodate the phase-down of lead. The urgency of moving to unleaded gasoline is based on many factors as each country has a different viewpoint and a different environmental protection vision. This issue of Energy Detente examines the current phase of the ongoing lead phase-down in Latin America.

  9. Perception of Ethical Misconduct by Neuropsychology Professionals in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Panyavin, Ivan S; Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Rivera, Diego; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    To date, extremely limited research has focused on the ethical aspects of clinical neuropsychology practice in Latin America. The current study aimed to identify the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in a sample of 465 self-identified neuropsychology professionals from Latin America in order to better guide policies for training and begin to establish standards for practitioners in the region. Frequencies of neuropsychologists who knew another professional engaging in ethical misconduct ranged from 1.1% to 60.4% in the areas of research, clinical care, training, and professional relationships. The most frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional training and expertise, with nearly two thirds of participants knowing other professionals who do not possess adequate training to be working as neuropsychologists. The least frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional relationships. Nearly one third of participants indicated that they had never received formal training in professional ethics.

  10. History of primary vasculitis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Iglesias Gammara, Antonio; Coral, Paola; Quintana, Gerardo; Toro, Carlos E; Flores, Luis Felipe; Matteson, Eric L; Restrepo, José Félix

    2010-03-01

    A literature review utilizing Fepafem, Bireme, LiLacs, Scielo Colombia, Scielo Internacional, former MedLine, Pubmed, and BVS Colombia as well as manual searches in the libraries of major Latin American universities was performed to study vasculitis in Latin America. Since 1945, a total of 752 articles have been published by Latin American authors. However, only a minority are devoted to primary vasculitides, and even fewer have been published in indexed journals. Approximately 126 are in OLD, Medline, Pubmed, Bireme, and Scielo. Most publications are from Mexico, followed by Brazil and Colombia. Systematic studies of the epidemiology of primary idiopathic vasculitis are available for a few countries, i.e. Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, and Peru. Takayasu arteritis and ANCA-associated vasculitis are the best studied forms of vasculitis in Latin America. Interest and expertise in vasculitis is growing in Latin America, as reflected in the increased number of published articles from this region of the world in the last decade. Racial and environmental factors are possibly responsible for the differential expression of various types of primary vasculitis observed in Latin America. With time, the unique features, epidemiology, and better treatment strategies for idiopathic vasculitides in Latin America will emerge.

  11. [Inequities in cardiovascular diseases in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    In high-income countries, social inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are well-documented. Although Latin America has a rich history of theory and conceptual discussion regarding social inequalities in health, empirical research has been more limited. In this commentary we summarize recent empirical work on social inequalities in CVD risk in Latin America, and highlight key research needs as well as implications for prevention. Although much remains unknown about the social patterning of CVD in Latin America, the limited studies to date indicate that inequalities in CVD risk vary across populations and markers of socioeconomic position, as well as disease risk marker. The strongest social inequalities are seen among women, and in urban areas, with regards to obesity, diabetes, and diet. Few studies, though, have been conducted in some parts of Latin America, including the countries of Central America and northern South America. Vital registration systems and nationally-representative risk factor surveys can be important sources of data, as long as information on socioeconomic indicators is collected. Longitudinal studies will also be important for investigating factors driving social inequalities. As policies and prevention strategies are put into place to reduce CVD in Latin America, they must also address factors generating social inequalities in CVD risk.

  12. The epidemiologic burden of hepatitis C virus infection in Latin America .

    PubMed

    Szabo, Shelagh M; Bibby, Meagan; Yuan, Yong; Donato, Bonnie M K; Jiménez-Mendez, R; Castañeda-Hernández, G; Rodríguez-Torres, Maribel; Levy, Adrian R

    2012-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major and growing public health concern worldwide, including in Latin America. With more efficacious therapies becoming available, decision-makers will require accurate estimates of disease prevalence to assess the potential impact of new treatments. However, few estimates of the epidemiologic burden, either overall or by country, are available for Latin America; and the potential impact of currently-available treatments on the epidemiologic burden of HCV in Latin America has not been assessed. To address this, we systematically reviewed twenty-five articles presenting population-based estimates of HCV prevalence from general population or blood donor samples, and supplemen- ted those with publically-available data, to estimate the total number of persons infected with HCV in Latin America at 7.8 million (2010). Of these, over 4.6 million would be expected to have genotype 1 chronic HCV, based on published data on the risk of progression to chronic disease and the HCV genotype distribution of Latin America. Finally, we calculated that between 1.6 and 2.3 million persons with genotype 1 chronic HCV would potentially benefit from current treatments, based on published estimates of genotype-specific treatment responsiveness. In conclusion, these estimates demonstrate the substantial present epidemiologic burden of HCV, and quantify the impending societal and clinical burden from untreated HCV in Latin America.

  13. Haematopoietic cell transplants in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gale, R P; Seber, A; Bonfim, C; Pasquini, M

    2016-07-01

    Haematopoietic cell transplants are done by more than 1500 transplant centres in 75 countries, mostly for life-threatening haematological disorders. However, transplant technology and access are not uniformly distributed worldwide. Most transplants are done predominately in Europe, North America and some Asian countries. We review transplant activity in Latin America, a geographic region with a population of >600 million persons living in countries with diverse economic and social development levels. These data indicate a 20-40-fold lower frequency of transplants in Latin America compared with Europe and North America. We show that although economics, infrastructure and expertise are important limitations, other variables also operate. Changes in several of these variables may substantially increase transplant activity in Latin America. PMID:26999468

  14. Haematopoietic cell transplants in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gale, R P; Seber, A; Bonfim, C; Pasquini, M

    2016-07-01

    Haematopoietic cell transplants are done by more than 1500 transplant centres in 75 countries, mostly for life-threatening haematological disorders. However, transplant technology and access are not uniformly distributed worldwide. Most transplants are done predominately in Europe, North America and some Asian countries. We review transplant activity in Latin America, a geographic region with a population of >600 million persons living in countries with diverse economic and social development levels. These data indicate a 20-40-fold lower frequency of transplants in Latin America compared with Europe and North America. We show that although economics, infrastructure and expertise are important limitations, other variables also operate. Changes in several of these variables may substantially increase transplant activity in Latin America.

  15. Haematopoietic Cell Transplants in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Robert Peter; Seber, Adriana; Bonfim, Carmem; Pasquini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Haematopoietic cell transplants are done by more than 1500 transplant centres in 75 countries, mostly for life-threatening haematological disorders. However, transplant technology and access are not uniformly-distributed worldwide. Most transplants are done in predominately Europe, North America and some Asian countries. We review transplants activity in Latin America, a geographic region with a population of more than 600 million persons living in countries with diverse economic and social development levels. The data indicate a 20-40-fold lower frequency of transplants in Latin America compared with Europe and North America. We show that although economics, infrastructure and expertise are important limitations, other variables also operate. Changes in several of these variables may substantially increase transplant activity in Latin America. PMID:26999468

  16. Space, geophysical research related to Latin America - Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Blanca; Shea, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    For the last 25 years, every two to three years the Conferencia Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial (COLAGE) is held in one of the Latin American countries for the purpose of promoting scientific exchange among scientists of the region and to encourage continued research that is unique to this area of the world. At the more recent conference, the community realized that many individuals both within and outside Latin America have contributed greatly to the understanding of the space sciences in this area of the world. It was therefore decided to assemble a Special Issue Space and Geophysical Physics related to Latin America, presenting recent results and where submissions would be accepted from the world wide community of scientists involved in research appropriate to Latin America. Because of the large number of submissions, these papers have been printed in two separate issues. The first issue was published in Advances in Space Research, Vol. 57, number 6 and contained 15 papers. This is the second issue and contains 25 additional papers. These papers show the wide variety of research, both theoretical and applied, that is currently being developed or related to space and geophysical sciences in the Sub-Continent.

  17. The Enduring Effects of Smoking in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Beatriz; Pinto-Aguirre, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated smoking-attributable mortality, assessed the impact of past smoking on recent mortality, and computed expected future losses in life expectancy caused by past and current smoking behavior in Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods. We used a regression-based procedure to estimate smoking-attributable mortality and information for 6 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Uruguay) for the years 1980 through 2009 contained in the Latin American Mortality Database (LAMBdA). These countries jointly comprise more than two thirds of the adult population in Latin America and the Caribbean and have the region’s highest rates of smoking prevalence. Results. During the last 10 years, the impact of smoking was equivalent to losses in male (aged ≥ 50 years) life expectancy of about 2 to 6 years. These effects are likely to increase, particularly for females, both in the study countries and in those that joined the epidemic at later dates. Conclusions. Unless innovations in the detection and treatment of chronic diseases are introduced soon, continued gains in adult survival in Latin America and the Caribbean region may slow down considerably. PMID:25880938

  18. Primary Health Care and Nursing Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfredi, Maricel

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the history of health care in Latin America in the twentieth century. Indicates that nurses provide most of the health care and that there is a need to enhance the nursing education programs in Latin America. (JOW)

  19. The Scientific Institutions of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Ronald

    This book is a comprehensive survey of the scientific institutions and science information facilities of Latin America and the Caribbean. The organization of the book is by countries and by institutions within each country. The section on each country begins with a description of the country and its scientific organizations. A series of…

  20. Instructional Technology Research in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Clifton B.

    1986-01-01

    Description of research activities in the field of instructional technology in Latin America highlights distance education, microcomputers, educational radio, learning strategies and study habits, and instructional development models and design of textbooks. Problem areas discussed include students' role, cognitive styles, and effectiveness, and…

  1. Vocational Training in Latin America. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexim, Joao Carlos; And Others

    This monograph summarizes the main structural and operational components of the framework for the development of vocational training in Latin America. Part 1, "Economic Framework and Population" (Orlando Luebbert), is an overview of social and economic indicators: population, agriculture, industry and productivity, the informal sector, gainful…

  2. Gender, Innovation and Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Ingrid, Ed.; King, Linda, Ed.

    This document contains 19 papers on gender, innovation, and education in Latin America. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Ingrid Jung); "Reflections on the Gender Perspective in Experiences of Non-Formal Education with Women" (Lilian Celiberti); "Gender and Innovation" (Graciela Messina); "Towards a Pedagogy of Education…

  3. Challenges for Scientists in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kalergis, Alexis M; Lacerda, Marcus; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Rosenstein, Yvonne

    2016-09-01

    Despite political turmoil and economical crisis, research in Latin America has considerably advanced over recent decades. The present 'Point of View' outlines our perspectives on the working conditions, successes, difficulties, limitations, and challenges of biomedical scientific communities in four Latin American countries: Argentina (G.A.R.), Brazil (M.L.), Chile (A.K.), and Mexico (Y.R.). PMID:27426044

  4. Latin America: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This learning aid is intended to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with Latin Americans. The book consists of the following: (1) a map of Latin America, with area and population statistics for the various countries; (2) a brief description of the land, the people, the economy, diet, religion, government,…

  5. Partnering for Sustainable Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinger, Beryl

    2002-01-01

    A study examined how government agencies, the private sector, nongovernmental organizations, and community organizations in Latin America cooperate in development activities. A model outlines each sector's functions in service delivery, human resource development and training, resource mobilization, research, and public education; the stages of…

  6. Secondary School Libraries in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Eugene M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses problems (poverty, lack of national publishers, use of libraries as study halls, low professional status of librarians) affecting high school libraries in Latin America and suggests ways to improve library services, focusing on reference service (opening reference stacks, improved cataloging, library skills instruction), technical…

  7. A World of Hurt: Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Massive socioeconomic problems have left Latin American education in a dire condition, and decades behind the rest of the globe in integrating technology into teaching and learning. But a few spots in the region offer signs of hope. In this article, the author describes several efforts at tech-based educational reform in Latin America.

  8. Challenges for Scientists in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kalergis, Alexis M; Lacerda, Marcus; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Rosenstein, Yvonne

    2016-09-01

    Despite political turmoil and economical crisis, research in Latin America has considerably advanced over recent decades. The present 'Point of View' outlines our perspectives on the working conditions, successes, difficulties, limitations, and challenges of biomedical scientific communities in four Latin American countries: Argentina (G.A.R.), Brazil (M.L.), Chile (A.K.), and Mexico (Y.R.).

  9. Early Childhood Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llanos, Martha

    1984-01-01

    Briefly introduces recently developed early childhood programs in Latin America and describes in detail two basic programs designed for the rural population of Peru: a Portage home-based model and a project emphasizing community development. History, objectives, program design and methodology, and training are identified, stressing the need for…

  10. Evaluating Multigrade School Reform in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes three multigrade school reforms in Latin America: (1) Colombia's "Escuela Nueva", (2) Guatemala's "Nueva Escuela Unitaria", and (3) Chile's MECE-Rural. Each reform endowed primary teachers and students with special training and instructional materials, and encouraged new kinds of instruction in rural classrooms, with the goal…

  11. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    PubMed

    Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of neonates who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, central venous catheter management, and management of complications. This manuscript is the fourth of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America'. PMID:23756219

  12. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    PubMed

    Santolaya, María E; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Alvarado Matute, Tito; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of children who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in children with candidemia. This manuscript is the third of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'. PMID:23764557

  13. [Peasant women and agrarian life in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Arizpe, L

    1985-01-01

    The great agrarian transformation in favor of capitalist agriculture that has occurred over the past few decades in the dependent countries of Latin America has modified the traditional production of foodstuffs, the mode of work, and the social reproduction of peasant women belonging to the social groups with the lowest levels of income. Policies of centralized industrialization which have excluded agricultural manpower have affected Latin American women, accounting for their greater tendency to migrate to cities. Migrant peasant women participate in 3 principal characteristics of the dependent development of Latin America: the rural exodus, the burgeoning of the tertiary sector, and marginality. The consequences of unequal capitalist agrarian development in the formation of a female rural proletariat have not been well studies, resulting in a tendency to disregard the heterogeneity of situations in which peasant women find themselves and to confuse 3 aspects of their condition as members of rural families, as workers, and as women. As family members, peasant women find family income declining, leading to increases in their unpaid labor time and declining standards of nutrition and health. The agrarian economies of Latin America and the Caribbean show a certain homogeneity in the sexual division of labor. Their historical development after their insertion as colonial regions in the world economy produced 3 well-defined forms of agricultural economy: haciendas, plantations, and peasant communities, each with its own forms of family and kinship relationships which reflected adjustments between sexual division of labor and production or manpower needs. Concerning the participation of women, there are curerntly 3 specific types of agricultural production characteristic of Latin America and the Caribbean: peasant family units usually belonging to communities in which women primarily perform the tasks of "reproduction", rural family units which rely on the external labor

  14. [Peasant women and agrarian life in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Arizpe, L

    1985-01-01

    The great agrarian transformation in favor of capitalist agriculture that has occurred over the past few decades in the dependent countries of Latin America has modified the traditional production of foodstuffs, the mode of work, and the social reproduction of peasant women belonging to the social groups with the lowest levels of income. Policies of centralized industrialization which have excluded agricultural manpower have affected Latin American women, accounting for their greater tendency to migrate to cities. Migrant peasant women participate in 3 principal characteristics of the dependent development of Latin America: the rural exodus, the burgeoning of the tertiary sector, and marginality. The consequences of unequal capitalist agrarian development in the formation of a female rural proletariat have not been well studies, resulting in a tendency to disregard the heterogeneity of situations in which peasant women find themselves and to confuse 3 aspects of their condition as members of rural families, as workers, and as women. As family members, peasant women find family income declining, leading to increases in their unpaid labor time and declining standards of nutrition and health. The agrarian economies of Latin America and the Caribbean show a certain homogeneity in the sexual division of labor. Their historical development after their insertion as colonial regions in the world economy produced 3 well-defined forms of agricultural economy: haciendas, plantations, and peasant communities, each with its own forms of family and kinship relationships which reflected adjustments between sexual division of labor and production or manpower needs. Concerning the participation of women, there are curerntly 3 specific types of agricultural production characteristic of Latin America and the Caribbean: peasant family units usually belonging to communities in which women primarily perform the tasks of "reproduction", rural family units which rely on the external labor

  15. The Regulation of Biosimilars in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ricardo; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes the regulatory scenario on biological medications in Latin America focusing on comparability studies, extrapolation of indications, interchangeability and pharmacovigilance issues. In the case of comparability studies, what is being discussed is the possibility of decreasing the clinical trials requirement, but that the molecule should be well characterized in the studies of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. With the worldwide-level approval of the first monoclonal antibody biosimilar, infliximab, extrapolation of indications are being discussed, since the behavior of the Latin America regulatory agencies has been different with regard to such issue. Another issue discussed by the regulatory agencies is the interchangeability between biological medications and their biosimilars, mainly due to the fact that there is a clear confusion on interchangeability and substitution concepts. Finally, the pharmacovigilance debate, according to what takes place globally, is related to the need for identifying and differentiating the reference biological medication and its biosimilars for traceability purposes. PMID:26951254

  16. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Capote Negrin, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    The basic aspects of the descriptive epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America are presented. A decrease in the incidence and mortality rates has been observed in the period from 2000 to 2012 in all countries across the region, this has not occurred at the same proportions, and in many countries, observed figures of incidence and mortality are among the highest levels in the world. In Latin America, calculating a mean measure of the numbers from the GLOBOCAN data from 2000 to 2012, we can observe a difference of up to fivefold of the incidence (Puerto Rico 9,73 Vs Bolivia 50,73) and almost seven times for mortality (Puerto Rico 3,3 Vs Nicaragua 21,67). A report of the epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of screening procedures regarding the possible impact of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine I in the prevention of cervical cancer is presented. PMID:26557875

  17. The Regulation of Biosimilars in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ricardo; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes the regulatory scenario on biological medications in Latin America focusing on comparability studies, extrapolation of indications, interchangeability and pharmacovigilance issues. In the case of comparability studies, what is being discussed is the possibility of decreasing the clinical trials requirement, but that the molecule should be well characterized in the studies of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. With the worldwide-level approval of the first monoclonal antibody biosimilar, infliximab, extrapolation of indications are being discussed, since the behavior of the Latin America regulatory agencies has been different with regard to such issue. Another issue discussed by the regulatory agencies is the interchangeability between biological medications and their biosimilars, mainly due to the fact that there is a clear confusion on interchangeability and substitution concepts. Finally, the pharmacovigilance debate, according to what takes place globally, is related to the need for identifying and differentiating the reference biological medication and its biosimilars for traceability purposes.

  18. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions.

    PubMed

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-06-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their possible applicability in LA. We conclude that research-based pedagogical interventions are currently available to promote RC at school and may be suitable to implement in LA in order to improve RC.

  19. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions.

    PubMed

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-06-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their possible applicability in LA. We conclude that research-based pedagogical interventions are currently available to promote RC at school and may be suitable to implement in LA in order to improve RC. PMID:27254828

  20. High magnetic field facilities in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, R.; Grössinger, R.; Bertorello, H.; Broto, J. M.; Davies, H. A.; Estevez-Rams, E.; Gonzalez, J.; Matutes, J.; Sinnecker, J. P.; Sagredo, V.

    2006-11-01

    The EC supported a network (under the Framework 5 ALFA Programme) designated HIFIELD (Project number II0147FI) and entitled: "Measurement methods involving high magnetic fields for advanced and novel materials". As a result, high field facilities were initiated, constructed or extended at the following laboratories in Latin America: University Cordoba (Argentina), CES, Merida (Venezuela), CIMAV, Chihuahua (Mexico), University Federal de Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

  1. Evolution of technology transfer in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Kahl, L.F. )

    1989-07-01

    The author discusses how Latin American countries have grown up buying technology, transferring technology from more developed nations, and attempting to adapt it to their own countries for their own environment. Although this is the approach that was and is necessary, there are still some shortfalls that have occurred in the process of licensing and acquisition of technology. Governments around the world also have had powerful impacts on technology transfer. Those in Latin America are no exception.

  2. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  3. Latin America's present and future challenges in toxicology education

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, M. . E-mail: martini@telcel.net.ve

    2005-09-01

    Industrialization that Latin America has experienced during the past 50 years, the increase of population and the growth of chemical-related industries has generated a variety of environmental problems that must be addressed. After assessing these profound changes, greater emphasis should be placed on the study of environmental health and toxicology. Latin American countries face many problems that are common to other developing nations. Therefore, there is a demand for safety assessment and regulatory control of chemicals that create a need for increasing numbers of toxicologists. To meet this demand, educational programs in toxicology have to be designed. This paper utilizes a consultation questionnaire that includes toxicology-network members, scientists and educational institutions where toxicology is taught. An analysis of the information collected is made, with an emphasis on what we currently lack and on future challenges for toxicology professionals. Although the response from the study institutions was 65% (13 countries out of 20), the paper aims to assess the present situation of toxicology. The convenience for a certification/recognition for toxicologists is also evaluated. Action needs to be taken to promote scientific development based on regional specific needs that require increasing at the number of toxicology programs, and promoting of cooperation between academics and researchers. Among the limitations we have are the variability of curricula, objectives and priorities. The increasing globalization of markets and regulations requires the harmonization of graduate/postgraduate programs to ensure that risk assessment and management are dealt with uniformly. Cooperation among our countries and international assistance should play a more prominent role in the promotion of regional integration and the more efficient utilization of international experience in defining educational policies.

  4. [Medical justice as a priority for Latin America].

    PubMed

    Santos y Vargas, L

    1997-12-01

    The need for an ethics of medical justice in Latin America is asserted in the context of a review of concepts of justice throughout history and of changing governmental perspectives on provision of health care in the US and other developed countries. The current view that individuals are primarily human resources is at odds with a long tradition asserting the intrinsic dignity of human beings. English-speaking bioethicists began in the 1960s to stress the principal of autonomy of patients, recognizing their right to make decisions on their own lives and medical care equally with the physician. At the same time, the US has approved no legislation establishing a right to health care, which is rather regarded as a private good. Governments are increasingly inclined to renounce their role as direct providers of health care. The liberal democratic state until recently understood that it fulfilled its ethical commitment to promoting social justice through provision of health care. Nevertheless, societies that stress the importance of the individual in decision-making and that conceive of health as a private good are confronted with the contradiction of apparently irreconcilable visions. With infinite demand for health services and limited health resources, the discourse of autonomy has slowly been replaced by a discourse of distributive justice. The most appropriate version of distributive justice for Latin America is probably that which affirms the duty of assisting those most in need. The prevalence of malnutrition, misery, and premature death in the world is a clear sign of imbalance. If the essential dignity of all human beings and not just of the elite is to be affirmed, medical justice must become the most urgent priority of Latin America.

  5. Where Does Human Plague Still Persist in Latin America?

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Galan, Deise I.; Bertherat, Eric; Ruiz, Alfonso; Dumit, Elsy; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. Aims The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention. Methods Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties). Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described. Results Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899–2012). Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level. Discussion Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested. PMID:24516682

  6. [Population and nutrition in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, S

    1984-04-01

    This discussion of food and population in Latin America consists of 5 sections covering food and the population debate since Malthus, basic data on nutrition problems in Latin America, the demographic impact, food production, and future prospects. The present position in favor of limitation of population growth is based on the view that continued rapid population increase must inevitably bring a crisis of disequilibrium of food, natural resources, and ecological and economic security within about 100 years. The common element uniting those opposed to or indifferent to population control is a belief that science and technology can predict and satisfy the essential food needs of a burgeoning population. All developed countries have per capita caloric availabilities of over 3000/day, compared to an average of 2465 for Latin American as a whole. Only Barbados and Argentina have 3000 calories/day available. The daily average per capita protein consumption of 65.7 grams in Latin America is above the 54 gr/day recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organiation. In Latin America the average daily per capita consumption from animal protein is 496 calories, compared to 1331 in the US. The nutrition status of different Latin American countries varies, with minimal caloric intakes of 1880-2170 calories/day in some Central American and Caribbean countries. Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Ecuador, and Bolivia have frank protein deficits. Within countries, there may be large food gaps between regions, rural and urban populations, and social classes. The FAO estimated that 41 million Latin Americans representing 13% of the population are undernourished. 38% of Guatemalans, Hondurans, and Haitians, 30% of Ecuadoreans, and 23% of Peruvians are believed to be inadequately nourished. The quality of the diet varies widely between countries and regions because of a multitude of cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. In

  7. Cardiovascular disease research in Latin America: A comparative bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jahangir, Eiman; Comandé, Daniel; Rubinstein, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the number of publications in cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin America and the Caribbean over the last decade. METHODS: We performed a bibliometric analysis in PubMed from 2001 to 2010 for Latin America and the Caribbean, the United States, Canada, Europe, China, and India. RESULTS: Latin America published 4% of articles compared with 26% from the United States/Canada and 42% from Europe. In CVD, Latin America published 4% of articles vs 23% from the United States/Canada and 40% from Europe. The number of publications in CVD in Latin America increased from 41 in 2001 to 726 in 2010. CONCLUSION: Latin America, while publishing more articles than previously, lags behind developed countries. Further advances in research infrastructure are necessary to develop prevention strategies for this region. PMID:22216374

  8. Review on space weather in Latin America. 1. The beginning from space science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. Americo

    2016-11-01

    The present work is the first of a three-part review on space weather in Latin America. It comprises the evolution of several Latin American institutions investing in space science since the 1960s, focusing on the solar-terrestrial interactions, which today is commonly called space weather. Despite recognizing advances in space research in all of Latin America, this review is restricted to the development observed in three countries in particular (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico), due to the fact that these countries have recently developed operational centers for monitoring space weather. The review starts with a brief summary of the first groups to start working with space science in Latin America. This first part of the review closes with the current status and the research interests of these groups, which are described in relation to the most significant works and challenges of the next decade in order to aid in the solving of space weather open issues.

  9. [Intellectual exchange between Germany and Latin America: an interview with Stefan Rinke].

    PubMed

    Rinke, Stefan; da Silva, André Felipe Cândido; Junghans, Miriam; Cavalcanti, Juliana Manzoni; de Muñoz, Pedro Felipe Neves

    2014-01-01

    Current and former students of the Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz interviewed German historian Stefan Rinke, of the Freie Universität Berlin, who specializes in examining the historical development of Latin America as it fits into the international context. Rinke's work uses dimensions such as economic and diplomatic relations, migratory flows, and ethnic conflict as tools in his analyses of the networks of interdependence that have tied Latin America to Europe and the USA. His lens goes beyond the Latin American continent to approach globalization as a historical process, with national and regional contexts placed within a general framework. In this interview, Rinke talks about his academic career, global and transnational history, and joint projects between Germany and Latin America.

  10. Physical Activity Interventions in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Azevedo, Mario R.; Hino, Adriano A.; Soares, Jesus; Hallal, Pedro C.; Simões, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Systematic reviews of public health interventions are useful for identifying effective strategies for informing policy and practice. The goals of this review were to (1) update a previous systematic review of physical activity interventions in Latin America which found that only school-based physical education had sufficient evidence to recommend widespread adoption; (2) assess the reporting of external validity elements; and (3) develop and apply an evidence typology for classifying interventions. Evidence acquisition In 2010–2011, community-level, physical activity intervention studies from Latin America were identified, categorized, and screened based on the peer-reviewed literature or Brazilian theses published between 2006 and 2010. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated using U.S. Community Guide methods. External validity reporting was assessed among a subset of articles reviewed to date. An evidence rating typology was developed and applied to classify interventions along a continuum based on evidence about their effectiveness in the U.S. context, reach, adoption, implementation, institutionalization, and benefits and costs. Evidence synthesis Thirteen articles published between 2006 and 2010 met inclusion criteria and were abstracted systematically, yet when combined with evidence from articles from the previous systematic review, no additional interventions could be recommended for practice. Moreover, the reporting of external validity elements was low among a subset of 19 studies published to date (median=21% of elements reported). By applying the expanded evidence rating typology, one intervention was classified as evidence-based, seven as promising, and one as emerging. Conclusions Several physical activity interventions have been identified as promising for future research and implementation in Latin America. Enhanced reporting of external validity elements will inform the translation of research into practice. PMID:23415133

  11. Commentary: improving the health of neglected populations in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Jones, Danielle; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Neglected diseases encompass a group of pathologies that disproportionally affect resource-constrained areas of the world. In tropical and subtropical areas in Latin America, the vicious cycle of poverty, disease and underdevelopment is widespread. The burden of disease associated to neglected diseases in this region is mainly expressed through diseases such as malaria, dengue, intestinal parasitic infections, Chagas' disease, and many others. These maladies have burdened Latin America throughout centuries and have directly influenced their ability to develop and become competitive societies in the current climate of globalization. Therefore, the need for a new paradigm that integrates various public health policies, programs, and a strategy with the collaboration of all responsible sectors is long overdue. In this regard, innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, sustainable, and locally acceptable strategies to improve the health of neglected populations to prevent, control, and potentially eliminate neglected diseases. Improving the health of these forgotten populations will place them in an environment more conducive to development and will likely contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in this area of the globe. PMID:17244369

  12. Arsenic Exposure in Latin America: Biomarkers, Risk Assessments and Related Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Chen, Yu; Bundschuh, Jochen; Oliver, John T.; Navoni, Julio; Olmos, Valentina; Lepori, Edda Villaamil; Ahsan, Habibul; Parvez, Faruque

    2013-01-01

    In Latin America, several regions have a long history of widespread arsenic (As) contamination from both natural and anthropological sources. Yet, relatively little is known about the extent of As exposure from drinking water and its related health consequences in these countries. It has been estimated that at least 4.5 million people in Latin America are chronically exposed to high levels of As (>50µg/L), some to as high as 2000 µg/L - 200 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional standard for drinking water. We conducted a systematic review of 82 peer reviewed papers and reports to fully explore the current understanding of As exposure and its health effects, as well as the influence of genetic factors that modulate those effects in the populations of Latin America. Despite some methodological limitations, these studies suggested important links between high levels of chronic As exposure and elevated risks of numerous adverse health outcomes in Latin America - including internal and external cancers, reproductive outcomes, and childhood cognitive function. Several studies demonstrated genetic polymorphisms that influence susceptibility to these and other disease states through their modulation of As metabolism, with As methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and genes of one-carbon metabolism being specifically implicated. While the full extent and nature of the health burden are yet to be known in Latin America, these studies have significantly enriched knowledge of As toxicity and led to subsequent research. Targeted future studies will not only yield a better understanding of the public health impact of As in Latin America populations, but also allow for effective and timely mitigation efforts. PMID:22119448

  13. Arsenic exposure in Latin America: biomarkers, risk assessments and related health effects.

    PubMed

    McClintock, Tyler R; Chen, Yu; Bundschuh, Jochen; Oliver, John T; Navoni, Julio; Olmos, Valentina; Lepori, Edda Villaamil; Ahsan, Habibul; Parvez, Faruque

    2012-07-01

    In Latin America, several regions have a long history of widespread arsenic (As) contamination from both natural and anthropological sources. Yet, relatively little is known about the extent of As exposure from drinking water and its related health consequences in these countries. It has been estimated that at least 4.5 million people in Latin America are chronically exposed to high levels of As (>50 μg/L), some to as high as 2000 μg/L--200 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional standard for drinking water. We conducted a systematic review of 82 peer reviewed papers and reports to fully explore the current understanding of As exposure and its health effects, as well as the influence of genetic factors that modulate those effects in the populations of Latin America. Despite some methodological limitations, these studies suggested important links between the high levels of chronic As exposure and elevated risks of numerous adverse health outcomes in Latin America--including internal and external cancers, reproductive outcomes, and childhood cognitive function. Several studies demonstrated genetic polymorphisms that influence susceptibility to these and other disease states through their modulation of As metabolism, with As methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and genes of one-carbon metabolism being specifically implicated. While the full extent and nature of the health burden are yet to be known in Latin America, these studies have significantly enriched knowledge of As toxicity and led to subsequent research. Targeted future studies will not only yield a better understanding of the public health impact of As in Latin America populations, but also allow for effective and timely mitigation efforts.

  14. Adult education and indigenous peoples in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelkes, Sylvia

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a potential way out of educational stagnation of indigenous adults, which is one of the challenges clearly formulated by UNESCO member states during CONFINTEA VI as a priority to be faced. The article concludes arguing the case for intercultural education, not only among indigenous peoples, but for the whole of the population, to be a guiding philosophy for education in general and adult education in particular in Latin American countries. It emphasises the fact that this cannot be achieved without the active participation of indigenous peoples themselves.

  15. Taking a closer look at blood donation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Vinelli, E

    2005-01-01

    Shortages and unsafe blood still threaten the health of millions of individuals who need blood transfusions in Latin America. There are many demographic and socio-economical factors contributing to this situation. Poverty, high prevalence of infectious diseases, fragmented blood systems, reliance on replacement donors and hospital-based systems are undermining efforts to promote and retain voluntary non-remunerated blood donors (VNRBD) and are endangering the blood supply. Some economic factors seem unsurmountable in countries such as Haiti, Guatemala and Honduras, where the cost of processing a unit of donated blood exceeds the annual per capita budget allocation to health care. However, many countries which have chosen to coordinate their efforts nationally are able to attract 15 times more vnrbd. Working cooperatively with non-governmental agencies such as the Red Cross are also yielding higher rates of voluntary blood donors and fewer paid donors.

  16. Educational Research in Latin America: Review and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkari, Abdeljalil; Perez, Soledad

    1998-01-01

    Describes the historical context of educational research in Latin America and focuses on the theoretical frameworks applied to educational research in the area. Identifies the primary institutions involved in educational research in Latin America and suggests priorities for future research. (SLD)

  17. Background Briefing for Student Teachers Going to Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Bernadine

    A guide for student teachers planning to travel or work in Latin America contains general information about living in Latin America and profiles of Mexico and the Dominican Republic. The general information addresses these issues: travel, what to take along, culture shock, greetings, generalizations about Hispanic culture, values, given names and…

  18. Epidemiology and Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Rego, E.M.; Jácomo, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct epidemiological characteristics have been described in Acute Promielocytic Leukemia (APL). Populations from Latin America have a higher incidence of APL and in some geographic areas a distinct distribution of the PML-RARA isoforms is present. Here, we review the main differences in APL epidemilogy in Latin America as well as treatment outcomes. PMID:22110899

  19. Multilateral Agencies and Higher Education Reform in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Gomez, Roberto; Alcantara, Armando

    2001-01-01

    Using recent policy proposals, including joint efforts, by four multilateral agencies--two international in scope (UNESCO, World Bank) and two regional (Economic Commission for Latin America, Interamerican Development Bank)--discusses agencies' position on higher education reform in Latin America. Examines each agency's focus and identifies…

  20. Directory of Schools of Librarianship and Information Sciences in Latin America--Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian M.

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces a directory of Schools of Librarianship and Information Sciences in Latin America. This was based on existing printed directories, and an extensive web search in January 2007. An appended directory lists 127 institutions in the region that have or are currently offering courses in the subject, of which 100 appear to be active.…

  1. Review: Malaria chemoprophylaxis for travelers to Latin America.

    PubMed

    Steinhardt, Laura C; Magill, Alan J; Arguin, Paul M

    2011-12-01

    Because of recent declining malaria transmission in Latin America, some authorities have recommended against chemoprophylaxis for most travelers to this region. However, the predominant parasite species in Latin America, Plasmodium vivax, can form hypnozoites sequestered in the liver, causing malaria relapses. Additionally, new evidence shows the potential severity of vivax infections, warranting continued consideration of prophylaxis for travel to Latin America. Individualized travel risk assessments are recommended and should consider travel locations, type, length, and season, as well as probability of itinerary changes. Travel recommendations might include no precautions, mosquito avoidance only, or mosquito avoidance and chemoprophylaxis. There are a range of good options for chemoprophylaxis in Latin America, including atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, and--in selected areas--chloroquine. Primaquine should be strongly considered for nonpregnant, G6PD-nondeficient patients traveling to vivax-endemic areas of Latin America, and it has the added benefit of being the only drug to protect against malaria relapses.

  2. Latin America's Decontamination and Decommissioning Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, J.V.; Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.; Mayerle, M.

    1998-10-20

    Throughout this project, the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology's (HCET) goal was to initiate a comprehensive research program on sustainable development, environmental protection, and the market for environmental technologies in Latin America and the Caribbean. The data resulting from the work associated with this project has been entered into an information system which supplies useful and accurate data knowledge to interested parties. When relevant information has been found to be insufficient and/or not readily available, HCET has investigated, conducted research, and subsequently made this information available to the public. During FY96, HCET completed numerous tasks to contribute to this body of knowledge. This initiative will continue throughout 1997. Highlights of FY96 are described.

  3. [The cultural psychiatry in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Villaseñor-Bayardo, Sergio J; Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Aceves-Pulido, Martha P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents only some of the most important contributions in the development of cultural psychiatry in Latin America. The continental efforts to understand the role that culture plays in the manifestation and treatment of mental disorders have been fruitful. The authors included are: Fernando Pagés of Argentina; Mario G. Hollweg of Bolivia; Rubim Alvaro de Pinho and Adalberto Barreto of Brazil; Carlos A. Leon and Carlos A. Uribe of Colombia; Antonio José A. Bustamante and Santa Cruz de Cuba, Carlos Leon Andrade of Ecuador, Guatemala Cristina Chavez; Sergio Villasenor J. Bayardo of Mexico; Carlos A. Seguin, Hermilio Valdizán and Javier Mariátegui in Peru; Y. Bespaldi of Consens of Uruguay; Rojas and Carlos Malpica and Jacqueline Briceño Clarac of Venezuela.

  4. Implementation of HPV testing in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Jeronimo, Jose; Holme, Francesca; Slavkovsky, Rose; Camel, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading killers among women in Latin America, a region where most countries have not been successful in implementing population-level cytology-based screening programs. This disease is caused by persistent infection with oncogenic HPV; in recent years, more HPV tests have become available and prices have dropped significantly, making it possible for countries to adopt these technologies. Pilot programs that took place in Nicaragua, Mexico, and Argentina showed a high level of efficacy in detecting precancerous cervical lesions and good feasibility and acceptance of self-sampling. El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua are beginning to institutionalize HPV testing at the population level. The experience from the different countries has created rich information about the barriers and requirements for implementing HPV screening at large scale in these resource-constrained countries. There are several challenges for implementation, including a need to update screening guidelines, strengthen treatment capacity, and develop a comprehensive quality assurance plan for the HPV testing. At the same time, there are several opportunities in Latin America that make the process more feasible and faster than in other regions of the world: most Latin American countries already have screening programs funded by their national governments, several countries in the region are already implementing HPV testing, and there is a regional pooled procurement mechanism that could facilitate the purchase of HPV tests at an accessible price. We envision that most countries in the region will include HPV testing in their national program within the next three to five years. PMID:26699418

  5. Implementation of HPV testing in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Jeronimo, Jose; Holme, Francesca; Slavkovsky, Rose; Camel, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading killers among women in Latin America, a region where most countries have not been successful in implementing population-level cytology-based screening programs. This disease is caused by persistent infection with oncogenic HPV; in recent years, more HPV tests have become available and prices have dropped significantly, making it possible for countries to adopt these technologies. Pilot programs that took place in Nicaragua, Mexico, and Argentina showed a high level of efficacy in detecting precancerous cervical lesions and good feasibility and acceptance of self-sampling. El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua are beginning to institutionalize HPV testing at the population level. The experience from the different countries has created rich information about the barriers and requirements for implementing HPV screening at large scale in these resource-constrained countries. There are several challenges for implementation, including a need to update screening guidelines, strengthen treatment capacity, and develop a comprehensive quality assurance plan for the HPV testing. At the same time, there are several opportunities in Latin America that make the process more feasible and faster than in other regions of the world: most Latin American countries already have screening programs funded by their national governments, several countries in the region are already implementing HPV testing, and there is a regional pooled procurement mechanism that could facilitate the purchase of HPV tests at an accessible price. We envision that most countries in the region will include HPV testing in their national program within the next three to five years.

  6. National working conditions surveys in Latin America: comparison of methodological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Salazar, Pamela; Artazcoz, Lucía; Campos-Serna, Javier; Gimeno, David; Benavides, Fernando G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High-quality and comparable data to monitor working conditions and health in Latin America are not currently available. In 2007, multiple Latin American countries started implementing national working conditions surveys. However, little is known about their methodological characteristics. Objective: To identify commonalities and differences in the methodologies of working conditions surveys (WCSs) conducted in Latin America through 2013. Methods: The study critically examined WCSs in Latin America between 2007 and 2013. Sampling design, data collection, and questionnaire content were compared. Results: Two types of surveys were identified: (1) surveys covering the entire working population and administered at the respondent's home and (2) surveys administered at the workplace. There was considerable overlap in the topics covered by the dimensions of employment and working conditions measured, but less overlap in terms of health outcomes, prevention resources, and activities. Conclusions: Although WCSs from Latin America are similar, there was heterogeneity across surveyed populations and location of the interview. Reducing differences in surveys between countries will increase comparability and allow for a more comprehensive understanding of occupational health in the region. PMID:26079314

  7. Liver transplantation in Latin America: the state-of-the-art and future trends.

    PubMed

    Salvalaggio, Paolo R; Caicedo, Juan C; de Albuquerque, Luiz Carneiro; Contreras, Alan; Garcia, Valter D; Felga, Guilherme E; Maurette, Rafael J; Medina-Pestana, José O; Niño-Murcia, Alejandro; Pacheco-Moreira, Lucio F; Rocca, Juan; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel; Ruf, Andres; Rusca, Luis A Caicedo; Vilatoba, Mario

    2014-08-15

    We reviewed the current status of liver transplantation in Latin America. We used data from the Latin American and Caribbean Transplant Society and national organizations and societies, as well as information obtained from local transplant leaders. Latin America has a population of 589 million (8.5% of world population) and more than 2,500 liver transplantations are performed yearly (17% of world activity), resulting in 4.4 liver transplants per million people (pmp) per year. The number of liver transplantations grows at 6% per year in the region, particularly in Brazil. The top liver transplant rates were found in Argentina (10.4 pmp), Brazil (8.4 pmp), and Uruguay (5.5 pmp). The state of liver transplantation in some countries rivals those in developed countries. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-based allocation, split, domino, and living-donor adult and pediatric transplantations are now routinely performed with outcomes comparable to those in advanced economies. In contrast, liver transplantation is not performed in 35% of Latin American countries and lags adequate resources in many others. The lack of adequate financial coverage, education, and organization is still the main limiting factor in the development of liver transplantation in Latin America. The liver transplant community in the region should push health care leaders and authorities to comply with the Madrid and Istambul resolutions on organ donation and transplantation. It must pursue fiercely the development of registries to advance the science and quality control of liver transplant activities in Latin America.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Campos, Rodolfo H; Mbayed, Viviana A; Pineiro Y Leone, Flavia G

    2005-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an etiological agent of acute and chronic liver disease existing throughout the world. The high genetic variability of HBV is reflected by eight genotypes (A to H), each one with a particular geographical prevalence. The global pattern of HBV genotypes is associated with the distribution of human populations among the different continents and may reflect the patterns of human migrations. Genotypes F and H are considered indigenous to Latin America. The most prevalent genetic group of Central and South America, genotype F, is subdivided into two subtypes and five clusters associated with defined geographic areas. Genotype H has been described in Mexico and Central America. This pattern provides a tool to reconstruct the initial immigration of ancestral Amerindians from Asia and their further spread through Central and South America. Other HBV genotypes found in different Latin American countries may reflect migration from other geographical areas into the region. Genotypes A and D are the signature of the European colonization that started in the sixteenth century, including slave trade from Africa. Genotypes B and C indicate the arrival of people from Southeast Asia. The impact of HBV genotypes on the natural course of HBV infection and response to treatment has been studied recently and controversial results have been obtained. The majority of the current information concerns with genotypes B and C. In contrast, very few data are available on the Latin American HBV genotypes F and H. It has been reported that liver failure and death may be more frequent in patients infected with genotype F. More studies are needed to assess the association between H13V genotypes and clinical course of infection, especially in Latin America.

  9. Private hospitals in Latin America - An investor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Cleaton-Jones, Ioan P

    2015-01-01

    Private hospitals are expanding in Latin America, but the industry is less developed in this region than in some other emerging markets. Groups of hospitals are emerging in countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Colombia and Peru. However, they haven't reached the size of hospital groups in Malaysia, India and South Africa. They also remain domestically focused, while companies from the aforementioned three emerging markets outside Latin America have expanded to multiple other countries and have listed on stock exchanges to access more capital to finance their expansion. It is very likely that these trends seen in other emerging markets will manifest in Latin America as it continues to develop. PMID:26521378

  10. Private hospitals in Latin America - An investor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Cleaton-Jones, Ioan P

    2015-01-01

    Private hospitals are expanding in Latin America, but the industry is less developed in this region than in some other emerging markets. Groups of hospitals are emerging in countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Colombia and Peru. However, they haven't reached the size of hospital groups in Malaysia, India and South Africa. They also remain domestically focused, while companies from the aforementioned three emerging markets outside Latin America have expanded to multiple other countries and have listed on stock exchanges to access more capital to finance their expansion. It is very likely that these trends seen in other emerging markets will manifest in Latin America as it continues to develop.

  11. Between the national and the universal: natural history networks in Latin America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Regina Horta

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the twentieth centuries. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history.

  12. Professions and Educational Counseling in Mexico and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Leticia; Blanco-Beledo, Ricardo

    1993-01-01

    In the past, educational counseling in Latin America has been used to limit economic and political participation and maintain unequal resource distribution. Modernization, the new free trade agreement, and other changes are changing the role of counseling. (SK)

  13. Development of regional network for nuclear information in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio

    Among the recent INIS activities several interesting items are reported. In particular Latin America area where active movements have been seen recently is described in detail in terms of INIS information services. The author reports Latin America regional nuclear information project which has been implemented as 5-year project since 1985 supported by IAEA, and its progress, and describes information service system in Brazil which plays the core role in promoting this project.

  14. [Scientific journals of medical students in Latin-America].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Samith, Ignacio; Oróstegui-Pinilla, Diana; Angulo-Bazán, Yolanda; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2010-11-01

    This article deals with the history and evolution of student's scientific journals in Latin-America, their beginnings, how many still exist and which is their future projection. Relevant events show the growth of student's scientific journals in Latin-America and how are they working together to improve their quality. This article is addressed not only for Latin American readers but also to worldwide readers. Latin American medical students are consistently working together to publish scientific research, whose quality is constantly improving.

  15. Multiple sclerosis care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Victor M; Medina, Marco Tulio; Duron, Reyna M; Macias, Miguel Angel

    2014-05-01

    Before the advent of diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS), it was reported that the prevalence of MS in Mexico was "one of the lowest in the world" (1.6/100,000).(1) The notion that MS was a rare neurologic disease among those living in the tropics of the Americas and Southern latitudes was widely accepted. The geopolitical boundaries of the region identified as Latin America (LA) extend from the southern border of United States with Mexico (32° North latitude) to the Argentinian and Chilean Patagonia in South America (56° South latitude). The largest Spanish-speaking island countries in the Caribbean-Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico-are also traditionally considered part of LA. The continental mass includes 17 countries with a population of more than 550 million. Due to centuries of racial intermixing, it is a heterogeneous and genetically complex population. The blended cultures of native Amerindians with white Caucasian Europeans and black Africans has resulted in the predominant ethnic Latin American Mestizo. The influence of African genetics is notable in many areas of the subcontinent and the Caribbean. A common observation across LA is the absence of identification of MS in non-mixed Amerindians(2); the reason for this phenomenon is unclear.

  16. Biomedical engineering undergraduate education in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende, R.; Morales, D.; Avendano, G.; Chabert, S.

    2007-11-01

    As in other parts of the World, in recent times there has been an increasing interest on Biomedical Engineering (BME) in Latin America (LA). This interest grows from the need for a larger number of such specialists, originated in a spreading use of health technologies. Indeed, at many universities, biomedical engineering departments have been created, which also brought along discussions on strategies to achieve the best education possible for both undergraduate and graduate programs. In these settings, different positions were taken as regards which subject to emphasize. In such a context, this work aimed to make a survey on the "state-of-the-art" of undergraduate BME education in LA, and to analyze the observed differences. Broadly speaking, similar education profiles are perceived in the entire continent, with main emphasis on electronics and bioinstrumentation, biology and informatics respectively. Much less relevance is given to biomechanics and biomaterials. This tendency is similar in Departments with many decades of experience or in newly opened ones.

  17. Abortion in Latin America: changes in practice, growing conflict, and recent policy developments.

    PubMed

    Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2011-09-01

    Latin America is undergoing profound social, economic, political, demographic, and epidemiologic change. Reproductive health indicators have generally improved over the past two decades, but most pregnancies are still unintended and more than 4 million are terminated annually. Clandestine abortions necessitated by restrictive legal and social structures cause more than 1,000 deaths and 500,000 hospitalizations per year, primarily among poor and marginalized women. Abortions are becoming safer and less frequent, however, as a consequence of increased modern contraceptive use, misoprostol adoption, emergency contraception availability, and postabortion care provision, notwithstanding many impediments to these changes. Advocacy and conflict over abortion have grown. The contested policy shifts include Mexico City's 2007 legalization of first-trimester abortion. Drawing on numerous sources of evidence, this article provides a regional analysis of the rapidly changing practice and context of abortion in Latin America, and examines emerging issues, legal and policy developments, and contrasting country situations. PMID:21972673

  18. The World of Work between the Personal and the Collective: A Demand for Social Justice and Guidance for Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, Julio Gonzalez; Chacón, Omaira

    2015-01-01

    The struggle for justice has been permanent for a very long period of time. In this sense, it could be said that since Plato conceived it as one of the fundamental virtues, justice has constituted a goal to achieve for any society. In the case of justice, related to social aspects, the situation has been overwhelming in Latin America. Based on a…

  19. Latin America's contributions to contraceptive development.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, E M

    1993-08-01

    The contributions of Latin Americans to contraceptive research began in 1951 when the Mexican chemist, Miramontes, invented norethisterone (norethindrone). Early studies on the use of this drug with ethinyl estradiol in an oral contraceptive (OC) pill were conducted in Puerto Rico. Publication of these studies was the second milestone in contraceptive development. While the leaders of this work, Pincus and Rock, were widely acknowledged, the many doctors who carried out the trials and reported their observations have been forgotten. The next milestone was the introduction of the estrogen-free OC by Martinez-Manautou and his collaborators in 1966. That same year Coutinho, de Souza, and Csapo reported on the contraceptive effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) based on work done in Brazil. Also from Brazil came the proposal to use MPA in combination with estrogen in a monthly contraceptive injectable. The development of Depo-Provera and other injectables also took place mostly in Latin America. The first norgestrel-containing pill was also developed in Brazil, and successful efforts to reduce the dosage to a half tablet prefigured the development of low-dose OCs. Norplant was developed in Brazil, with the first clinical trails taking place in Chile. Other proposals followed during the late 1970s, including efforts to develop a male contraceptive. The first clinical trials with gossypol outside of China took place in Brazil. A Latino, Zipper, also proposed the use of copper in IUDs which increased the acceptability of this method. In addition to the researchers cited here, many others have contributed decisively to contraceptive development. The fact that they are not receiving the recognition they deserve is disappointing since the only real reward for their dedicated work would be recognition of their results.

  20. A Review of Breast Cancer Care and Outcomes in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Wilking, Nils; Jönsson, Bengt; Luciani, Silvana; Cazap, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This review presents an overview of breast cancer care, burden, and outcomes in Latin America, as well as the challenges and opportunities for improvement. Information was gleaned through a review of the literature, public databases, and conference presentations, in addition to a survey of clinical experts and patient organizations from the region. Breast cancer annual incidence (114,900 cases) and mortality (37,000 deaths) are the highest of all women's cancers in Latin America, and they are increasing. Twice as many breast cancer deaths are expected by 2030. In Peru, Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil, diagnosis and death at younger ages deprives society of numerous productive years, as does high disease occurrence in Argentina and Uruguay. Approximately 30%–40% of diagnoses are metastatic disease. High mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) in Latin America indicate poor survival, partly because of the late stage at diagnosis and poorer access to treatment. Between 2002 and 2008, MIRs decreased in all countries, albeit unevenly. Costa Rica's change in MIR outpaced incidence growth, indicating impressive progress in breast cancer survival. The situation is similar, although to a lesser extent, in Colombia and Ecuador. The marginal drops of MIRs in Brazil and Mexico mainly reflect incidence growth rather than progress in outcomes. Panama's MIR is still high. Epidemiological data are scattered and of varying quality in Latin America. However, one could ascertain that the burden of breast cancer in the region is considerable and growing due to demographic changes, particularly the aging population, and socioeconomic development. Early diagnosis and population-wide access to evidence-based treatment remain unresolved problems, despite progress achieved by some countries. PMID:23442305

  1. A review of breast cancer care and outcomes in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Justo, Nahila; Wilking, Nils; Jönsson, Bengt; Luciani, Silvana; Cazap, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This review presents an overview of breast cancer care, burden, and outcomes in Latin America, as well as the challenges and opportunities for improvement. Information was gleaned through a review of the literature, public databases, and conference presentations, in addition to a survey of clinical experts and patient organizations from the region. Breast cancer annual incidence (114,900 cases) and mortality (37,000 deaths) are the highest of all women's cancers in Latin America, and they are increasing. Twice as many breast cancer deaths are expected by 2030. In Peru, Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil, diagnosis and death at younger ages deprives society of numerous productive years, as does high disease occurrence in Argentina and Uruguay. Approximately 30%-40% of diagnoses are metastatic disease. High mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) in Latin America indicate poor survival, partly because of the late stage at diagnosis and poorer access to treatment. Between 2002 and 2008, MIRs decreased in all countries, albeit unevenly. Costa Rica's change in MIR outpaced incidence growth, indicating impressive progress in breast cancer survival. The situation is similar, although to a lesser extent, in Colombia and Ecuador. The marginal drops of MIRs in Brazil and Mexico mainly reflect incidence growth rather than progress in outcomes. Panama's MIR is still high. Epidemiological data are scattered and of varying quality in Latin America. However, one could ascertain that the burden of breast cancer in the region is considerable and growing due to demographic changes, particularly the aging population, and socioeconomic development. Early diagnosis and population-wide access to evidence-based treatment remain unresolved problems, despite progress achieved by some countries.

  2. Report on the First PANLAR Rheumatology Review Course Rheumatoid Arthritis: Challenges and Solutions in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Carlos; Caballero-Uribe, Carlo V; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Cazenave, Tomás; Cardiel, Mario H; Levy, Roger; Espada, Graciela; Rose, Carlos; Santos-Moreno, Pedro; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Muñoz-Louis, Roberto; Soriano, Enrique R; Reveille, John D

    2015-12-01

    The First PANLAR Rheumatology Review Course was held in Barranquilla, Colombia, in April 2015. Researchers, rheumatologists, epidemiologists, and a variety of allied professionals and patients attended the meeting. The scientific program included plenary sessions and symposia delivered by renowned experts in the field, followed by an interactive forum of discussion during 2 days.A broad spectrum of topics was discussed, reflecting the current challenges and opportunities for diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Latin America. The scientific program included not only traditional disease aspects, but also social implications, research projects, and educational characteristics, patient perspectives, and novel care models, emphasizing the need for training human resources and proposing unique approaches to RA health care in Latin America, therefore helping us to increase and improve the knowledge and understanding of the characteristics of this health condition in the region, thus promoting and encouraging equity, quality, and efficiency of RA health care.

  3. Review on space weather in Latin America. 2. The research networks ready for space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. Americo

    2016-11-01

    The present work is the second of a three-part review of space weather in Latin America, specifically observing its evolution in three countries (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico). This work comprises a summary of scientific challenges in space weather research that are considered to be open scientific questions and how they are being addressed in terms of instrumentation by the international community, including the Latin American groups. We also provide an inventory of the networks and collaborations being constructed in Latin America, including details on the data processing, capabilities and a basic description of the resulting variables. These instrumental networks currently used for space science research are gradually being incorporated into the space weather monitoring data pipelines as their data provides key variables for monitoring and forecasting space weather, which allow these centers to monitor space weather and issue watches, warnings and alerts.

  4. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Istúriz, R E; Gubler, D J; Brea del Castillo, J

    2000-03-01

    Four serotypes of dengue viruses produce dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. They are the most important arbovirus infections of humans, in terms of both morbidity and mortality, constituting one of the most rapidly expanding and re-emerging infectious disease problems in Latin America. In less than 20 years, the region has transformed itself from hypoendemic to hyperendemic, while serotype circulation in most countries has gone from none or single to multiple. Changes in endemicity have coincided with the emergence and increasing incidence of the severer forms of dengue infection. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these diseases. Health care providers who see patients in or returning from areas of Latin America, the Caribbean, and other tropical areas must consider dengue in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with compatible symptoms, and must be knowledgeable in the current management of this important disease.

  5. Changes in Latin America: consequences for human development.

    PubMed

    Weisbrot, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at Latin America's political shift over the last several years. The author argues that these changes have largely been misunderstood and underestimated in the United States for a number of reasons. First, Latin America's unprecedented growth failure over the past 25 years is a major cause of these political changes and has not been well-understood. Second, the collapse of the International Monetary Fund's influence in Latin America, and in middle-income countries, is an epoch-making change. Third, the availability of alternative sources of finance, especially from the reserves of the Venezuelan government, has become very important. Finally, the increasing assertion of national control over natural resources is an important part of the new relationship between Latin America and the United States. For these and other reasons, the relationship between Latin America and the United States has undergone a fundamental and possibly irreversible change, and one that opens the way to new and mostly more successful economic policies. PMID:17844930

  6. Social Security privatization in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kritzer, B E

    2000-01-01

    The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for

  7. Women's work and development in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Draper, E

    1985-01-01

    The discussion explores the problem of women's employment patterns under capitalist development in Latin America, first by analyzing the way in which women's work has been conceptualized within modernization theory. It then goes on to examine the 2 types of work in which most Latin American women are engaged -- domestic service and informal work such as selling produce and taking in laundry -- to provide evidence for challenging modernization theory and for developing a more useful approach. Subsequently, the discussion considers women's domestic and informal work within the context of capitalist development, which provides some insight into the broader structures shaping women's employment. Finally, the discussion proposes some reconceptualizations of women's work and development. Modernization theorists analyze women's work in the cities within a variety of constructs, interpreting it as a backward manifestation of traditional society, a reflection of women's inadequate training for the modern sector, an indication of women's primary orientation to the family, or as a phenomenon that is too tangential to warrant examination. The primary assumption is that modernization improves women's status and the conditions of their lives as it brings greater productivity, more advanced technology, and more highly differentiated institutions. Assumptions concerning women's absorption into the modern sector and the equalization of work roles between men and women are not borne out by actual employment trends, which reveal the persistent concentration of women in domestic work, informal jobs, and the lower-paying service jobs. Despite their predominance, domestic service and informal jobs are infrequently included in employment statistics and are virtually ignored in studies of development, yet these 2 types of work are the primary forms of work for Latin American women. Even when modernization theorists recognize the proliferation of informal and domestic service jobs, they

  8. [Economic adjustment and its demographic consequences in Latin America: an overview].

    PubMed

    Bajraj, R F; Bravo, J H

    1994-06-01

    This work reviews the available literature on short and medium term demographic responses to the economic adjustment processes occurring in Latin America during the 1980s. The first section describes the immediate causes and scope of the economic crisis of the 1980s in Latin America and the measures taken to correct imbalances. An external crisis rendered the current accounts deficit of the early 1980s no longer sustainable, interest rates and commercial conditions deteriorated, and a recessive adjustment of enormous magnitude occurred. The term "adjustment" covers a wide and varied array of economic changes, fiscal and social policy reforms, and changes in international commerce. The structural adjustment measures caused deterioration in investment and in equity. Real purchasing power declined more than per capita product in most Latin American countries between 1980 and 1990. Primary income distribution underwent regressive changes. In most cases the deterioration was not compensated by social spending. As a result of the fiscal adjustment and reduced public sector spending, per capita investment in health and education was less in 1990 than in 1980 in almost all countries. The demographic consequences of the adjustment processes are difficult to gauge precisely because the experiences of individual countries were heterogeneous and because no single definition of adjustment exists that would serve as a point of reference for comparison of situations without adjustment or with different types of adjustment. Nevertheless, some studies have attempted to specify terms of comparison. Some have compared conditions before the crisis or adjustments with conditions later, and others have analyzed short term fluctuations in demographic variables from their medium or long term trends. Such works suggest that nuptiality is the variable responding most intensely, systematically, and immediately to short term economic fluctuations. Fertility also appears to have responded

  9. Need of righteous attitudes towards eradication of hepatitis C virus infection in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Panduro, Arturo; Roman, Sonia

    2016-06-14

    Over the last few years, we have expanded our knowledge on numerous facets of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Beginning with its discovery and viral life cycle, its impact on health, the development of liver disease and currently, effective antiviral treatments. The latter point has become of great interest throughout the developed world, where the possible eradication of HCV through specific strategies to reach all HCV-infected people has been announced. However, this scenario is very different in the countries of Latin America (LA), in which < 2% of infected patients requiring treatment have access to HCV medications. It has been estimated that at least ten million Latin Americans may be infected with HCV. Despite the numbers, viral hepatitis does not seem to be considered a health problem in this region of the world. This reality poses a challenge for politicians and governments of these countries, as well as to the pharmaceutical industry, the medical practitioners, and academics in LA. In this editorial, we state the need for alterations in the attitudes of the integral players involved in this situation. A recognition shift could help to create preventive strategies of viral hepatitis and to advocate for accessibility to new HCV treatments. PMID:27298556

  10. Need of righteous attitudes towards eradication of hepatitis C virus infection in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Panduro, Arturo; Roman, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, we have expanded our knowledge on numerous facets of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Beginning with its discovery and viral life cycle, its impact on health, the development of liver disease and currently, effective antiviral treatments. The latter point has become of great interest throughout the developed world, where the possible eradication of HCV through specific strategies to reach all HCV-infected people has been announced. However, this scenario is very different in the countries of Latin America (LA), in which < 2% of infected patients requiring treatment have access to HCV medications. It has been estimated that at least ten million Latin Americans may be infected with HCV. Despite the numbers, viral hepatitis does not seem to be considered a health problem in this region of the world. This reality poses a challenge for politicians and governments of these countries, as well as to the pharmaceutical industry, the medical practitioners, and academics in LA. In this editorial, we state the need for alterations in the attitudes of the integral players involved in this situation. A recognition shift could help to create preventive strategies of viral hepatitis and to advocate for accessibility to new HCV treatments. PMID:27298556

  11. The first cataract surgeons in Latin America: 1611–1830

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T; Wainsztein, Ricardo D

    2016-01-01

    We strove to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in Latin America. Probably by 1611, the Genovese oculist Francisco Drago was couching cataracts in Mexico City. The surgeon Melchor Vásquez de Valenzuela probably performed cataract couching in Lima by 1697. Juan Peré of France demonstrated cataract couching in Veracruz and Mexico City between 1779 and 1784. Juan Ablanedo of Spain performed couching in Veracruz in 1791. Cataract extraction might have been performed in Havana and Caracas by 1793 and in Mexico by 1797. The earliest contemporaneously documented cataract extractions in Latin America were performed in Guatemala City by Narciso Esparragosa in 1797. In addition to Esparragosa, surgeons born in the New World who established the academic teaching of cataract surgery included José Miguel Muñoz in Mexico and José María Vargas in Caracas. Although cataract surgery came quite early to Latin America, its availability was initially inconsistent and limited. PMID:27143845

  12. Outlook for hydropower in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Sierra, G. )

    1993-02-01

    In the last two decades, the Latin America/Carribean region has become increasingly dependent on electricity to meet growing demands for energy. Hydropower is the prevailing source for meeting this need. Hydroelectric generation increased at an annual average rate of nearly 9% between 1971 and 1989. HYdro now provides more than two-thirds of total electric power generated in Latin America and the Caribbean. The only other predominant source used for electric generation is fossil fuels. In this region there are several trends developing. They include: developing more small hydro facilities, opportunities for sharing water resources, an interest in changing the approach to water use regulation, and possibilities for more participation by the private sector. Overall, hydro appears to have a favorable competitive position in the power industry in the Latin America/Caribbean region.

  13. Liver transplantation in Latin America: the state-of-the-art and future trends.

    PubMed

    Salvalaggio, Paolo R; Caicedo, Juan C; de Albuquerque, Luiz Carneiro; Contreras, Alan; Garcia, Valter D; Felga, Guilherme E; Maurette, Rafael J; Medina-Pestana, José O; Niño-Murcia, Alejandro; Pacheco-Moreira, Lucio F; Rocca, Juan; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel; Ruf, Andres; Rusca, Luis A Caicedo; Vilatoba, Mario

    2014-08-15

    We reviewed the current status of liver transplantation in Latin America. We used data from the Latin American and Caribbean Transplant Society and national organizations and societies, as well as information obtained from local transplant leaders. Latin America has a population of 589 million (8.5% of world population) and more than 2,500 liver transplantations are performed yearly (17% of world activity), resulting in 4.4 liver transplants per million people (pmp) per year. The number of liver transplantations grows at 6% per year in the region, particularly in Brazil. The top liver transplant rates were found in Argentina (10.4 pmp), Brazil (8.4 pmp), and Uruguay (5.5 pmp). The state of liver transplantation in some countries rivals those in developed countries. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-based allocation, split, domino, and living-donor adult and pediatric transplantations are now routinely performed with outcomes comparable to those in advanced economies. In contrast, liver transplantation is not performed in 35% of Latin American countries and lags adequate resources in many others. The lack of adequate financial coverage, education, and organization is still the main limiting factor in the development of liver transplantation in Latin America. The liver transplant community in the region should push health care leaders and authorities to comply with the Madrid and Istambul resolutions on organ donation and transplantation. It must pursue fiercely the development of registries to advance the science and quality control of liver transplant activities in Latin America. PMID:25093292

  14. Preface: Space and geophysical research related to Latin America - Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Blanca

    2016-03-01

    For the last 25 years, every two to three years the Conferencia Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial (COLAGE) is held in one of the Latin American countries for the purpose of promoting scientific exchange among scientists of the region and to encourage continued research that is unique to this area of the world. At the more recent conference, the community realized that many individuals both within and outside Latin America have contributed greatly to the understanding of the space sciences in this area of the world. It was therefore decided to assemble a Special Issue Space and Geophysical Physics related to Latin America, presenting recent results and where submissions would be accepted from the world wide community of scientists involved in research appropriate to Latin America. Because of the large number of submissions, these papers will be printed in two separate issues; this is Part 1. These papers show the wide variety of research, both theoretical and applied, that is currently being developed in the Sub-Continent.

  15. [New technologies: needs and challenges in radiotherapy in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Castellanos, María Esperanza

    2006-01-01

    The cumulative experience gathered over more than a century of practice of radiotherapy has demonstrated the latter's importance not only for the palliative treatment of a fraction of cancer cases, but mainly for the curative treatment of an even greater proportion of such cases. In light of the changes in technology, the ever-increasing access developing countries to such technology, and its current coverage in Latin America, any efforts in this area should be aimed at improving the quality of the radiotherapy services and centers that are already in place. This involves developing their technological assets to the fullest, expanding their services, and complying with the minimum quality requirements established for second-level facilities. Each center should be equipped to carry out all stages of the radiotherapy process, from simulation through treatment verification and patient follow-up, with a high level of quality (level 2). To achieve this, it should possess the necessary technology and properly-trained staff that are required for the purpose. Collaborative efforts in the Region should also prioritize helping countries implement national treatment standards for all stages of the radiotherapy process and promoting the implementation of validated quality assurance programs.

  16. Planning cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Goss, Paul E; Lee, Brittany L; Badovinac-Crnjevic, Tanja; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; St Louis, Jessica; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Ferreyra, Mayra; Debiasi, Márcio; Liedke, Pedro E R; Touya, Diego; Werutsky, Gustavo; Higgins, Michaela; Fan, Lei; Vasconcelos, Claudia; Cazap, Eduardo; Vallejos, Carlos; Mohar, Alejandro; Knaul, Felicia; Arreola, Hector; Batura, Rekha; Luciani, Silvana; Sullivan, Richard; Finkelstein, Dianne; Simon, Sergio; Barrios, Carlos; Kightlinger, Rebecca; Gelrud, Andres; Bychkovsky, Vladimir; Lopes, Gilberto; Stefani, Stephen; Blaya, Marcelo; Souza, Fabiano Hahn; Santos, Franklin Santana; Kaemmerer, Alberto; de Azambuja, Evandro; Zorilla, Andres Felipe Cardona; Murillo, Raul; Jeronimo, Jose; Tsu, Vivien; Carvalho, Andre; Gil, Carlos Ferreira; Sternberg, Cinthya; Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Sgroi, Dennis; Cuello, Mauricio; Fresco, Rodrigo; Reis, Rui Manuel; Masera, Guiseppe; Gabús, Raúl; Ribeiro, Raul; Knust, Renata; Ismael, Gustavo; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Roth, Berta; Villa, Luisa; Solares, Argelia Lara; Leon, Marta Ximena; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Covarrubias-Gomez, Alfredo; Hernández, Andrés; Bertolino, Mariela; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Santillana, Sergio; Esteva, Francisco; Fein, Luis; Mano, Max; Gomez, Henry; Hurlbert, Marc; Durstine, Alessandra; Azenha, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    Non-communicable diseases, including cancer, are overtaking infectious disease as the leading health-care threat in middle-income and low-income countries. Latin American and Caribbean countries are struggling to respond to increasing morbidity and death from advanced disease. Health ministries and health-care systems in these countries face many challenges caring for patients with advanced cancer: inadequate funding; inequitable distribution of resources and services; inadequate numbers, training, and distribution of health-care personnel and equipment; lack of adequate care for many populations based on socioeconomic, geographic, ethnic, and other factors; and current systems geared toward the needs of wealthy, urban minorities at a cost to the entire population. This burgeoning cancer problem threatens to cause widespread suffering and economic peril to the countries of Latin America. Prompt and deliberate actions must be taken to avoid this scenario. Increasing efforts towards prevention of cancer and avoidance of advanced, stage IV disease will reduce suffering and mortality and will make overall cancer care more affordable. We hope the findings of our Commission and our recommendations will inspire Latin American stakeholders to redouble their efforts to address this increasing cancer burden and to prevent it from worsening and threatening their societies.

  17. [Scientific journals of medical students in Latin-America].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Samith, Ignacio; Oróstegui-Pinilla, Diana; Angulo-Bazán, Yolanda; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2010-11-01

    This article deals with the history and evolution of student's scientific journals in Latin-America, their beginnings, how many still exist and which is their future projection. Relevant events show the growth of student's scientific journals in Latin-America and how are they working together to improve their quality. This article is addressed not only for Latin American readers but also to worldwide readers. Latin American medical students are consistently working together to publish scientific research, whose quality is constantly improving. PMID:21279260

  18. The study of processes of medicalization in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Murguía, Adriana; Ordorika, Teresa; Lendo, León F

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, an ever-increasing cluster of phenomena has attracted the attention of social scientists and historians of medicine: processes of medicalization. As in other regions, Latin America has been affected by these phenomena. This article surveys recent literature involving sociological studies of these processes in the region, in order to provide an overview of the issue. It explores the theoretical transformations linked to the concept of medicalization in the contexts where they originated. It then analyzes the ways in which the concept has been appropriated by the social sciences in Latin America in order to describe the various phenomena associated with medicalization in the subcontinent.

  19. Sickle cell in Latin America and the United States [corrected].

    PubMed

    Huttle, Alexandra; Maestre, Gladys E; Lantigua, Rafael; Green, Nancy S

    2015-07-01

    Latin Americans are an underappreciated population affected by sickle cell disease (SCD). Sickle trait and SCD exist throughout Latin America and U.S. Latino communities. We describe the epidemiology and genetic heterogeneity of SCD among Latin Americans, and fetal hemoglobin expression. National population-based newborn screening for SCD is limited to Brazil, Costa Rica, and the U.S. Available and extrapolated data suggest that over 6,000 annual births and 100,000-150,000 Latin Americans are affected by SCD. This comprehensive review highlights the substantial numbers and population distribution of SCD and sickle trait in Latin America, and where national newborn screening programs for SCD exist.

  20. The Catholic Church, Moral Education and Citizenship in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaiber, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The Catholic Church, with deep roots in the history of Latin America, exercises considerable influence on all levels of society. Especially after the Second Vatican Council and the bishops' conference at Medellin (1968) the Church took up the banner of human rights and the cause of the poor. During the dictatorships and in the midst of the…

  1. Algunos Animales de Latino America = Some Animals of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kathryn F. B.

    Developed by the Latin American Culture Studies Project for educators of elementary level children, these materials are designed to teach students the Spanish and English names of animals found in Latin America. The lesson includes coloring sheets, duplicating masters, fact sheets, the card game Maymayguashi, and directions for preparation. (DB)

  2. Geography, Culture, History, Politics of Latin America. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dangle, James; Esler, Jon

    This curriculum guide provides activities to help students understand Latin America. A foundation for analyzing the interdependence of world nations develops critical thinking, and problem solving skills. Activities emphasize research, reading, writing, and speaking skills. Detailed lesson plans and accompanying reproducible student handouts are…

  3. How Effective Are Private Schools in Latin America?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Marie-Andree; McEwan, Patrick J.; Willms, J. Douglas

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, the Santiago office of UNESCO implemented an assessment of student achievement in Latin America, working in collaboration with 13 Latin American ministries of education. Using a common sampling methodology and survey instruments, researchers in each country collected representative samples of data on third- and fourth-grade achievement in…

  4. Strategy for the Development of Sex Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation meeting report places priority on the development of sex education programs in Latin America. While regional and national circumstances clearly differ, it was felt that the steps described provide valuable guidelines on how a sex education program can be evolved while utilizing formal and non-formal…

  5. Rhetoric of Art and Technology in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glusberg, Jorge

    This monograph posits a rhetorical theory of video-art and presents perspectives on the status of video-art in Latin America. Video-art, which utilizes technology in the field of aesthetics, is perceived as fundamentally rhetorical and stylistic. Conclusions about the form include the comments that the analysis of visual messages is possible…

  6. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Latin America (defined as consisting of the countries of Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and…

  7. Education in Latin America: A Selected Bibliography (1986-1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aedo-Richmond, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a selected bibliography of books, theses, articles, and dissertations concerning education in Latin America. Includes separate sections on Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. All selections are in…

  8. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    This document contains reproducible maps, charts and graphs of Latin America for use by teachers and students. The maps are divided into five categories (1) the land; (2) peoples, countries, cities, and governments; (3) the national economies, product, trade, agriculture, and resources; (4) energy, education, employment, illicit drugs, consumer…

  9. Latin America in World Geography Textbooks for the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andereck, Mary E.; Dixon, Clifton V., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyze the Latin American content of contemporary world geography textbooks published for United States secondary schools. A preliminary review of the literature indicated that Latin America was generally omitted from world geography texts, Central America was given minimal attention, and…

  10. Education, Policy, and Social Change: Experiences from Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Gomez, Daniel A., Ed.; Torres, Carlos Alberto, Ed.

    Using both a retrospective and a prospective view, this book examines the links joining research, policy, and change in education in Latin America. It inquires about the relationships among the economy, politics, and the state. It reviews the praxis of education in Latin American countries and in the context of the development trends of the 1980s.…

  11. Latin America: An Annotated List of Materials for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.

    This annotated bibliography of materials on Latin America is intended for children to age 14. South and Central America, Mexico, and the French, English, and Spanish speaking areas of the Caribbean are covered. Listings are by country and include history books, geography books, fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and folklore books. Some works in Spanish…

  12. Mapping Latin America for Grades Six to Ten. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit, to be used with students in grades 6-10, has been designed to serve three purposes. First, the unit acts as an introduction to, or review of, fundamental geographic concepts and vocabulary. Second, it teaches students about the basic physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, students learn to examine maps with a critical…

  13. The Foundations of Telegraphy and Telephony in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baur, Cynthia

    1994-01-01

    Synthesizes empirical evidence on the participation of state and capital in the establishment of domestic telegraphic and telephonic communication in Latin America. Suggests that, in many ways, the contemporary period of telecommunication system organization in the region parallels the early years of telegraphy and telephony. Discusses these…

  14. A.I.D. Economic Data Book: Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This data book, updating a December 1968 publication, is designed to serve the internal program and operational needs of the Agency for International Development. More than 19 Latin American republics are referred to in major sections on: (1) Latin America in the Free World: population and production, (2) summary of basic data, (3) population…

  15. Directory of Engineering Education Institutions: Africa, Asia, Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This directory presents data on 458 degree-awarding engineering education institutions in countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Data include the general educational pattern of the country and specific institutional information such as: structure, staff, enrollment, research, specializations offered, address, academic period, admissions…

  16. Latin America: Curriculum Materials for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Virginia G., Ed.

    Self-contained activities that will help social studies or Spanish foreign language students in grades 6-8 learn about the history and culture of Latin America are provided. Following an introductory unit, the activities, ranging from easy to complex, are organized by the following countries and areas: Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean,…

  17. The Reality and Future of Latin America: An Educational Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Oscar

    1993-01-01

    Third World countries have lacked the resources to invest in economic and academic development. The source lies in gross inequities between industrialized and developing countries. Globalization of markets has not benefited Latin America. Militarism, corruption, poverty, and social injustice can only be eradicated by incorporating strong…

  18. Poverty in Latin America: A Critical Analysis of Three Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltvinik, Julio

    1996-01-01

    Critically evaluates the methodologies used in three recent studies on poverty in Latin America. Maintains that some studies measure the relative nature of nutritional poverty while others record the absolute nature of nutritional poverty (physical survival). Includes a comparative analysis of the studies' results. (MJP)

  19. Internationalizing Business Education in Latin America: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elahee, Mohammad; Norbis, Mario

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent of internationalization of business education in Latin America and identifies the key challenges facing the Latin American business schools. Based on a survey of the business schools that are members of CLADEA (Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administracion--Latin American Council of Management Schools), and…

  20. ESD: Power, Politics, and Policy: "Tragic Optimism" from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Gaudiano, Edgar J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the challenging developmental issues confronting the countries of Latin America, this response article analyzes the power and resistance of education for sustainable development from both theoretical and policy perspectives. Of particular concern are the neo-productivist strategies driving the latest stage of capitalist development.…

  1. School Readiness Research in Latin America: Findings and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Katherine; Rolla, Andrea; Romero-Contreras, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Educational results in Latin America (LA) are well below those of developed countries. One factor that influences how well children do at school is school readiness. In this article, we review studies conducted in LA on the readiness skills of preschool children. We begin by discussing contextual factors that affect what is expected of children…

  2. Emergent Evaluation and Educational Reforms in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinic, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to characterize educational reforms in Latin America over the last 25 years, and the way they reflect the role, method, and use of evaluation processes. The main theoretical and methodological tensions that are created by the development of evaluations will be reviewed, concluding with the identification of some of the…

  3. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their…

  4. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  5. The importance of rheumatology biologic registries in Latin America.

    PubMed

    de la Vega, Maria; da Silveira de Carvalho, Hellen M; Ventura Ríos, Lucio; Goycochea Robles, Maria V; Casado, Gustavo C

    2013-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by joint articular pain and disability. Although there is scarcity of data available on the incidence and prevalence of RA in Latin America, there is a growing recognition of this disease where chronic diseases are on the rise and infectious disease on the decline. RA is a substantial burden to patients, society, and the healthcare system. The heterogeneity identified within RA presents an opportunity for personalized medicine, especially in regions with such demographic diversity as that of Latin America. To understand the long-term effects of treatment for RA especially on safety, registries have been established, a number of which have been created in Latin America. Despite their weaknesses (e.g., lack of controls and randomization), registries have provided additional and complementary information on the use of biologics in clinical practice in Latin America and other regions. Although certain challenges remain in the implementation and maintenance of registries, they continue to provide real-life data to clinical practice contributing to improved patient care.

  6. Bringing Latin America to Life with Films in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanden, Harry E.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author points out that in this increasingly visual world, outstanding films can engage classes and lift the curtain on the cultures and modern history of Latin America. He recommends some of the most gripping and perceptive films on this topic, and offers advice on how teachers can provide the background to these dramas and…

  7. World Bank's role in electric power projects in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, N. de )

    1994-06-01

    This article examines the impacts of changing energy policy in Latin America to the development of electrical infrastructure, interconnections, and electrical exchanges in the area. The topics of the article include energy as a commodity, hydroelectric capacity potential, growth and investment, natural gas reserves and regional interconnections.

  8. Journalism Education's Roots in Latin America Are Traced.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Jerry W.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a document recently discovered in Bolivia that has cast new light on the background of journalism education in Latin America. Indicates that the movement toward the licensing of journalists was present from the beginning. Describes early journalism education in Argentina, Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, and Central America. (JD)

  9. Spanish Bilateral Initiatives for Education in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortina, Regina; Sanchez, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The research presented in this article concerns la Agencia Espanola de Cooperacion Internacional (Spanish Agency for International Cooperation--AECI) and its growing presence in Latin America since the late 1990s. The aim is to evaluate the transformative potential that bilateral funding can have on educational reform in the region. The article…

  10. An overview on the Space Weather in Latin America: from Space Research to Space Weather and its Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Nardin, C. M.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Dasso, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview on the Space Weather in Latin America, highlighting the main findings from our review the recent advances in the space science investigations in Latin America focusing in the solar-terrestrial interactions, modernly named space weather, which leaded to the creation of forecast centers. Despite recognizing advances in the space research over the whole Latin America, this review is restricted to the evolution observed in three countries (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico) only, due to the fact that these countries have recently developed operational center for monitoring the space weather. The work starts with briefly mentioning the first groups that started the space science in Latin America. The current status and research interest of such groups are then described together with the most referenced works and the challenges for the next decade to solve space weather puzzles. A small inventory of the networks and collaborations being built is also described. Finally, the decision process for spinning off the space weather prediction centers from the space science groups is reported with an interpretation of the reason/opportunities that lead to it. Lastly, the constraints for the progress in the space weather monitoring, research, and forecast are listed with recommendations to overcome them.

  11. Proyecto Principal de Educacion en America Latina y El Caribe. Boletin 15 (Main Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bulletin 15).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean face severe financial restrictions in educational funding. Responses to these restrictions are complex and require strong experimental efforts and adaptation to distinct and changing national situations. The articles in this bulletin respond to various proposals and situations that illustrate the search…

  12. The cost of diabetes in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed Central

    Barceló, Alberto; Aedo, Cristian; Rajpathak, Swapnil; Robles, Sylvia

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the economic burden associated with diabetes mellitus in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: Prevalence estimates of diabetes for the year 2000 were used to calculated direct and indirect costs of diabetes mellitus. Direct costs included costs due to drugs, hospitalizations, consultations and management of complications. The human capital approach was used to calculate indirect costs and included calculations of forgone earnings due to premature mortality and disability attributed to diabetes mellitus. Mortality and disability attributed to causes other than diabetes were subtracted from estimates to consider only the excess burden due to diabetes. A 3% discount rate was used to convert future earnings to current value. FINDINGS: The annual number of deaths in 2000 caused by diabetes mellitus was estimated at 339,035. This represented a loss of 757,096 discounted years of productive life among persons younger than 65 years (> billion US dollars). Permanent disability caused a loss of 12,699,087 years and over 50 billion US dollars, and temporary disability caused a loss of 136,701 years in the working population and over 763 million US dollars. Costs associated with insulin and oral medications were 4720 million US dollars, hospitalizations 1012 million US dollars, consultations 2508 million US dollars and care for complications 2,480 million US dollars. The total annual cost associated with diabetes was estimated as 65,216 million US dollars (direct 10,721 US dollars; indirect 54,496 US dollars). CONCLUSION: Despite limitations of the data, diabetes imposes a high economic burden to individuals and society in all countries and to Latin American and the Caribbean as whole. PMID:12640472

  13. Ethical issues in genetics and public health in Latin America with a focus on Argentina.

    PubMed

    Penchaszadeh, Victor B

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the health situation and developments in medical genetics and bioethics in Latin America, with a focus on Argentina. The region is the most inequitable in the world, with an average Gini Index of 52.5 and 25 % of the population living in poverty. Health expenditures are low and health systems are fragmented and privatised, with curtailed governmental responsibility and regulation. Health-care decision making is mostly in the hands of private insurance corporations and the medical-industrial complex, so that what is (or is not) covered by health plans is arbitrary and determined by the market and not by population health needs. This inequity and the lack of meaningful governmental intervention in the provision of health care, including genetic services, are at the heart of the bioethical dilemmas in Latin America. It is not surprising, therefore, that bioethics in the region has developed an approach grounded in social justice, equity and human rights as guiding principles, in contrast to the individualism espoused by Anglo-Saxon bioethics. The main ethical issues identified in genetics in Latin America are (1) inequity in access to genetic services, particularly in prenatal diagnosis, (2) genetic discrimination and (3) the lack of adherence to internationally accepted requisites of clinical validity and utility for diagnostic and predictive genetic testing. In this context, there is a risk that the impressive advances in genetics/genomics occurring in developed countries may fail to improve the public's health and deepen inequity, with the implementation of expensive genetic technologies of unproven validity. PMID:25666434

  14. Latin America`s emerging non-proliferation consensus

    SciTech Connect

    Redick, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Latin America`s incorporation into the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is well advanced. The 1967 Tlatelolco Treaty, which established a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ), is nearing completion. A signal event occurred January 18, when Argentina and Chile deposited instruments of ratification to the treaty, leaving Brazil and Cuba the only major countries in Latin America that are not yet contracting parties. And after more than two decades of concern about the nuclear programs and policies in Argentina and Brazil, there is room for great optimism that Brazil may now be moving quickly on important non-proliferation issues. Even Cuba, the {open_quotes}bad boy of the neighborhood{close_quotes} in the eyes of many, which held aloof from the Tlatelolco process for three decades, has stated its willingness to join the zone in the future.

  15. Health technology assessment in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Banta, David

    2009-07-01

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Regional Office of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the Americas, has tried to promote health technology assessment (HTA) in Latin America for 25 years. A certain awareness of HTA developed in several countries because of these efforts. In the late 1990's, there was a strong movement for health reform in Latin America, and HTA became part of that movement. Countries that now are actively institutionalizing HTA include Brazil, Mexico, Chile, and Argentina. Other countries, such as Costa Rica, Colombia, Cuba, Peru, Panamá, Paraguay, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uruguay, are following these trends and some others seem to be moving in this direction within the next few years.

  16. Histoplasmosis infection in Spanish travelers to Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gascón, J; Torres, J M; Jiménez, M; Mejias, T; Triviño, L; Gobbi, F; Quintó, L; Puig, J; Corachan, M

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the study presented here was to assess the incidence of histoplasma infection in a cohort of 342 individuals in Spain who had traveled to Latin America for the first time. The histoplasmin skin test was positive in 20% of the travelers, and Central America posed a higher risk for infection than South America (p=0.013). Sleeping outdoors (p=0.031) and the duration of travel (p=0.016) were also identified as significant risk factors. Serological testing demonstrated poor overall sensitivity for detecting infection in the travelers, but for the symptomatic acute cases the results were improved. Histoplasmosis must be considered in patients presenting with fever (odds ratio=3.51 [1.52-8.12]) or cough (odds ratio=4.24 [1.32-13.58]) after visiting Latin America. The results of this study have public health implications and indicate the risks of acquiring histoplasmosis should be included in pre-travel counseling.

  17. Epidemic cholera in Latin America: spread and routes of transmission.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, J P

    1995-12-01

    In the most recent epidemic of cholera in Latin America, nearly a million cases were reported and almost 9000 people died between January 1991 and December 1993. The epidemic spread rapidly from country to country, affecting in three years all the countries of Latin America except Uruguay and the Caribbean. Case-control studies carried out in Peru showed a significant association between drinking water and risk of disease. Cholera was associated with the consumption of unwashed fruit and vegetables, with eating food from street vendors and with contaminated crabmeat transported in travellers' luggage. This article documents the spread of the epidemic and its routes of transmission and discusses whether the introduction of the epidemic to Peru and its subsequent spread throughout the continent could have been prevented.

  18. An overview of raptor conservation in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Prior to the last decade, biological studies of raptorial birds in Latin America were almost nonexistent. For many species little more was known than their general range and habitat type. The last few years have seen the opening of a door to what will surely be a flood of scientific investigations. Ultimately, the survival of raptor communities in Latin America depends not only on research but also on several other equally significant conservation efforts. These typically appear in the following order: first, appropriate legislation must be enacted and enforced to provide legal protection; second, the public must be educated concerning the value of wildlife; third, substantial blocks of favourable habitat must be identified and preserved; fourth, economic incentives must be generated so that the local human populations actually benefit from the preservation of vulnerable wildlife and natural habitats; and finally, the long-term success of all of these efforts in each nation depends on the attainment of political, economic and social stability.

  19. An overview of raptor biology and conservation in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Prior to the last decade, biological studies of raptorial birds in Latin America were, with a few exceptions, nonexistent. For many species all that was known was the general range and habitat type. While the logistical and political challenges are still present, the last few years has seen the opening of a door to what will almost surely be a flood of scientific investigations. From over 40,000 ground miles traveled in 16 countries, field contact with over two thirds of the raptor species, and interviews with conservation officers in 10 nations, I will report on some raptor concentration areas, identify topics for future research, and generalize on raptor conservation issues. I will also briefly mention some recent biological studies and touch briefly on the challenges awaiting the biologist who tries his or her hand at reaping the rewards that are present in abundance for those who engage in raptor studies in Latin America.

  20. Logging while drilling application in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Husband, F.J.; Palomo M., R.; Roca R., L.

    1994-12-31

    The commercial use of Logging While Drilling (LWD) technology in Latin America and the Caribbean has grown significantly in the last two years as national and international oil and gas companies implement more efficient systems to locate and extract hydrocarbons. This technology has been applied to optimize drilling projects as LWD measurements are now routinely used for improved log quality, geosteering into complex horizontal targets, insurance logging in difficult drilling environments, and where operating rig costs create a financial need. Case field applications are presented including drilling and logging depleted gas sands in high concentration LCM mud systems, 3-dimensional geosteering techniques, and time lapsed overlays for identification of moved fluids and wellbore stability. The examples and discussion that follow represent field experience utilizing Compensated Dual Resistivity (CDR) and Compensated Density Neutron (CDN) measurements to more efficiently find and produce oil and gas in Latin America.

  1. Impact of Malaria in Pregnancy as Latin America Approaches Elimination.

    PubMed

    Yanow, Stephanie K; Gavina, Kenneth; Gnidehou, Sedami; Maestre, Amanda

    2016-05-01

    In Latin America, four million pregnancies are at risk of malaria annually, but malaria in pregnancy is largely overlooked. As countries progress toward malaria elimination, targeting reservoirs of transmission is a priority. Pregnant women are an important risk group because they harbor asymptomatic infections and dormant liver stages of Plasmodium vivax that cause relapses. Of significant concern is the discovery that most infections in pregnant women fail to be detected by routine diagnostics. We review here recent findings on malaria in pregnancy within Latin America. We focus on the Amazon basin and Northwest Colombia, areas that harbor the greatest burden of malaria, and propose that more sensitive diagnostics and active surveillance at antenatal clinics will be necessary to eliminate malaria from these final frontiers.

  2. Program for the elimination of urban rabies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Escobar Cifuentes, E

    1988-01-01

    The status of rabies in Latin America and the Caribbean is described. The probable evolution of rabies is described. The probable evolution of rabies is analyzed, especially with respect to the effect of urbanization in the large cities of the hemisphere and its possible impact on the epidemiology of urban rabies. Several alternatives for the control of rabies are discussed, as are the strategies for their implementation at the continental, subregional, and country levels. PMID:3206081

  3. Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2013-01-01

    Summary There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII <1%) without inhibitors (<0.6 BU mL−1) and were ≥5 years of age. Musculoskeletal status was compared between three groups of countries, based primarily on differences in the availability of long-term prophylaxis. Overall, 143 patients (5–66 years of age) were enrolled from nine countries. In countries where long-term prophylaxis had been available for at least 10 years (Group A), patients aged 5–10 years had significantly better mean World Federation of Hemophilia clinical scores, fewer target joints and fewer affected joints than patients from countries where long-term prophylaxis has been available for about 5 years (Group B) or was not available (Group C). In Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated. PMID:24354487

  4. Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII <1%) without inhibitors (<0.6 BU mL(-1) ) and were ≥5 years of age. Musculoskeletal status was compared between three groups of countries, based primarily on differences in the availability of long-term prophylaxis. Overall, 143 patients (5-66 years of age) were enrolled from nine countries. In countries where long-term prophylaxis had been available for at least 10 years (Group A), patients aged 5-10 years had significantly better mean World Federation of Hemophilia clinical scores, fewer target joints and fewer affected joints than patients from countries where long-term prophylaxis has been available for about 5 years (Group B) or was not available (Group C). In Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated.

  5. JPRS report: Science and technology. Europe and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-01-01

    Articles from the popular and trade press of Western Europe and Latin America are presented on advanced materials, aerospace and civial aviation, computers, defense industries, factory automation and robotics, lasers, senors, optics microelectronics, science and technology policy, biotechnology, marine technology, and nuclear developments. The aerospace articles include an overview of Austrian space activities and plans and a report on a panel of West German experts recommending against self-sufficiency for the Airbus.

  6. Advances(?) in mitigating volcano hazards in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The 1980's were incredible years for volcanology. As a consequence of the Mount St. Helens and other eruptions, major advances in our understanding of volcanic processes and eruption dynamics were made. the decade also witnessed the greatest death toll caused by volcanism since 1902. Following Mount St. Helens, awareness of volcano hazards increased throughout the world; however, in Latin America, subsequent events showed that much was still to be learned. 

  7. Lower inflation in Latin America: Economic recovery begins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-30

    Throughout the 1980s, Latin American countries struggled with economic stagnation compounded by hyperinflation. A report by the Inter-American Development Bank finds marked improvement in the economies of Latin America, based upon its analysis of 1991 statistics. This issue taps two recent studies of the region, and its own Fuel Price/Tax Series, to track the trends for a view of a brighter future.

  8. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  9. [Governance and political economy of PHC policies in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2011-06-01

    The development of implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America, is a challenge yet to be tackled. It is necessary to acknowledge the political economy related to the implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America from a governance perspective, characterized by the regulatory strategies used and the political processes. The promotion of social values, organizational policies or the introduction of new financial incentives are components of different forms of governance used in health system reforms. The institutional factors of social protection systems in Latin America are considered. Their potential, redistribution limitations and the political economy disputes of the reform strategies are explained by the conflict between the economic and related interests and values of the actors involved. This dynamic of the political process influences regulatory modes inherent in the processes of implementation of PHC policies. The State's governing capacity and levels of health system segmentation impinge on the effectiveness of reform strategies for resolving the conflicts in the policies implemented. PMID:21709974

  10. The HIV care continuum in Latin America: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Piñeirúa, Alicia; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Cahn, Pedro; Guevara Palmero, Rafael Napoleón; Martínez Buitrago, Ernesto; Young, Benjamin; Del Rio, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), also known as highly active antiretroviral therapy, provides clinical and immunological benefits for people living with HIV and is an effective strategy to prevent HIV transmission at the individual level. Early initiation of ART as part of a test and treat approach might decrease HIV transmission at the population level, but to do so the HIV continuum of care, from diagnosis to viral suppression, should be optimised. Access to ART has improved greatly in Latin America, and about 600,000 people are on treatment. However, health-care systems are deficient in different stages of the HIV continuum of care, and in some cases only a small proportion of individuals achieve the desired outcome of virological suppression. At present, data for most Latin American countries are not sufficient to build reliable metrics. Available data and estimates show that many people living with HIV in Latin America are unaware of their status, are diagnosed late, and enter into care late. Stigma, administrative barriers, and economic limitations seem to be important determinants of late diagnosis and failure to be linked to and retained in care. Policy makers need reliable data to optimise the HIV care continuum and improve individual-based and population-based outcomes of ART in Latin America.

  11. [Understanding snake venoms: 50 years of research in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, José María

    2002-06-01

    As a tribute to Revista de Biología Tropical in its 50th anniversary, this review describes some of the main research efforts carried out in the study of the chemical composition and the mechanism of action of toxins present in the venoms of snakes distributed in Latin America. Venom proteins involved in neurotoxicity, coagulopathies, hemorrhage and muscle necrosis are discussed, together with a description of the inflammatory reactions elicited by these venoms and toxins. In addition, the search for inhibitory substances present in plants and animals that may be utilized in the neutralization of venoms is analyzed. Some of the clinical studies performed on snakebite envenomations in Latin America are also reviewed, together with the development of technologies aimed at improving the quality of antivenoms produced in the region. Toxinology has become a fruitful and stimulating research field in Latin America which has contributed to a better understanding of snake venoms as well as to an improved management of snake bitten patients.

  12. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Romieu, I.; Weitzenfeld, H.; Finkelman, J. )

    1991-09-01

    Urban air pollution has become an increasing problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. One reason is the rapid expansion in the size of the urban population. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the number of vehicles and in energy utilization which, in addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, are the primary sources of air pollution i n Latin American cities. The air quality standards established in such countries are frequently exceeded although control programs have been implemented. The urban areas more affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are Sao Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Mexico City. In Latin America, the population of cities with high priority air pollution problems include approximately 81 million people or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America, corresponding to 30 million children (<15 years), 47 million adults (15-59 years) and 4 million elderly people ({ge}60 years) who are exposed to air pollutant levels that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for adequate health protection.

  13. Population genetic analysis of cat populations from Mexico, Colombia, Bolivia, and the Dominican Republic: identification of different gene pools in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Garcia, Manuel; Alvarez, Diana; Shostell, Joseph M

    2005-08-01

    In this paper we identify new genetic profiles of eight Latin American cat populations. In addition, we combine data from the present study and previously published data on 70 other American and European populations to discuss (1) the points of introduction of mutant alleles for cat coat phenotypes from Europe into Latin America, (2) the heterozygosity levels at these loci in the current Latin American cat populations, (3) the level of genetic heterogeneity among Latin American cat populations, and how this compares with levels found in North American and European cat populations, and (4) how many different cat gene pools are currently present in Latin America. We also include in our purview historical records of human migrations from Europe to and within the Americas. Our analyses clearly support the view that the current genetic profiles and structuring of cat populations in Latin America can be largely explained by the historical migration patterns of humans.

  14. Policy for Research and Innovation in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre-Bastos, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Latin America (LAC) is renewing efforts to build-up research and innovation (R&I) capacities, guided by policies that consider the need to transform the traditional science system into a more dynamic entity. Policies permitted the generation of new spaces to develop science, strengthen scientific communities, improve university-enterprise linkages, establish common agendas between public and private sectors, earmark special budgets, build new infrastructure, and improve the number and quality of scientific publications. In spite of much progress, LAC lags much behind developed countries, their universities rank lower than their international counterparts, the number of researchers is small and funding is below an appropriate threshold. Some countries have innovated in few economic sectors, while others remain technologically underdeveloped and much of the countries' innovative capacities remain untapped. It is believed that policies still have little influence on social and economic development and there exists dissatisfaction in the academic and entrepreneurial sectors with their quality and relevance or with the political will of governments to execute them. On the other hand, in the past decades, the complexity of innovation systems has increased considerably, and has yet to be taken fully into account in LAC policy definitions. The situation calls for decision makers to shape new framework conditions for R&I in a way that both processes co-evolve and are stimulated and guided on solutions to the major problems of society. Considering the main features of complex systems, self- organization, emergence and non-linearity, R&I policy measures need to be seen as interventions in such a system, as the use of traditional leverage effects used in the past for policy decisions are more and more obsolete. Policies must now use ``weak coordination mechanisms,'' foresight, mission statements, and visions. It is obvious that due to nonlinearities in the system, adaptive

  15. Analysis of the Library Situation in Latin America 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Library Development Program.

    The modern library is an institution that supplies many information services by efficiently organizing universal knowledge that has been reduced to the printed word. Unfortunately, the Latin American countries have not developed centralized services and programs with respect to bibliography, cataloging, exchange, reprography, production of library…

  16. School Facility Projects in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Jeffrey; de Cassia Alves Vaz, Rita; Honorio, Joao; Baza, Jadille; Origel, Ricardo; Gomez, Fredys

    2004-01-01

    Many Latin American countries are undertaking projects, in line with practices disseminated by PEB, to share school facilities with the local community, to adapt traditional schools for students with disabilities, and to collaborate with private companies to finance educational buildings. The articles below describe current initiatives in five…

  17. Education, Democracy, and Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-01-01

    Examines the historical context of the current Latin American educational crisis from the colonial era to the 1980s, comparing it to the educational investment undertaken by the Republic of Korea in a similar crisis. Calls for reform in state institutions, including a commitment to education, change in the economic model, and recognition of global…

  18. Migratory peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus, accumulate pesticides in Latin America during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Ward, F.P.; Riddle, K.E.; Prouty, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Blood samples from 433 Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) during fall and spring migrations, 1976-80, indicated that most of their pesticide burden, primarily DDE, was accumulated on wintering grounds in Latin America. DDE in spring migrants returning from Latin America for the first time declined significantly from 1979 to 1980. Only about 10% of breeding-age females contained organochlorine residues likely to adversely affect reproduction. The organochlorine pesticide threat in Latin America may be diminishing.

  19. Progress towards the elimination of transmission of Chagas disease in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, A

    1997-01-01

    From a global perspective, Chagas disease represents the third largest tropical disease burden after malaria and schistosomiasis. The estimated average annual per-capita gross domestic product in Latin America is US$2,966. The economic loss for the continent due to early mortality and disability by this disease in economically most productive young adults currently amounts to US$8,156 million which is equivalent to 2.5% of the external debt of the whole continent in 1995. In 1991, the Ministers of Health of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay, launched the Southern Cone Initiative for elimination of transmission of Chagas disease. The progress towards elimination of vectorial and transfusional transmission of Chagas disease in Uruguay, Chile, Argentina and Brazil has been documented by reports from the national control programmes of the above countries. Current data on disinfestation of houses, coverage of screening in blood banks and serology in children and young adults indicate that the interruption of the vectorial and transfusional transmission of Chagas disease will be achieved in these countries as follows: Uruguay and Chile in 1999, Brazil and Argentina in 2003. By eliminating the transmission of Chagas disease in the above countries, the incidence of the disease in the whole of Latin America will be reduced by more than 70%. PMID:9477549

  20. Rabies transmitted by vampire bats to humans: an emerging zoonotic disease in Latin America?

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Romijn, Phyllis Catharina; Uieda, Wilson; Tamayo, Hugo; da Silva, Daniela Fernandes; Belotto, Albino; da Silva, Jarbas Barbosa; Leanes, Luis Fernando

    2009-03-01

    Human rabies transmitted by vampire bats reached new heights in Latin America in 2005. A total of 55 human cases were reported in several outbreaks, 41 of them in the Amazon region of Brazil. Peru and Brazil had the highest number of reported cases from 1975 to 2006. In Peru, outbreaks involving more than 20 cases of bat-transmitted human rabies were reported during the 1980s and 1990s. During this period, a smaller number of cases were reported from outbreaks in Brazil. A comparison of data from field studies conducted in Brazil in 2005 with those from the previous decade suggests similar bat-bite situations at the local level. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiological situation and, on the basis of this information, discuss possible factors associated with the outbreaks. Prevention and control measures already recommended for dealing with this problem are also reviewed, and some further suggestions are provided.

  1. Rabies transmitted by vampire bats to humans: an emerging zoonotic disease in Latin America?

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Romijn, Phyllis Catharina; Uieda, Wilson; Tamayo, Hugo; da Silva, Daniela Fernandes; Belotto, Albino; da Silva, Jarbas Barbosa; Leanes, Luis Fernando

    2009-03-01

    Human rabies transmitted by vampire bats reached new heights in Latin America in 2005. A total of 55 human cases were reported in several outbreaks, 41 of them in the Amazon region of Brazil. Peru and Brazil had the highest number of reported cases from 1975 to 2006. In Peru, outbreaks involving more than 20 cases of bat-transmitted human rabies were reported during the 1980s and 1990s. During this period, a smaller number of cases were reported from outbreaks in Brazil. A comparison of data from field studies conducted in Brazil in 2005 with those from the previous decade suggests similar bat-bite situations at the local level. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiological situation and, on the basis of this information, discuss possible factors associated with the outbreaks. Prevention and control measures already recommended for dealing with this problem are also reviewed, and some further suggestions are provided. PMID:19454154

  2. Assessment and monitoring of onchocerciasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Real-Najarro, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Onchocerciasis has historically been one of the leading causes of infectious blindness worldwide. It is endemic to tropical regions both in Africa and Latin America and in the Yemen. In Latin America, it is found in 13 foci located in 6 different countries. The epidemiologically most important focus of onchocerciasis in the Americas is located in a region spanning the border between Guatemala and Mexico. However, the Amazonian focus straddling the border of Venezuela and Brazil is larger in overall area because the Yanomami populations are scattered over a very large geographical region. Onchocerciasis is caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is spread through the bites of an insect vector, black flies of the genus Simulium. In Africa, the major vectors are members of the S. damnosum complex, while numerous species serve as vectors of the parasite in Latin America. Latin America has had a long history of attempts to control onchocerciasis, stretching back almost 100 years. The earliest programmes used a strategy of surgical removal of the adult parasites from affected individuals. However, because many of the adult parasites lodge in undetectable and inaccessible areas of the body, the overall effect of this strategy on the prevalence of infection was relatively minor. In 1988, a new drug, ivermectin, was introduced that effectively killed the larval stage (microfilaria) of the parasite in infected humans. As the microfilaria is both the stage that is transmitted by the vector fly and the cause of most of the pathologies associated with the infection, ivermectin opened up a new strategy for the control of onchocerciasis. Concurrent with the use of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis, a number of sensitive new diagnostic tools were developed (both serological and nucleic acid based) that provided the efficiency, sensitivity and specificity necessary to monitor the decline and eventual elimination of

  3. Assessment and monitoring of onchocerciasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Real-Najarro, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Onchocerciasis has historically been one of the leading causes of infectious blindness worldwide. It is endemic to tropical regions both in Africa and Latin America and in the Yemen. In Latin America, it is found in 13 foci located in 6 different countries. The epidemiologically most important focus of onchocerciasis in the Americas is located in a region spanning the border between Guatemala and Mexico. However, the Amazonian focus straddling the border of Venezuela and Brazil is larger in overall area because the Yanomami populations are scattered over a very large geographical region. Onchocerciasis is caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is spread through the bites of an insect vector, black flies of the genus Simulium. In Africa, the major vectors are members of the S. damnosum complex, while numerous species serve as vectors of the parasite in Latin America. Latin America has had a long history of attempts to control onchocerciasis, stretching back almost 100 years. The earliest programmes used a strategy of surgical removal of the adult parasites from affected individuals. However, because many of the adult parasites lodge in undetectable and inaccessible areas of the body, the overall effect of this strategy on the prevalence of infection was relatively minor. In 1988, a new drug, ivermectin, was introduced that effectively killed the larval stage (microfilaria) of the parasite in infected humans. As the microfilaria is both the stage that is transmitted by the vector fly and the cause of most of the pathologies associated with the infection, ivermectin opened up a new strategy for the control of onchocerciasis. Concurrent with the use of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis, a number of sensitive new diagnostic tools were developed (both serological and nucleic acid based) that provided the efficiency, sensitivity and specificity necessary to monitor the decline and eventual elimination of

  4. Admixture in Latin America: geographic structure, phenotypic diversity and self-perception of ancestry based on 7,342 individuals.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Everardo, Paola; de Avila, Francisco; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; León-Mimila, Paola; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C; Burley, Mari-Wyn; Konca, Esra; de Oliveira, Marcelo Zagonel; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; Rubio-Codina, Marta; Attanasio, Orazio; Gibbon, Sahra; Ray, Nicolas; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rosique, Javier; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Balding, David; Gonzalez-José, Rolando

    2014-09-01

    The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú). These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry.

  5. CSM in Latin America: new developments.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    SOMARC is currently providing support to contraceptive social marketing efforts in Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay. The distinctly different family planning climates in these 3 countries have provided SOMARC with an opportunity to practice programmatic flexibility in project strategy and design. In Bolivia, the SOMARC strategy for implementing contraceptive social marketing is primarily a private sector venture in which donated products will be imported by local distributors and sold through the traditional channels. Distribution services through a network of local private family planning groups will provide SOMARC with direct access to Bolivian trade unions and work organizations. These family planning groups will in turn be strengthened by their association with the social marketing program as a potential source of revenue. In Brazil, where many low-priced contraceptives are already on the market, SOMARC's role will be in the areas of communication and promotion to increase contraceptive prevalence. The first task will be to identify target areas where there is a combination of low prevalence and an existing market infrastructure. A Brazil Contraceptive Social Marketing Program Advisory Council has been formed to provide a consolidated approach to family planning activities. Efforts toward developing a contraceptive social marketing program in Paraguay remain at an exploratory level. The introduction of social marketing in Paraguay is complicated by the existence of a pervasive contraband system. Although consumer awareness of contraception is high, the contraceptive prevalence rate is low. Efforts in all 3 countries reflect SOMAR's strategy of broadening the scope of project alternatives to meet the special needs of each nation.

  6. Arsenic in volcanic geothermal fluids of Latin America.

    PubMed

    López, Dina L; Bundschuh, Jochen; Birkle, Peter; Armienta, Maria Aurora; Cumbal, Luis; Sracek, Ondra; Cornejo, Lorena; Ormachea, Mauricio

    2012-07-01

    Numerous volcanoes, hot springs, fumaroles, and geothermal wells occur in the Pacific region of Latin America. These systems are characterized by high As concentrations and other typical geothermal elements such as Li and B. This paper presents a review of the available data on As concentrations in geothermal systems and their surficial discharges and As data on volcanic gases of Latin America. Data for geothermal systems in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile are presented. Two sources of As can be recognized in the investigated sites: Arsenic partitioned into volcanic gases and emitted in plumes and fumaroles, and arsenic in rocks of volcanic edifices that are leached by groundwaters enriched in volcanic gases. Water containing the most elevated concentrations of As are mature Na-Cl fluids with relatively low sulfate content and As concentrations reaching up to 73.6 mg L⁻¹ (Los Humeros geothermal field in Mexico), but more commonly ranging from a few mg L⁻¹ to tens of mg L⁻¹. Fluids derived from Na-Cl enriched waters formed through evaporation and condensation at shallower depths have As levels of only a few μg L⁻¹. Mixing of Na-Cl waters with shallower meteoric waters results in low to intermediate As concentrations (up to a few mg L⁻¹). After the waters are discharged at the ground surface, As(III) oxidizes to As(V) and attenuation of As concentration can occur due to sorption and co-precipitation processes with iron minerals and organic matter present in sediments. Understanding the mechanisms of As enrichment in geothermal waters and their fate upon mixing with shallower groundwater and surface waters is important for the protection of water resources in Latin America. PMID:22285066

  7. Arsenic in volcanic geothermal fluids of Latin America.

    PubMed

    López, Dina L; Bundschuh, Jochen; Birkle, Peter; Armienta, Maria Aurora; Cumbal, Luis; Sracek, Ondra; Cornejo, Lorena; Ormachea, Mauricio

    2012-07-01

    Numerous volcanoes, hot springs, fumaroles, and geothermal wells occur in the Pacific region of Latin America. These systems are characterized by high As concentrations and other typical geothermal elements such as Li and B. This paper presents a review of the available data on As concentrations in geothermal systems and their surficial discharges and As data on volcanic gases of Latin America. Data for geothermal systems in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile are presented. Two sources of As can be recognized in the investigated sites: Arsenic partitioned into volcanic gases and emitted in plumes and fumaroles, and arsenic in rocks of volcanic edifices that are leached by groundwaters enriched in volcanic gases. Water containing the most elevated concentrations of As are mature Na-Cl fluids with relatively low sulfate content and As concentrations reaching up to 73.6 mg L⁻¹ (Los Humeros geothermal field in Mexico), but more commonly ranging from a few mg L⁻¹ to tens of mg L⁻¹. Fluids derived from Na-Cl enriched waters formed through evaporation and condensation at shallower depths have As levels of only a few μg L⁻¹. Mixing of Na-Cl waters with shallower meteoric waters results in low to intermediate As concentrations (up to a few mg L⁻¹). After the waters are discharged at the ground surface, As(III) oxidizes to As(V) and attenuation of As concentration can occur due to sorption and co-precipitation processes with iron minerals and organic matter present in sediments. Understanding the mechanisms of As enrichment in geothermal waters and their fate upon mixing with shallower groundwater and surface waters is important for the protection of water resources in Latin America.

  8. Existing Instrumentation and Scientific Drivers for a Subduction Zone Observatory in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassetto, A.; Woodward, R.; Detrick, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The subduction zones along the western shore of the Americas provide numerous societally relevant scientific questions that have yet to be fully explored and would make an excellent target for a comprehensive, integrated Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO). Further, recent discussions in Latin America indicate that there are a large number of existing stations that could serve as a backbone for an SZO. Such preexisting geophysical infrastructure commonly plays a vital role in new science initiatives, from small PI-led experiments to the establishment of the USArray Transportable Array, Reference Network, Cascadia Amphibious Array, and the redeployment of EarthScope Transportable Array stations to Alaska. Creating an SZO along the western coast of the Americas could strongly leverage the portfolio of existing seismic and geodetic stations across regions of interest. In this presentation, we will discuss the concept and experience of leveraging existing infrastructure in major new observational programs, outline the state of geophysical networks in the Americas (emphasizing current seismic networks but also looking back on historical temporary deployments), and provide an overview of potential scientific targets in the Americas that encompass a sampling of recently produced research results and datasets. Additionally, we will reflect on strategies for establishing meaningful collaborations across Latin America, an aspect that will be critical to the international partnerships, and associated capacity building, needed for a successful SZO initiative.

  9. Trypanosomiasis vector control in Africa and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Chris J; Kabayo, John P

    2008-01-01

    Vectors of trypanosomiasis – tsetse (Glossinidae) in Africa, kissing-bugs (Triatominae) in Latin America – are very different insects but share demographic characteristics that render them highly vulnerable to available control methods. For both, the main operational problems relate to re-invasion of treated areas, and the solution seems to be in very large-scale interventions covering biologically-relevant areas rather than adhering to administrative boundaries. In this review we present the underlying rationale, operational background and progress of the various trypanosomiasis vector control initiatives active in both continents. PMID:18673535

  10. The future of urban water services in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Wade, Jeffry S

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, problems with the provision of drinking water and sanitation services around the world have increasingly been addressed by attempts at privatisation, recasting clean water as an essentially economic, rather than public, good. This approach gained particular acceptance in Latin America, but with limited success. In order to address the full range of social, economic and environmental values necessary to sustain water resources over time, public and governmental involvement in establishing integrated water management, pursuing ‘soft path’ approaches, assuring stakeholder input and setting policy will be essential to the process. PMID:22530259

  11. Latin America: actions for the prevention and treatment of malnutrition.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, A M; Britos, S

    1991-01-01

    The stagnation of the social and economic progress of Latin America in the 1980s is an aftermatch of its enormous external debt and of the drop in the international price of agricultural goods which are its main exports. Today in LA more people is malnourished and live under the line of poverty than in the 1970s. Programs for the prevention of malnutrition and for the rehabilitation of malnourished children have been enforced in most countries in order to mitigate the effects of the crisis. Such actions are briefly discussed.

  12. [Healthcare rights and conditional cash transfers in Latin America].

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Ana Maria Medeiros; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Avila

    2007-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer programs in Latin America impose specific requirements and responsibilities on beneficiary households, in order to upgrade education levels, improve drop-out rates and eliminate child labor, while enhancing health and nutrition indicators. Although counterpart healthcare conditions are common to all these programs, government strategies differ in terms of reaching their goals, at times even undermining improvements in the living conditions of more vulnerable segments of the population. Instead of upholding rights to healthcare, such initiatives may well trigger a new cycle of tightly-focused basic care through provisional programs.

  13. The future of urban water services in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Wade, Jeffry S

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, problems with the provision of drinking water and sanitation services around the world have increasingly been addressed by attempts at privatisation, recasting clean water as an essentially economic, rather than public, good. This approach gained particular acceptance in Latin America, but with limited success. In order to address the full range of social, economic and environmental values necessary to sustain water resources over time, public and governmental involvement in establishing integrated water management, pursuing ‘soft path’ approaches, assuring stakeholder input and setting policy will be essential to the process.

  14. The meanings of universal health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Clark, Mary A

    2015-02-01

    In Latin America, competing definitions of universal health care are found. Variants include traditional universalism, basic universalism, and minimal or residual universalism. These definitions are informed by European traditions, a renewed emphasis on equity among Latin American social policy experts, and World Bank strategy. This essay explores these definitions as well as areas of overlap and points of difference between and among them using examples from several Latin American countries. The most important difference concerns the preventive and curative services not covered by the benefits packages of minimal universal programs, a gap expected to grow increasingly costly for patients.

  15. [The need to develop demographic census systems for Latin America].

    PubMed

    Silva, A

    1987-01-01

    The author presents the case for developing new software packages specifically designed to process population census information for Latin America. The focus is on the problems faced by developing countries in handling vast amounts of data in an efficient way. First, the basic methods of census data processing are discussed, then brief descriptions of some of the available software are included. Finally, ways in which data processing programs could be geared toward and utilized for improving the accuracy of Latin American censuses in the 1990s are proposed.

  16. Hepatitis E virus: An ancient hidden enemy in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Fierro, Nora A; Realpe, Mauricio; Meraz-Medina, Tzintli; Roman, Sonia; Panduro, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute clinical hepatitis worldwide. HEV is an RNA-containing virus and the only member of the genus Hepevirus in the family Hepeviridae. Human HEV is classified into four genotypes widely distributed across the world. The virus is mainly transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and water-borne epidemics have become characteristic of hepatitis E in developing countries, including those in Latin America. The zoonotic potential of HEV is broadly recognized. Thus, there is an urgent need to re-evaluate virus transmission scenarios and to enforce epidemiological surveillance systems. Additionally, it is known that HEV infections, initially defined as self-limiting, can also take chronic courses in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, we recently reported a high seroprevalence of HEV in samples from cirrhotic patients with no other etiological agents present, suggesting the potential role of HEV in the development of chronic liver illness. In this review, HEV genomic variability, transmission, chronic infectious course, zoonotic potential and treatment are discussed. Focus is placed on the impact of HEV infection in Latin America, to support the development of specific control strategies and the handling of this important and typically imperceptible viral infection. PMID:26900289

  17. Overcoming social segregation in health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cotlear, Daniel; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia; Atun, Rifat; Barreto, Ivana C H C; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Cueto, Marcos; Francke, Pedro; Frenz, Patricia; Guerrero, Ramiro; Lozano, Rafael; Marten, Robert; Sáenz, Rocío

    2015-03-28

    Latin America continues to segregate different social groups into separate health-system segments, including two separate public sector blocks: a well resourced social security for salaried workers and their families and a Ministry of Health serving poor and vulnerable people with low standards of quality and needing a frequently impoverishing payment at point of service. This segregation shows Latin America's longstanding economic and social inequality, cemented by an economic framework that predicted that economic growth would lead to rapid formalisation of the economy. Today, the institutional setup that organises the social segregation in health care is perceived, despite improved life expectancy and other advances, as a barrier to fulfilling the right to health, embodied in the legislation of many Latin American countries. This Series paper outlines four phases in the history of Latin American countries that explain the roots of segmentation in health care and describe three paths taken by countries seeking to overcome it: unification of the funds used to finance both social security and Ministry of Health services (one public payer); free choice of provider or insurer; and expansion of services to poor people and the non-salaried population by making explicit the health-care benefits to which all citizens are entitled.

  18. Environmental education: a fast-growing field in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Wood, D W

    1989-01-01

    Private conservation organizations have become more prevalent throughout Latin America in the last decade. They range from well organized and financed, internationally-recognized organizations, to small volunteer groups. They are committed to preserving the natural resources and cover national park management, the protection of wildlife, reforestation, environmental contamination and other issues. Also in Latin America environmental education has become an important part of the resource conservation programs. One of the most advanced and successful programs is in Ecuador and is called Natura. It has produced many educational materials including slide programs, television spots and programs, booklets, a complete primary school curriculum, posters, radio programs and a profile of Ecuador's environment. Their programs have been successful because they analyze their target audience and tailor the program to their needs and desires. They also follow up with evaluation questionnaires and testing for each program. It has been difficult for organizations such as these to implement programs in rural areas. There are some groups developing environmental education programs in rural areas through alliances with development assistance organizations. There are essential for the protection of wild areas where human needs must be balanced with longterm ecological priorities.

  19. Overcoming social segregation in health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cotlear, Daniel; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia; Atun, Rifat; Barreto, Ivana C H C; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Cueto, Marcos; Francke, Pedro; Frenz, Patricia; Guerrero, Ramiro; Lozano, Rafael; Marten, Robert; Sáenz, Rocío

    2015-03-28

    Latin America continues to segregate different social groups into separate health-system segments, including two separate public sector blocks: a well resourced social security for salaried workers and their families and a Ministry of Health serving poor and vulnerable people with low standards of quality and needing a frequently impoverishing payment at point of service. This segregation shows Latin America's longstanding economic and social inequality, cemented by an economic framework that predicted that economic growth would lead to rapid formalisation of the economy. Today, the institutional setup that organises the social segregation in health care is perceived, despite improved life expectancy and other advances, as a barrier to fulfilling the right to health, embodied in the legislation of many Latin American countries. This Series paper outlines four phases in the history of Latin American countries that explain the roots of segmentation in health care and describe three paths taken by countries seeking to overcome it: unification of the funds used to finance both social security and Ministry of Health services (one public payer); free choice of provider or insurer; and expansion of services to poor people and the non-salaried population by making explicit the health-care benefits to which all citizens are entitled. PMID:25458715

  20. Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Suding, P.H.

    1995-12-31

    There is a marked difference between the perception of the sustainable development problem in the industrialized countries and that prevailing in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C). Whereas the industrialized countries seem concerned about the sustainability of their development in view of global climate change, developing countries in LA&C are looking for a sustainable development course that will lead them out of poverty and away from the destruction of the local environment. The industrialized countries perspective is apparent in the titles of the papers being presented at the IAEE Conference under the topic: Harmonizing Energy Policy, Environment, and Sustainable Economic Growth. A great number of titles and sessions focus on the apparent antagonism between economic growth and the environment. By environment one seems to primarily mean emissions into the air, especially greenhouse gas emissions. Probably the majority of the energy community of the industrial countries regards Latin America, on the one hand, as a holder of a large CO{sub 2} sink in danger of extinction and, on the other hand, as a potential new large contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. [Economic and social determinants of mortality in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Behm, H

    1980-01-01

    It is estimated that more than half of the infants born in Latin America are exposed to a mortality rate higher than 120/1000. Social indicators, such as number of hospital beds, protein consumption, literacy level, and type of housing are highly related to life expectancy at birth. More important yet is the relation of mortality with the socioeconomic characteristics of a given country within Latin America. Geographical differences of mortality are the result of national policies especially in regard to urban and rural population. For example, probability of death in Ecuador is 98/1000 in urban areas, and 145/1000 in rural areas; data are similar for other countries. The socioeconomic contradictions of the capitalist system create differences in mortality rates by concentrating in the few cities most of the health services, and by providing better living conditions for the urban population. Mortality, especially infant, is inversely related to income and to educational status and age of the mother. The many indigenous ethnic groups still existing in many Latin American countries have even higher mortality rates than the rest of the population. Respiratory dysfunctions, infectious diseases, malnutrition and accidents are the main causes of infant mortality in all groups of people, but with much higher rates for the working classes, and lower rates for the higher income classes. As a final analysis, not only is it important to use modern medical knowledge and technology to lower mortaltiy rates, but, and above all, it is imperative to modify social and economic structures.

  2. The health and economic impact of dengue in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jaime R; Castro, Julio

    2007-01-01

    In the last two decades, all countries in the tropical regions of Latin America have experienced marked increases in the incidence of both classic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Major risk factors for the occurrence of dengue in the region, as well as some regional peculiarities in its clinical expression, such as the extensive involvement of older age groups, have been defined. While little information exists on the economic impact of dengue in the region in terms of disease burden, the estimated loss associated with the disease is on the same order of magnitude as tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases (excluding HIV/AIDS), Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, or intestinal helminths. Therefore, similar priority should be given in the allocation of resources for dengue research and control. Data on cost-efficacy and cost-benefit analysis of dengue control programs in Latin America are scarce; however, the cost per DALY averted by control programs during endemic periods appears low, as compared to other mosquito-borne diseases like yellow fever, leishmaniasis, or malaria. Additionally, the cost-benefit ratio of the control programs has proven to be positive.

  3. Management of acromegaly in Latin America: expert panel recommendations.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Ariel; Bronstein, Marcello D; Bruno, Oscar D; Cob, Alejandro; Espinosa-de-los-Monteros, Ana Laura; Gadelha, Monica R; Garavito, Gloria; Guitelman, Mirtha; Mangupli, Ruth; Mercado, Moisés; Portocarrero, Lesly; Sheppard, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Although there are international guidelines orienting physicians on how to manage patients with acromegaly, such guidelines should be adapted for use in distinct regions of the world. A panel of neuroendocrinologists convened in Mexico City in August of 2007 to discuss specific considerations in Latin America. Of major discussion was the laboratory evaluation of acromegaly, which requires the use of appropriate tests and the adoption of local institutional standards. As a general rule to ensure diagnosis, the patient's GH level during an oral glucose tolerance test and IGF-1 level should be evaluated. Furthermore, to guide treatment decisions, both GH and IGF-1 assessments are required. The treatment of patients with acromegaly in Latin America is influenced by local issues of cost, availability and expertise of pituitary neurosurgeons, which should dictate therapeutic choices. Such treatment has undergone profound changes because of the introduction of effective medical interventions that may be used after surgical debulking or as first-line medical therapy in selected cases. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of therapy for small pituitary adenomas (microadenomas), potentially resectable macroadenomas and invasive adenomas causing visual defects. Radiotherapy may be indicated in selected cases when no disease control is achieved despite optimal surgical debulking and medical therapy, when there is no access to somatostatin analogues, or when local issues of cost preclude other therapies. Since not all the diagnostic tools and treatment options are available in all Latin American countries, physicians need to adapt their clinical management decisions to the available local resources and therapeutic options.

  4. Building capacity for dementia care in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Francisco J.; Gaona, Ciro; Quintero, Marialcira; Chavez, Carlos A.; Selga, Joyce; Maestre, Gladys E.

    2015-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have limited facilities and professionals trained to diagnose, treat, and support people with dementia and other forms of cognitive impairment. The situation for people with dementia is poor, and worsening as the proportion of elderly in the general population is rapidly expanding. We reviewed existing initiatives and provided examples of actions taken to build capacity and improve the effectiveness of individuals, organizations, and national systems that provide treatment and support for people with dementia and their caregivers. Regional barriers to capacity building and the importance of public engagement are highlighted. Existing programs need to disseminate their objectives, accomplishments, limitations, and overall lessons learned in order to gain greater recognition of the need for capacity-building programs. PMID:25932285

  5. [Demographic dynamics in the food-nutrition problem: the search for effective strategies in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Teller, C H; Culagovski, M; del Canto, J; Sáenz, L; Aranda-Pastor, J

    1982-09-01

    This paper addresses the interrelationship between the food and nutrition problem and population problems in Latin America within a global focus. A basic framework is presented which defines four demographic problems highly related with the food and nutrition situation: The underutilization of the labor force; the accelerated growth of the marginal population; the poor geographic distribution and rapid urbanization; and the high rates of infant and child mortality. Findings from the recent experience of demography in food and nutrition planning in the last four years in Central America and Panama are outlined, and strategies are recommended for the development of different types of programs and projects in population-nutrition. Finally, a list of applied research, basic information and direct action projects in population-nutrition that have been detected as needed by most of the Central American countries, is presented. PMID:6820623

  6. Latin America: A Filmic Approach. Latin American Studies Program, Film Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Leon G.; And Others

    This document describes a university course designed to provide an historical understanding of Latin America through feature films. The booklet contains an introductory essay on the teaching of a film course on Latin America, a general discussion of strengths and weaknesses of student analyses of films, and nine analyses written by students during…

  7. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…

  8. A Texas Company Sees Online Learning as Growth Industry in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Monica

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the growth of demand in online learning in Latin America and the expansion efforts made by Texas-based Whitney International to fill such niche. Whitney is a newcomer to a growing group of for-profit players that spot unmet demand for higher education in Latin America. Founded in 2005, it began its distance-learning courses…

  9. Stories from Afar: Using Children's and Young Adult Literature to Teach about Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.

    2007-01-01

    In teaching about Latin America and the Caribbean, bringing a human dimension to the study of the region is essential. Texts on the region can be dull and lifeless or even biased and skewed. Introducing students to the region by exploring prose, poetry, and picture books helps to illustrate the rich diversity found throughout Latin America and the…

  10. SELECTION AIDS ON LATIN AMERICA FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL LIBRARIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHEPARD, MARIETTA DANIELS

    A SERIES OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT. THE SCOPE OF THE LIST INCLUDES GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES FROM LATIN AMERICA, AS WELL AS BOOKS FROM SPAIN, WHICH ARE PRINCIPALLY IN THE FIELDS OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, ESPECIALLY LITERATURE AND HISTORY. A LIST OF SOURCES FOR THE PURCHASE OF BOOKS FROM LATIN AMERICA AND SPAIN IS ALSO…

  11. Competing Visions, Shifting Boundaries: The Construction of Latin America as a World Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Marie D.; Cooper, Catherine W.

    2007-01-01

    Latin America is a popularly accepted world region. A systematic review of geographic interpretations of Latin America reveals that the origin of the term goes back to the mid-nineteenth century and that the region's boundaries have shifted over time. This article argues that four basic principles operate in the formation of world regions such as…

  12. Educational Planning and Administration in Latin America: From Optimism to Uncertainty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustos, Fabio M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the history of educational planning and administration in Latin America. Describes a period of educational expansion and diversification after World War II and one of disillusionment during the economic crisis of the 1980s. Urges an thorough review of the traditional approaches of educational planning in Latin America and a search for…

  13. Human Rights and Curricular Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights have become increasingly salient for nations, organizations, and individuals since the end of World War II (Lauren 2003). Discussions of human rights now are common in formal education, including in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). A variety of indicators suggest that countries in Latin America have integrated human rights into…

  14. Educacion de Adultos en America Latina. Estudio Bibliografico. Serie Bibliografica # 3 (Adult Education in Latin America: Bibliographical Study. Bibliographical Series # 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlaen, Norah

    This analytical bibliography describes a group of selected documents that examine the current status and extent of development of adult education in Latin America. Documents were selected for inclusion based upon their focus on and concern for international and national goals and needs of adult education programs and for distribution to countries…

  15. Rotavirus vaccine: early introduction in Latin America-risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vargas, Jimena; Isa, Pavel; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F

    2006-01-01

    Rotavirus infection is the cause of severe gastroenteritis of young children worldwide, leading to an estimate of 600,000 deaths a year. Efforts to develop an effective and safe vaccine resulted in licensing in 1998 of a live oral vaccine (RotaShield) that was withdrawn less than 1 year later when reports of cases of intussusception were linked to its application. This led to development of new rotavirus vaccine candidates that are currently in late phase III clinical trials. One of these vaccines, GlaxoSmithKline's Rotarix, was licensed in July 2004 to be used in Mexico. This review describes the general background for rotavirus vaccine development, the different vaccine candidates that have been tested or are currently being evaluated, the association of rotavirus vaccination with the bowel blockage known as intussuception, and discusses the benefits and risks of the fast-track introduction of Rotarix in Latin America, and particularly in Mexico.

  16. [An overview of economic adjustments and demographic responses in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Bajraj, R F; Bravo, J H

    1994-06-01

    The structural adjustment programs and other economic problems in Latin America in the 1980s are described and possible repercussions in demographic indicators are sought through a review of the literature. The region entered the 1980s with internal and external imbalances. An external crisis made the current accounts deficit unsustainable, and unfavorable changes occurred in commercial and interest rates. A recessive adjustment of enormous magnitude ensued. The adjustment closed the external gap and permitted a huge transfer of resources abroad, but much of the internal imbalance persisted. A decline in per capita income and a clear deterioration in social spending took place over the decade, and it is primarily through social costs that demographic effects would be expected. A wide variety of economic changes and reforms in social, fiscal, and international trade policy are lumped together in the term adjustment. It is difficult to measure demographic consequences because of the heterogeneous experiences of individual countries and because there is no single definition of "adjustments" that would allow comparisons to situations without adjustments. But comparisons of two points in time, one before and one after the adjustments, and analysis of short-term responses in the form of deviations from medium and long-term trends may shed light on the effects of adjustment programs. Studies indicate that nuptiality responded most systematically, intensely, and immediately to short-term economic fluctuations, although there is as yet no evidence of long-term trends in the number of persons marrying at some time in their lives. Fertility also reacted strongly but slightly less systematically and with one or more years of delay, as would be expected considering the nature of gestation. Infant mortality in general continued to decline, but the decline decelerated in many cases. Short-term fluctuations in infant mortality and deaths from selected causes were much more

  17. [Quality of care in family planning clinical services in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Diaz, J; Halbe, H

    1990-12-01

    Quality of care in family planning is a difficult concept to measure because of the multitude of factors contributing to it and the subjective nature of many of them. Because family planning programs were developed largely in response to rapid demographic growth, their evaluation has concentrated on fulfillment of quantified goals such as numbers of new users, coverage, or prevalence. Such measures give no indication of the relative satisfaction or dissatisfaction of users. Family planning programs seeking high volume tend to have many new acceptors with low continuation rates, and a choice of methods limited to those considered highly effective and easy to distribute. In most Latin American programs, only oral contraceptives and surgical sterilization have high prevalence rates. In recent years, however, community pressure for greater attention to users needs and disappointment with results of programs oriented to obtaining high rates of new users have prompted greater attention top satisfaction of family planning clients and to quality of services. A recent review identified 6 crucial elements in determining the quality of family planning care: 1) free and informed selection of methods 2) information provided to clients 3) technical competence of service providers 4) interpersonal relations between clients and workers 5) mechanisms to promote continuation of use and 6) adequate provision of additional services. This work surveys the quality of family planning services in Latin America, using these 6 factors as a point of departure. The current situation, the ideal and minimal acceptable levels, and the most promising strategies for achieving improvements are assessed for each factor. Free selection of contraceptive method is restricted in most Latin American family planning programs because access is limited to a few methods, because inadequate information is provided to users, because high prices of some methods limit accessibility, or because some methods are

  18. [Quality of care in family planning clinical services in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Diaz, J; Halbe, H

    1990-12-01

    Quality of care in family planning is a difficult concept to measure because of the multitude of factors contributing to it and the subjective nature of many of them. Because family planning programs were developed largely in response to rapid demographic growth, their evaluation has concentrated on fulfillment of quantified goals such as numbers of new users, coverage, or prevalence. Such measures give no indication of the relative satisfaction or dissatisfaction of users. Family planning programs seeking high volume tend to have many new acceptors with low continuation rates, and a choice of methods limited to those considered highly effective and easy to distribute. In most Latin American programs, only oral contraceptives and surgical sterilization have high prevalence rates. In recent years, however, community pressure for greater attention to users needs and disappointment with results of programs oriented to obtaining high rates of new users have prompted greater attention top satisfaction of family planning clients and to quality of services. A recent review identified 6 crucial elements in determining the quality of family planning care: 1) free and informed selection of methods 2) information provided to clients 3) technical competence of service providers 4) interpersonal relations between clients and workers 5) mechanisms to promote continuation of use and 6) adequate provision of additional services. This work surveys the quality of family planning services in Latin America, using these 6 factors as a point of departure. The current situation, the ideal and minimal acceptable levels, and the most promising strategies for achieving improvements are assessed for each factor. Free selection of contraceptive method is restricted in most Latin American family planning programs because access is limited to a few methods, because inadequate information is provided to users, because high prices of some methods limit accessibility, or because some methods are

  19. Utility of regional satellite volcano deformation monitoring in Latin America: The CEOS pilot project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite observations are a cost effective tool for monitoring large numbers of volcanoes in areas with scarce instrumentation or difficult access. In the context of the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites) has developed a pilot project to showcase remote sensing for volcano hazard mitigation and response. Specifically, the pilot aims to demonstrate the feasibility of global volcano monitoring of Holocene volcanoes by undertaking regional monitoring of volcanic arcs in Latin America, using satellite earth observations data to track deformation as well as gas, ash, and thermal emissions. Latin America was chosen because the volcanoes are situated in a diversity of environments, providing a good test of the capabilities of different types of satellite data under different conditions; volcanic activity is abundant, and monitoring agencies in Latin American countries would directly benefit from the resources that this pilot will make available. It is hoped that the regional study will demonstrate that Earth observation data can help to identify volcanoes that may become active in the future as well as track eruptive activity that may impact populations and infrastructure on the ground and in the air, ultimately leading to improved targeting for permanent satellite-based observations and in-situ volcanic monitoring efforts. The pilot project is posible thanks to data provided by the various space agencies (ESA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES, CSA). In this contribution, we focus on premilinary ground deformation results using SAR satellites for selected areas in the Northern and Southern Andes as well as the Caribbean with recent unrest. For example, in the Southern Andes we will present ALOS time series at Llaima (-38.7 S) and Peteroa (-35.2 S) volcanoes, both of which have had eruptions during the past ten years.

  20. Treatment and prevention of malnutrition in Latin America: focus on Chile and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Weisstaub, Gerardo; Aguilar, Ana Maria; Uauy, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Seven million children under 5 years of age died worldwide in 2011, and one-third had malnutrition. Latin America and Caribbean countries stand out for the notable improvement of their health and nutrition situation, particularly in pregnant women and young children. Nutrition-sensitive interventions such as promoting food security, women's empowerment, social safety nets, clean water, and sanitation, among others, are critical for success. In Bolivia, the program Desnutrición Cero (Malnutrition Zero) was able to reduce mortality from severe malnutrition after 5 years from 25% to less than 5%, based on widespread implementation of the World Health Organization 10-steps protocol for hospitalized care and the application of community management. The Economic Commission for Latin America estimated the cost of malnutrition for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and the Dominican Republic as US $6,658 million. Approximately 1 million children have dropped out of school because of malnutrition, and as a result, malnourished children have 2 years less schooling, which brings social and economic losses not only to those affected but to society at large. National and international nutrition and food programs developed over the past 50 years have been implemented as integral components of broader strategies of primary healthcare and education, oriented toward preventing deaths and improving the quality of life of low-socioeconomic-status groups. Treating hundreds or thousands of affected children will not solve the global public health problem of malnutrition. Access to adequate amounts of quality foods represents a basic human right and is a necessary precondition for health. In turn, good nutrition and health are prerequisites for human, social, and economic development.

  1. [Neoliberal health sector reforms in Latin America: unprepared managers and unhappy workers].

    PubMed

    Ugalde, Antonio; Homedes, Nuria

    2005-03-01

    This work analyzes the neoliberal health sector reforms that have taken place in Latin America, the preparation of health care workers for the reforms, the reforms' impacts on the workers, and the consequences that the reforms have had on efficiency and quality in the health sector. The piece also looks at the process of formulating and implementing the reforms. The piece utilizes secondary sources and in-depth interviews with health sector managers in Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Mexico. Neoliberal reforms have not solved the human resources problems that health sector evaluations and academic studies had identified as the leading causes of health system inefficiency and low-quality services that existed before the reforms. The reforms worsened the situation by putting new pressures on health personnel, in terms of both the lack of necessary training to face the challenges that came with the reforms and efforts to take away from workers the rights and benefits that they had gained during years of struggles by unions, and to replace them with temporary contracts, reduced job security, and lower benefits. The secrecy with which the reforms were developed and applied made workers even more unified. In response, unions opposed the reforms, and in some countries they were able to delay the reforms. The neoliberal reforms have not improved the efficiency or quality of health systems in Latin America despite the resources that have been invested. Nor have the neoliberal reforms supported specific changes that have been applied in the public sector and that have demonstrated their ability to solve important health problems. These specific changes have produced better results than the neoliberal reforms, and at a lower cost.

  2. Treatment and prevention of malnutrition in Latin America: focus on Chile and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Weisstaub, Gerardo; Aguilar, Ana Maria; Uauy, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Seven million children under 5 years of age died worldwide in 2011, and one-third had malnutrition. Latin America and Caribbean countries stand out for the notable improvement of their health and nutrition situation, particularly in pregnant women and young children. Nutrition-sensitive interventions such as promoting food security, women's empowerment, social safety nets, clean water, and sanitation, among others, are critical for success. In Bolivia, the program Desnutrición Cero (Malnutrition Zero) was able to reduce mortality from severe malnutrition after 5 years from 25% to less than 5%, based on widespread implementation of the World Health Organization 10-steps protocol for hospitalized care and the application of community management. The Economic Commission for Latin America estimated the cost of malnutrition for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and the Dominican Republic as US $6,658 million. Approximately 1 million children have dropped out of school because of malnutrition, and as a result, malnourished children have 2 years less schooling, which brings social and economic losses not only to those affected but to society at large. National and international nutrition and food programs developed over the past 50 years have been implemented as integral components of broader strategies of primary healthcare and education, oriented toward preventing deaths and improving the quality of life of low-socioeconomic-status groups. Treating hundreds or thousands of affected children will not solve the global public health problem of malnutrition. Access to adequate amounts of quality foods represents a basic human right and is a necessary precondition for health. In turn, good nutrition and health are prerequisites for human, social, and economic development. PMID:25069292

  3. [Psychosocial consequences of organized violence. Experiences from Latin America].

    PubMed

    Lavik, N J; Sveaass, N

    1990-06-30

    The health consequences of organized violence are well documented (increasing from many parts of the world). We review experiences reported from Latin-America based on literature, contact with human rights organizations and participation in conferences in (Santiago de) Chile and Costa Rica, with special focus on: the destructive psychosocial influence of a repressive society; the development of torture methods; the development of therapeutic methods; the serious psychological implications of "impunity". In Central America joint strategies have been developed for preventive and therapeutic work connected to the effects of war-traumas and terror. Psychiatrists and psychologists from Western countries involved in treatment of refugees in exile can mutually benefit from the experiences of colleagues who have death with the problems in countries where prosecution and oppression have taken place. Within this framework professionals are challenged to take a firm stand against human right violations.

  4. [Primary health care: challenges for implementation in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Giraldo Osorio, Alexandra; Vélez Álvarez, Consuelo

    2013-01-01

    A development process, marked by the re-appearance of the primary health care as the core of health systems, has emerged in Latin America. Governments have made a commitment to renew this strategy as the basis of their health systems. However, these health systems are mainly faced with re-introducing equity values, and there are common challenges such as providing the health systems with trained human resources in sufficient numbers, overcoming the fragmentation/segmentation of the systems, ensuring financial sustainability, improving governance, quality of care and information systems, expanding coverage, preparing to face the consequences of an aging population, the changing epidemiological profile, and increase in the response capacity of the public health system. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive view of the progress and challenges of the inclusion of primary care health systems in Latin American countries. PMID:23490062

  5. [Innovative initiative in nursing teaching in Latin America].

    PubMed

    de Sena, R R; Brant, M J

    1999-01-01

    The study describes a set of nine projects which are initiatives in the innovation of the teaching twelve country of Nursing in Latin America. It discusses the purpose of these projects so as to incorporate pedagogical concepts which are critical and provoke reflection, and active methods of teaching and analysis of conceptual aspects, the management, strategies and models which are adopted. It describes the common features of the courses in the semi-present and distance forms and analyzes the teaching methods which focus on the teacher-student relation, as strengthening group and independent learning, as well as the use of adequate teaching materials. It also analyzes the communication system established by the projects, which seeks to strengthen horizontal relations, incorporating technology and distance education. It concludes by suggesting that this initiative is a suitable strategy to contribute to build new models for training nursing personnel.

  6. The distribution of leptospirosis in Latin America*†

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, A. D.

    1960-01-01

    Although many factors combine to make Latin America an apparently suitable region for the spread of the leptospiroses, the prevalence of these infections has been studied in relatively few areas of this part of the American continent. Of the 60 Leptospira serotypes described in the world, only seven have so far been definitively demonstrated in Middle America and five in South America. However, there is evidence to suggest that other and perhaps new serotypes may be found, and recent serological surveys indicate that there are loci of multiple leptospirosis affecting a large percentage of human or animal populations in at least five Latin American territories. The true prevalence of leptospirosis can only be ascertained by the proper application of reliable laboratory diagnostic methods. The limited value of certain techniques used heretofore makes a number of reports on the presence of this disease subject to question. PMID:13792576

  7. Next generation of individual account pension reforms in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kritzer, Barbara E; Kay, Stephen J; Sinha, Tapen

    2011-01-01

    Latin America led the world in introducing individual retirement accounts intended to complement or replace defined benefit state-sponsored, pay-as-you-go systems. After Chile implemented the first system in 1981, a number of other Latin American countries incorporated privately managed individual accounts as part of their retirement income systems beginning in the 1990s. This article examines the subsequent "reform of the reform" of these pension systems, with a focus on the recent overhaul of the Chilean system and major reforms in Mexico, Peru, and Colombia. The authors analyze key elements of pension reform in the region relating to individual accounts: system coverage, fees, competition, investment, the impact of gender on benefits, financial education, voluntary savings, and payouts. PMID:21466033

  8. Children's environment and health in Latin America: the Ecuadorian case.

    PubMed

    Harari, Raul; Harari, Homero

    2006-09-01

    Environmental health problems of children in Latin America and Ecuador are complex due to the close relationship that exists between social and environmental factors. Extended poverty and basic problems, such as the lack of drinking water and sanitation, are common. Infectious diseases are the greatest cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Development in industry and the introduction of chemical substances in agriculture add new risks including pesticide use, heavy metal exposure, and air pollution. Major problems can be divided into (a) lack of basic infrastructure, (b) poor living conditions, (c) specific environmental problems, and (d) child labor. Reproductive health disorders are frequent in developing countries like Ecuador. Issues related to children's health should consider new approaches, creative methodologies, and the search for independent predictors to separate environmental from social problems. Only with knowledge of the specific contribution of each factor, can it be possible to develop a strategy for prevention.

  9. Nursing research in Latin America: 1988-1998.

    PubMed

    Ailinger, Rita L; Najera, Rosa Maria; Castrillón, Maria Consuelo; Manfredi, Maricel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of nursing research in Latin America during the decade from 1988 to 1998. Data from the bi-annual Pan American Colloquia in Nursing Research from 1988 to 1998 were subject to secondary analysis. Findings indicate that most of the research emanated from Brazil, the only country with a doctoral program in nursing in the 1990's. Research topics included: public health issues, clinical studies (usually of adults), nursing care studies of process, therapeutic communication, and administrative issues such as standards of care and quality. The most common design was descriptive quantitative, although there were several qualitative studies. The analysis provides directions for future research and indicates areas of concern, especially the need for theory based nursing research.

  10. International health, the early cold war and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a panoramic vision of the development of international health in Latin America during the late 1940s and the 1950s, when a series of bilateral and multilateral institutions, such as the World Health Organization and UNICEF, were founded and reshaped. The language, policies, and activities of these new institutional actors were heavily influenced by the context of the early Cold War between the era's superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. Vertical campaigns against yaws and malaria--implemented under the leadership of Fred L. Soper, director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau--symbolized international health's technical orientation, as well as its contribution to the modernization of the countries of the region. The Cold War period has received little attention by historians of medicine, though it bears certain similarities to historiographical discussions of the relationship between tropical medicine and imperialism in the early 20th century.

  11. Next generation of individual account pension reforms in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kritzer, Barbara E; Kay, Stephen J; Sinha, Tapen

    2011-01-01

    Latin America led the world in introducing individual retirement accounts intended to complement or replace defined benefit state-sponsored, pay-as-you-go systems. After Chile implemented the first system in 1981, a number of other Latin American countries incorporated privately managed individual accounts as part of their retirement income systems beginning in the 1990s. This article examines the subsequent "reform of the reform" of these pension systems, with a focus on the recent overhaul of the Chilean system and major reforms in Mexico, Peru, and Colombia. The authors analyze key elements of pension reform in the region relating to individual accounts: system coverage, fees, competition, investment, the impact of gender on benefits, financial education, voluntary savings, and payouts.

  12. The environmental technology market in Latin America: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Valverde-Bermudez, J.

    1996-12-31

    Latin America has experienced dramatic changes during the last fifteen years. These changes range from the return of democratic governance, economic reform, and stabilization to the embrace of free trade and an increasingly acute sense of the need for environmental regulation, protection, and remediation. This new concern for the environment represents a dramatic shift in the perceptions and policies of many countries in the Western Hemisphere. Environmental issues have evolved from being an almost peripheral concern 10 years ago to a top priority item in most governments` agenda today. More importantly, the business sector has come to realize the potential value of the market for environmental goods and services, and many business concerns are actively pursuing this new market. This paper will provide a general overview of the approach several Latin American countries are taking with respect to environmental protection and remediation. In this discussion, special attention will be paid to economic reform and legislative processes.

  13. International health, the early cold war and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a panoramic vision of the development of international health in Latin America during the late 1940s and the 1950s, when a series of bilateral and multilateral institutions, such as the World Health Organization and UNICEF, were founded and reshaped. The language, policies, and activities of these new institutional actors were heavily influenced by the context of the early Cold War between the era's superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. Vertical campaigns against yaws and malaria--implemented under the leadership of Fred L. Soper, director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau--symbolized international health's technical orientation, as well as its contribution to the modernization of the countries of the region. The Cold War period has received little attention by historians of medicine, though it bears certain similarities to historiographical discussions of the relationship between tropical medicine and imperialism in the early 20th century. PMID:18831142

  14. [Primary health care: challenges for implementation in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Giraldo Osorio, Alexandra; Vélez Álvarez, Consuelo

    2013-01-01

    A development process, marked by the re-appearance of the primary health care as the core of health systems, has emerged in Latin America. Governments have made a commitment to renew this strategy as the basis of their health systems. However, these health systems are mainly faced with re-introducing equity values, and there are common challenges such as providing the health systems with trained human resources in sufficient numbers, overcoming the fragmentation/segmentation of the systems, ensuring financial sustainability, improving governance, quality of care and information systems, expanding coverage, preparing to face the consequences of an aging population, the changing epidemiological profile, and increase in the response capacity of the public health system. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive view of the progress and challenges of the inclusion of primary care health systems in Latin American countries.

  15. The legal status of emergency contraception in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Hevia, Martín

    2012-01-01

    Timely access to emergency contraception (EC) can contribute to reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies, and ultimately, the number of unsafe abortions and maternal fatalities. In Latin America, where all countries are parties to international human rights treaties that recognize the rights to autonomy, privacy, and health, and recognize sexual and reproductive rights including the right to family planning, the legal status of EC has been discussed in the courts. This article focuses on the analysis of the principal arguments voiced in the courts: the difference between contraceptives and abortifacients, the scientific status of available research on EC, and the age at which people develop a legal right to make decisions about their personal health. The conclusion is that Latin American countries whose laws or regulations ban access to EC in the public and/or the private sector fail to fulfill their obligations under international human rights law. PMID:22088410

  16. Use of Third Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Cesar, Carina; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Ghidinelli, Massimo; Castro, Jose Luis; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Fink, Valeria; Duran, Adriana; Sued, Omar; McGowan, Catherine C.; Cahn, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is expanding in Latin America. Many patients require second and third line therapy due to toxicity, tolerability, failure, or a combination of factors. The need for third line HAART, essential for program planning, is not known. Methods Antiretroviral-naïve patients ≥18 years who started first HAART after January 1, 2000 in Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet) sites in Argentina, Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru were included. Clinical trials participants were excluded. Third line HAART was defined as use of darunavir, tipranavir, etravirine, enfuvirtide, maraviroc or raltegravir. Need for third line HAART was defined as virologic failure while on second line HAART. Results Of 5853 HAART initiators followed for a median of 3.5 years, 310 (5.3%) failed a second line regimen and 44 (0.8%) received a third line regimen. Cumulative incidence of failing a 2nd or starting a 3rd line regimen was 2.7% and 6.0% three and five years after HAART initiation, respectively. Predictors at HAART initiation for failing a second or starting a third line included female sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–2.00, p = 0.001), younger age (HR = 2.76 for 20 vs. 40 years, 95% CI 1.86–4.10, p<0.001), and prior AIDS (HR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.62–2.90, p<0.001). Conclusions Third line regimens may be needed for at least 6% of patients in Latin America within 5 years of starting HAART, a substantial proportion given the large numbers of patients on HAART in the region. Improved accessibility to third line regimens is warranted. PMID:25221931

  17. Management of acromegaly in Latin America: expert panel recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Barkan, Ariel; Bronstein, Marcello D.; Bruno, Oscar D.; Cob, Alejandro; Espinosa-de-los-Monteros, Ana Laura; Gadelha, Monica R.; Garavito, Gloria; Guitelman, Mirtha; Mangupli, Ruth; Portocarrero, Lesly; Sheppard, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although there are international guidelines orienting physicians on how to manage patients with acromegaly, such guidelines should be adapted for use in distinct regions of the world. A panel of neuroendocrinologists convened in Mexico City in August of 2007 to discuss specific considerations in Latin America. Of major discussion was the laboratory evaluation of acromegaly, which requires the use of appropriate tests and the adoption of local institutional standards. As a general rule to ensure diagnosis, the patient’s GH level during an oral glucose tolerance test and IGF-1 level should be evaluated. Furthermore, to guide treatment decisions, both GH and IGF-1 assessments are required. The treatment of patients with acromegaly in Latin America is influenced by local issues of cost, availability and expertise of pituitary neurosurgeons, which should dictate therapeutic choices. Such treatment has undergone profound changes because of the introduction of effective medical interventions that may be used after surgical debulking or as first-line medical therapy in selected cases. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of therapy for small pituitary adenomas (microadenomas), potentially resectable macroadenomas and invasive adenomas causing visual defects. Radiotherapy may be indicated in selected cases when no disease control is achieved despite optimal surgical debulking and medical therapy, when there is no access to somatostatin analogues, or when local issues of cost preclude other therapies. Since not all the diagnostic tools and treatment options are available in all Latin American countries, physicians need to adapt their clinical management decisions to the available local resources and therapeutic options. PMID:19882249

  18. Socioeconomic and environmental determinants of adolescent asthma in urban Latin America: an ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Gisel Lorena; Santos, Carlos Antonio de Souza Teles; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of asthma is high in urban areas of many Latin-American countries where societies show high levels of inequality and different levels of development. This study aimed to examine the relationship between asthma symptoms prevalence in adolescents living in Latin American urban centers and socioeconomic and environmental determinants measured at the ecological level. Asthma prevalence symptoms were obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase III. A hierarchical conceptual framework was defined and the explanatory variables were organized in three levels: distal, intermediate, proximal. Linear regression models weighed by sample size were undertaken between asthma prevalence and the selected variables. Asthma prevalence was positively associated with Gini index, water supply and homicide rate, and inversely associated with the Human Development Index, crowding and adequate sanitation. This study provides evidence of the potential influence of poverty and social inequalities on current wheezing in adolescents in a complex social context like Latin America.

  19. Genomic research, publics and experts in Latin America: Nation, race and body.

    PubMed

    Wade, Peter; López-Beltrán, Carlos; Restrepo, Eduardo; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2015-12-01

    The articles in this issue highlight contributions that studies of Latin America can make to wider debates about the effects of genomic science on public ideas about race and nation. We argue that current ideas about the power of genomics to transfigure and transform existing ways of thinking about human diversity are often overstated. If a range of social contexts are examined, the effects are uneven. Our data show that genomic knowledge can unsettle and reinforce ideas of nation and race; it can be both banal and highly politicized. In this introduction, we outline concepts of genetic knowledge in society; theories of genetics, nation and race; approaches to public understandings of science; and the Latin American contexts of transnational ideas of nation and race. PMID:27479996

  20. Genomic research, publics and experts in Latin America: Nation, race and body

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Peter; López-Beltrán, Carlos; Restrepo, Eduardo; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2015-01-01

    The articles in this issue highlight contributions that studies of Latin America can make to wider debates about the effects of genomic science on public ideas about race and nation. We argue that current ideas about the power of genomics to transfigure and transform existing ways of thinking about human diversity are often overstated. If a range of social contexts are examined, the effects are uneven. Our data show that genomic knowledge can unsettle and reinforce ideas of nation and race; it can be both banal and highly politicized. In this introduction, we outline concepts of genetic knowledge in society; theories of genetics, nation and race; approaches to public understandings of science; and the Latin American contexts of transnational ideas of nation and race. PMID:27479996

  1. Newborn screening in Latin America at the beginning of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, G J C

    2007-08-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) in Latin America took its first steps in the mid-1970s. Nevertheless, many years elapsed before it achieved its integration within the public health care system and its systematic and continuous implementation under a programme structure. Latin American countries can be characterized not only by their great geographic, demographic, ethnic, economic and health system diversity, but also by their heterogeneity in NBS activities, which gives rise to variation in degree of organization: countries with optimal fulfilment (Cuba, Costa Rica, Chile, Uruguay); others rapidly expanding their coverage (Brazil, Mexico, Argentina); some others in a recent implementation phase (Colombia, Paraguay, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Peru); others with minimal, isolated and non-organized activities (Guatemala, Dominican Republic, Bolivia, Panama, Ecuador); and finally others without any NBS activities at all (El Salvador, Honduras, Haiti). Despite this disparity, a sustained and significant growth in NBS activities has become evident during the last decade, highlighted by implementation of new programmes, increase in coverage, expansion of NBS panels, increasing involvement of governmental and public health authorities, and integration of NBS teams through scientific societies and External Quality Assurance Schemes. Currently, congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most widely screened disease, followed by phenylketonuria, with organized NBS programmes for CH in 14 countries. Other diseases usually included in NBS programmes are screened in a lower rate. Every year, around 11.2 million infants are born in Latin America. During 2005, 49.3% of newborns were screened for CH, indicating that around 5.7 million newborns still did not have access to the benefits of NBS. PMID:17701285

  2. Newborn screening in Latin America at the beginning of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, G J C

    2007-08-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) in Latin America took its first steps in the mid-1970s. Nevertheless, many years elapsed before it achieved its integration within the public health care system and its systematic and continuous implementation under a programme structure. Latin American countries can be characterized not only by their great geographic, demographic, ethnic, economic and health system diversity, but also by their heterogeneity in NBS activities, which gives rise to variation in degree of organization: countries with optimal fulfilment (Cuba, Costa Rica, Chile, Uruguay); others rapidly expanding their coverage (Brazil, Mexico, Argentina); some others in a recent implementation phase (Colombia, Paraguay, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Peru); others with minimal, isolated and non-organized activities (Guatemala, Dominican Republic, Bolivia, Panama, Ecuador); and finally others without any NBS activities at all (El Salvador, Honduras, Haiti). Despite this disparity, a sustained and significant growth in NBS activities has become evident during the last decade, highlighted by implementation of new programmes, increase in coverage, expansion of NBS panels, increasing involvement of governmental and public health authorities, and integration of NBS teams through scientific societies and External Quality Assurance Schemes. Currently, congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most widely screened disease, followed by phenylketonuria, with organized NBS programmes for CH in 14 countries. Other diseases usually included in NBS programmes are screened in a lower rate. Every year, around 11.2 million infants are born in Latin America. During 2005, 49.3% of newborns were screened for CH, indicating that around 5.7 million newborns still did not have access to the benefits of NBS.

  3. DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION: ENHANCING THE DISSEMINATION OF THE PONSETI METHOD IN LATIN AMERICA THROUGH VIRTUAL FORUMS

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardena, Asitha; Boardman, Allison; Cook, Thomas; Oprescu, Florin; Morcuende, Jose A

    2011-01-01

    This ethnographic study evaluated the use of low-bandwidth web-conferencing to enhance diffusion of a specific best practice, the Ponseti method to treat clubfoot, in three economically diverse countries in Latin America. A “Ponseti Virtual Forum” (PVF) was organized in Guatemala, Peru and Chile to examine the influences of economic level and telecommunication infrastructure on the effectiveness of tins approach. Across the three countries, a total of 14 different sites participated in the PVFs. Thirty-three Ponseti-trained practitioners were interviewed before and after each PVF, which included interactions with a Spanish-speaking Ponseti method expert. Semi-structured interviews, observations, and IP address data were triangulated and analyzed. The results demonstrated that 100% of the practitioners rated the sessions as very useful and that they would use this approach again. The largest obstacles to using PVFs were financial (7 out of 9 practitioners) in Guatemala; a lack of equipment and network access (6 out of 11) in Peru; and the organization and implementation of the conferences themselves (7 out of 9) in Chile. This study illustrates the usefulness of Ponseti Virtual Forums in Latin America. Health officials in Peru are currently developing a large-scale information session for traumatologists about the Ponseti method, while practitioners in Guatemala and Chile are organizing monthly scholarly meetings for physicians in remote areas. This initial feedback suggests that low-bandwidth web-conferencing can be an important vehicle for the dissemination of best practices, such as the Ponseti method, in developing countries. PMID:22096417

  4. Cooperation or Security - The Emergence of Space Programs in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godefroy, A. B.

    Traditionally, Latin America has been labeled a “Third World” region, yet when one examines its various space programs the handle hardly applies. Both Argentina and Brazil received superpower assistance during the early Cold War period to develop indigenous rocketry and space capabilities that continue to evolve today. More recently, other Latin American countries have also taken advantage of the many capabilities that space power provides. However, cooperation and development in Latin America continue to be influenced by politics and security issues, an inescapable aspect of the region's history. These factors combined have had a considerable impact on the emergence of space programs in Latin America.

  5. [Pre-transitional fertility in Latin America: a forgotten subject].

    PubMed

    Guzman, J M; Rodriguez, J

    1993-06-01

    Although Latin American fertility over the past three decades has been fairly well documented, less is known of pretransition fertility, operationally defined as occurring before 1960. Data shortcomings have limited fertility estimates for these years, especially for population subgroups. This document attempts to reconstruct levels and trends in the total fertility rate for the pretransitional period using census retroprojection. The study was done in rural and urban zones to evaluate the existence of heterogeneity in each country, and in accordance with the availability of census data. Four countries were selected to represent the diversity of observed fertility in the region. Honduras's transition was late, slow, and initiated at a high level of fertility. Even in 1990 the total fertility rate exceeded 5. Costa Rica and Colombia had intense transitions and 1992 total fertility rates of around 3. Colombia had a rapid transition and total fertility rates averaging under 3 in 1990. The general hypothesis of this work is that pretransition fertility varied between and within countries. It was not precisely "natural" fertility inasmuch as the elites practiced some fertility control. Fertility change began when groups practicing fertility control became a majority, starting with the development of the middle class. The estimates indicate that pretransitional fertility in the 4 countries was not higher than the level at the moment when the transition began. Pretransitional fertility was relatively stable through about 1950, with variations in the total fertility rate not exceeding 1 child per woman. The total fertility rates of the 4 countries already differed before the 1950s, calling into question the view of the population of Latin America as uniform and homogeneous during the period. Heterogeneity was not limited to the lower fertility of Argentina and Uruguay on the one hand contrasting with high rates elsewhere in Latin America. Substantial differentials were

  6. SCOOL: A NASA Geoscience Education Success in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Moore, S. W.; Rogerson, T. M.

    2006-12-01

    are now registered S'COOL observers, including two thirds of Latin American countries. The spread of the project in Latin America has principally been through word of mouth, assisted by the efforts of several individuals who have developed in-country networks based on their own interests. Latin American participants have submitted nearly 9000 observations (constituting 40% of observations received from outside the US), and provide one of few sources of cloud observations during the summer months when northern hemisphere schools are mostly on vacation. Contributions from Latin American participants are also regularly featured in the S'COOL Cloud Photo of the Month. Over the course of eight years, S'COOL has amassed a wealth of knowledge pertaining to the implementation of collaborative projects in Latin America. This paper will report several key lessons learned.

  7. [Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Luna, Carlos M; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Bavestrello, Luis; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-08-01

    The global spread of MRSA means it is now a pathogen of worldwide public health concern. Within Latin America, MRSA is highly prevalent, with the proportion of S. aureus isolates that are methicillin-resistant on the rise, yet resources for managing the infection are limited. While several guidelines exist for the treatment of MRSA infections, many are written for the North American or European setting and need adaptation for use in Latin America. In this article, we aim to emphasize the importance of appropriate treatment of MRSA in the healthcare and community settings of Latin America. We present a summary of the available guidelines and antibiotics, and discuss particular considerations for clinicians treating MRSA in Latin America. PMID:21137164

  8. [Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Luna, Carlos M; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Bavestrello, Luis; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-08-01

    The global spread of MRSA means it is now a pathogen of worldwide public health concern. Within Latin America, MRSA is highly prevalent, with the proportion of S. aureus isolates that are methicillin-resistant on the rise, yet resources for managing the infection are limited. While several guidelines exist for the treatment of MRSA infections, many are written for the North American or European setting and need adaptation for use in Latin America. In this article, we aim to emphasize the importance of appropriate treatment of MRSA in the healthcare and community settings of Latin America. We present a summary of the available guidelines and antibiotics, and discuss particular considerations for clinicians treating MRSA in Latin America.

  9. First case of Mycobacterium heckeshornense cavitary lung disease in the Latin America and Caribbean region

    PubMed Central

    Coitinho, C.; Greif, G.; van Ingen, J.; Laserra, P.; Robello, C.; Rivas, C.

    2015-01-01

    A case of cavitary pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in Uruguay is described. This is the first case reported in the Latin America and Caribbean region, showing that this species is a worldwide opportunistic human pathogen. PMID:26909156

  10. Globalizing the history of disease, medicine, and public health in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Mariola

    2013-12-01

    The history of Latin America, the history of disease, medicine, and public health, and global history are deeply intertwined, but the intersection of these three fields has not yet attracted sustained attention from historians. Recent developments in the historiography of disease, medicine, and public health in Latin America suggest, however, that a distinctive, global approach to the topic is beginning to emerge. This essay identifies the distinguishing characteristic of this approach as an attentiveness to transfers of contagions, cures, and medical knowledge from Latin America to the rest of the world and then summarizes a few episodes that demonstrate its promise. While national as well as colonial and neocolonial histories of Latin America have made important contributions to our understanding, works taking the global approach have the potential to contribute more directly to the decentering of the global history of disease, medicine, and public health.

  11. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-06-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the region faces the challenge of uncovering the mechanisms that affect child development in a context of high levels of poverty and inequality. In addition, researchers in the region should be particularly careful in using appropriate and rigorous methods, improving the design and adaptation of instruments that measure child and adolescent development, developing longitudinal datasets, and looking for causal evidence. Children and adolescents in Latin America will benefit from a further expansion of developmental research. Research in child and adolescent development using data from Latin America can advise policy makers and help improve the design and evaluation of interventions and public policies that promote child and adolescent well-being in the region.

  12. [Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America. Grupo Proyecto Épico].

    PubMed

    Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of neonates who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, central venous catheter management, and management of complications. This manuscript is the fourth of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America'.

  13. [Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America. Grupo Proyecto Épico].

    PubMed

    Nucci, Marcio; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Echevarría, Juan; Sifuentes, Jose; Zurita, Jeannete; Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of adults who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in patients with candidemia. This manuscript is the second of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  14. [Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America. Grupo Proyecto Épico].

    PubMed

    Santolaya, María E; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Alvarado Matute, Tito; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of children who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in children with candidemia. This manuscript is the third of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  15. [Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America. Grupo Proyecto Épico].

    PubMed

    Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Zurita, Jeannete; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Santolaya, María E; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Echevarría, Juan; Sifuentes, Jose; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the diagnosis of candidemia, as well as on the usefulness and application of susceptibility testing in patients who have a confirmed diagnosis of candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America' includes diagnostic methods used to detect candidemia, Candida species identification, and susceptibility testing. The availability of methods, their costs and treatment settings are considered. This manuscript is the first of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  16. [Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America. Grupo Proyecto Épico].

    PubMed

    Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of neonates who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, central venous catheter management, and management of complications. This manuscript is the fourth of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America'. PMID:23764559

  17. [Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America. Grupo Proyecto Épico].

    PubMed

    Santolaya, María E; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Alvarado Matute, Tito; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of children who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in children with candidemia. This manuscript is the third of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'. PMID:23764558

  18. Towards establishing MS prevalence in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Melcon, M O; Melcon, C M; Bartoloni, L; Cristiano, E; Duran, J C; Grzesiuk, A K; Fragoso, Y D; Brooks, J B Bidin; Díaz, V; Romero García, K M; Cabrera Gomez, J A; Abad, P; Islas, M A Macías; Gracia, F; Diaz de Bedoya, V F Hamuy; Ruiz, M E Córdova; Hackembruch, J H; Oehninger, C; Ketzoian, C N; Soto, A

    2013-02-01

    A very high prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been reported in some Western European and North American countries. The few surveys of MS epidemiology in South America reveal lower prevalence rates, implying that susceptibility varies between distinct ethnic groups, thus forming an important determinant of the geographic distribution of the disease. The objective of this study is to review MS prevalence estimates in different Latin American and Caribbean countries. We reviewed surveys of regional MS prevalence from 1991 to 2011. Sources included an online database, authors' reports and proceedings or specific lectures from regional conferences. We obtained a total of 30 prevalence surveys from 15 countries, showing low/medium MS prevalence rates. Both the number and the quality of prevalence surveys have greatly improved in this region over recent decades. This is the first collaborative study to map the regional frequency of MS. Establishment of standardized methods and joint epidemiological studies will advance future MS research in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  19. Assessing Latin America's Progress Toward Achieving Universal Health Coverage.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Adam; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Almeida, Gisele; Buisman, Leander; Hoang-Vu Eozenou, Patrick; Bredenkamp, Caryn; Cercone, James A; Diaz, Yadira; Maceira, Daniel; Molina, Silvia; Paraje, Guillermo; Ruiz, Fernando; Sarti, Flavia; Scott, John; Valdivia, Martin; Werneck, Heitor

    2015-10-01

    Two commonly used metrics for assessing progress toward universal health coverage involve assessing citizens' rights to health care and counting the number of people who are in a financial protection scheme that safeguards them from high health care payments. On these metrics most countries in Latin America have already "reached" universal health coverage. Neither metric indicates, however, whether a country has achieved universal health coverage in the now commonly accepted sense of the term: that everyone--irrespective of their ability to pay--gets the health services they need without suffering undue financial hardship. We operationalized a framework proposed by the World Bank and the World Health Organization to monitor progress under this definition and then constructed an overall index of universal health coverage achievement. We applied the approach using data from 112 household surveys from 1990 to 2013 for all twenty Latin American countries. No country has achieved a perfect universal health coverage score, but some countries (including those with more integrated health systems) fare better than others. All countries except one improved in overall universal health coverage over the time period analyzed. PMID:26438747

  20. Social Capital and International Migration from Latin America.

    PubMed

    Massey, Douglas S; Aysa-Lastra, María

    2011-01-01

    We combine data from the Latin American Migration Project and the Mexican Migration Project to estimate models predicting the likelihood of taking of first and later trips to the United States from five nations: Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Peru. The models test specific hypotheses about the effects of social capital on international migration and how these effects vary with respect to contextual factors. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of migrant networks and the universality of social capital effects throughout Latin America. They also reveal how the sizes of these effects are not uniform across settings. Social capital operates more powerfully on first as opposed to later trips and interacts with the cost of migration. In addition, effects are somewhat different when considering individual social capital (measuring strong ties) and community social capital (measuring weak ties). On first trips, the effect of strong ties in promoting migration increases with distance whereas the effect of weak ties decreases with distance. On later trips, the direction of effects for both individual and community social capital is negative for long distances but positive for short distances. PMID:21915379

  1. Global Warming and Food Insecurity in Rural Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, T. R.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S.

    2012-12-01

    Food insecurity is one of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century - a challenge that will be further exacerbated by the changing climate. The effects of human induced climate change will be most disproportionate and severe in the developing world, where a stable food supply, decreased purchasing power, and adequate nutrition are often already a daily struggle. This study will build on work done by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), and will assess how vulnerability to household food insecurity will be affected by global warming in various rural parts of Latin America. Temperature data from downscaled Global Circulation Models (GCM) will be used in conjunction with the results of national household surveys to generate information on each rural farming household's probability of falling below a food poverty threshold in the near future. The results of the study will allow us to distinguish between households that are likely to experience chronic food insecurity and those that are likely to experience transitory food insecurity, permitting for improved targeting of policy responses.

  2. Social Capital and International Migration from Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Aysa-Lastra, María

    2011-01-01

    We combine data from the Latin American Migration Project and the Mexican Migration Project to estimate models predicting the likelihood of taking of first and later trips to the United States from five nations: Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Peru. The models test specific hypotheses about the effects of social capital on international migration and how these effects vary with respect to contextual factors. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of migrant networks and the universality of social capital effects throughout Latin America. They also reveal how the sizes of these effects are not uniform across settings. Social capital operates more powerfully on first as opposed to later trips and interacts with the cost of migration. In addition, effects are somewhat different when considering individual social capital (measuring strong ties) and community social capital (measuring weak ties). On first trips, the effect of strong ties in promoting migration increases with distance whereas the effect of weak ties decreases with distance. On later trips, the direction of effects for both individual and community social capital is negative for long distances but positive for short distances. PMID:21915379

  3. The major problems affecting children in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Terra, J P

    1979-01-01

    A review of the major problems affecting children in Latin America indicates that there is no immediate solution to the plight of these children without changes in the social and economic conditions and the norms of distribution that generate poverty. Of primary importance is examination of excessive child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality rates include: level of economic development; neglect of rural populations; conditions in indigenous populations; mother's lack of education; mother's age; excessively low birth weight; number of children in the family and frequency of pregnancies; diseases related to social conditions; nutritional deficiencies; curtailment of breastfeeding; and inadequate health services. Conditions handicapping the children who do survive include: absence of services for preschoolers; lack of women's education; lack of full coverage by primary education; cultural marginality of Indian populations; child labor; unfavorable slum environments; underserved rural habitats; socioeconomic and cultural stress on the family; and women's heavy burden of responsibilities. A review of these conditions is essential if effective measures to decrease the number of unnecessary deaths, hunger, and deprivation are to be included in the formulation of each country's development plan.

  4. Assessing Latin America's Progress Toward Achieving Universal Health Coverage.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Adam; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Almeida, Gisele; Buisman, Leander; Hoang-Vu Eozenou, Patrick; Bredenkamp, Caryn; Cercone, James A; Diaz, Yadira; Maceira, Daniel; Molina, Silvia; Paraje, Guillermo; Ruiz, Fernando; Sarti, Flavia; Scott, John; Valdivia, Martin; Werneck, Heitor

    2015-10-01

    Two commonly used metrics for assessing progress toward universal health coverage involve assessing citizens' rights to health care and counting the number of people who are in a financial protection scheme that safeguards them from high health care payments. On these metrics most countries in Latin America have already "reached" universal health coverage. Neither metric indicates, however, whether a country has achieved universal health coverage in the now commonly accepted sense of the term: that everyone--irrespective of their ability to pay--gets the health services they need without suffering undue financial hardship. We operationalized a framework proposed by the World Bank and the World Health Organization to monitor progress under this definition and then constructed an overall index of universal health coverage achievement. We applied the approach using data from 112 household surveys from 1990 to 2013 for all twenty Latin American countries. No country has achieved a perfect universal health coverage score, but some countries (including those with more integrated health systems) fare better than others. All countries except one improved in overall universal health coverage over the time period analyzed.

  5. Safety of the blood supply in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Schmunis, Gabriel A; Cruz, Jose R

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate selection of donors, use of sensitive screening tests, and the application of a mandatory quality assurance system are essential to maintain the safety of the blood supply. Laws, decrees, norms, and/or regulations covering most of these aspects of blood transfusion exist in 16 of the 17 countries in Latin America that are the subject of this review. In 17 countries, there is an information system that, although still incomplete (there are no official reports on adverse events and incidents), allows us to establish progress made on the status of the blood supply since 1993. Most advances originated in increased screening coverage for infectious diseases and better quality assurance. However, in 2001 to 2002, tainted blood may have caused infections in 12 of the 17 countries; no country reached the number of donors considered adequate, i.e., 5% of the population, to avoid blood shortages, or decreased significantly the number of blood banks, although larger blood banks are more efficient and take advantage of economies of scale. In those years, paid donors still existed in four countries and replacement donors made up >75% of the blood donors in another eight countries. In addition, countries did not report the number of voluntary donors who were repeat donors, i.e., the healthiest category. In spite of progress made, more improvements are needed.

  6. End-stage renal disease prevention strategies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Bellorin-Font, Ezequiel

    2005-09-01

    Latin America (LA), defined here as the countries in the Western hemisphere located south of the United States, is a region with a total population of nearly 520,000,000 that increases 1.5% annually and has a human development index of 0.77. The countries that form this region present extreme contrasts. These contrasts are first and foremost within the countries themselves, because extremes of wealth and poverty are present in their social and economic fabric. In addition, in LA a vast variety of government modalities and political systems are represented. Therefore, in order for prevention strategies to be effective, they need to be tailored to the specific characteristics and idiosyncrasies of individual nations. This article will address the following aspects: first, a broad outline of the basic health statistics in LA, with focus on treatment of end-stage renal disease and its derived economic burden. Data from LA countries will be contrasted with 95% confidence interval of corresponding data from 10 industrialized countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland). Second, we will discuss the prevalence of some risk factors for end-stage renal disease in the nations of the region. For this reason, we will focus on data that provide reliable information. Finally, we will consider general guidelines for the implementation of prevention strategies that may have common applicability in LA countries.

  7. Income inequality, distributive fairness and political trust in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zmerli, Sonja; Castillo, Juan Carlos

    2015-07-01

    In the wake of rising levels of income inequality during the past two decades, widespread concerns emerged about the social and political consequences of the widening gap between the poor and the rich that can be observed in many established democracies. Several empirical studies substantiate the link between macro-level income inequality and political attitudes and behavior, pointing at its broad and negative implications for political equality. Accordingly, these implications are expected to be accentuated in contexts of high inequality, as is the case in Latin America. Despite these general concerns about the consequences of income inequality, few studies have accounted for the importance of individual perceptions of distributive fairness in regard to trust in political institutions. Even less is known about the extent to which distributive fairness perceptions co-vary with objective indicators of inequality. Moreover, the research in this area has traditionally focused on OECD countries, which have lower indexes of inequality than the rest of the world. This study aims at filling this gap by focusing on the relevance of distributive fairness perceptions and macro-level inequality for political trust and on how these two levels interact in Latin American countries. The analyses are based on the Latinobarometer survey 2011, which consists of 18 countries. Multilevel estimations suggest that both dimensions of inequality are negatively associated with political trust but that higher levels of macro-level inequality attenuate rather than increase the strength of the negative association between distributive fairness perceptions and political trust.

  8. Dengue: an escalating public health problem in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Méndez-Galván, Jorge

    2012-05-01

    Dengue infection is a significant and escalating public health problem in Latin America. Its re-emergence and subsequent rise in the region over the past 50 years has largely been caused by a combination of a lack of political will, the radical growth of urban populations, migration flow and insufficient financial resources. Its increased incidence has been compounded by climate change, poor sanitation and extreme poverty, which lead to more breeding sites of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. In order to control dengue effectively, an integrated approach incorporating vector management and environmental and social solutions is required. To achieve success, these programmes require commitment and responses at both national and community level. The development of a vaccine is a vital tool in the fight against dengue. For successful introduction, those implementing vaccination need to be educated on the value of such a strategy. Effective political leadership, innovative financial mechanisms and co-operation across all disciplines, sectors and national borders are essential to eradication of the disease.

  9. The growing burden of dengue in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Méndez-Galván, Jorge F; Gallardo-Rincón, Héctor

    2009-10-01

    The re-emergence and subsequent failure to control dengue in Latin America provides a compelling illustration of the clinical, political and socio-economic challenges to eradicating dengue across the world. Insufficient political commitment, inadequate financial resources and increased urbanisation have contributed to the re-emergence and dramatic increase in dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in all 19 Latin American countries previously certified as free of Aedes aegypti. Difficulties with diagnosis, asymptomatic infection and the lack of effective surveillance systems account for the discrepancies between antibody prevalence against dengue and reported cases. Accurate incidence data and appreciation of the economic impact of dengue at regional, national and international levels are essential to securing political and economic commitment for dengue control efforts as well as increased scientific and social awareness. Environmental control efforts require an integrated and systematic approach at both the national and community level, while successful introduction of a dengue vaccine will require an educational programme that clearly communicates the cost-effectiveness and desirability of this interventional measure. In addition, countries must anticipate their national regulatory requirements, and vaccination strategies should be optimised according to the dengue epidemiology of each country. A broad scope is required to finance vaccination programmes to ensure individual countries' monetary shortcomings are addressed.

  10. Level of asthma control and healthcare utilization in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gold, L S; Montealegre, F; Allen-Ramey, F C; Jardim, J; Smith, N; Sansores, R; Sullivan, S D

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether uncontrolled asthma was associated with healthcare outcomes among Latin American patients with asthma. We used data from 2168 patients with asthma who participated in the 2011 Latin America Asthma Insights and Management (AIM) survey. Using Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines, patients were categorized as having asthma that was well-controlled, partly controlled, or uncontrolled. Overall, 7% of the patients surveyed had asthma that was classified as well-controlled. Patients whose asthma was not well-controlled were significantly more likely to report use of asthma medications (ORs ranging from 1.6-41) and to have had emergency healthcare visits or hospitalizations for their asthma in the previous year (ORs ranging from 2.1 to 5.9). They also reported decreases in their productivity compared to patients with well-controlled asthma. These associations suggest that emphasis on improving asthma control could have substantial effects on patient productivity and utilization of healthcare resources.

  11. Prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Carrion, Juliana Zimmermann; Filho, João Borges Fortes; Tartarella, Marcia Beatriz; Zin, Andrea; Jornada, Ignozy Dorneles

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to review the studies published over the last 10 years concerning the prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Latin American countries, to determine if there was an improvement in ROP prevalence rates in that period, and to identify the inclusion criteria for patients at risk of developing ROP in the screening programs. A total of 33 studies from ten countries published between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. Prevalence of any ROP stage in the regions considered ranged from 6.6% to 82%; ROP severe enough to require treatment ranged from 1.2% to 23.8%. There was no routine screening for ROP, and there was a lack of services for treatment of the disease in many countries. Inclusion criteria for patients in the studies ranged between birth weight ≤1500 g and ≤2000 g and gestational age ≤32 and <37 weeks. Use of different inclusion criteria regarding birth weight and gestational age in several Latin American studies hindered comparative analysis of the published data. Highly restrictive selection criteria for ROP screening in relation to birth weight and gestational age should not be used throughout most Latin American countries because of their different social characteristics and variable neonatal care procedures. The studies included in this review failed to provide adequate information to determine if the prevalence of ROP has decreased in Latin America. PMID:22174577

  12. Gaining a clearer picture of youth behavior. Latin America.

    PubMed

    1994-04-01

    A two-day seminar/workshop on the Behavior of Young People in the Dominican Republic was organized by Profamilia, the Mexican Family Planning Foundation (MEXFAM), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and JOICFP. The seminar was attended by more than 200 people including government officials and representatives of international organizations, youth groups, and nongovernmental organizations. Results were presented from the first national survey of adolescent behavior in the Dominican Republic. The survey was conducted by Profamilia and the CDC from 1992, and documented the early initiation of sexual activity, a high proportion of unwanted pregnancies, and the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases. Similar issues affect youths throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. International Planned Parenthood Federation statistics indicate that 5-10% of all girls aged 15-19 become pregnant. Participants were accordingly urged to more realistically accept that youth people are already sexually active. Mexico's experiences in the adolescent health field were presented during the second day of the seminar. Animated, educational adolescent health films produced by MEXFAM and JOICFP were discussed along with insights on how lessons learned may be used in other countries. Feedback from politicians suggests that survey findings may be called upon during the development of related policy. PMID:12287645

  13. Investigation of Remotely Triggered Tremor and Earthquakes in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Velasco, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    It has been shown that non-volcanic tremor (NVT) as well as small to moderate size earthquakes can be triggered by the seismic waves from distant earthquakes; however, little is understood about the triggering mechanisms. Investigating cases of remote triggering offers the opportunity to improve our knowledge about the physical mechanisms of earthquake interaction and nucleation. Furthermore, the similarities observed between remotely triggered NVT and those related to slow slip events, suggest that investigating triggered NVT may give us important insights into the mechanisms involved in slow slip events and their potential role in the earthquake cycle. In this work we present new results and the techniques we employ in identifying, locating and modeling cases of triggered earthquakes and NVT in Latin America and the Caribbean. In particular, we use global and regional seismic networks to perform an intensive search for triggered seismicity in Mexico, Cuba, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile. Our results suggest that seismicity can be triggered in a broad variety of tectonic environments, depending strongly on the triggering dynamic stress amplitude and orientation. This investigation will help to define the regions where remote triggering occurs and their susceptibility to undergo an important increase in seismicity after the occurrence of a distant large earthquake.

  14. Health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, R; Chellaraj, G; Murray, C J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study commissioned by the Latin American and Caribbean Technical Department of the World Bank to document and analyze health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 1990, the countries of this region spent US$ 69 billion on health, with an average per capita health expenditure of US$ 162. On average, the countries spent 6.2% of their GDP on health, with the expenditures divided about equally between the public and private sectors. In both the public and private sectors, per capita health expenditures were positively and significantly correlated with per capita income. However, this relationship holds only for the public sector, when health expenditures are measured as a proportion of GDP. While several poorer countries were dependent on external assistance, with increasing income, the countries relied more on public expenditures to finance health care. Based on the limited time series data, it is evident that there was a considerable variation among countries regarding the proportion spent on capital investments, primary health care, and drugs, but not on salaries. Looking ahead, with increasing economic development, the proportion of GDP spent on health, along with public health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure, is likely to increase rapidly, while aid dependency is likely to decline. PMID:9015869

  15. Spent sealed radium sources conditioning in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Mourao, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    The management of spent sealed sources is considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) one of the greatest challenges faced by nuclear authorities today, especially in developing countries. One of the Agency`s initiatives to tackle this problem is the Spent Radium Sources Conditioning Project, a worldwide project relying on the regional co-operation between countries. A team from the Brazilian nuclear research institute Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) was chosen as the expert team to carry out the operations in Latin America; since December 1996 radium sources have been safely conditioned in Uruguay, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Ecuador and Paraguay. A Quality Assurance Program was established, encompassing the qualification of the capsule welding process, written operational procedures referring to all major steps of the operation, calibration of monitors and information retrievability. A 200L carbon steel drum-based packaging concept was used to condition the sources, its cavity being designed to receive the lead shield device containing stainless steel capsules with the radium sources. As a result of these operations, a total amount of 2,897 mg of needles, tubes, medical applicators, standard sources for calibration, lightning rods, secondary wastes and contaminated objects were stored in proper conditions and are now under control of the nuclear authorities of the visited countries.

  16. Social Medicine Then and Now: Lessons From Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Waitzkin, Howard; Iriart, Celia; Estrada, Alfredo; Lamadrid, Silvia

    2001-01-01

    The accomplishments of Latin American social medicine remain little known in the English-speaking world. In Latin America, social medicine differs from public health in its definitions of populations and social institutions, its dialectic vision of “health–illness,” and its stance on causal inference. A “golden age” occurred during the 1930s, when Salvador Allende, a pathologist and future president of Chile, played a key role. Later influences included the Cuban revolution, the failed peaceful transition to socialism in Chile, the Nicaraguan revolution, liberation theology, and empowerment strategies in education. Most of the leaders of Latin American social medicine have experienced political repression, partly because they have tried to combine theory and political practice—a combination known as “praxis.” Theoretic debates in social medicine take their bearings from historical materialism and recent trends in European philosophy. Methodologically, differing historical, quantitative, and qualitative approaches aim to avoid perceived problems of positivism and reductionism in traditional public health and clinical methods. Key themes emphasize the effects of broad social policies on health and health care; the social determinants of illness and death; the relationships between work, reproduction, and the environment; and the impact of violence and trauma. PMID:11574316

  17. Health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, R; Chellaraj, G; Murray, C J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study commissioned by the Latin American and Caribbean Technical Department of the World Bank to document and analyze health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 1990, the countries of this region spent US$ 69 billion on health, with an average per capita health expenditure of US$ 162. On average, the countries spent 6.2% of their GDP on health, with the expenditures divided about equally between the public and private sectors. In both the public and private sectors, per capita health expenditures were positively and significantly correlated with per capita income. However, this relationship holds only for the public sector, when health expenditures are measured as a proportion of GDP. While several poorer countries were dependent on external assistance, with increasing income, the countries relied more on public expenditures to finance health care. Based on the limited time series data, it is evident that there was a considerable variation among countries regarding the proportion spent on capital investments, primary health care, and drugs, but not on salaries. Looking ahead, with increasing economic development, the proportion of GDP spent on health, along with public health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure, is likely to increase rapidly, while aid dependency is likely to decline.

  18. Changing patterns of migration in Latin America: how can research develop intelligence for public health?

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena; Pickett, Kate E; Gideon, Jasmine

    2013-07-01

    Migration patterns in Latin America have changed significantly in recent decades, particularly since the onset of global recession in 2007. These recent economic changes have highlighted and exacerbated the weakness of evidence from Latin America regarding migration-a crucial determinant of health. Migration patterns are constantly evolving in Latin America, but research on migration has not developed at the same speed. This article focuses on the need for better understanding of the living conditions and health of migrant populations in Latin America within the context of the recent global recession. The authors explain how new data on migrant well-being could be obtained through improved evidence from censuses and ongoing research surveys to 1) better inform policy-makers about the needs of migrant populations in Latin America and 2) help determine better ways of reaching undocumented immigrants. Longitudinal studies on immigrants in Latin America are essential for generating a better representation of migrant living conditions and health needs during the initial stages of immigration and over time. To help meet this need, the authors support the promotion of sustainable sources of data and evidence on the complex relationship between migration and health.

  19. Cutaneous melanoma in Latin America: a population-based descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Sortino-Rachou, Ana Maria; Curado, Maria Paula; Cancela, Marianna de Camargo

    2011-03-01

    Cutaneous melanoma incidences vary between geographic regions and are a health concern for Caucasians and for all ethnic populations. In Latin America, data from population-based cancer registries of cutaneous melanoma incidence rates have rarely been reported. We searched the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents volume IX (CI5-IX) database for cutaneous melanoma and select cases by topography (C43) from 11 population-based cancer registries in Latin America. Between 1998 and 2002, a total of 4,465 cutaneous melanoma cases were reported in Latin America. The average age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 persons-year) was 4.6 (male) and 4.3 (female). This study presents an overview of cutaneous melanoma incidence in Latin America, highlighting the need to enhance coverage of population-based cancer registries in Latin America, to allow for a better understanding of this neoplasm in the region. Thus it can help in implementing primary prevention programs for the whole Latino population. At this point in time, early detection messages should target young women and older men in Latin America.

  20. [Implementation and evaluation of a blended learning course on gastroesophageal reflux disease for physicians in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Cohen, Henry; Margolis, Alvaro; González, Nicolás; Martínez, Elisa; Sanguinetti, Alberto; García, Sofía; López, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Integrating evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on gastroesophageal reflux disease into medical practice is of prime importance in Latin America, given its high prevalence in this region. The aim of this project was to implement and assess an educational intervention on gastroesophageal reflux disease, aimed at primary care physicians in Latin America, with contents based on current clinical guidelines. The course included initial activities, whether face-to-face or through distance learning, and a 2-month period of Internet study and interaction. A pilot test was carried out in Uruguay, which was then repeated in 5 countries (Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina and again in Uruguay). A global template was designed, which was then adapted to each of the countries: this was done with the participation of local institutions and leaders. Local credits were given for recertification. Participation was free. Of 3,110 physicians invited to participate, 1,143 (36.8%) started the course. Of these, 587 (51.4%) accessed at least half the contents of the course and 785 (68.7%) took part in the clinical discussions. A total of 338 (29.6%) completed all the requirements of the course and received a certificate. Among physicians who took both the pre- and post-intervention knowledge tests, scores improved from 60 to 80% (P<.001). Ninety-two percent of planned changes in clinical practice were related to the pedagogic aims of the course. In conclusion, a multifaceted, 2-phase continuing education course was successfully imparted in Latin America, with an overall design that was adapted to each country. Determination of specific needs and the participation of national experts were fundamental to the success of the course. PMID:24679378

  1. [Implementation and evaluation of a blended learning course on gastroesophageal reflux disease for physicians in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Cohen, Henry; Margolis, Alvaro; González, Nicolás; Martínez, Elisa; Sanguinetti, Alberto; García, Sofía; López, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Integrating evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on gastroesophageal reflux disease into medical practice is of prime importance in Latin America, given its high prevalence in this region. The aim of this project was to implement and assess an educational intervention on gastroesophageal reflux disease, aimed at primary care physicians in Latin America, with contents based on current clinical guidelines. The course included initial activities, whether face-to-face or through distance learning, and a 2-month period of Internet study and interaction. A pilot test was carried out in Uruguay, which was then repeated in 5 countries (Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina and again in Uruguay). A global template was designed, which was then adapted to each of the countries: this was done with the participation of local institutions and leaders. Local credits were given for recertification. Participation was free. Of 3,110 physicians invited to participate, 1,143 (36.8%) started the course. Of these, 587 (51.4%) accessed at least half the contents of the course and 785 (68.7%) took part in the clinical discussions. A total of 338 (29.6%) completed all the requirements of the course and received a certificate. Among physicians who took both the pre- and post-intervention knowledge tests, scores improved from 60 to 80% (P<.001). Ninety-two percent of planned changes in clinical practice were related to the pedagogic aims of the course. In conclusion, a multifaceted, 2-phase continuing education course was successfully imparted in Latin America, with an overall design that was adapted to each country. Determination of specific needs and the participation of national experts were fundamental to the success of the course.

  2. Synopsis of the Review on Space Weather in Latin America: Space Science, Research Networks and Space Weather Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, Americo

    2016-07-01

    The present work is a synopsis of a three-part review on space weather in Latin America. The first paper (part 1) comprises the evolution of several Latin American institutions investing in space science since the 1960's, focusing on the solar-terrestrial interactions, which today is commonly called space weather. Despite recognizing advances in space research in all of Latin America, this part 1 is restricted to the development observed in three countries in particular (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico), due to the fact that these countries have recently developed operational centers for monitoring space weather. The review starts with a brief summary of the first groups to start working with space science in Latin America. This first part of the review closes with the current status and the research interests of these groups, which are described in relation to the most significant works and challenges of the next decade in order to aid in the solving of space weather open issues. The second paper (part 2) comprises a summary of scientific challenges in space weather research that are considered to be open scientific questions and how they are being addressed in terms of instrumentation by the international community, including the Latin American groups. We also provide an inventory of the networks and collaborations being constructed in Latin America, including details on the data processing, capabilities and a basic description of the resulting variables. These instrumental networks currently used for space science research are gradually being incorporated into the space weather monitoring data pipelines as their data provides key variables for monitoring and forecasting space weather, which allow these centers to monitor space weather and issue warnings and alerts. The third paper (part 3) presents the decision process for the spinning off of space weather prediction centers from space science groups with our interpretation of the reason/opportunities that leads to

  3. [Proliferation of medical schools in latin America. Causes and consequences].

    PubMed

    Goic, Alejandro

    2002-08-01

    Significant changes in university education have occurred in Latin America, caused by the strategic importance that it has on economical and social development. The educational system expanded and science, technology and informatics, experienced an important development. The eighties were characterized by a reduction in government expenditures, a more efficient use of resources, an increase in the number and variety of universities and university students. The creation of new universities, mostly private, was favored by a highly unregulated market. In Latinamerica, more new universities were created during the eighties than in the previous one hundred years. Since 1981, the number of universities in Chile increased from 8 to 60, the type of institutions was diversified, the government financing of public universities decreased substantially and the regulatory role of the market was emphasized. These changes have been quantitatively understandable but qualitatively unsatisfactory. Since 1981, the number of university students between 19 and 24 years old has triplicated. The number of medical schools and the annual admission of students has duplicated. In most Latin American countries, there is an insufficient number of physicians (Chile has one physician per 783 inhabitants). Since the decade of the nineties, an effort has been made to regulate the market, to introduce new barriers for the acceptance of new educational institutions, to improve the transparency of the system and to preserve the quality of teaching. The quality control of medicine and health is one of the most serious problems in Latin American countries. This includes accreditation of medical schools, health centers and specialists. In Chile there have been some progress in these topics but quality control is still unsatisfactory.

  4. In vitro assessment of commercial sunscreens available in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Castanedo-Cázares, Juan Pablo; Martínez-Rosales, Karla; Hernández-Blanco, Diana; Valdés-Rodríguez, Guillermo; Torres-Alvarez, Bertha

    2014-06-01

    In Latin America, people have largely abandoned the practice of wearing hats and traditional clothing that provided skin protection. Sunscreen application has therefore become essential to protect against the increased sun exposure. The physician-prescribed medical-grade sunscreens provide sufficient sun protection but the requirement for regular use puts a financial burden on the patient that is often not sustainable. An appropriate sunscreen should provide a high and broad ultraviolet (UV) protection against UVB and UVA. Several over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreens have been developed for sale at affordable prices and are available for purchase in convenient locations, such as local grocery stores. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro UV protection of 34 popular OTC sunscreens found in the Latin American market. UV absorbance/transmittance was quantified by diffusion transmission spectroscopy using coarse silica plaques. Photostability was tested by irradiating them with simulated solar light and calculating the sun protection factor (SPF), critical length of absorption (C lambda ), UVA/UVB ratio, and the spectral uniformity index (SUI). The results indicated that the in vitro SPFs were significantly lower than the value declared on the labels, particularly for those claiming high SPF values; however, the majority of these sunscreens offered high levels of UV protection. Considering the advantages of low cost and ample accessibility, we concluded that this sample of OTC sunscreens can be beneficial to the general public by providing some level of skin protection from solar radiation, and may be promoted to improve compliance with recommended photoprotection behavior.

  5. Economic and demographic effects on working women in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Psaharopoulos, G; Tzannatos, Z

    1993-01-01

    This analysis of women's work conditions in Latin America includes a description of general trends in female labor force participation in 15 Latin American countries based on census data between 1950 and 1990. Also examined are pay differentials by gender and whether gender alone or individual characteristics of women workers accounted for the sex-wage gap. More extensive treatment is available in the author's other 1992 publications. Trends indicate that marriage and children were important factors determining whether women were in the labor force or not. The probability of being in the labor force was reduced by 50% for married women, and each child reduced the probability by 5%. When marriage and children were controlled for, age had a positive effect on probability of participation. Urban female heads of household had a positive effect on women's labor force participation. The higher a woman's educational qualification, the greater the probability of being in the work force. Earnings increased with increased educational level. An increase of 1 year of schooling for women contributed to an increase in female earnings of 13.1. Investment in education for women has a higher yield for women than for men. Policies that directly or indirectly improve women's employment opportunities, particularly when families are being formed, can have wide distributional effects. Also unresolved was an explanation for why female participation increased during periods of recession and why women are rewarded more for educational effort than men. The suggestion was that public sector employment, which included many women in the labor force, is distorting results. PMID:12286863

  6. The burden of hepatic encephalopathy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Dávalos Moscol, Milagros; Bustios Sanchez, Carla

    2011-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by changes in cognitive function, behavior, and personality, as well as by transient neurological symptoms and electroencephalographic changes, which occur in the context of acute or chronic liver failure. Cirrhosis is the main disease associated to HE, and it is known that its incidence is increasing worldwide. As a cause of mortality, cirrhosis is ranked 14 worldwide, but 10 in developed countries. It has been demonstrated that the incidence of liver disease is increasing, in part because of the ascending prevalence of NAFLD, HCV, HCC, as well of alcohol consumption. The real incidence of cirrhosis in Latin America is unknown, although in some Latin American countries that provided national data, cirrhosis death rates were between 5 and 17/100,000 for men and 3 and 5/100,000 for women. Disability, quality of life, and social aspects should be considered when assessing the impact of a disease. In this context, preliminary estimates of the global burden of disease attributable to chronic liver disease seem to be substantial. Hepatic encephalopathy, a main complication of liver failure, occurs in 30-45% of patients as overt encephalopathy, but when subclinical or minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is considered, estimates of the incidence of encephalopathy vary from 20 to 60%. In USA, the 2009 NIH Report on the Costs of Digestive Diseases stated that liver disease was the second most costly disease in direct and indirect costs (13.1 billion dollars). Although the economic cost of HE has not been assessed, it is obvious that the economic impact of HE on daily activities of living is extremely high, as the costs of diminished work performance and lost wages are substantial.

  7. Advances in volcano monitoring and risk reduction in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCausland, W. A.; White, R. A.; Lockhart, A. B.; Marso, J. N.; Assitance Program, V. D.; Volcano Observatories, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    We describe results of cooperative work that advanced volcanic monitoring and risk reduction. The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) was initiated in 1986 after disastrous lahars during the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz dramatizedthe need to advance international capabilities in volcanic monitoring, eruption forecasting and hazard communication. For the past 28 years, VDAP has worked with our partners to improve observatories, strengthen monitoring networks, and train observatory personnel. We highlight a few of the many accomplishments by Latin American volcano observatories. Advances in monitoring, assessment and communication, and lessons learned from the lahars of the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz eruption and the 1994 Paez earthquake enabled the Servicio Geológico Colombiano to issue timely, life-saving warnings for 3 large syn-eruptive lahars at Nevado del Huila in 2007 and 2008. In Chile, the 2008 eruption of Chaitén prompted SERNAGEOMIN to complete a national volcanic vulnerability assessment that led to a major increase in volcano monitoring. Throughout Latin America improved seismic networks now telemeter data to observatories where the decades-long background rates and types of seismicity have been characterized at over 50 volcanoes. Standardization of the Earthworm data acquisition system has enabled data sharing across international boundaries, of paramount importance during both regional tectonic earthquakes and during volcanic crises when vulnerabilities cross international borders. Sharing of seismic forecasting methods led to the formation of the international organization of Latin American Volcano Seismologists (LAVAS). LAVAS courses and other VDAP training sessions have led to international sharing of methods to forecast eruptions through recognition of precursors and to reduce vulnerabilities from all volcano hazards (flows, falls, surges, gas) through hazard assessment, mapping and modeling. Satellite remote sensing data

  8. Cardiovascular Research Publications from Latin America between 1999 and 2008. A Bibliometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Colantonio, Lisandro D.; Baldridge, Abigail S.; Huffman, Mark D.; Bloomfield, Gerald S.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular research publications seem to be increasing in Latin America overall. Objective To analyze trends in cardiovascular publications and their citations from countries in Latin America between 1999 and 2008, and to compare them with those from the rest of the countries. Methods We retrieved references of cardiovascular publications between 1999 and 2008 and their five-year post-publication citations from the Web of Knowledge database. For countries in Latin America, we calculated the total number of publications and their citation indices (total citations divided by number of publications) by year. We analyzed trends on publications and citation indices over time using Poisson regression models. The analysis was repeated for Latin America as a region, and compared with that for the rest of the countries grouped according to economic development. Results Brazil (n = 6,132) had the highest number of publications in1999-2008, followed by Argentina (n = 1,686), Mexico (n = 1,368) and Chile (n = 874). Most countries showed an increase in publications over time, leaded by Guatemala (36.5% annually [95%CI: 16.7%-59.7%]), Colombia (22.1% [16.3%-28.2%]), Costa Rica (18.1% [8.1%-28.9%]) and Brazil (17.9% [16.9%-19.1%]). However, trends on citation indices varied widely (from -33.8% to 28.4%). From 1999 to 2008, cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased by 12.9% (12.1%-13.5%) annually. However, the citation indices of Latin America increased 1.5% (1.3%-1.7%) annually, a lower increase than those of all other country groups analyzed. Conclusions Although the number of cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased from 1999 to 2008, trends on citation indices suggest they may have had a relatively low impact on the research field, stressing the importance of considering quality and dissemination on local research policies. PMID:25714407

  9. Measuring the job performance of district health managers in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Monsalve, S J

    2003-04-01

    In resource-poor countries, district health managers (DHM) have gained importance as health systems have become decentralized. Although the roles and key functions of DHM have been described in the literature, there appears to have been no analysis of what they are really doing. In this context, the knowledge and job performance of 218 DHM from nine Latin American countries were investigated. The study was based on 12 performance indicators, two self-administered questionnaires (which included internal consistency tests), formal and informal, check interviews in the work place, and direct observations of the DHM. The DHM investigated were found to be particularly weak in systems management (community involvement and intersectoral co-operation), monitoring activities and the systematic organization of meetings. They were rarely involved in the identification of priority health problems or of high-risk groups, and failed to use health-service indicators sufficiently for the analysis of the district health system. The managers were stronger in relation to the organization of technical meetings and the development and implementation of local health plans. Factors associated with good management performance were a favourable organizational structure (including written job descriptions and support from the authorities), 'decision power' (i.e. the ability to select and appoint new staff ) and a good knowledge of the local situation. In Latin America, at least, DHM need to be better prepared, supervised and supported. PMID:12803861

  10. Towards sustainable parasite control practices in livestock production with emphasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Henrioud, A Nari

    2011-08-01

    Endo and ectoparasites of domestic ruminants directly or indirectly contribute to reduce sustainability affecting food security in subsistence or small scale farming systems, food safety (food borne diseases and pesticide residues), environment (pesticides, pollution and ecotoxicity) and farmer's equity (limited or uneven access to relevant technical information/training). This is especially true for some regions of Latin America where there still are huge areas of natural grazing land for cattle, sheep and goats. Sustainable parasite control is not an absolute concept given the different regions and productive systems of the world and therefore, could have different levels of adoption and impact on farmers. This article develops a conceptual framework to better understand where each region or country is situated in terms of attaining a reasonable increase in animal production while preserving sustainability. Within this context the capacity to prioritize the target parasite species for control according to local epidemiology and production systems, the early diagnosis and monitoring of parasite resistance as well as the availability of well trained field professionals acquire a major role, creating an enabling environment for present and future decision support system approaches. Until new and different means of controlling parasites become available; the challenge is to utilize Good Animal Husbandry Practices and Integrated Parasite Management (IPM) principles in a pragmatic way allowing the rational use of pesticides.

  11. Regulatory decisions in a globalised world: the domino effect of phenylpropanolamine withdrawal in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Figueras, Albert; Laporte, Joan-Ramon

    2002-01-01

    Rapid drug regulatory decisions regarding phenylpropanolamine (PPA)-containing common cold remedies and diet pills were taken in some Latin American countries following a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decision in the US. This situation is described as one that illustrates the important changes that regulatory decisions are experiencing as a consequence of globalisation. The evidence for the efficacy of PPA as a nasal decongestant and as an appetite-suppressant is very limited, at least by modern standards. Its potential to increase blood pressure and induce haemorrhagic stroke was described soon after its marketing. Although this poor benefit/risk ratio had been known for more than 20 years, regulatory action was taken in Latin America only after the US FDA withdrew the drug in the US on the basis of the results of a case-control study which added limited new evidence to the already known risk of stroke, but which, on the other hand, had attracted much attention from the media.

  12. Measuring the job performance of district health managers in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Monsalve, S J

    2003-04-01

    In resource-poor countries, district health managers (DHM) have gained importance as health systems have become decentralized. Although the roles and key functions of DHM have been described in the literature, there appears to have been no analysis of what they are really doing. In this context, the knowledge and job performance of 218 DHM from nine Latin American countries were investigated. The study was based on 12 performance indicators, two self-administered questionnaires (which included internal consistency tests), formal and informal, check interviews in the work place, and direct observations of the DHM. The DHM investigated were found to be particularly weak in systems management (community involvement and intersectoral co-operation), monitoring activities and the systematic organization of meetings. They were rarely involved in the identification of priority health problems or of high-risk groups, and failed to use health-service indicators sufficiently for the analysis of the district health system. The managers were stronger in relation to the organization of technical meetings and the development and implementation of local health plans. Factors associated with good management performance were a favourable organizational structure (including written job descriptions and support from the authorities), 'decision power' (i.e. the ability to select and appoint new staff ) and a good knowledge of the local situation. In Latin America, at least, DHM need to be better prepared, supervised and supported.

  13. Overcoming the challenges of conducting physical activity and built environment research in Latin America: IPEN Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Deborah; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Pratt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is evidence linking the built environment (BE) with physical activity (PA), but few studies have been conducted in Latin America (LA). State-of-the-art methods and protocols have been designed in and applied in high-income countries (HIC). In this paper we identify key challenges and potential solutions to conducting high quality PA and BE research in LA. Methods The experience of implementing the IPEN data collection protocol (IPEN: International Physical Activity Environment Network) in Curitiba, Brazil; Bogotá, Colombia; and Cuernavaca, Mexico (2010-2011); is described to identify challenges for conducting PA and BE research in LA. Results Five challenges were identified: Lack of academic capacity (implemented solutions (IS): building a strong international collaborative network); limited data availability, access and quality (IS: partnering with influential local institutions, and crafting creative solutions to use the best-available data); socio-political, socio-cultural and socio-economic context (IS: in-person recruitment and data collection, alternative incentives); safety (IS: strict rules for data collection procedures, and specific measures to increase trust); appropriateness of instruments and measures (IS: survey adaptation, use of standardized additional survey components, and employing a context-based approach to understanding the relationship between PA and the BE). Advantages of conducting PA and BE research in LA were also identified. Conclusions Conducting high quality PA and BE research in LA is challenging but feasible. Networks of institutions and researchers from both HIC and LMIC play a key role. The lessons learnt from the IPEN LA study may be applicable to other LMIC. PMID:25456800

  14. The Global Space Geodesy Network and the Essential Role of Latin America Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Ma, C.; Neilan, R.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Wetzel, S.

    2013-05-01

    The improvements in the reference frame and other space geodesy data products spelled out in the GGOS 2020 plan will evolve over time as new space geodesy sites enhance the global distribution of the network, and new technologies are implemented at current and new sites, thus enabling improved data processing and analysis. The goal of 30 globally distributed core sites with VLBI, SLR, GNSS and DORIS (where available) will take time to materialize. Co-location sites with less than the full core complement will continue to play a very important role in filling out the network while it is evolving and even after full implementation. GGOS, through its Call for Participation, bi-lateral and multi-lateral discussions, and work through the scientific Services have been encouraging current groups to upgrade and new groups to join the activity. This talk will give an update on the current expansion of the global network and the projection for the network configuration that we forecast over the next 10 years based on discussions and planning that has already occurred. We will also discuss some of the historical contributions to the reference frame from sites in Latin America and need for new sites in the future.

  15. Admixture in Latin America: Geographic Structure, Phenotypic Diversity and Self-Perception of Ancestry Based on 7,342 Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Everardo, Paola; de Avila, Francisco; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; León-Mimila, Paola; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C.; Burley, Mari-Wyn; Konca, Esra; de Oliveira, Marcelo Zagonel; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; Rubio-Codina, Marta; Attanasio, Orazio; Gibbon, Sahra; Ray, Nicolas; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rosique, Javier; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Balding, David; Gonzalez-José, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú). These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry. PMID:25254375

  16. Optimizing outcomes in multiple sclerosis: consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of multiple sclerosis in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Islas, Miguel Ángel; Gabbai, Alberto Alan; Correale, Jorge; Bolaña, Carlos; Sotelo, Eduardo Duriez; Bonitto, Juan García; Vergara-Edwards, Fernando; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Latin America varies across different studies but an intermediate risk and increased frequency of the disease have been reported in recent years. The circumstances of Latin American countries are different from those of Europe and North America, both in terms of differential diagnoses and disease management. Methods: An online survey on MS was sent to 855 neurologists in nine Latin American countries. A panel of nine experts in MS analyzed the results. Results: Diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations were outlined with special emphasis on the specific needs and circumstances of Latin America. The experts proposed guidelines for MS diagnosis, treatment, and follow up, highlighting the importance of considering endemic infectious diseases in the differential diagnoses of MS, the identification of patients at high risk of developing MS in order to maximize therapeutic opportunities, early treatment initiation, and cost-effective control of treatment efficacy, as well as global assessment of disability. Conclusions: The experts recommended that healthcare systems allocate a longer consultation time for patients with MS, which must be conducted by neurologists trained in the management of the disease. All drugs currently approved must be available in all Latin American countries and must be covered by healthcare plans. The expert panel supported the creation of a permanent forum to discuss future clinical and therapeutic recommendations that may be useful in Latin American countries. PMID:22164189

  17. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Aristizábal, Luis F; Bustillo, Alex E; Arthurs, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers' conditions. PMID:26848690

  18. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Aristizábal, Luis F; Bustillo, Alex E; Arthurs, Steven P

    2016-02-03

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers' conditions.

  19. The spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 alleles in Latin America and the Caribbean: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Dutil, Julie; Golubeva, Volha A; Pacheco-Torres, Alba L; Diaz-Zabala, Hector J; Matta, Jaime L; Monteiro, Alvaro N

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary cancer predisposition gene testing allows the identification of individuals at high risk of cancer that may benefit from increased surveillance, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. In order to implement clinical genetic strategies adapted to each population's needs and intrinsic genetic characteristic, this review aims to present the current status of knowledge about the spectrum of BRCA pathogenic variants in Latin American populations. We have conducted a comprehensive review of 33 studies published between 1994 and 2015 reporting the prevalence and/or spectrum of BRCA1 (OMIM 113705) and BRCA2 (OMIM 600185) variants. The combined sample size for these studies consisted of 4835 individuals from 13 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as in Hispanics in the United States. A total of 167 unique pathogenic variants have been reported in the existing literature. In unselected breast cancer cases, the prevalence ranged from 1.2 to 27.1%. Some countries presented a few recurrent pathogenic variants, while others were characterized by diverse, non-recurrent variants. The proportion of BRCA pathogenic variants shared between Hispanics in the United States and Latin American populations was estimated at 10.4%. Within Latin America and the Caribbean, 8.2% of the BRCA variants reported were present in more than one country. Countries with high prevalence of BRCA pathogenic variants may benefit from more aggressive testing strategies, while testing of recurrent variant panels might present a cost-effective solution for improving genetic testing in some, but not all, countries.

  20. Recommendations on how to ensure the safety and effectiveness of biosimilars in Latin America: a point of view.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Carlos; Caballero-Uribe, Carlo V; de Oliveira, Marcia Gonclaves; Lipszyc, Pedro Saul; Lopez, Jose Julian; Mataos Moreira, Marcelo Mario; Azevedo, Valderilio Feijo

    2015-04-01

    The use of biotechnology-derived medicines has significantly increased in recent decades. Although biosimilars undergo rigorous characterization as well as clinical studies to document their safety and effectiveness, they are highly complex molecules and small changes in the purification and production process of a biosimilar can have major implications in its safety and effectiveness profile. In Latin America, regulatory authorities have begun to establish well-described and standardized pathways that permit a biosimilar to gain commercial licensure. In order to be certain that a biosimilar reaches its potential in ordinary clinical use, an intensive post-licensing monitoring system must be established since it is the only means to ascertain the true similarity between the original biologic and its biosimilar. Pharmacovigilance allows national authorities to determine a drug's performance in the marketplace. An effective tracking and pharmacovigilance system for biological medicines has many steps and processes. To aid policy makers in Latin American in addressing the many issues surrounding the establishment of an effective pharmacovigilance system, the Americas Health Foundation convened a group of experts to discuss the topic and develop recommendations for implementation. The group discussed current challenges and gaps in pharmacovigilance in Latin America, paying close attention to the major issues associated with traceability and pharmacovigilance of biosimilars following their approval. The recommendations developed should enable countries to accurately document the safety and performance of a biosimilar as experienced by patients under real-life conditions and have a significant impact on the successful implementation of pharmacovigilance of biosimilars throughout the region.

  1. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Aristizábal, Luis F.; Bustillo, Alex E.; Arthurs, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers’ conditions. PMID:26848690

  2. Admixture in Latin America: geographic structure, phenotypic diversity and self-perception of ancestry based on 7,342 individuals.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Everardo, Paola; de Avila, Francisco; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; León-Mimila, Paola; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C; Burley, Mari-Wyn; Konca, Esra; de Oliveira, Marcelo Zagonel; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; Rubio-Codina, Marta; Attanasio, Orazio; Gibbon, Sahra; Ray, Nicolas; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rosique, Javier; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Balding, David; Gonzalez-José, Rolando

    2014-09-01

    The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú). These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry. PMID:25254375

  3. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF THE IRIS PROJECT OF INTEREST FOR LATIN AMERICA

    SciTech Connect

    Carelli, M.D.; Petrovic, B.

    2004-10-03

    The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor design is being developed by an international consortium of 21 organizations from ten countries, including three members from Brazil and one from Mexico. This reflects the interest that Latin America has for a project which addresses the energy needs of the region. Presented here are some of the most recent developments in the IRIS project. The project's highest priority is the current pre-application licensing with the US NRC, which has required an investigation of the major accident sequences and a preliminary probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The results of the accident analyses confirmed the outstanding inherent safety of the IRIS configuration and the PRA analyses indicated a core damage frequency due to internal events of the order of 2E-8. This not only highlights the enhanced safety characteristic of IRIS which should enhance its public acceptance, but it has also prompted IRIS to consider the possibility of being licensed without the need for off-site emergency response planning which would have a very positive economic implication. The modular IRIS, with each module rated at {approx} 335 MWe, is of course an ideal size for developing countries as it allows to easily introduce a moderate amount of power on limited electric grids. IRIS can be deployed in single modules in regions only requiring a few hundred MWs or in multiple modules deployed successively at time intervals in large urban areas requiring a larger amount of power increasing with time. IRIS is designed to operate ''hands-off'' as much as possible, with a small crew, having in mind deployment in areas with limited infrastructure. Thus IRIS has a 48-months maintenance interval, long refueling cycles in excess of three years, and is designed to increase as much as possible operational reliability. For example, the project has recently adopted internal control rod drive mechanisms to eliminate vessel head penetrations and the

  4. Multiple Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America: A Population-based Study in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Adolfo L.; Irazola, Vilma E.; Calandrelli, Matias; Elorriaga, Natalia; Gutierrez, Laura; Lanas, Fernando; Manfredi, Jose A.; Mores, Nora; Olivera, Hector; Poggio, Rosana; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Seron, Pamela; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Bazzano, Lydia A.; He, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death, and its mortality is increasing in Latin America. However, population-based data on cardiovascular disease risk factors are sparse in these countries. Methods A total of 7,524 men and women, aged 35 to 74 years old, were recruited between February 2010 and December 2011 from randomly selected samples in 4 cities (Bariloche and Marcos Paz, Argentina; Temuco, Chile; and Pando-Barros Blancos, Uruguay) in the Southern Cone of Latin America. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured using standard methods by trained and certified observers. Results Approximately 85.5% of adults ate less than five servings of fruit or vegetables per day, 35.2% engaged in low physical activity, and 29.7% currently smoked cigarettes. The prevalences of obesity, central obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome were 35.7%, 52.9%, 40.8%, 2.0%, 58.4%, 12.4%, and 37.4%, respectively. The proportion of individuals with ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors, including low intake of fruit and vegetables, low physical activity, current cigarette smoking, obesity or central obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, was 68.3%, and the proportion of individual with ≥3 cardiometabolic risk factors, including obesity or central obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, was 22.9%. Conclusions Cardiovascular disease risk factors are highly prevalent in the general population in the Southern Cone of Latin America. These data suggest that national efforts on the prevention, treatment, and control of cardiovascular risk factors should be a public health priority in the Southern Cone of Latin America. PMID:25662056

  5. [The foundation of international migration policies in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Marmora, L

    1988-12-01

    A government's international migration policies are intended to influence the size, composition, direction, destination, or integration of international migratory flows. The justification for migratory policies has been based on a series of themes that have had varied weights in different stages of Latin American history. Migrations as population settlement, the desired or undesired characteristics of migrants, the economic impact of migration, the role of migration in relations between countries, and the ethical dimensions of migratory movement have been the major policy issues. The 1st migration policies in Latin America saw international migration as a means of settling the colonies. After independence, migratory policies oriented toward massive settlement became common. Although the stated goals were to settle entire territories with immigrants, the usual result was to absorb immigrants in certain economic sectors with high demand for labor. In the colonial period both Spain and Portugal attempted to restrict immigration to the Catholic segment of their own populations. After independence, the criteria were liberalized somewhat but still reflected prejudices about the racial superiority of certain types of European immigration. The selection principals which appeared most clearly during the 19th century were overwhelmed to the extent that immigration was tranformed into provision of labor to meet unsatisfied needs for workers. Indiscriminate admissions and recourse to nontraditional elements such as Chinese and Japanese was strongest in countries needing labor for tropical agriculture or extractive industries. The economic argument that migration contributed to development was widespread economic argument that migration contributed to development was widespread in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but new rules were made to restrict immigration to protect local labor markets during the worldwide depression of the 1930s. In recent decades, migration policies

  6. Co-occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater of semi-arid regions in Latin America: genesis, mobility and remediation.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-Herrera, María Teresa; Bundschuh, Jochen; Nath, Bibhash; Nicolli, Hugo B; Gutierrez, Melida; Reyes-Gomez, Victor M; Nuñez, Daniel; Martín-Dominguez, Ignacio R; Sracek, Ondra

    2013-11-15

    Several million people around the world are currently exposed to excessive amounts of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in their drinking water. Although the individual toxic effects of As and F have been analyzed, there are few studies addressing their co-occurrences and water treatment options. Several studies conducted in arid and semi-arid regions of Latin America show that the co-occurrences of As and F in drinking water are linked to the volcaniclastic particles in the loess or alluvium, alkaline pH, and limited recharge. The As and F contamination results from water-rock interactions and may be accelerated by geothermal and mining activities, as well as by aquifer over-exploitation. These types of contamination are particularly pronounced in arid and semi-arid regions, where high As concentrations often show a direct relationship with high F concentrations. Enrichment of F is generally related to fluorite dissolution and it is also associated with high Cl, Br, and V concentrations. The methods of As and F removal, such as chemical precipitation followed by filtration and reverse osmosis, are currently being used at different scales and scenarios in Latin America. Although such technologies are available in Latin America, it is still urgent to develop technologies and methods capable of monitoring and removing both of these contaminants simultaneously from drinking water, with a particular focus towards small-scale rural operations.

  7. Co-occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater of semi-arid regions in Latin America: genesis, mobility and remediation.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-Herrera, María Teresa; Bundschuh, Jochen; Nath, Bibhash; Nicolli, Hugo B; Gutierrez, Melida; Reyes-Gomez, Victor M; Nuñez, Daniel; Martín-Dominguez, Ignacio R; Sracek, Ondra

    2013-11-15

    Several million people around the world are currently exposed to excessive amounts of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in their drinking water. Although the individual toxic effects of As and F have been analyzed, there are few studies addressing their co-occurrences and water treatment options. Several studies conducted in arid and semi-arid regions of Latin America show that the co-occurrences of As and F in drinking water are linked to the volcaniclastic particles in the loess or alluvium, alkaline pH, and limited recharge. The As and F contamination results from water-rock interactions and may be accelerated by geothermal and mining activities, as well as by aquifer over-exploitation. These types of contamination are particularly pronounced in arid and semi-arid regions, where high As concentrations often show a direct relationship with high F concentrations. Enrichment of F is generally related to fluorite dissolution and it is also associated with high Cl, Br, and V concentrations. The methods of As and F removal, such as chemical precipitation followed by filtration and reverse osmosis, are currently being used at different scales and scenarios in Latin America. Although such technologies are available in Latin America, it is still urgent to develop technologies and methods capable of monitoring and removing both of these contaminants simultaneously from drinking water, with a particular focus towards small-scale rural operations. PMID:22920686

  8. Advanced practice nursing in Latin America and the Caribbean: regulation, education and practice

    PubMed Central

    Zug, Keri Elizabeth; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli; Pulcini, Joyce; Garcia, Alessandra Bassalobre; Aguirre-Boza, Francisca; Park, Jeongyoung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to identify the current state of advanced practice nursing regulation, education and practice in Latin America and the Caribbean and the perception of nursing leaders in the region toward an advanced practice nursing role in primary health care to support Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage initiatives. Method: a descriptive cross-sectional design utilizing a web-based survey of 173 nursing leaders about their perceptions of the state of nursing practice and potential development of advanced practice nursing in their countries, including definition, work environment, regulation, education, nursing practice, nursing culture, and perceived receptiveness to an expanded role in primary health care. Result: the participants were largely familiar with the advanced practice nursing role, but most were unaware of or reported no current existing legislation for the advanced practice nursing role in their countries. Participants reported the need for increased faculty preparation and promotion of curricula reforms to emphasize primary health care programs to train advanced practice nurses. The vast majority of participants believed their countries' populations could benefit from an advanced practice nursing role in primary health care. Conclusion: strong legislative support and a solid educational framework are critical to the successful development of advanced practice nursing programs and practitioners to support Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage initiatives. PMID:27508923

  9. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care

    PubMed Central

    Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate care, as well as treatment options and limitations on their use, are discussed. Finally, an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory patients is proposed and care pathways for patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are outlined for primary care providers in Latin America. PMID:26872082

  10. Training the biomedical informatics workforce in Latin America: results of a needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Blas, Magaly M; Curioso, Walter H; Garcia, Patricia J; Zimic, Mirko; Carcamo, Cesar P; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andres G; Lopez, Diego M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the results of a needs assessment of research and training in Medical Informatics (MI) and Bioinformatics (BI) in Latin America. Methods and results This assessment was conducted by QUIPU: The Andean Global Health Informatics Research and Training Center. After sending email invitations to MI-BI related professionals from Latin America, 142 surveys were received from 11 Latin American countries. The following were the top four ranked MI-related courses that a training programme should include: introduction to biomedical informatics; data representation and databases; mobile health; and courses that address issues of security, confidentiality and privacy. Several new courses and topics for research were suggested by survey participants. The information collected is guiding the development of curricula and a research agenda for the MI and BI QUIPU multidisciplinary programme for the Andean Region and Latin America.

  11. Training the biomedical informatics workforce in Latin America: results of a needs assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Magaly M; Curioso, Walter H; Zimic, Mirko; Carcamo, Cesar P; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andres G; Lopez, Diego M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the results of a needs assessment of research and training in Medical Informatics (MI) and Bioinformatics (BI) in Latin America. Methods and results This assessment was conducted by QUIPU: The Andean Global Health Informatics Research and Training Center. After sending email invitations to MI–BI related professionals from Latin America, 142 surveys were received from 11 Latin American countries. The following were the top four ranked MI-related courses that a training programme should include: introduction to biomedical informatics; data representation and databases; mobile health; and courses that address issues of security, confidentiality and privacy. Several new courses and topics for research were suggested by survey participants. The information collected is guiding the development of curricula and a research agenda for the MI and BI QUIPU multidisciplinary programme for the Andean Region and Latin America. PMID:22080537

  12. Mosquito vector control and biology in Latin America--a sixth symposium.

    PubMed

    Clark, G G

    1996-09-01

    The sixth Spanish language symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 62nd Annual Meeting in Norfolk, VA, in March 1996. The principal objective, as for the previous 5 symposia, was to promote the participation in the AMCA meeting by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 25 presentations that were given in Spanish by participants from 6 countries in Latin America and the USA. The symposium included the following topics: ecological and genetic studies of anopheline vectors of malaria, laboratory and field evaluations of chemical control methods for several mosquito species, ecological studies and community control of Aedes aegypti, and reports of dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever and Venezuelan equine encephalitis epidemics that occurred in Latin America in 1995.

  13. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care.

    PubMed

    Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate care, as well as treatment options and limitations on their use, are discussed. Finally, an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory patients is proposed and care pathways for patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are outlined for primary care providers in Latin America.

  14. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Hunter Syndrome for clinicians in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Giugliani, Roberto; Villarreal, Martha Luz Solano; Valdez, C Araceli Arellano; Hawilou, Antonieta Mahfoud; Guelbert, Norberto; Garzón, Luz Norela Correa; Martins, Ana Maria; Acosta, Angelina; Cabello, Juan Francisco; Lemes, Aída; Santos, Mara Lucia Schmitz Ferreira; Amartino, Hernán

    2014-06-01

    This review aims to provide clinicians in Latin America with the most current information on the clinical aspects, diagnosis, and management of Hunter syndrome, a serious and progressive disease for which specific treatment is available. Hunter syndrome is a genetic disorder where iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S), an enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycans, is absent or deficient. Clinical manifestations vary widely in severity and involve multiple organs and tissues. An attenuated and a severe phenotype are recognized depending on the degree of cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis is vital for disease management. Clinical signs common to children with Hunter syndrome include inguinal hernia, frequent ear and respiratory infections, facial dysmorphisms, macrocephaly, bone dysplasia, short stature, sleep apnea, and behavior problems. Diagnosis is based on screening urinary glycosaminoglycans and confirmation by measuring I2S activity and analyzing I2S gene mutations. Idursulfase (recombinant I2S) (Elaprase(®), Shire) enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), designed to address the underlying enzyme deficiency, is approved treatment and improves walking capacity and respiratory function, and reduces spleen and liver size and urinary glycosaminoglycan levels. Additional measures, responding to the multi-organ manifestations, such as abdominal/inguinal hernia repair, carpal tunnel surgery, and cardiac valve replacement, should also be considered. Investigational treatment options such as intrathecal ERT are active areas of research, and bone marrow transplantation is in clinical practice. Communication among care providers, social workers, patients and families is essential to inform and guide their decisions, establish realistic expectations, and assess patients' responses.

  15. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Hunter Syndrome for clinicians in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Giugliani, Roberto; Villarreal, Martha Luz Solano; Valdez, C Araceli Arellano; Hawilou, Antonieta Mahfoud; Guelbert, Norberto; Garzón, Luz Norela Correa; Martins, Ana Maria; Acosta, Angelina; Cabello, Juan Francisco; Lemes, Aída; Santos, Mara Lucia Schmitz Ferreira; Amartino, Hernán

    2014-06-01

    This review aims to provide clinicians in Latin America with the most current information on the clinical aspects, diagnosis, and management of Hunter syndrome, a serious and progressive disease for which specific treatment is available. Hunter syndrome is a genetic disorder where iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S), an enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycans, is absent or deficient. Clinical manifestations vary widely in severity and involve multiple organs and tissues. An attenuated and a severe phenotype are recognized depending on the degree of cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis is vital for disease management. Clinical signs common to children with Hunter syndrome include inguinal hernia, frequent ear and respiratory infections, facial dysmorphisms, macrocephaly, bone dysplasia, short stature, sleep apnea, and behavior problems. Diagnosis is based on screening urinary glycosaminoglycans and confirmation by measuring I2S activity and analyzing I2S gene mutations. Idursulfase (recombinant I2S) (Elaprase(®), Shire) enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), designed to address the underlying enzyme deficiency, is approved treatment and improves walking capacity and respiratory function, and reduces spleen and liver size and urinary glycosaminoglycan levels. Additional measures, responding to the multi-organ manifestations, such as abdominal/inguinal hernia repair, carpal tunnel surgery, and cardiac valve replacement, should also be considered. Investigational treatment options such as intrathecal ERT are active areas of research, and bone marrow transplantation is in clinical practice. Communication among care providers, social workers, patients and families is essential to inform and guide their decisions, establish realistic expectations, and assess patients' responses. PMID:25071396

  16. Oil discoveries and basin resource prediction in Latin America: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Kronman, G.E.; Aleman, A.M.; Rushworth, S.W. )

    1993-02-01

    Over 350 oil discoveries were made in Latin America during the 1980s. About 12% are estimated to contain reserves greater than 100 MMBO. Several of the larger finds (>500 MMBO), such as Cusiana (Colombia), Furrial/Musipan (Venezuela), Cano Lima (Colombia) and Marlim (Brazil) represent an important part of the giant field found worldwide since 1980. Most of the larger discoveries were made by national oil companies in Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil. Undiscovered oil resources of 40-80 BBO are estimated to remain in the highest potential Latin American basins, including those in Mexico, based on historical field size data and current geological knowledge. Over 150 BBO of produced oil and proven reserves has been found in the same group of basins. The probability of finding large undiscovered oil and gas fields (>100 MMBOE) in selected established and mature Latin American basins is high. The Campos (Brazil), Llanos (Colombia), Magadalena (Colombia), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Marahon-Oriente-Putomayo (Peru-Ecuador-Colombia), Maturin (Venezuela), Reforma-Campeche (Mexico) and Ucayali (Peru) basins have the best possibility for such accumulations. Another tier of frontier and emerging basins may also contain significant resources, but limited data makes it difficult to estimate their undiscovered resources. Some of the higher potential basins in this group include the Sierra de Chiapas (Mexico/Guatemala), Huallaga (Peru), Yucatan (Mexico), Sabinas, and Burgos (Mexico) basins.

  17. Health sector reform and reproductive health in Latin America and the Caribbean: strengthening the links.

    PubMed Central

    Langer, A.; Nigenda, G.; Catino, J.

    2000-01-01

    Many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are currently reforming their national health sectors and also implementing a comprehensive approach to reproductive health care. Three regional workshops to explore how health sector reform could improve reproductive health services have revealed the inherently complex, competing, and political nature of health sector reform and reproductive health. The objectives of reproductive health care can run parallel to those of health sector reform in that both are concerned with promoting equitable access to high quality care by means of integrated approaches to primary health care, and by the involvement of the public in setting health sector priorities. However, there is a serious risk that health reforms will be driven mainly by financial and/or political considerations and not by the need to improve the quality of health services as a basic human right. With only limited changes to the health systems in many Latin American and Caribbean countries and a handful of examples of positive progress resulting from reforms, the gap between rhetoric and practice remains wide. PMID:10859860

  18. Viral hepatitis in Latin America and the Caribbean: a public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Díez-Padrisa, Núria; Castellanos, Luis Gerardo

    2013-10-01

    Viral hepatitis (VH) is an emergent concern in public health agendas worldwide. More than one million people die annually from hepatitis and 57% and 78% of global cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma cases, respectively, are caused by VH. The burden of disease caused by hepatitis in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is high. Data on hepatitis has been collected in several countries, but more accurate and comparable studies are needed. Hepatitis B vaccination and screening of donated blood are routine practices in the region. However, integrated policies covering prevention and control of disease caused by all types of hepatitis viruses are scarce. Existing preventive measures need to be reinforced. Attention must be paid to at-risk populations, awareness campaigns, and water and food safety. Affordable access to diagnosis and treatment, population screening, referral to health services and monitoring of positive cases are among the main challenges currently posed by VH in LAC. The World Health Organization framework and Pan American Health Organization regional strategy, defined in response to resolution WHA63.18 of the World Health Assembly, may help to overcome these difficulties. Successful experiences in the fight against hepatitis in some LAC countries may also provide very interesting solutions for the region.

  19. Policy Development for Environmental Licensing and Biodiversity Offsets in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya, Ana; Barros, Ana Cristina; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to meet biodiversity goals through application of the mitigation hierarchy have gained wide traction globally with increased development of public policy, lending standards, and corporate practices. With interest in biodiversity offsets increasing in Latin America, we seek to strengthen the basis for policy development through a review of major environmental licensing policy frameworks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Here we focused our review on an examination of national level policies to evaluate to which degree current provisions promote positive environmental outcomes. All the surveyed countries have national-level Environmental Impact Assessment laws or regulations that cover the habitats present in their territories. Although most countries enable the use of offsets only Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru explicitly require their implementation. Our review has shown that while advancing quite detailed offset policies, most countries do not seem to have strong requirements regarding impact avoidance. Despite this deficiency most countries have a strong foundation from which to develop policy for biodiversity offsets, but several issues require further guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios; and (4) ensure appropriate time and effort is given to monitor offset performance. PMID:25191758

  20. Policy development for environmental licensing and biodiversity offsets in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Villarroya, Ana; Barros, Ana Cristina; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to meet biodiversity goals through application of the mitigation hierarchy have gained wide traction globally with increased development of public policy, lending standards, and corporate practices. With interest in biodiversity offsets increasing in Latin America, we seek to strengthen the basis for policy development through a review of major environmental licensing policy frameworks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Here we focused our review on an examination of national level policies to evaluate to which degree current provisions promote positive environmental outcomes. All the surveyed countries have national-level Environmental Impact Assessment laws or regulations that cover the habitats present in their territories. Although most countries enable the use of offsets only Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru explicitly require their implementation. Our review has shown that while advancing quite detailed offset policies, most countries do not seem to have strong requirements regarding impact avoidance. Despite this deficiency most countries have a strong foundation from which to develop policy for biodiversity offsets, but several issues require further guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios; and (4) ensure appropriate time and effort is given to monitor offset performance.

  1. Policy development for environmental licensing and biodiversity offsets in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Villarroya, Ana; Barros, Ana Cristina; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to meet biodiversity goals through application of the mitigation hierarchy have gained wide traction globally with increased development of public policy, lending standards, and corporate practices. With interest in biodiversity offsets increasing in Latin America, we seek to strengthen the basis for policy development through a review of major environmental licensing policy frameworks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Here we focused our review on an examination of national level policies to evaluate to which degree current provisions promote positive environmental outcomes. All the surveyed countries have national-level Environmental Impact Assessment laws or regulations that cover the habitats present in their territories. Although most countries enable the use of offsets only Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru explicitly require their implementation. Our review has shown that while advancing quite detailed offset policies, most countries do not seem to have strong requirements regarding impact avoidance. Despite this deficiency most countries have a strong foundation from which to develop policy for biodiversity offsets, but several issues require further guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios; and (4) ensure appropriate time and effort is given to monitor offset performance. PMID:25191758

  2. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Hunter Syndrome for clinicians in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Giugliani, Roberto; Villarreal, Martha Luz Solano; Valdez, C. Araceli Arellano; Hawilou, Antonieta Mahfoud; Guelbert, Norberto; Garzón, Luz Norela Correa; Martins, Ana Maria; Acosta, Angelina; Cabello, Juan Francisco; Lemes, Aída; Santos, Mara Lucia Schmitz Ferreira; Amartino, Hernán

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to provide clinicians in Latin America with the most current information on the clinical aspects, diagnosis, and management of Hunter syndrome, a serious and progressive disease for which specific treatment is available. Hunter syndrome is a genetic disorder where iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S), an enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycans, is absent or deficient. Clinical manifestations vary widely in severity and involve multiple organs and tissues. An attenuated and a severe phenotype are recognized depending on the degree of cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis is vital for disease management. Clinical signs common to children with Hunter syndrome include inguinal hernia, frequent ear and respiratory infections, facial dysmorphisms, macrocephaly, bone dysplasia, short stature, sleep apnea, and behavior problems. Diagnosis is based on screening urinary glycosaminoglycans and confirmation by measuring I2S activity and analyzing I2S gene mutations. Idursulfase (recombinant I2S) (Elaprase®, Shire) enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), designed to address the underlying enzyme deficiency, is approved treatment and improves walking capacity and respiratory function, and reduces spleen and liver size and urinary glycosaminoglycan levels. Additional measures, responding to the multi-organ manifestations, such as abdominal/inguinal hernia repair, carpal tunnel surgery, and cardiac valve replacement, should also be considered. Investigational treatment options such as intrathecal ERT are active areas of research, and bone marrow transplantation is in clinical practice. Communication among care providers, social workers, patients and families is essential to inform and guide their decisions, establish realistic expectations, and assess patients’ responses. PMID:25071396

  3. [Spanish emigration to Latin America, 1946-1990: renewal and crisis in a traditional pattern].

    PubMed

    Palazon Ferrando, S

    1993-01-01

    Trends in international migration from Spain to Latin America are analyzed over the period 1946-1990. Two distinct phases are identified. The first, lasting from 1946 to 1958, involved a revival of earlier trends disrupted by the Spanish Civil War and World War II. The second, beginning in 1959, was marked by the development of economic problems in Latin America, which caused a change toward Europe as a migrant destination. This ended in recent times, as Spain changed from a country of emigration to one of immigration.

  4. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    PubMed

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation. PMID:18592684

  5. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    PubMed

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation.

  6. Latin America and the Caribbean: A Survey of Distance Education 1991. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carty, Joan

    Country profiles compiled through a survey of distance education in Latin America and the Caribbean form the contents of this document. Seventeen countries were surveyed in Latin America: Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Uruguay; and…

  7. Is Jomtien Irrelevant to Latin America? Adjusting Education While Adjusting the Economy. Development Discussion Paper No. 388-ES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Fernando M.

    This paper challenges the commonly held view that Latin America has solved its access problems to primary education. The consequences of this view would be that the policy recommendations of the World Conference on Education for All, held in Jomtien, Thailand, in 1990 would be less applicable to Latin America than to Africa or Asia. The first part…

  8. [Current malaria situation in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Amangel'diev, K A

    2001-01-01

    Malaria is one of the main health problems facing most developing countries having a hot climate. It is a problem in Turkmenistan. The country is situated in Central Asia, north of the Kopetdag mountains, between the Caspian Sea to the west and the Amu-Darya river to the east. Turkmenistan stretches for a distance of 1,100 km from west to east and 650 km from north to south. It borders Kazakhstan in the north, Uzbekistan in the east and north-east, Iran in the south, and Afghanistan in the south-east. Seven malaria vector species are found in Turkmenistan, the main ones being Anopheles superpictus, An. pulcherrimus, and An. martinius. The potentially endemic area consists of the floodplains of the Tejen and Murgab rivers, with a long chain of reservoirs built along them. In 1980 most cases of imported malaria were recorded in military personnel who had returned from service in Afghanistan. In the past years, only tertian (Plasmodium vivax) malaria has been recorded and there have been no death from malaria over that period. In the Serkhetabad (Gushgi) district there are currently 5 active foci of malaria infection, with a population of 22,000 people. In 1999, forty nine cases of P. vivax malaria were recorded in Turkmenistan. Of them, 36 cases, including 4 children under 14 years were diagnosed for the first time while 13 were relapses. There were 88 fewer cases than those in the previous year (by a factor of 2.8). There were 17 more cases of imported malaria than those in 1998 (by a factor of 1.7), most of which occurred in the foci of malaria infection (Serkhetabad, Tagtabazar, and Kerki districts), in the city of Ashkhabat and in Lebap, Dashkhovuz and Akhal Regions. The emergence of indigenous malaria in the border areas was due to the importation of the disease at intervals by infected mosquitoes flying in from neighbouring countries (e.g. Afghanistan), the lack of drugs to treat the first cases and the lack of alternative insecticides. Most patients suffer

  9. [Current malaria situation in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Amangel'diev, K A

    2001-01-01

    Malaria is one of the main health problems facing most developing countries having a hot climate. It is a problem in Turkmenistan. The country is situated in Central Asia, north of the Kopetdag mountains, between the Caspian Sea to the west and the Amu-Darya river to the east. Turkmenistan stretches for a distance of 1,100 km from west to east and 650 km from north to south. It borders Kazakhstan in the north, Uzbekistan in the east and north-east, Iran in the south, and Afghanistan in the south-east. Seven malaria vector species are found in Turkmenistan, the main ones being Anopheles superpictus, An. pulcherrimus, and An. martinius. The potentially endemic area consists of the floodplains of the Tejen and Murgab rivers, with a long chain of reservoirs built along them. In 1980 most cases of imported malaria were recorded in military personnel who had returned from service in Afghanistan. In the past years, only tertian (Plasmodium vivax) malaria has been recorded and there have been no death from malaria over that period. In the Serkhetabad (Gushgi) district there are currently 5 active foci of malaria infection, with a population of 22,000 people. In 1999, forty nine cases of P. vivax malaria were recorded in Turkmenistan. Of them, 36 cases, including 4 children under 14 years were diagnosed for the first time while 13 were relapses. There were 88 fewer cases than those in the previous year (by a factor of 2.8). There were 17 more cases of imported malaria than those in 1998 (by a factor of 1.7), most of which occurred in the foci of malaria infection (Serkhetabad, Tagtabazar, and Kerki districts), in the city of Ashkhabat and in Lebap, Dashkhovuz and Akhal Regions. The emergence of indigenous malaria in the border areas was due to the importation of the disease at intervals by infected mosquitoes flying in from neighbouring countries (e.g. Afghanistan), the lack of drugs to treat the first cases and the lack of alternative insecticides. Most patients suffer

  10. [Maternal syphilis and congenital syphilis in Latin America: big problem, simple solution].

    PubMed

    Valderrama, Julia; Zacarías, Fernando; Mazin, Rafael

    2004-09-01

    From the data submitted to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) by nationwide programs against sexually transmitted diseases (STD), HIV infection, and AIDS (2002), one can estimate the overall prevalence of syphilis among pregnant women to be 3.1% and to range from 1.00% in Peru to 6.21% in Paraguay. According to these data, the incidence of congenital syphilis ranges from 1.4 per 1000 live births in El Salvador to 12.0 per 1000 live births in Honduras. Among men who engage in sex with other men, who often classify themselves as heterosexual, as well as in female sex workers, the prevalence of syphilis ranged from 5% to 15%. Factors that determine the persistence of congenital syphilis as public health problem include a lack of awareness of the seriousness of the problem among politicians, health officials, and health care providers, difficult access to prenatal care, and screening services, a low demand for the test among users, and the stigma and discrimination that surround sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This paper seeks to focus the attention of health professionals on maternal and congenital syphilis so they will undertake actions, using an interprogrammatic approach, to eliminate congenital syphilis from Latin America and the Caribbean. Eliminating congenital syphilis will only become possible if interventions targeting vulnerable groups are also implemented. PAHO's role in eliminating congenital syphilis includes determining the baseline situation in the Region as a whole and in each country, developing communication and procurement strategies, supporting nationwide programs, promoting operational research, and facilitating interprogrammatic coordination. PMID:15507190

  11. Elimination of Neglected Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Mapping of Selected Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Aguilera, Ximena Paz; Barbosa da Silva Junior, Jarbas; Ault, Steven Kenyon; Najera, Patricia; Martinez, Julio; Requejo, Raquel; Nicholls, Ruben Santiago; Yadon, Zaida; Silva, Juan Carlos; Leanes, Luis Fernando; Periago, Mirta Roses

    2011-01-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, around 195 million people live in poverty, a situation that increases the burden of some infectious diseases. Neglected diseases, in particular, are often restricted to poor, marginalized sections of the population. Tools exist to combat these diseases, making it imperative to work towards their elimination. In 2009, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) received a mandate to support the countries in the Region in eliminating neglected diseases and other poverty-related infections. The objective of this study is to analyze the presence of selected diseases using geo-processing techniques. Five diseases with information available at the first sub-national level (states) were mapped, showing the presence of the disease (“hotspots”) and overlap of diseases (“major hotspots”). In the 45 countries/territories (approximately 570 states) of the Region, there is: lymphatic filariasis in four countries (29 states), onchocerciasis in six countries (25 states), schistosomiasis in four countries (39 states), trachoma in three countries (29 states), and human rabies transmitted by dogs in ten countries (20 states). Of the 108 states with one or more of the selected diseases, 36 states present the diseases in overlapping areas (“major hotspots”). Additional information about soil-transmitted helminths was included. The analysis suggests a majority of the selected diseases are not widespread and can be considered part of an unfinished agenda with elimination as a goal. Integrated plans and a comprehensive approach, ensuring access to existing diagnostic and treatment methods, and establishing a multi-sectoral agenda that addresses social determinants, including access to adequate water and sanitation, are required. Future studies can include additional diseases, socio-economic and environmental variables. PMID:21358810

  12. Latin American Culture Studies: Information and Materials for Teaching About Latin America. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glab, Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This resource manual provides ideas, lesson plans, course outlines, arts and crafts projects, games, and other materials for teaching K-12 students about Latin America. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate the diverse Latin American culture. There are six chapters in this volume. Chapter one discusses key ideas that can…

  13. Wilderness Medicine: Considerations of Adventure Travel in Tropical Areas of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Brent

    Adventure travel to Latin America requires careful planning, implementation, and followup to ensure safe, healthy experiences. This paper provides an overview of basic principles of prevention, assessment, and treatment of medical problems common to adventure travel in tropical areas. A brief introduction defines the vegetation and climatic…

  14. Tobacco industry success in preventing regulation of secondhand smoke in Latin America: the "Latin Project"

    PubMed Central

    Barnoya, J; Glantz, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the tobacco industry's strategy to avoid regulations on secondhand smoke exposure in Latin America. Methods: Systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet. All available materials, including confidential reports regarding research, lobbying, and internal memoranda exchanged between the tobacco industry representatives, tobacco industry lawyers, and key players in Latin America. Results: In Latin America, Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco, working through the law firm Covington & Burling, developed a network of well placed physicians and scientists through their "Latin Project" to generate scientific arguments minimising secondhand smoke as a health hazard, produce low estimates of exposure, and to lobby against smoke-free workplaces and public places. The tobacco industry's role was not disclosed. Conclusions: The strategies used by the industry have been successful in hindering development of public health programmes on secondhand smoke. Latin American health professionals need to be aware of this industry involvement and must take steps to counter it to halt the tobacco epidemic in Latin America. PMID:12432156

  15. Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Gerontology and Geriatrics in Latin America: Conceptual Approaches and Health Care Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The underlying rationale to support interdisciplinary collaboration in geriatrics and gerontology is based on the complexity of elderly care. The most important characteristic about interdisciplinary health care teams for older people in Latin America is their subjective-basis framework. In other regions, teams are organized according to a…

  16. Empowering Indigenous Languages and Cultures: The Impact of German Bilateral Assistance in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortina, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Working in Latin America for several decades to address the educational needs of poor and indigenous groups, the GTZ (Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit) has helped to develop the knowledge base of intercultural bilingual education. The goal of this article is to analyze Germany's impact from the mid-1970s to the present as the GTZ has…

  17. John F. Kennedy and Constitutionalism, Democracy and Human Rights in Latin America: Promise and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabe, Stephen G.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the sometimes confusing and contradictory efforts of the John F. Kennedy administration to encourage the development of democratic political processes in Latin America. Although sincere, Kennedy's efforts often were stymied by resistance from the local power structure and his own Central Intelligence Agency. Eventually, anti-communist…

  18. Financing of Vocational Training in Latin America. Discussion Paper No. 71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducci, Maria A.

    This paper presents an overview of the financing of vocational training in Latin America. The paper is organized in six sections. The first section discusses diversification of vocational education funding as a response to crisis, as well as to a more favorable climate within businesses. In the second section, factors of change in funding of…

  19. REVIEW OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH ON LITERACY AND ADULT EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARQUARDT, WILLIAM F.

    A REVIEW OF RESEARCH CATEGORIZES LITERACY AND ADULT BASIC EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA AS FOLLOWS--(1) GENERAL REPORTS OF THE NUMBERS AND OCCUPATIONAL TYPES OF ILLITERATES IN EACH COUNTRY--(2) REPORTS OF THE ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF PUBLIC, PRIVATE, AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND GROUPS IN PROMOTING LITERACY AND ADULT BASIC…

  20. Chagas disease: an impediment in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Von, Anna; Hidron, Alicia; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Tellez, Ildefonso; Barragán, Maribel; Jones, Danielle; Náquira, Cesar G; Mendez, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Background Achieving sustainable economic and social growth through advances in health is crucial in Latin America within the framework of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Discussion Health-related Millennium Development Goals need to incorporate a multidimensional approach addressing the specific epidemiologic profile for each region of the globe. In this regard, addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease of American trypanosomiasis, will play a key role to enable the most impoverished populations in Latin America the opportunity to achieve their full potential. Most cases of Chagas disease occur among forgotten populations because these diseases persist exclusively in the poorest and the most marginalized communities in Latin America. Summary Addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with T. cruzi infection will contribute to improve the health of the most impoverished populations in Latin America and will ultimately grant them with the opportunity to achieve their full economic potential. PMID:17725836

  1. Dynamics of Private Sector Support for Education: Experiences in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kristin; Galisson, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the diversity of models and strategies for private sector participation in education that have emerged in Latin America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) requested the Academy for Educational Development (AED) to conduct research with leaders in the public and private sectors in several countries. While…

  2. An Overview of Psychology in Latin America. Report No. ONR-35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertin, Morton A.

    This report is the third of a series covering the status of psychological research and activity in foreign schools and laboratories. It covers discussions with prominent psychologists in Latin America and provides information about representative work in process. Information on the following countries is reported: Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador,…

  3. Primary Education in Latin America: The Unfinished Agenda. Sustainable Development Department Technical Papers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Laurence; Schiefelbein, Ernesto; Schiefelbein, Paulina

    This paper assesses progress made in elementary education in Latin America from 1990-2000. Besides examining completion rates, it looks at four critical indicators: the extent to which repetition rates have declined over the decade; the extent of timely access and on-time ages of elementary school students; the level or elementary school students'…

  4. The Major Project in the Field of Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bulletin #12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The first segment of this bulletin is a summary presentation of the Second Meeting of the Regional Intergovernmental Committee of the Major Project in the Field of Education and the Sixth Regional Conference of Ministers of Education and Ministers Responsible for Economic Planning of the Member States in Latin America and the Caribbean (Bogota,…

  5. Outline of Education Systems and School Conditions in Latin America. Bulletin, 1923, No. 44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckey, George W. A.

    1923-01-01

    This bulletin is divided into two parts: (1) South America; and (2) Mexico, Cuba, and Central America. The countries included under the term "Latin America" are so extensive and important, and the effects of the World War, direct and indirect, on all systems of education have been so disturbing, that one is at a loss to know how best to treat the…

  6. Groups in Latin America: Comunidades Eclesial de Base as Mutual Support Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Benedict T.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes Comunidades Eclesial de Base (CEBs) or base communities which are self-help and mutual aid groups that assist in alleviating the effects of poverty and powerlessness in Latin America. Discusses two potential problems of CEBs - that they may encourage either passivity or increased violence. (Author/NB)

  7. A Study of Public Library Users in Some Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Alvaro Agudo

    This user survey was part of a three-part diagnostic study that sought to obtain information on how public libraries operate in Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Caribbean (Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Surinam) and the social role performed by this type of service in the region.…

  8. Tendencies toward the Adult Educator Profession in Latin America: An Exploratory, Comparative, and Participatory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goerne, Juan Jose Madrigal

    To obtain information on adult educator education in Latin America, two approaches were used: (1) data collected via e-mail or through the website of the Universidad Pedagogica Nacional de Mexico and (2) interviews with directors, coordinators, teaching staff, and students in six teacher education programs in Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and…

  9. International trends in health science librarianship. Part 5 Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Berry, Beverley; Rodrííguez-Jiménez, Teresa M

    2013-03-01

    This is the 5th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in Latin America and the Caribbean in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Argentina, Bermuda and Mexico. Future issues will track trends in Central Europe and the Middle East. JM.

  10. The Treatment of Latin America in Social Studies Instructional Materials. Bulletin No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Clark C.; Conroy, William B.

    The University of Texas Latin America Curriculum Project's survey of instructional materials for elementary and secondary schools revealed specific strengths and weaknesses at all levels. The particular weaknesses found in elementary materials were that (1) instructional materials varied widely in type and quality; and (2) textbooks emphasized…

  11. Gender Delusions and Exclusions in the Democratization of Schooling in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    1996-01-01

    Examines how democratization of schooling is being shaped in Latin America and how dangerous delusions and exclusions affect the treatment of gender in this process. Focuses on initiatives and development policies of international aid agencies, their research projects, and international conferences. Suggests that democratization requires a larger…

  12. Geografia de America Latina. Grados Seis-Diez (Geography of Latin America. Grades Six-Ten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This publication, intended for Spanish-speaking students in grades 6-10, has three main objectives. First, it serves as an introduction (or refresher) to basic geographic concepts. Second, it is an examination of the physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, it is designed to help students examine maps in a critical manner. The…

  13. Internationalisation in Higher Education in Latin America: Policies and Practice in Colombia and Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Caroline; Taylor, John

    2014-01-01

    There is now an extensive literature about internationalisation in higher education. However, much of the research relates to North America and Europe. This paper is concerned with internationalisation in Latin America and seeks to consider perceptions and experiences in Colombia and Mexico, and to compare practice in the public and private…

  14. Agricultural Research and Extension in Latin America: The Agenda for the Nineties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaimowitz, David

    1993-01-01

    Agricultural research and extension institutions in Latin America increased agricultural productivity during 1950-75 but deteriorated during the mid-1970s because they were unable to adapt to a heterogeneous agricultural sector and the changing demands of society. External pressure may be necessary to force these institutions to serve the needs of…

  15. Latin America and the Caribbean: A Major Project for Literacy. Literacy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Jose

    The overall illiteracy rate has been in sharp decline in Latin America, falling from 27.3 percent in 1970 to 17.3 percent in 1985. However, the total number of illiterate people has remained practically stable over the same period. Overall literacy rates tend to increase with the rurality of the population, the proportion of women, the absence of…

  16. Teaching Modern Latin America in the Social Science Curriculum: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novoa, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    It can be a challenge to introduce students to a world region with the cultural diversity and rich history of Latin America. In this article, the author suggests four thematic units that enable teachers to identify both general trends and important differences in the region: (1) race/ethnicity; (2) progress and civilization; (3) conflict and…

  17. "Manana Is Soon Enough for Me": Latin America through Tin Pan Alley's Prism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    In order to examine the vision of Latin America transmitted to the American public in Tin Pan Alley's popular songs in the first half of the twentieth century, a study analyzed nearly 50 songs. The songs were grouped into five categories: (1) songs which describe Latin locales; (2) songs which are constructed around a Latin woman's name; (3) songs…

  18. The Impact of Neoliberal Restructuring on Education and Poverty in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boron, Atilio Alberto; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1996-01-01

    Examines the widening gap between rich and poor in Latin America, and the troubling performance of new Latin American democracies. Reviews human-capital, neoconservative, neoliberal, functionalist, and social democratic theories about education and poverty. Presents eight theses about the state, poverty, and education, and calls for education to…

  19. Mosquito Vector Control and Biology in Latin America - A 17th Symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 17th Annual Latin America American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 73rd Annual Meeting in Orlando, FL, in April 2007. The principal objective, as for the previous 16 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector cont...

  20. Improving the Precollegiate Curriculum on Latin America, Grades 6-12. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, John D.

    The Latin America Project, which developed print and nonprint materials for use in grades 6-12, is described. The two-year effort was conducted in five phases: survey of existing materials; the development of curriculum units; review of curriculum by teachers attending summer institutes; field testing and evaluation; and dissemination. Titles of…

  1. "The South American Way": Hollywood Looks at Latins and at Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Latin elements or themes made for the North American market have been used in American films, but at the same time these films have been playing in a Latin American market, making it useful to examine how Latin America has been portrayed in these films. The taste for exotic locales and themes is an element that has been present since the…

  2. Our Neglected Neighbors: How the U.S. News Magazines Covered Latin America in 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Carolyn Garrett

    An examination of the coverage of Latin America during 1977 by "Newsweek,""Time," and "U.S. News and World Report" was undertaken to compare the number of stories and the amount of space devoted to that region with that afforded other areas of the world. The results showed that of the major areas of the world, only Canada and Australia received…

  3. The Spread of Targeted Educational Policies in Latin America: Global Thesis and Local Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemente, Aina Tarabini-Castellani

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses the new educational mandate for Latin America, exploring its repercussions on the design and development of certain educational policies. In particular, it concentrates both on the anti-poverty educational agenda (at a global level) and on targeted educational policies (at a regional, national and local level), analyzing, on…

  4. Mapping and modelling neglected tropical diseases and poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Malone, John B; Bergquist, N Robert

    2012-09-01

    The prospects and opportunities for application of risk mapping and modelling of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in Latin America are examined with the aim to broaden the interest in geospatial research there. Special reference is made to the potential use of geospatial tools in health planning and implementation of national disease control programmes.

  5. Drugs in Latin America. Studies in Third World Societies, Publication Number Thirty-seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Edmundo, Ed.

    The eight papers presented in this document discuss the link between substance and human life in Latin America and help readers uncover some of the myths surrounding drugs, especially cocaine. Contributions range from extensive research to field work and observation. Enrique Mayer demonstrates that the coca leaf is a vital Andean cultural element…

  6. Transformation Dynamics for Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Luis Enrique Orozco

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of higher education in Latin America and the Caribbean looks at its role in human resource development, industrial advancement, and sustainable development. Circumstances in individual countries are sketched in the areas of higher education system diversification, characteristics of different national system types, governance,…

  7. Immigrant Children from Latin America at Japanese Schools: Homogeneity, Ethnicity, Gender and Language in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Vazquez, Genaro

    2009-01-01

    An ethnographic study conducted between 2003 and 2006 followed three children from Latin America attending three different public Japanese primary schools. The investigation concerned a Japanese-language tutoring programme for foreign children, which was evaluated by participant observation and a set of in-depth interviews with officials, school…

  8. From Proposal to Policy: Social Movements and Teachers' Unions in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Leslie; Gindin, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Latin American teachers' unions have stepped into the policymaking sphere and shaped education policies unrelated to regular workplace priorities like salaries and class sizes at notable moments. The literature on teachers' unions in Latin America has not addressed this, tending to focus instead on those unions' history and role in social…

  9. The Social Condition of Higher Education: Globalisation and (beyond) Regionalisation in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Alfredo M.; Robertson, Susan L.; Dale, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to discuss the relationship between higher education (HE), globalisation and regionalism projects focusing on HE in Latin America and Brazil. It is claimed that HE has predominantly taken the diverse, yet concerted and co-ordinated routes of globalisation and regionalisation and, by doing so, been profoundly transformed. The…

  10. Forms of Bullying Reported by Middle-School Students in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClanahan, Molly; McCoy, Stephanie M.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.

    2015-01-01

    Nationally representative data from more than 25,000 middle-school students in 15 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean who participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2004 and 2009 were analyzed. The proportion of students by country who reported being the victim of a bully in the past month ranged from 17%…

  11. The "New Cooperativism" in Latin America: Worker-Recuperated Enterprises and Socialist Production Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrabure, Manuel; Vieta, Marcelo; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the first decade of the 21st century, efforts to create alternatives to neoliberalism emerged in many parts of Latin America. Social movements across the region took to the streets, occupied abandoned factories, and started to create new democratic spaces, solidarity networks, and social economy initiatives. In one country after another,…

  12. Opportunities and challenges from the use of genomic selection for beef cattle breeding in Latin America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beef cattle production in Latin America in very important on a worldwide scale and for several regional countries. The region accounts for 29% of the world cattle population and beef production. Genomic selection allows the estimation of breeding values in animals for young animals from DNA samp...

  13. Promoting Visual Literacy among Undergraduate Students in Geography: Teaching a Visualized Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollman, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    This study offers a discussion of the role of the visual in the professional training of geographers arguing that visual literacy is not necessarily promoted during geography undergraduate studies. It then analyzes an experience of teaching a visualized Latin America developed in Argentina, as an illustrative example: on the one hand, it reveals…

  14. The Recognition of Effective Teaching in Latin America: Awards to Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillant, Denise; Rossel, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to review recent experience of effective teaching recognition policies in Latin America. The article examines the main issues related to the recognition of teaching by summarizing experiences of awards to teachers in the region, describing their results and limitations. The article outlines the most important…

  15. Accounting for Poverty in Infrastructure Reform: Learning from Latin America's Experience. WBI Development Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estache, Antonio; Foster, Vivien; Wodon, Quentin

    This book explores the connections between infrastructure reform and poverty alleviation in Latin America based on a detailed analysis of the effects of a decade of reforms. The book demonstrates that because the access to, and affordability of, basic services is still a major problem, infrastructure investment will be a core component of poverty…

  16. Donkeys and Superteachers: Structural Adjustment and Popular Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Gustavo

    1998-01-01

    Explores the challenges and possibilities of popular education by examining the educational field after the application of structural adjustment programs in Latin America. Presents a critique of Gramsci's model of the organic intellectual as understood by many within popular education. Offers the specific example of a popular-education workshop in…

  17. Latin America: Introduction and Summary. Grade Five (Unit 7). Resource Unit. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    The last of three main parts designed for fifth grade students, resource unit seven provides an overview of patterns of Latin America and a system of regionalization for the total area on the basis of population composition. Following the overview, a series of case studies arranged in separate sub-units on Buenos Aires, Manaus, Sao Paulo, Chile,…

  18. Consensus, Dilemmas, and Challenges in Living Donor Liver Transplantation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Salvalaggio, Paolo R; Seda Neto, João; Alves, Jefferson Andre; Fonseca, Eduardo A; Carneiro de Albuquerque, Luiz; Andraus, Wellington; Massarollo, Paulo B; Duro Garcia, Valter; Maurette, Rafael J; Ruf, Andrés E; Pacheco-Moreira, Lucio F; Caicedo Rusca, Luis A; Osorio, Veronica Botero; Matamoros, Maria Amalia; Varela-Fascinetto, Gustavo; Jarufe, Nicolas P

    2016-06-01

    We reviewed the history, volume, outcomes, uniqueness, and challenges of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in Latin America. We used the data from the Latin American and Caribbean Transplant Society, local transplant societies, and opinions from local transplant experts. There are more than 160 active liver transplant teams in Latin America, but only 30 centers have used LDLT in the past 2 years. In 2014, 226 LDLTs were done in the region (8.5% of liver transplant activities). Living donor liver transplantation is mainly restricted to pediatric patients. Adult-to-adult LDLT activities decreased after the implementation of the model for end-stage liver disease score and a concomitant increase on the rate of deceased donors per million population. Posttransplant outcome analysis is not mandatory, transparent or regulated in most countries. More experienced teams have outcomes comparable to international expert centers, but donor and recipient morbidity might be underreported. Latin America lags behind in terms of the number of adult LDLT and the rate of living donor utilization in comparison with other continents with similar donation rates. Local alliances and collaborations with major transplant centers in the developed world will contribute to the development of LDLT in Latin America.

  19. On Global Absences: Reflections on the Failings in the Education and Poverty Relationship in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonal, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores some of the aspects of the relationship between education and poverty as it has been constructed by international organisations and national governments in Latin America. The analysis is carried out from two separate angles. On the one hand, the paper highlights the main failings that underlie the positive and hoped-for…

  20. Carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii in the nosocomial setting in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Labarca, Jaime A; Salles, Mauro José Costa; Seas, Carlos; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Increasing prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains in the nosocomial setting in Latin America represents an emerging challenge to public health, as the range of therapeutic agents active against these pathogens becomes increasingly constrained. We review published reports from 2002 to 2013, compiling data from throughout the region on prevalence, mechanisms of resistance and molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. We find rates of carbapenem resistance up to 66% for P. aeruginosa and as high as 90% for A. baumannii isolates across the different countries of Latin America, with the resistance rate of A. baumannii isolates greater than 50% in many countries. An outbreak of the SPM-1 carbapenemase is a chief cause of resistance in P. aeruginosa strains in Brazil. Elsewhere in Latin America, members of the VIM family are the most important carbapenemases among P. aeruginosa strains. Carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii in Latin America is predominantly due to the oxacillinases OXA-23, OXA-58 and (in Brazil) OXA-143. Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii to colistin remains high, however, development of resistance has already been detected in some countries. Better epidemiological data are needed to design effective infection control interventions.

  1. Countries plan phase-down of lead: Two gasoline systems in Latin America, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-30

    Whether to arbitrarily reduce the leaded-using vehicle fleet, or to manipulate to increase unleaded gasoline consumption, or both -- these are questions now on the study table of many policy makers in Latin America. However, several nations have already phased down use of lead in gasoline. This issue provides some of the details on this important global subject.

  2. Childhood Poverty and Cognitive Development in Latin America in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segretin, M. Soledad; Hermida, M. Julia; Prats, Lucía M.; Fracchia, Carolina S.; Ruetti, Eliana; Lipina, Sebastián J.

    2016-01-01

    For at least eight decades, researchers have analyzed the association between childhood poverty and cognitive development in different societies worldwide, but few of such studies have been carried out in Latin America. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the empirical studies that have analyzed the associations between…

  3. Consensus, Dilemmas, and Challenges in Living Donor Liver Transplantation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Salvalaggio, Paolo R; Seda Neto, João; Alves, Jefferson Andre; Fonseca, Eduardo A; Carneiro de Albuquerque, Luiz; Andraus, Wellington; Massarollo, Paulo B; Duro Garcia, Valter; Maurette, Rafael J; Ruf, Andrés E; Pacheco-Moreira, Lucio F; Caicedo Rusca, Luis A; Osorio, Veronica Botero; Matamoros, Maria Amalia; Varela-Fascinetto, Gustavo; Jarufe, Nicolas P

    2016-06-01

    We reviewed the history, volume, outcomes, uniqueness, and challenges of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in Latin America. We used the data from the Latin American and Caribbean Transplant Society, local transplant societies, and opinions from local transplant experts. There are more than 160 active liver transplant teams in Latin America, but only 30 centers have used LDLT in the past 2 years. In 2014, 226 LDLTs were done in the region (8.5% of liver transplant activities). Living donor liver transplantation is mainly restricted to pediatric patients. Adult-to-adult LDLT activities decreased after the implementation of the model for end-stage liver disease score and a concomitant increase on the rate of deceased donors per million population. Posttransplant outcome analysis is not mandatory, transparent or regulated in most countries. More experienced teams have outcomes comparable to international expert centers, but donor and recipient morbidity might be underreported. Latin America lags behind in terms of the number of adult LDLT and the rate of living donor utilization in comparison with other continents with similar donation rates. Local alliances and collaborations with major transplant centers in the developed world will contribute to the development of LDLT in Latin America. PMID:27203583

  4. Politics and Society in Latin America at the Start of the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcantara, Manual

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the existing relationships between politics and society at the start of the twenty-first century in Latin America, a region that is characterized by its heterogeneity, and that is addressed as a homogenous whole. Politics are treated as an extension of democracy, the changing role of institutions, the weakness of political…

  5. Improvement of IDC/CTBTO Event Locations in Latin America and the Caribbean Using a Regional Seismic Travel Time Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Given, J. W.; Guendel, F.

    2013-05-01

    The International Data Centre is a vital element of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification mechanism. The fundamental mission of the International Data Centre (IDC) is to collect, process, and analyze monitoring data and to present results as event bulletins to Member States. For the IDC and in particular for waveform technologies, a key measure of the quality of its products is the accuracy by which every detected event is located. Accurate event location is crucial for purposes of an On Site Inspection (OSI), which would confirm the conduct of a nuclear test. Thus it is important for the IDC monitoring and data analysis to adopt new processing algorithms that improve the accuracy of event location. Among them the development of new algorithms to compute regional seismic travel times through 3-dimensional models have greatly increased IDC's location precision, the reduction of computational time, allowing forward and inverse modeling of large data sets. One of these algorithms has been the Regional Seismic Travel Time model (RSTT) of Myers et al., (2011). The RSTT model is nominally a global model; however, it currently covers only North America and Eurasia in sufficient detail. It is the intention CTBTO's Provisional Technical Secretariat and the IDC to extend the RSTT model to other regions of the earth, e.g. Latin America-Caribbean, Africa and Asia. This is particularly important for the IDC location procedure, as there are regions of the earth for which crustal models are not well constrained. For this purpose IDC has launched a RSTT initiative. In May 2012, a technical meeting was held in Vienna under the auspices of the CTBTO. The purpose of this meeting was to invite National Data Centre experts as well as network operators from Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, Latin and North America to discuss the context under which a project to extend the RSTT model would be implemented. A total of 41 participants from 32 Member States

  6. SIRGAS: ITRF densification in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, C.; Costa, S.; Mackern, V.; Martínez, W.; Sánchez, L.; Seemüller, W.; da Silva, A.

    2009-04-01

    The continental reference frame of SIRGAS (Sistema de Referencia Geocéntrico para las Américas) is at present realized by the SIRGAS Continuously Operating Network (SIRGAS-CON) composed by about 200 stations distributed over all Latin America and the Caribbean. SIRGAS member countries are qualifying their national reference frames by installing continuously operating GNSS stations, which have to be consistently integrated into the continental network. As the number of these stations is rapidly increasing, the processing strategy of the SIRGAS-CON network was redefined during the SIRGAS 2008 General Meeting in May 2008. The new strategy relies upon the definition of two hierarchy levels: a) A core network (SIRGAS-CON-C) with homogeneous continental coverage and stabile site locations ensures the long-term stability of the reference frame and provides the primary link to the ITRS. Stations belonging to this network have been selected so that each country contributes with a number of stations defined according to its surface and guarantying that the selected stations are the best in operability, continuity, reliability, and geographical coverage. b) Several densification sub-networks (SIRGAS-CON-D) improve the accessibility to the reference frame. The SIRGAS-CON-D sub-networks shall correspond to the national reference frames, i.e., as an optimum there shall be as many sub-networks as countries in the region. The goal is that each country processes its own continuously stations following the SIRGAS processing guidelines, which are defined in accordance with the IERS and IGS standards and conventions. Since at present not all of the countries are operating a processing centre, the existing stations are classified in three densification networks (a Northern, a middle, and a Southern one), which are processed by three local processing centres until new ones are installed. As SIRGAS is defined as a densification of the ITRS, stations included in the core network, as

  7. Ecological study of effect of breast feeding on infant mortality in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Betrán, Ana P; de Onís, Mercedes; Lauer, Jeremy A; Villar, José

    2001-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of exclusive breast feeding and partial breast feeding on infant mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America. Design Attributable fraction analysis of national data on infant mortality and breast feeding. Setting Latin America and the Caribbean. Main outcome measures Mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections and nationally representative breastfeeding rates. Results 55% of infant deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America are preventable by exclusive breast feeding among infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy. Among infants aged 0-3 months, 66% of deaths from these causes are preventable by exclusive breast feeding; among infants aged 4-11 months, 32% of such deaths are preventable by partial breast feeding. 13.9% of infant deaths from all causes are preventable by these breastfeeding patterns. The annual number of preventable deaths is about 52 000 for the region. Conclusions Exclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy could substantially reduce infant mortality in Latin America. Interventions to promote breast feeding should target younger infants. What is already known on this topicInfant mortality is lower among breast fed than non-breast fed infantsThe reductions are greatest for deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infectionsWhat this study addsExclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding for the remainder of the first year would prevent about 52 000 infant deaths a year in Latin AmericaThis corresponds to 13.9% of infant deaths from all causesPromotion of breast feeding has an important role in increasing survival of infants PMID:11498485

  8. Fine Particulate Pollution and Source Apportionment in the Urban Centers for Africa, Asia and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, S. K.; Johnson, T. M.; Procee, P.

    2004-12-01

    Fossil fuel combustion for domestic cooking and heating, power generation, industrial processes, and motor vehicles are the primary sources of air pollution in the developing country cities. Over the past twenty years, major advances have been made in understanding the social and economic consequences of air pollution. In both industrialized and developing countries, it has been shown that air pollution from energy combustion has detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. Lack of information on the sectoral contributions to air pollution - especially fine particulates, is one of the typical constraints for an effective integrated urban air quality management program. Without such information, it is difficult, if not impossible, for decision makers to provide policy advice and make informed investment decisions related to air quality improvements in developing countries. This also raises the need for low-cost ways of determining the principal sources of fine PM for a proper planning and decision making. The project objective is to develop and verify a methodology to assess and monitor the sources of PM, using a combination of ground-based monitoring and source apportionment techniques. This presentation will focus on four general tasks: (1) Review of the science and current activities in the combined use of monitoring data and modeling for better understanding of PM pollution. (2) Review of recent advances in atmospheric source apportionment techniques (e.g., principal component analysis, organic markers, source-receptor modeling techniques). (3) Develop a general methodology to use integrated top-down and bottom-up datasets. (4) Review of a series of current case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America and the methodologies applied to assess the air pollution and its sources.

  9. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  10. Perception of the usefulness of drug/gene pairs and barriers for pharmacogenomics in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Quinones, Luis Abel; Lavanderos, Maria Alejandra; Cayun, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Martin, Elena; Agundez, Jose Augusto; Caceres, Dante Daniel; Roco, Angela Margarita; Morales, Jorge E; Herrera, Luisa; Encina, Gonzalo; Isaza, Carlos Alberto; Redal, Maria Ana; Larovere, Laura; Soria, Nestor Walter; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; Castaneda-Hernandez, Gilberto; Lopez-Cortes, Andres; Magno, Luiz Alexandre; Lopez, Marisol; Chiurillo, Miguel Angel; Rodeiro, Idania; Castro de Guerra, Dinorah; Teran, Enrique; Estevez-Carrizo, Francisco; Lares-Assef, Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics areas are currently emerging fields focused to manage pharmacotherapy that may prevent undertreatment while avoiding associated drug toxicity in patients. Large international differences in the awareness and in the use of pharmacogenomic testing are presumed, but not well assessed to date. In the present study we review the awareness of Latin American scientific community about pharmacogenomic testing and the perceived barriers for their clinical application. In order to that, we have compiled information from 9 countries of the region using a structured survey which is compared with surveys previously performed in USA and Spain. The most relevant group of barriers was related to the need for clear guidelines for the use of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice, followed by insufficient awareness about pharmacogenomics among clinicians and the absence of regulatory institutions that facilitate the use of pharmacogenetic tests. The higher ranked pairs were TPMT/thioguanine, TPMT/azathioprine, CYP2C9/warfarin, UGT1A1/irinotecan, CYP2D6/amitriptiline, CYP2C19/citalopram and CYP2D6/clozapine. The lower ranked pairs were SLCO1B1/simvastatin, CYP2D6/metoprolol and GP6D/chloroquine. Compared with USA and Spanish surveys, 25 pairs were of lower importance for Latin American respondents. Only CYP2C19/esomeprazole, CYP2C19/omeprazole, CYP2C19/celecoxib and G6PD/dapsone were ranked higher or similarly to the USA and Spanish surveys. Integration of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice needs training of healthcare professionals and citizens, but in addition legal and regulatory guidelines and safeguards will be needed. We propose that the approach offered by pharmacogenomics should be incorporated into the decision-making plans in Latin America. PMID:24524664

  11. Perception of the usefulness of drug/gene pairs and barriers for pharmacogenomics in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Quinones, Luis Abel; Lavanderos, Maria Alejandra; Cayun, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Martin, Elena; Agundez, Jose Augusto; Caceres, Dante Daniel; Roco, Angela Margarita; Morales, Jorge E; Herrera, Luisa; Encina, Gonzalo; Isaza, Carlos Alberto; Redal, Maria Ana; Larovere, Laura; Soria, Nestor Walter; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; Castaneda-Hernandez, Gilberto; Lopez-Cortes, Andres; Magno, Luiz Alexandre; Lopez, Marisol; Chiurillo, Miguel Angel; Rodeiro, Idania; Castro de Guerra, Dinorah; Teran, Enrique; Estevez-Carrizo, Francisco; Lares-Assef, Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics areas are currently emerging fields focused to manage pharmacotherapy that may prevent undertreatment while avoiding associated drug toxicity in patients. Large international differences in the awareness and in the use of pharmacogenomic testing are presumed, but not well assessed to date. In the present study we review the awareness of Latin American scientific community about pharmacogenomic testing and the perceived barriers for their clinical application. In order to that, we have compiled information from 9 countries of the region using a structured survey which is compared with surveys previously performed in USA and Spain. The most relevant group of barriers was related to the need for clear guidelines for the use of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice, followed by insufficient awareness about pharmacogenomics among clinicians and the absence of regulatory institutions that facilitate the use of pharmacogenetic tests. The higher ranked pairs were TPMT/thioguanine, TPMT/azathioprine, CYP2C9/warfarin, UGT1A1/irinotecan, CYP2D6/amitriptiline, CYP2C19/citalopram and CYP2D6/clozapine. The lower ranked pairs were SLCO1B1/simvastatin, CYP2D6/metoprolol and GP6D/chloroquine. Compared with USA and Spanish surveys, 25 pairs were of lower importance for Latin American respondents. Only CYP2C19/esomeprazole, CYP2C19/omeprazole, CYP2C19/celecoxib and G6PD/dapsone were ranked higher or similarly to the USA and Spanish surveys. Integration of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice needs training of healthcare professionals and citizens, but in addition legal and regulatory guidelines and safeguards will be needed. We propose that the approach offered by pharmacogenomics should be incorporated into the decision-making plans in Latin America.

  12. Development of pediatric cardiology in latin america: accomplishments and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Capelli, Horacio; Kreutzer, Christian; Kreutzer, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Until the first quarter of the 20th century, most physicians were more than happy to differentiate congenital heart lesions from rheumatic heart disease, which then was rampant. As early as 1932, Dr Rodolfo Kreutzer, from Buenos Aires, Argentina, was already involved in the study of congenital heart defects. He started off assessing children with a stethoscope and with Einthoven electrocardiography equipment. The cardiac unit at the Buenos Aires Children's Hospital was created in 1936. It established the onset of pediatric cardiology in Argentina and fueled its development in South America. Nearly at the same time, Agustin Castellanos from Cuba also became a pioneer in the assessment of congenital heart disease. He described the clinical applications of intravenous angiocardiography in 1937. Meanwhile in Mexico, Dr Ignacio Chavez founded the National Institute of Cardiology in 1944 in Mexico City. It was the first center in the world to be exclusively devoted to cardiology. From this center, Victor Rubio and Hugo Limon performed the first therapeutic cardiac catheterization in 1953. Meanwhile, Professor Euriclydes Zerbini from Sao Paulo, Brazil, built the largest and most important school of cardiac surgeons in South America. In Santiago, Chile, the Calvo Makenna Hospital was the center where Helmut Jaegger operated on the first infant with extracorporeal circulation in Latin America in 1956. The patient was a 1-month-old baby, with complete transposition of the great arteries, who underwent an Albert procedure. Currently, there are many fully equipped centers all over the region, capable of dealing with most lesions and of providing excellent medical, interventional, and surgical treatment. Outcomes have improved substantially over the last 20 years. These achievements have gone beyond our pioneers' dreams. However, many neonates and young infants die prior to surgery because referral centers are overburdened and have long surgical waiting lists. Clearly, we still

  13. Monitoring and evaluation of soil bioengineering interventions for watershed management, disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, Alessandro; Preti, Federico

    2013-04-01

    In recent decades the institutions responsible for land management and civil protection have showed a great interest in relation to the use of more environmentally friendly techniques to mitigate the risk of landslides and floods. Soil bioengineering has responded to this need and several research groups are carrying out experimentations using the techniques of this discipline in the countries in the developing world. The Deistaf from University of Florence has concentrated its activities in this area over the past decade promoting the use of the techniques of Soil bioengineering in Latin America through the implementation of training and experimentation programmes. Numerous works have been completed both in riverbanks and on slopes in Nicaragua, Guatemala, Ecuador and Colombia. It was decided to make a census of interventions in Latin America from different institutions that may be related to Soil bioengineering in order to obtain an overview of the state of the art in the specific context taking into account also environmental and socio-economic issues. Taking advantage of its network of contacts, DEISTAF has collected dozens of sheets that describe interventions. These sheets describe, among other fields focused on the environment in which the work has been carried out, the materials and techniques used, and the impact of the intervention. In the sheets we present also the monitoring that has been realized for some of these works in the months of October and November 2012; we include the identification of the current condition and functionality of the intervention and, in the case of the presence of some damages, the formulation of instructions to fix them as well as the economic quantification of the repairs to be carried out.

  14. Evaluation dimensions for collaborative mental health services in primary care systems in latin america: results of a Delphi group.

    PubMed

    Sapag, Jaime C; Rush, Brian; Barnsley, Jan

    2015-05-01

    This article presents the results of a Delphi group to identify the dimensions of an evaluation framework for collaborative mental health care (CMHC) in Latin America. A three-round Delphi process was implemented with 26 experts from Latin America and Canada to identify main areas of consensus, as well as disagreements, about the importance and feasibility of potential evaluation dimensions previously identified in Mexico, Nicaragua and Chile. Participants validated 40 evaluation dimensions. They strongly endorsed a comprehensive evaluation framework for CMHC in Latin America. This study represents a solid foundation for developing an evaluation framework for CMHC. PMID:24961356

  15. [Human resources in Latin America: a historical focus on the relations among population, education, and employment].

    PubMed

    Oteiza, E

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of human resources has a history of almost 3 decades in Latin America. This method of assessing temporary and structural balances and imbalances between population, education, and employment began in the 1960s with recognition of the role of education in development. The human resources perspective tended to be centered more on the availability or supply of resources as affected by educational planning than on occupational requirements or demand. It was also centered on problems of educational investment and planning, leaving aside other basic aspects of human resources development such as health or nutrition. The notion of human resources has progressed in Latin America from imitation of the educational systems of the industrialized countries to attempts to project future occupational structures in Latin America and to adjust training and educational programs accordingly. But longterm projection of occupational structures is very difficult in Latin America primarily because of the unstable and dependent status of Latin American economies which leave them at the mercy of changes in the central countries. A series of studies in the mid-1970s argued for the need to revise the dominant development strategies in order to eliminate poverty within 50 years, implying increased attention to human resources. The economic crisis of the 1970s and beyond had deflected attention away from the actions necessary to reach this goal. Latin America, despite considerable economic progress and modernization, still is incapable of providing productive employment for a large proportion of its population. Around 50% of the economically active population was unemployed or underemployed in 1980. Recent studies have revealed several peculiarities in the occupational dynamics of countries, and they never have the proportion of highly skilled workers that the developed countries do. Urbanization and growth of the tertiary sector are rapid. Where agriculture has modernized, rural

  16. [Human resources in Latin America: a historical focus on the relations among population, education, and employment].

    PubMed

    Oteiza, E

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of human resources has a history of almost 3 decades in Latin America. This method of assessing temporary and structural balances and imbalances between population, education, and employment began in the 1960s with recognition of the role of education in development. The human resources perspective tended to be centered more on the availability or supply of resources as affected by educational planning than on occupational requirements or demand. It was also centered on problems of educational investment and planning, leaving aside other basic aspects of human resources development such as health or nutrition. The notion of human resources has progressed in Latin America from imitation of the educational systems of the industrialized countries to attempts to project future occupational structures in Latin America and to adjust training and educational programs accordingly. But longterm projection of occupational structures is very difficult in Latin America primarily because of the unstable and dependent status of Latin American economies which leave them at the mercy of changes in the central countries. A series of studies in the mid-1970s argued for the need to revise the dominant development strategies in order to eliminate poverty within 50 years, implying increased attention to human resources. The economic crisis of the 1970s and beyond had deflected attention away from the actions necessary to reach this goal. Latin America, despite considerable economic progress and modernization, still is incapable of providing productive employment for a large proportion of its population. Around 50% of the economically active population was unemployed or underemployed in 1980. Recent studies have revealed several peculiarities in the occupational dynamics of countries, and they never have the proportion of highly skilled workers that the developed countries do. Urbanization and growth of the tertiary sector are rapid. Where agriculture has modernized, rural

  17. Improving mental and neurological health research in Latin America: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Fiestas, Fabián; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Bustamante, Inés; Alarcón, Renato D; Mari, Jair J; Razzouk, Denise; Olifson, Sylvie; Mazzotti, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Background Research evidence is essential to inform policies, interventions and programs, and yet research activities in mental and neurological (MN) health have been largely neglected, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Many challenges have been identified in the production and utilization of research evidence in Latin American countries, and more work is needed to overcome this disadvantageous situation. This study aims to address the situation by identifying initiatives that could improve MN health research activities and implementation of their results in the Latin American region. Methods Thirty-four MN health actors from 13 Latin American countries were interviewed as part of an initiative by the Global Forum for Health Research and the World Health Organization to explore the status of MN health research in low- and middle-income countries in Africa, Asia and Latin-America. Results A variety of recommendations to increase MN health research activities and implementation of their results emerged in the interviews. These included increasing skilled human resources in MN health interventions and research, fostering greater participation of stakeholders in the generation of research topics and projects, and engendering the interest of national and international institutions in important MN health issues and research methodologies. In the view of most participants, government agencies should strive to have research results inform the decision-making process in which they are involved. Thus these agencies would play a key role in facilitating and funding research. Participants also pointed to the importance of academic recognition and financial rewards in attracting professionals to primary and translational research in MN health. In addition, they suggested that institutions should create intramural resources to provide researchers with technical support in designing, carrying out and disseminating research, including resources to improve

  18. Centre for Space Science and Technology Education forLatin America and the Caribbean—The Brazil Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sausen, Tania Maria

    2004-01-01

    We briefly describe the general objectives of the Centres for Space Science and Technology Education associated with the United Nations, concentrating on the establishment and activities of the Centre for Latin America and the Caribbean.

  19. Latin America multidisciplinary research on heat shock proteins and cell stress: proceedings of the first conference of the Latin America Chapter of the Cell Stress Society International.

    PubMed

    Bausero, María A

    2015-09-01

    The First Conference of the Latin America Chapter of the Cell Stress Society International (CSSI) organized by CSSI was held in Montevideo, Uruguay, on March 11-14, 2014. The Latin America Chapter of the CSSI (LAC-CSSI) was established at the Workshop on the Molecular Biology of the Stress Response, Porto Alegre, Brazil, May 2012. The chapter's first meeting took place in the beautiful city of Montevideo and was chaired by the first (LAC-CSSI) elected president Professor María Bausero. Forty-two invited speakers presented their work to more than 100 scientists. The first day of the conference was dedicated to an introductory program for students, young investigators, and participants new to the field of molecular chaperones and the stress response. These seminars were held in the Pasteur Institute of Montevideo and the Faculty of Sciences of the University of the Republic. These institutions were carefully selected to give foreign participants a broad view of the diversity of students and institutions doing research in Uruguay, as well as an opportunity for direct interaction with our scientists and students. Invited speakers for the seminar series were Dr. Wolfgang Schumann, Dr. Cristina Bonorino, Dr. Antonio De Maio, Dr. Ian Brown, Dr. Rafael Radi, Dr. Daniel Ciocca, and Dr. Celia Quijano. The remaining days of the conference took place at the Sheraton Hotel in Montevideo, and the scientific sessions are discussed below.

  20. [Zika virus outbreak in Latin America: what are the challenges for French Guiana in April 2016?].

    PubMed

    Epelboin, L; Douine, M; Carles, G; Villemant, N; Nacher, M; Rousset, D; Djossou, F; Mosnier, E

    2016-05-01

    Started in 2015 in Brazil, an outbreak linked to a little known arbovirus, Zika virus spread throughout Latin America. This virus, considered until recently as responsible of only mild symptoms, made mention of previously unsuspected complications, with severe neurological manifestations in adults and malformations of the central nervous system, including microcephaly, in newborns of mother infected during the pregnancy. While the continent is more accustomed to the succession of arbovirus epidemics, suspected complications and the many unknowns keys of the latter arriving raise many public health issues. French Guiana, a French territory located in the north-east of the continent, combines both European level of resources and climate and issues specific to the Amazon region and Latin America. We discuss here the issues for 2016 Zika virus epidemic in our region, many of them are generalizable to neighboring countries. PMID:27167975

  1. Confronting the chronic disease burden in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Amanda; Gaziano, Thomas A; Bouillon Buendia, César Patricio; Guanais de Aguiar, Frederico C

    2010-12-01

    The United States is not alone in facing increasing incidence and prevalence of chronic conditions as a contributor to poorer health and growing health care spending. Latin America and the Caribbean face similar burdens, but they have fewer resources with which to respond. Much remains to be done to cope with the emerging public health and fiscal threat posed by increases in chronic conditions. However, a set of studies sponsored by the Inter-American Development Bank bring good news on potentially cost-effective strategies to improve coverage and outcomes. They should help move the growing epidemic of chronic diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean to the forefront of health policy in the region. PMID:21134914

  2. From Marianism to terrorism: the many faces of violence against women in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rondon, M B

    2003-08-01

    Violence against women is widespread and highly tolerated in Latin America. In this paper, I will argue that this is because violence stems from deep cultural roots and because women are brought up in a patriarchal familial organization which promotes passivity and dependence. Traditional religious culture, which poses the Virgin Mary figure as role model, is ambivalent and distorted, repressing sex while overvaluing motherhood and self denial and demeaning women who do not conform to the established stereotypes. Patriarchal violence has serious emotional consequences for women. The stressful violent circumstances in women's lives lead to increased drug abuse that further exposes them to police and institutional violence. Political instability and civil wars in South America have caused many deaths, and have left many women with traumatic sequelae. Efforts at improving quality of life and diminishing violent conditions for women and girls in Latin America should include consideration of local cultural, political and economic peculiarities. PMID:12920613

  3. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from these considerations to review research on adolescents' peer relations in Latin America from a socioemotional perspective. First, approaches to adolescence are discussed, with a main focus on attachment and identity theories, based on a bioecological framework. Then, a review of research in Latin America on friendships, school climate, and intergroup relations is presented. The discussion addresses the tension between theories and evidence generated in developed societies and highlights the particularities of Latin American youth, stressing the need for collecting local data.

  4. The Rockefeller Foundation's antimalarial program in Latin America: donating or dominating?

    PubMed

    Franco-Agudelo, S

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the origins, methods, and hidden objectives of the antimalarial campaigns carried out by the Rockefeller Foundation in Latin America. These campaigns are examined in the context of the imperialist domination of Latin America over the course of this century. The close relationship between prevailing economic, political, and military priorities and the thrust of the Foundation's work in the field of malaria is detailed. In spite of its relatively small financial investment in malaria research and eradication, the Rockefeller Foundation was able to reap enormous benefits from its work in this area. Not only was the Foundation able to increase the profit margins of the Rockefeller empire by ameliorating some of the dire economic consequences of malaria, but also it was able to use its participation to penetrate the public health field and consolidate the hegemony of scientific medicine. It is concluded that the Rockefeller Foundation's attention to the malaria problem reflected more than mere philanthropic concern.

  5. Mosquito vector control and biology in Latin America--a 15th symposium. Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Clark, Gary G; Quiroz Martínez, Humberto

    2005-12-01

    The 15th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 71st Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in April 2005. The principal objective, as for the previous 14 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 40 presentations that were given orally in Spanish or presented as posters by participants from 8 countries in Latin America and the USA. Topics addressed in the symposium included results from chemical and biological control programs and studies; studies of insecticide resistance; and population genetics, molecular, ecological, and behavioral studies of vectors of dengue (Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus) and other arboviruses, malaria (Anopheles albimanus, An. aquasalis, An. neomaculipalpus, An. pseudopunctipennis), leishmaniasis (Lutzomyia), and Chagas Disease (Triatoma), as well as a vaccine for control of Boophilus ticks on cattle.

  6. Stroke in Latin America: Burden of Disease and Opportunities for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Avezum, Álvaro; Costa-Filho, Francisco F; Pieri, Alexandre; Martins, Sheila O; Marin-Neto, José A

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiological transition in Latin America toward older urban dwelling adults has led to the rise in cardiovascular risk factors and an increase in morbidity and mortality rates related to both stroke and myocardial infarction. As a result, there is an immediate need for effective actions resulting in better detection and control of cardiovascular risk factors that will ultimately reduce cardiovascular disease burden. Data from case-control studies have identified the following risk factors associated with stroke: hypertension; smoking; abdominal obesity; diet; physical activity; diabetes; alcohol intake; psychosocial factors; cardiac causes; and dyslipidemia. In addition to its high mortality, patients who survive after a stroke present quite frequently with marked physical and functional disability. Because stroke is the leading cause of death in most Latin American countries and also because it is a clearly preventable cause of death and disability, simple, affordable, and efficient strategies must be urgently implemented in Latin America. PMID:26014650

  7. [Zika virus outbreak in Latin America: what are the challenges for French Guiana in April 2016?].

    PubMed

    Epelboin, L; Douine, M; Carles, G; Villemant, N; Nacher, M; Rousset, D; Djossou, F; Mosnier, E

    2016-05-01

    Started in 2015 in Brazil, an outbreak linked to a little known arbovirus, Zika virus spread throughout Latin America. This virus, considered until recently as responsible of only mild symptoms, made mention of previously unsuspected complications, with severe neurological manifestations in adults and malformations of the central nervous system, including microcephaly, in newborns of mother infected during the pregnancy. While the continent is more accustomed to the succession of arbovirus epidemics, suspected complications and the many unknowns keys of the latter arriving raise many public health issues. French Guiana, a French territory located in the north-east of the continent, combines both European level of resources and climate and issues specific to the Amazon region and Latin America. We discuss here the issues for 2016 Zika virus epidemic in our region, many of them are generalizable to neighboring countries.

  8. Indigenous Women of Latin America: Unintended Pregnancy, Unsafe Abortion, and Reproductive Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wurtz, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous women in Latin America have poorer reproductive health outcomes than the general population and face considerable barriers in accessing adequate health services. Indigenous women have high rates of adolescent fertility and unintended pregnancy and may face increased risks for morbidity and mortality related to unsafe abortion. However, research among this population, particularly focusing on social and cultural implications of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion, is significantly limited. This article reviews the literature on unsafe abortion in Latin America and describes successful interventions to ameliorate reproductive health outcomes within Indigenous communities. It also explores important implications for future research. Shedding light on the circumstances, perspectives, and lived realities of Indigenous women of childbearing age, could encourage further qualitative investigation and mitigate negative outcomes through improved understanding of the topic, targeted culturally appropriate interventions, and recommendations for future policy and programming reformations. PMID:23772229

  9. Stroke in Latin America: Burden of Disease and Opportunities for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Avezum, Álvaro; Costa-Filho, Francisco F; Pieri, Alexandre; Martins, Sheila O; Marin-Neto, José A

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiological transition in Latin America toward older urban dwelling adults has led to the rise in cardiovascular risk factors and an increase in morbidity and mortality rates related to both stroke and myocardial infarction. As a result, there is an immediate need for effective actions resulting in better detection and control of cardiovascular risk factors that will ultimately reduce cardiovascular disease burden. Data from case-control studies have identified the following risk factors associated with stroke: hypertension; smoking; abdominal obesity; diet; physical activity; diabetes; alcohol intake; psychosocial factors; cardiac causes; and dyslipidemia. In addition to its high mortality, patients who survive after a stroke present quite frequently with marked physical and functional disability. Because stroke is the leading cause of death in most Latin American countries and also because it is a clearly preventable cause of death and disability, simple, affordable, and efficient strategies must be urgently implemented in Latin America.

  10. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from these considerations to review research on adolescents' peer relations in Latin America from a socioemotional perspective. First, approaches to adolescence are discussed, with a main focus on attachment and identity theories, based on a bioecological framework. Then, a review of research in Latin America on friendships, school climate, and intergroup relations is presented. The discussion addresses the tension between theories and evidence generated in developed societies and highlights the particularities of Latin American youth, stressing the need for collecting local data. PMID:27254826

  11. Access to an optimal treatment. Current situation.

    PubMed

    Ugarte-Gil, Manuel F; Silvestre, Adriana M R; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A

    2015-03-01

    Access to an optimal treatment is determined by several factors, like availability, pricing/funding, and acceptability. In Latin America (LA), one of the regions with more disparities particularly on healthcare in the world, access is affected by other factors, including socio-demographic factors like poverty, living in rural regions, and/or health coverage. Regarding rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an inadequate access to specialists leads to diagnosis and treatment delays diminishing the probability of remission or control. Unfortunately, in almost every LA country, there are cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants without rheumatologists; furthermore, a primary care reference system is present in only about half the countries. In the public health system, coverage of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs occurs for less than 10 % of the patients in about half of the countries. Also, as healthcare providers based their funding decisions mainly in direct costs instead of on patient-centered healthcare quality indicators, access to new drugs is more complicated in this region than in high-income countries. More accurate epidemiological data from LA need to be obtained in order to improve the management of patients with rheumatic diseases in general and RA in particular.

  12. Access to an optimal treatment. Current situation.

    PubMed

    Ugarte-Gil, Manuel F; Silvestre, Adriana M R; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A

    2015-03-01

    Access to an optimal treatment is determined by several factors, like availability, pricing/funding, and acceptability. In Latin America (LA), one of the regions with more disparities particularly on healthcare in the world, access is affected by other factors, including socio-demographic factors like poverty, living in rural regions, and/or health coverage. Regarding rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an inadequate access to specialists leads to diagnosis and treatment delays diminishing the probability of remission or control. Unfortunately, in almost every LA country, there are cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants without rheumatologists; furthermore, a primary care reference system is present in only about half the countries. In the public health system, coverage of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs occurs for less than 10 % of the patients in about half of the countries. Also, as healthcare providers based their funding decisions mainly in direct costs instead of on patient-centered healthcare quality indicators, access to new drugs is more complicated in this region than in high-income countries. More accurate epidemiological data from LA need to be obtained in order to improve the management of patients with rheumatic diseases in general and RA in particular. PMID:26188617

  13. Opportunities for Small Geothermal Projects: Rural Power for Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.

    1998-11-30

    The objective of this report is to provide information on small geothermal project (less than 5 MW) opportunities in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines. This overview of issues facing small geothermal projects is intended especially for those who are not already familiar with small geothermal opportunities. This is a summary of issues and opportunities and serves as a starting point in determining next steps to develop this market.

  14. Cropland/pastureland dynamics and the slowdown of deforestation in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graesser, Jordan; Aide, T. Mitchell; Grau, H. Ricardo; Ramankutty, Navin

    2015-03-01

    Latin America has the planet’s largest land reserves for agriculture and had the most rapid agricultural expansion during the twenty-first century. A large portion of the expansion replaced forests, as shown by many local and regional studies. However, expansion varied regionally and also replaced other land covers. Further, it is important to distinguish between changes in cropland and pastureland as they produce food at different levels of efficiency and intensity. We used thirteen years (2001-2013) of MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite imagery to characterize cropland and pastureland expansion at multiple scales across Latin America. From 2001 to 2013, 17% of new cropland and 57% of new pastureland replaced forests throughout Latin America. Cropland expansion from 2001 to 2013 was less (44.27 Mha) than pastureland (96.9 Mha), but 44% of the 2013 cropland total was new cropland, versus 27% of the 2013 pastureland total, revealing higher regional expansion rates of row crop agriculture. The majority of cropland expansion was into pastureland within core agricultural regions of Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. On the contrary, pastureland largely expanded at frontiers, such as central Brazil, western Paraguay, and northern Guatemala. As others have suggested, regional agriculture is strongly influenced by globalization. Indeed, we find an overall decrease in agricultural expansion after 2007, coinciding with the global economic slowdown. The results illustrate agricultural cropland and pastureland expansion across Latin America is largely segregated, and emphasize the importance of distinguishing between the two agricultural systems, as they vary in land use intensity and efficiency.

  15. Neural tube defects in Latin America and the impact of fortification: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Jorge; Casas, Jessica; Taren, Douglas; Alverson, Clinton J; Flores, Alina; Frias, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Objective Data on the prevalence of birth defects and neural tube defects (NTD) in Latin America are limited. The present review summarizes NTD prevalence and time trends in Latin American countries and compares pre- and post-fortification periods to assess the impact of folic acid fortification in these countries. Design We carried out a literature review of studies and institutional reports published between 1990 and 2010 that contained information on NTD prevalence in Latin America. Results NTD prevalence in Latin American countries varied from 0.2 to 9.6 per 1000 live births and was influenced by methods of ascertainment. Time trends from Bogota, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guatemala City, México and Puerto Rico showed average annual declines of 2.5% to 21.8%. Pre- and post-fortification comparisons were available for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico and México. The aggregate percentage decline in NTD prevalence ranged from 33% to 59%. Conclusions The present publication is the first to review data on time trends and the impact of folic acid fortification on NTD prevalence in Latin America. Reported NTD prevalence varied markedly by geographic region and in some areas of Latin America was among the lowest in the world, while in other areas it was among the highest. For countries with available information, time trends showed significant declines in NTD prevalence and these declines were greater in countries where folic acid fortification of staples reached the majority of the population at risk, such as Chile and Costa Rica. PMID:23464652

  16. The role of the Organization of American States in the development of seismology in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quesada, A.

    1982-01-01

    Seismological studies in Latin America were initiated at the beginning of the 20th century, when the first seismological stations were deployed by certain scientific associations. These efforts provided an incentive to the professional community for further activites. Until this date, the only seismic records that existed were historical accounts of catastrophes caused by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. This type of information of course, leads to "fantasy" and incorrect descriptions of what has taken place. 

  17. Children’s Health in Latin America: The Influence of Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Laborde, Amalia; Tomasina, Fernando; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bruné, Marie-Noel; Buka, Irena; Comba, Pietro; Corra, Lilian; Cori, Liliana; Duffert, Christin Maria; Harari, Raul; Iavarone, Ivano; McDiarmid, Melissa A.; Gray, Kimberly A.; Sly, Peter D.; Soares, Agnes; Suk, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are increasing among children in Latin America. Objective and Methods To examine environmental risk factors for chronic disease in Latin American children and to develop a strategic initiative for control of these exposures, the World Health Organization (WHO) including the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Collegium Ramazzini, and Latin American scientists reviewed regional and relevant global data. Results Industrial development and urbanization are proceeding rapidly in Latin America, and environmental pollution has become widespread. Environmental threats to children’s health include traditional hazards such as indoor air pollution and drinking-water contamination; the newer hazards of urban air pollution; toxic chemicals such as lead, asbestos, mercury, arsenic, and pesticides; hazardous and electronic waste; and climate change. The mix of traditional and modern hazards varies greatly across and within countries reflecting industrialization, urbanization, and socioeconomic forces. Conclusions To control environmental threats to children’s health in Latin America, WHO, including PAHO, will focus on the most highly prevalent and serious hazards—indoor and outdoor air pollution, water pollution, and toxic chemicals. Strategies for controlling these hazards include developing tracking data on regional trends in children’s environmental health (CEH), building a network of Collaborating Centres, promoting biomedical research in CEH, building regional capacity, supporting development of evidence-based prevention policies, studying the economic costs of chronic diseases in children, and developing platforms for dialogue with relevant stakeholders. Citation Laborde A, Tomasina F, Bianchi F, Bruné MN, Buka I, Comba P, Corra L, Cori L, Duffert CM, Harari R, Iavarone I, McDiarmid MA, Gray KA, Sly PD, Soares A, Suk WA, Landrigan PJ. 2015. Children’s health in Latin America: the influence of environmental exposures. Environ

  18. Economic growth and oil too: A global view of Latin America's oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    As if the 26 nations of Latin America were one entity, a graph in this paper tracks the region's oil exports as a percent of its production. The region exports, mainly to countries outside the region, nearly 30% of what it produces. It is too early to know how this figure might change due to increased regional consumption spurred by economic growth, but not too early to consider the question.

  19. Regional integration and south-south cooperation in health in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Roa, Alejandra; Santana, José Paranaguá de

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes whether south-south cooperation is legitimately a recent practice or merely an improved version of previous regional integration processes in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors reviewed and systematized the historic development of subregional integration processes in Latin America and the Caribbean and focused on health cooperation in the following contexts: the Central American Integration System, the Andean Community of Nations, the Caribbean Community, the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization, the Southern Common Market, and the Union of South American Nations. The study concludes that the conceptual and methodologic foundations of south-south cooperation in health were born from and nurtured by the processes of regional integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. This paper posits that regional political and economic integration initiatives bring potential benefits to the health sector and act as an important mechanism to develop south-south cooperation in this domain. The study recommends furthering this type of research to provide information that will allow national and multilateral agencies, or other stakeholders, to formulate and implement better policies for international health cooperation that target reducing inequities and promoting health and well-being for all people. PMID:23338694

  20. “Accommodating” smoke‐free policies: tobacco industry's Courtesy of Choice programme in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand the implementation and effects of the Courtesy of Choice programme designed to “accommodate” smokers as an alternative to smoke‐free polices developed by Philip Morris International (PMI) and supported by RJ Reynolds (RJR) and British American Tobacco (BAT) since the mid‐1990s in Latin America. Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, BAT “social reports”, news reports and tobacco control legislation. Results Since the mid‐1990s, PMI, BAT and RJR promoted Accommodation Programs to maintain the social acceptability of smoking. As in other parts of the world, multinational tobacco companies partnered with third party allies from the hospitality industry in Latin America. The campaign was extended from the hospitality industry (bars, restaurants and hotels) to other venues such as workplaces and airport lounges. A local public relations agency, as well as a network of engineers and other experts in ventilation systems, was hired to promote the tobacco industry's programme. The most important outcome of these campaigns in several countries was the prevention of meaningful smoke‐free policies, both in public places and in workplaces. Conclusions Courtesy of Choice remains an effective public relations campaign to undermine smoke‐free policies in Latin America. The tobacco companies' accommodation campaign undermines the implementation of measures to protect people from second‐hand smoke called for by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, perpetuating the exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor enclosed environments. PMID:17897975

  1. Interdisciplinary collaboration in gerontology and geriatrics in Latin America: conceptual approaches and health care teams.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The underlying rationale to support interdisciplinary collaboration in geriatrics and gerontology is based on the complexity of elderly care. The most important characteristic about interdisciplinary health care teams for older people in Latin America is their subjective-basis framework. In other regions, teams are organized according to a theoretical knowledge basis with well-justified priorities, functions, and long-term goals, in Latin America teams are arranged according to subjective interests on solving their problems. Three distinct approaches of interdisciplinary collaboration in gerontology are proposed. The first approach is grounded in the scientific rationalism of European origin. Denominated "logical-rational approach," its core is to identify the significance of knowledge. The second approach is grounded in pragmatism and is more associated with a North American tradition. The core of this approach consists in enhancing the skills and competences of each participant; denominated "logical-instrumental approach." The third approach denominated "logical-subjective approach" has a Latin America origin. Its core consists in taking into account the internal and emotional dimensions of the team. These conceptual frameworks based in geographical contexts will permit establishing the differences and shared characteristics of interdisciplinary collaboration in geriatrics and gerontology to look for operational answers to solve the "complex problems" of older adults.

  2. Regional trends and controlling factors of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-08-01

    A new data set of landslides that caused loss of life in Latin America and the Caribbean in the 10-year period from 2004 and 2013 inclusive has been compiled, providing new insight into the impact of landslides in this key part of the world. This data set indicates that in the 10-year period a total of 11 631 people lost their lives across the region in 611 landslides. The geographical distribution of the landslides is highly heterogeneous, with areas of high incidence in parts of the Caribbean (most notably Haiti), Central America, Colombia, and southeast Brazil. There is significant interannual variation in the number of landslides, with the El Niño/La Niña cycle emerging as a key control. Our analysis suggests that on a continental scale the mapped factors that best explain the observed distribution are topography, annual precipitation and population density. On a national basis we have compared the occurrence of fatality-inducing landslide occurrence with the production of locally authored research articles, demonstrating that there is a landslide research deficit in Latin America and the Caribbean. Understanding better the mechanisms, distribution causes and triggers of landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean must be an essential first step towards managing the hazard.

  3. An algorithm for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Chacra, A R; Davidson, J A; Diaz, J; Escalante-Pulido, M; Litwak, L E; Mestman, J H; More, L; Violante, R M

    2005-03-01

    Diabetes is a principal and growing health concern in Latin America, accounting for significant mortality and morbidities. Large, randomized, prospective trials of various interventional therapies in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have demonstrated that reductions in hyperglycaemia and management of diabetes-related risk factors can significantly reduce the micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes. Therefore, patients with type 2 diabetes will benefit from more aggressive treatment regimens to help decrease the occurrence and rate of progression of diabetic complications. Given the many complexities of diabetes management, it is often difficult for general practice physicians to stay abreast of emerging treatment strategies and therapies. Owing to the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Latin America, the majority of patients with diabetes are treated by generalists rather than specialists. This article was intended to assist physicians and other healthcare professionals in developing and using effective treatment strategies to stem the growing epidemic of diabetes and its complications in Latin America.

  4. Hepatitis B virus infection in Latin America: A genomic medicine approach

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Sonia; Jose-Abrego, Alexis; Fierro, Nora Alma; Escobedo-Melendez, Griselda; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Panduro, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of severe chronic liver disease. This article provides a critical view of the importance of genomic medicine for the study of HBV infection and its clinical outcomes in Latin America. Three levels of evolutionary adaptation may correlate with the clinical outcomes of HBV infection. Infections in Latin America are predominantly of genotype H in Mexico and genotype F in Central and South America; these strains have historically circulated among the indigenous population. Both genotypes appear to be linked to a benign course of disease among the native and mestizo Mexicans and native South Americans. In contrast, genotypes F, A and D are common in acute and chronic infections among mestizos with Caucasian ancestry. Hepatocellular carcinoma is rare in Mexicans, but it has been associated with genotype F1b among Argentineans. This observation illustrates the significance of ascertaining the genetic and environmental factors involved in the development of HBV-related liver disease in Latin America, which contrast with those reported in other regions of the world. PMID:24966588

  5. [The relevance of urban environments and physical activity in older adults for Latin-America].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alexandra; Gómez, Luis F; Parra, Diana C

    2010-04-01

    Aging in Latin-America has been characterised by its rapid pace which, in turn, has been accompanied by growing urbanisation and globalisation. These processes have been linked to the prevalence of physical inactivity thereby contributing to the appearance of chronic diseases, these being the primary cause of mortality in the region. The influence of public urban environment intervention policy on physical activity has been emphasised recently. This evidence comes mainly from studies conducted in the USA and Australia. However, this topic has scarcely been studied in Latin-America which has particular characteristics regarding aging and urban development. Cities, such as Curitiba and Bogota, have undergone significant urban changes which may be linked to physical activity and the quality of life, especially in older adults. Considering the particularities of urban development in Latin-America, it is thus concluded that multidisciplinary studies should be carried out thereby leading to better understanding of the links between urban environments and physical activity in older adults.

  6. Regional trends and controlling factors of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-04-01

    A database of landslides that caused loss of life in Latin America and the Caribbean in the period from 2004 and 2013 inclusive has been compiled using established techniques. This database indicates that in the ten year period a total of 11 631 people lost their lives across the region in 611 landslides. The geographical distribution of the landslides is very heterogeneous, with areas of high incidence in parts of the Caribbean (most notably Haiti), Central America, Colombia, and SE. Brazil. The number of landslides varies considerably between years; the El Niño/La Niña cycle emerges as a major factor controlling this variation, although the study period did not capture a large event. Analysis suggests that on a continental scale the mapped factors that best explain the observed distribution are topography, annual precipitation and population density. On a national basis we have compared the occurrence of fatality-inducing landslide occurrence with the production of research articles with a local author, which shows that there is a landslide research deficit in Latin America and the Caribbean. Understanding better the mechanisms, distributions causes and triggers of landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean must be an essential first step towards managing the hazard.

  7. Hepatitis B virus infection in Latin America: a genomic medicine approach.

    PubMed

    Roman, Sonia; Jose-Abrego, Alexis; Fierro, Nora Alma; Escobedo-Melendez, Griselda; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Panduro, Arturo

    2014-06-21

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of severe chronic liver disease. This article provides a critical view of the importance of genomic medicine for the study of HBV infection and its clinical outcomes in Latin America. Three levels of evolutionary adaptation may correlate with the clinical outcomes of HBV infection. Infections in Latin America are predominantly of genotype H in Mexico and genotype F in Central and South America; these strains have historically circulated among the indigenous population. Both genotypes appear to be linked to a benign course of disease among the native and mestizo Mexicans and native South Americans. In contrast, genotypes F, A and D are common in acute and chronic infections among mestizos with Caucasian ancestry. Hepatocellular carcinoma is rare in Mexicans, but it has been associated with genotype F1b among Argentineans. This observation illustrates the significance of ascertaining the genetic and environmental factors involved in the development of HBV-related liver disease in Latin America, which contrast with those reported in other regions of the world.

  8. Getting REDD-y: conservation and climate change in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Hall, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation in Latin America, especially in the Amazon basin, is a major source of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide that contribute to global warming. Protected areas play a vital role in minimizing forest loss and in supplying key environmental services, including carbon sequestration and rainfall regulation, which mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change amid a rising tide of economic development in the region. The area of protected forest has expanded rapidly since 1980 to cover one-fifth of Latin America and more than two-fifths of Amazonia, a region whose rain forest captures some 40 percent of Latin America's carbon emissions. The reserve sector has traditionally suffered from severe underfunding, but the possibility of new resources being generated through financial compensation for "reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation" (REDD) or "avoided deforestation" under a new Kyoto protocol after 2012 could help strengthen the environmental and social roles of protected areas. However, a number of major implementation and governance challenges will need to be addressed.

  9. Photodynamic therapy: Progress toward a scientific and clinical network in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Buzzá, Hilde H; da Silva, Ana Paula; Vollet Filho, José Dirceu; Ramirez, Dora Patricia; Trujillo, José Roberto; Inada, Natalia M; Moriyama, Lilian T; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S

    2016-03-01

    Cancer is one of the major challenges for Latin America health services, since the skin cancer is the most frequent lesion. This manuscript addresses an initiative for the treatment of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) by photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on a government-funded national program in Brazil. The program provides clinical training and facilitates access to drugs/equipment and significantly reduces PDT costs. It also lays foundations for the establishment of a Latin American research network to improve prevention, early detection and treatment of diseases. Centers have been established by direct contact (conferences, visits to healthcare facilities and official departments). A local training was divided into complementary theoretical and practical parts. This is an ongoing project that has involved 10 countries: Brazil, Bolivia Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, The initial results are encouraging and have provided assessment of Latin America patients relating, for example, the most common skin phototypes with incidence of BCC in such countries. The network is expected to produce relevant scientific information for PDT introduction in many countries. The experience acquired by local teams shall enable them to innovate PDT protocols and increase the number of skilled contributors/researchers to broaden knowledge on the ever-crescent PDT field in Latin America. The establishment of a collaboration network and introduction of other projects and experience exchange shall become an easier process with time. This PDT clinical research network is a start for the strengthening of Science in South Hemisphere countries.

  10. Geography, Resources, and Environment of Latin America: An Undergraduate Science Course focused on Attracting Hispanic students to Science and on Educating Non-Hispanics about Latin America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujana, I.; Stern, R. J.; Ledbetter, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    With NSF-CCLI funding, we have developed, taught, and evaluated a new lower-division science course for non-majors, entitled "Geography, Resources, and Environment of Hispanic America" (GRELA). This is an adaptation of a similar course, "Geology and Development of Modern Africa" developed by Barbara Tewksbury (Hamilton College), to attract African American students to science by highlighting cultural ties with their ancestral lands. We think that a similar approach focusing on Latin America may attract Hispanic undergraduates, at the same time that it increases awareness among non-Hispanic students about challenges facing our neighbors to the south. GRELA is an interdisciplinary exploration of how the physical and biological environment of Mexico, Central America, and South America have influenced the people who live there. The course consists of 20 lectures and requires the student to present a report partnering with correspondents in Latin American universities. GRELA begins with an overview of Latin American physical and cultural geography and geologic evolution followed by a series of modules that relate the natural resources and environment of Latin America to the history, economy, and culture of the region. This is followed by an exploration of pre-Columbian cultures. The use of metals by pre-Columbian, colonial, and modern cultures is presented next. We then discuss hydrocarbon resources, geothermal energy, and natural hazards of volcanoes and earthquakes. The last half of the course focuses on Earth System Science themes, including El Nino, glaciers, the Amazon river and rainforest, and coral reefs. The final presentation concerns population growth and water resources along the US-Mexico border. Grades are based on two midterms, one final, and a project which requires that groups of students communicate with scientists in Latin America to explore some aspect of geography, natural resources, or the environment of a Latin American region of common interest

  11. [Emergency contraception in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Martin, Antonieta

    2004-12-01

    Introducing the post-coital birth control method in the family-planning services of Latin American countries has not been an easy task. Catholic and other conservative groups with great influence in the political arena have time and again stopped it from being adopted as an alternative method and have even succeeded in having it removed from official directives after formal acceptance by health authorities. The main objections are triggered by the erroneous supposition that "emergency contraception" pills are abortifacients. However, a large dose of cultural discrimination against women seems also to be involved. It has been extremely difficult to register dedicated products and make them available in drug-stores and even more difficult to distribute them without charge at public health centers. They are hard to find, expensive, and unavailable to adolescents at risk for unwanted pregnancies and to most low-income women, especially in rural areas. Dissemination of appropriate information has been scarce and slow and there are still great numbers of people that do not understand how or why the method works. Brazil has been the only exception, as its open society has readily accepted this method of contraception. The Latin American Consortium on Emergency Contraception founded in the year 2000 and its regional conference two years later had an important impact on the situation, as they encouraged the coordination of efforts by governmental and nongovernmental entities with those of women's groups to fight for sexual and reproductive rights. A number of studies have shown that the more people learn about emergency contraception, the more they find it acceptable and necessary, and radio spots and other media techniques have begun to educate the public about this matter. In spite of the many difficulties encountered, in the last few years several countries have made strides to include this method in their public health guidelines. However, because of the powerful forces

  12. Mathematical models of cervical cancer prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Goldie, Sue J; Diaz, Mireia; Constenla, Dagna; Alvis, Nelson; Andrus, Jon Kim; Kim, Sun-Young

    2008-08-19

    Using population and epidemiologic data for 33 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), a model-based approach estimated averted cervical cancer cases and deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (I$/DALY averted) for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young adolescent girls. Absolute reduction in lifetime cancer risk varied between countries, depending on incidence, proportion attributable to HPV-16 and 18, and population age-structure; for example, with 70% coverage, cancer reduction ranged from 40% in Mexico to more than 50% in Argentina. Screening of women over age 30 three times per lifetime, after vaccinating them as pre-adolescents, is expected to provide a relative increase of 25% to 30% in mortality reduction. Countries with the highest risk of cancer (age-standardized rate > 33.6) accounted for only 34% of deaths averted with vaccination, highlighting why a regional universal vaccination approach will be most effective in reducing the overall global burden. At I$25 per vaccinated girl ($5 per dose), for all 33 countries, the cost per DALY averted is less than I$400; at I$10 ($2 per dose) the vaccine is cost saving in 26 out of 33 countries. For all countries, ratios become less attractive (i.e., increase) as the cost of the vaccine increases. For example, at current vaccine prices ($120 per dose), the cost per DALY averted is I$7,300 in Mexico, I$3,700 in Nicaragua, and I$6,300 in Costa Rica. Vaccine price has an even greater effect on predicted affordability. For the 33 countries, vaccinating 5 consecutive birth cohorts at 70% coverage would cost $360 million at $5.00 per dose, $811 million at $12.25 per dose, and $1.26 billion at $19.50 per dose. In the LAC region, if effective delivery mechanisms can achieve high coverage rates in young adolescent girls, vaccination against HPV-16 and 18 will provide similar health value for resources invested as other new vaccines such as rotavirus. If

  13. Progress towards eliminating canine rabies: policies and perspectives from Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Clavijo, Alfonso; Knobl, Terezinha; Silva, Hugo Marcelo Tamayo; Cosivi, Ottorino; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Leanes, Luis Fernando; Belotto, Albino José; Espinal, Marcos Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Human rabies transmitted by dogs is considered a neglected disease that can be eliminated in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by 2015. The aim of this paper is to discuss canine rabies policies and projections for LAC regarding current strategies for achieving this target and to critically review the political, economic and geographical factors related to the successful elimination of this deadly disease in the context of the difficulties and challenges of the region. The strong political and technical commitment to control rabies in LAC in the 1980s, started with the regional programme coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization. National and subnational programmes involve a range of strategies including mass canine vaccination with more than 51 million doses of canine vaccine produced annually, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, improvements in disease diagnosis and intensive surveillance. Rabies incidence in LAC has dramatically declined over the last few decades, with laboratory confirmed dog rabies cases decreasing from approximately 25 000 in 1980 to less than 300 in 2010. Dog-transmitted human rabies cases also decreased from 350 to less than 10 during the same period. Several countries have been declared free of human cases of dog-transmitted rabies, and from the 35 countries in the Americas, there is now only notification of human rabies transmitted by dogs in seven countries (Bolivia, Peru, Honduras, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Guatemala and some states in north and northeast Brazil). Here, we emphasize the importance of the political commitment in the final progression towards disease elimination. The availability of strategies for rabies control, the experience of most countries in the region and the historical ties of solidarity between countries with the support of the scientific community are evidence to affirm that the elimination of dog-transmitted rabies can be achieved in the short term. The final efforts to confront the remaining

  14. Inclusion Needs of 3.0 Students in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budden, Connie B.; Brenes, Lizette; Baraya, Aristides R.; Budden, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent changes in information and communication technologies offer people unprecedented opportunities to generate and share knowledge. Currently, inclusion refers to equal opportunities for the 3.0 person and it is not limited to special physical needs or reducing the digital divide. Faced with this reality, universities, in general must transform…

  15. Calakmul Model Forest. Reports from the field -- Latin America.

    PubMed

    Boulet, M

    1997-01-01

    The Calakmul Model Forest, which is situated in the Calakmul area of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, is one of 18 model forests in five countries worldwide that are coordinated by the secretariat at IDRC headquarters in Ottawa. The program promotes the management of natural resources in a sustained manner by a partnership of environmentalists, industry, and local communities. The goals of the program include: 1) ensuring ongoing harvests of food, wood, and other products; 2) enhancing the standard of living of local inhabitants; 3) raising awareness of conservation; and 4) promoting ecotourism. Based upon her initial surveys, Gloria Tavera, environmental educator for the program, found that: 1) more than 50% of the local population was under 15 years of age; 2) ethnic diversity was high; 3) literacy rates were low; and 4) women and children should be targeted. Since written material would be ineffective, other avenues would have to be used, such as the film "The Lion King," which brought people together to discuss environmental issues. Other program achievements include a wildlife station, the Calakmul Botanical Gardens, and a food, arts, and crafts fair and fashion show (1995) that focused on local forest products. The wildlife station houses puma, jaguar, and wild pigs. The Botanical Gardens, which covers six hectares of land, features nature trails and a showcase of local flora (including edible plants and 56 species of native orchids). It is a base for workshops, information sessions, and educational tours to the local Mayan ruins. As a result of the fair, clothes embroidered with traditional designs are being sold to tourists at the ruins, and a cookbook has been published. Tavera is now targeting 2500 primary school children in the area via environmental workshops for their teachers.

  16. Calakmul Model Forest. Reports from the field -- Latin America.

    PubMed

    Boulet, M

    1997-01-01

    The Calakmul Model Forest, which is situated in the Calakmul area of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, is one of 18 model forests in five countries worldwide that are coordinated by the secretariat at IDRC headquarters in Ottawa. The program promotes the management of natural resources in a sustained manner by a partnership of environmentalists, industry, and local communities. The goals of the program include: 1) ensuring ongoing harvests of food, wood, and other products; 2) enhancing the standard of living of local inhabitants; 3) raising awareness of conservation; and 4) promoting ecotourism. Based upon her initial surveys, Gloria Tavera, environmental educator for the program, found that: 1) more than 50% of the local population was under 15 years of age; 2) ethnic diversity was high; 3) literacy rates were low; and 4) women and children should be targeted. Since written material would be ineffective, other avenues would have to be used, such as the film "The Lion King," which brought people together to discuss environmental issues. Other program achievements include a wildlife station, the Calakmul Botanical Gardens, and a food, arts, and crafts fair and fashion show (1995) that focused on local forest products. The wildlife station houses puma, jaguar, and wild pigs. The Botanical Gardens, which covers six hectares of land, features nature trails and a showcase of local flora (including edible plants and 56 species of native orchids). It is a base for workshops, information sessions, and educational tours to the local Mayan ruins. As a result of the fair, clothes embroidered with traditional designs are being sold to tourists at the ruins, and a cookbook has been published. Tavera is now targeting 2500 primary school children in the area via environmental workshops for their teachers. PMID:12290332

  17. International Scientific Optical Network (ISON) in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles Barrera, Rodolfo; Molotov, Igor; Voropaev, Victor; Elenin, Leonid; Grebetskaya, Olga; Condori, Roberto; Mendoza, Daniel; Kokina, Tatiana

    2015-10-01

    International Scientific Optical Network (ISON) is one of largest observing networks specializing in space objects. The main goals of ISON are the investigation of space debris, studying near Earth asteroids (NEA) and observing gamma-ray-bursts (GRB) afterglows. ISON is continuously growing and currently has 35 observation facilities in 15 countries, with 80 telescopes of different apertures (from 12.5 cm to 2.6 m)(see Fig. 1). 8.4 millions of measurements in 1.26 millions of tracks for about 4000 space debris objects were collected by ISON in 2014 and used for analysis. Currently 3 observatories collaborate with ISON in the Western Hemisphere: Tarija in Bolivia, Cosala in Mexico and Mayhill in USA.

  18. [Health, human development, and governance in Latin America and the Caribbean at the beginning of the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Casas-Zamora, Juan Antonio

    2002-01-01

    The issue of the reciprocal relationship between health and development has recently taken on greater importance in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), given the persistence of extreme poverty and the political and social difficulties due to macroeconomic imbalances and crises of governance. This piece reviews concepts of sustainable human development, social determinants of health in general and of health inequities in particular (gender, ethnic group, income level), and the relationship between health and economic growth in the medium term and the long term. An analysis is made of how persistent poverty in countries of LAC relates to disparities in health conditions, access to health services, and health care financing, as well as to such health determinants as nutrition and environmental sanitation. Health inequities most strongly affect the most excluded and vulnerable sectors of the population. In the face of this situation, the author stresses that putting a priority on health inequities is vital to safeguarding the governability and the social and political stability of countries in LAC in the next decade.

  19. Status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and methods to monitor it in the Latin America and Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Calleja, Jesus M Garcia; Walker, Neff; Cuchi, Paloma; Lazzari, Stefano; Ghys, Peter D; Zacarias, Fernando

    2002-12-01

    The paper presented is a review of the available epidemiological data on the situation in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region, and looks at HIV prevalence in specific population groups. At the end of 2001, HIV remains an important health issue in the LAC region. Twelve countries in the region have an estimated prevalence of 1% or higher among pregnant women. Most of the LAC countries with generalized epidemics are located in the Caribbean basin. In the past decade there has been a slow but continuous increase in HIV prevalence rates among the general population and vulnerable groups, although information in some countries is limited. In many countries, the highest HIV prevalence among vulnerable groups is found among men who have sex with men. HIV infections related to injecting drug use are concentrated in the countries of the Southern Cone and Brazil. HIV is well anchored in the region, concentrated in vulnerable groups in most countries, but with an increasing presence in some countries in the general population. There is a need to improve data collection and introduce new tools to monitor behavior trends and the impact of interventions.

  20. Constructing a small modular stellarator in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, V. I.; Mora, J.; Asenjo, J.; Zamora, E.; Otárola, C.; Barillas, L.; Carvajal-Godínez, J.; González-Gómez, J.; Soto-Soto, C.; Piedras, C.

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims at briefly describing the design and construction issues of the stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1). The SCR-1 is a small modular stellarator for magnetic confinement of plasma developed by the Plasma Laboratory for Fusion Energy and Applications of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (ITCR). SCR-1 will be a 2-field period small modular stellarator with an aspect ratio > 4.4; low shear configuration with core and edge rotational transform equal to 0.32 and 0.28; it will hold plasma in a 6061-T6 aluminum torus shaped vacuum vessel with an minor plasma radius 54.11 mm, a volume of 13.76 liters (0.01 m3), and major radius R = 238 mm. Plasma will be confined in the volume by on axis magnetic field 43.8 mT generated by 12 modular coils with 6 turns each, carrying a current of 767.8 A per turn providing a total toroidal field (TF) current of 4.6 kA-turn per coil. The coils will be supplied by a bank of cell batteries of 120 V. Typical length of the plasma pulse will be between 4 s to 10 s. The SCR-1 plasmas will be heated by ECH second harmonic at 2.45 GHz with a plasma density cut-off value of 7.45 × 1016 m-3. Two magnetrons with a maximum output power of 2 kW and 3 kW will be used.