Sample records for latissimus dorsi tendon

  1. The use of Achilles tendon allograft for latissimus dorsi tendon reconstruction: a minimally invasive technique.

    PubMed

    Sabzevari, Soheil; Chao, Tom; Kalawadia, Jay; Lin, Albert

    2018-01-01

    Treatment of subacute, retracted latissimus dorsi and teres major tendon ruptures in young overhead athletes is challenging. This case report describes management of a subacute retracted latissimus dorsi and teres major rupture with Achilles tendon allograft reconstruction using a two-incision minimally invasive technique. Level of evidence V.

  2. Surgical anatomy of latissimus dorsi muscle in transfers about the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Benjamin A; Elhassan, Bassem; Marciniak, Steven; Dunn, Jonathan H

    2009-03-01

    Transfer of the latissimus dorsi to the greater tuberosity has been used successfully in the treatment of massive rotator-cuff deficiency. For safe release and transfer of the tendon, the variations in the tendinous insertions of the latissimus dorsi and teres major onto the humerus need to be understood. In anatomical dissection of 12 cadavers, mean width of the latissimus tendon was 3.3 cm at its insertion, and mean length was 7.3 cm. In all specimens, there were fascial connections between the latissimus and teres major and between the latissimus and the long head of the triceps. There were 3 insertion patterns of the latissimus dorsi tendon onto the humerus with respect to the tendon of the teres major: completely separate (8 cadavers), loosely bound (3 cadavers), and completely joined (1 cadaver). If the latissimus dorsi were being transferred in the last type, the teres major would need to be transferred with the latissimus dorsi as a common musculotendinous unit.

  3. Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Tendon Avulsions in Cricketers: A Case Series and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Krishant S; James, Trefor; Rotstein, Andrew H; Balster, Simon M; Hoy, Gregory A

    2017-05-01

    Acute latissimus dorsi tendon injuries are uncommon, having not previously been described in cricketers. The leg spinner's stock ball bowling technique and the fast bowler's back-of-the-hand slow ball, which is used much more widely in T20 cricket, produce a significant eccentric contraction load on the latissimus dorsi muscle. A retrospective review of a case series of acute latissimus dorsi tendon injuries in 3 elite cricketers (2 fast bowlers and a leg-spin bowler). We compare the outcomes using patient-rated scales and objective strength testing. Two patients underwent operative repair and had excellent outcomes. One of the nonoperatively managed patients had mild ongoing symptoms at 7 months. An associated injury to teres major did not affect the outcome of this injury. Operative repair is a viable alternative and may produce better outcomes in cricketers. The short T20 form of cricket has lead to an increase in the number of back-of-the-hand slow balls, a risk factor for Latissimus injury, whereas leg-spin bowling is another risk.

  4. Arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi transfer for subscapularis deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kany, Jean; Guinand, Régis; Croutzet, Pierre; Valenti, Philippe; Werthel, Jean David; Grimberg, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Few salvage procedures have been described in case of irreparable subscapularis tear and with variable outcomes. Latissimus dorsi transfer has been widely proposed as a transfer for irreparable posterio-superior rotator cuff tear with good outcomes. The anatomic feasibility of the latissimus dorsi to reconstruct the antero-superior irreparable rotator cuff tear has been suggested, but no clinical study has ever been published. We hypothesized that it was possible to use an arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi transfer to reconstruct the subscapularis function. Five patients were enrolled. A 5-7-cm axillary incision was performed to release the latissimus dorsi tendon from its humeral insertion, the teres major muscle and the apex of the scapula. Afterwards, under arthroscopic control, a 7-mm-diameter tunnel was drilled at the anterior and superior part of the humeral head with an oblique inferior and posterior direction. The tubularized latissimus dorsi tendon was introduced into the tunnel and fixed with a ZipLoop on the posterior humeral cortex. The authors show overall good experience with this technique. Level IV-a, case series.

  5. Time-dependent changes after latissimus dorsi transfer: tenodesis or tendon transfer?

    PubMed

    Erşen, Ali; Ozben, Hakan; Demirhan, Mehmet; Atalar, Ata Can; Kapıcıoğlu, Mehmet

    2014-12-01

    Transfer of the latissimus dorsi tendon to the posterosuperior part of the rotator cuff is an option in active patients with massive rotator cuff tears to restore shoulder elevation and external rotation. However, it is unknown whether this treatment prevents progression of cuff tear arthropathy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the observed improvement in shoulder function in the early postoperative period with latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tears will be permanent or will deteriorate in the midterm period (at 1-5 years after surgery). During a 6-year period, we performed 11 latissimus dorsi tendon transfers in 11 patients for patients with massive, irreparable, chronic tears of the posterosuperior part of the rotator cuff (defined as > 5 cm supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon tears with Goutallier Grade 3 to 4 fatty infiltration on MRI), for patients who were younger than 65 years of age, and had high functional demands and intact subscapularis function. No patients were lost to followup; minimum followup was 12 months (median, 33 months; range, 12-62 months). The mean patient age was 55 years (median, 53 years; range, 47-65 years). Shoulder forward elevation, external rotation, and Constant-Murley and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores were assessed. Pain was assessed by a 0- to 10-point visual analog scale. Acromiohumeral distance and cuff tear arthropathy (staged according to the Hamada classification) were evaluated on radiographs. Shoulder forward elevation, external rotation, Constant-Murley scores, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores improved at 6 months. However, although shoulder motion values and Constant-Murley scores remained unchanged between the 6-month and latest evaluations, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores decreased in this period (median, 71; range, 33-88 versus median, 68; range, 33-85; p = 0.009). Visual analog scale scores improved between the

  6. Latissimus Dorsi Tendon Transfer for Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears: A Modified Technique Using Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Villacis, Diego; Merriman, Jarrad; Wong, Karlton; Rick Hatch, George F.

    2013-01-01

    Latissimus dorsi transfer is a well-established method for the treatment of posterosuperior massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. We propose using an arthroscopically assisted technique that avoids insult to the deltoid. With the patient in the lateral decubitus position, an L-shaped incision is made along the anterior belly of the latissimus muscle and then along the posterior axillary line. The latissimus and teres major are identified and separated. The tendon insertion of the latissimus is isolated, and a FiberWire traction suture (Arthrex, Naples, FL) is placed, facilitating dissection of the muscle to the thoracodorsal neurovascular pedicle and subsequent mobilization. The interval deep to the deltoid and superficial to the teres minor is developed into a subdeltoid tunnel for arthroscopic tendon transfer. The latissimus tendon is then transferred and stabilized arthroscopically to the lateral aspect of the infraspinatus and supraspinatus footprints by multiple suture anchors. PMID:23767006

  7. Arthroscopically Assisted Latissimus Dorsi Tendon Transfer in Beach-Chair Position

    PubMed Central

    Jermolajevas, Viktoras; Kordasiewicz, Bartlomiej

    2015-01-01

    Irreparable rotator cuff tears remain a surgical problem. The open technique of latissimus dorsi (LD) tendon transfer to “replace” the irreparable rotator cuff is already well known. The aim of this article is to present a modified arthroscopically assisted LD tendon transfer technique. This technique was adopted to operate on patients in the beach-chair position with several improvements in tendon harvesting and fixation. It can be divided into 6 steps, and only 1 step—LD muscle and tendon release—is performed open. The advantages of the arthroscopic procedure are sparing of the deltoid muscle, the possibility of repairing the subscapularis tendon, and the ability to visualize structures at risk while performing tendon harvesting (radial nerve) and passing into the subacromial space (axillary nerve). It is performed in a similar manner to standard rotator cuff surgery—the beach-chair position does not need any modification, and no sophisticated equipment for either the open or arthroscopic part of the procedure is necessary. Nevertheless, this is a challenging procedure and should only be attempted after training, as well as extensive practice. PMID:26759777

  8. Variation in the insertion of the latissimus dorsi & its clinical importance.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, C R; Prajapati, B; Patil, D S; Patel, V D; Singh, Binodkumar G P; Mehta, C D

    2013-01-01

    The latissimus dorsi is the larger, flat, dorso-lateral muscle on the trunk, posterior to the arm, and partly covered by the trapezius on its median dorsal region. Origin of the latissimus dorsi is from spinous processes of thoracic T7-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest and inferior 3 or 4 ribs, inferior angle of scapula and insertion on floor of intertubercular groove of the humerus. We have studied 50 cadavers in the different medical colleges in which we found 2% case of anterior and posterior slip of the muscle fibers with their extension up to the pectoralis major and teres major respectively. Usually, latissimus dorsi involve in extension, adduction, transverse extension also known as horizontal abduction, flexion from an extended position, and internal rotation of the shoulder joint. It also has a synergistic role in extension and lateral flexion of the lumbar spine. The latissimus dorsi may be used for the tendon graft surgeries. Tight latissimus dorsi has been shown to be one cause of chronic shoulder pain and chronic back pain. Because the latissimus dorsi connects the spine to the humerus, tightness in this muscle can manifest as either sub-optimal glenohumeral joint function (which leads to chronic shoulder pain) or tendinitis in the tendinous fasciae connecting the latissimus dorsi to the thoracic and lumbar spine. Latissimus dorsi used for pedicle transplant rotator cuff repair reconstruction of breast, face, scalp and cranium defect. The extra slip of the latissimus dorsi may puzzle any transplant operations. We as anatomist discuss the clinical implication of the extra slip of latissimus dorsi.

  9. Variation in the insertion of the latissimus dorsi & its clinical importance

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, C.R.; Prajapati, B.; Patil, D.S.; Patel, V.D.; Singh, Binodkumar G.P.; Mehta, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    The latissimus dorsi is the larger, flat, dorso-lateral muscle on the trunk, posterior to the arm, and partly covered by the trapezius on its median dorsal region. Origin of the latissimus dorsi is from spinous processes of thoracic T7–T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest and inferior 3 or 4 ribs, inferior angle of scapula and insertion on floor of intertubercular groove of the humerus. We have studied 50 cadavers in the different medical colleges in which we found 2% case of anterior and posterior slip of the muscle fibers with their extension up to the pectoralis major and teres major respectively. Usually, latissimus dorsi involve in extension, adduction, transverse extension also known as horizontal abduction, flexion from an extended position, and internal rotation of the shoulder joint. It also has a synergistic role in extension and lateral flexion of the lumbar spine. The latissimus dorsi may be used for the tendon graft surgeries. Tight latissimus dorsi has been shown to be one cause of chronic shoulder pain and chronic back pain. Because the latissimus dorsi connects the spine to the humerus, tightness in this muscle can manifest as either sub-optimal glenohumeral joint function (which leads to chronic shoulder pain) or tendinitis in the tendinous fasciae connecting the latissimus dorsi to the thoracic and lumbar spine. Latissimus dorsi used for pedicle transplant rotator cuff repair reconstruction of breast, face, scalp and cranium defect. The extra slip of the latissimus dorsi may puzzle any transplant operations. We as anatomist discuss the clinical implication of the extra slip of latissimus dorsi. PMID:24403744

  10. Sports Injuries to the Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Benjamin F; Lubitz, Marc G; Kremchek, Timothy E

    2017-08-01

    Injuries to the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles, while rare, are debilitating. They are seen in a variety of sports, although disproportionately in the throwing shoulder of baseball pitchers. There have been 25 case reports and 2 case series published on the nonoperative and operative management of these injuries. Latissimus dorsi and teres major muscle anatomy, function, and common injury patterns are well described in these case reports. Also well detailed are the typical patient presentation, physical examination, and imaging findings. Latissimus dorsi tendon injuries are sometimes treated operatively, whereas latissimus dorsi muscle belly or isolated teres major injuries are treated nonoperatively. Nonoperative treatment includes oral anti-inflammatories and shoulder physical therapy. A number of surgical patient positions, approaches, and fixation constructs have been described, although 2 techniques of positioning and surgical approach are used most commonly. Fixation is most often performed with suture anchors. Return-to-play timing, shoulder strength, and healing on magnetic resonance imaging are variable. No standard of care currently exists for the treatment of latissimus dorsi or teres major injuries. If treating a patient with an injury to either muscle, the clinician should be familiar with accumulated experience as reported in the published literature.

  11. Biomechanical effect of latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for irreparable massive cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Oh, Joo Han; Tilan, Justin; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chung, Kyung Chil; McGarry, Michelle H; Lee, Thay Q

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical effects of latissimus dorsi transfer in a cadaveric model of massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tear. Eight cadaveric shoulders were tested at 0°, 30°, and 60° of abduction in the scapular plane with anatomically based muscle loading. Humeral rotational range of motion and the amount of humeral rotation due to muscle loading were measured. Glenohumeral kinematics and contact characteristics were measured throughout the range of motion. After testing in the intact condition, the supraspinatus and infraspinatus were resected. The cuff tear was then repaired by latissimus dorsi transfer. Two muscle loading conditions were applied after latissimus transfer to simulate increased tension that may occur due to limited muscle excursion. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. The amount of internal rotation due to muscle loading and maximum internal rotation increased with massive cuff tear and was restored with latissimus transfer (P < .05). At maximum internal rotation, the humeral head apex shifted anteriorly, superiorly, and laterally at 0° of abduction after massive cuff tear (P < .05); this abnormal shift was corrected with latissimus transfer (P < .05). However, at 30° and 60° of abduction, latissimus transfer significantly altered kinematics (P < .05) and latissimus transfer with increased muscle loading increased contact pressure, especially at 60° of abduction. Latissimus dorsi transfer is beneficial in restoring humeral internal/external rotational range of motion, the internal/external rotational balance of the humerus, and glenohumeral kinematics at 0° of abduction. However, latissimus dorsi transfer with simulated limited excursion may lead to an overcompensation that can further deteriorate normal biomechanics, especially at higher abduction angles. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  12. Electromyographic activity after latissimus dorsi transfer: testing of coactivation as a simple tool to assess latissimus dorsi motor learning.

    PubMed

    Plath, Johannes E; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Beitzel, Knut; Minzlaff, Philipp; Schwirtz, Ansgar; Imhoff, Andreas B; Buchmann, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate coactivation (CoA) testing as a clinical tool to monitor motor learning after latissimus dorsi tendon transfer. We evaluated 20 patients clinically with the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) outcomes scores, visual analog scale, active external rotation (aER), and isometric strength testing in abduction and external rotation. Measurements of aER were performed while the latissimus dorsi was activated in its new function of external rotation with concomitant activation (coactivation) of its native functions (adduction and extension). Bilateral surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during aER measurements and the strength testing procedure (EMG activity ratio: with/without CoA). Patients were divided into two groups (excellent/good vs fair/poor) according to the results of the ASES and UCLA scores. The mean follow-up was 57.8 ± 25.2 months. Subdivided by clinical scores, the superior outcome group lost aER with CoA, whereas the inferior outcome group gained aER (UCLA score: -2.2° ± 7.4° vs +4.3° ± 4.1°; P = .031). Patients with inferior outcomes in the ASES score showed higher latissimus dorsi EMG activity ratios (P = .027), suggesting an inadequate motor learning process. Isometric strength testing revealed that the latissimus dorsi transfer had significantly greater activity compared with the contralateral side (external rotation, P = .008; abduction, P = .006) but did not have comparable strength (external rotation, P = .017; abduction, P = .009). Patients with inferior clinical results were more likely to be dependent on CoA to gain external rotation. Therefore, CoA testing may be used as a tool to evaluate the status of postoperative motor learning after latissimus dorsi transfer. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Variation of the latissimus dorsi.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ishani P; Yadav, Amit; Mehta, Rujuta; Thatte, Mukund

    2014-01-01

    A typical muscle variation of latissimus dorsi - the axillary arch is represented by the muscular or fibromuscular slip detached from the anteroinferior border of the musculus latissimus dorsi passing over the axilla under the axillary fascia crossing the medial side of the brachial plexus to continue as a septum intermusculare mediale brachii distally to the medial epicondyle of humerus. The full extent of the muscle is rarely present. Slips of muscle extend from the latissimus dorsi at the inferior angle of scapula to insert into pectoralis major (Langer), coracobrachilis, biceps or coracoid process forming what is described as a common variant - the muscular axillary arch. We report three cases of variants of latissimus dorsi, one of which has not been reported in the literature before.

  14. Variation of the latissimus dorsi

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ishani P; Yadav, Amit; Mehta, Rujuta; Thatte, Mukund

    2014-01-01

    A typical muscle variation of latissimus dorsi — the axillary arch is represented by the muscular or fibromuscular slip detached from the anteroinferior border of the musculus latissimus dorsi passing over the axilla under the axillary fascia crossing the medial side of the brachial plexus to continue as a septum intermusculare mediale brachii distally to the medial epicondyle of humerus. The full extent of the muscle is rarely present. Slips of muscle extend from the latissimus dorsi at the inferior angle of scapula to insert into pectoralis major (Langer), coracobrachilis, biceps or coracoid process forming what is described as a common variant - the muscular axillary arch. We report three cases of variants of latissimus dorsi, one of which has not been reported in the literature before. PMID:25593441

  15. Postoperative physical therapy program for latissimus dorsi and teres major tendons transfer to rotator cuff in children with obstetrical brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Safoury, Yasser A; Eldesoky, Mohamed T; Abutaleb, Enas E; Atteya, Mohamed R; Gabr, Ahmed M

    2017-04-01

    The transfer of latissimus dorsi and teres major tendons to rotator cuff have been developed to rebalance the muscular dysfunction and improve shoulder range of motion in children with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP). No previous study reported the ideal postoperative physical therapy program for these cases. The aim of the present study was to design appropriate postoperative physical therapy (PT) program after latissimus dorsi and teres major tendons transfer to rotator cuff in OBPP to improve upper limb function. Time series design. The patients were recruited from outpatient clinic of Kasr EL Aini Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Forty seven OBPP infants (4.64±1.21 years with a range of 2.5 to 7 years, 21male and26 female) were allocated to one group. All patients had functional limitation in the involved arm due to muscle paralysis and contracture. Twenty-five patients had C5-C6 nerve root lesions while 22 had C5-C6-C7 nerve root lesions. The children underwent the surgical procedures of the transfer of latissimus dorsi and teres major tendons to rotator cuff. After the surgery the children participated in a designed physical therapy program for 6 months. Active shoulder abduction, flexion and external rotation range of motion (ROM) were assessed by electrogoniometer, and functional assessments were measured using the modified Mallet scale. All measurements were taken preoperative, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively after the application of the designed PT program. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni post-hoc test were used to show the improvement in all measured variables. Analysis revealed that shoulder abduction, flexion and external rotation ROM and shoulder function measured by modified Mallet scale were significantly improved (P<0.0001) after the designed postoperative PT program. It can be concluded that the combination treatment of surgical procedure and the postoperative physical therapy program seem to

  16. Influence of fixation point of latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tear on glenohumeral external rotation: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Bargoin, K; Boissard, M; Kany, J; Grimberg, J

    2016-12-01

    Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is a surgical option for treating irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears, notably when attempting to reconstruct active external rotation. We hypothesized that the positioning of the transfer's point of fixation would differ depending on the desired elbow-to-body external rotation or external rotation with the elbow abducted. Seven shoulders from four whole frozen cadavers were used. We created two systems to install the subject in a semi-seated position to allow external rotation elbow to body and the arm abducted 90°. Traction sutures were positioned on the latissimus dorsi muscle and a massive tear of the rotator cuff was created. We tested six different transfer positions. Muscle contraction of the latissimus dorsi was stimulated using 10-N and 20-N suspended weights. The point of fixation of the latissimus dorsi on the humeral head had an influence on the elbow-to-body external rotation and with 90° abduction (P<0.001). The fixation point for a maximum external rotation with the elbow to the body was the anterolateral position (P<0.016). The fixation point for a maximum external rotation at 90° abduction was the position centered on the infraspinatus footprint (P<0.078). The optimal point of fixation differs depending on whether external rotation is restored at 0° or 90° abduction. Fundamental study, anatomic study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. INTRAOPERATIVE FAT GRAFTING INTO THE PECTORALIS AND LATISSIMUS DORSI MUSCLES-NOVEL MODIFICATION OF AUTOLOGOUS BREAST RECONSTRUCTION WITH EXTENDED LATISSIMUS DORSI FLAP.

    PubMed

    Streit, L; Dražan, L; Schneiderová, M; Kubek, T; Sin, P; Veselý, K; Coufal, O; Veselý, J

    2017-01-01

    The latissimus dorsi flap is a reliable and one of the most commonly used methods of both immediate and delayed breast reconstruction. Its disadvantage is the limited volume of transferred tissue. The authors present their experience with the use of extended latissimus dorsi flap associated with immediate fat grafting into the pectoralis and latissimus dorsi muscles for secondary breast reconstruction. From 2013 to 2016, 14 patients underwent secondary unilateral total breast reconstruction with extended latissimus dorsi flap associated with primary fat grafting into the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles. Fat was injected under visual control between muscle fibers. Fat injected into the pectoralis muscle formed an apparent bulging - autoprosthesis. Mean patient age was 48.2 years (range, 34 to 64 years). Mean injected fat volume was 86.4 ml (range, 50 to 160 ml) and majority of this volume was injected into the pectoralis muscle. All flaps healed uneventfully and no fat grafting-related complications were observed. The most common complication was donor site seroma, which occurred in 57.1%. Results of postoperative ultrasound examination were evaluated. Incidence and the size of oil cysts and fat necroses were significantly lower in muscular layer in comparison with the subcutaneous layer of the reconstructed breast. Immediate fat transfer into the pectoralis and latissimus dorsi muscle increases the breast volume during the reconstruction with extended latissimus dorsi flap avoiding implant-related complications when abdominal tissue is not available. Pectoralis and latissimus dorsi muscles were shown as reliable and safe recipients for fat grafting.

  18. Latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable subscapularis tendon tears.

    PubMed

    Mun, Sang Won; Kim, Ji Young; Yi, Seung Hoon; Baek, Chang Hee

    2018-06-01

    There are several tendon transfers for reconstruction of irreparable subscapularis tears. The latissimus dorsi (LD) could be used because its direction and function are similar to those of the subscapularis. We performed LD transfers for irreparable subscapularis tears and evaluated clinical outcomes. The study enrolled 24 consecutive patients who underwent LD transfers. Clinical and functional outcomes were evaluated using the Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, pain visual analog scale, and range of shoulder motion preoperatively and at last follow-up. The lift-off and belly-press tests were performed to assess subscapularis integrity and function. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively to evaluate tendon integrity. Mean Constant, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, and pain scores improved from 46 ± 6 to 69 ± 5 (P < .001), from 40 ± 3 to 70 ± 5 (P < .001), and from 6 ± 1 to 2 ± 1 (P = .006), respectively. The mean range of motion for forward elevation and internal rotation increased from 135° ± 17° to 166° ± 15° (P = .016) and from L5 to L1 (P = .010), respectively. Improvement in the range of motion for external rotation was not significant (51° ± 7° to 68° ± 7°; P = .062). At final follow-up, the belly-press test results were negative for 18 of 24 patients, and the lift-off test results were negative for 16 of 20 patients. No complications related to tendon transfer, including axillary and radial nerve injuries, were found. No retearing of the transferred LD was observed. LD transfer resulted in pain relief and restoration of shoulder range of motion and function. LD transfer could be considered an effective and safe salvage treatment for irreparable subscapularis tears. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rehabilitation after a grade III latissimus dorsi tear of a soccer player: A case report.

    PubMed

    Fysentzou, Christodoulos

    2016-11-21

    Latissimus dorsi, grade III tendon tears are an uncommon injury. There are very few cases reported in the literature, but most importantly, no cases could be found that relate to soccer. To present a successful, non-operative rehabilitation program for a professional athlete, after a grade III latissimus dorsi tear. A 37 year old healthy, elite professional soccer goalkeeper was injured during a championship game. The athlete fell on his left side with an outstretched and externally rotated upper extremity in order to catch a ball that was going very close to the left pole of his goal-post. After on-field and off-field clinical examinations, the diagnosis was a left latissimus dorsi tendon tear which was later confirmed by MRI as a grade III tear. During the first two weeks, intervention consisted of anti-inflammatory treatment and light therapeutic exercises. As the pain was subsiding and the strength was returning, the treatment shifted to purely strengthening and functional training. Four weeks after the injury, the athlete presented with pain 0/10 in all functional activities and full ROM in both active and passive movements. Before discharge, the athlete underwent a sport specific training program, without any complains, that cleared him to participate in normal training with the rest of the team. Three months after the injury the strength of the player's left shoulder was 5/5 in all movements. The protocol used yielded an accelerated return to sport (soccer) and function compared with other published research after a grade III latissimus dorsi tendon tear. One year later, the goalkeeper was still playing in the same competitive level without any re-injuries or complains, which means that this treatment protocol withstood the test of time.

  20. Latissimus Dorsi Transfer in Posterior Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis P; Alexiadis, George; Spyridonos, Sarantis; Fandridis, Emmanouil

    2017-01-01

    Massive rotator cuff tears pose a difficult and complex challenge even for the experienced surgeon; inability to repair these tears by conventional means designates them as irreparable, while management becomes quite taxing. Several operative options have been suggested for the management of such lesions with varying degrees of success, while it is imperative to match patient demands and expectations to the predicted outcome. Research articles are examined and key concepts are discussed, in order to provide an evidence based review of the available literature. The anatomy and pathomechanics along with the indications, contraindications and surgical techniques are reported. Transfer of the Latissimus dorsi has been used with success to restore shoulder function in deficits of the posterior rotator cuff. Although it can be used in a variety of settings, the ideal patient for a Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is a young and active individual, with no glenohumeral osteoarthritis that has a severe disability and weakness related to an irreparable posterior cuff tear. Tendon transfers have proved to be a successful treatment option in salvaging this difficult problem, providing pain relief and restoring shoulder function. Despite the excellent functional outcomes and pain suppression following operation, a variety of factors may affect the outcome; thus making indications and preoperative assessment a valuable component.

  1. Does the latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for massive rotator cuff tears remain active postoperatively and restore active external rotation?

    PubMed

    Henseler, Jan Ferdinand; Nagels, Jochem; Nelissen, Rob G H H; de Groot, Jurriaan H

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the muscle activity with surface electromyography (EMG) and the clinical outcome of the latissimus dorsi transfer. It remains unclear whether the clinical results of the latissimus dorsi transfer for massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tears are achieved either by active muscle contractions or by a passive tenodesis effect of the transfer. Eight patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 1 year (SD, 0.1) after the latissimus dorsi transfer. Clinical evaluation of outcomes included active range of motion, Constant score, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and activities of daily living (ADL). Muscle activity was recorded with EMG during directional isometric abduction and adduction tasks. The external rotation in adduction improved from 23° to 51° (P = .03). The external rotation in abduction improved from 10° to 70° (P = .02). The mean Constant score improved from 39 to 62 postoperatively (P = .01). The VAS for pain at rest improved from 3.3 preoperatively to 0.1 (P = .02). The VAS for ADL improved from 4.9 to 2.3 (P = .05). The transferred latissimus dorsi remained active in all cases, as reflected by increased latissimus dorsi EMG activity during abduction tasks. In addition, the latissimus dorsi EMG activity shifted from preoperative antagonistic co-activation in adduction to synergistic activation in abduction. The latissimus dorsi has synergistic muscle activity after transfer. Apart from a tenodesis effect, directional muscle activity seems relevant for improved clinical outcome and pain relief. A specific gain was observed for external rotation in elevated arm positions, a motion essential for ADL tasks. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lumbar herniation following extended autologous latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Sheila Margaret; Fatayer, Hiba; Achuthan, Rajgopal

    2013-05-30

    Reconstructive breast surgery is now recognized to be an important part of the treatment for breast cancer. Surgical reconstruction options consist of implants, autologous tissue transfer or a combination of the two. The latissimus dorsi flap is a pedicled musculocutaneous flap and is an established method of autologous breast reconstruction.Lumbar hernias are an unusual type of hernia, the majority occurring after surgery or trauma in this area. The reported incidence of a lumbar hernia subsequent to a latissimus dorsi reconstruction is very low. We present the unusual case of lumbar herniation after an extended autologous latissimus dorsi flap for breast reconstruction following a mastectomy. The lumbar hernia was confirmed on CT scanning and the patient underwent an open mesh repair of the hernia through the previous latissimus dorsi scar. Lumbar hernias are a rare complication that can occur following latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction. It should be considered in all patients presenting with persistent pain or swelling in the lumbar region.

  3. Arthroscopic-Assisted Latissimus Dorsi Tendon Transfer for Massive, Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears: Technique and Short-Term Follow-Up of Patients With Pseudoparalysis.

    PubMed

    Kanatlı, Ulunay; Özer, Mustafa; Ataoğlu, Muhammet Baybars; Öztürk, Burak Yağmur; Gül, Orkun; Çetinkaya, Mehmet; Ayanoğlu, Tacettin

    2017-05-01

    To describe a modified technique for arthroscopic-assisted transfer of the latissimus dorsi tendon in a selected group of patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears and pseudoparalysis and to evaluate its short-term results. Fifteen patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears and pseudoparalysis treated by arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi tendon transfer were included. The mean patient age was 61.53 ± 6.24 years (range, 52-71 years). Patients were assessed with physical examination, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Score and Constant-Murley score, as well as visual analog scale score at a mean follow-up of 26.4 ± 2.58 months (range, 24-31 months). At final follow-up, mean UCLA score increased to 27.47 ± 6.31 compared with the preoperative UCLA score of 6.53 ± 2.1 (P < .001). Constant-Murley score was 21 ± 7.41 and 59.73 ± 13.62 (P < .001), visual analog scale pain score was 7.47 ± 1.06 and 2.47 ± 0.91 (P < .001), active forward flexion was 58° ± 21.11° and 130° ± 30.05° (P < .001), active abduction was 51° ± 21.64° and 129.67° ± 25.45° (P < .001), and active external rotation was 13.33° ± 21.68° and 32° ± 18.03° (P < .001) preoperatively and postoperatively, respectively. Mean acromiohumeral distance was 3.13 ± 1.40 mm preoperatively, whereas it was 5.67 ± 1.67 mm postoperatively (P < .001). No significant complications requiring a revision surgery was observed during the final follow-up. The modified technique of arthroscopic-assisted transfer of the latissimus dorsi tendon is a feasible, minimally invasive option for the surgical treatment of irreparable rotator cuff tears in a subset of patients with pseudoparalysis. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Outcomes evaluation following bilateral breast reconstruction using latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps.

    PubMed

    Losken, Albert; Nicholas, Claire S; Pinell, Ximena A; Carlson, Grant W

    2010-07-01

    The demand for bilateral breast reconstruction has recently increased. Although numerous options exist, the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap remains a popular technique. The benefits of additional autologous coverage are evident; however, donor site morbidity does exist. The purpose of this report is to evaluate our experience with bilateral latissimus dorsi breast reconstructions, focusing on donor site morbidity and patient satisfaction. All patients who underwent bilateral latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction at Emory University Hospital, were evaluated and included in the series. Data points queried included patient demographics, risk factors, radiation therapy, timing of the procedure (immediate or delayed), type of procedure (latissimus dorsi only, latissimus dorsi with expander, latissimus dorsi with implant), and outcomes. Outcomes included >1 additional operation, any breast and any donor-site complications. A patient satisfaction survey was performed evaluating outcomes such as aesthetic results, general satisfaction, morbidities, and functional assessment. Comparisons were made using radiation therapy, timing of reconstruction, and type of reconstruction as variables. Eighty-three patients underwent bilateral latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction with an average follow-up of 2.3 years. The method of reconstruction included latissimus dorsi with expander (n = 54), latissimus dorsi only (n = 17), and latissimus dorsi with implant (n = 12). Breast complications occurred in 34% of the patients with radiation therapy being a significant risk factor. The average number of secondary operations was 2.3 with the expander group resulting in an increased need for additional procedures. Overall patient satisfaction was 3.93/5, with the average symmetry score being 3.82/5, shape 3.84/5, nipple position 3.92/5, and inframammary fold (IMF) position 4/5. The majority of patients (n = 28/37) reported no pain (0/5) at the time of the survey. Most patients (n = 33

  5. Latissimus Dorsi Transfer in Posterior Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis P.; Alexiadis, George; Spyridonos, Sarantis; Fandridis, Emmanouil

    2017-01-01

    Background: Massive rotator cuff tears pose a difficult and complex challenge even for the experienced surgeon; inability to repair these tears by conventional means designates them as irreparable, while management becomes quite taxing. Several operative options have been suggested for the management of such lesions with varying degrees of success, while it is imperative to match patient demands and expectations to the predicted outcome. Methods: Research articles are examined and key concepts are discussed, in order to provide an evidence based review of the available literature. The anatomy and pathomechanics along with the indications, contraindications and surgical techniques are reported. Results: Transfer of the Latissimus dorsi has been used with success to restore shoulder function in deficits of the posterior rotator cuff. Although it can be used in a variety of settings, the ideal patient for a Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is a young and active individual, with no glenohumeral osteoarthritis that has a severe disability and weakness related to an irreparable posterior cuff tear. Conclusion: Tendon transfers have proved to be a successful treatment option in salvaging this difficult problem, providing pain relief and restoring shoulder function. Despite the excellent functional outcomes and pain suppression following operation, a variety of factors may affect the outcome; thus making indications and preoperative assessment a valuable component. PMID:28400877

  6. Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes With Assessment of the Learning Curve in Arthroscopically Assisted Latissimus Dorsi Tendon Transfer for Irreparable Posterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Yamakado, Kotaro

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical results of an arthroscopy-assisted latissimus dorsi tendon transfer (aLD) for irreparable posterosuperior cuff tears as a primary surgery. The secondary aim of this study was to quantify the learning curve using the log-linear model. We hypothesized that aLD significantly improved shoulder function and that there was consistent reduction of the operative time in support of a learning-curve effect. After the arthroscopic partial repair was completed, the latissimus dorsi tendon was harvested via axillary mini-open incision and fixed with a knotless anchor arthroscopically. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively using a modified University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) scoring system, active range of motion, and the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. The operative time was recorded to quantify the learning curve using a log-linear model. Thirty patients with a mean age of 67.4 years who underwent aLD were included. At a mean of 34 months after an aLD, the mean UCLA score increased from 15.7 preoperatively to 28.8 postoperatively (P < .001). The mean active forward elevation increased from 105° preoperatively to 149° postoperatively (P < .001). The mean active external rotation increased from 22° preoperatively to 32° postoperatively (P < .001). The VAS improved from 58 mm to 18 mm (P < .001). In all but 2 cases (93%), the preoperative osteoarthritis grade was maintained. The mean operative time was 145 minutes. A significant linear correlation was observed between the operative time and cumulative volume of cases after performing a logarithmic transformation. The learning rate was calculated as 84%. Arthroscopy-assisted latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is a technically demanding procedure; however, it can lead to significant improvements in overall shoulder pain and function. This study also confirmed a learning-curve effect for the aLD. The learning rate was 84%, indicating the existence of a long

  7. Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flap for Breast Reconstruction: Bad Rap or Good Flap?

    PubMed Central

    Perdikis, Galen; Koonce, Stephanie; Collis, George; Eck, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article serves to review latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap as an option for breast reconstruction postmastectomy. Since the introduction of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in the late 1970s, its use has always been as a secondary technique, particularly after the development of the transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap in the 1980s. Methods: A literature review of the history of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap utilized for breast reconstruction as well as a review of our institution's experience with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and tissue expander placement was performed. Results: There remains a paucity of published studies investigating latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for breast reconstruction. Most studies have small numbers and do not utilize tissue expanders. More recently several small studies have been published that show acceptably low complication rates with aesthetically pleasing outcomes when latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is employed with a tissue expander. At our institution, we have employed latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with tissue expander placement for both delayed and immediate reconstruction with subsequent replacement with a permanent implant with a capsular contraction rate of 10.5%. Our data and others more recently published demonstrate very acceptable capsular contracture rates and aesthetic outcomes, particularly when an expander is utilized. Conclusion: The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap remains an excellent choice for breast reconstruction with a low risk of complications. PMID:22031843

  8. Latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for breast reconstruction: bad rap or good flap?

    PubMed

    Perdikis, Galen; Koonce, Stephanie; Collis, George; Eck, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    This article serves to review latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap as an option for breast reconstruction postmastectomy. Since the introduction of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in the late 1970s, its use has always been as a secondary technique, particularly after the development of the transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap in the 1980s. A literature review of the history of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap utilized for breast reconstruction as well as a review of our institution's experience with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and tissue expander placement was performed. There remains a paucity of published studies investigating latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for breast reconstruction. Most studies have small numbers and do not utilize tissue expanders. More recently several small studies have been published that show acceptably low complication rates with aesthetically pleasing outcomes when latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is employed with a tissue expander. At our institution, we have employed latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with tissue expander placement for both delayed and immediate reconstruction with subsequent replacement with a permanent implant with a capsular contraction rate of 10.5%. Our data and others more recently published demonstrate very acceptable capsular contracture rates and aesthetic outcomes, particularly when an expander is utilized. The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap remains an excellent choice for breast reconstruction with a low risk of complications.

  9. Robotic-assisted latissimus dorsi harvest in delayed-immediate breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Mark W; Kronowitz, Steven; Selber, Jesse C

    2014-02-01

    For two-stage, implant-based, delayed-immediate reconstruction of the radiated breast, robotic-assisted latissimus dorsi harvest (RALDH) is a good option for patients who wish to avoid a traditional latissimus dorsi donor-site incision. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of RALDH and the traditional open technique (TOT) for patients undergoing delayed-immediate breast reconstruction following radiation therapy. A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of all consecutive patients undergoing latissimus dorsi harvest for radiated breast reconstruction between 2009 and 2013 was performed. Indications, surgical technique, complications, and outcomes were assessed. One hundred forty-six pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flaps were performed for breast reconstruction and 17 were performed robotically during the study period (average follow-up 14.6 ± 7.3 mo). Latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction following radiation was performed in 64 patients using TOT and 12 using RALDH. Surgical complication rates were 37.5% in TOT versus 16.7% in RALDH (p = 0.31) including seroma (8.9% versus 8.3%), infection (14.1 versus 8.3%), delayed wound healing (7.8% versus 0), and capsular contracture (4.7% vs. 0). Robotic-assisted harvest of the latissimus dorsi muscle is associated with a low complication rate and reliable results for delayed reconstruction of the irradiated breast while eliminating the need for a donor-site incision.

  10. Robotic-Assisted Latissimus Dorsi Harvest in Delayed-Immediate Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Mark W.; Kronowitz, Steven; Selber, Jesse C.

    2014-01-01

    For two-stage, implant-based, delayed-immediate reconstruction of the radiated breast, robotic-assisted latissimus dorsi harvest (RALDH) is a good option for patients who wish to avoid a traditional latissimus dorsi donor-site incision. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of RALDH and the traditional open technique (TOT) for patients undergoing delayed-immediate breast reconstruction following radiation therapy. A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of all consecutive patients undergoing latissimus dorsi harvest for radiated breast reconstruction between 2009 and 2013 was performed. Indications, surgical technique, complications, and outcomes were assessed. One hundred forty-six pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flaps were performed for breast reconstruction and 17 were performed robotically during the study period (average follow-up 14.6 ± 7.3 mo). Latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction following radiation was performed in 64 patients using TOT and 12 using RALDH. Surgical complication rates were 37.5% in TOT versus 16.7% in RALDH (p = 0.31) including seroma (8.9% versus 8.3%), infection (14.1 versus 8.3%), delayed wound healing (7.8% versus 0), and capsular contracture (4.7% vs. 0). Robotic-assisted harvest of the latissimus dorsi muscle is associated with a low complication rate and reliable results for delayed reconstruction of the irradiated breast while eliminating the need for a donor-site incision. PMID:24872775

  11. Functional reconstruction of complex tendo Achilles defect by free latissimus dorsi muscle flap

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Divya N.; Khanna, Vaibhav; Kohli, Romesh; Tulsi, Satendar P. S.; Garg, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Managing the complex tendo Achilles defect involves reconstructing the Achilles tendon as well as providing soft tissue cover to the heel area. The advent of microsurgery has revolutionised the reconstruction of this difficult defect providing a number of options to the reconstructive surgeon. We present a case of complex tendo Achilles defect reconstructed by the latissimus dorsi free flap. PMID:23450740

  12. Traumatic Tear of the Latissimus Dorsi Myotendinous Junction

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Michael V.; Stensby, J. Derek; Hillen, Travis J.; Demertzis, Jennifer L.; Keener, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    A case of a latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction strain in an avid CrossFit athlete is presented. The patient developed acute onset right axillary burning and swelling and subsequent palpable pop with weakness while performing a “muscle up.” Magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a high-grade tear of the right latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction approximately 9 cm proximal to its intact humeral insertion. There were no other injuries to the adjacent shoulder girdle structures. Isolated strain of the latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction is a very rare injury with a scarcity of information available regarding its imaging appearance and preferred treatment. This patient was treated conservatively and was able to resume active CrossFit training within 3 months. At 6 months postinjury, he had only a mild residual functional deficit compared with his preinjury level. PMID:26502450

  13. A novel technique for robot assisted latissimus dorsi flap harvest.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae-Hyun; You, Hi-Jin; Kim, Hyon-Surk; Lee, Byung-Il; Park, Seung-Ha; Yoon, Eul-Sik

    2015-07-01

    A robotic surgery technique of harvesting the latissimus dorsi muscle flap has technical advantages over endoscopic harvest and cosmetic advantages over the open technique. The authors introduce a new transaxillary gasless technique using an articulated long retractor for robot assisted latissimus dorsi flap harvest. Twelve robot assisted latissimus dorsi muscle flaps were harvested: 3 cases of delayed reconstruction following tissue expander insertion or breast conserving surgery; 4 cases of immediate reconstruction following nipple-sparing mastectomy; and 5 cases of chest wall deformity correction in patients with Poland syndrome. A specially designed articulated long retractor was used to maintain adequate working space and enable latissimus dorsi muscle dissection without gas insufflation. Twelve muscle flaps were successfully harvested in 12 patients without converting to an open technique. The mean docking time was 54.6 min, and the mean operative time and robotic time were 400.4 min and 85.8 min, respectively. There were no donor site complications or flap problems. Average follow-up was 15.7 months. All patients were satisfied with their esthetic results, especially the absence of visible scars. The novel robot assisted latissimus dorsi harvest technique is a safe alternative to the conventional method. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Comparison of isometric exercises for activating latissimus dorsi against the upper body weight.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-yeon; Yoo, Won-gyu; An, Duk-hyun; Oh, Jae-seop; Lee, Jung-hoon; Choi, Bo-ram

    2015-02-01

    Because there is little agreement as to which exercise is the most effective for activating the latissimus dorsi, and its intramuscular components are rarely compared, we investigated the intramuscular components of the latissimus dorsi during both trunk and shoulder exercises. Sixteen male subjects performed four isometric exercises: inverted row, body lifting, trunk extension, and trunk lateral bending. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to collect data from the medial and lateral components of the latissimus dorsi, lower trapezius, and the erector spinae at the 12th thoracic level during the isometric exercises. Two-way repeated analysis of variance with two within-subject factors (muscles and exercise conditions) was used to determine the significance of differences between the muscles and differences between exercise variations. The inverted row showed the highest values for the medial latissimus dorsi, which were significantly higher than those of the body lifting or trunk extension exercises. For the lateral latissimus dorsi, lateral bending showed significantly higher muscle activity than the inverted row or trunk extension. During body lifting, the % maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the erector spinae showed the lowest value, significantly lower than those of the other isometric exercises. The inverted row exercise was effective for activating the medial latissimus dorsi versus the shoulder depression and trunk exertion exercises. The lateral bending and body lifting exercises were favorable for activating the lateral component of the latissimus dorsi. Evaluating trunk lateral bending is essential for examining the function of the latissimus dorsi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Breast reconstruction by latissimus dorsi flap: Towards an evolution of ideas].

    PubMed

    Niddam, J; Guihard, T; Cothier-Savey, I; Chaussard, H; Lemasurier, P

    2015-12-01

    Breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap and fat grafting is a technique widely used in current practice. Some operators still complain at the lack of final results at the first intervention and the need for repeated lipofilling sessions. The objective of this study was to compare the number of reoperations in patients who underwent reconstruction with latissimus dorsi with prosthesis versus without prosthesis. We included all patients operated for breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap, with or without prosthesis between 2008 and 2012 in our center. We noted the number of new surgical interventions in these patients on the reconstructed breast. We also noted the average weight of mastectomy in two groups each year. One hundred and eighty-six patients were included in this study. Ninety-one patients underwent reconstruction with latissimus dorsi and prosthesis, and 95 patients reconstruction by latissimus dorsi and fat graft. It has not been demonstrated significant differences in the number of new surgical procedures between the two groups. The average weight of mastectomies in the autologous group has steadily increased over the five years. There was no significant difference in the average weight of mastectomies between the two groups over the last two years. For breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap, surgical indications changed in our center to the absence of prosthetic implant, whatever the volume of the breast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Architectural analysis and predicted functional capability of the human latissimus dorsi muscle.

    PubMed

    Gerling, Michael E; Brown, Stephen H M

    2013-08-01

    The latissimus dorsi is primarily considered a muscle with actions at the shoulder, despite its widespread attachments at the spine. There is some dispute regarding the potential contribution of this muscle to lumbar spine function. The architectural design of a muscle is one of the most accurate predictors of muscle function; however, detailed architectural data on the latissimus dorsi muscle are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the architectural properties of the latissimus dorsi muscle and model mechanical function in light of these new data. One latissimus dorsi muscle was removed from each of 12 human cadavers, separated into regions, and micro-dissected for quantification of fascicle length, sarcomere length, and physiological cross-sectional area. From these data, sarcomere length operating ranges were modelled to determine the force-length characteristics of latissimus dorsi across the spine and shoulder ranges of motion. The physiological cross-sectional area of latissimus dorsi was 5.6±0.5 cm2 and normalized fascicle length was 26.4±1.0 cm, indicating that this muscle is designed to produce a moderate amount of force over a large range of lengths. Measured sarcomere length in the post-mortem neutral spine posture was nearly optimal at 2.69±0.06 μm. Across spine range of motion, biomechanical modelling predicted latissimus dorsi acts across both the ascending and descending limbs of the force-length curve during lateral bend, and primarily at or near the plateau region (where maximum force generation is possible) during flexion/extension and axial twist. Across shoulder range of motion, latissimus dorsi acts primarily on the plateau region and descending limbs of the force length curve during both flexion/extension and abduction/adduction. These data provide novel insights into the ability of the latissimus dorsi muscle to generate force and change length throughout the spine and shoulder ranges of motion. In addition, these

  17. Architectural analysis and predicted functional capability of the human latissimus dorsi muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gerling, Michael E; Brown, Stephen H M

    2013-01-01

    The latissimus dorsi is primarily considered a muscle with actions at the shoulder, despite its widespread attachments at the spine. There is some dispute regarding the potential contribution of this muscle to lumbar spine function. The architectural design of a muscle is one of the most accurate predictors of muscle function; however, detailed architectural data on the latissimus dorsi muscle are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the architectural properties of the latissimus dorsi muscle and model mechanical function in light of these new data. One latissimus dorsi muscle was removed from each of 12 human cadavers, separated into regions, and micro-dissected for quantification of fascicle length, sarcomere length, and physiological cross-sectional area. From these data, sarcomere length operating ranges were modelled to determine the force–length characteristics of latissimus dorsi across the spine and shoulder ranges of motion. The physiological cross-sectional area of latissimus dorsi was 5.6 ± 0.5 cm2 and normalized fascicle length was 26.4 ± 1.0 cm, indicating that this muscle is designed to produce a moderate amount of force over a large range of lengths. Measured sarcomere length in the post-mortem neutral spine posture was nearly optimal at 2.69 ± 0.06 μm. Across spine range of motion, biomechanical modelling predicted latissimus dorsi acts across both the ascending and descending limbs of the force–length curve during lateral bend, and primarily at or near the plateau region (where maximum force generation is possible) during flexion/extension and axial twist. Across shoulder range of motion, latissimus dorsi acts primarily on the plateau region and descending limbs of the force length curve during both flexion/extension and abduction/adduction. These data provide novel insights into the ability of the latissimus dorsi muscle to generate force and change length throughout the spine and shoulder ranges of motion. In addition

  18. Outcomes of Fat-Augmented Latissimus Dorsi (FALD) Flap Versus Implant-Based Latissimus Dorsi Flap for Delayed Post-radiation Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Demiri, Efterpi C; Dionyssiou, Dimitrios D; Tsimponis, Antonios; Goula, Christina-Olga; Pavlidis, Leonidas C; Spyropoulou, Georgia-Alexandra

    2018-06-01

    Although free abdominal flaps constitute the gold standard in post-radiation delayed breast reconstruction, latissimus dorsi-based methods offer alternative reconstructive options. This retrospective study aims to compare outcomes of delayed breast reconstruction using the fat-augmented latissimus dorsi (FALD) autologous reconstruction and the latissimus dorsi-plus-implant reconstruction in irradiated women. We reviewed the files of 47 post-mastectomy irradiated patients (aged 29-73 years), who underwent delayed latissimus dorsi-based breast reconstruction between 2010 and 2016. Twenty-three patients (Group A) had an extended FALD flap and twenty-four patients (Group B) an implant-based latissimus dorsi reconstruction. Patients' age, BMI, pregnancies, volume of injected fat, implant size, postoperative complications, and secondary surgical procedures were recorded and analyzed. Age, BMI, pregnancies, and donor-site complications were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Mean fat volume injected initially was 254 cc (ranged 130-380 cc/session); mean implant volume was 323 cc (ranged 225-420 cc). Breast complications were significantly fewer in Group A (one wound dehiscence, two oily cysts) compared to Group B (three cases with wound dehiscence, two extrusions, thirteen severe capsular contractions). Non-statistically significant difference was documented for secondary procedures between groups; although the mean number of additional surgeries/patient was higher in Group A, they referred to secondary lipofilling, whereas in Group B they were revision surgeries for complications. The FALD flap constitutes an alternative method for delayed autologous reconstruction after post-mastectomy irradiation, avoiding implant-related complications. Although additional fat graft sessions might be required, it provides an ideal autogenous reconstructive option for thin nulliparous women, with a small opposite breast and adequate fat donor sites. This journal requires that

  19. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty combined with latissimus dorsi transfer using the bone-chip technique.

    PubMed

    Ortmaier, Reinhold; Resch, Herbert; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Mayer, Michael; Blocher, Martina; Vasvary, Imre; Mattiassich, Georg; Stundner, Ottokar; Tauber, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) can restore active elevation in rotator-cuff-deficient shoulders. However, RSA cannot restore active external rotation. The combination of latissimus dorsi transfer with RSA has been reported to restore both active elevation and external rotation. We hypothesised that in the combined procedure, harvesting the latissimus dorsi with a small piece of bone, leads to good tendon integrity, low rupture rates and good clinical outcome. Between 2004 and 2010, 13 patients (13 shoulders) were treated with RSA in combination with latissimus dorsi transfer in a modified manner. The mean follow-up was 65.4 months, and the mean age at index surgery was 71.1 years. All patients had external rotation lag sign and positive hornblower's sign, as well as radiological signs of cuff-tear arthropathy (Hamada 3, 4 or 5) and fatty infiltration grade 3 according to Goutallier et al. on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The outcome measures included the Constant Murley Score, University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder score, Simple Shoulder Test (SST), visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Activities of Daily Living Requiring External Rotation (ADLER) score. Tendon integrity was evaluated with dynamic ultrasound. All patients were asked at final follow-up to rate their satisfaction as excellent, good, satisfied or dissatisfied. The overall mean Constant-Murley Shoulder Outcome Score (CMS) improved from 20.4 to 64.3 points (p < 0.001). Mean VAS pain score decreased from 6.8 to 1.1 (p < 0.001)., mean UCLA score improved from 7.9 to 26.4 (p < 0.001), mean SST score improved from 2.3 to 7.9 (p < 0.001) and mean postoperative ADLER score was 26 points. The average degree of abduction improved from 45° to 129° (p < 0.001), the average degree of anterior flexion improved from 55° to 138° (p < 0.001) and the average degree of external rotation improved from -16° to 21° (p < 0.001). Eight patients rated their results as

  20. [Muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flap. Vascular anatomy and indications in breast reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Mojallal, A; Saint-Cyr, M; Wong, C; Veber, M; Braye, F; Rohrich, R

    2010-04-01

    The muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flap pedicled on descending branch presents distinct advantages in breast reconstruction, specially when there is a transversely oriented skin paddle, including reduced donor site morbidity, sparing muscle function and greater freedom of orientation of the skin paddle. This study reports the anatomical basis, surgical technique, advantages and complications of this technique. Four clinical cases illustrate surgical indications in breast reconstructive surgery. An anatomical cadaveric study underwent to University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas. The goal was performed to determine the location of the bifurcation of the thoracodorsal artery and the course of its descending branch compare to the anterior side of latissimus dorsi muscle. Four clinical cases illustrated indications of muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flap pedicled on descending branch in breast reconstruction. These cases showed advantages and complications of the technique, and impact on donor site. Fifteen descending branch muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flaps were harvested. All flaps had a bifurcation of the thoracodorsal artery. The average was located at 5,1cm from posterior axillary side (from 2,1 to 7,5 cm) and average of 2,2 cm from the anterior side of latissimus dorsi muscle (from 1,3 to 3,1cm). To 5, 10 and 15 cm from posterior axillary side, the descending branch was located at respectively an average of 2,0 cm (from 1,4 to 2,5), 2,4 cm (from 1,3 to 3,3), and 2,9 cm (from 2,0 to 3,8) behind the anterior side of latissimus dorsi muscle. The average length of descending branch was measured at 15,2 cm (from 13,2 to 19,0). None clinical cases paddle suffering was observed. Donor site morbidity was less than classical or extended adipomuscular technique. Latissimus dorsi muscle function is spared. The muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flap, pedicled on descending branch, is versatile and reproducible. It results in minimal functional deficit of the

  1. Differential activation of parts of the latissimus dorsi with various isometric shoulder exercises.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-yeon; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-04-01

    As no study has examined whether the branches of the latissimus dorsi are activated differently in different exercises, we investigated intramuscular differences of components of the latissimus dorsi during various shoulder isometric exercises. Seventeen male subjects performed four isometric exercises: shoulder extension, adduction, internal rotation, and shoulder depression. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to collect data from the medial and lateral components of the latissimus dorsi during the isometric exercises. Two-way repeated analysis of variance with two within-subject factors (exercise condition and muscle branch) was used to determine the significance of differences between the branches, and which branch was activated more with the exercise variation. The root mean squared sEMG values for the muscles were normalized using the modified isolation equation (%Isolation) and maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). Neither the %MVIC nor %Isolation data differed significantly between muscle branches, while there was a significant difference with exercise. %MVIC was significantly higher with shoulder extension, compared to the other isometric exercises. There was a significant correlation between exercise condition and muscle branch in the %Isolation data. Shoulder extension and adduction and internal rotation increased %Isolation of the medial latissimus dorsi more than shoulder depression. Shoulder depression had the highest value of %Isolation of the lateral latissimus dorsi compared to the other isometric exercises. Comparing the medial and lateral latissimus dorsi, the medial component was predominantly activated with shoulder extension, adduction, and internal rotation, and the lateral component with shoulder depression. Shoulder extension is effective for activating the latissimus dorsi regardless of the intramuscular branch. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Triceps brachii muscle reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi muscle flap in a dog.

    PubMed

    Pavletic, Michael M; Kalis, Russell; Tribou, Patricia; Mouser, Pam J

    2015-01-15

    A 6-year-old spayed female Border Collie was examined for a severe deformity of the right forelimb. Three months prior to examination, the patient awkwardly fell off the couch and became acutely lame in the right forelimb, progressing to non-weight bearing over the following 72 hours. On physical examination, the dog carried the limb caudally against the thoracic wall, with the shoulder flexed and elbow in extension. The right triceps brachii muscle was atrophied and contracted, resulting in a resistant tension band effect that precluded manipulation of the right elbow joint. The physical changes in the triceps muscle were considered the primary cause of the patient's loss of limb function. Surgical treatment by means of elevation and transposition of the ipsilateral latissimus dorsi muscle was performed. The exposed triceps brachii muscles were transected 3 cm proximal to the tendons of insertion. Via a separate incision, the right latissimus dorsi muscle was elevated and tunneled subcutaneously beneath the interposing skin between the 2 surgical incisions. The muscle was then positioned and sutured to the proximal and distal borders of the divided triceps muscle group. Two weeks later, physical therapy was initiated. After 2 months, the patient regularly walked on the limb most of the time (9/10 steps). The surgical procedure for elevation and transposition of the latissimus dorsi muscle was relatively simple to perform. Physical therapy was an essential component to achieving the successful functional outcome in this case. This technique may be considered for treatment of similar patients in which the triceps muscle group is severely compromised.

  3. The free descending branch muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flap: vascular anatomy and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Colohan, Shannon; Wong, Corrine; Lakhiani, Chrisovalantis; Cheng, Angela; Maia, Munique; Arbique, Gary; Saint-Cyr, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Increasing focus on reducing morbidity from latissimus dorsi flaps has led to the evolution of muscle-sparing variants and perforator-based flaps. This study aimed to investigate the vascular anatomy of the muscle-sparing variant and to describe its application as a free flap based on the descending branch of the thoracodorsal artery. Twelve fresh cadavers underwent anatomical dissection and angiographic injection studies of the thoracodorsal arterial system. The musculocutaneous territories of the descending and transverse branches to the latissimus dorsi muscle were identified and assessed using three-dimensional reconstruction software of computed tomography imaging results. In the clinical study, five patients underwent reconstruction of a variety of defects using the free descending branch muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flap. Three- and four-dimensional (computed tomography) angiography demonstrated perfusion of the latissimus dorsi muscle by the transverse and descending branches, with overlap of vascular territories via cross-linking vessels. The descending branch supplied a slightly greater cutaneous area overlying the muscle, although differences between both branches were not significant (p = 0.76). In the clinical study, the free muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flap provided excellent coverage with no flap complications or seroma. The free muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flap based on the descending branch of the thoracodorsal artery is a viable reconstructive option. Significant collateral flow between vessels allows for larger flap harvest than would be expected. The flap is technically simple to harvest, provides a large perfusion area, and is a reliable variant of the full latissimus dorsi flap. Therapeutic, V.

  4. Free Neurovascular Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Transplantation for Reconstruction of Hip Abductors.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Ochoa, Sergi; Collado-Delfa, Jose Manuel; Sallent, Andrea; Lluch, Alejandro; Velez, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Resection of tumors affecting the hip abductors can cause significant decrease in muscle strength and may lead to abnormal gait and poor function. We present a case report showing full functional recovery after resection of a synovial sarcoma affecting the right gluteus medius and minimus muscles with reconstruction free neurovascular latissimus dorsi muscle transplantation. The latissimus dorsi muscle was harvested following standard technique and fixed to the ilium and the greater trochanter. Receptor vessels were end-to-end anastomosed to the subscapular vessels followed by an end-to-end epineural suture between the superior gluteal nerve and the thoracodorsal nerve. A year after surgery, there is no evidence of recurrent disease; electromyographic analysis shows complete reinnervation of the latissimus dorsi muscle flap, and the patient has achieved full functional recovery. Free functional latisimus dorsi transfer could be considered as a viable reconstruction technique after hip abductors resection in tumor surgery.

  5. The relationship between latissimus dorsi stiffness and altered scapular kinematics among asymptomatic collegiate swimmers.

    PubMed

    Laudner, Kevin G; Williams, Jeffrey G

    2013-02-01

    To determine the strength of the relationship between latissimus dorsi stiffness and altered scapular kinematics among swimmers. Cross sectional. Laboratory. Nineteen NCAA Division III swimmers (7 male, 12 female) (age = 18.8 ± 0.9 years, height = 174.7 ± 8.9 cm, mass = 71.6 ± 11.9 kg) volunteered to participate. Subjects had no recent history of upper extremity pathology or any previous surgery. We measured latissimus dorsi stiffness of the dominant arm while in a lengthened position with a myotonometer. We used an electromagnetic tracking device with specialized software to measure scapular kinematics at humeral elevation angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, and 110° within the scapular plane. Latissimus dorsi stiffness and scapular upward/downward rotation, internal/external rotation, and anterior/posterior tilt. Latissimus dorsi stiffness showed moderate-to-good relationships with increased scapular upward rotation (r > -0.63, P < 0.002) and posterior tilt (r > -0.62, P < 0.004) at all four angles of humeral elevation. Increased latissimus dorsi stiffness also showed moderate-to-good relationships with decreased scapular internal rotation at humeral elevation angles of 60° (r = 0.47, P = 0.03) and 90° (r = 0.54, P = 0.01). Our results suggest there are several moderate-to-good relationships between increased latissimus dorsi stiffness in swimmers and altered scapular upward rotation, internal rotation, and posterior tilt at various angles of humeral elevation. If latissimus dorsi stiffness is not addressed subsequent scapular alterations, which have been associated with shoulder dysfunction, may occur. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Latissimus dorsi flap for total autologous immediate breast reconstruction without implants.

    PubMed

    Santanelli di Pompeo, Fabio; Laporta, Rosaria; Sorotos, Michail; Pagnoni, Marco; Falesiedi, Federica; Longo, Benedetto

    2014-12-01

    The latissimus dorsi flap provides suitable recipient tissue for fat transfer, with a good blood supply and a reasonable volume of host tissue to inject into. The authors present their experience with use of the pedicled latissimus dorsi flap for fat grafting in total autologous immediate breast reconstruction without implants. From 2010 to 2013, 23 patients underwent breast reconstruction with primary fat augmented latissimus dorsi flaps (21 unilateral procedures and two bilateral procedures). Mean patient age was 52.3 years (range, 39 to 68 years); mean body mass index was 24.77 kg/m2 (range, 21.5 to 28.7 kg/m2). Fat was harvested using the Coleman technique with 10-ml syringes and injected into the adipose layer and muscle fascia of the latissimus dorsi flap skin paddle with 1-ml syringes. The mean size of the harvested skin paddle was 19.7 × 11.04 cm (range, 18 × 10 cm to 21 × 12 cm). Mean operative time was 2.62 hours (range, 2.10 to 3.20 hours) and 4.12 hours (range, 4.10 to 4.15 hours) for unilateral and bilateral reconstructions, respectively. Mean harvested fat volume was 126 ml (range, 90 to 180 ml), and mean injected fat volume was 101 ml (range, 60 to 150 ml). All flaps healed uneventfully, no seroma occurred at the flap donor-site, and no fat grafting-related complications were observed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report in which fat transfer was used to achieve immediate latissimus dorsi flap volume augmentation as an alternative for total autologous reconstruction, avoiding implant-related complications.

  7. Three-dimensional analysis of the shoulder motion in patients with massive irreparable cuff tears after latissimus dorsi tendon transfer (LDT).

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Giorgio; Serrao, Mariano; Napoli, Francesco; Conte, Carmela; Miscusi, Massimo; Coppola, Gianluca; Pierelli, Francesco; Costanzo, Giuseppe; De Cupis, Vincenzo

    2016-10-01

    Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer (LDT) is a recent method for surgical treatment of massive, irreparable posterosuperior cuff tears (MIPCT). So far, there are no studies on the quantitative motion analysis of the shoulder and latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle activation after LDT. The changes in shoulder movements after LDT can be objectively assessed by the 3-D motion analysis. These changes may not be due to an increased activity of the LD muscle as external rotator. The shoulder kinematics of nine patients with MIPCT were recorded through a 3-D motion analysis system, before LTD (T0), and after 3 (T1) and 6 (T2) months post-LDT. Maximal shoulder flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and horizontal abduction-adduction, and the internal and external circumduction of the shoulder joint were measured during upright standing posture. Surface EMG activity of the LD muscle was recorded during both internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) tasks in three different postures. A significant increase of shoulder movements was observed at T2 compared with T0 for almost all motor tasks. A significant effect of LDT was also found on LD-IR/ER ratio in posture 1 at T2 compared with T0 and T1. No significant effects were found for the LD-IR/ER ratio in the other postures. Our study indicates that LDT is effective in shoulder motion recovery. Such improvement is not associated with a change in function of the LD muscle, which may be induced by a depression of the humeral head into the glenoid cavity instead.

  8. Are there advantages of the combined latissimus-dorsi transfer according to L'Episcopo compared to the isolated latissimus-dorsi transfer according to Herzberg after a mean follow-up of 6 years? A matched-pair analysis.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Sven; Magosch, Petra; Habermeyer, Peter

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate differences of clinical results between the latissimus-dorsi transfer combined with teres-major transfer (G1) and the isolated latissimus-dorsi transfer (G2) for the treatment of massive irreparable postero-superior rotator cuff tears. We performed the combined latissimus-dorsi/teres-major transfer in 17 patients at a mean age of 57 years. Furthermore, 17 patients at a mean age of 61 years were treated using the isolated latissimus-dorsi transfer. Both groups were followed-up clinically, radiologically, and with surface electromyography using the same study protocol. The Constant score (CS) improved significantly from 48.3 points pre-op to 69.5 points post-op after a follow-up of 58 months in G1. The active range of motion improved in G1 sig. for flexion (124° pre-op, 166.5° post-op) and for abduction (117° pre-op, 163° post-op). The CS improved significantly from 45.1 points pre-op to 74.2 points post-op after a follow-up of 51 months in G2. The flexion and abduction increased significantly from 133.3° pre-op to 176° post-op, resp. from 113.3° pre-op to 173° post-op. The comparison of both surgical techniques showed a significant better active flexion and abduction for G2. Both techniques achieved good functional results but the isolated latissimus-dorsi transfer produced a better active abduction and flexion, whereas the combined latissmus-dorsi/teres-major transfer achieved an increase in abduction strength. In contrast to the combined latissimus-dorsi/teres-major transfer, a progression of cuff tear arthropathy was not observed with the isolated latissimus-dorsi transfer. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Comparison of the Latissimus dorsi insertions on the iliac crest in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and in man].

    PubMed

    Vacher, C; Ben Hadj Yahia, S; Braun, M; Journeau, P

    2014-03-01

    Comparing to other primates, one of the most important specificities of the human anatomy are consequences of bipedalism. Although bone consequences are well known (lumbar lordosis, horizontal position of the foramen magnum, lengthening of the lower limbs, reduction of the pelvis, specialization of the foot), consequences of our locomotion on the Latissimus dorsi are still unclear. One dissection of a chimpanzee Latissimus dorsi (Pan troglodytes) has been performed and compared to 30 human Latissimus dorsi dissections (10 fresh cadavers and 20 formoled cadavers). In each dissection, the existence of direct muscular insertions on the iliac crest has been investigated and the constitution of the thoracolumbar fascia has been described. In chimpanzee dissection, a muscular direct insertion of the Latissimus dorsi was present on the iliac crest of 9 cm long. The TLF was made of the superficial and the deep fascias of the Latissimus dorsi and the superficial fascia of the erector spinae muscles which was deeper. In man, there was no direct muscular insertion of the Latissimus dorsi in 90 % of cases, the TLF was constituted the same way. This study suggests that the Latissimus dorsi has been separated from the iliac crest in man during the evolution because of the permanent bipedalism and that it stayed inserted on the iliac crest in chimpanzee because of the brachiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional Latissimus Dorsi Transfer for Upper-Extremity Reconstruction: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Sood, Aditya; Therattil, Paul J; Russo, Gerardo; Lee, Edward S

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The latissimus dorsi flap is a workhorse for plastic surgeons, being used for many years for soft-tissue coverage of the upper extremity as well as for functional reconstruction to restore motion to the elbow and shoulder. The authors present a case of functional latissimus dorsi transfer for restoration of elbow flexion and review the literature on technique and outcomes. Methods: A literature review was performed using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Collaboration Library for primary research articles on functional latissimus dorsi flap transfer. Data related to surgical techniques and outcomes were extracted. Results: The literature search yielded 13 relevant studies, with a total of 52 patients who received pedicled, functional latissimus dorsi flaps for upper-extremity reconstruction. The most common etiology requiring reconstruction was closed brachial plexus injury (n = 13). After flap transfer, 98% of patients were able to flex the elbow against gravity and 82.3% were able to flex against resistance. In the presented case, a 77-year-old man underwent resection of myxofibrosarcoma of the upper arm with elbow prosthesis placement and functional latissimus dorsi transfer. The patient was able to actively flex against gravity at 3-month follow-up. Conclusions: A review of the literature shows that nearly all patients undergoing functional latissimus dorsi transfer for upper-extremity reconstruction regain at least motion against gravity whereas a large proportion regain motion against resistance. Considerations when planning for functional latissimus dorsi transfer include patient positioning, appropriate tensioning of the muscle, safe inset, polarity, management of other affected upper-extremity joints, and educating patients on the expected outcomes.

  11. Functional Latissimus Dorsi Transfer for Upper-Extremity Reconstruction: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Therattil, Paul J.; Russo, Gerardo; Lee, Edward S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The latissimus dorsi flap is a workhorse for plastic surgeons, being used for many years for soft-tissue coverage of the upper extremity as well as for functional reconstruction to restore motion to the elbow and shoulder. The authors present a case of functional latissimus dorsi transfer for restoration of elbow flexion and review the literature on technique and outcomes. Methods: A literature review was performed using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Collaboration Library for primary research articles on functional latissimus dorsi flap transfer. Data related to surgical techniques and outcomes were extracted. Results: The literature search yielded 13 relevant studies, with a total of 52 patients who received pedicled, functional latissimus dorsi flaps for upper-extremity reconstruction. The most common etiology requiring reconstruction was closed brachial plexus injury (n = 13). After flap transfer, 98% of patients were able to flex the elbow against gravity and 82.3% were able to flex against resistance. In the presented case, a 77-year-old man underwent resection of myxofibrosarcoma of the upper arm with elbow prosthesis placement and functional latissimus dorsi transfer. The patient was able to actively flex against gravity at 3-month follow-up. Conclusions: A review of the literature shows that nearly all patients undergoing functional latissimus dorsi transfer for upper-extremity reconstruction regain at least motion against gravity whereas a large proportion regain motion against resistance. Considerations when planning for functional latissimus dorsi transfer include patient positioning, appropriate tensioning of the muscle, safe inset, polarity, management of other affected upper-extremity joints, and educating patients on the expected outcomes. PMID:28293330

  12. Does the Latissimus dorsi insert on the iliac crest in man? Anatomic and ontogenic study.

    PubMed

    Ben Hadj Yahia, Sihem; Vacher, Christian

    2011-11-01

    The Latissimus dorsi muscle is usually considered as inserted on the iliac crest, but it is separated from it by the thoracolumbar fascia. In our experience based on the harvesting of pedicled Latissimus dorsi flaps to cover cervicofacial loss of substances, we have found that in some cases, the muscular fibers of the anterior border of the muscle are directly inserted on the iliac crest. In these cases, the harvesting of the flap could be more distal. To determine whether this direct muscular insertion is frequent or not, we performed dissections on 30 fresh cadavers of the lower insertion of the Latissimus dorsi muscle, and 6 dissections of human fetuses to study the ontogeny of these insertions. The Latissimus dorsi muscle presented direct muscular insertions on the iliac crest in 13.33% of cases. The fetal dissections showed that before 30 weeks of development, the anterior part of the muscle was directly inserted on the iliac crest, and after it was separated from it by the thoracolumbar fascia. Although the harvesting of the Latissimus dorsi in continuity with the thoracolumbar fascia has been described in pedicled flaps, it is usually considered that it is impossible to harvest Latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps in contact with the iliac crest, because there are no perforating vessels from the thoracolumbar fascia to the skin. According to our results, in some cases, it could be possible to harvest a pedicled musculo-cutaneous LD flap more distal that it is usually described.

  13. [Plastic Reconstruction with a Vascular Pedicle Latissimus Dorsi Flap after Sternal Osteomyelitis].

    PubMed

    Spindler, N; Langer, S

    2017-10-01

    Objective: Sternal bone and soft tissue debridement after osteomyelitis of the sternum with simultaneous defect coverage using a vascular pedicle latissimus dorsi flap. Indication: Profound sternal wound healing disorders may be covered with various flap grafts. The latissimus dorsi flap provides a fast, sufficient and reliable option to cover sternal defects. If the bone and soft tissue debridement has been very radical, coverage may be performed in a one-stage procedure. Method: The individual surgical steps for sternal debridement with simultaneous defect coverage using a vascular pedicle latissimus dorsi flap are shown. Conclusion: The radicality of debridement is crucial to treatment success and allows debridement and flap graft coverage to be performed at the same time. If two surgeons work simultaneously, the duration of surgery may be significantly reduced. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. [Anatomical study of muscular latissimus dorsi surface vascularized by the transverse branch of thoraco-dorsal artery].

    PubMed

    Boucher, F; Pinatel, B; Shipkov, H; Mertens, P; Rouviere, O; Braye, F; Mojallal, A

    2014-10-01

    The latissimus dorsi muscle flap is a type V according to Mathes and Nahai. It is vascularized by a proximal main pedicle represented by the thoraco-dorsal pedicle and pedicle distal accessory represented by the dorsal branches of the posterior intercostal arteries. The main thoraco-dorsal pedicle has a descending branch and a transverse branch. This anatomical study clarifies the muscular territory vascularized by the transverse branch of thoraco-dorsal artery for a secondary use after harvesting a thoraco-dorsal artery perforator flap or a muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flap. Our study focused on ten dissections latissimus dorsi muscle taken from five fresh cadavers chest, carried out within the University Department of Anatomy. The descending branch of thoraco-dorsal artery was ligated, the transverse branch was cannulated and injected with a mixture of barium sulfate/gelatin. After freezing, a static angiotomodensitometry (3D) of each flap was performed. The average muscular surface vascularized by the transverse branch is measured at 80% (77% minimum value, maximum value 83%) of the complete latissimus dorsi muscle. Intermuscular connections between the two branches of thoraco-dorsal pedicle were shown. The use of a ipsilateral latissimus dorsi muscle is a therapeutic option after harvesting a thoraco-dorsal artery perforator flap (TAP) or a muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flap (MSLD-flap). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Laparoscopic repair of non-complicated lumbar hernia secondary to a latissimus dorsi flap.

    PubMed

    Obregón, L; Ruiz-Castilla, M; Binimelis, M M; Guinot, A; García, V; Puig, O; Barret, J P

    2014-03-01

    Lumbar hernia is an unusual complication of the latissimus dorsi flap. Traditionally, it has always been repaired using open-surgery techniques. We present the first description of laparoscopic surgery to treat a non-complicated superior lumbar hernia resulting from the creation of an enlarged latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for breast reconstruction following left modified radical mastectomy. The laparoscopic approach substantially reduced the risks associated with open surgery, shortened length of hospital stay and time to recovery and obtained better cosmetic results. Laparoscopic surgery may be considered as a feasible therapeutic option for non-complicated superior lumbar hernias secondary to a latissimus dorsi muscle flap. Therapeutic, V. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Survival of a pedicled latissimus dorsi flap in breast reconstruction without a thoracodorsal pedicle.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, C E A; Branford, O A; Malhotra, A; Chana, J S

    2013-07-01

    The latissimus dorsi flap, first performed by Tansini in 1892, was popularised for use by Olivari in 1976. The successful transfer of a latissimus dorsi flap during breast reconstruction has previously been thought to be dependent on having an intact thoracodorsal pedicle to ensure flap survival. It is well documented that the flap may also survive on the serratus branch in thoracodorsal pedicle division. We report a case of a 52-year-old female patient who underwent successful delayed breast reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi flap following previous mastectomy and axillary node clearance. Intraoperatively, the thoracodorsal pedicle and serratus branch were found to have been previously divided. On postoperative computer tomographic angiography the thoracodorsal pedicle was shown to be divided together with the serratus branch. The flap was seen to be supplied by the lateral thoracic artery. To our knowledge survival of a pedicled latissimus dorsi flap in breast reconstruction with a vascular supply from this vessel following thoracodorsal pedicle division has not previously been described. Previous thoracodorsal pedicle and serratus branch division may not be an absolute contraindication for the use of the latissimus dorsi flap in breast reconstruction, depending on the results of preoperative Doppler or computer tomographic angiography studies. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immediate Partial Breast Reconstruction with Endoscopic Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chae Eun; Roh, Tai Suk; Yun, In Sik; Lew, Dae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, breast conservation therapy is commonly performed for the treatment of early breast cancer. Depending on the volume excised, patients may require volume replacement, even in cases of partial mastectomy. The use of the latissimus dorsi muscle is the standard method, but this procedure leaves an unfavorable scar on the donor site. We used an endoscope for latissimus dorsi harvesting to minimize the incision, thus reducing postoperative scars. Methods Ten patients who underwent partial mastectomy and immediate partial breast reconstruction with endoscopic latissimus dorsi muscle flap harvest were reviewed retrospectively. The total operation time, hospital stay, and complications were reviewed. Postoperative scarring, overall shape of the reconstructed breast, and donor site deformity were assessed using a 10-point scale. Results In the mean follow-up of 11 weeks, no tumor recurrence was reported. The mean operation time was 294.5 (±38.2) minutes. The postoperative hospital stay was 11.4 days. Donor site seroma was reported in four cases and managed by office aspiration and compressive dressing. Postoperative scarring, donor site deformity, and the overall shape of the neobreast were acceptable, scoring above 7. Conclusions Replacement of 20% to 40% of breast volume in the upper and the lower outer quadrants with a latissimus dorsi muscle flap by using endoscopic harvesting is a good alternative reconstruction technique after partial mastectomy. Short incision benefits from a very acceptable postoperative scar, less pain, and early upper extremity movement. PMID:25276643

  18. A systematic review of functional donor-site morbidity after latissimus dorsi muscle transfer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Tae; Mun, Goo-Hyun

    2014-08-01

    The authors performed a comprehensive literature review regarding functional impairment after latissimus dorsi muscle transfer, to investigate functional changes in the donor site and the potential impact on patients' daily lives. The PubMed database was searched for articles regarding functional donor-site morbidity following latissimus dorsi muscle flap harvest. Articles discussing the thoracodorsal artery perforator flap, which shares the same donor sites with the latissimus dorsi muscle flap, were also included. Functional morbidity was analyzed based on questionnaire of subjective symptoms, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire, shoulder range of motion, and shoulder strength. Twenty-two articles representing 719 cases in 644 patients were reviewed, including seven prospective and 15 retrospective cohort studies. As a questionnaire summary from eight articles, 94 of 232 patients (41 percent) experienced any kind of discomfort at the donor site. In the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire from seven articles, little difficulty in daily activities but significant difficulties in sports and art activities were observed. Nine of 13 articles reported some limitations of shoulder motion, particularly during the early postoperative period, and four other articles detected little limitation. Eight of 12 articles reported some shoulder strength weakness over time, and shoulder extension, adduction, and internal rotation were commonly involved. The muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi and thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps showed low functional morbidity. Functional impairment of the shoulder could develop after latissimus dorsi muscle flap transfer. Knowledge of the flap's functional morbidity will allow surgeons to inform patients regarding donor-site expectations and to accomplish better surgical outcomes.

  19. Can angiogenesis induced by chronic electrical stimulation enhance latissimus dorsi muscle flap survival for application in cardiomyoplasty?

    PubMed

    Overgoor, Max L E; Carroll, Sean M; Papanicolau, George; Carroll, Camilla M A; Ustüner, Tuncay E T; Stremel, Richard W; Anderson, Gary L; Franken, Ralph J P M; Kon, Moshe; Barker, John H

    2003-01-01

    In cardiomyoplasty, the latissimus dorsi muscle is lifted on its primary neurovascular pedicle and wrapped around a failing heart. After 2 weeks, it is trained for 6 weeks using chronic electrical stimulation, which transforms the latissimus dorsi muscle into a fatigue-resistant muscle that can contract in synchrony with the beating heart without tiring. In over 600 cardiomyoplasty procedures performed clinically to date, the outcomes have varied. Given the data obtained in animal experiments, the authors believe these variable outcomes are attributable to distal latissimus dorsi muscle flap necrosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the chronic electrical stimulation training used to transform the latissimus dorsi muscle into fatigue-resistant muscle could also be used to induce angiogenesis, increase perfusion, and thus protect the latissimus dorsi muscle flap from distal necrosis. After 14 days of chronic electrical stimulation (10 Hz, 330 microsec, 4 to 6 V continuous, 8 hours/day) of the right or left latissimus dorsi muscle (randomly selected) in 11 rats, both latissimus dorsi muscles were lifted on their thoracodorsal pedicles and returned to their anatomical beds. Four days later, the resulting amount of distal flap necrosis was measured. Also, at predetermined time intervals throughout the experiment, muscle surface blood perfusion was measured using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. Finally, latissimus dorsi muscles were excised in four additional stimulated rats, to measure angiogenesis (capillary-to-fiber ratio), fiber type (oxidative or glycolytic), and fiber size using histologic specimens. The authors found that chronic electrical stimulation (1) significantly (p < 0.05) increased angiogenesis (mean capillary-to-fiber ratio) by 82 percent and blood perfusion by 36 percent; (2) did not reduce the amount of distal flap necrosis compared with nonchronic electrical stimulation controls (29 +/- 5.3 percent versus 26.6 +/- 5

  20. [Breast reconstruction surgery with endoscopic assisted latissimus dorsi muscle flap].

    PubMed

    Bognár, Gábor; Novák, András; Ledniczky, György; István, Gábor

    2017-06-01

    The results obtaining with breast reconstruction surgery are not always satisfactory for the patients. Reconstruction with pure latissimus dorsi flap is useful option and due to endoscopic harvest large scar on the back can be avoided. The skin sparing mastectomy and even the sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymphadenectomy can be performed using a single incision in the axilla. Also the immediate reconstruction with endoscopically assisted harvest of the latissimus dorsi muscle flap in selective cases can be done using the same incision. The patient reported high satisfaction with the aesthetic and functional results due to preservation the breast shape and the absence of any scarring on the back.

  1. Clinical and radiological outcomes after reverse shoulder arthroplasty in patients with failed deltoid or latissimus dorsi transfers. A review of ten cases.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Philippe; Maqdes, Ali; Werthel, Jean-David

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to report clinical and radiological results of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) after failure of either a deltoid and/or a latissimus dorsi transfer. Between 2001 and 2011, ten patients (average age, 61 years) underwent primary RSA after a failed tendon transfer for irreparable postero-superior rotator cuff tear (five deltoid muscle transfers, four latissimus dorsi transfers and one both). Average follow-up was 48 months. Outcome measures included pain, range of motion and postoperative Constant-Murley score. Pain score improved significantly from a mean 8.3 to a mean 0.3. Mean shoulder elevation improved from 66 to 134°, and absolute Constant-Murley scores increased from 25.8 to 62.8 The mean improvement in external rotation was limited to 7.5°. Subjectively, six patients rated the result as much better and three rated it as better than before surgery. Failure of the tendon transfer with deterioration of the functional outcomes can be salvaged with a RSA with no impact on the expected outcome.

  2. Primary Fat Grafting to the Pectoralis Muscle during Latissimus Dorsi Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Niddam, Jeremy; Vidal, Luciano; Hersant, Barbara; Meningaud, Jean Paul

    2016-11-01

    Latissimus dorsi flap is one of the best options for immediate and delayed breast reconstruction. However, this technique is limited by the tissue volume provided by the flap. To improve breast volume while reducing complications, fat grafting is now very often used in addition to latissimus dorsi flap. To the best of our knowledge, fat grafting was always performed as a second-line surgery, at least a few months after the flap procedure. We aimed to report our experience with an associated breast reconstruction technique combining musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap with intrapectoral lipofilling for totally autologous breast reconstruction. Between September 2014 and January 2015, 20 patients underwent this technique for unilateral autologous breast reconstruction (14 delayed and 6 immediate breast reconstructions). A mean harvested fat volume of 278 ml (range: 190-350 ml) and a mean injected fat volume of 228 ml (range: 170-280 ml) were used. None of the patients experienced complications, such as flap necrosis, breast skin necrosis, hematomas, or infection. One of the patients developed a seroma, which was treated with 3 drainage punctions. Only 2 patients underwent delayed fat grafting procedure. Totally autologous breast reconstruction combining latissimus dorsi flap and intrapectoral fat grafting in the same procedure is a new technique allowing increased breast volume in a single surgery.

  3. Primary Fat Grafting to the Pectoralis Muscle during Latissimus Dorsi Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Luciano; Hersant, Barbara; Meningaud, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Latissimus dorsi flap is one of the best options for immediate and delayed breast reconstruction. However, this technique is limited by the tissue volume provided by the flap. To improve breast volume while reducing complications, fat grafting is now very often used in addition to latissimus dorsi flap. To the best of our knowledge, fat grafting was always performed as a second-line surgery, at least a few months after the flap procedure. We aimed to report our experience with an associated breast reconstruction technique combining musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap with intrapectoral lipofilling for totally autologous breast reconstruction. Methods: Between September 2014 and January 2015, 20 patients underwent this technique for unilateral autologous breast reconstruction (14 delayed and 6 immediate breast reconstructions). A mean harvested fat volume of 278 ml (range: 190–350 ml) and a mean injected fat volume of 228 ml (range: 170–280 ml) were used. Results: None of the patients experienced complications, such as flap necrosis, breast skin necrosis, hematomas, or infection. One of the patients developed a seroma, which was treated with 3 drainage punctions. Only 2 patients underwent delayed fat grafting procedure. Conclusion: Totally autologous breast reconstruction combining latissimus dorsi flap and intrapectoral fat grafting in the same procedure is a new technique allowing increased breast volume in a single surgery. PMID:27975006

  4. The scarless latissimus dorsi flap provides effective lower pole prosthetic coverage in breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mark A; Miteff, Kirstin G

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of surgical breast cancer treatment has led to the oncologically safe preservation of greater amounts of native skin, yet we are still often using flaps with large skin paddles, thereby resulting in significant donor-site scars. This explains the increasing appeal of acellular dermal matrix reconstructions. Acellular dermal matrices can, however, have significant problems, particularly if there is any vascular compromise of the mastectomy skin flaps. We have developed a method of raising the latissimus dorsi flap through the anterior mastectomy incisions without requiring special instruments or repositioning. This can provide autologous vascularized cover of the prosthesis. A clear surgical description of the scarless latissimus dorsi flap harvest is provided, and our results of a retrospective cohort review of 20 consecutive patients with 27 traditional latissimus dorsi breast reconstructions were compared with those of 20 consecutive patients with 30 scarless latissimus dorsi breast reconstructions. Operative time, length of stay, and complication rates were reduced in the scarless group. Patients Breast-Q scores were equivalent in each group. The aesthetic assessment was good/excellent in 77% of both groups; however, subscale assessment was better in the scarless group. This was statistically significant (P = 0.0). Breast reconstruction using the scarless latissimus dorsi flap is time effective, requires no patient repositioning, and uses standard breast instrumentation. It is safe and versatile while reducing the risk of exposed prosthesis if native skin necrosis occurs. It is a vascularized alternative to acellular dermal matrices.

  5. Vascular delay improves latissimus dorsi muscle perfusion and muscle function for use in cardiomyoplasty.

    PubMed

    Carroll, S M; Heilman, S J; Stremel, R W; Tobin, G R; Barker, J H

    1997-04-01

    Ischemia of the distal portion of the latissimus dorsi muscle occurs in muscle transfer for cardiomyoplasty and reduces distal muscle contractility and thus the mechanical effectiveness of cardiomyoplasty. We hypothesized that muscle function would be improved by a vascular delay procedure that increases distal muscle perfusion of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The latissimus dorsi muscles of 10 adult mongrel dogs were subjected to a vascular delay procedure on one side and a sham procedure on the other. Following 10 days of vascular delay, muscle perfusion was measured with a laser-Doppler perfusion imager before and after elevation of the muscles as flaps based only on their thoracodorsal neurovascular pedicles. The muscles were wrapped and sutured around silicone chambers (simulating cardiomyoplasty), a stimulating electrode was placed around each thoracodorsal nerve, and the muscles were stimulated to contract in both rhythmic and tetanic fashion. Circumferential (distal and middle latissimus dorsi muscle function) force generation and fatigue rates were measured independently. Circumferential muscle force, circumferential and longitudinal fatigue rate, and distal, middle, and overall perfusion were significantly (p < 0.05) improved in delayed muscle compared with nondelayed muscle. We found that a vascular delay procedure and a 10-day delay adaptation period significantly improve latissimus dorsi muscle flap perfusion and function, particularly in the distal and middle portions of the muscle. Delay should be considered as a means of improving the clinical outcome in cardiomyoplasty.

  6. Is bipolar latissimus dorsi transfer a reliable option to restore elbow flexion in children with arthrogryposis? A review of 13 tendon transfers.

    PubMed

    Zargarbashi, Ramin; Nabian, Mohammad Hossein; Werthel, Jean-David; Valenti, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Scant data are published about different available therapeutic options for restoration of active elbow flexion in arthrogryposis with varying degrees of improvement. In this retrospective study we evaluated medium-term effects of bipolar latissimus dorsi transfer in patients with arthrogryposis. Pedicled latissimus dorsi bipolar muscle transfer was used to restore elbow flexion in 11 patients (13 limbs) with arthrogryposis. Elbow and shoulder range of motions and strength of elbow flexion were measured preoperatively and at the last follow-up. The functional use of the upper limb was examined by observation of activities of daily living and presence of adaptive mechanisms. General satisfaction was assessed at the final follow-up. The patients were a mean age of 5.69 ± 2.49 years. The follow-up period was 27.31 ± 17.8 months. At the last examination, according to transferred muscle function and elbow range of motion, function of 12 limbs was graded as excellent and good, and 1 was graded poor. The active postoperative elbow range of motion was 97.7° ± 34.5°. The general satisfaction of the patients with the surgical results was 92.3%. Activities of daily living were improved in 10 of 13 limbs, but adaptive mechanisms were detected in all patients except 2 at the last follow-up. We suggest pedicled bipolar latissimus dorsi transfer as a reliable therapeutic option to restore active elbow flexion in arthrogryposis with acceptable results regarding regaining range of motion and patient satisfaction. Functional passive elbow range of motion and good quality of latissimus dorsi muscle preoperatively is mandatory. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Free latissimus dorsi flap transfer for reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the lower extremity].

    PubMed

    Knobloch, K; Herold, C; Vogt, P M

    2012-04-01

    Sustainable and durable soft tissue coverage at the lower extremity following trauma, tumor resections, sequelae of radiation therapy or osteomyelitis using free latissimus dorsi muscle transfer is provided by a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap. Soft tissue defects at the lower extremity following trauma, tumor resections, and sequelae of radiation therapy or osteomyelitis. Thoracotomy with incision of the latissimus dorsi muscle; a relative contraindication in wheelchair drivers as well as in overhead athletes due to potential diminished strength and shoulder proprioception following latissimus dorsi muscle transplantation. Under general anesthesia the patient is positioned laterally, and a substantial and meticulous debridement of the defect is performed, as is the identification and preparation of the target vessel, which is preferentially the posterior tibial artery at the calf, or more proximally the popliteal or femoral artery from the medial side as well as concomitant veins/the great saphenous vein. A tailored latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap is harvested with subsequent microsurgical anastomosis to the target vessel with preferential end-to-side anastomosis of the artery and end-to-end anastomosis of one or two veins. A 24-h intermediate care unit, clinical flap monitoring for at least 5-7 days, dangling of the flap using an elastic bandage for an initial 3  times  5 min starting on POD 7, compression stockings for at least 6 months subsequently. From 2001-2007 75 free latissimus dorsi flaps were performed (53 ± 17 years) for soft tissue coverage at the lower extremity. In 58% the target vessel was the posterior tibial artery, in 11% the femoral artery, in 8% the anterior tibial artery and in 8% the popliteal artery. In 15% an arteriovenous (AV) loop was applied. Overall free flap survival was 95%. We encountered four total flap losses, exclusively in complex reconstructions with AV-loop situations.

  8. The Scarless Latissimus Dorsi Flap Provides Effective Lower Pole Prosthetic Coverage in Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Miteff, Kirstin G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The evolution of surgical breast cancer treatment has led to the oncologically safe preservation of greater amounts of native skin, yet we are still often using flaps with large skin paddles, thereby resulting in significant donor-site scars. This explains the increasing appeal of acellular dermal matrix reconstructions. Acellular dermal matrices can, however, have significant problems, particularly if there is any vascular compromise of the mastectomy skin flaps. We have developed a method of raising the latissimus dorsi flap through the anterior mastectomy incisions without requiring special instruments or repositioning. This can provide autologous vascularized cover of the prosthesis. Methods: A clear surgical description of the scarless latissimus dorsi flap harvest is provided, and our results of a retrospective cohort review of 20 consecutive patients with 27 traditional latissimus dorsi breast reconstructions were compared with those of 20 consecutive patients with 30 scarless latissimus dorsi breast reconstructions. Results: Operative time, length of stay, and complication rates were reduced in the scarless group. Patients Breast-Q scores were equivalent in each group. The aesthetic assessment was good/excellent in 77% of both groups; however, subscale assessment was better in the scarless group. This was statistically significant (P = 0.0). Conclusions: Breast reconstruction using the scarless latissimus dorsi flap is time effective, requires no patient repositioning, and uses standard breast instrumentation. It is safe and versatile while reducing the risk of exposed prosthesis if native skin necrosis occurs. It is a vascularized alternative to acellular dermal matrices. PMID:25289340

  9. Inspiratory muscle fatigue affects latissimus dorsi but not pectoralis major activity during arms only front crawl sprinting.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Mitch; Tasker, Louise; Bostanci, Ozgur

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) affects the muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major during maximal arms only front crawl swimming. Eight collegiate swimmers were recruited to perform 2 maximal 20-second arms only front crawl sprints in a swimming flume. Both sprints were performed on the same day, and IMF was induced 30 minutes after the first (control) sprint. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (PImax and PEmax, respectively) were measured before and after each sprint. The median frequency (MDF) of the electromyographic signal burst was recorded from the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major during each 20-second sprint along with stroke rate and breathing frequency. Median frequency was assessed in absolute units (Hz) and then referenced to the start of the control sprint for normalization. After IMF inducement, stroke rate increased from 56 ± 4 to 59 ± 5 cycles per minute, and latissimus dorsi MDF fell from 67 ± 11 Hz at the start of the sprint to 61 ± 9 Hz at the end. No change was observed in the MDF of the latissimus dorsi during the control sprint. Conversely, the MDF of the pectoralis major shifted to lower frequencies during both sprints but was unaffected by IMF. As the latter induced fatigue in the latissimus dorsi, which was not otherwise apparent during maximal arms only control sprinting, the presence of IMF affects the activity of the latissimus dorsi during front crawl sprinting.

  10. Selective activation of the latissimus dorsi and the inferior fibers of trapezius at various shoulder angles during isometric pull-down exertion.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-yeon; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of isometric pull down exercise on muscle activity with shoulder elevation angles of 60°, 90°, and 120° and sagittal, scapular, and frontal movement planes, by electromyography (EMG) of the latissimus dorsi, inferior fibers of trapezius, and latissimus dorsi/inferior fibers of trapezius activity ratio. Fourteen men performed nine conditions of isometric pull down exercise (three conditions of shoulder elevation × three conditions of movement planes). Surface EMG was used to collect data from the latissimus dorsi and inferior fibers of trapezius during exercise. Two-way repeated analysis of variance with two within-subject factors (shoulder elevation angles and planes of movement) was used to determine the significance of the latissimus dorsi and inferior fibers of trapezius activity and latissimus dorsi/inferior fibers of trapezius activity ratio. The latissimus dorsi activity and ratio between the latissimus dorsi and the inferior fibers of trapezius were significantly decreased as shoulder elevation angle increased from 60° to 120°. The inferior fibers of trapezius activity was significantly increased with shoulder elevation angle. The EMG activity and the ratios were not affected by changes in movement planes. This study suggests that selective activation of the latissimus dorsi is accomplished with a low shoulder elevation angle, while the inferior fibers of the trapezius are activated with high shoulder elevation angles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reconstruction of infected abdominal wall defects using latissimus dorsi free flap.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wha; Han, Sang Chul; Hwang, Kyu Tae; Ahn, Byung Kyu; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2013-12-01

    Infected abdominal defects are a challenge to surgeons. In this study, we describe 10 cases in which the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap was used for successful reconstruction of abdominal wall defects severely infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Retrospective review of 10 patients with abdominal wall defects that were reconstructed using the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap between 2002 and 2010. All patients had abdominal defects with hernias, combined with MRSA infections. The sizes of the flaps ranged from 120 to 364 cm(2) . The deep inferior epigastric artery was the recipient vessel in nine patients and the internal mammary vessels were used for one patient. There were no complications relating to the flaps, although there were other minor complications including wound dehiscence, haematoma and fluid correction. After reconstruction, there were no signs of infection during follow-up periods, and the patients were satisfied with the final results. Reconstruction using the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap, including muscle fascia structures, is a potential treatment option for severely infected large abdominal wall defects. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Massive cuff tears treated with arthroscopically assisted latissimus dorsi transfer. Surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    De Cupis, Vincenzo; De Cupis, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Summary Latissimus dorsi transfer is our preferred treatment for active disabled patients with a posterosuperior massive cuff tear. We present an arthroscopically assisted technique which avoids an incision through the deltoid obtaining a better and faster clinical outcome. The patient is placed in lateral decubitus. After the arthroscopic evaluation of the lesion through a posterior and a posterolateral portal, with the limb in traction we perform the preparation of the greater tuberosity of the humerus. We place the arm in abduction and internal rotation and we proceed to the harvest of the latissimus dorsi and the tendon preparation by stitching the two sides using very resistant sutures. After restoring limb traction, under arthroscopic visualization, we pass a curved grasper through the posterolateral portal by going to the armpit in the space between the teres minor and the posterior deltoid. Once the grasper has exited the access at the level of the axilla we fix two drainage transparent tubes, each with a wire inside, and, withdrawing it back, we shuttle the two tubes in the subacromial space. After tensioning the suture wires from the anterior portals these are assembled in a knotless anchor of 5.5 mm that we place in the prepared site on the greater tuberosity of the humerus. A shoulder brace at 15° of abduction and neutral rotation protect the patient for the first month post-surgery but physical therapy can immediately start. PMID:23738290

  13. Indications and Controversies for Complete and Implant-Enhanced Latissimus Dorsi Breast Reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Mushin, Oren P; Myers, Paige L; Langstein, Howard N

    2018-01-01

    This article describes the use of implant-enhanced and total-autologous latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps in breast reconstruction. It addresses the indications for use of this reconstruction alternative, which have recently been expanded thanks to the advent of high-volume fat grafting. Given its straightforward dissection, reliable vascular pedicle, variety of approaches, and potential for excellent aesthetic results, use of latissimus dorsi flaps may be considered among first-line options in selected patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Tolerance of latissimus dorsi without implant to radiotherapy in immediate breast reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Carrabin, N; Vermersh, C; Faure, C; Dammacco, M A; Delay, E; Ho Quoc, C

    2015-12-01

    Rates of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) after mastectomy are currently increasing, leading us to evaluate outcomes of breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi without implant followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. From January 1999 to August 2013, 31 breast reconstructions with latissimus dorsi have been irradiated. Patients have been selected from a prospective database and contacted to evaluate outcomes of breast reconstruction, and 2 patients have been lost. Median follow-up was 6.5 years. Breast reconstruction outcomes were evaluated as very good or good in 86% of cases, with breast reconstructed consistency as very good or good in 93% of cases. An additional fat grafting has been performed for 58% of cases (mean volume transferred of 250 cc) and was associated with contralateral breast reduction in 32% of the whole population. IBR was judged as essential for 79% of women a posteriori. In our experience, latissimus dorsi has a good tolerance to adjuvant irradiation, and may be offered to patients willing to benefit of an IBR even if postoperative radiotherapy is scheduled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of a latissimus dorsi muscle flap for scapular reconstruction in a cat following fibrosarcoma excision.

    PubMed

    Canapp, S O; Mann, F A; Henry, C J; Lattimer, J C

    2001-01-01

    A latissimus dorsi muscle flap was used to reconstruct a proximal scapular defect in a cat after excision of a fibrosarcoma that had recurred after eight surgeries, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. To obtain appropriate surgical margins, infraspinatus and supraspinatus myectomy and scapular spinous ostectomy were performed. The latissimus dorsi muscle flap was rotated into the defect and anchored to four holes placed in the cranial border of the scapula. The cat showed no lameness at 6, 21, 42, and 147 days after surgery. The latissimus dorsi muscle flap was successful for proximal scapular reconstruction in this cat.

  16. Comparison of exercises inducing maximum voluntary isometric contraction for the latissimus dorsi using surface electromyography.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-yeon; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare muscular activation during five different normalization techniques that induced maximal isometric contraction of the latissimus dorsi. Sixteen healthy men participated in the study. Each participant performed three repetitions each of five types of isometric exertion: (1) conventional shoulder extension in the prone position, (2) caudal shoulder depression in the prone position, (3) body lifting with shoulder depression in the seated position, (4) trunk bending to the right in the lateral decubitus position, and (5) downward bar pulling in the seated position. In most participants, maximal activation of the latissimus dorsi was observed during conventional shoulder extension in the prone position; the percentage of maximal voluntary contraction was significantly greater for this exercise than for all other normalization techniques except downward bar pulling in the seated position. Although differences in electrode placement among various electromyographic studies represent a limitation, normalization techniques for the latissimus dorsi are recommended to minimize error in assessing maximal muscular activation of the latissimus dorsi through the combined use of shoulder extension in the prone position and downward pulling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction: how much nerve resection is necessary to prevent postoperative muscle twitching?

    PubMed

    Schroegendorfer, Klaus F; Hacker, Stefan; Nickl, Stefanie; Vierhapper, Martin; Nedomansky, Jakob; Haslik, Werner

    2014-12-01

    The latissimus dorsi muscle flap represents a valuable option in breast reconstruction but can result in postoperative twitching and retraction, discomfort, arm movement limitations, and breast deformation. These complications can be avoided by denervation of the thoracodorsal nerve; however, the optimal method of nerve management is unknown. This study presents the authors' experience with the outcomes of latissimus dorsi flaps for breast reconstruction in the light of thoracodorsal nerve management strategies. The authors retrospectively collected data from 74 patients who underwent partial or total breast reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi flap alone or with an implant between January of 1999 and October of 2011. Follow-up data were collected at 12 and 24 months postoperatively. In 56 patients (75.7 percent), the latissimus dorsi muscle was denervated at the time of surgery, whereas the thoracodorsal nerve remained intact in 18 patients (24.3 percent). No partial or total flap loss was observed. At 12 and 24 months' follow-up, all patients with an intact thoracodorsal nerve showed twitching of the muscle, and 50 percent and 67.9 percent, respectively, of the denervated patients showed twitching (p < 0.001). No patient had twitching if more than 4 cm of nerve was excised at 12 or 24 months postoperatively, and the length of nerve resection was predictive of the presence of twitching. Denervation of the latissimus dorsi is a safe and reliable procedure that should be performed at the time of breast reconstruction and should include more than 4 cm to achieve a nontwitching breast with a stable volume and shape.

  18. A Prospective Analysis on Functional Outcomes Following Extended Latissimus Dorsi Flap Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Eyjolfsdottir, H; Haraldsdottir, B; Ragnarsdottir, M; Asgeirsson, K S

    2017-06-01

    To prospectively assess the functional effect of using the extended latissimus dorsi flap in immediate breast reconstructions. A total of 15 consecutive patients undergoing breast reconstruction with extended latissimus dorsi flap participated. Shoulder range of motion, muscle strength, lateral flexion of the torso, and position of scapula were measured pre-operatively and 1, 6, and 12 months post-operatively, in addition to donor-site post-operative complications. At 12 months post-operatively, patients had achieved full range of shoulder movement, when compared to pre-operative values. Lateral flexion of the torso was, however, significantly reduced bilaterally at 1 and 6 months post-operatively (p = 0.001, p = 0.01) and to the not operated side at 12 months (p = 0.01). Muscle strength in flexion-extension-internal rotation was significantly (p = 0.01) reduced on the operated side 12 months post-operatively. All but one patient had numbness around the donor-site scar 12 months post-operatively, 33% had slight adhesions but all were pain free. Although invariably, patients having extended latissimus dorsi flap may expect to achieve full range of shoulder movement, they should be informed of possible functional consequences and the time and effort it takes to recover. Further research is needed to investigate the potential long-term functional implications that extended latissimus dorsi flap may have as a result of changes in the lateral flexion of the torso and scapula position.

  19. The Clinical Application of Mastectomy With Single Incision Followed by Immediate Laparoscopic-Assisted Breast Reconstruction With Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huozhong; Xie, Donghua; Xiao, Xigang; Huang, Xingwei

    2017-08-01

    To explore the clinical application of mastectomy with single incision followed by immediate laparoscopic-assisted breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi muscle flap. Fifteen women with primary early breast cancer, 3 women with breast ductal carcinoma in situ, and 7 women with severe plasma cell mastitis were treated with partial mastectomy or total mastectomy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, or axillary lymph node dissection through a breast lateral transverse incision. Subsequent breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi muscle flap was assisted by laparoscopy. The patient's position, time used in dissecting latissimus dorsi muscle flap, size of latissimus dorsi muscle flap, postoperative complications, and the cosmetic results after reconstruction were assessed. All the operations were well done through the breast lateral transverse incision and assistance of laparoscopy. The patient's position was changed only once during the operation. It took 1.5 to 2 hours to dissect latissimus dorsi muscle flap. The sizes of the latissimus dorsi muscle flap were 5 to 8 × 12 to 16 cm. There were no serious postoperative complications noted. The patients were satisfied with the appearance of the breasts and the small surgical scar. The surgical approach introduced is minimally invasive with concealed scar and outstanding cosmetic results. It is worth promoting in clinical application.

  20. The Kite Latissimus Dorsi Flap for Breast Reconstruction: An Attempt to Reduce Lateral Chest Wall Deformity and Axillary Bulking.

    PubMed

    Correia Anacleto, J; Mavioso, C; Gouveia, P F; Magalhães, A; Bastos Martins, J; Moura, A; Pinto, D; Cardoso, M J

    2016-08-01

    The latissimus dorsi flap is a commonly used tissue transfer for volume replacement in partial or total breast reconstruction. In this era of cosmetic awareness and oncoplastic breast surgery, two main defects are related to the conventional technique: the back scar and the bulkiness on the lateral chest wall, under the axilla. Axillary bulking, a disturbing defect for the majority of patients, is a persistent consequence, independent of the technique used, even when the proximal tendon is cut. We describe a new approach, the kite latissimus dorsi flap, consisting of harvesting the flap, partially or totally, with pedicle dissection from the muscle, extending dissection, perforator style if needed, until the external border of the breast (anterior axillary line) is reached. The muscle is then cut at that level, leaving no unnecessary volume under the axilla, which would cause bulkiness and chest wall deformity. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  1. Patch-Augmented Latissimus Dorsi Transfer and Open Reduction–Internal Fixation of Unstable Os Acromiale for Irreparable Massive Posterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tear

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Maximilian; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Bhatia, Sanjeev; Millett, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Latissimus dorsi transfer is a reasonable treatment option for massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tears that can substantially improve chronically painful and dysfunctional shoulders. This report and accompanying video describe the treatment of an active 43-year-old man with severe pain and weakness in the right shoulder after 3 failed rotator cuff repairs. Preoperative imaging showed a massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tear retracted to the glenoid as well as a hypermobile os acromiale likely causing dynamic impingement and recurrent rotator cuff tears. After diagnostic arthroscopy, the latissimus tendon is harvested and augmented with a 3-mm human acellular dermal patch (ArthroFlex; Arthrex, Naples, FL). The native rotator cuff tissue is repaired as much as possible, and the latissimus tendon is passed underneath the deltoid and posterior to the teres minor. The patch-augmented tendon is then integrated into a double-row SpeedBridge repair of eight 4.75-mm BioComposite SwiveLock anchors (Arthrex). The bony surface of the os acromiale is prepared and then fixed to the acromion with 2 cannulated partially threaded screws and additional tension-band wiring. Postoperative rehabilitation initially focuses on early passive range of motion, followed by active and active-assisted motion and a biofeedback program starting at 6 weeks postoperatively. PMID:26697309

  2. Acute Traumatic Tear of Latissimus Dorsi Muscle in an Elite Track Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Çelebi, Mehmet Mesut; Ergen, Emin; Üstüner, Evren

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissue injuries constitute 30-50% of all sports related injuries; however, injury to the latissimus dorsi muscle is quite rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we describe an acute traumatic tear of the latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete, which has not been reported in the track and field sports before. The injury was caused by forceful resisted arm adduction that took place at hurdling and starting from the block. A pseudotumor appearance in the axillary region was misdiagnosed as a mass. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound alone and the patient was managed conservatively. PMID:24765503

  3. Multiple-digit resurfacing using a thin latissimus dorsi perforator flap.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wha; Lee, Ho Jun; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic digit defects of high complexity and with inadequate local tissue represent challenging surgical problems. Recently, perforator flaps have been proposed for reconstructing large defects of the hand because of their thinness and pliability and minimal donor site morbidity. Here, we illustrate the use of thin latissimus dorsi perforator flaps for resurfacing multiple defects of distal digits. We describe the cases of seven patients with large defects, including digits, circumferential defects and multiple-digit defects, who underwent reconstruction with thin latissimus dorsi perforator flaps between January 2008 and March 2012. Single-digit resurfacing procedures were excluded. The mean age was 56.3 years and the mean flap size was 160.4 cm(2). All the flaps survived completely. Two patients had minor complications including partial flap loss and scar contracture. The mean follow-up period was 11.7 months. The ideal flap for digit resurfacing should be thin and amenable to moulding, have a long pedicle for microanastomosis and have minimal donor site morbidity. Thin flaps can be harvested by excluding the deep adipose layer, and their high pliability enables resurfacing without multiple debulking procedures. The latissimus dorsi perforator flap may be the best flap for reconstructing complex defects of the digits, such as large, multiple-digit or circumferential defects, which require complete wrapping of volar and dorsal surfaces. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental definition of latissimus dorsi, gracilis, and rectus abdominus musculocutaneous flaps in the dog.

    PubMed

    Gregory, C R; Gourley, I M; Koblik, P D; Patz, J D

    1988-06-01

    Dissection and injection studies in canine cadavers and in anesthetized dogs were conducted to determine the feasibility of using the latissimus dorsi, gracilis, and rectus abdominus muscles as musculocutaneous free flaps. Lengths of vascular pedicles for the latissimus dorsi (2 +/- 0.8 cm), gracilis (1.8 +/- 0.8 cm), and rectus abdominus (1.9 +/- 0.9-cm cranial deep epigastric, 1.7 +/- 0.5-cm caudal deep epigastric), as well as arterial diameters (1.28 +/- 0.31-mm thoracodorsal for the latissimus dorsi, 1.10 +/- 0.33-mm muscular branch for the gracilis, 1.25 +/- 0.25-mm cranial deep epigastric and 1.26 +/- 0.32-mm caudal deep epigastric for the rectus abdominus) were considered satisfactory for microvascular transfer. Fluorometry demonstrated overlying cutaneous perfusion in all flaps based on their muscle vascular pedicles, with the exception of the rectus abdominus flap based on the caudal deep epigastric artery. In this instance, up to 20% of the cutaneous element had questionable or no perfusion.

  5. Assessment of the use of latissimus dorsi restoration during modified radical mastectomy in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Xinle; Zhang, Geng; Yang, Liu; Guo, Xuan; Wang, Xue; Song, Zhenchuan

    2017-12-01

    The incision area of modified radical mastectomy in breast cancer patients is associated with subcutaneous effusion and skin flap necrosis as the most common complications. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of latissimus dorsi restoration during modified radical mastectomy in breast cancer patients by evaluating 365 cases. Among these cases, 185 received modified radical mastectomy combined with intraoperative latissimus dorsi restoration, while 180 received modified radical mastectomy alone. The flap tension, drainage fluid amount and extubation time were compared between the two methods. The flap tension in patients who received modified radical mastectomy combined with intraoperative latissimus dorsi restoration was significantly lower and the blood supply was better. After surgery, the drainage fluid amount was also significantly lower in these patients compared with the control group. Furthermore, the mean time to drainage tube removal was significantly shorter in these patients and the postoperative cosmetic outcome was superior. Thus, it was concluded that modified radical mastectomy combined with intraoperative latissimus dorsi restoration in breast cancer patients was associated with reduced drainage fluid effusion, shorter hospitalization time and decreased flap tension. Overall, this method appears to be potentially suitable for extensive application in the clinical setting.

  6. Extremity salvage with a free musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap and free tendon transfer after resection of a large congenital fibro sarcoma in a 15-week-old infant. A case report.

    PubMed

    Germann, G; Waag, K-L; Selle, B; Jester, A

    2006-01-01

    A case of complex microsurgical reconstruction of the dorsum of the foot, including tendon transfer following tumor resection, in a 15-week-old male infant is presented. After birth, a 5.5 x 4 cm large tumor was observed on the dorsum of the right foot. Biopsy showed a congenital malignant fibro sarcoma. After initial chemotherapy a radical excision of the tumor at the age of 14 weeks was followed. To cover the defect a musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap was taken, the cutaneous part being large enough to cover the defect. Extensor tendons were reconstructed with free tendon transplants. Amputation is usually indicated in these cases. To the best of our knowledge, microsurgical reconstruction in infants at this age with congenital malignant tumors has not yet been reported. The case shows that Plastic surgery can play an important role in pediatric oncology and should routinely be integrated into the multi-modal treatment concepts. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2006.

  7. Long-term follow-up after latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    El-Azab, Hossam Mahmoud; Rott, Olaf; Irlenbusch, Ulrich

    2015-03-18

    Irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears are treated in several ways. Transfer of the latissimus dorsi is an alternative with acceptable mid-term results, but long-term results have rarely been published. The cases of 108 consecutive patients with 115 shoulders treated with latissimus dorsi transfer between 2000 and 2005 were reviewed clinically and radiographically. Ninety-three shoulders in eighty-six patients were included in the follow-up analysis. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.3 years (range, 6.6 to 11.7 years), and the mean age at the operation was fifty-six years (range, forty to seventy-two years). Outcome measures included the Constant-Murley score (Constant score), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) index, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. The progress of cuff tear arthropathy was determined with radiographic evaluation according to the system described by Hamada et al. The mean relative Constant score improved from 44% preoperatively to 71% at the time of follow-up (p < 0.0001, effect size = 0.6), excluding the clinical failures. Similarly, the mean ASES index improved from 30 to 70 (p < 0.0001, effect size = 0.7), and the mean VAS score decreased from 7.8 to 2.4 (p < 0.0001, effect size = 0.8). A pain-free outcome was reported in only eighteen shoulders (19%). Active shoulder movement improved significantly (p < 0.05). The mean Hamada radiographic grade of cuff tear arthropathy increased from 1.7 (range, 0 to 2) preoperatively to 2.2 (range, 1 to 5) (p < 0.0001, effect size = 0.2). The rate of clinical failure of latissimus dorsi transfer was 10%, and the rate of shoulder prosthetic replacement after latissimus dorsi transfer was 4%. Pain relief and improvement of shoulder function were maintained a mean of 9.3 years after latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable posterosuperior cuff defects. The younger the patient, the better the outcome. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  8. Assessment of the use of latissimus dorsi restoration during modified radical mastectomy in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Xinle; Zhang, Geng; Yang, Liu; Guo, Xuan; Wang, Xue; Song, Zhenchuan

    2017-01-01

    The incision area of modified radical mastectomy in breast cancer patients is associated with subcutaneous effusion and skin flap necrosis as the most common complications. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of latissimus dorsi restoration during modified radical mastectomy in breast cancer patients by evaluating 365 cases. Among these cases, 185 received modified radical mastectomy combined with intraoperative latissimus dorsi restoration, while 180 received modified radical mastectomy alone. The flap tension, drainage fluid amount and extubation time were compared between the two methods. The flap tension in patients who received modified radical mastectomy combined with intraoperative latissimus dorsi restoration was significantly lower and the blood supply was better. After surgery, the drainage fluid amount was also significantly lower in these patients compared with the control group. Furthermore, the mean time to drainage tube removal was significantly shorter in these patients and the postoperative cosmetic outcome was superior. Thus, it was concluded that modified radical mastectomy combined with intraoperative latissimus dorsi restoration in breast cancer patients was associated with reduced drainage fluid effusion, shorter hospitalization time and decreased flap tension. Overall, this method appears to be potentially suitable for extensive application in the clinical setting. PMID:29285380

  9. Measuring the patient perspective on latissimus dorsi donor site outcomes following breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Browne, John P; Jeevan, Ranjeet; Pusic, Andrea L; Klassen, Anne F; Gulliver-Clarke, Carmel; Pereira, Jerome; Caddy, Christopher M; Cano, Stefan J

    2018-03-01

    There is little evidence about the long-term donor site outcome of latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction and no patient-reported outcome measures designed specifically for the procedure. A prospective cohort of breast cancer patients having latissimus dorsi reconstruction after a mastectomy was recruited from 270 hospitals in the United Kingdom. An 18-month follow up questionnaire containing two novel scales was sent to consenting patients. The prevalence of aesthetic and functional morbidity at the donor site was described. The two new scales were refined using the Rasch measurement model and subsequently validated. 1,096 women completed the new scales. 78% of patients reported that no back appearance issues had bothered them "most of the time" or "all of the time" in the past two weeks. The equivalent figure for functional morbidity was 60%. Four items were eliminated following initial psychometric testing. This produced an 8-item Back Appearance scale and an 11-item Back and Shoulder Function scale. Both scales showed adequate fit to the Rasch measurement model. Higher levels of aesthetic and functional bother were observed for completely autologous procedures versus those where latissimus dorsi reconstruction was used to cover an implant (p <0.05). Higher levels of aesthetic bother were observed in women who had suffered a perioperative complication at the donor site (p = 0.003). These results can inform patients of the morbidity associated with latissimus dorsi reconstruction. The new scales can be used to compare groups undergoing different variations of the procedure and to monitor individual patients. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Traumatic Tear of the Latissimus Dorsi Myotendinous Junction: Case Report of a CrossFit-Related Injury.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Michael V; Stensby, J Derek; Hillen, Travis J; Demertzis, Jennifer L; Keener, Jay D

    2015-01-01

    A case of a latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction strain in an avid CrossFit athlete is presented. The patient developed acute onset right axillary burning and swelling and subsequent palpable pop with weakness while performing a "muscle up." Magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a high-grade tear of the right latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction approximately 9 cm proximal to its intact humeral insertion. There were no other injuries to the adjacent shoulder girdle structures. Isolated strain of the latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction is a very rare injury with a scarcity of information available regarding its imaging appearance and preferred treatment. This patient was treated conservatively and was able to resume active CrossFit training within 3 months. At 6 months postinjury, he had only a mild residual functional deficit compared with his preinjury level. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Efficacy of quilting sutures and fibrin sealant together for prevention of seroma in extended latissimus dorsi flap donor sites.

    PubMed

    Shin, In Soo; Lee, Dong Won; Lew, Dae Hyun

    2012-09-01

    The extended latissimus dorsi flap is important for breast reconstruction. Unfortunately, donor site seroma is the most common complication of extended latissimus dorsi flap for breast reconstruction. Although using fibrin sealant in the donor site reduces the rate of seroma formation, donor site seroma remains a troublesome complication. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the combination of quilting sutures and fibrin sealant in the latissimus dorsi donor site for the prevention of seroma. Forty-six patients who underwent breast reconstruction with extended latissimus flap were enrolled in the study. The patients received either fibrin sealant (group 1, n=25) or a combination of fibrin sealant and quilting sutures (group 2, n=21) in the extended latissimus dorsi donor site. Outcome measures were obtained from the incidence, volume of postoperative seroma, total drainage amount, indwelling period of drainage, and duration of hospital stay. The incidence of seroma was 76% in group 1 and 42.9% in group 2 (P=0.022). We also found significant reductions in seroma volume (P=0.043), total drainage amount (P=0.002), indwelling period of drainage (P=0.01), and frequency of aspiration (P=0.043). The quilting sutures did not affect the rate of drainage, tube reinsertion, or hospital stay. The use of quilting sutures combined with fibrin sealant on the latissimus dorsi flap donor site is helpful for reducing the overall seroma volume, frequency of aspiration, and total drainage amount.

  12. Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Transfer With Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Restores Active Motion and Reduces Pain for Posterosuperior Cuff Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lewis L; Cahill, Kirk E; Ek, Eugene T; Tompson, Jeffrey D; Higgins, Laurence D; Warner, Jon J P

    2015-10-01

    In patients with rotator cuff dysfunction, reverse shoulder arthroplasty can restore active forward flexion, but it does not provide a solution for the lack of active external rotation because of infraspinatus and the teres minor dysfunction. A modified L'Episcopo procedure can be performed in the same setting wherein the latissimus dorsi and teres major tendons are transferred to the lateral aspect of proximal humerus in an attempt to restore active external rotation. (1) Do latissimus dorsi and teres major tendon transfers with reverse shoulder arthroplasty improve external rotation function in patients with posterosuperior rotator cuff dysfunction? (2) Do patients experience less pain and have improved outcome scores after surgery? (3) What are the complications associated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty with latissimus dorsi and teres major transfer? Between 2007 and 2010, we treated all patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty who had a profound external rotation lag sign and advanced fatty degeneration of the posterosuperior rotator cuff (infraspinatus plus teres minor) with this approach. A total of 21 patients (mean age 66 years; range, 58-82 years) were treated this way and followed for a minimum of 2 years (range, 26-81 months); none was lost to followup, and all have been seen in the last 5 years. We compared pre- and postoperative ranges of motion, pain, and functional status; scores were drawn from chart review. We also categorized major and minor complications. Active forward flexion improved from 56° ± 36° to 120° ± 38° (mean difference: 64° [95% confidence interval {CI}, 45°-83°], p < 0.001). Active external rotation with the arm adducted improved from 6° ± 16° to 38° ± 14° (mean difference: 30° [95% CI, 21°-39°], p < 0.001); active external rotation with the arm abducted improved from 19° ± 25° to 74° ± 22° (mean difference: 44° [95% CI, 22°-65°], p < 0.001). Pain visual analog score improved from 8.4 ± 2.3 to 1.7

  13. Pedicled unipolar latissimus dorsi flap for reconstruction of finger extensor *

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Kasai, Tokio; Hibino, Naohito; Ishii, Seiji; Mitsuhashi, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We describe the use of a pedicled unipolar latissimus dorsi flap to restore finger extension. The patient had large defects in the radial nerve and extensor musculature. A long-tailed, 50-cm-long flap was prepared, which enabled the end of the flap to be sutured to the extensor digitorum. PMID:28470032

  14. Scalp Reconstruction With Free Latissimus Dorsi Flap in a Patient With Giant Cutis Verticis Gyrata.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Ozay Ozkaya; Colak, Ozlem; Canli, Mert; Akcay, Ayberk

    2016-09-01

    Cutis verticis gyrata is a rare skin disorder characterized by formation of thick skin folds and grooves. Because of the risk of malignant transformation, these lesions must be surgically excised. In this study, the authors aimed to present a successful reconstruction of scalp with free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap after total excision of giant cerebriform intradermal nevus that causes cutis verticis gyrata. An 18-year-old male patient attended to our clinic with a large tumor that covers almost 80% of his scalp. Lesion is diagnosed as cerebriform intradermal nevus. Excision of the tumor and scalp reconstruction with free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap is planned and the patient is operated. Free tissue transfer is one of the best choices for full thickness defects that covers 80% of scalp with its excellent reconstructive and aesthetical results. Reconstruction with free flaps reduces the number of operations necessary to cover the defect unlike serial tissue expansion or staged excision methods. Free flaps are also a good alternative when the patient has not enough hair-bearing tissue to expand. Low donor site morbidity also makes free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps excellent choice. Cerebriform intradermal nevus is one of the most common causes of cutis verticis gyrata and has an importance due to the current risk of malign transformation. Latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous free flap is a reliable and aesthetically acceptable reconstruction option in the patients of giant cutis verticis gyrata due to sufficient pedicle length, reliable vascularized tissue volume, and large surface area.

  15. The Pedicled Latissimus Dorsi Flap Provides Effective Coverage for Large and Complex Soft Tissue Injuries Around the Elbow.

    PubMed

    Hacquebord, Jacques H; Hanel, Douglas P; Friedrich, Jeffrey B

    2017-08-01

    The pedicled latissimus flap has been shown to provide effective coverage of wounds around the elbow with an average size of 100 to 147 cm 2 but with complication rates of 20% to 57%. We believe the pedicled latissimus dorsi flap is an effective and safe technique that provides reliable and durable coverage of considerably larger soft tissue defects around the elbow and proximal forearm. A retrospective review was performed including all patients from Harborview Medical Center between 1998 and 2012 who underwent coverage with pedicled latissimus dorsi flap for defects around the elbow. Demographic information, injury mechanism, soft tissue defect size, complications (minor vs major), and time to surgery were collected. The size of the soft tissue defect, complications, and successful soft tissue coverage were the primary outcome measures. A total of 18 patients were identified with variable mechanisms of injury. Average defect size around the elbow was 422 cm 2 . Three patients had partial necrosis of the distal most aspect of the flap, which was treated conservatively. One patient required a secondary fasciocutaneous flap, and another required conversion to a free latissimus flap secondary to venous congestion. Two were lost to follow-up after discharge from the hospital. In all, 88% (14 of 16) of the patients had documented (>3-month follow-up) successful soft tissue coverage with single-stage pedicled latissimus dorsi flap. The pedicled latissimus dorsi flap is a reliable option for large and complex soft tissue injuries around the elbow significantly larger than previous reports. However, coverage of the proximal forearm remains challenging.

  16. Comparison of morbidity-related seroma formation following conventional latissimus dorsi flap versus muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flap breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Numajiri, Toshiaki; Nakatsukasa, Katsuhiko; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Taguchi, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The pedicled, descending-branch muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi (MSLD) flap has been widely used for breast reconstruction following total mastectomy. However, the superiority of the MSLD flap compared to the conventional latissimus dorsi (CLD) flap in preventing seroma formation has not been demonstrated. This study compares the morbidities related to seroma formation following pedicled MSLD flap and CLD flap breast reconstruction. Methods A total of 15 women who underwent partial mastectomy and immediate partial breast reconstruction with MSLD flaps were compared with 15 women under identical conditions with CLD flap breast reconstruction. The medical records were reviewed for both complications and demographic data. The authors compared morbidity, including donor-site seroma, total volume of drain discharge, indwelling period of drainage, and length of hospital stay following both MSLD flap and CLD flap breast reconstruction. Results The demographic data of the 2 groups were not significantly different. Donor-site seroma occurred in 2 MSLD patients (13.3%) and in 6 CLD patients (40.0%). The total volume of the drain discharge and the indwelling period of drainage at donor site were significantly lower in the MSLD group. The length of hospital stay was significantly shorter (by approximately a day and a half) for the MSLD group. Conclusion The MSLD flap, with its low complication rate and associated minimal functional and aesthetic deficits at the donor site, may be a useful option for small breast reconstruction if earlier discharge from hospital is demanded. PMID:28932726

  17. Comparison of morbidity-related seroma formation following conventional latissimus dorsi flap versus muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flap breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Yoshihiro; Numajiri, Toshiaki; Nakatsukasa, Katsuhiko; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Taguchi, Tetsuya

    2017-09-01

    The pedicled, descending-branch muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi (MSLD) flap has been widely used for breast reconstruction following total mastectomy. However, the superiority of the MSLD flap compared to the conventional latissimus dorsi (CLD) flap in preventing seroma formation has not been demonstrated. This study compares the morbidities related to seroma formation following pedicled MSLD flap and CLD flap breast reconstruction. A total of 15 women who underwent partial mastectomy and immediate partial breast reconstruction with MSLD flaps were compared with 15 women under identical conditions with CLD flap breast reconstruction. The medical records were reviewed for both complications and demographic data. The authors compared morbidity, including donor-site seroma, total volume of drain discharge, indwelling period of drainage, and length of hospital stay following both MSLD flap and CLD flap breast reconstruction. The demographic data of the 2 groups were not significantly different. Donor-site seroma occurred in 2 MSLD patients (13.3%) and in 6 CLD patients (40.0%). The total volume of the drain discharge and the indwelling period of drainage at donor site were significantly lower in the MSLD group. The length of hospital stay was significantly shorter (by approximately a day and a half) for the MSLD group. The MSLD flap, with its low complication rate and associated minimal functional and aesthetic deficits at the donor site, may be a useful option for small breast reconstruction if earlier discharge from hospital is demanded.

  18. Immediate breast reconstruction with a Latissimus dorsi flap has no detrimental effects on shoulder motion or postsurgical complications up to 1 year after surgery.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Riza Rute; do Nascimento, Simony Lira; Derchain, Sophie F M; Sarian, Luís Otávio

    2013-05-01

    Mastectomy negatively affects scapulothoracic and glenohumeral kinematics. Breast reconstructive methods such as the latissimus dorsi flap can result in anatomical modifications that may in theory further affect the shoulder apparatus. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction on the recovery of shoulder motion and other postsurgical problems during the first year after mastectomy. This was a prospective cohort study of 104 consecutive mastectomies (47 with immediate latissimus dorsi flaps). Shoulder range of motion was assessed before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Pain, tissue adhesion, scar enlargement, and web syndrome were assessed during follow-up. There was a 30 percent decrease of shoulder range of motion 1 month after surgery, with gradual recovery over time. However, mean abduction and flexion capacities did not reach baseline levels and were on average 5 to 10 percent lower than baseline, even after 1 year. Over time, the latissimus dorsi flap was not associated with restriction of flexion or abduction. Scar enlargement (at the first month, p = 0.009) and tissue adhesion (at month 12, p = 0.032) were significantly less common in the latissimus dorsi flap group. The authors' study clearly suggests that the additional anatomical manipulation required for the latissimus dorsi flap procedure does not further affect shoulder kinematics and is associated with a lower incidence of tissue adhesion. Therapeutic, II.

  19. Latissimus dorsi myocutaneous reconstruction: a study of long-term outcomes in a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Kallaway, C; Humphreys, A; Laurence, N; Sutton, R

    2016-11-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome and durability of both autologous and implant-assisted latissimus dorsi reconstruction in a district general hospital over a 10-year follow-up period. METHODS A prospective cohort study was carried out using a detailed database of all latissimus dorsi flap reconstructions performed by a single consultant surgeon between 2003 and 2013 at the Royal United Hospital, Bath. The long-term outcome following reconstruction was assessed by analysing all episodes of 'reconstruction-specific' operations required from 6 months after the initial surgery. RESULTS The study included 110 patients with latissimus dorsi flap reconstructions, 21 autologous and 95 implant-assisted. Radiotherapy was given to 27 patients with reconstructed flaps. Mean follow-up was 69 months. Further reconstruction-specific surgery was needed in 27 (23%) cases, with 5 of these being post-radiotherapy flaps. Implant-related surgery was the most common reason for further surgery. Complications of the implant itself made up 52% of these cases, chronic sepsis being the most common. The rate of symptomatic capsular contracture requiring further surgery was 4.2%. Of these, one of four patients had undergone radiotherapy. DISCUSSION In our institution, latissimus dorsi reconstruction is durable and safe over the long term, with limited need for further substantial intervention to maintain a good outcome from the initial reconstruction. Autologous flaps were less likely to require further surgery over the long term compared with implant-based reconstructions. The low rate of symptomatic capsular contracture may be due to the protective mechanism provided by the extended harvest flap used.

  20. [Application of 3D visualization technique in breast cancer surgery with immediate breast reconstruction using laparoscopically harvested pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pu-Sheng; Wang, Li-Kun; Luo, Yun-Feng; Shi, Fu-Jun; He, Lin-Yun; Zeng, Cheng-Bing; Zhang, Yu; Fang, Chi-Hua

    2017-08-20

    To study the value of 3D visualization technique in breast-preserving surgery for breast cancer with immediate breast reconstruction using laparoscopically harvested pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap. From January, 2015 to May, 2016, 30 patients with breast cancer underwent breast-preserving surgery with immediate breast reconstruction using pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap. The CT data of the arterial phase and venous phase were collected preoperatively and imported into the self-developed medical image 3D visualization system for image segmentation and 3D reconstruction. The 3D models were imported into the simulation surgery platform for virtual surgery to prepare for subsequent surgeries. The cosmetic outcomes of the patients were evaluated 6 months after the surgery. Another 18 patients with breast cancer who underwent laparoscopic latissimus dorsi muscle breast reconstruction without using 3D visualization technique from January to December, 2014 served as the control group. The data of the operative time, intraoperative blood loss and postoperative appearance of the breasts were analyzed. The reconstructed 3D model clearly displayed the anatomical structures of the breast, armpit, latissimus dorsi muscle and vessels and their anatomical relationship in all the 30 cases. Immediate breast reconstruction was performed successfully in all the cases with median operation time of 226 min (range, 210 to 420 min), a median blood loss of 95 mL (range, 73 to 132 mL). Evaluation of the appearance of the breast showed excellent results in 22 cases, good appearance in 6 cases and acceptable appearance in 2 cases. In the control group, the median operation time was 283 min (range, 256 to 313 min) and the median blood loss was 107 mL (range, 79 to 147 mL) with excellent appearance of the breasts in 10 cases, good appearance in 4 cases and acceptable appearance in 4 cases. 3D reconstruction technique can clearly display the morphology of the latissimus dorsi and

  1. Latissimus dorsi free flap for coverage of sacral radiodermatitis in the ambulatory patient

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stark, D.; Tofield, J.J.; Terranova, W.

    1987-07-01

    Ambulatory patients with large sacral ulcers can represent extremely challenging coverage problems. Technical options become fewer when sacral ulcers are coupled with radiation dermatitis. Latissimus dorsi free flap transfer, with direct anastomoses to sacral vessels, is described in 2 patients.

  2. Combined application of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and iliac bone flap in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jihui; Li, Lei; Zhou, Rong; Hou, Ruixing

    2018-05-18

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap (stage I) combined with iliac bone flap (stage II) in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the lower extremity. Clinical data of 18 patients undergoing latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in combination with iliac bone flap grafting were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 2 patients developed chronic osteomyelitis of the lower segment of the femur, 4 were diagnosed with chronic osteomyelitis of the tibial plateau, and 12 with chronic osteomyelitis of the lower segment of the tibia. All the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps survived in 18 patients. After the corresponding surgery, primary wound healing was achieved in 11 patients, and delayed wound healing was obtained in 7 cases. All wounds were completely healed with postoperative 2 months. Following the iliac bone flap grafting, primary would healing was accomplished in all cases. All dorsal window chambers survived. The bone defects were properly restored within 4-12 postoperative months. Functional training was performed after removal of the internal and external fixators. Postoperative follow-up was endured from 6 months to 10 years. All patients were satisfied with the bone healing and flap texture without the incidence of osteomyelitis and sinus tract. No contraction was observed in the grafting area of 2 patients receiving latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap grafting. Residual linear scars were noted in the dorsal and iliac donor sites. Combined usage of stage I latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and stage II iliac bone flap grafting is an efficacious and safe surgical technique in clinical practice.

  3. [APPLICATION OF PEDICLED LATISSIMUS DORSI KISS FLAP TO REPAIR CHEST WALL SKIN DEFECTS AFTER TUMOR RESECTION].

    PubMed

    Lü, Chunliu; Li, Zan; Zhou, Xiao; Song, Dajiang; Peng, Xiaowei; Zhou, Bo; Yang, Lichang

    2016-12-08

    To investigate the clinical value of pedicled latissimus dorsi Kiss flap in repairing chest wall large skin defect after tumor operation. A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data from 15 cases of chest wall tumors treated between December 2010 and December 2015. There were 2 males and 13 females with an average age of 51.8 years (range, 43-60 years); there were 11 cases of locally advanced breast cancer, 3 cases of fibrosarcoma in chest wall, and 1 case of chest wall radiation ulcer with a median disease duration of 24.1 months (range, 6 months to 8 years). The area of skin defects was 17 cm×12 cm to 20 cm×18 cm after primary tumor resection; the pedicled latissimus dorsi Kiss flap was designed to repair wounds. The flap was a two-lobed flap at a certain angle on the surface of latissimus dorsi based on the thoracodorsal artery, with a size of 17 cm×6 cm to 20 cm×9 cm for each lobe. The donor site was sutured directly. Fourteen flaps survived with primary healing of wound; delayed healing was observed in 1 flap because of distal necrosis; and healing by first intention was obtained at the donor sites. The follow-up time was from 6 months to 3 years (mean, 21.6 months). The flap had good appearance with no bloated pedicle. The shoulder joint activities were normal. No local recurrence occurred, but distant metastasis in 2 cases. No obvious scar was found at donor sites. The application of pedicled latissimus dorsi Kiss flap to repair chest wall skin defects after tumor resection has important clinical value, because of the advatages of simple operation, minor donor site damage and rapid postoperative recovery, especially for late stage cancer patients.

  4. A cross flow-through pedicle free latissimus dorsi flap for high voltage electrical burns.

    PubMed

    Gencel, Eyuphan; Eser, Cengiz; Kesiktas, Erol; Tabakan, Ibrahim; Yavuz, Metin

    2016-06-01

    The management of a high voltage electrical injury and lower limb salvage remains a challenging task for plastic surgeons. Reconstruction with flaps is often the only alternative to limb amputation. The purpose of this study was to present a cross flow-through pedicle free latissimus dorsi muscle flap for the salvage of severely traumatized lower limbs perfused by one remaining vessel (a single vessel lower limb) in high voltage electrical injuries. In this retrospective study, between 2000 and 2014, six men underwent cross-leg free Latissimus dorsi muscle flap operations for limb salvage. They had soft tissue lower leg defects due to high voltage electrical injuries. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. All had only one artery that perfused the leg. Free pedicled thoracodorsal artery latissimus dorsi flaps were harvested and connected to the contralateral posterior tibial artery. All defects were successfully covered. No flap loss or major amputation occurred during follow-up (mean; 5.9 years). A computerized tomography angiogram showed intact vessel continuity in the recipient vascular system. The patients were able to walk without any apparatus or assistance after long term follow-up. We recommend that the cross flow-through pedicle free muscle flap should be considered as a salvage procedure for single vessel lower extremities resulting from high voltage electrical burns. Extremity perfusion was not compromised by this procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Vascular delay and administration of basic fibroblast growth factor augment latissimus dorsi muscle flap perfusion and function.

    PubMed

    Carroll, S M; Carroll, C M; Stremel, R W; Heilman, S J; Steffen, J M; Tobin, G R; Barker, J H

    2000-03-01

    Ischemia of the distal latissimus dorsi muscle flap occurs when the entire muscle is acutely elevated. Although this level of ischemia may not be critical if the muscle is to be used as a conventional muscle flap, the ischemia causes decreased distal muscle function if it is used for dynamic muscle flap transfer. This experiment was designed to determine whether or not the administration of exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), combined with a sublethal ischemic insult (i.e., vascular delay), would further augment muscle perfusion and function. Both latissimus dorsi muscles of nine canines were subjected to a bipedicle vascular delay procedure immediately followed by thoracodorsal intraarterial injection of 100 microg of bFGF on one side and by intraarterial injection of vehicle on the other. Ten days later, both latissimus dorsi muscles were raised as thoracodorsally based island flaps, with perfusion determined by laser-Doppler fluximetry. The muscles were wrapped around silicone chambers, simulating cardiomyoplasty, and stimulating electrodes were placed around each thoracodorsal nerve. The muscles were then subjected to an experimental protocol to determine muscle contractile function. At the end of the experiment, latissimus dorsi muscle biopsies were obtained for measurement of bFGF expression. The results demonstrated that the administration of 100 microg of bFGF immediately after the vascular delay procedure increases expression of native bFGF. In the distal and middle muscle segments, it also significantly increased muscle perfusion by approximately 20 percent and fatigue resistance by approximately 300 percent. The administration of growth factors may serve as an important adjuvant to surgical procedures using dynamic muscle flap transfers.

  6. Reconstruction of an anterior chest wall radionecrosis defect by a contralateral latissimus dorsi flap: A case report.

    PubMed

    Vairinho, A; Al Hindi, A; Revol, M; Legras, A; Rem, K; Guenane, Y; Cristofari, S; Sorin, T

    2018-04-01

    Soft tissue and bone radionecrosis are rare but serious complications may occur late after radiotherapy. We report the case of an 86-year-old woman with a history an infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the left breast, treated by total mastectomy, left axillary dissection and adjuvant radiotherapy. Eighteen years later, the first radionecrosis lesions appeared and grew progressively in a 6-month period. These lesions are deep, involving the anterior aspect of the 4th to the 6th ribs and infiltrating the chest wall to the left cardio-thoracic space communicating largely with the pericardium. During axillary dissection, the neurovascular pedicle of the left latissimus dorsi muscle had been severed. The first part of the operation consisted of performing a left side parietectomy of the thoracic wall with a large resection of pericardial tissue and a small myocardial patch. The second step consisted of repairing the thoracic wall defect with a contralateral musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap. Due to its significant axis of rotation, the latissimus dorsi muscle flap must be considered in the therapeutic algorithm for covering of contralateral anterior chest wall defects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Case Report Reconstruction of Exposed Ilium With Reverse Turnover Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Kenji; Endo, Yoshie; Kamebuchi, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: It is difficult to cover a large skin and soft tissue defect with exposure of the ilium. We therefore performed a new reconstruction technique, using a reverse latissimus dorsi muscle flap fed by perforating branches of only the 10th intercostal artery. Methods: A 45-year-old man had a large traumatic defect located on the hip with exposure of the iliac crest. After confirming and preserving perforating branches of the 10th intercostal artery, the latissimus dorsi muscle flap was turned over just proximal to the perforating branch, and a split-thickness skin graft was performed over the flap. Results: The skin graft took place well and there were no circulation problems. Conclusions: This flap covered a larger area on the hip than the musculocutaneous flap. Furthermore, this is easier to perform and is less invasive than a vascularized free flap. Skin and soft tissue defects that expose bones of the lumbar or hip region can be reconstructed with a local flap; however, the deficit is small for this coverage and usually there is little skin and soft tissue to cover the wound defect in the surrounding area. Thus, it is often difficult to deal with large defects. We performed a reconstruction, using a reverse latissimus dorsi flap fed by perforating branches of the 10th intercostal artery for a large skin and soft tissue defect of the hip with exposure of the iliac crest, resulting in a good outcome. This technique is thought to be useful for reconstruction when the ilium is exposed, and we report the case and surgical procedure. PMID:21559059

  8. Complex posterior thoracic wall reconstruction using a crossover combined latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior free flap.

    PubMed

    Bodin, Frédéric; Dissaux, Caroline; Steib, Jean-Paul; Massard, Gilbert

    2016-03-01

    Radical resection of an extended malignant sarcoma of the chest wall requires full-thickness thoracic chest wall reconstruction. Reconstruction is tedious in the case of posteriorly located tumours, because the ipsilateral pedicled myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap is involved and hence not usable for soft tissue coverage. We report an original case of a left giant dorsal chondrosarcoma originating from the 11th costovertebral joint. After extended resection and skeletal reconstruction, soft tissue coverage was achieved with an original contralateral free flap encompassing both latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscles. The flap pedicle was anastomosed to the ipsilateral thoracodorsal vessels. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimizing Results of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy Utilizing the Latissimus Dorsi Flap and Tissue Expander Technique: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Chevrollier, Guillaume S.; Greaney, Patrick J.; Jenkins, Matthew P.; Copit, Steven E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Postmastectomy radiation therapy is a well-established risk factor for complications after breast reconstruction. Even if the surgeon has a suspicion that radiation therapy may be needed, it may be beneficial to place tissue expanders during the mastectomy procedure as a temporizing measure, complete radiation therapy, and then reconstruct the breast with a latissimus flap. The purpose of this study was to examine the complication rates of the latissimus dorsi flap as compared with the complication rates of implant-based reconstruction in the setting of radiation therapy. Methods: A 16-year retrospective chart review from 2000 to 2016 was conducted. All patients who underwent temporizing tissue expander placement for radiotherapy with subsequent latissimus flap reconstruction were included in the study. Patients who did not follow up for implant exchange were excluded from the study. Results: Fifty-five patients were identified with an average age of 46.0 years (range, 27-67 years) and an average body mass index of 24.2 (range, 18.9-31.9). Five patients (9.1%) developed capsular contractures amenable to surgical intervention. One patient (1.8%) developed infection of the tissue expander, requiring removal. There were no incidences of flap failure or wound dehiscence. The average follow-up after latissimus flap reconstruction was 25.3 months (range, 3.7-121.6 months). Conclusions: We feel that the latissimus dorsi flap after postmastectomy radiation therapy represents the preferred implant-based reconstruction option to consider when the need for postmastectomy radiation therapy is anticipated. The latissimus dorsi flap remains a safe, effective solution to postmastectomy radiation therapy that every plastic surgeon should offer. PMID:29308108

  10. Optimizing Results of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy Utilizing the Latissimus Dorsi Flap and Tissue Expander Technique: A Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, Waseem; Chevrollier, Guillaume S; Greaney, Patrick J; Jenkins, Matthew P; Copit, Steven E

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Postmastectomy radiation therapy is a well-established risk factor for complications after breast reconstruction. Even if the surgeon has a suspicion that radiation therapy may be needed, it may be beneficial to place tissue expanders during the mastectomy procedure as a temporizing measure, complete radiation therapy, and then reconstruct the breast with a latissimus flap. The purpose of this study was to examine the complication rates of the latissimus dorsi flap as compared with the complication rates of implant-based reconstruction in the setting of radiation therapy. Methods: A 16-year retrospective chart review from 2000 to 2016 was conducted. All patients who underwent temporizing tissue expander placement for radiotherapy with subsequent latissimus flap reconstruction were included in the study. Patients who did not follow up for implant exchange were excluded from the study. Results: Fifty-five patients were identified with an average age of 46.0 years (range, 27-67 years) and an average body mass index of 24.2 (range, 18.9-31.9). Five patients (9.1%) developed capsular contractures amenable to surgical intervention. One patient (1.8%) developed infection of the tissue expander, requiring removal. There were no incidences of flap failure or wound dehiscence. The average follow-up after latissimus flap reconstruction was 25.3 months (range, 3.7-121.6 months). Conclusions: We feel that the latissimus dorsi flap after postmastectomy radiation therapy represents the preferred implant-based reconstruction option to consider when the need for postmastectomy radiation therapy is anticipated. The latissimus dorsi flap remains a safe, effective solution to postmastectomy radiation therapy that every plastic surgeon should offer.

  11. Brachial artery protected by wrapped latissimus dorsi muscle flap in high voltage electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Gencel, E.; Eser, C.; Kokacya, O.; Kesiktas, E.; Yavuz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary High voltage electrical injury can disrupt the vascular system and lead to extremity amputations. It is important to protect main vessels from progressive burn necrosis in order to salvage a limb. The brachial artery should be totally isolated from the burned area by a muscle flap to prevent vessel disruption. In this study, we report the use of a wrap-around latissimus dorsi muscle flap to protect a skeletonized brachial artery in a high voltage electrical injury in order to salvage the upper extremity and restore function. The flap wrapped around the exposed brachial artery segment and luminal status of the artery was assessed using magnetic resonance angiography. No vascular intervention was required. The flap survived completely with good elbow function. Extremity amputation was not encountered. This method using a latissimus dorsi flap allows the surgeon to protect the main upper extremity artery and reconstruct arm defects, which contributes to restoring arm function in high voltage electrical injury. PMID:28149236

  12. Brachial artery protected by wrapped latissimus dorsi muscle flap in high voltage electrical injury.

    PubMed

    Gencel, E; Eser, C; Kokacya, O; Kesiktas, E; Yavuz, M

    2016-06-30

    High voltage electrical injury can disrupt the vascular system and lead to extremity amputations. It is important to protect main vessels from progressive burn necrosis in order to salvage a limb. The brachial artery should be totally isolated from the burned area by a muscle flap to prevent vessel disruption. In this study, we report the use of a wrap-around latissimus dorsi muscle flap to protect a skeletonized brachial artery in a high voltage electrical injury in order to salvage the upper extremity and restore function. The flap wrapped around the exposed brachial artery segment and luminal status of the artery was assessed using magnetic resonance angiography. No vascular intervention was required. The flap survived completely with good elbow function. Extremity amputation was not encountered. This method using a latissimus dorsi flap allows the surgeon to protect the main upper extremity artery and reconstruct arm defects, which contributes to restoring arm function in high voltage electrical injury.

  13. Functional status and failed rotator cuff repair predict outcomes after arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable massive rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Castricini, Roberto; De Benedetto, Massimo; Familiari, Filippo; De Gori, Marco; De Nardo, Pasquale; Orlando, Nicola; Gasparini, Giorgio; Galasso, Olimpio

    2016-04-01

    Arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi tendon transfer (LDTT) has been recently introduced for treatment of irreparable, posterosuperior massive rotator cuff tears. We sought to evaluate the functional outcomes of this technique and to check for possible outcome predictors. The study reviewed 86 patients (aged 59.8 ± 5.9 years) who underwent an arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi tendon transfer after 36.4 ± 9 months of follow-up. Of these, 14 patients (16.3%) sustained an irreparable massive rotator cuff tear after a failed arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The Constant and Murley score (CMS) was used to assess patients' functionality preoperatively and at follow-up. As a group, the CMS improved with surgery from 35.5 ± 6.1 to 69.5 ± 12.3 (P < .001). A lower preoperative CMS and a previous failed rotator cuff repair resulted in lower postoperative range of motion (P = .044 and P = .007, respectively) and CMS (P = .042 and P = .018, respectively). A previous rotator cuff repair resulted in lower satisfaction with surgery (P = .009). Gender and age did not affect the clinical outcomes. Our results support the effectiveness of arthroscopic-assisted LDTT in the treatment of patients with an irreparable, posterosuperior massive rotator cuff tears in pain relief, functional recovery, and postoperative satisfaction. Patients with lower preoperative CMS and a history of failed rotator cuff repair have a greater likelihood of having a lower clinical result. However, the favorable values of summary postoperative scores do not exclude these patients as candidates for arthroscopic-assisted LDTT. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Latissimus Dorsi Flap in Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Rachita; Easow, Jeena M.; Konopka, Geoffrey; Panthaki, Zubin J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Surgeons employ the latissimus dorsi flap (LDF) for reconstruction of a large variety of breast cancer surgery defects, including quadrantectomy, lumpectomy, modified radical mastectomy, and others. The LDF may be used in delayed or immediate reconstruction, in combination with tissue expanders for a staged reconstruction, with implant-based immediate reconstruction, or alone as an autogenous flap. Methods: The authors discuss the historical uses and more recent developments in the LDF. More recent advancements, including the “scarless” approach and augmentation with the thoracodorsal artery perforator flap, are discussed. Results: The LDF is a reliable means for soft tissue coverage providing form and function during breast reconstruction with acceptable perioperative and long-term morbidities. Conclusions: When there is a paucity of tissue, the LDF can provide tissue volume in autologous reconstruction, as well as a reliable vascular pedicle for implant-based reconstruction as in the setting of irradiated tissue. PMID:29334788

  15. Single-stage Reconstruction of Elbow Flexion Associated with Massive Soft-Tissue Defect Using the Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Bipolar Rotational Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Cuéllar, Vanessa G.; Ghiassi, Alidad; Sharpe, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In the upper extremity, the latissimus dorsi muscle can be used as an ipsilateral rotational muscle flap for soft-tissue coverage or functional reconstruction of arm and elbow. Patients who have both major soft-tissue loss and functional deficits can be successfully treated with a single-stage functional latissimus dorsi rotational muscle transfer that provides simultaneous soft-tissue coverage and functional reconstruction. Methods: Our data base was queried for all patients undergoing a rotational latissimus dorsi muscle transfer for simultaneous soft-tissue coverage and functional reconstruction of elbow flexion. Four patients were identified. A chart review documented the mechanism of injury, associated injuries, soft-tissue defect size, number of surgical procedures, length of follow-up, last elbow range of motion, and flexion strength. Results: Four patients with loss of elbow flexion due to traumatic loss of the anterior compartment muscles and the overlying soft tissue underwent simultaneous soft-tissue coverage and elbow flexorplasty using the ipsilateral latissimus dorsi as a bipolar muscle rotational tissue transfer. All flaps survived and had a recovery of Medical Research Council Grade 4/5 elbow flexion strength. No additional procedures were required for elbow flexion. The surgical technique is described and supplemented with surgical technique video and patient outcome. Conclusions: This patient series augments the data provided in other series supporting the safety and efficacy of this procedure which provides both soft-tissue coverage and functional restoration of elbow flexion as a single-stage procedure in the setting of massive traumatic soft-tissue loss of the arm. PMID:27757363

  16. Single-stage Reconstruction of Elbow Flexion Associated with Massive Soft-Tissue Defect Using the Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Bipolar Rotational Transfer.

    PubMed

    Stevanovic, Milan V; Cuéllar, Vanessa G; Ghiassi, Alidad; Sharpe, Frances

    2016-09-01

    In the upper extremity, the latissimus dorsi muscle can be used as an ipsilateral rotational muscle flap for soft-tissue coverage or functional reconstruction of arm and elbow. Patients who have both major soft-tissue loss and functional deficits can be successfully treated with a single-stage functional latissimus dorsi rotational muscle transfer that provides simultaneous soft-tissue coverage and functional reconstruction. Our data base was queried for all patients undergoing a rotational latissimus dorsi muscle transfer for simultaneous soft-tissue coverage and functional reconstruction of elbow flexion. Four patients were identified. A chart review documented the mechanism of injury, associated injuries, soft-tissue defect size, number of surgical procedures, length of follow-up, last elbow range of motion, and flexion strength. Four patients with loss of elbow flexion due to traumatic loss of the anterior compartment muscles and the overlying soft tissue underwent simultaneous soft-tissue coverage and elbow flexorplasty using the ipsilateral latissimus dorsi as a bipolar muscle rotational tissue transfer. All flaps survived and had a recovery of Medical Research Council Grade 4/5 elbow flexion strength. No additional procedures were required for elbow flexion. The surgical technique is described and supplemented with surgical technique video and patient outcome. This patient series augments the data provided in other series supporting the safety and efficacy of this procedure which provides both soft-tissue coverage and functional restoration of elbow flexion as a single-stage procedure in the setting of massive traumatic soft-tissue loss of the arm.

  17. Bipolar Transfer of Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flap for Restoration of Elbow Flexion in Late Traumatic Brachial Plexus Injury: Evaluation of 13 Cases.

    PubMed

    Azab, Ahmed Abo-Hashem; Alsabbahi, Mohammad Salah

    2017-02-01

    Restoration of elbow flexion following traumatic brachial plexus injury represents a great challenge to the reconstructive surgeons. Functional muscle transfers come next to the sophisticated types of nerve surgery in this area. Many transfers are well known for restoration of elbow flexion; bipolar or unipolar latissimus dorsi, triceps brachii, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis major, and Steindler flexorplasty. Evaluation of the outcome of bipolar transfer of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap when used to restore elbow flexion in late traumatic brachial plexus injury. Thirteen patients were included in this case series with careful evaluation both preoperatively and postoperatively both clinically and using electromyography. Almost 84.6% of patients (11 of 13) developed G3-4 on the Medical Research Council grading with relatively minimal both donor-site and recipient-site morbidity. Bipolar transfer of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is a reliable method for restoration of elbow flexion in patients suffering from late sequelae of traumatic brachial plexus injury.

  18. Bipolar Latissimus Dorsi Transfer for Restoration of Pectoralis Major Function in Poland Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Patrick; Leyngold, Mark; Mast, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    Poland syndrome typically presents as a unilateral congenital complete or partial absence of the pectoralis major muscle, variably with other associated anomalies. Reconstruction of the defect typically concentrates on aesthetic restoration with functional outcomes being unsuccessful or limited. We present an innovative means of true muscle transfer that provided functional benefit to increase upper extremity strength. A 16-year-old adolescent boy with Poland syndrome manifesting as left pectoralis major muscle agenesis wished to undergo functional reconstruction. He wanted to play on his high school football team, but could not meet the minimum weightlifting requirements. An ipsilateral latissimus dorsi muscle bipolar functional transfer was done with bone-anchored inset into the sternum and humerus so that muscle flexion would replace the absent pectoralis major. A progressive weight training program was then instituted postoperatively. At 9 months, a significant increase in left upper extremity strength was confirmed. The patient ultimately was able to surpass the weightlifting requirements for his high school football team, and joined the team. Our highlighted procedure restored functional outcome using both plastic surgical principles and orthopedic techniques for muscle and tendon repair: bipolar muscle transfer and load-bearing muscle inset. Heretofore, transfer of the latissimus for provision of pectoralis major function has not been reported. Functional reconstruction was possible due to stable, bipolar muscle transfer with load-bearing muscle attachments into cortical bone of the anterior sternum and anteromedial aspect of the humerus. The techniques described should be within the skill set of most plastic surgeons, so that functional restoration for those with Poland syndrome is possible and accessible.

  19. Immediate breast reconstruction with a myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap and implant following skin-sparing salvage mastectomy after irradiation as part of breast-conserving therapy.

    PubMed

    van Huizum, Martine A; Hage, J Joris; Rutgers, Emiel J; Hoornweg, Marije J

    2016-08-01

    Local relapse after breast-conserving therapy including whole breast irradiation is typically treated by salvage mastectomy. Immediate reconstruction by pedicled transfer of a latissimus dorsi flap in combination with implantation of a definitive prosthesis or temporary tissue expander following skin sparing salvage mastectomy has been shown to be feasible. However, it has never been shown to be justifiable. The aim of the study was to compare the outcome of this procedure to the widely accepted secondary breast reconstruction by combined latissimus dorsi flap and implant after mastectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. The surgical outcome of 93 immediate latissimus dorsi and implant reconstructions after skin-sparing salvage mastectomy performed from 2007 to 2011 after radiotherapy was compared to that of 83 secondary reconstructions with the latissimus dorsi and an implant. The follow-up duration was 3.5 years in both groups. Complications were categorized as minor (conservative treatment sufficed) or major (flap loss, mammary skin loss, implant loss, seroma or haematoma indicating repeat surgery). The salvage group scored significantly less on half of the patient-related and procedure-related risk factors. Nevertheless, we observed 27% of short-term major surgical complications and an ultimate success rate of 94% in the salvage group compared to those observed in our series of secondary reconstruction in post-radiation women (27% and 93%, respectively). Skin-sparing salvage mastectomy combined with immediate reconstruction by transfer of a latissimus dorsi flap with an implant is a justifiable reconstructive option for women with a recurrence after irradiation as part of breast-conserving therapy. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Availability of latissimus dorsi minigraft in smile reconstruction for incomplete facial paralysis: quantitative assessment based on the optical flow method.

    PubMed

    Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Ohura, Norihiko; Asato, Hirotaka

    2009-04-01

    Acute unilateral facial paralysis, such as occurs in Bell palsy and Hunt syndrome, is mostly a benign neurologic morbidity that resolves within a few months. However, incomplete or misdirected return of the affected nerve results in unfavorable cosmetic sequelae in some patients. Although functional problems such as lagophthalmos are rare, facial asymmetry on smiling resulting from a lack of mimetic muscle strength in the cheek is often psychologically annoying to patients. To obtain a more natural smile, the authors transfer latissimus dorsi muscle to assist in cheek movement. A small, thinned muscle (mini-latissimus dorsi) is sufficient for transplant in this situation. In this study, 96 patients with incomplete facial paralysis who underwent mini-latissimus dorsi transfer were examined. In this series, along with evaluation using the grading scale used in previous reports, preoperative and postoperative videos of 30 patients were analyzed for quantitative assessment using newly developed computer software. Temporary deterioration of paralysis was recognized in three cases but did not last more than a few months. Signs of transferred muscle contraction were recorded after 4 to 12 months among 91 patients. No apparent clinical signs of contraction were recognized in one patient, and four patients could not be followed postoperatively. The synchronized ratio of vertical movement and the symmetrical ratio of horizontal movement both in the cheek and in the lower lip between healthy and paralyzed sides among 30 patients were statistically improved. Statistical analysis using newly developed computer software revealed that a more symmetrical smile can be achieved by muscle transfer among patients with incomplete facial paralysis. Mini-latissimus dorsi transfer can avoid postoperative muscle bulkiness of the cheek and can achieve more natural cheek movement.

  1. Scapular tip and latissimus dorsi osteomyogenous free flap for the reconstruction of a maxillectomy defect: A minimally invasive transaxillary approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Joon; Jeong, Woo-Jin; Ahn, Soon-Hyun

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a novel, minimally invasive transaxillary approach for harvesting the scapular tip and latissimus dorsi osteomyogenous free flap for the reconstruction of a maxillectomy defect. A retrospective case series study of 4 patients who underwent reconstruction using a scapular tip composite free flap through the transaxillary approach was conducted. The data (age, sex, pathology, previous treatment and adjuvant treatment) were collected and analysed. Total operation time, number of hospital days and the cosmetic and functional outcome of reconstruction were analysed. Two male and two female patients were enrolled in this study. The patients' ages ranged from 52 to 59 years. All the patients had maxillectomy defects, with at least a classification of Okay type II, which were successfully reconstructed using a scapular tip and latissimus dorsi free flap through a minimally invasive transaxillary approach. The entire operation time for the primary tumour surgery and reconstruction ranged from 6.2 to 12.1 h (mean, 11.1 h). The average length of the hospital stay was 13 days (range, 10-16 days). No major donor site morbidity was observed, and there was no graft failure that required revision or exploration surgery. The minimally invasive transaxillary approach for harvesting the scapular tip and latissimus dorsi osteomyogenous free flap for the reconstruction of maxillectomy defect is a promising approach for more favourable functional and aesthetic outcomes when compared to the use of other bone containing free flaps and the classic approach for harvesting scapular tip and latissimus dorsi free flap. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Does Fibrin Sealant Reduce Seroma after Immediate Breast Reconstruction Utilizing a Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flap?

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Han Gyu; Shin, Ho Seong; Kang, Moon Seok; Nam, Seung Min

    2012-01-01

    Background The most common complication of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in breast reconstruction is seroma formation in the back. Many clinical studies have shown that fibrin sealant reduces seroma formation. We investigated any statistically significant differences in postoperative drainage and seroma formation when utilizing the fibrin sealant on the site of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap harvested for immediate breast reconstruction after skin-sparing partial mastectomy. Methods A total of 46 patients underwent immediate breast reconstruction utilizing a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous island flap. Of those, 23 patients underwent the procedure without fibrin sealant and the other 23 were administered the fibrin sealant. All flaps were elevated with manual dissection by the same surgeon and were analyzed to evaluate the potential benefits of the fibrin sealant. The correlation analysis and Mann-Whitney U test were used for analyzing the drainage volume according to age, weight of the breast specimen, and body mass index. Results Although not statistically significant, the cumulative drainage fluid volume was higher in the control group until postoperative day 2 (530.1 mL compared to 502.3 mL), but the fibrin sealant group showed more drainage beginning on postoperative day 3. The donor site comparisons showed the fibrin sealant group had more drainage beginning on postoperative day 3 and the drain was removed 1 day earlier in the control group. Conclusions The use of fibrin sealant resulted in no reduction of seroma formation. Because the benefits of the fibrin sealant are not clear, the use of fibrin sealant must be fully discussed with patients before its use as a part of informed consent. PMID:23094246

  3. [Latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap combined with implant in breast reconstruction: The technique of the dorsal bra].

    PubMed

    Bruant-Rodier, C; Chiriac, S; Baratte, A; Dissaux, C; Bodin, F

    2016-06-01

    The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap combined with an implant is an effective breast reconstruction solution especially in irradiated patients. The authors describe the specific technical aspects that allow them to optimize the results of this intervention. In the back, the skin paddle is drawn in the shape of a horizontal spindle so as to conceal the residual scar under the bra. In breast area, a J-shaped contraincision barring the mastectomy scar ensures a harmonious positioning of the skin paddle to the inferolateral part of the breast. After a 180° rotation, the latissimus dorsi muscle envelops the implant like a bra. Its upper edge is attached at the bottom to define the new submammary fold. Under the pectoralis major muscle, its distal end comes to fill the décolleté above the implant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Reconstruction with a 180-degree Rotationally Divided Latissimus-dorsi-musculocutaneous Flap after the Removal of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kirita, Miho; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Summary: This study described a technique for reconstruction of a large lateral thoracic region defect after locally advanced breast cancer resection that allows for full coverage of the defect and primary closure of the flap donor site. The authors performed reconstruction using the newly designed 180-degree rotationally-divided latissimus-dorsi-musculocutaneous flap in a 42-year-old woman for coverage of a large skin defect (18 × 15 cm) following extensive tissue resection for locally advanced breast cancer. The latissimus-dorsi-musculocutaneous flap, consisting of two rotated skin islands (18 × 7.5 cm each) that were sutured to form a large skin island, was used for coverage of the defect. The flap was sutured without causing excessive tension in the recipient region and the donor site was closed with simple reefing. No skin grafting was necessary. The flap survived completely, shoulder joint function was intact, and esthetic outcome was satisfactory. Quick wound closure allowed postoperative irradiation to be started 1 month after surgery. The technique offered advantages over the conventional pedicled latissimus-dorsi-musculocutaneous flap, but the flap was unable to be used, when the thoracodorsal artery and vein were damaged during extensive tissue removal. Detailed planning before surgery with breast surgeons would be essential. PMID:25426400

  5. Assessment of long-term donor-site morbidity after harvesting the latissimus dorsi flap for neonatal myelomeningocele repair.

    PubMed

    Osinga, R; Mazzone, L; Meuli, M; Meuli-Simmen, C; von Campe, A

    2014-08-01

    The latissimus dorsi flap (LDF) has been employed very successfully over decades to cover large soft-tissue defects. Its donor-site morbidity has been extensively investigated in adults - but not in children - and is considered to be nonrestrictive. The aim of this long-term study was to assess donor-site morbidity with the modified Constant score more than 8 years after coverage of large myelomeningocele (MMC) defects with a reverse latissimus dorsi flap. Within the first days after birth, the reverse latissimus dorsi muscle flap was used uni- or bilaterally in three neonates to cover a large MMC defect. Bilateral shoulder function was tested more than 8 years postoperatively according to the modified Constant score. The mean age at follow-up was 11.7 years. None of the patients experienced any pain or shoulder restrictions during normal daily activities. They all managed to position both of their arms comfortably above the head. Forward flexion was normal in all patients as was abduction and external rotation. Dorsal extension was minimally reduced on the operated side. Internal rotation was symmetric in all patients; the extent of active movement varied from excellent to poor. Our long-term data suggest that there is no specific and significant impairment of shoulder function after using the distally pedicled reverse LDF for neonatal MMC repair. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A coincidental variation of the axillary artery: the brachioradial artery and the aberrant posterior humeral circumflex artery passing under the tendon of the latissimus dorsi muscle

    PubMed Central

    Konarik, Marek; Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav

    2014-01-01

    A case of anomalous terminal branching of the axillary artery was encountered and described in a left upper limb of a male cadaver. A series of 214 upper limbs of Caucasian race was dissected. A variant artery, stemming from the very end of the axillary artery followed a superficial course distally. It passed the cubital fossa, ran on the lateral side of the forearm as usual radial artery, crossed ventrally to the palm and terminated in the deep palmar arch. This vessel is a case of the brachioradial artery (incorrectly termed as the “radial artery with high origin”). Moreover, it was associated with another variation, concerning the aberrant posterior humeral circumflex artery passing under the tendon of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is essential for radiodiagnostic, surgical and traumatologic procedures. The superficially located artery brings an elevated danger of heavy bleeding in all unexpected situations, its variant branching can cause problems in radial catheterization procedures and the anomalously coursing other arterial variant poses an elevated danger in surgical procedures concerning the surgical neck of humerus. PMID:25428677

  7. Arthroscopic-Assisted Latissimus Dorsi Tendon Transfer for Massive Rotator Cuff Tears: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Memon, Muzammil; Kay, Jeffrey; Quick, Emily; Simunovic, Nicole; Duong, Andrew; Henry, Patrick; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2018-06-01

    Arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi tendon transfer (LDTT) has shown promising results with good outcomes in patients with massive rotator cuff tears (MRCTs), as reported by individual studies. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no systematic review has been performed to assess the collective outcomes of these individual studies. The primary purpose of this study was to assess patient outcomes after arthroscopic-assisted LDTT for the management of MRCTs. The secondary objectives were to report on the management of MRCTs, including diagnostic investigations, surgical decision making, and arthroscopic techniques, as well as to evaluate the quality of evidence of the existing literature. It was hypothesized that nearly all patients were satisfied with arthroscopic-assisted LDTT and that they experienced improvements in pain symptoms, function, and strength after the procedure, with an overall complication rate of less than 10%. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. The databases MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed were searched from database inception (1946) until August 18, 2017, with titles, abstracts, and full-text articles screened independently by 2 reviewers. Inclusion criteria were English-language studies investigating arthroscopic-assisted LDTT for the management of MRCTs on patients of all ages. Conference papers, book chapters, review articles, and technical reports were excluded. The quality of the included studies was categorized by level of evidence and the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) checklist. In total, 8 studies (7 case series [median MINORS score, 7 of 16] and 1 prospective comparative study [median MINORS score, 14 of 24]) were identified; the studies included 258 patients (258 shoulders) with MRCTs treated with LDTT using arthroscopic-assisted techniques. The decision to pursue surgery was based on both clinical findings and investigations in 5 studies, investigations only in 2 studies, and clinical findings

  8. Vertical Skin Paddle Orientation for the Latissimus Dorsi Flap in Breast Reconstruction: A Modification to Simultaneously Correct Inferior Pole Constriction and Improve Projection.

    PubMed

    Fracol, Megan; Grim, Michelle; Lanier, Steven T; Fine, Neil A

    2018-03-01

    The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is a reliable and frequently used option to bring vascularized skin and soft tissue to improve the stability and aesthetic result in breast reconstruction. Standard techniques with skin paddle inset in a horizontal or oblique fashion preferentially improve anterior projection (when inset at the mastectomy scar) or lower pole and inframammary fold constriction (when inset into the inframammary fold). Here, the authors describe a modification for inset of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap that improves both anterior projection and lower pole/inframammary fold constriction, and also allows the latissimus muscle to fan out and provide complete implant coverage. The vertical inset modification brings new skin and soft tissue into both the inferior pole and the central mastectomy scar, allowing simultaneous improvement in both areas and full use of the latissimus muscle to cover the implant or expander. Therapeutic, IV.

  9. The anatomy of the musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap for neophalloplasty.

    PubMed

    Dennis, M; Granger, A; Ortiz, A; Terrell, M; Loukos, M; Schober, J

    2018-03-01

    In transgender surgery, the ideal neophallus is one that: (a) is constructed using a reproducible procedure, (b) possesses tactile and erogenous sensation, (c) is large and rigid enough (naturally, or using a prosthesis) to permit penetrative intercourse, (d) leaves acceptable donor site morbidity, (e) results in esthetically satisfactory appearance, and (f) allows for voiding while standing. The musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi (MLD) flap has favorable results in the area of neophalloplasty. Among its advantages are acceptable donor site appearance, stiffness sufficient for intercourse, and esthetically satisfactory genital appearance. The anatomy of the MLD flap supports the creation of a neophallus for transsexual anatomy revision. Herein, we give an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the procedure, and the anatomical details and surgical steps involved. Novel illustrations were created from standard surgical text descriptions to clarify this topic for surgical training and patient understanding and decision making. A review of the relevant literature regarding the anatomy, procedure development, and outcomes is presented. The MLD flap uses part of the latissimus dorsi muscle with branches of the thoracodorsal vessels and nerve to construct a neophallus. A thin strip of muscle around the pedicle is harvested, resulting in a slightly curvilinear scar. The blood supply is connected to the femoral artery and saphenous vein or the deep inferior epigastric artery and vein, while the nerve is connected to the ilioinguinal nerve or the obturator nerve. The MLD flap for neophalloplasty is a reliable graft with a well concealed scar and low donor site morbidity. Clin. Anat. 31:152-159, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Abdominal perforator flap (DIEP) and autologous latissimus dorsi in breast reconstruction. A retrospective comparative study about the first 60 cases of a same surgeon].

    PubMed

    Pluvy, I; Bellidenty, L; Ferry, N; Benassarou, M; Tropet, Y; Pauchot, J

    2014-04-01

    Autologous techniques for breast reconstruction get the best cosmetic results. Aesthetic satisfaction with breast reconstruction is an important evaluation criterion. The indication is based on technical criteria (morphological, medical history) and the wishes of the patient. A rigorous evaluation of the results is necessary to assist the patients in their choice of reconstruction. Thirty-three DIEP and 27 latissimus dorsi were involved. A satisfaction questionnaire was sent to patients to collect the aesthetic evaluation of their reconstructed breast, sequelae at the donor site of the flap as well as their overall satisfaction. Post-operative photographs of the patients were subject to aesthetical evaluation by two groups of observers. Complications were analyzed. The DIEP tends to get higher aesthetic satisfaction regarding the symmetry of the breasts and the volume of the reconstructed breast (P=0.05), and a better overall satisfaction (P=0.02). The uniformity of the colour of the reconstructed breast was considered superior by observers in the latissimus dorsi group (P=0.005). Donor site scar of DIEP was considered more unsightly while the latissimus dorsi was considered more painful (P=0.04) and uncomfortable, with more frequently contour abnormalities (P=0.03). We noted two total flap necrosis and three partial necrosis in the group DIEP, and two partial flap necrosis in the group latissimus dorsi. This study provides evidence that can guide the patient and the surgeon in the complex process of therapeutic decision, without exempting the latter from a careful selection of indications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Autologous breast reconstruction using the immediately lipofilled extended latissimus dorsi flap.

    PubMed

    Johns, N; Fairbairn, N; Trail, M; Ewing, A; Yong, L; Raine, C; Dixon, J M

    2018-02-01

    The latissimus dorsi flap is a popular choice for autologous breast reconstruction. To dramatically improve volume, we report our experience of using the immediately lipofilled extended latissimus dorsi (ELD) flap and show it as a valid option for autologous breast reconstruction. Patients undergoing the procedure between December 2013 and June 2016 were included. Demographic, clinical and operative factors were analysed, together with in-hospital morbidity and duration of postoperative hospital stay. A total of 71 ELD flaps with immediate lipofilling were performed. Forty-five reconstructions were immediate and the remaining 26 delayed. Median (range) volume of autologous fat injected immediately was 171 ml (40-630 ml). Contralateral reductions were performed in 25 patients with the median reduction volume 185 g (89-683 g). Median duration of admission was 6.5 (3-18) days and patients were followed up for 12 months (1-37). Three total flap failures occurred and had to be excised (4%). One haematoma occurred requiring drainage (1%). Signs of infection requiring intravenous antibiotics occurred in five patients (7%). In 5 patients wound dehiscence occurred, and only two of these required resuturing (3%). In total, 7 patients developed a seroma requiring repeated drainage (10%). Three reconstructions experienced mild mastectomy flap necrosis with no needing reoperation (4%). Our experience represents the largest series to date and shows that in carefully selected patients the technique is safe, can avoid the requirement for implants, and has the potential to streamline the reconstructive journey. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Importance of latissimus dorsi muscle preservation for shoulder function after scapulectomy.

    PubMed

    Mimata, Yoshikuni; Nishida, Jun; Nagai, Taro; Tada, Hiroshi; Sato, Kotaro; Doita, Minoru

    2018-03-01

    Scapulectomy is an inevitable treatment for sarcomas of the scapula. This procedure is unavoidable because it reduces the local recurrence rate but can impair shoulder movements and affect the activities of daily living. This study investigated the factors influencing functional outcomes after scapulectomy. The clinical results of 8 patients (5 males, 3 females) who were diagnosed with primary or metastatic sarcomas of the scapula were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age was 49 years (range, 11-86 years). We examined the correlation between the type of excision of the scapula (total, subtotal, or partial) and postoperative functional outcomes according to the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score. In partial excision, the glenohumeral joint was preserved; in subtotal excision, the glenoid was completely resected and some bony components were preserved; and in total excision, the entire bony component of the scapula was resected. The average follow-up period was 55 months (range, 9-142 months). The partial, subtotal, and total excision groups had mean functional scores of 96.7%, 76.7%, and 62.2%, respectively. Although the mean functional scores were lower in patients who underwent total and subtotal excisions, 3 patients in whom the latissimus dorsi muscle was preserved had better function (mean MSTS score, 76.7%) than the 2 patients in whom it was not preserved (mean MSTS score, 55.0%). These results suggest that the latissimus dorsi muscle, along with the deltoid and pectoralis major muscles, is one of the stabilizers of the proximal humerus after scapulectomy. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Objective evaluation of the latissimus dorsi flap for breast reconstruction using three-dimensional imaging.

    PubMed

    Henseler, Helga; Smith, Joanna; Bowman, Adrian; Khambay, Balvinder S; Ju, Xiangyang; Ayoub, Ashraf; Ray, Arup K

    2012-09-01

    The latissimus dorsi muscle flap is a common method for the reconstruction of the breast following mastectomy. The study aimed to assess the quality of this reconstruction using a three-dimensional (3D) imaging method. The null hypothesis was that there was no difference in volume between the reconstructed breast and the opposite side. This study was conducted in forty-four patients who had had immediate unilateral breast reconstruction by latissimus dorsi muscle flap. The breast was captured using the 3D imaging system. Ten landmarks were digitised on the 3D images. The volume of each breast was measured by the application of Breast Analysis Tool software. The symmetry of the breast was measured using Procrustes analysis. The impact of breast position, orientation, size and intrinsic shape on the overall breast asymmetry was investigated. The null hypothesis was rejected. The reconstructed breast showed a significantly smaller volume when compared to the opposite side, p < 0.0001, a mean difference of 176.8 cc and 95% CI (103.5, 250.0). The shape and the position of the reconstructed breast were the main contributing factors to the measured asymmetry score. 3D imaging was efficient in evaluating the outcome of breast surgery. The latissimus dorsi muscle flap on its own for breast reconstruction did not restore the volume and shape of the breast fully lost due to complete mastectomy. The modification of this method and the selection of other or additional surgical techniques for breast reconstruction should be considered. The asymmetry analysis through reflection and Procrustes matching was a useful method for the objective shape analysis of the female breast and presented a new approach for breast shape assessment. The intrinsic breast shape and the positioning of the breast were major components of postoperative breast asymmetry. The reconstructed breast was smaller overall than the un-operated breast at a significant level when assessing the breast volume using

  14. Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears: Restoring Joint Kinematics by Tendon Transfers

    PubMed Central

    Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Millett, Peter J.; Moulton, Samuel G.; Petri, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tendon transfers can be a surgical treatment option in managing younger, active patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the use of tendon transfers to treat massive irreparable rotator cuff tears and to summarize clinical outcomes. Methods: A selective literature search was performed and personal surgical experiences are reported. Results: Latissimus dorsi transfers have been used for many years in the management of posterosuperior rotator cuff tears with good reported clinical outcomes. It can be transferred without or with the teres major (L’Episcopo technique). Many surgical techniques have been described for latissimus dorsi transfer including single incision, double incision, and arthroscopically assisted transfer. Transfer of the pectoralis major tendon is the most common tendon transfer procedure performed for anterosuperior rotator cuff deficiencies. Several surgical techniques have been described, however transfer of the pectoralis major beneath the coracoid process has been found to most closely replicate the force vector that is normally provided by the intact subscapularis. Conclusion: Tendon transfers can be used successfully in the management of younger patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears and minimal glenohumeral arthritis. Improvements in clinical outcomes scores and range of motion have been demonstrated. This can delay arthroplasty, which is of particular importance for younger patients with high functional demands. PMID:27708730

  15. [Analysis of sequelae of the latissimus dorsi flap removal. Report of 44 cases reviewed and tested].

    PubMed

    Legré, R; Boghossian, V; Servant, J M; Magalon, G; Bureau, H

    1990-01-01

    Since Tanzini, the latissimus dorsi muscle flap has been widely used in plastic surgery. Based on the experience of two plastic surgery units, we decided to try to define the sequelae of this operation. In order to simplify our analysis we only considered free flaps. Out study is based on 42 patients (26 pure muscular flaps and 16 musculo-cutaneous flaps). The sequelae were analysed in terms of aesthetic and functional criteria. The aesthetic sequelae appeared to be minima in the case of pure muscular flaps, but more severe in the case of musculo-cutaneous flaps. Functional sequelae in the shoulder were observed on muscle testing in 30% of cases, although there were no repercussions on sport or work activities. Analysis of spinal posture demonstrated a modification in the frontal plane in 40% of cases although this could not be clearly attributed to the donor site. On the basis of this study, we can conclude that the latissimus dorsi flap retains an important place in the therapeutic arsenal of plastic surgery due to its reliability and its minor cicatricial and functional sequelae at the donor site.

  16. Comparison of collagen fibre architecture between slow-twitch cranial and fast-twitch caudal parts of broiler M. latissimus dorsi.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Y N; Iwamoto, H; Tabata, S; Ono, Y

    2003-07-01

    1. Collagen fibre architectures of perimysium and endomysium in the slow-twitch cranial and fast-twitch caudal parts of broiler M. latissimus dorsi were compared. 2. Type I and III collagens were distributed in both perimysium and endomysium as indicated by their positive immunohistochemical reactions to polyclonal antibodies. 3. Cells invested by endomysium with no myofibres were larger in the cranial part because of the presence of larger slow-twitch myofibres. The honeycomb structure of endomysium was divided into several parts by thick perimysium. 4. The thick perimysial collagen fibres with parallel fibrils, which were interconnected by the loose reticular fibrils and thin fibres, were more numerous and thicker in the cranial part than the caudal. 5. Thick endomysial sidewall of cells in the cranial part was composed of a rougher reticulum of slightly thicker collagen fibrils compared with the thin sidewall in the caudal part. 6. These results indicated that both perimysial constitutions of collagen fibres and endomysial collagen fibrils had attained much larger growth in the slow-twitch cranial part than the fast-twitch caudal in broiler latissimus dorsi muscle.

  17. The effect of deep muscle relaxation on the force required during Latissimus Dorsi dissection for breast reconstructive surgery: results of a prospective, double-blinded observational pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ledowski, T; Goodwin-Walters, A; Quinn, P; Calvert, M

    2017-02-21

    The use of neuromuscular blocking agents has previously been suggested to facilitate the dissection of the latissimus dorsi muscle during breast reconstructive surgery. The aim of this study was to quantify the influence of deep muscle relaxation on the force required to lift the latissimus dorsi muscle during flap preparation. After ethics approval and written informed consent 15 patients scheduled for elective breast reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi pedicled flap (muscle flap, not myocutaneous flap) under general anaesthesia were prospectively included. Midway through the muscle dissection a sterile cotton tape was slung around the mid portion of the muscle and connected with a sterile strain gauge stably positioned just above the patient. Thereafter, the muscle was lifted by moving the strain gauge vertically upwards until a muscle tension similar to that created manually during muscle dissection was achieved. The force (N) and distance required to tension the muscle were recorded and the tension released. In a randomized and blinded crossover design either rocuronium (0.6 mg.kg -1 ) or normal saline were given intravenously, and the tension protocol was repeated 2 min after each drug administration. Muscle relaxation significantly reduced the force for flap tensioning (median [percentiles] - 22 [-32/-13] %; P = 0.011) in 10/15 patients. However, in the remaining 5 patients no significant effect was measured. Normal saline had no effect on the measured force. Deep muscle relaxation significantly reduces the force required to manually elevate the latissimus dorsi muscle during its dissection in the majority of but not all patients. The study was retrospectively registered on [17.6.2014] with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. ACTRN12614000637640.

  18. Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction With the Totally Autologous Latissimus Dorsi Flap in the Thin, Small-Breasted Woman: Give It More Thought!

    PubMed

    Kazzazi, Fawz; Ching, Rosanna C; Malata, Charles M

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Thin women have fewer autologous tissue breast reconstructive options than their higher body mass index counterparts-due to a lack of adequate donor sites. They are therefore usually offered expander/implant techniques. The total autologous latissimus dorsi flap is generally used in "well-padded" individuals, as they have enough fat on their back on which a completely autologous reconstruction could be based. When implant-based reconstruction is contraindicated (for instance due to planned adjuvant radiotherapy) or unacceptable to the patient, the total autologous latissimus dorsi flap can provide adequate tissue volume by utilizing the additional back fat deposits even in the thin, small-breasted patient. This option is often overlooked by many surgeons. Our case series assesses indications and patient and surgeon satisfaction with the cosmetic outcome of this technique. Methods: The oncological and clinical details of 6 patients with breast cancer who underwent total autologous latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap immediate breast reconstruction by a single surgeon over an 8-year period were reviewed. An objective assessment of satisfaction with the cosmetic result was made by whether any additional surgical interventions (ipsilateral fat grafting/implant augmentation or contralateral liposuction/ reduction) were needed or not. A subjective assessment of breast symmetry by the surgeon using photographic records was also undertaken. The aesthetic outcomes were also objectively quantified using the BCCT.core software, initially developed for assessing the results of breast conservation surgery. Results: All 6 patients had small breasts and a low or normal body mass index. The mastectomies were performed for invasive carcinoma (n = 3) and extensive high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 3). Four had axillary surgery (2 sentinel lymph node biopsies and 2 axillary clearances), and 3 received adjuvant radiotherapy. All were happy with their reconstructive

  19. Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction With the Totally Autologous Latissimus Dorsi Flap in the Thin, Small-Breasted Woman: Give It More Thought!

    PubMed Central

    Kazzazi, Fawz; Ching, Rosanna C.; Malata, Charles M.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Thin women have fewer autologous tissue breast reconstructive options than their higher body mass index counterparts—due to a lack of adequate donor sites. They are therefore usually offered expander/implant techniques. The total autologous latissimus dorsi flap is generally used in “well-padded” individuals, as they have enough fat on their back on which a completely autologous reconstruction could be based. When implant-based reconstruction is contraindicated (for instance due to planned adjuvant radiotherapy) or unacceptable to the patient, the total autologous latissimus dorsi flap can provide adequate tissue volume by utilizing the additional back fat deposits even in the thin, small-breasted patient. This option is often overlooked by many surgeons. Our case series assesses indications and patient and surgeon satisfaction with the cosmetic outcome of this technique. Methods: The oncological and clinical details of 6 patients with breast cancer who underwent total autologous latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap immediate breast reconstruction by a single surgeon over an 8-year period were reviewed. An objective assessment of satisfaction with the cosmetic result was made by whether any additional surgical interventions (ipsilateral fat grafting/implant augmentation or contralateral liposuction/ reduction) were needed or not. A subjective assessment of breast symmetry by the surgeon using photographic records was also undertaken. The aesthetic outcomes were also objectively quantified using the BCCT.core software, initially developed for assessing the results of breast conservation surgery. Results: All 6 patients had small breasts and a low or normal body mass index. The mastectomies were performed for invasive carcinoma (n = 3) and extensive high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 3). Four had axillary surgery (2 sentinel lymph node biopsies and 2 axillary clearances), and 3 received adjuvant radiotherapy. All were happy with their

  20. [An experimental study of successful tracheal replacement using pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap and soft Marlex mesh].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, A

    1991-02-01

    The present experimental study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of combined latissimus dorsi muscle flap and soft Marlex mesh in the reconstruction of the trachea. Thirty-one mongrel dogs underwent a two-stage operation. In the first stage operation, they were divided into four groups for implanting a different prosthesis. A silicone rod was used as the core and this was rolled with soft Marlex mesh to make a prosthesis (Group A and B: without reinforce, Group C: reinforced by wrapping stainless steel mesh, Group D: reinforced with helical stain steel wire). The latissimus dorsi muscle flap was rolled circumferentially around the prosthesis and it was left in place for a period of 4 to 6 weeks. In the second stage operation, the long pedicled muscle flap with the biologically organized prosthesis was mobilized to be guided into the cervix, and the tracheal reconstruction was done with them following circumferential tracheal resection. In result, five of six dogs of group D survived more than 6 months after the replacement without anastomotic leakage or stenosis causing inflammatory granulation. Organization with neo-vascularity of the prosthesis at the time of the tracheal reconstruction was important firstly to avoid incurring complications concerning anastomosis and secondly for long-term stability of the healing and epithelialization of the prosthesis.

  1. Long-term effect of oncoplastic breast-conserving surgery using latissimus dorsi miniflaps on mammographic surveillance and the detection of local recurrence.

    PubMed

    Mele, S; Wright, D; Paramanathan, N; Laws, S; Peiris, L; Rainsbury, R

    2017-09-01

    Latissimus dorsi miniflap is a breast-conserving volume replacement technique for the reconstruction of large breast defects. While mammographic features of miniflap reconstruction have been described, little is known about the incidence, mode of presentation and size of local recurrence after this procedure. This study aimed to investigate the impact of latissimus dorsi miniflap reconstruction on the frequency, presentation and detection of local recurrence. Clinical, radiological and pathological data were reviewed in 261 patients. Complete records were available for 11 patients developing local recurrence, including mode, time of presentation and size of the recurrent tumours. All mammograms before and after local recurrence were assessed in relation to a range of specific characteristics including parenchymal density, flap visibility, architectural distortion, mass, calcifications, fat necrosis, skin thickening and breast oedema. Twenty-one patients developed local recurrence at 10.4 years following reconstruction (mean age 49 years, resection weight 182 g and tumour size 33 mm). Following radiotherapy, 0.5% of patients developed local recurrence each year, which increased five-fold when radiotherapy was omitted (HR 4.99). Local recurrences were diagnosed in five patients by mammography alone, in three by mammography and palpable lump, and in three by palpable lump alone. They were detected when small (15 mm) and were associated with new mammographic abnormalities in 10 patients. Long follow-up demonstrates that latissimus dorsi miniflap reconstruction allows oncologically safe breast conservation when combined with postoperative radiotherapy. Local recurrences are detected early, either by mammography, clinical examination or both, and detection is not compromised by the presence of a flap. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of chronic radiation injury over the shoulder with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mendelson, B.C.; Masson, J.K.

    1977-11-01

    We report our experiences in treating chronic radiation injury about the shoulder, a complication of radiation after mastectomy. Left untreated, these can result in chronic infection and/or amputation. The coverage of a large shoulder area presents certain unique problems, which severely limit the usefulness of traditional procedures. We have found that the remarkable size and versatility of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap enables one to use it with relative simplicity and safety. A further great advantage is that it brings new permanent blood supply into this ischemic area, thus favoring rapid healing and durable coverage.

  3. Scapular insertion of the rabbit latissimus dorsi muscle: gross anatomy and fibre-type composition.

    PubMed

    Barron, D J; Etherington, P J; Winlove, C P; Pepper, J R

    2001-01-01

    This paper defines the characteristics and significance of the scapular insertion of the latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) of the rabbit. In a study of the New Zealand White species (n = 10) the scapular insertion was found to be a consistent anatomical feature of the LDM that made up 12.3% (+/-2.3) of the total muscle weight. The fibres arise from the medial aspect of the body of the LDM and run in a caudocranial direction to be inserted into a broad, thin tendon beneath the scapula ridge. This is morphologically different from the scapular component of the human LDM which is a well-recognized but inconsistent feature and consists of no more than a small leash of fibres running around the lower pole of the scapula. The scapular insertion was deeper red in colour than the body of the muscle and fibre-typing demonstrated a mean slow-fibre composition of 49% (+/-2.6) compared to 16% (+/-1.7) for the body of the muscle (p < 0.01). Mapping of the fibre types throughout the remainder of the LDM confirmed that the body of the muscle was of fast phenotype but with significantly more slow fibres in the superomedial segment of the muscle than elsewhere. This region of the muscle contributes mainly to the scapular insertion and it is proposed that this part of the muscle takes on a predominantly postural role in stabilising the scapula during movement of the forelimb.

  4. Outcome of 122 delayed breast reconstruction following post-mastectomy radiotherapy: The scarless latissimus dorsi flap with tissue expansion technique.

    PubMed

    de Runz, A; Boccara, D; Bekara, F; Chaouat, M; Mimoun, M

    2017-02-01

    Delayed breast reconstruction with tissue expansion may be risky after radiotherapy, due to the poor skin quality. To permit the use of the tissue expansion procedure, we propose a scarless latissimus dorsi flap to bring tissue trophicity, by a healthy vascularized muscular interface with no donor scar and no patch effect. The objective of this study is to assess the outcome of the tissue expansion technique with scarless latissimus dorsi flap after post-mastectomy radiotherapy. All the patients who had benefited of a delayed breast reconstruction after radiotherapy using tissue expansion technique with scarless latissimus dorsi flap, between January 2000 and January 2013, were reviewed. The exclusion criteria were: prior breast reconstruction, or interruption of breast reconstruction procedure due to active metastatic disease requiring ongoing oncological treatment. The complications were identified: failures of reconstruction, implant exposure, wound dehiscence, capsular contracture, deflation of implant, hematoma, infection, and skin necrosis. One hundred and twenty-two breasts were reviewed. The average time between the flap and the expander intervention was: 194±114 SD (28-1051) days. The mean volume of inserted expander was 633±111 SD (350-1100) mL and the mean inflation volume was 578±190 SD (170-1160) mL. The average time between insertion of the expander and insertion of the permanent implant was 132±76 SD (49-683) days. The mean inflation of the implant volume was 368±105 SD (130-620) mL. Forty patients developed at least one complication. The most common complication was the appearance of a capsular contracture requiring a capsulectomy: 11 (9.2%) with permanent implants and 6 (4.9%) with expander. Deflation of implants occurred with six permanent implants and with one expander. There were 3 breast reconstructions failures (two infections and one exposure of implants). This procedure offers the advantages that there is no unattractive scar, and

  5. Osteoradionecrosis of the chest wall. Management of postresection defects using Marlex mesh and a rotated latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hines, G.L.; Lee, G.

    1983-11-01

    Full thickness chest wall resection and single stage reconstruction for osteoradionecrosis of the chest wall was performed on five patients. All patients had undergone radical mastectomy and radiation therapy from 5 to 18 years prior to chest wall resection. Defects varied from 12 X 5 cm to 15 X 15 cm, and included from two to four ribs. Reconstruction was performed using Marlex mesh to reconstruct the bony thorax and a rotated latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. Coverage was successfully performed in all cases, and no patient experienced postoperative pulmonary dysfunction. There were no complications related to either the bony thoraxmore » reconstruction or the latissimus flap. The use of this technique has provided a safe, convenient, and reliable method of chest wall reconstruction.« less

  6. A Prospective Randomized Trial of the Efficacy of Fibrin Glue, Triamcinolone Acetonide, and Quilting Sutures in Seroma Prevention after Latissimus Dorsi Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hart, Alexandra M; Duggal, Clarie; Pinell-White, Ximena; Losken, Albert

    2017-04-01

    Donor-site seroma is the most common complication following latissimus dorsi flap breast reconstruction. Various agents and techniques have attempted to minimize seroma formation. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of different products and quilting sutures at seroma prevention. This is a single-center, double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial of a consecutive series of breast cancer patients (n = 96) undergoing latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction performed by a single surgeon. Patients were randomized to receive (1) fibrin glue (Tisseel) (n = 23), (2) triamcinolone acetonide (n = 26), or (3) normal saline (control) (n = 27) sprayed into the donor site. The fourth arm included donor-site quilting sutures (n = 20). Outcomes included seroma, drain output, and days to last drain removal. Drain removal was standardized at less than 30 cc/day. All groups were matched evenly without differences in risk, procedures, or complications. The overall seroma rate was 31.3 percent (n = 30). The quilting group had significantly less drainage for weeks 1 (p = 0.006) and 2 (p = 0.050) postoperatively. Quilting statistically reduced the incidence of seromas to 5.0 percent (n = 1; p = 0.038) compared with other groups (control, 34.5 percent; fibrin, 27.6 percent; and triamcinolone, 37.6 percent). Drains were removed 10 days earlier with quilting (control, 35.5 days; fibrin, 39.5 days; triamcinolone, 37.4 days; and quilting, 25.8 days; p = 0.001). The incidence of all other complications was similar between groups. The use of quilting donor sites significantly decreases the incidence of donor-site seromas and leads to earlier drain removal following latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction and maintains a low complication profile. Therapeutic, II.

  7. The Effects of Bag Style on Muscle Activity of the Trapezius, Erector Spinae and Latissimus Dorsi During Walking in Female University Students

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, Rebecca; Haskew, Rachel; Harris, Joel; Hughes, Gerwyn

    2015-01-01

    Back pain is common in adolescents which has been associated with carrying a bag. However, there is little research examining the effects of bag style in female adolescents. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different bag conditions on muscle activity of the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi muscles in female university students during walking. Twelve female university students walked on a treadmill for 5 minutes at 1.1 m/s during five conditions; control, 1 strapped rucksack, 2 strapped rucksack, ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap, each containing 10% bodyweight. Electromyography for the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi was recorded for the last 30 s of each condition. Two-way ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to identify differences between right and left muscles and between bag conditions. Results showed that muscle activity of the left trapezius was significantly higher than the right trapezius during the 1 strap rucksack condition. For the left trapezius, the 2 strapped rucksack and the control condition had significantly lower muscle activity compared to the 1 strapped rucksack and the ipsilateral shoulder strap. For the left erector spinae muscle, there was significantly greater muscle activity when wearing the contralateral shoulder strap compared to the control. For the right erector spinae, significantly lower muscle activity was observed when wearing the 2 strapped rucksack compared to the ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap. There were no significant differences in muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi muscles between any of the bag conditions. These findings suggest that a two strapped rucksack should be used when carrying loads to reduce spinal muscle activity which may, in turn, reduce reports of back pain in female adolescents. PMID:25964808

  8. Combined use of the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous free flap and split-rib grafts for cranial vault reconstruction

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stueber, K.; Salcman, M.; Spence, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    The patient described in this article had a large skull defect under the scalp which had been irradiated during treatment of a malignant brain tumor. The patient desired reconstruction of her defect. To provide good soft-tissue coverage for the bony reconstruction, a free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap was used. The bony defect was partially reconstructed with split-rib grafts. The two parts of the reconstruction were combined into one operation, since it was felt that the well-vascularized muscle would ensure viability of the bone grafts.

  9. Fiber number and size in overloaded chicken anterior latissimus dorsi muscle.

    PubMed

    Gollnick, P D; Parsons, D; Riedy, M; Moore, R L

    1983-05-01

    The relative contribution of increases in fiber area and number was evaluated in the chicken anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) muscle in which enlargement was induced by hanging a weight on one wing. ALD muscles from wings to which weights had been attached for periods ranging from 6 to 65 days weighed an average of 105% (range 22-225%) more than control muscles. Total muscle fiber number, determined by direct counts after nitric acid digestion and fiber dissection, and the frequency of branched fibers were unchanged by muscular enlargement. Fiber cross-sectional area was greater (P less than 0.01) in the enlarged muscles. A close relationship existed (r = 0.78) between actual muscle weight and weight calculated as the product of fiber volume, total fiber number, and muscle density for the control and enlarged muscles. Histochemical staining revealed a conversion of type IIa to type I fibers in the stretched muscles. These results support the concept that skeletal muscle enlargement in response to chronic overload is produced by hypertrophy of preexisting fibers and not be a formation of new fibers.

  10. Vertical Inset of the Latissimus Dorsi Flap Improves Reconstruction Aesthetics by Reducing Scar Burden in the "Social Breast".

    PubMed

    Steffen, Caleb M; Day, Kristopher M; Gilson, Aaron J; Zoog, Evon; Brzezienski, Mark A

    2018-06-01

    The skin paddle of the latissimus dorsi flap is typically inset horizontally (HILD) in breast reconstruction. We describe our experience with the vertical inset of the latissimus dorsi (VILD) and its aesthetic benefit. We performed a case-control study comparing the most recent cases of both VILD and HILD. Scar, as seen on anterior-posterior photographs, was digitally measured and compared from 3 clinically relevant areas: (1) all visible scarring ("mirror view"), (2) scarring above the nipple ("self-view"), and (3) scarring above or medial to the nipple ("social view"). Demographics and outcomes were statistically compared. Fifty of the most recent patients receiving HILD or VILD were selected for each group. Average patient age was 55.6 and 51.6 years (P = 0.32), and average follow-up was 531.6 and 606.7 days (P = 0.20), respectively. The VILD scar-length ratios were decreased by 17% in the mirror view (P ≤ 0.01), 37% in the self-view (P ≤ 0.01), and 37% in the social view (P ≤ 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between groups regarding smoking (P = 0.75), diabetes (P = 0.70), body mass index (P = 0.74), seroma (P = 0.46), infection (P = 1.0), or flap necrosis (P = 0.70). The VILD is safe and reliable. Measurements from anterior-posterior photographs illustrate statistically significant decreases in overall scar burden (mirror view) and statistically significant reductions in the highly visible self-view and social view. Our study is the first to quantify a reduction in scar burden by using VILD technique.

  11. Reconstruction of midfoot bone and soft tissue loss with chimeric partial scapula and latissimus dorsi muscle flap and short perforator-based skin flap following gunshot injuries: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ozcan Akcal, Arzu; Ünal, Kerim; Gorgulu, Tahsin; Akif Akcal, Mehmet; Bigat, Zekiye

    2016-10-01

    In this report we present two cases of gunshot injury related midfoot defects, reconstructed with a chimeric partial scapula and latissimus dorsi muscle flap and short perforator-based skin flap. The first case, a 14 years old male, had 10 × 8 cm medial plantar and 6 × 4 cm dorsal foot defects and the second case, a 55 years old female, had only 8 × 6 cm dorsal foot defect. In both cases the defects were associated with fractures, one with lateral cuneiform and cuboid with 90% bone loss and the other with navicular bone, respectively. After 6 months, the patients could walk well without support, and radiographs confirmed bony union. A chimeric partial scapula and latissimus dorsi muscle flap and short perforator-based skin flap may be used for the reconstruction of combined bony and soft tissue defects of the midfoot and to promote bone healing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:598-603, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Workhorse Flaps in Chest Wall Reconstruction: The Pectoralis Major, Latissimus Dorsi, and Rectus Abdominis Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Karim; Mardini, Samir; Evans, Karen K.; Carlsen, Brian T.; Arnold, Phillip G.

    2011-01-01

    Large and life-threatening thoracic cage defects can result from the treatment of traumatic injuries, tumors, infection, congenital anomalies, and radiation injury and require prompt reconstruction to restore respiratory function and soft tissue closure. Important factors for consideration are coverage with healthy tissue to heal a wound, the potential alteration in respiratory mechanics created by large extirpations or nonhealing thoracic wounds, and the need for immediate coverage for vital structures. The choice of technique depends on the size and extent of the defect, its location, and donor site availability with consideration to previous thoracic or abdominal operations. The focus of this article is specifically to describe the use of the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and rectus abdominis muscle flaps for reconstruction of thoracic defects, as these are the workhorse flaps commonly used for chest wall reconstruction. PMID:22294942

  13. Latissimus dorsi transfer to restore external rotation with reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Favre, Philippe; Loeb, Michael D; Helmy, Naeder; Gerber, Christian

    2008-01-01

    In patients with pseudoparesis of the shoulder resulting from irreparable rotator cuff tears, reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) can restore active elevation, but external rotation remains less predictable. Latissimus dorsi transfer (LDT) has been shown to be effective in restoring external rotation in patients with posterosuperior tears of the rotator cuff. The aim of this study is to determine the capacity of the LDT to restore external rotation in combination with RSA and to investigate the mechanical advantage produced by 3 different insertion sites. A biomechanical model was created using a reverse total shoulder prosthesis with 3 different transfer insertions. Moment arms were measured for 2 static positions and 1 motion of the humerus. The moment arm analysis showed that LDT can improve active external rotation in the setting of a reverse prosthesis. An insertion site on the posterior side of the greater tuberosity (adjacent to the teres minor insertion) produced a greater external rotation moment arm.

  14. Vascular delay of the latissimus dorsi muscle: an essential component of cardiomyoplasty.

    PubMed

    Carroll, S M; Carroll, C M; Stremel, R W; Heilman, S J; Tobin, G R; Barker, J H

    1997-04-01

    Cardiomyoplasty (CMP) uses the latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) to assist the heart in cases of cardiac failure. Distal ischemia and necrosis of the LDM is a recognized complication of CMP that can reduce distal muscle function and the mechanical effectiveness of CMP. Canine (n = 9) LDMs were subjected to a 10-day period of vascular delay followed by a simulated CMP. Two weeks after simulated CMP (corresponding to the healing delay between CMP and the onset of LDM stimulation used in the clinical setting), LDM perfusion was measured in the distal, middle, and proximal segments of the muscle, and circumferential (distal and middle squeezing muscle function) and longitudinal (proximal pulling muscle function) force generation and fatigue rates were measured. The results were compared with the contralateral nondelayed simulated CMP. Muscle perfusion was significantly (p < 0.05) greater in the distal and middle segments of vascular-delayed LDMs. Circumferential muscle force generation and fatigue rates were significantly (p < 0.05) improved in the vascular-delayed LDMs. Vascular delay can significantly improve LDM perfusion and function in a model that closely reflects clinical CMP, and the use of vascular delay may improve clinical outcomes in CMP.

  15. Long-term prospective assessment of shoulder function after breast reconstruction involving a latissimus dorsi muscle flap transfer and postoperative radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Yoshihiro; Morihara, Toru; Kushida, Rie; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Numajiri, Toshiaki

    2017-05-01

    Several investigators have evaluated the impaired function of the shoulder after removal of the latissimus dorsi muscle for breast reconstruction. However, a few investigators have studied whether including radiotherapy has a negative effect on functional recovery of the shoulder by a long-term follow-up after surgery. In this study, we compared objective measurements of shoulder function preoperatively and postoperatively for 3 years after latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) flap transfer and postoperative radiotherapy (PRT). Eighteen patients who underwent unilateral transfer of a pedicled LDM flap and PRT within 2 months of breast-conserving surgery were enrolled in this study. Range of motion (ROM) and muscle strength in exhaustive shoulder movements were measured before surgery, and at 3 and 6 months, and 1 and 3 years. The results of ROM measurements at 3months postsurgery showed significant decreases in both flexion and abduction by 7.1 and 9.2 % and at 3 years postsurgery by 4.7 and 5.7 %. The muscle strength measurements at 3 months postsurgery showed statistically significant decreases both in adduction and in the 2nd medial rotation by 30.7 and 25.9 % and at 3 years postsurgery by 36.4 and 20.4 %. A significant improvement in these impairments was not observed for 3 years after surgery compared with that at 3 months after surgery. A combination of the LDM flap procedure and PRT could be associated with a higher incidence of tissue adhesions in both flexion and abduction and muscle deficit both in adduction and in the 2nd medial rotation.

  16. Activity Patterns in Latissimus Dorsi and Sternocleidomastoid in Classical Singers

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Alan H.D.; Williams, Caitlin; James, Buddug V.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the roles of the accessory respiratory muscles, latissimus dorsi (LD), and sternocleidomastoid, in classical singing. Methods Electromyography was used to record the activity of these muscles in six classically trained female singers carrying out a number of singing and nonsinging tasks. Movements of the chest and abdominal walls were monitored simultaneously using inductive plethysmography, and the sound of the phonations was recorded. Results In normal breathing, LD is active transiently during very deep inhalations and in inhalation against resistance. During exhalation it becomes active again as residual capacity is approached or when air is expelled with great force. Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) supports inhalation when lung volume nears 100% vital capacity or when this is very rapid. All singers engaged LD in supported singing where it was associated with maintaining an expanded thorax. In coloratura singing, pulses of activity of increasing amplitude were often seen in LD toward the end of the breath. These were synchronized with each note. During a short phrase typical of the end of an aria, which was sung at full volume with the projected voice, both LD and SCM were active simultaneously. Spectral analysis of muscle activity demonstrated that in some singers, activity in LD and more rarely SCM, fluctuated in phase with vibrato. Conclusions LD appears to play a significant role in maintaining chest expansion and the dynamic processes underlying vibrato and coloratura singing in classically trained singers. PMID:21724365

  17. Differences in descending control of external oblique and latissimus dorsi muscles in humans: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Wightman, Francesca; Delves, Suzanne; Alexander, Caroline M; Strutton, Paul H

    2011-07-01

    Descending bilateral control of external oblique (EO) and latissimus dorsi (LD) was investigated using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Contralateral (CL) motor evoked potential (MEP) thresholds were lower and latencies were shorter than for ipsilateral (IL) MEPs. Hotspots for EO were symmetrical; this was not the case for LD. The volumes of drive to the left and right muscles were not different. The laterality index was not different between the left and right muscles. The average index for the EO muscles was closer to zero than that for LD, suggesting a stronger IL drive to EO. The symmetry of drive to each muscle did not differ; however, the symmetry of drive varies within a subject for different muscles and between subjects for the same muscle. The findings may be useful in understanding a number of clinical conditions relating to the trunk and also for predicting the outcome of rehabilitative strategies.

  18. Neo-phalloplasty with re-innervated latissimus dorsi free flap: a functional study of a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Ranno, R; Veselý, J; Hýza, P; Stupka, I; Justan, I; Dvorák, Z; Monni, N; Novák, P; Ranno, S

    2007-01-01

    Twenty two patients with gender dysphoria underwent neo-phalloplasties using a novel technique. Latissimus dorsi musculocutaneus re-innervated free flap was used to allow voluntary rigidity of the neo-penis. From the first 22 patients, 18 have obtained motoric function of reconstructed penis; the "paradox erection" was obtained. 14 patients came for examination after a follow-up period of mean 26.4 months. We evaluated the motility and shape changes of neo-phallus measuring its different size and dimension during relax and muscle contraction. The range of neo-phallus length in relaxed position was between 7 and 17 cm (mean 12.2 cm), its circumference in the same position had a range between 13 and 20 cm (mean 13.7 cm). All patients were able to contract the muscle with an average length reduction of 3.08 cm and an average circumference enlargement of 4 cm. In this study, the dimensions and motility were quantified demonstrating the neo-phallus function and size changes during sexual intercourse.

  19. Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Injuries in Major League Baseball Pitchers: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Syed K; Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Schickendantz, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the upper extremity in baseball pitchers are not uncommon, with extensive literature on shoulder and elbow pathology. However, there is minimal literature on isolated teres major (TM) and latissimus dorsi (LD) injuries. As a result, there is no consensus on an optimal treatment method. An extensive Medline search on studies focusing on the treatment of isolated LD and TM injuries in professional baseball pitchers was performed to explore this topic. Of the 20 retrieved articles, 5 met our inclusion criteria. There were a total of 29 patients who underwent conservative treatment and 1 who underwent surgical treatment. The average time required to return to pitching was 99.8 days in the conservative group and 140 days in the surgically treated group. Five patients in the conservative group suffered from complications and/or setbacks during their treatment and rehabilitation. The lone surgical patient suffered no complications, returned to preinjury form, and was elected an all-star the following year. The goal of this review is to provide a concise summary of the current literature in order to assist physicians when discussing treatment options with their patients.

  20. Myosin isoforms and contractile properties of single fibers of human Latissimus Dorsi muscle.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Antonio; Pacelli, Quirico F; Cancellara, Pasqua; Toniolo, Luana; Moro, Tatiana; Canato, Marta; Miotti, Danilo; Reggiani, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate fiber type distribution and contractile characteristics of Latissimus Dorsi muscle (LDM). Samples were collected from 18 young healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) through percutaneous fine needle muscle biopsy. The results showed a predominance of fast myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) with 42% of MyHC 2A and 25% of MyHC 2X, while MyHC 1 represented only 33%. The unbalance toward fast isoforms was even greater in males (71%) than in females (64%). Fiber type distribution partially reflected MyHC isoform distribution with 28% type 1/slow fibers and 5% hybrid 1/2A fibers, while fast fibers were divided into 30% type 2A, 31% type A/X, 4% type X, and 2% type 1/2X. Type 1/slow fibers were not only less abundant but also smaller in cross-sectional area than fast fibers. During maximal isometric contraction, type 1/slow fibers developed force and tension significantly lower than the two major groups of fast fibers. In conclusion, the predominance of fast fibers and their greater size and strength compared to slow fibers reveal that LDM is a muscle specialized mainly in phasic and powerful activity. Importantly, such specialization is more pronounced in males than in females.

  1. Double Versus Single Tendon Transfers to Improve Shoulder Function in Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, Dustin A; Smith, William R; Ramsey, F V; Kozin, Scott H; Zlotolow, Dan A

    2017-03-27

    In children with brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) undergoing tendon transfers to augment shoulder external rotation, it is unclear whether transfer of the latissimus dorsi with its combined latissimus dorsi and teres major (cLT) versus isolated teres major (iTM) tendon transfer yield different outcomes. Records of patients with BPBP who underwent shoulder tendon transfers to augment external rotation were retrospectively reviewed. Transfer type (cLT or iTM) was considered indiscriminate by virtue of surgeon preference. Modified Mallet Scale (mMS) and Active Movement Scale scores were recorded. Patients with <12 months' follow-up, C7 or lower palsy, humeral osteotomy, shoulder procedure(s) within 8 months, microsurgery within 1 year, or recurrent glenohumeral subluxation confirmed by postoperative imaging were excluded. Matched cohorts were identified within each tendon transfer group to yield similar preoperative shoulder function and glenohumeral alignment status. Outcomes for all tendon transfers as well as differences between cLT and iTM cohorts were analyzed. Among 121 cLT and 34 iTM transfers, 49 cLT and 14 iTM met the inclusion criteria. Subsequent matching of cohorts yielded 28 patients (14 cLT and 14 iTM). Average age at time of transfer was 3.0±1.4 years. Follow-up averaged 4.1±3.1 years. There were no statistically significant preoperative differences between cohorts, thus matching criteria were validated. Regardless of tendon(s) transferred, mMS external rotation improved (2.2 to 3.5, P<0.001), whereas mMS internal rotation decreased (3.8 to 3.2, P<0.001). When comparing matched cohorts, cLT transfer produced a greater mMS external rotation improvement than iTM (2.1 vs. 1.5, respectively; P=0.025). Loss of midline function (defined as mMS external rotation <3) occurred in 5 (35.7%) cLT and 2 (14.3%) iTM patients. Both cLT or iTM transfer are effective at augmenting shoulder external rotation in children with C5-C6 BPBP. Furthermore, cLT transfers may

  2. Use of latissimus dorsi muscle onlay patch alternative to acellular dermal matrix in implant-based breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeeyeon

    2015-01-01

    Background An acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is applied to release the surrounding muscles and prevent dislocation or rippling of the implant. We compared implant-based breast reconstruction using the latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle, referred to as an “LD muscle onlay patch,” with using an ADM. Method A total of 56 patients (60 breasts) underwent nipple sparing mastectomy with implant-based breast reconstruction using an ADM or LD muscle onlay patch. Cosmetic outcomes were assessed 4 weeks after chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and statistical analyses were performed. Results Mean surgical time and hospital stay were significantly longer in the LD muscle onlay patch group than the ADM group. However, there were no statistically significant differences between groups in postoperative complications. Cosmetic outcomes for breast symmetry and shape were higher in the LD muscle onlay patch group. Conclusions Implant-based breast reconstruction with an LD muscle onlay patch would be a feasible alternative to using an ADM. PMID:26161312

  3. Reconstruction of a large calvarial traumatic defect using a custom-made porous hydroxyapatite implant covered by a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap in an 11-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Morice, Anne; Kolb, Frédéric; Picard, Arnaud; Kadlub, Natacha; Puget, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of complex skull defects requires collaboration between neurosurgeons and plastic surgeons to choose the most appropriate procedure, especially in growing children. The authors describe herein the reconstruction of an extensive traumatic bone and soft tissue defect of the cranial vault in an 11-year-old boy. The size of the defect, quality of the tissues, and patient's initial condition required a 2-stage approach. Ten months after an initial emergency procedure in which lacerated bone and soft tissue were excised, reconstruction was performed. The bone defect, situated on the left frontoparietal region, was 85 cm 2 and was filled by a custom-made porous hydroxyapatite implant. The quality of the overlying soft tissue did not allow the use of classic local and locoregional coverage techniques. A free latissimus dorsi muscle flap branched on the contralateral superficial temporal pedicle was used and left for secondary healing to take advantage of scar retraction and to minimize alopecia. Stable well-vascularized implant coverage as well as an esthetically pleasing skull shape was achieved. Results in this case suggest that concomitant reconstruction of large calvarial defects by cranioplasty with a custom-made hydroxyapatite implant covered by a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap is a safe and efficient procedure in children, provided that there is no underlying infection of the operative site.

  4. Novel technique for laparoscopic harvesting of latissimus dorsi flap with prosthesis implantation for breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuman; Tang, Peng; Chen, Xianchun; Yang, Xi; Pan, Qinwen; Gui, Yu; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Backgroud: An important drawback of the traditional technique for harvesting latissimus dorsi (LD) myocutaneous flap is a long, posterior donor-site incision. Current techniques involve endoscopic or robotic harvesting via a combined approach of open and closed surgery, which necessitates an open axillary incision and the use of special retractors. In this paper, we introduce a fully enclosed laparoscopic technique for harvesting LD flap (LDF) using only 3 small trocar ports. This technique eliminates the need for axillary and donor-site incisions and specialized retractors and considerably reduces the incision size. Methods: We performed laparoscopic harvesting of LDF with prosthesis implantation for immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) after nipple-sparing mastectomy in 2 patients with malignant breast neoplasm who wished to avoid a long scar on the back. Results: IBR using this technique was uneventful in both cases, without any donor-site complications or flap failure. Both patients were satisfied with the esthetic results of the procedure, especially the absence of a visible scar on the back. Conclusion: Enclosed laparoscopic harvesting of LDF is simpler and less invasive than the traditional methods. These preliminary results warrant further evaluation in a larger population to validate the benefits of this technique. PMID:27861385

  5. Biomechanical comparison between the trapezius transfer and latissimus transfer for irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Omid, Reza; Heckmann, Nathanael; Wang, Lawrence; McGarry, Michelle H; Vangsness, C Thomas; Lee, Thay Q

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the biomechanical effects of the lower trapezius transfer and to compare it with the latissimus dorsi transfer in a cadaveric model of a massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tear. Eight cadaveric shoulders were tested at 0°, 30°, and 60° of shoulder abduction. Range of motion, humeral rotational position due to muscle loading, joint reaction forces, and kinematics were measured. All specimens were tested in 4 conditions: intact, massive posterosuperior cuff tear, lower trapezius transfer, and latissimus dorsi transfer. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. Internal rotation due to muscle loading increased with massive cuff tear compared with the intact condition (P < .05). The latissimus transfer corrected this change at 0° abduction, whereas the trapezius transfer corrected this at all abduction angles. The massive cuff tear decreased glenohumeral joint compression forces at all abduction angles; these forces were restored by the lower trapezius transfer (P < .05). At maximum humeral internal rotation and 0° of abduction, the humeral head apex shifted superiorly and laterally with massive cuff tear (P < .05); this shift was more closely restored to intact values by the trapezius transfer compared with the latissimus transfer (P < .05). The lower trapezius transfer is superior to the latissimus transfer at restoring native glenohumeral kinematics and joint reaction forces in our cadaveric model. It may be a promising treatment option for patients with a massive irreparable rotator cuff tear. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. [Shift the skin paddle in an additional incision improves the result: Study of a series of 82 breast reconstructions by latissimus dorsi flap and prosthesis implantation at 10 years].

    PubMed

    Chiriac, S; Dissaux, C; Bruant-Rodier, C; Djerada, Z; Bodin, F; François, C

    2017-06-01

    The position of the skin paddle on the breast area is a fundamental element for the breast reconstructions by latissimus dorsi flap and prosthesis implantation. Should, as Millard advocated, to recreate the initial defect and include it in the mastectomy scar or is it better in an additional incision as have others authors. This study compares the long-term morphological results of these two attitudes, with or without additional incision. Eighty-two breast reconstructions by latissimus dorsi flap and prosthesis implantation, with a mean follow-up of 9.5 years were scored from 1 to 5 by a panel of expert and non-expert. The patients scored also their own reconstruction. Various parameters of the reconstructed breast were thus evaluated. We compared the results, according to the positioning of the skin paddle: with additional incision (50 cases); without additional incision (32 cases). The characteristics of the mastectomy scar on the breast area, high or low, horizontal or oblique, defined 6 groups where the results of the 2 surgical options were compared. Only the reconstructions with additional incision get significantly higher results than those without additional incision (P<0.05). This involves the two panels, in the case of high mastectomy scars. In the others cases the additional incision is not essential. If the realization of an additional incision can be perceived like misfit on an area already "mutilated", we plead for this solution in selected cases. This provides a benefit stable in time, in terms of overall results, shape and even rendering scar. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The Axillary Approach to Raising the Latissimus Dorsi Free Flap for Facial Re-Animation: A Descriptive Surgical Technique

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Daniel; Grobbelaar, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    The latissimus dorsi flap is popular due to the versatile nature of its applications. When used as a pedicled flap it provides a robust solution when soft tissue coverage is required following breast, thoracic and head and neck surgery. Its utilization as a free flap is extensive due to the muscle's size, constant anatomy, large caliber of the pedicle and the fact it can be used for functional muscle transfers. In facial palsy it provides the surgeon with a long neurovascular pedicle that is invaluable in situations where commonly used facial vessels are not available, in congenital cases or where previous free functional muscle transfers have been attempted, or patients where a one-stage procedure is indicated and a long nerve is required to reach the contra-lateral side. Although some facial palsy surgeons use the trans-axillary approach, an operative guide of raising the flap by this method has not been provided. A clear guide of raising the flap with the patient in the supine position is described in detail and offers the benefits of reducing the risk of potential brachial plexus injury and allows two surgical teams to work synchronously to reduce operative time. PMID:25606493

  8. The axillary approach to raising the latissimus dorsi free flap for facial re-animation: a descriptive surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Leckenby, Jonathan; Butler, Daniel; Grobbelaar, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    The latissimus dorsi flap is popular due to the versatile nature of its applications. When used as a pedicled flap it provides a robust solution when soft tissue coverage is required following breast, thoracic and head and neck surgery. Its utilization as a free flap is extensive due to the muscle's size, constant anatomy, large caliber of the pedicle and the fact it can be used for functional muscle transfers. In facial palsy it provides the surgeon with a long neurovascular pedicle that is invaluable in situations where commonly used facial vessels are not available, in congenital cases or where previous free functional muscle transfers have been attempted, or patients where a one-stage procedure is indicated and a long nerve is required to reach the contra-lateral side. Although some facial palsy surgeons use the trans-axillary approach, an operative guide of raising the flap by this method has not been provided. A clear guide of raising the flap with the patient in the supine position is described in detail and offers the benefits of reducing the risk of potential brachial plexus injury and allows two surgical teams to work synchronously to reduce operative time.

  9. Functional Reconstruction with Latissimus Dorsi Flap following Resection of an Extensive Basal Cell Carcinoma in the Shoulder Region: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Paprottka, Felix J.; Klimas, Dalius; Hebebrand, Detlev

    2018-01-01

    Large and ulcerating skin tumors have become a rarity in the modern Western world. However, these conditions can cause serious life-threatening complications. The case of a 60-year-old male Caucasian patient is reported, who had suffered from an extensive basal cell carcinoma in the right shoulder region for several years. The patient kept the lesion secret from his friends and family and delayed presentation to health care services. After an episode of tumor-related heavy bleeding, the patient was referred to our clinic and received a radical surgical tumor resection—followed by defect coverage with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. An alternative treatment option that could be offered to the patient would have been a mutilating surgical procedure with an arm amputation. By using this plastic reconstructive surgical technique, the main function of the shoulder joint was conserved. The presented case demonstrates options for defect coverage of problematic wounds in anatomically complex body regions—like the shoulder—by using a functional reconstruction using myocutaneous flaps. PMID:29896564

  10. Design of Mini Latissimus Dorsi Flap Based on Thoracodorsal Vascular Patterns.

    PubMed

    Elzawawy, Ehab Mostafa; Kelada, Melad Naim; Al Karmouty, Ahmed Farouk

    2018-06-01

    Latissimus dorsi (LD) flap has been used for reconstructive purposes in oncoplastic breast surgery. Using large part of the muscle as a flap leads to a residual functional loss. Muscle sparing and mini LD flaps can be used with no functional sequelae. However, the design of such flap presents a challenge. Twenty cadavers were dissected on both sides to identify the different vascular patterns of the thoracodorsal (TD) pedicle. The vessels were counted, and the following measurements were taken: diameter, length, distance from inferior angel of scapula, and vertebral level. Data were collected and entered into the personal computer. Statistical analysis was done using (SPSS/version 20) software. Five vascular patterns of TD pedicle were found. Type 1: a long vertically descending pedicle giving 3 to 4 transverse medial branches to LD in 40%. Type 2: a short pedicle terminating into 1 to 2 serratus anterior collaterals and 1 to 2 transverse lateral branches to LD in 10%. Type 3: a long vertically descending pedicle giving 2 to 3 small lateral branches to upper part of LD and terminating into medial and lateral branches in the lower part of LD in 10%. Type 4: a short pedicle that gives 4 to 5 terminal branches to LD, one of them is a long vertically descending branch to lower part of LD in 20%. Type 5: a short pedicle that terminates into a transverse medial and a long vertical branch to LD in 20%. The classically described pattern of TD pedicle (type 5) was found in 20% of cases, whereas the most commonly found pattern was type 1. This means that the pattern of TD branching is unpredictable, and a preoperative ultrasound is essential to define the existing pattern and plan the best LD flap design for each patient. In types 1 and 5, the flap can be designed using the transverse medial branch or branches. In type 2, one of the lateral transverse branches can be used. In types 3, 4, and 5, the long descending vertical branch can be used. It has a sizeable diameter (1

  11. Reconstruction with latissimus dorsi, external abdominal oblique and cranial sartorius muscle flaps for a large defect of abdominal wall in a dog after surgical removal of infiltrative lipoma

    PubMed Central

    FENG, Yu-Ching; CHEN, Kuan-Sheng; CHANG, Shih-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    This animal was presented with a large-sized infiltrative lipoma in the abdominal wall that had been noted for 4 years. This lipoma was confirmed by histological examination from a previous biopsy, and the infiltrative features were identified by a computerized tomography scan. The surgical removal created a large-sized abdominal defect that was closed by a combination of latissimus dorsi and external abdominal oblique muscle flaps in a pedicle pattern. A small dehiscence at the most distal end of the muscle flap resulted in a small-sized abdominal hernia and was repaired with cranial sartorius muscle flap 14 days after surgery. The dog was in good general health with no signs of tumor recurrence after 18 months of follow-up. PMID:27476526

  12. Functional sequelae following bilateral mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap: medium-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Paolini, Guido; Amoroso, Matteo; Pugliese, Pierfrancesco; Longo, Benedetto; Santanelli, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    Arm morbidity following unilateral Latissimus Dorsi (LD) flap harvest is controversial and bilateral harvest is considered potentially disabling. Arm and shoulder disability was investigated in patients undergoing bilateral mastectomy and immediate LD flap reconstruction. Thirty consecutive bilateral immediate reconstructions with denervated LD flaps, performed between 2005-2009, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were assessed for arm function by conducting the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) test, between 12-51 months after surgery (mean 23 months). Disability scores ranged from 1-100%, with 1-25% being regarded as mild dysfunction, 26-50% as moderate dysfunction, 51-75% as severe dysfunction, and 76-100% as total dysfunction. A statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test and the multivariate linear regression model for variables. The Global Mean Dash score was 14.8%. Twenty-four patients presented a mild functional deficit (< 25%), while six presented a moderate one (< 50%). Five of them presented a score < 40%, while only one patient presented a score of 49.1%. Higher scores were significantly associated (p < 0.001) with major postoperative complications and lower ones with re-innervated LD flaps (p < 0.01). An insignificant functional impairment was noted in most patients, while a moderate-to-severe one was noted only in the group with complications. Greater impairment is observed in the heavy activities. The DASH test is a useful tool in terms of informing patients and helping the surgeon to choose the best surgical option.

  13. Spectral analysis of blood perfusion in the free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and in normal skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xudong; Zeng, Bingfang; Fan, Cunyi; Jiang, Peizhu; Hu, Xiao

    2006-01-01

    To find the properties in the oscillatory components of the cutaneous blood flow on the successful free flap, a wavelet transform was applied to the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals which were measured simultaneously on the surfaces of the free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and on the adjacent intact skin of the healthy limb, of 18 patients. The frequency interval from 0.0095 to 1.6 Hz was examined and was divided into five subintervals (I: 0.0095-0.021 Hz; II: 0.021-0.052 Hz; III: 0.052-0.145 Hz; IV: 0.145-0.6 Hz and V: 0.6-1.6 Hz) corresponding to endothelial metabolic, neurogenic, myogenic, respiratory and cardiac origins. The average amplitude and total power in the frequency range 0.0095-1.6 Hz as well as within subintervals I, II, IV and V were significantly lower for signals measured on the free flap than those obtained in the healthy limb. However in interval III, they were significantly higher. The normalized spectral amplitude and power in the free flap were significantly lower in only two intervals, I and II, yet in interval III they were significantly higher; no statistical significance was observed in intervals IV and V. The distinctive finding made in this study, aside from the decrease of endothelial metabolic processes and sympathetic control, was the significant increase of myogenic activity in the free flap. It is hoped that this work will contribute towards knowledge on blood circulation in free flaps and make the monitoring by LDF more reliable.

  14. Does a critical rotator cuff tear stage exist?: a biomechanical study of rotator cuff tear progression in human cadaver shoulders.

    PubMed

    Oh, Joo Han; Jun, Bong Jae; McGarry, Michelle H; Lee, Thay Q

    2011-11-16

    It is unknown at which stage of rotator cuff tear the biomechanical environment is altered. The purpose of this study was to determine if a critical rotator cuff tear stage exists that alters glenohumeral joint biomechanics throughout the rotational range of shoulder motion, and to evaluate the biomechanical effect of parascapular muscle-loading. Eight cadaver shoulders were used with a custom testing system. Four progressive rotator cuff tear stages were investigated on the basis of footprint anatomy. Three muscle-loading conditions were examined: rotator cuff only; rotator cuff with deltoid muscle; and rotator cuff, deltoid, pectoralis major, and latissimus dorsi muscles. Testing was performed in the scapular plane with 0°, 30°, and 60° of shoulder abduction. The maximum internal and external rotations were measured with 3.4 Nm of torque. The position of the humeral head apex with respect to the glenoid was calculated with use of a MicroScribe 3DLX digitizing system throughout the rotational range of motion. The abduction capability was determined as the abduction angle achieved with increasing deltoid load. Tear of the entire supraspinatus tendon significantly increased maximum external rotation and significantly decreased abduction capability with higher deltoid loads (p < 0.05). Tear of the entire supraspinatus tendon and half of the infraspinatus tendon significantly shifted the humeral head apex posteriorly at the midrange of rotation and superiorly at maximum internal rotation (p < 0.05). Loading the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles decreased the amount of humeral head elevation due to deltoid loading. Tear of the entire supraspinatus tendon was the critical stage for increasing rotational range of shoulder motion and for decreased abduction capability. Further tear progression to the infraspinatus muscle was the critical stage for significant changes in humeral head kinematics. The pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles played an

  15. The musculoskeletal consequences of breast reconstruction using the latissimus dorsi muscle for women following mastectomy for breast cancer: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, N E; Mc Veigh, J G; Mc Caughan, E; Wilson, I M

    2018-03-01

    Breast reconstruction using the latissimus dorsi (LD) flap following mastectomy is an important management option in breast cancer. However, one common, but often ignored, complication following LD flap is shoulder dysfunction. The aim of this critical review was to comprehensively assess the musculoskeletal impact of LD breast reconstruction and evaluate the functional outcome following surgery. Five electronic databases were searched including; Medline, Embase, CINAHL Plus (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health), PubMed and Web of Science. Databases were searched from 2006 to 2016, and only full text, English language articles were included. Twenty-two observational studies and two surveys were reviewed with sample sizes ranging from six to 206 participants. The majority of studies had small sample sizes and were retrospective in nature. Nevertheless, there is evidence to suggest that there is some degree of weakness and reduced mobility at the shoulder following LD muscle transfer. The literature demonstrates that there is considerable morbidity in the immediate post-operative period with functional recovery varying between studies. The majority of work tends to be limited and often gives conflicting results; therefore, further investigation is required in order to determine underlying factors that contribute to a reduction in function and activities of daily living. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fifteen-year survey of one-stage latissimus dorsi muscle transfer for treatment of longstanding facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori; Asato, Hirotaka; Kurita, Masakazu; Shiraishi, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    Neurovascular free muscle transfer is one of the main reconstructive options for established or long-standing facial paralysis. The two-stage gracilis muscle transfer combined with the cross-face nerve graft (two-stage method) has been supplanted by one-stage reconstruction using the latissimus dorsi muscle (LD) at our institution. This study retrospectively evaluated the results of one-stage LD transfer. Between September 1993 and December 2008, 344 patients (133 males, 211 females; age range, 5-75 years) with unilateral facial paralysis underwent 351 one-stage LD transfers. Patients were evaluated with a custom grading scale. Differences in grading scale score were compared according to age, past surgical history and the duration from operation to neuromuscular recovery. Contraction of the transferred muscle was recognised in 305 (87.0%) transfers. The duration until neuromuscular recovery ranged from 3 to 16 months (average ± standard deviation: 6.48 ± 1.92 months). The grading scale was significantly lower in middle-age group than in younger and elder groups (P < 0.01). Duration until neuromuscular recovery was significantly different when comparing the younger group and the oldest group. There was no difference in grading scale score or in duration until neuromuscular recovery when comparing the patients with a past surgical history and those without. The grading scale negatively correlated with the duration until neuromuscular recovery. The results are consistent and statistical analysis revealed the versatility of the one-stage LD transfer. Although we believe the two-stage method is still a good option for facial reanimation, the one-stage method is advantageous regarding the shorter period of recovery and little donor-site morbidity. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Latissimus dorsi (LD) free flap and reconstruction plate used for extensive maxillo-mandibular reconstruction after tumour ablation.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo-Han; Jung, Hun Jong; Choi, Sung-Won; Kim, Soung-Min; Kim, Myung-Jin; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider the indications and evaluate the clinical advantages and disadvantages including, results and complications, of immediate reconstruction using a latissimus dorsi (LD) free flap and reconstruction plate (R-plate) in advanced oro-mandibular tumour resection. Our cohort included 116 patients who underwent LD free flap and R-plate reconstruction. Flap survival, postoperative function, donor/recipient site complication and aesthetics were evaluated. Our series demonstrated a 99.1% flap survival rate. One case required a contralateral LD free flap reconstruction after the initial flap failed due to pedicle kinking. Twelve patients needed the plate to be removed and replaced (n=4, plate fracture; n=2, plate exposure) or definite reconstruction with free fibular flap and implant installation. Donor site complications included seroma accumulation, scarring, and discomfort of the shoulder girdle. The size of the skin paddle ranged from 6 × 10 cm to 12 × 18 cm (12 were double paddled).The facial contour was acceptable without sagging of the flap. The flap was tolerant to irradiation and was resistant to the exposure of the plate at the symphyseal arch. Our series of primary reconstruction with LD free flaps and R-plates showed the retention of mandibular function and the reconstruction of considerably large soft tissue can be achieved successfully. This reconstruction scheme can be indicated for large-volume defects in the oro-mandibular area when the area cannot be covered by a single osteocutaneous free flap, has undergone extensive oncologic resection for advanced or high recurrence rate malignancy and when immediate postoperative chemotherapy and/or irradiation is necessary. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reconstruction of Extensive Soft-Tissue Defects with Concomitant Bone Defects in the Lower Extremity with the Latissimus Dorsi-Serratus Anterior-Rib Free Flap.

    PubMed

    Sia, Wei Tee; Xu, Germaine Guiqin; Puhaindran, Mark Edward; Tan, Bien Keem; Cheng, Mathew Hern Wang; Chew, Winston Yoon Chong

    2015-07-01

    The combined latissimus dorsi-serratus anterior-rib (LD-SA-rib) free flap provides a large soft-tissue flap with a vascularized bone flap through a solitary vascular pedicle in a one-stage reconstruction. Seven LD-SA-rib free flaps were performed in seven patients to reconstruct concomitant bone and extensive soft-tissue defects in the lower extremity (tibia, five; femur, one; foot, one). The patients were all male, with an average age of 34 years (range, 20-48 years). These defects were secondary to trauma in five patients and posttraumatic osteomyelitis in two patients. All flaps survived and achieved bony union. The average time to bony union was 9.4 months. Bone hypertrophy of at least 20% occurred in all flaps. All patients achieved full weight-bearing ambulation without aid at an average duration of 23.7 months. Two patients developed stress fractures of the rib flap. There was no significant donor site morbidity, except for two patients who had pleural tears during harvesting of the flap. The LD-SA-rib flap provides a large soft-tissue component and a vascularized bone flap for reconstruction of composite large soft-tissue defects with concomitant bone defects of the lower extremity in a one-stage procedure. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. The use of OK-432 to prevent seroma in extended latissimus dorsi flap donor site after breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yinlong; Chen, Yizuo; Qu, Jinmiao; Zhang, Xiaohua; Pan, Yifei

    2015-01-01

    The extended latissimus dorsi (LD) flap has become a preferred method of breast reconstruction. However, donor site seroma is the most common complication of LD flap reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of OK-432 on postoperative drainage and seroma formation in the site of the LD myocutaneous flap donor site. A retrospective study was conducted on 49 patients who underwent immediate breast reconstruction with extended LD flaps between July 2008 and September 2013. The patients received either OK-432 (OK-432 group, n = 24) or not (control group, n = 25) in the extended LD donor site. Outcome measures were obtained from the incidence and volume of postoperative seroma, total volume of back drains, the total drainage, indwelling period of drainage, and frequency of aspiration. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, body mass index, and flap size. The incidence of seroma was 41.7% in the OK-432 group and 72% in the control group (P = 0.032). There were also significant reductions in volume of postoperative seroma (P = 0.021), total drainage volume (P < 0.001), total volume of back drains (P < 0.001), indwelling period of drainage (P = 0.004), and frequency of aspiration (P = 0.008). The use of OK-432 is a feasible option for the reduction or prevention of seroma formation at the donor site in patients undergoing immediate breast reconstruction using a LD myocutaneous flap for breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for massive rotator cuff tear: risk factors for poor functional improvement.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Robert U; Steen, Brandon M; Hussey, Michael M; Cusick, Michael C; Cottrell, Benjamin J; Clark, Rachel E; Frankle, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    Some patients unexpectedly have poor functional improvement after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) for massive rotator cuff tear without glenohumeral arthritis. Our aim was to identify risk factors for this outcome. We also assessed the value of RSA for cases with poor functional improvement vs. The study was a retrospective case-control analysis for primary RSA performed for massive rotator cuff tear without glenohumeral arthritis with minimum 2-year follow-up. Cases were defined as Simple Shoulder Test (SST) score improvement of ≤1, whereas controls improved SST score ≥2. Risk factors were chosen on the basis of previous association with poor outcomes after shoulder arthroplasty. Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer results were analyzed as a subgroup. Value was defined as improvement in American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score per $10,000 hospital cost. In a multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis, neurologic dysfunction (P = .006), age <60 years (P = .02), and high preoperative SST score (P = .03) were independently associated with poor functional improvement. Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer patients significantly improved in active external rotation (-0.3° to 38.7°; P < .01). The value of RSA (ΔASES/$10,000 cost) for cases was 0.8 compared with 17.5 for controls (P < .0001). Young age, high preoperative function, and neurologic dysfunction were associated with poor functional improvement. Surgeons should consider these associations in counseling and selection of patients. Concurrent latissimus dorsi transfer was successful in restoring active external rotation in a subgroup of patients. The critical economic importance of improved patient selection is emphasized by the very low value of the procedure in the case group. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Feasibility of EMG-Based Control of Shoulder Muscle FNS Via Artificial Neural Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    assuming that just two paralyzed muscles (pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi ) were stimulated. Further, the needed activations of these “stimulated...injuries at C5-C6 typically result in paralysis of several important shoulder muscles (e.g., pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi , and serratus anterior...of several important muscles (e.g., pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi ),but retain at least partial voluntary control over a number of other

  2. Modes of Thermal Protection in Polar Bear Cubs - at Birth and upon Emergence from the Den,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    Morphological characteristics potentially relevant to temperature regulation were visually examined. Fat and skeletal muscle (m. psoas and m. latissimus dorsi ... latissimus dorsi ) were excised and processed for electron microscopical examination as described for the newborn cubs. In order to investigate the...circles o 0 ). The weight of the cub as 12.5 kg. 21 Fig. 6 Two micrographs of the latissimus dorsi muscle of a polar bear A and B. cub aged approximately

  3. Seroma Formation in Rat Latissimus Dorsi Resection in the Presence of Biologics: The Role of Quilting.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Zachary M; Ignotz, Ronald A; Rowin, Craig; Freniere, Brian B; Lalikos, Janice F; Dunn, Raymond M

    2015-09-01

    Seroma formation is a well-recognized complication associated with many operative procedures. Despite its ubiquity, a lack of definitive scientific understanding of the etiology, natural history, and biochemistry of seromas remains. We endeavored to create and examine seromas in a rat model in the setting of commonly used biologic implants and to examine the role of quilting sutures/mechanical fixation in mitigating seroma development. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to either Quilting or Nonquilting groups then subdivided into one of 3 porcine dermal implant groups (Permacol Surgical Implant, Strattice Reconstructive Tissue Matrix, or XCM Biologic Tissue Matrix) or control group. A 5-cm midline back incision was made, the skin reflected and the latissimus dorsi muscle resected bilaterally. Implants were sutured into the surgical bed using a running suture. The skin of nonquilted rats was closed with a running subcuticular suture. Quilted rats underwent placement of absorbable quilting sutures spaced 2 cm apart between the skin and underlying implant or muscle before skin closure. Postoperatively, rats were monitored for seroma formation with fluid aspirated as needed. At 28 or 90 days, rats were euthanized. Seroma and implants were examined grossly and under light microscopy. Of nonquilted rats, 42/54 (78%) developed seromas compared with 19/46 (41%) of quilted rats (P < 0.05), defined by bursa cavity present at necropsy. When a biologic implant was present, 28/35 (80%) of nonquilted rats developed seromas compared with 12/33 (36%) of quilted rats (P < 0.05). In the control group, 14/19 (74%) of nonquilted rats developed seromas compared with 7/13 (54%) of quilted rats. This difference was not statistically significant. Bursa presence was confirmed histologically in all cases, with no difference in bursa character seen between groups. This study confirms a reliable rat model of seroma formation, with most of the rats exhibiting at least subclinical

  4. Fascicular Phrenic Nerve Neurotization for Restoring Physiological Motion in a Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Reconstruction With a Reverse Innervated Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap.

    PubMed

    Horta, Ricardo; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Costa, Joana; Estevão-Costa, José; Monteiro, Diana; Dias, Mariana; Braga, José; Silva, Alvaro; Azevedo, Inês; Amarante, José Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a severe developmental anomaly characterized by the malformation of the diaphragm. An innervated reversed latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction for recurrent congenital diaphragmatic hernia has been described as an alternative to prosthetic patch repair to achieve pleuroperitoneal separation. However, there is very little supporting scientific data; therefore, there is no real basic understanding of the condition of the phrenic nerve in the absence of diaphragmatic muscle or even the neurotization options for restoring neodiaphragmatic muscle motion. We have reviewed the literature regarding phrenic nerve anatomy and neurotization options, and to our knowledge, this is the first time that the application of a fascicular repair is being described where the continuity of one remaining fascicle of the diaphragm has been preserved close to the phrenic nerve distal division. The procedure was undertaken in a 3 year-old boy, with the diagnosis of congenital large posteromedial diaphragmatic hernia and dependence of mechanical ventilation in consequence of severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia.The phrenic nerve divides itself into several terminal branches, usually three, at the diaphragm level, or just above it. This allows the selective coaptation of separate fascicular branches. In the case described, videofluoroscopy evaluation showed no evidence of paradoxical neodiaphragmatic motion, with synchronous contraction movements and intact pleura-peritoneal separation. The child is now asymptomatic and shows improvement of his previous restrictive pulmonary disease.We believe that fascicular repair can achieve some reinnervation of the flap without jeopardizing the potential of diaphragmatic function by contraction of reminiscent native diaphragm.

  5. The use of latissimus dorsi miniflap for reconstruction following breast-conserving surgery: experience of a small breast unit in a district hospital.

    PubMed

    Navin, C; Agrawal, A; Kolar, K M

    2007-01-01

    Immediate reconstruction with autogenous tissue is one of the options for reconstruction following breast-conservation surgery for breast cancers in major centres with ready availability of appropriate skills. Immediate correction of volume deficit by latissimus dorsi miniflap (LDMF) in addition has cosmetic appeal by filling the defect without extra skin incision. Data was collected retrospectively from clinical records of 51 patients who underwent LDMF procedures in a district general hospital between June 2000 and December 2004, and the results were analysed. Postal questionnaire survey was done to assess the level of subjective satisfaction of the cosmetic outcome. Wide local excision and axillary-node sampling/clearance along with immediate reconstruction with a LDMF (involving a musculo-subcutaneous flap without skin) were performed in all patients. Patients' median age was 50 years. Sixty-five percent of the tumours were in the upper-outer quadrant, median weight of the specimen was 217.5 g (31-510 g), median clearance margin was 5 mm (0-15 mm) and median pathological size of the tumour was 20 mm (8-60 mm). Four patients required mastectomy later, whereas 1 patient had flap necrosis. At a median follow-up of 33 months, there has been no recurrence. Eighty-six percent of the patients who responded to the postal survey were satisfied with the cosmetic outcome. Immediate LDMF reconstruction is an acceptable way of correcting deformity after breast-conservation surgery. We demonstrate by our experience that it is a viable option for breast cancer in small district hospitals/ breast units.

  6. Evaluation of stimulation parameters on aortomyoplasty, using Latissimus Dorsi muscle in a goat model: an acute study.

    PubMed

    Hakami, A; Santamore, W P; Stremel, R W; Tobin, G; Hjortdal, V E

    1999-08-01

    Dynamic aortomyoplasty using Latissimus Dorsi muscle (LDM) has been shown to improve myocardial function. However, systematic examination of the effects of stimulation parameters on aortic wrap function has not been done. Thus, the present study measures the direct effect of stimulation voltage, pulse train duration, frequency of the pulses, and the duration of the stimulation delay from R wave on the aortic wrap function. In eight female goats, the left LDM was wrapped around the descending aorta. The muscle was then subjected to electrical stimulation, altering frequency of stimulation pulses (16.6, 20, 25, 33 and 50 Hz), amplitude (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 V), and number of pulses (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 pulses) in a train stimulation. Left ventricular, aortic pressure, and pressure generated by LDM on aorta (wrap pressure) was measured. The changes in hemodynamic parameters mentioned above were calculated and compared for different stimulation parameters during unassisted and assisted cardiac cycles. Aortomyoplasty counterpulsation using LDM provided significant improvement in wrap pressure (78 mmHg +/- 2), aortic diastolic pressure, and changes in aortic diastolic pressure from 2 to 4 V (P < 0.05). Further increase in amplitude did not make any significant improvements of the above mentioned parameters. Significant augmentation of wrap pressure (82 mmHg +/- 2), aortic diastolic pressure (79 mmHg +/- 3) and changes in aortic diastolic pressure (12 mmHg +/- 1) occurred at 6 pulses (P < 0.05). Other changes in number of pulses did not show any significant improvements. Significant improvement of wrap pressure (80 mmHg +/- 2), aortic diastolic pressure (73 mmHg +/- 3) and changes in aortic diastolic pressure (12 mmHg +/- 1) was observed with a frequency of 33 Hz. To examine a wide range of delays from the onset of the QRS complex to LDM stimulation, stimulation was delivered randomly. The exact delay was determined from the ECG signal and superimposed LDM stimulation pulses

  7. THE Amphibious Assault: How Fit Are Our Marines for the Mission?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-05

    through exertion of the biceps and latissimus dorsi.3 The situp exercise primarily tests the rectus abdominus (abdominal muscles) and iliopsoas (hip...latissimus dorsi; deltoids (grip dependent) Situps Rectus abdominus ; iliopsoas 3-mile run Quadriceps (primarily measures cardiovascular (aerobic) capacity

  8. Pushup Performance by Women: Analysis of Modes of Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    prefatigue, the following sessions prefatigued the trapezius, latissimus dorsi , deltoid, pectorals, biceps, triceps, and abdominals. Studied 25 women...pushups, triceps mean 11 pushups), deltoid mean 15 pushups, abdominals mean 16 pushups, biceps mean 17 pushups, latissimus dorsi mean 17 pushups, and

  9. 38 CFR 4.73 - Schedule of ratings-muscle injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 5302Group II. Function: Depression of arm from vertical overhead to hanging at side (1, 2); downward... muscles of shoulder girdle: (1) Pectoralis major II (costosternal); (2) latissimus dorsi and teres major (teres major, although technically an intrinsic muscle, is included with latissimus dorsi); (3...

  10. 38 CFR 4.73 - Schedule of ratings-muscle injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 5302Group II. Function: Depression of arm from vertical overhead to hanging at side (1, 2); downward... muscles of shoulder girdle: (1) Pectoralis major II (costosternal); (2) latissimus dorsi and teres major (teres major, although technically an intrinsic muscle, is included with latissimus dorsi); (3...

  11. 38 CFR 4.73 - Schedule of ratings-muscle injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 5302Group II. Function: Depression of arm from vertical overhead to hanging at side (1, 2); downward... muscles of shoulder girdle: (1) Pectoralis major II (costosternal); (2) latissimus dorsi and teres major (teres major, although technically an intrinsic muscle, is included with latissimus dorsi); (3...

  12. 38 CFR 4.73 - Schedule of ratings-muscle injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 5302Group II. Function: Depression of arm from vertical overhead to hanging at side (1, 2); downward... muscles of shoulder girdle: (1) Pectoralis major II (costosternal); (2) latissimus dorsi and teres major (teres major, although technically an intrinsic muscle, is included with latissimus dorsi); (3...

  13. 38 CFR 4.73 - Schedule of ratings-muscle injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 5302Group II. Function: Depression of arm from vertical overhead to hanging at side (1, 2); downward... muscles of shoulder girdle: (1) Pectoralis major II (costosternal); (2) latissimus dorsi and teres major (teres major, although technically an intrinsic muscle, is included with latissimus dorsi); (3...

  14. Pushup Performance by Women: Analysis of Modes of Failure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-15

    without prefatigue, the following sessions prefatigued the trapezius, latissimus dorsi , deltoid, pectorals, biceps, triceps, and abdominals. Studied 25...0-29), biceps mean 17 pushups (8-29), latissimus dorsi mean 17 pushups (9-31), and the trapezius mean 19 pushups (6-32). Prefatiguing of the

  15. 1995 Matched Anthropometric Database of U.S. Marine Corps Personnel: Summary Statistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    the maximum point ofquiet respiration. Note: Breast tissue and latissimus dorsi muscle tissue are NOT included in this measurement ifthey extend...form one side of the pelvic cavity. Latissimus Dorsi - a large muscle located on the lower back that extends from just above the waist to behind

  16. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for deltoid-deficient shoulder following latissimus dorsi flap transfer. Case report.

    PubMed

    Dosari, Mohamed Al Ateeq Al; Hameed, Shamsi; Mukhtar, Khalid; Elmhiregh, Aissam

    2017-01-01

    The usual indication for reverse shoulder arthroplasty is glenohumeral arthritis with inadequate rotator cuff and intact deltoid muscle. We report here a case of reverse shoulder arthroplasty using a lattisimus dorsi flap in a patient with deltoid-deficient shoulder following a gunshot injury. The patient was an otherwise healthy 51-year-old male with a history of gunshot injury of the left shoulder 2006. Upon presentation in 2011, the patient had a loss of most of his shoulder bony and muscular structures. Due to deltoid muscle deficiency, the patient underwent Lattisimus Dorsi muscle flap followed by reverse shoulder arthroplasty in order to establish an upper limb function. Upon discharge, 11days after the surgery, the patient was able to achieve 150° flexion and 90° abduction while in the supine position and 45° in each direction, while sitting. He was able to perform internal rotation (behind back) up to the level of the L1 vertebra, assisted active abduction of 90°, and external rotation of 20°. Power tests showed power of grade 4/5 for both shoulder flexion and extension and grade 2+/5 for both abduction and adduction. At the last follow up one year after the operation, The patient still had passive pain-free full range of motion, but no progress in active range of motion beyond that upon discharge. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty after Latissmus dori flap in patient with deltoid deficient shoulders can be a successful and reproducible approach to treat such conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of Non-Invasive Deep Tissue pH Sensor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    gas samples were used to adjust ventilation during the experiment to maintain proper acid-base balance. First, the right latissimus dorsi muscle flap...of skin approximately 1 inch by 2 inches was cut from the rabbit from the area which was over the latissimus dorsi muscle. The skin was shaved of fur

  18. Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army Personnel: Summary Statistics, Interim Report for 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    measurement is taken at the maximum point of quiet respiration. Note: Breast tissue and latissimus dorsi muscle tissue are NOT included in this measurement...sides of the body; as opposed to medial (see Figure A-l). latissimus dorsi — the large muscle covering the lower half of the back above the waist and

  19. Heterotopic bone formation in the musculus latissimus dorsi of sheep using β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds: evaluation of an extended prefabrication time on bone formation and matrix degeneration.

    PubMed

    Spalthoff, S; Jehn, P; Zimmerer, R; Möllmann, U; Gellrich, N-C; Kokemueller, H

    2015-06-01

    We previously generated viable heterotopic bone in living animals and found that 3 months of intrinsic vascularization improved bone formation and matrix degeneration. In this study, we varied the pre-vascularization time to determine its effects on the kinetics of bone formation and ceramic degradation. Two 25-mm-long cylindrical β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds were filled intraoperatively with autogenous iliac crest bone marrow and implanted in the latissimus dorsi muscle in six sheep. To examine the effect of axial perfusion, one scaffold was surgically implanted with (group C) or without (group D) a central vascular bundle. All animals were sacrificed 6 months postoperatively and histomorphometric measurements were compared to previous results. All implanted scaffolds exhibited ectopic bone growth. However, bone growth was not significantly different between the 3-month (group A, 0.191±0.097 vs. group C, 0.237±0.075; P=0.345) and 6-month (group B, 0.303±0.105 vs. group D, 0.365±0.258; P=0.549) pre-vascularization durations, regardless of vessel supply; early differences between surgically and extrinsically vascularized constructs disappeared after 6 months. Here, we describe a reliable procedure for generating ectopic bone in vivo. A 3-month pre-vascularization duration appears sufficient and ceramic degradation proceeds in accordance with bone generation, supporting the hypothesis of cell-mediated resorption. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protein Supplementation Does Not Further Increase Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy after Eight Weeks of Resistance Training in Novice Subjects, but Partially Counteracts the Fast-to-Slow Muscle Fiber Transition.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Antonio; Pacelli, Quirico F; Cancellara, Pasqua; Toniolo, Luana; Moro, Tatiana; Canato, Marta; Miotti, Danilo; Neri, Marco; Morra, Aldo; Quadrelli, Marco; Reggiani, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    The response to resistance training and protein supplementation in the latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) has never been investigated. We investigated the effects of resistance training (RT) and protein supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and fiber characteristics of the LDM. Eighteen healthy young subjects were randomly assigned to a progressive eight-week RT program with a normal protein diet (NP) or high protein diet (HP) (NP 0.85 vs. HP 1.8 g of protein·kg(-1)·day(-1)). One repetition maximum tests, magnetic resonance imaging for cross-sectional muscle area (CSA), body composition, and single muscle fibers mechanical and phenotype characteristics were measured. RT induced a significant gain in strength (+17%, p < 0.0001), whole muscle CSA (p = 0.024), and single muscle fibers CSA (p < 0.05) of LDM in all subjects. Fiber isometric force increased in proportion to CSA (+22%, p < 0.005) and thus no change in specific tension occurred. A significant transition from 2X to 2A myosin expression was induced by training. The protein supplementation showed no significant effects on all measured outcomes except for a smaller reduction of 2X myosin expression. Our results suggest that in LDM protein supplementation does not further enhance RT-induced muscle fiber hypertrophy nor influence mechanic muscle fiber characteristics but partially counteracts the fast-to-slow fiber shift.

  1. Tendon transfer options about the shoulder in patients with brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Elhassan, Bassem; Bishop, Allen T; Hartzler, Robert U; Shin, Alexander Y; Spinner, Robert J

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early outcome of shoulder tendon transfer in patients with brachial plexus injury and to determine the factors associated with favorable outcomes. Fifty-two patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury and a paralytic shoulder were included in the study. All patients were evaluated at a mean of nineteen months (range, twelve to twenty-eight months) postoperatively. Twelve patients had a C5-6 injury, twenty-two had a C5-7 injury, five had a C5-8 injury, and thirteen had a C5-T1 injury. Transfer of the lower portion of the trapezius muscle was performed either in isolation or as part of multiple tendon transfers to improve shoulder function. Additional muscles transferred included the middle and upper portions of the trapezius, levator scapulae, upper portion of the serratus anterior, teres major, latissimus dorsi, and pectoralis major. All patients had a stable shoulder postoperatively. Shoulder external rotation improved substantially in all patients from no external rotation (hand-on-belly position) to a mean of 20° (p = 0.001). Patients who underwent additional transfers had marginal improvement of shoulder flexion, from a mean of 10° preoperatively to 60° postoperatively, and of shoulder abduction, from a mean of 10° to 50° (p = 0.01 for each). Mean pain on a visual analog scale improved from 6 points preoperatively to 2 points postoperatively. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score improved from 59 to 47 points (p = 0.001). The mean Subjective Shoulder Value improved from 5% to 40% (p = 0.001). Greater age, higher body mass index, and more extensive nerve injury were associated with a poorer DASH score in a multivariate analysis (p = 0.003). Tendon transfers about the shoulder can improve shoulder function in patients with brachial plexus injury resulting in a paralytic shoulder. Significant improvement of shoulder external rotation but only marginal improvements of shoulder

  2. Performance and return to sport in elite baseball players and recreational athletes following repair of the latissimus dorsi and teres major.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Waterman, Brian R; Griffin, Justin W; Romeo, Anthony A

    2017-11-01

    Tears of the latissimus dorsi (LD) and teres major (TM) are rare but disabling injuries in the overhead athlete. All patients who underwent an LD and/or TM repair between January 1, 2010, and June 6, 2016, with more than 12 months' follow-up were included. Demographic information and postoperative range of motion were recorded. Patients were contacted via phone and answered questions to provide the following: Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) shoulder and elbow outcome score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder score, and visual analog scale (VAS) score. Performance data for professional athletes were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively and compared by paired t tests. Eleven male patients aged 29.9 ± 12.4 years were included; 86% were right hand dominant, 86% underwent surgery on the dominant side, and 73% were pitchers (7 professional and 1 collegiate). The mean time from injury to repair was 389 ± 789 days; 36% of repairs were performed within 6 weeks of injury. At final follow-up, the VAS score was 0.7 ± 1.9, the ASES score was 100 ± 0, and the KJOC score was 93 ± 5. Professional (major and minor league) pitchers had a mean total time participating in professional baseball of 6.6 ± 3.9 years, with 3.9 ± 2.3 years before surgery and 2.7 ± 1.8 years after surgery. Among professional pitchers, the VAS pain score was 0.0 ± 0.0, the ASES score was 100 ± 0, and the KJOC score was 89 ± 2. All professional pitchers returned to the same level of play. No significant differences existed between any preoperative and postoperative performance metrics for pitchers (P > .05). Repair of LD and TM tears in both professional and recreational athletes produces reliable functional recovery with minimal pain and the ability to return to preoperative athletic activity, even among elite throwing athletes. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by

  3. Pharmacologic manipulation of the microcirculation in cutaneous and myocutaneous flaps in pigs

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pang, C.Y.; Neligan, P.C.; Nakatsuka, T.

    1985-04-01

    The vascular effects of isoxsuprine, diazoxide, and isoproterenol were studied in arterial buttock flaps and latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps in pigs. Capillary blood flow to the skin and muscles of these flaps was measured by the radioactive microsphere (15-mu diameter) technique 6 hours postoperatively under pentobarbital anesthesia. It was observed that isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, was not effective in augmentation of skin blood flow in the arterial buttock flaps. However, isoproterenol significantly increased capillary blood flow to the arterialized portion of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps compared with controls. Isoxsuprine and diazoxide (vascular smooth muscle relaxants) significantly (p less thanmore » 0.05) increased total capillary blood flow to the skin of arterial buttock flaps and to the skin and muscles of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps. However, the increase in capillary blood flow occurred mainly in the arterialized portion of these flaps. The capillary blood flow, which was supplied by the small arteries in the distal portion of the arterial buttock and latissimus dorsi flaps, was not increased by treatment with isoxsuprine or diazoxide. Therefore, there was also no increase in the maximum distance of capillary blood flow from the pedicle to the distal end of the flaps. These observations led the authors to hypothesize that different sizes (diameters) of arteries in the skin and muscle have different reactivity (or sensitivity) to vasodilatory drugs. In the present experiment, the large dominant artery of the arterial buttock and latissimus dorsi flaps responded to isoxsuprine or diazoxide (vascular smooth-muscle relaxants), resulting in an increase in blood supply to the capillaries in the proximal portion of the flaps.« less

  4. Reconstruction of large cranial defects in the presence of heavy radiation damage and infection utilizing tissue transferred by microvascular anastomoses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Robson, M.C.; Zachary, L.S.; Schmidt, D.R.

    1989-03-01

    Six cases of large defects of the scalp, skull, and dura following tumor ablation and radiation are presented. Each was accompanied by chronic infection in the irradiated defect. Efforts to reconstruct the resulting defects with local flaps were not successful. One-stage reconstruction was then accomplished in each case utilizing a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous or myo-osteocutaneous free flap transferred by microvascular anastomoses. The versatility of the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous and/or osseous flap allows single-stage reconstruction of these complex defects.

  5. [Pulley for strengthening a muscle replacement operation across two joints in brachial plexus lesion: description of the surgical technique].

    PubMed

    Berger, A; Schaller, E; Becker, M H

    1994-01-01

    The reconstruction of lost muscle functions in cases of brachial plexus lesion is possible even in those cases where primary nerve reconstruction was not performed or unsuccessful. If there are only few motor nerves available, we prefer free latissimus dorsi transplantation or pedicled latissimus dorsi transposition for replacement of biceps and finger flexors. The combination of elbow flexion and finger flexion becomes possible when the transposed motor is passed around a suitable pulley in the elbow region like the flexor carpi ulnaris or carpi radialis.

  6. [Reconstruction of the heel in a two-year-old boy after lawn mower injury].

    PubMed

    Kraus, R; Albrecht, J; Schnettler, R; von Pichler, M

    2012-04-01

    Lawn mower injuries in children usually involve the lower extremities and can lead to serious amputation injuries. Treatment should look not only at the acute reconstruction, but also on maintaining the ability to grow. We report the case of a two-year-old boy with amputation of the heel. The boy was run over by a lawn mower. He suffered a complete loss of heel soft tissue, 30 % of the os calcis and the Achilles tendon. The one-stage reconstruction was performed by transplantation of an iliac crest graft, fascia lata to reconstruct the Achilles tendon and a microvascular latissimus dorsi flap. After one year, the functional and cosmetic result is excellent, the bone graft is healed completely and shows growth trends. The successful treatment of such a severe amputation injury requires the interdisciplinary cooperation between paediatric traumatologists, plastic surgeons, physical therapists and orthopaedic shoemaker. The result justifies the great effort. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Microvascular transplants in head and neck reconstruction: 3D evaluation of volume loss.

    PubMed

    Bittermann, Gido; Thönissen, Philipp; Poxleitner, Philipp; Zimmerer, Ruediger; Vach, Kirstin; Metzger, Marc C

    2015-10-01

    Despite oversized latissimus dorsi free flap reconstruction in the head and neck area, esthetic and functional problems continue to exist due to the well-known occurrence of transplant shrinkage. The purpose of this study was to acquire an estimation of the volume and time of the shrinkage process. The assessment of volume loss was performed using a 3D evaluation of two postoperative CT scans. A retrospective review was conducted on all latissimus dorsi free flap reconstructions performed between 2004 and 2013. Inclusion criteria for the assessment were: resection of an oral carcinoma and microsurgical defect coverage with latissimus dorsi free flap; a first postoperative CT (CT1) performed between 3 weeks and a maximum of 3 months after reconstruction surgery; and an additional CT scan (CT2) performed at least one year postoperatively. The exclusion criterion was surgical intervention in the local area between the acquisition of CT1 and CT2. The effect of adjuvant radiation therapy was considered. Volume determination of the transplant was carried out in CT1 and CT2 by manual segmentation of the graft. Fifteen patients were recruited. 3D evaluation showed an average volume loss of 34.4%. In the consideration of postoperative radiotherapy the volume reduction was 39.2% in patients with radiotherapy and 31.3% in patients without radiotherapy. The reconstruction flap volume required for overcorrection of the surgical defect was investigated. This study indicates that a volume loss of more than 30% could be expected one or more years after latissimus dorsi free flap reconstruction. Clinical trial number DRKS00007534. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A reliable approach to the closure of large acquired midline defects of the back

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Casas, L.A.; Lewis, V.L. Jr.

    1989-10-01

    A systematic regionalized approach for the reconstruction of acquired thoracic and lumbar midline defects of the back is described. Twenty-three patients with wounds resulting from pressure necrosis, radiation injury, and postoperative wound infection and dehiscence were successfully reconstructed. The latissimus dorsi, trapezius, gluteus maximus, and paraspinous muscles are utilized individually or in combination as advancement, rotation, island, unipedicle, turnover, or bipedicle flaps. All flaps are designed so that their vascular pedicles are out of the field of injury. After thorough debridement, large, deep wounds are closed with two layers of muscle, while smaller, more superficial wounds are reconstructed with onemore » layer. The trapezius muscle is utilized in the high thoracic area for the deep wound layer, while the paraspinous muscle is used for this layer in the thoracic and lumbar regions. Superficial layer and small wounds in the high thoracic area are reconstructed with either latissimus dorsi or trapezius muscle. Corresponding wounds in the thoracic and lumbar areas are closed with latissimus dorsi muscle alone or in combination with gluteus maximus muscle. The rationale for systematic regionalized reconstruction of acquired midline back wounds is described.« less

  9. Scalp reconstruction by microvascular free tissue transfer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Furnas, H.; Lineaweaver, W.C.; Alpert, B.S.

    1990-05-01

    We report on a series of patients with scalp defects who have been treated with a variety of free flaps, spanning the era of microvascular free tissue transfer from its incipient stages to the present. Between 1971 and 1987, 18 patients underwent scalp reconstruction with 21 free flaps: 11 latissimus dorsi, 3 scalp transfers between identical twins, 3 groin, one combined latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior, two serratus anterior, and one omentum. These flaps were used to cover scalp defects resulting from burns, trauma, radiation, and tumors in patients ranging from 7 to 79 years of age. Follow-up has rangedmore » from 3 weeks to 7 years. All of our flaps survived and covered complex defects, many of which had failed more conservative attempts at cover. One patient received radiation therapy to his flap without unfavorable sequelae. This experience began with a pioneering omental flap and includes cutaneous and muscle flaps. The latissimus dorsi is our first choice for free flap reconstruction of extensive, complicated scalp wounds because of its large size, predictable blood supply, ease of harvesting, and provision of excellent vascularity to compromised beds.« less

  10. The efficacy of novel anatomical sites for the assessment of muscle oxygenation during central hypovolemia.

    PubMed

    Sprick, Justin D; Soller, Babs R; Rickards, Caroline A

    2016-11-01

    Muscle tissue oxygenation (SmO 2 ) can track central blood volume loss associated with hemorrhage. Traditional peripheral measurement sites (e.g., forearm) may not be practical due to excessive movement or injury (e.g., amputation). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three novel anatomical sites for the assessment of SmO 2 under progressive central hypovolemia. 10 male volunteers were exposed to stepwise prone lower body negative pressure to decrease central blood volume, while SmO 2 was assessed at four sites-the traditional site of the flexor carpi ulnaris (ARM), and three novel sites not previously investigated during lower body negative pressure, the deltoid, latissimus dorsi, and trapezius. SmO 2 at the novel sites was compared to the ARM sensor and to stroke volume responses. A reduction in SmO 2 was detected by the ARM sensor at the first level of lower body negative pressure (-15 mmHg; P = 0.007), and at -30 (the deltoid), -45 (latissimus dorsi), and -60 mmHg lower body negative pressure (trapezius) at the novel sites (P ≤ 0.04). SmO 2 responses at all novel sites were correlated with responses at the ARM (R ≥ 0.89), and tracked the reduction in stroke volume (R ≥ 0.87); the latissimus dorsi site exhibited the strongest linear correlations (R ≥ 0.96). Of the novel sensor sites, the latissimus dorsi exhibited the strongest linear associations with SmO 2 at the ARM, and with reductions in central blood volume. These findings have important implications for detection of hemorrhage in austere environments (e.g., combat) when use of a peripheral sensor may not be ideal, and may facilitate incorporation of these sensors into uniforms. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  11. Energy metabolism of broiler breeder hens. 2. Contribution of tissues to total heat production in fed and fasted hens.

    PubMed

    Spratt, R S; McBride, B W; Bayley, H S; Leeson, S

    1990-08-01

    In vitro rates of O2 consumption were investigated using excised biopsies from the liver, ileum, magnum, and latissimus dorsi muscle of Hubbard (H) broiler-breeder hens fed four levels of ME intake. Diet had no effect on O2 consumption of any tissue. The overall mean initial O2 consumption (microL of O2 per mg of dry weight per h) for latissimus dorsi, liver, ileum, and magnum tissues were 4.38, 13.33, 10.54, and 8.01, respectively. The Na+ and K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase-dependent respiration (ouabain-sensitive respiration) was 16% of the initial rate for latissimus dorsi, liver, and magnum tissues and 22% for ileum tissues. Fasting heat production of H and Arbor Acre (AA) meat-type hens measured over 3 days following an initial 24-h fast was 219 and 216 kilojoules (kJ) per kg per day (1 kJ = .239 kcal). There were no strain differences in the partitioning of O2 consumption into tissue components of fasted H and AA hens. Fasting metabolism accounted for 75% of the maintenance energy requirement in the hens. The liver, gut, and reproductive tract, which together make up 5 to 6% of BW, account for 26 and 30% of the total energy expenditure in fed and fasted hens, respectively.

  12. SPARTEN (Scientific Program of Aerobic and Resistance Training Exercise in the Navy): A Total Body Fitness Program for Health and Physical Readiness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    Conditioned- o latissimus dorsi o trapezius Training Recommendations - When adjusting for proper lat bar height, place pin in slot from a kneeling posi...Olattismus dorsi Training Recommendations -it is recommended that women hang from the chin handles and bring knees to chest. .. 19 - Arm-Curl Fig. 17...UPS (Posterior) trapezius ’IN ~ lover back muscles *lotiesimaus dorsi glutealS B-2 e-72-,- !.5 1, r. - U> r r-rrr r fl r rr r rrr rrr~ p... p... p p p

  13. Boomerang flap reconstruction for the breast.

    PubMed

    Baumholtz, Michael A; Al-Shunnar, Buthainah M; Dabb, Richard W

    2002-07-01

    The boomerang-shaped latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap for breast reconstruction offers a stable platform for breast reconstruction. It allows for maximal aesthetic results with minimal complications. The authors describe a skin paddle to obtain a larger volume than either the traditional elliptical skin paddle or the extended latissimus flap. There are three specific advantages to the boomerang design: large volume, conical shape (often lacking in the traditional skin paddle), and an acceptable donor scar. Thirty-eight flaps were performed. No reconstruction interfered with patient's ongoing oncological regimen. The most common complication was seroma, which is consistent with other latissimus reconstructions.

  14. [Arthroscopic excision of elastofibroma dorsi at scapulothoracic joint: a surgical technique].

    PubMed

    Çakmak, Gökhan; Ergün, Tarkan; Şahin, M Şükrü

    2014-01-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare soft tissue pseudotumor which is located at the anteroinferior aspect of the scapula. In this article, we report a 19-year-old female case who had arthroscopic marginal excision of elastofibroma dorsi at the scapulothoracic joint without recurrences during follow-up. The arthroscopic marginal excision of the elastofibroma dorsi may have good clinical results in selected cases.

  15. Functional anatomy and muscle moment arms of the thoracic limb of an elite sprinting athlete: the racing greyhound (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, S B; Wilson, A M; Daynes, J; Peckham, K; Payne, R C

    2008-01-01

    We provide quantitative muscle–tendon architecture and geometry data for the racing greyhound thoracic limb. Muscle mass, belly length, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and moment arms were measured, as were tendon masses and lengths. Maximum isometric force and maximum power were estimated for muscles, and maximum stress and strain were estimated for tendons. Results are compared with other fast quadrupedal runners, and to previously published data in mixed-breed dogs. The implications of the functional adaptations of the greyhound thoracic limb for sprinting performance are discussed. The thoracic limb was found to benefit from a similar proportion of locomotor muscle mass to the pelvic limb, suggesting that it may be used to some extent in propulsion, or alternatively that stabilisation is very important in this animal. Extrinsic muscles, especially latissimus dorsi and pectoralis profundus, were predicted to be powerful and important for generating net positive work during accelerations. Proximal biarticular muscles show specialisation toward preventing collapse of the shoulder and elbow joints to enable strut-like limb function, or some form of dynamic control. Distal muscles did not appear specialised for elastic energy storage, a functional difference to pelvic limb muscles, and the equivalents in horse thoracic limbs. The greyhound thoracic limb appears to possess substantial differences from both that of more ‘sub-maximal specialist’ quadrupeds, and from the greyhound pelvic limb. PMID:19034998

  16. Functional anatomy and muscle moment arms of the thoracic limb of an elite sprinting athlete: the racing greyhound (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Williams, S B; Wilson, A M; Daynes, J; Peckham, K; Payne, R C

    2008-10-01

    We provide quantitative muscle-tendon architecture and geometry data for the racing greyhound thoracic limb. Muscle mass, belly length, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and moment arms were measured, as were tendon masses and lengths. Maximum isometric force and maximum power were estimated for muscles, and maximum stress and strain were estimated for tendons. Results are compared with other fast quadrupedal runners, and to previously published data in mixed-breed dogs. The implications of the functional adaptations of the greyhound thoracic limb for sprinting performance are discussed. The thoracic limb was found to benefit from a similar proportion of locomotor muscle mass to the pelvic limb, suggesting that it may be used to some extent in propulsion, or alternatively that stabilisation is very important in this animal. Extrinsic muscles, especially latissimus dorsi and pectoralis profundus, were predicted to be powerful and important for generating net positive work during accelerations. Proximal biarticular muscles show specialisation toward preventing collapse of the shoulder and elbow joints to enable strut-like limb function, or some form of dynamic control. Distal muscles did not appear specialised for elastic energy storage, a functional difference to pelvic limb muscles, and the equivalents in horse thoracic limbs. The greyhound thoracic limb appears to possess substantial differences from both that of more 'sub-maximal specialist' quadrupeds, and from the greyhound pelvic limb.

  17. New advances in dynamic cardiomyoplasty: Doppler flow wire shows improved cardiac assistance in demand protocol.

    PubMed

    Rigatelli, Gianluca; Carraro, Ugo; Barbiero, Mario; Zanchetta, Mario; Pedon, Luigi; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Rigatelli, Giorgio; Maiolino, Pietro; Cobelli, Franco; Riccardi, Riccardo; Volta, Sergio Dalla

    2002-01-01

    No data have been published on real cardiac assistance with demand dynamic cardiomyoplasty. We tested the utility of a Doppler flow wire in measuring beat by beat aortic flow velocity and evaluating cardiac assistance in demand cardiomyoplasty patients. The technique was tested in seven patients (M/W = 6/1; age, 57.1+/-6.2 years; atrial fibrillation/ sinus rhythm = 1/6; New York Heart Association [NYHA] classification = 1.4+/-0.5). Measurements were done using a 0.018 inch peripheral Doppler flow wire advanced through a 5 French arterial femoral sheath. Three 1 minute periods with the stimulator off, and three 1 minute periods with clinical stimulation were recorded. We measured peak aortic flow velocity in all beats. Latissimus dorsi mechanogram was simultaneously recorded. Comparison between preoperative and follow-up data showed significantly higher values of tetanic fusion frequency and ejection fraction at follow-up, whereas mean NYHA class was significantly lower. Statistical analysis showed an increase in aortic flow velocity not only in the assisted versus rest period, but also in assisted versus unassisted beats (8.42+/-6.98% and 7.55+/-3.07%). A linear correlation was found between increase in flow velocity and latissimus dorsi wrap tetanic fusion frequency (r2 = 0.53). In demand dynamic cardiomyoplasty, systolic assistance is significant and correlated to the latissimus dorsi speed of contraction; a demand stimulation protocol maintains muscle properties and increases muscle performance.

  18. Differences between novice and experienced caregivers in muscle activity and perceived exertion while repositioning bedridden patients.

    PubMed

    Daikoku, Rie; Saito, Yayoi

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of caregiver knowledge and experience on muscle activity and perceived exertion while repositioning bedridden patients. Subjects were 40- to 65-year-old female caregivers divided into novice and experienced groups. Subjects from both groups performed home-care repositioning techniques on bedridden patients while muscle activity was recorded via electromyogram. Recordings were made from four muscles on the subjects' dominant side: the latissimus dorsi, the biceps brachii, the erector spinae, and the rectus femoris. The subjective burden involved in repositioning was also assessed using the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and visual analog scales (VAS). Rectus femoris percentage of maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC) values were significantly lower than latissimus dorsi, erector spinae, and biceps brachii values in the novice group. %MVC values from the latissimus dorsi and biceps brachii were significantly higher among the novice group compared to the experienced group. RPE ratings from the novice group were significantly higher than those of the experienced group, and there was a non-significant trend for higher VAS values for the low back, arms, and legs in the novice group compared to the experienced group. Novice caregivers tended to change the patient's position by pulling with the upper limbs without using the lower limbs. In contrast, experienced caregivers exerted less energy by communicating with the patient and utilizing the patient's own movements. They used large, distributed muscle groups that effectively harnessed body mechanics and prevented excess exertion.

  19. Tissue Expander versus Tissue Expander and Latissimus Flap in Morbidly Obese Breast Reconstruction Patients

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Robert L.; Chandler, Robert G.; Parks, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background: Immediate postmastectomy breast reconstruction in morbidly obese patients represents a challenge because neither prosthetic nor abdominal-based options may be suitable. Methods: This study compared a previously published cohort of immediate prosthetic reconstruction of 346 patients (511 breasts) of whom 49 patients (67 breasts) were morbidly obese (defined as a body mass index > 35) with a morbidly obese patient population whose breasts were reconstructed immediately following postmastectomy with latissimus flap and tissue expander (21 patients and 22 breasts) in the same time period. The preoperative risk factors of mastectomy such as tobacco use, diabetes, and prior radiation and the postoperative complications of mastectomy such as skin necrosis, seroma, and prosthesis loss were examined. The explantation of the tissue expander provided a defined endpoint of reconstruction failure. Results: The average body mass index in the tissue expander/implant group and in the latissimus flap plus tissue expander/implant group was 40.9 and 40.1, respectively. The risk profile of diabetes and tobacco use was similar in both groups. Fifteen of the 67 breasts (22.3%) of the tissue expander/implant group and 15 of the 23 breasts (65.2%) of the latissimus flap group had received prior radiation. The prosthesis loss was 13 of 67 breasts (19.4%) that had tissue-expander–alone reconstruction and 1 of 22 (4.8%) in the latissimus group that had tissue expander reconstruction. Modification of donor-site incision and skin-island location in the latissimus group of patients can minimize scar deformity. Conclusion: The loss rate in immediate postmastectomy reconstruction in morbidly obese patients with latissimus flap plus tissue expander was substantially lower than the loss rate in those with breast reconstructed with tissue expander alone. PMID:25878934

  20. [Transplantation of free latissimus dorsimyocutaneous flaps for repairing head and neck defect after tumor resection].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhaohui; Tang, Tao; Li, Chunhua; Cai, Yongcong

    2015-12-01

    To explore the value of free latissimus dorsimyocutaneous flap in repairing severe defect of head and neck after resection of tumor. Free latissimus dorsimyocutaneous flap was used to repair defect after resection of tumor in 12 patients (13 sides) with head and neck tumors. Of them 2 cases underwent radical radiotherapy before operation. and 3 cases received adjuvant radiotherapy postoperatively. Aside from one flap with necrosis, other 12 flaps survived after operation including 5 cases with radiotherapy. Free latissimus dorsimyocutaneous flap can afford large tissue, has reliable blood supply, is easy to survive, and resist to radiotherapy, which is fit for repairing severe defect of head and neck.

  1. Multicenter evaluation of quality of life and patient satisfaction after breast reconstruction, a long-term retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ménez, T; Michot, A; Tamburino, S; Weigert, R; Pinsolle, V

    2018-04-01

    Breast reconstruction techniques are multiple and they should be chosen in order to improve women's satisfaction and well-being, thus obtaining a personalized treatment. This report's major purpose was to study, through the Breast-Q questionnaire, how the functional and aesthetic outcomes, as well as the complications, of the main autologous breast reconstruction techniques, can affect patients quality of life and well-being at long-term. The secondary purpose was to analyse, thus to identify, the independent factors characterizing the different reconstructive techniques, which may affect patients' satisfaction. Women who underwent autologous breast reconstruction through deep inferior epigastric artery perforator or Latissimus dorsi muscle flap from May 2006 to May 2013 were included. The assessment was based on the Breast-Q reconstruction questionnaire. All times of post-mastectomy reconstruction were concerned: immediate, delayed, after previous procedure failure or conversion to another reconstructive technique due to the patient's dissatisfaction. A total of 98 patients were included. Concerning patients satisfaction, the breast-Q score is highest in patients who underwent immediate breast reconstruction, while scores after delayed breast reconstruction, previous surgery failure or conversion to another technique are generally equivalent. Higher scores have been observed in patients who underwent reconstruction through autologous Latissimus dorsi compared to Latissimus dorsi with prosthetic implant reconstruction. The authors identified factors of higher patients' satisfaction, like absence of major complication and advanced patient's age, in order to personalize the surgical planning according to the patient's priorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of upper costal and costo-diaphragmatic breathing types on electromyographic activity of respiratory muscles.

    PubMed

    Celhay, Isabel; Cordova, Rosa; Miralles, Rodolfo; Meza, Francisco; Erices, Pia; Barrientos, Camilo; Valenzuela, Saúl

    2015-04-01

    To compare electromyographic (EMG) activity in young-adult subjects with different breathing types. This study included 50 healthy male subjects with complete natural dentition, and no history of orofacial pain or craniomandibular-cervical-spinal disorders. Subjects were classified into two groups: upper costal breathing type, and costo-diaphragmatic breathing. Bipolar surface electrodes were located on sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal, and latissimus dorsi muscles. Electromyographic activity was recorded during the following tasks: (1) normal quiet breathing; (2) speaking the word 'Mississippi'; (3) swallowing saliva; and (4) forced deep breathing. Sternocleidomastoid and latissimus dorsi EMG activity was not significantly different between breathing types, whereas diaphragm and external intercostal EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal than costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P<0·05; Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test). Diaphragm and external intercostal EMG activity suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type.

  3. Development of a primary melanoma in situ within a full-thickness skin graft overlying a free muscle flap: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dabek, Robert J; Baletic, Nemanja; McUmber, Harrison; Nahed, Brian; Haynes, Alex; Eberlin, Kyle R; Bojovic, Branko

    2018-01-01

    The development of a primary melanoma within the confines of free tissue transfer is a rare occurrence. In this report, we describe the development of a primary melanoma in situ within a full-thickness skin graft overlying a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap used to cover a scalp defect.

  4. Arm position influences the activation patterns of trunk muscles during trunk range-of-motion movements.

    PubMed

    Siu, Aaron; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Drake, Janessa Dm

    2016-10-01

    To understand the activation patterns of the trunk musculature, it is also important to consider the implications of adjacent structures such as the upper limbs, and the muscles that act to move the arms. This study investigated the effects of arm positions on the activation patterns and co-activation of the trunk musculature and muscles that move the arm during trunk range-of-motion movements (maximum trunk axial twist, flexion, and lateral bend). Fifteen males and fifteen females, asymptomatic for low back pain, performed maximum trunk range-of-motion movements, with three arm positions for axial twist (loose, crossed, abducted) and two positions for flexion and lateral bend (loose, crossed). Electromyographical data were collected for eight muscles bilaterally, and activation signals were cross-correlated between trunk muscles and the muscles that move the arms (upper trapezius, latissimus dorsi). Results revealed consistently greater muscle co-activation (higher cross-correlation coefficients) between the trunk muscles and upper trapezius for the abducted arm position during maximum trunk axial twist, while results for the latissimus dorsi-trunk pairings were more dependent on the specific trunk muscles (either abdominal or back) and latissimus dorsi muscle (either right or left side), as well as the range-of-motion movement. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of interactions between the upper limbs and trunk, and highlight the influence of arm positions on the trunk musculature. In addition, the comparison of the present results to those of individuals with back or shoulder conditions may ultimately aid in elucidating underlying mechanisms or contributing factors to those conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Underwater Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Muscle Oxygen Changes in the Upper and Lower Extremities in Club Level Swimmers and Triathletes.

    PubMed

    Jones, B; Cooper, C E

    2016-01-01

    To date, measurements of oxygen status during swim exercise have focused upon systemic aerobic capacity. The development of a portable, waterproof NIRS device makes possible a local measurement of muscle hemodynamics and oxygenation that could provide a novel insight into the physiological changes that occur during swim exercise. The purpose of this study was to observe changes in muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis (VL) and latissimus dorsi (LD) of club level swimmers and triathletes. Ten subjects, five club level swimmers and five club level triathletes (three men and seven women) were used for assessment. Swim group; mean±SD=age 21.2±1.6 years; height 170.6±7.5 cm; weight 62.8±6.9 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 13.8±5.6 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 12.6±3.7. Triathlete group; mean±SD=age 44.0±10.5 years; height 171.6±7.0 cm; weight 68.6±12.7 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 11.8±3.5 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 11.2±3.1. All subjects completed a maximal 200 m freestyle swim, with the PortaMon, a portable NIR device, attached to the subject's dominant side musculature. ΔTSI% between the vastus lateralis and latissimus dorsi were analysed using either paired (2-tailed) t-tests or Wilcoxon signed rank test. The level of significance for analysis was set at p<0.05. No significant difference (p=0.686) was found in ΔTSI (%) between the VL and LD in club level swimmers. A significant difference (p=0.043) was found in ΔTSI (%) between the VL and LD in club level triathletes. Club level swimmers completed the 200 m freestyle swim significantly faster (p=0.04) than club level triathletes. Club level swimmers use both the upper and lower muscles to a similar extent during a maximal 200 m swim. Club level triathletes predominately use the upper body for propulsion during the same exercise. The data produced by NIRS in this study are the first of their kind and provide insight into muscle oxygenation changes during swim exercise which can indicate the

  6. Tendon transfer fixation: comparing a tendon to tendon technique vs. bioabsorbable interference-fit screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Sabonghy, Eric Peter; Wood, Robert Michael; Ambrose, Catherine Glauber; McGarvey, William Christopher; Clanton, Thomas Oscar

    2003-03-01

    Tendon transfer techniques in the foot and ankle are used for tendon ruptures, deformities, and instabilities. This fresh cadaver study compares the tendon fixation strength in 10 paired specimens by performing a tendon to tendon fixation technique or using 7 x 20-25 mm bioabsorbable interference-fit screw tendon fixation technique. Load at failure of the tendon to tendon fixation method averaged 279N (Standard Deviation 81N) and the bioabsorbable screw 148N (Standard Deviation 72N) [p = 0.0008]. Bioabsorbable interference-fit screws in these specimens show decreased fixation strength relative to the traditional fixation technique. However, the mean bioabsorbable screw fixation strength of 148N provides physiologic strength at the tendon-bone interface.

  7. Tendon injuries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Nerlich, Michael; Docheva, Denitsa

    2017-01-01

    Tendons connect muscles to bones, ensuring joint movement. With advanced age, tendons become more prone to degeneration followed by injuries. Tendon repair often requires lengthy periods of rehabilitation, especially in elderly patients. Existing medical and surgical treatments often fail to regain full tendon function. The development of novel treatment methods has been hampered due to limited understanding of basic tendon biology. Recently, it was discovered that tendons, similar to other mesenchymal tissues, contain tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) which possess the common stem cell properties. The current strategies for enhancing tendon repair consist mainly of applying stem cells, growth factors, natural and artificial biomaterials alone or in combination. In this review, we summarise the basic biology of tendon tissues and provide an update on the latest repair proposals for tendon tears. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:332-342. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160075 PMID:28828182

  8. Muscle activation behavior in a swimming exergame: Differences by experience and gaming velocity.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Pooya; Figueiredo, Pedro; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2017-11-01

    The effects of playing intensity and prior exergame and sport experience on the activation patterns of upper limb muscles during a swimming exergame were investigated. Surface electromyography of Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Upper Trapezius, and Erector Spinae of twenty participants was recorded, and the game play was divided into normal and fast. Mean muscle activation, normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), ranged from 4.9 to 95.2%MVIC and differed between normal and fast swimming for all techniques (p<0.05), except for Latissimus Dorsi during backstroke. After normalizing the %MVIC to playing velocity, selective behaviors were observed between muscles which were sufficient for pragmatic game play. Moreover, prior exergame and real sport experience did not have any effect on the muscle activation changes between normal and fast swimming. These behaviors are likely to happen when players understand the game mechanics, even after a short exposure. Such evaluation might help in adjusting the physical demands of sport exergames, for safe and meaningful experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Major chest wall reconstruction after chest wall irradiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Larson, D.L.; McMurtrey, M.J.; Howe, H.J.

    1982-03-15

    In the last year, 12 patients have undergone extensive chest wall resection. Eight patients had recurrent cancer after prior resection and irradiation with an average defect of 160 square centimeters, usually including ribs and a portion of the sternum; four had radionecrosis of soft tissue and/or bone. Methods of reconstruction included latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous (MC) flap (five patients), pectoralis major MC flap (seven patients), and omental flap and skin graft (one patient). The donor site was usually closed primarily. All flaps survived providing good wound coverage. The only complication was partial loss of a latissimus dorsi MC flap related tomore » an infected wound; this reconstruction was salvaged with a pectoralis major MC flap. The hospital stay ranged from 10-25 days with a median stay of 11 days. Use of the MC flap is a valuable tool which can be used to significantly decrease morbidity, hospital stay, and patient discomfort related to the difficult problem of chest wall reconstruction after radiation therapy.« less

  10. The Applicability of the Army Physical Fitness Test in the Contemporary Operating Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    abdominis, external obliques, internal obliques, latissimus dorsi, lumbar paraspinals, and rectus femoris during performance of different abdominal ...by asserting the need to train soldiers in the most stressful, painful , realistic environment possible in order to prepare them for combat. Both of...In Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, researchers specifically identify usage of the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique

  11. Pelvic abscess following preoperative radiation and abdominoperineal resection: management with a free flap

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kraybill, W.G.; Reinsch, J.; Puckett, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    The case of a woman treated for a large rectal cancer with high-dose radiation therapy and abdominoperineal resection followed by a large pelvic abscess is presented. Wound healing, reconstruction, and rehabilitation were achieved with a free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. The importance of providing well-vascularized tissue for wound healing in the infected irradiated wound is emphasized.

  12. Breast reconstruction of an unusual configuration using two paranemic implants.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Naohiro; Ando, Jiro; Harao, Michiko; Takemae, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    Implant-based breast reconstruction can be performed using a choice of various types of breast implants. However, cases where the breast shapes are unsuitable for implant-based reconstruction method are occasionally encountered. We present two patients with wide trunks who underwent breast reconstruction using an unusual configuration that involved a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap combined with two paranemic implants.

  13. Transcription factor EGR1 directs tendon differentiation and promotes tendon repair

    PubMed Central

    Guerquin, Marie-Justine; Charvet, Benjamin; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Havis, Emmanuelle; Ronsin, Olivier; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Ruggiu, Mathilde; Olivera-Martinez, Isabel; Robert, Nicolas; Lu, Yinhui; Kadler, Karl E.; Baumberger, Tristan; Doursounian, Levon; Berenbaum, Francis; Duprez, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Tendon formation and repair rely on specific combinations of transcription factors, growth factors, and mechanical parameters that regulate the production and spatial organization of type I collagen. Here, we investigated the function of the zinc finger transcription factor EGR1 in tendon formation, healing, and repair using rodent animal models and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Adult tendons of Egr1–/– mice displayed a deficiency in the expression of tendon genes, including Scx, Col1a1, and Col1a2, and were mechanically weaker compared with their WT littermates. EGR1 was recruited to the Col1a1 and Col2a1 promoters in postnatal mouse tendons in vivo. Egr1 was required for the normal gene response following tendon injury in a mouse model of Achilles tendon healing. Forced Egr1 expression programmed MSCs toward the tendon lineage and promoted the formation of in vitro–engineered tendons from MSCs. The application of EGR1-producing MSCs increased the formation of tendon-like tissues in a rat model of Achilles tendon injury. We provide evidence that the ability of EGR1 to promote tendon differentiation is partially mediated by TGF-β2. This study demonstrates EGR1 involvement in adult tendon formation, healing, and repair and identifies Egr1 as a putative target in tendon repair strategies. PMID:23863709

  14. [Oncologic, functional, and aesthetics results; evaluation of the quality of life after latissimus dorsi flap breast reconstruction. About a retrospective series of 450 patients].

    PubMed

    Dejode, M; Bordes, V; Jaffré, I; Classe, J-M; Dravet, F

    2011-06-01

    Retrospective assesssment from 1998 to 2005 from women who have a breast reconstruction by autologus latissimus flap or by latissimus flap and silicone breast implant for differed breast reconstruction (DBR) or mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction (MIBR). Analysis of oncologic results on 450 patients. Analysis of aesthetic, functional results and of quality of life by an anonymous questionnaire in the non progressive patients (407): 263 appraisable answers (13 DBR, 127 MIBR). Middle age: 49.8 years. Forty-three patients (9.5%) had a relapse of their disease, 33 patients died (7.2%). The relapse of the disease was done in the form of metastasis alone: 29 (67.4%), metastasis and local recurrence: three (7%), local recurrence only: four (9.3%), not specified: seven (16.3%). The average time between the breast reconstruction and the relapse was 18.25±15.4 months. The overall assessment is of 7.68/10. There is no statistical difference between immediate reconstruction and delayed reconstruction. A total of 11.2% patients considered it to be bad (<5/10). The symmetry between the two breasts in time is of 6.6/10 and 19.9% patients considered it to be bad (<5/10). The scar ransom, considered to be most important, is mostly in the back (4.1/10) then on the controlateral breast and then the breast reconstruction. This ransom is not easily acceptable in 15 to 20% of the patients. The discomfort and the pain prevail above all in the back (3.56 and 2.59/10). Weaker symptoms in the event of immediate reconstruction than delayed reconstruction. We noted that 77.2% had kinesitherapy after surgery and 18.9% continues to have kinesitherapy, long time after surgery, mainly for massages of the back. The handicap is considered to be overall low 2.5/10 but 10% of the patients keep a feeling of important handicap (>7.5/10). Seventy-one of the patients are serene. The discomfort to wear a bathing suit or to look at bare-chested is low (2.59 and 2.44/10). However 8.9% are in a

  15. Face transplant: is it feasible in developing countries?

    PubMed

    González-García, Ignacio; Lyra-González, Iván; Medina-Preciado, David; Guerrero-Torres, Alejandro; Ramos-Gallardo, Guillermo; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on the case of a 28-year-old woman who was involved in a car accident, with diagnosis of polytrauma, loss of left eye, and second- and third-degree burns over the left midface, rendering an exposed area of 8 cm wide and 19 cm length, ranging from glabella to mandible, with skull exposure and loss of left eye.A latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous free flap was transferred into the defect; left eye and nose prosthetics were necessary to restore normal appearance. Excellent results were obtained; reinsertion to patient's normal life and reinstatement of facial appearance were achieved with minimal costs and no postsurgical complications.Analysis of the current situation in developing countries demonstrates that technique and infrastructure do not represent a real challenge to carry on face transplants. However, socioeconomic reality in these societies makes it difficult to establish face transplant as a feasible therapeutic opportunity for the overwhelming majority of patients who are victims of severe facial damage.Therefore, strategies such as latissimus dorsi free flap remains as an excellent therapy to face off our complex facial reconstructive challenges in developing countries such as Mexico.

  16. Decellularized Tendon Extracellular Matrix—A Valuable Approach for Tendon Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Al-Sadi, Onays; Ertel, Wolfgang; Lohan, Anke

    2012-01-01

    Tendon healing is generally a time-consuming process and often leads to a functionally altered reparative tissue. Using degradable scaffolds for tendon reconstruction still remains a compromise in view of the required high mechanical strength of tendons. Regenerative approaches based on natural decellularized allo- or xenogenic tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) have recently started to attract interest. This ECM combines the advantages of its intrinsic mechanical competence with that of providing tenogenic stimuli for immigrating cells mediated, for example, by the growth factors and other mediators entrapped within the natural ECM. A major restriction for their therapeutic application is the mainly cell-associated immunogenicity of xenogenic or allogenic tissues and, in the case of allogenic tissues, also the risk of disease transmission. A survey of approaches for tendon reconstruction using cell-free tendon ECM is presented here, whereby the problems associated with the decellularization procedures, the success of various recellularization strategies, and the applicable cell types will be thoroughly discussed. Encouraging in vivo results using cell-free ECM, as, for instance, in rabbit models, have already been reported. However, in comparison to native tendon, cells remain mostly inhomogeneously distributed in the reseeded ECM and do not align. Hence, future work should focus on the optimization of tendon ECM decellularization and recolonization strategies to restore tendon functionality. PMID:24710540

  17. Dynamic aortomyoplasty: clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Trainini, J; Barisani, J; Elencwajg, B; Cabrera Fischer, E; Ahuad, A; Roncoroni, A

    1997-08-01

    Dynamic aortomyoplasty has been the subject of experimentation for the treatment of congestive heart failure during the last few years. This method consists of diastolic counterpulsation of the ascending aorta through the stimulation of the latissimus dorsi wrapped around it. This report describes the results of aortomyoplasty in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy resulting from Chagas' disease and contraindications for heart transplantation or cardiomyoplasty.

  18. Management of acute Achilles tendon rupture with tendon-bundle technique

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Guang; Li, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Objective *These authors contributed equally to this work.To explore tendon-bundle technique for treating Achilles tendon rupture with no defects. Methods Patients with full unilateral Achilles tendon rupture with no defects were included. The Achilles tendon medial edge surgical repair approach was used, revealing horsetail-like rupture bundles. Tendon bundles were anatomically realigned and repaired end-to-end using 5-0 sutures. Patients were followed-up for 1 year, and assessed for differences between the repaired versus healthy limb. Results Out of 24 patients (18 male, 6 female; aged 19–56 years) at 1 year following surgery, mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 92.4 ± 5.9; mean differences between the surgically repaired versus contralateral side in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle were 3.5 ± 2.3° and 5.6 ± 3.2°, respectively; mean difference in calf circumference between the two sides was 0.9 ± 0.5 cm; and mean increase in Achilles tendon width versus the healthy side was 0.8 ± 0.2 cm. By 1 year post-surgery, there were no significant between-side differences in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle, or calf circumference. Conclusions Tendon-bundle surgery resulted in good ankle function restoration and low complication rates. Tendon-bundle surgery may reduce blood supply destruction and maximally preserve Achilles tendon length, and may be effective for treating Achilles tendon rupture with no defects. PMID:28222622

  19. [Ultrastructural observation of tendonization of artificial tendon 109HH in rabbit].

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Cao, Q; Xiao, H

    1995-09-01

    Ten New Zealand rabbits were divided into 5 groups at random. Calcaneal tendons were cut bilaterally, then atificial tendon 109HH was used to connect the two ends of the cut tendon. Ultrastructural changes of control group and experimental groups at 2, 6, 12, 28 weeks after section were observed. The results showed that fibroblast proliferated and a lot of ribosome and RER appeared in plasm during 2 approximately 6 weeks, indicating artificial tendon caused fibroblast proliferation. During this period, fibroblast over synthesized collagenous protein and the synthesis of collagenous fibers peaked. During 12-28 weeks, the number of fibroblasts and the synthesis of collagenous protein decreased. Finally, fibroblasts became inactive tendon cells. With the formation of new tendons, the artificial tendens were degradated and absorbed, and disappeared after 12 weeks. The new tendon fibers became thicker and had the correct direction through reconstruction. The structure and function of new tendons could be restored to be consistent with normal values.

  20. [Rheumatic tendon pathologies].

    PubMed

    Thomas, M; Jordan, M

    2014-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is found in approximately 2 % of the total population in Europe and the peak incidence of the disease is during the fourth and fifth decades of life. In approximately 15 % the first symptoms of the disease occur at the level of the foot and ankle. If the early stage-dependent therapy with pharmaceuticals fails isolated surgery of the tendons (e.g. tenosynovectomy) and reconstructive surgery including the tendons (e.g. tendon transfer and tendon readaptation) are performed to keep the patient mobile. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the most commonly used interventions in the reconstruction of tendons in rheumatism patients and the corresponding indications. The conservative therapy options for rheumatic foot and ankle alterations with a special emphasis on tendon pathologies have a well-established importance and are also presented. A selective literature search was carried out for therapeutic options of rheumatic tendon pathologies. If possible attempts should be made to preserve functional qualities using tenosynovectomy, tendon sutures or tendon transfer operations. If joints are already destroyed or dislocated, tendon operations should be carried out only as combined interventions with arthrodesis, endoprostheses or resection arthroplasty. The time window in which these interventions are possible should not be missed. Orthotic devices, bandages or even orthopedic shoes provide external support and splinting but do not represent a causal therapy.

  1. Modified L'Episcopo tendon transfers for irreparable rotator cuff tears: 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Christian; Lehmann, Lars; Lichtenberg, Sven; Magosch, Peter; Habermeyer, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Patients with posterosuperior cuff tears lose functional external rotation of the shoulder. Latissimus dorsi and teres major transfer is performed to restore external rotation. Twenty patients with a mean age was 55.8 +/- 6 years underwent this procedure and were examined at averages of 24.7 (n = 17) and 70.6 (n = 13) months. Two patients did not improve presumably because of failure of the transfer. The Constant and Murley score increased from 55.6 to 90.4 after 2 years and to 87.9 after 5 years. The mean active flexion increased from 119.4 degrees to 169.3 degrees and reached 170 degrees after 5 years, and mean external rotation increased from 12 degrees to 35 degrees , finally reaching 23 degrees . The grade of cuff arthritis progressed from initially Grade 1 in 17% and Grade 2 in 28% to Grade 2 in 8%, Grade 3 in 69%, and Grade 4 in 15% at final followup. The acromiohumeral distance increased from 4.5 mm to 6 mm and decreased to 3.8 mm after 5 years. Electromyographic analysis showed activity during isometric internal and external rotation in the transferred muscle in all patients. The L'Episcopo procedure can restore shoulder function, but cuff arthropathy may progress. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  2. Biologics for tendon repair☆

    PubMed Central

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A.; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management. PMID:25446135

  3. Achilles tendon: US examination

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fornage, B.D.

    Real-time ultrasonography (US) using linear-array probes and a stand-off pad as a ''waterpath'' was performed to evaluate the Achilles tendon in 67 patients (including 24 athletes) believed to have acute or chronic traumatic or inflammatory pathologic conditions. Tendons in 23 patients appeared normal on US scans. The 44 abnormal tendons comprised five complete and four partial ruptures, seven instances of postoperative change, and 28 cases of tendonitis. US depiction of the inner structure of the tendon resulted in the diagnosis of focal abnormalities, including partial ruptures, nodules, and calcifications. Tendonitis was characterized by enlargement and decreased echogenicity of the tendon.more » The normal US appearance of the Achilles tendon is described.« less

  4. Phenytoin accelerates tendon healing in a rat model of Achilles tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Hajipour, B; Navali, A M; Mohammad, S Ali; Mousavi, G; Akbari, M Gahvechi; Miyandoab, T Maleki; Roshangar, L; Saleh, B Mohammadi; Kermani, T Asvadi; Laleh, F Moutab; Ghabili, M

    2016-01-01

    Tendons are vulnerable to various types of acute or chronic injures. Different methods have been investigated to achieve better healing. Phenytoin is a drug which could stimulate fibroblasts to produce collagen. This experimental study was performed to assess the effect of phenytoin on tendon healing in a rat model of tendon rupture. Thirty healthy rats were divided into 3 groups, 1) Sham group; 2) Tendon rupture; 3) Tendon rupture+phenytoin (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally) for 21 days. On 21st day after tendon injury, the rats were anesthetized and tendon tissue was sampled for studying by light and electron microscopy. Qualitative and quantitative microscopic comparisons of the repair tissues of both groups were made on the 21st day. The results obtained from light and electron microscopy studies showed that tendon tissue healing was significantly better in phenytoin group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Systemic administration of phenytoin may have a positive effect on tendon healing by increasing fibroblast quantity, fibrillar collagen synthesis, vascularity, and suppressing inflammation (Tab. 2, Ref. 25).

  5. Informing Stem Cell-Based Tendon Tissue Engineering Approaches with Embryonic Tendon Development.

    PubMed

    Okech, William; Kuo, Catherine K

    Adult tendons fail to regenerate normal tissue after injury, and instead form dysfunctional scar tissue with abnormal mechanical properties. Surgical repair with grafts is the current standard to treat injuries, but faces significant limitations including pain and high rates of re-injury. To address this, we aim to regenerate new, normal tendons to replace dysfunctional tendons. A common approach to tendon tissue engineering is to design scaffolds and bioreactors based on adult tendon properties that can direct adult stem cell tenogenesis. Despite significant progress, advances have been limited due, in part, to a need for markers and potent induction cues. Our goal is to develop novel tendon tissue engineering approaches informed by embryonic tendon development. We are characterizing structure-property relationships of embryonic tendon to identify design parameters for three-dimensional scaffolds and bioreactor mechanical loading systems to direct adult stem cell tenogenesis. We will review studies in which we quantified changes in the mechanical and biochemical properties of tendon during embryonic development and elucidated specific mechanisms of functional property elaboration. We then examined the effects of these mechanical and biochemical factors on embryonic tendon cell behavior. Using custom-designed bioreactors, we also examined the effects of dynamic mechanical loading and growth factor treatment on embryonic tendon cells. Our findings have established cues to induce tenogenesis as well as metrics to evaluate differentiation. We finish by discussing how we have evaluated the tenogenic differentiation potential of adult stem cells by comparing their responses to that of embryonic tendon cells in these culture systems.

  6. The effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on postural sway on fatigued dorsi-plantar flexor.

    PubMed

    Yu, JaeHo; Lee, SoYeon; Kim, HyongJo; Seo, DongKwon; Hong, JiHeon; Lee, DongYeop

    2014-01-01

    The application of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) enhances muscle weakness and static balance by muscle fatigue. It was said that TENS affects decrease of the postural sway. On the other hand, the applications of TENS to separate dorsi-plantar flexor and the comparison with and without visual input have not been studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of TENS on fatigued dorsi-plantar flexor with and without visual input. 13 healthy adult males and 12 females were recruited and agreed to participate as the subject (mean age 20.5 ± 1.4, total 25) in this study after a preliminary research. This experiment was a single group repeated measurements design in three days. The first day, after exercise-induced fatigue, the standing position was maintained for 30 minutes and then the postural sway was measured on eyes open(EO) and eyes closed(EC). The second, TENS was applied to dorsi flexor in standing position for 30 minutes after conducting exercise-induced fatigue. On the last day, plantar flexor applied by TENS was measured to the postural sway on EO and EC after same exercise-induced fatigue. The visual input was not statistically difference between the groups. However, when compared of dorsi-plantar flexor after applied to TENS without visual input, the postural sway of plantar flexor was lower than the dorsi flexor (p< 0.05). As the result, the application of TENS in GCM clinically decreases the postural sway with visual input it helps to stable posture control and prevent to falling down.

  7. Modified tendon stripper for obtaining palmaris longus tendon graft.

    PubMed

    Aköz, T; Altintaş, H; Civelek, B

    1999-04-01

    Tendon graft harvesting is a challenging part of hand surgery. It is not only a time-consuming procedure but also carries the potential complications associated with it. Various alternatives for this procedure are presented in the literature to overcome these difficulties. In this paper, we are presenting a series of cases in which a newly modified tendon stripper was used for tendon graft harvesting.

  8. Myogenic Growth Factor Present in Skeletal Muscle is Purified by Heparin-Affinity Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardami, Elissavet; Spector, Dennis; Strohman, Richard C.

    1985-12-01

    A myogenic growth factor has been purified from a skeletal muscle, the anterior latissimus dorsi, of adult chickens. In the range of 1-10 ng, this factor stimulates DNA synthesis as well as protein and muscle-specific myosin accumulation in myogenic cell cultures. Purification is achieved through binding of the factor to heparin. The factor is distinct from transferrin and works synergistically with transferrin in stimulating myogenesis in vitro.

  9. Hypoplasty of the breast due to x-ray irradiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wada, H.; Jinnai, K.; Urabe, H.

    1986-01-01

    We treated five women with hypoplasty of the breast induced by radiation. Only one of these women underwent mammaplasty with the use of a latissimus dorsi muscle flap and prosthesis. Hypoplasty of the breast is considered a result of imprudent utilization of x-ray irradiation of young patients with benign skin diseases. To prevent underdevelopment and hypoplasty, attention must be directed to the risk involved in radiation therapy for benign diseases.

  10. Fos Promotes Early Stage Teno-Lineage Differentiation of Tendon Stem/Progenitor Cells in Tendon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jialin; Zhang, Erchen; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zeyu; Lu, Ping; Zhu, Ting; Yin, Zi; Backman, Ludvig J; Liu, Huanhuan; Chen, Xiao; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2017-11-01

    Stem cells have been widely used in tendon tissue engineering. The lack of refined and controlled differentiation strategy hampers the tendon repair and regeneration. This study aimed to find new effective differentiation factors for stepwise tenogenic differentiation. By microarray screening, the transcript factor Fos was found to be expressed in significantly higher amounts in postnatal Achilles tendon tissue derived from 1 day as compared with 7-days-old rats. It was further confirmed that expression of Fos decreased with time in postnatal rat Achilles tendon, which was accompanied with the decreased expression of multiply tendon markers. The expression of Fos also declined during regular in vitro cell culture, which corresponded to the loss of tendon phenotype. In a cell-sheet and a three-dimensional cell culture model, the expression of Fos was upregulated as compared with in regular cell culture, together with the recovery of tendon phenotype. In addition, significant higher expression of tendon markers was found in Fos-overexpressed tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs), and Fos knock-down gave opposite results. In situ rat tendon repair experiments found more normal tendon-like tissue formed and higher tendon markers expression at 4 weeks postimplantation of Fos-overexpressed TSPCs derived nonscaffold engineering tendon (cell-sheet), as compared with the control group. This study identifies Fos as a new marker and functional driver in the early stage teno-lineage differentiation of tendon, which paves the way for effective stepwise tendon differentiation and future tendon regeneration. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:2009-2019. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  11. Clusterin expression in elastofibroma dorsi.

    PubMed

    Aigelsreiter, Ariane; Pichler, Martin; Pixner, Thomas; Janig, Elke; Schuller, Monika; Lackner, Carolin; Scheipl, Susanne; Beham, Alfred; Regauer, Sigrid

    2013-05-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a benign soft tissue lesion composed of abnormal elastic fibers. Degenerated elastic fibers in skin and liver are associated with clusterin, an apoprotein that shares functional properties with small heat shock proteins. We evaluated the staining pattern and possible role of clusterin in elastofibroma dorsi. Twenty-one subcutaneous elastofibromas from the scapular region were evaluated with Elastica van Gieson and Orcein stains, immunohistochemically with antibodies to clusterin, smooth muscle actin, S-100, vimentin and CD34 and correlated with clinical data with respect to physical trauma. Clusterin correlated with the staining pattern of Elastica van Gieson and labelled abnormal broad coarse fibrillar and globular elastic fibers in all elastofibromas. Orcein stains additionally identified fine oxytalan fibers which were not stained by clusterin. Clusterin staining was observed only on the outside of the elastin fibers, while the cores of fibers and globules were unstained. 4/21 elastofibromas showed cellular nodules with a myxoid/collagenous stroma. The round to oval cells showed cytoplasmic staining with vimentin and clusterin; CD34 labelled mostly cell membranes. The cells lacked SMA and S-100 expression. The central areas of the nodules were devoid of elastic fibers, but the periphery contained coarse fibers and globules. 9/ 11 patients, for whom clinical data were available, reported trauma to the scapular region. Many investigated ED were associated with trauma, which supports a reactive/degenerative etiology of ED. The abnormal large elastic fibers in all ED were enveloped by clusterin. Clusterin deposition may protect elastic fibers from degradation and thus contribute indirectly to the tumor-like presentation of ED.

  12. Tendon-Holding Capacities of Two Newly Designed Implants for Tendon Repair: An Experimental Study on the Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon of Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Ağır, İsmail; Aytekin, Mahmut Nedim; Başçı, Onur; Çaypınar, Barış; Erol, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two main factors determine the strength of tendon repair; the tensile strength of material and the gripping capacity of a suture configuration. Different repair techniques and suture materials were developed to increase the strength of repairs but none of techniques and suture materials seem to provide enough tensile strength with safety margins for early active mobilization. In order to overcome this problem tendon suturing implants are being developed. We designed two different suturing implants. The aim of this study was to measure tendon-holding capacities of these implants biomechanically and to compare them with frequently used suture techniques Materials and Methods: In this study we used 64 sheep flexor digitorum profundus tendons. Four study groups were formed and each group had 16 tendons. We applied model 1 and model 2 implant to the first 2 groups and Bunnell and locking-loop techniques to the 3rd and 4th groups respectively by using 5 Ticron sutures. Results: In 13 tendons in group 1 and 15 tendons in group 2 and in all tendons in group 3 and 4, implants and sutures pulled out of the tendon in longitudinal axis at the point of maximum load. The mean tensile strengths were the largest in group 1 and smallest in group 3. Conclusion: In conclusion, the new stainless steel tendon suturing implants applied from outside the tendons using steel wires enable a biomechanically stronger repair with less tendon trauma when compared to previously developed tendon repair implants and the traditional suturing techniques. PMID:25067965

  13. [Clinical application of peroneal muscles tendon transposition in repair of Achilles tendon rupture].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rihao; Jin, Yu; Fang, Xiulin

    2006-07-01

    To discuss applied anatomy, biomechanics and surgical procedures of long peroneal muscles tendon transposition in repair of occlusive achilles tendon rupture. The blood supply and the morphology of long peroneal muscles tendon were observed in the lower extremity of 50 sides adult specimens and the mechanical tests which stretch load on the tendon were carried out. The methods were designed on the basis of the anatomical characteristics and morphology. Ten patients suffering occlusive Achilles tendon rupture were treated by using long peroneal muscles tendon transposition from March 2001 to July 2004. Among 10 patients, there were 7 males and 3 females, aging 32 to 54 years including 6 cases of jump injury, 2 cases of bruise, 1 case of step vacancy and 1 case of spontaneity injury. The interval between injury and surgery was 6 hours to 7 days in 7 fresh rupture and 21 days to 3 months in 3 old rupture. All cases belonged to occlusive Achilles tendon rupture (8 cases of complete rupture and 2 cases of incomplete rupture). The origin of long peroneal muscles was proximal tibia and fibular head, the end of them was base of first metatarsal bones and medial cuboid. The length of tendon was 13.5 +/- 2.5 cm. The width of origin tendon was 0.9 +/- 0.2 cm and the thickness was 0.3 +/- 0.1 cm; the width on apex of lateral malleolus was 0.7 +/- 0.1 cm and the thickness was 0.4 +/- 0.1 cm, the width on head of cuboid was 0.7 +/- 0.1 cm and the thickness was 0.3 +/- 0.1 cm. The long peroneal muscles tendon had abundant blood supply. The results of mechanical test showed that the biggest load was 2,292.4 +/- 617.3 N on tendon calcaneus, 1,020.4 +/- 175.4 N on long peroneal muscles tendon, 752.0 +/- 165.4 N on peroneus brevis tendon and 938.2 +/- 216.7 N on tibialis posterior tendon. Ten cases of occlusive Achilles tendon rupture achieved healing by first intention and were followed up 18-24 months. No Achilles tendon re-rupture, necrosis of skin or other complications occurred

  14. Reconstruction of soft tissue after complicated calcaneal fractures.

    PubMed

    Koski, E Antti; Kuokkanen, Hannu O M; Koskinen, Seppo K; Tukiainen, Erkki J

    2004-01-01

    A total of 35 flap reconstructions were done to cover exposed calcaneal bones in 31 patients. All patients had calcaneal fractures, 19 of which were primarily open. Soft tissue reconstruction for the closed fractures was indicated by a postoperative wound complication. A microvascular flap was used for reconstruction in 21 operations (gracilis, n = 11; anterolateral thigh, n = 5; rectus abdominis, n = 3; and latissimus dorsi, n = 2). A suralis neurocutaneous flap was used in eight, local muscle flaps in three, and local skin flaps in three cases. The mean follow-up time was 14 months (range 3 months-4 years). One suralis flap failed and was replaced by a latissimus dorsi flap. Necrosis of the edges that required revision affected three flaps. Deep infection developed in two patients and delayed wound healing in another four. During the follow-up the soft tissues healed in all patients and there were no signs of calcaneal osteitis. Flaps were considered too bulky in five patients. Soft tissues heal most rapidly with microvascular flaps. In the long term, gracilis muscle covered with free skin grafts gives a good contour to the foot. The suralis flap is reliable and gives a good final aesthetic outcome. Local muscles can be transposed for reconstruction in small defects.

  15. Tendon injuries of the hand

    PubMed Central

    Schöffl, Volker; Heid, Andreas; Küpper, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repair, dull avulsions of the distal phalanges extensor tendon can receive conservative therapy. Injuries of the flexor tendon sheath or single pulley injuries are treated conservatively and multiple pulley injuries receive surgical repair. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger an “intrinsic” tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome. Many substances were evaluated to see if they improved tendon healing; however, little evidence was found. Nevertheless, hyaluronic acid may improve intrinsic tendon healing. PMID:22720265

  16. Peroneal tendon disorders

    PubMed Central

    Davda, Kinner; Malhotra, Karan; O’Donnell, Paul; Singh, Dishan; Cullen, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Pathological abnormality of the peroneal tendons is an under-appreciated source of lateral hindfoot pain and dysfunction that can be difficult to distinguish from lateral ankle ligament injuries. Enclosed within the lateral compartment of the leg, the peroneal tendons are the primary evertors of the foot and function as lateral ankle stabilisers. Pathology of the tendons falls into three broad categories: tendinitis and tenosynovitis, tendon subluxation and dislocation, and tendon splits and tears. These can be associated with ankle instability, hindfoot deformity and anomalous anatomy such as a low lying peroneus brevis or peroneus quartus. A thorough clinical examination should include an assessment of foot type (cavus or planovalgus), palpation of the peronei in the retromalleolar groove on resisted ankle dorsiflexion and eversion as well as testing of lateral ankle ligaments. Imaging including radiographs, ultrasound and MRI will help determine the diagnosis. Treatment recommendations for these disorders are primarily based on case series and expert opinion. The aim of this review is to summarise the current understanding of the anatomy and diagnostic evaluation of the peroneal tendons, and to present both conservative and operative management options of peroneal tendon lesions. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:281-292. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160047 PMID:28736620

  17. Peroneal tendon disorders.

    PubMed

    Davda, Kinner; Malhotra, Karan; O'Donnell, Paul; Singh, Dishan; Cullen, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    Pathological abnormality of the peroneal tendons is an under-appreciated source of lateral hindfoot pain and dysfunction that can be difficult to distinguish from lateral ankle ligament injuries.Enclosed within the lateral compartment of the leg, the peroneal tendons are the primary evertors of the foot and function as lateral ankle stabilisers.Pathology of the tendons falls into three broad categories: tendinitis and tenosynovitis, tendon subluxation and dislocation, and tendon splits and tears. These can be associated with ankle instability, hindfoot deformity and anomalous anatomy such as a low lying peroneus brevis or peroneus quartus.A thorough clinical examination should include an assessment of foot type (cavus or planovalgus), palpation of the peronei in the retromalleolar groove on resisted ankle dorsiflexion and eversion as well as testing of lateral ankle ligaments.Imaging including radiographs, ultrasound and MRI will help determine the diagnosis. Treatment recommendations for these disorders are primarily based on case series and expert opinion.The aim of this review is to summarise the current understanding of the anatomy and diagnostic evaluation of the peroneal tendons, and to present both conservative and operative management options of peroneal tendon lesions. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:281-292. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160047.

  18. Functional tissue engineering of tendon: Establishing biological success criteria for improving tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Breidenbach, Andrew P; Gilday, Steven D; Lalley, Andrea L; Dyment, Nathaniel A; Gooch, Cynthia; Shearn, Jason T; Butler, David L

    2014-06-27

    Improving tendon repair using Functional Tissue Engineering (FTE) principles has been the focus of our laboratory over the last decade. Although our primary goals were initially focused only on mechanical outcomes, we are now carefully assessing the biological properties of our tissue-engineered tendon repairs so as to link biological influences with mechanics. However, given the complexities of tendon development and healing, it remains challenging to determine which aspects of tendon biology are the most important to focus on in the context of tissue engineering. To address this problem, we have formalized a strategy to identify, prioritize, and evaluate potential biological success criteria for tendon repair. We have defined numerous biological properties of normal tendon relative to cellular phenotype, extracellular matrix and tissue ultra-structure that we would like to reproduce in our tissue-engineered repairs and prioritized these biological criteria by examining their relative importance during both normal development and natural tendon healing. Here, we propose three specific biological criteria which we believe are essential for normal tendon function: (1) scleraxis-expressing cells; (2) well-organized and axially-aligned collagen fibrils having bimodal diameter distribution; and (3) a specialized tendon-to-bone insertion site. Moving forward, these biological success criteria will be used in conjunction with our already established mechanical success criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of our tissue-engineered tendon repairs. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Tendon Mineralization Is Progressive and Associated with Deterioration of Tendon Biomechanical Properties, and Requires BMP-Smad Signaling in the Mouse Achilles Tendon Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kairui; Asai, Shuji; Hast, Michael W.; Liu, Min; Usami, Yu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic tendon mineralization can develop following tendon rupture or trauma surgery. The pathogenesis of ectopic tendon mineralization and its clinical impact have not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, we utilized a mouse Achilles tendon injury model to determine whether ectopic tendon mineralization alters the biomechanical properties of the tendon and whether BMP signaling is involved in this condition. A complete transverse incision was made at the midpoint of the right Achilles tendon in 8-week-old CD1 mice and the gap was left open. Ectopic cartilaginous mass formation was found in the injured tendon by 4 weeks post-surgery and ectopic mineralization was detected at 8–10 weeks post-surgery. Ectopic mineralization grew over time and volume of the mineralized materials of 25-weeks samples was about 2.5 fold bigger than that of 10-weeks samples, indicating that injury-induced ectopic tendon mineralization is progressive. In vitro mechanical testing showed that max force, max stress and mid-substance modulus in the 25-weeks samples were significantly lower than the 10-weeks samples. We observed substantial increases in expression of bone morphogenetic protein family genes in injured tendons 1 week post-surgery. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that phosphorylation of both Smad1 and Smad3 were highly increased in injured tendons as early as 1 week post-injury and remained high in ectopic chondrogenic lesions 4 weeks post-injury. Treatment with the BMP receptor kinase inhibitor (LDN193189) significantly inhibited injury-induced tendon mineralization. These findings indicate that injury-induced ectopic tendon mineralization is progressive, involves BMP signaling and associated with deterioration of tendon biomechanical properties. PMID:26825318

  20. Investigating tendon mineralisation in the avian hindlimb: a model for tendon ageing, injury and disease

    PubMed Central

    Agabalyan, Natacha A; Evans, Darrell J R; Stanley, Rachael L

    2013-01-01

    Mineralisation of the tendon tissue has been described in various models of injury, ageing and disease. Often resulting in painful and debilitating conditions, the processes underlying this mechanism are poorly understood. To elucidate the progression from healthy tendon to mineralised tendon, an appropriate model is required. In this study, we describe the spontaneous and non-pathological ossification and calcification of tendons of the hindlimb of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The appearance of the ossified avian tendon has been described previously, although there have been no studies investigating the developmental processes and underlying mechanisms leading to the ossified avian tendon. The tissue and cells from three tendons – the ossifying extensor and flexor digitorum longus tendons and the non-ossifying Achilles tendon – were analysed for markers of ageing and mineralisation using histology, immunohistochemistry, cytochemistry and molecular analysis. Histologically, the adult tissue showed a loss of healthy tendon crimp morphology as well as markers of calcium deposits and mineralisation. The tissue showed a lowered expression of collagens inherent to the tendon extracellular matrix and presented proteins expressed by bone. The cells from the ossified tendons showed a chondrogenic and osteogenic phenotype as well as tenogenic phenotype and expressed the same markers of ossification and calcification as the tissue. A molecular analysis of the gene expression of the cells confirmed these results. Tendon ossification within the ossified avian tendon seems to be the result of an endochondral process driven by its cells, although the roles of the different cell populations have yet to be elucidated. Understanding the role of the tenocyte within this tissue and the process behind tendon ossification may help us prevent or treat ossification that occurs in injured, ageing or diseased tendon. PMID:23826786

  1. Achilles Tendonitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... almost impossible. Achilles tendonitis is a very common running injury. But it can also affect basketball players, dancers, ... Proximal Biceps Tendonitis Safety Tips: Basketball Safety Tips: Running Repetitive Stress Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Dealing With Sports Injuries ...

  2. The effect of seprafilm on adhesion formation and tendon healing after flexor tendon repair in chicken.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Erhan; Avci, Mustafa; Bulut, Mehmet; Kelestimur, Halidun; Karakurt, Lokman; Ozercan, Ibrahim

    2010-03-01

    Adhesion of the tendon, which can occur during healing of tendon repair, is negatively affected by the outcome of surgery. In this experimental study, we sought to prevent adhesion of the tendon, and determined the mechanical stiffness of repair tissue by wrapping sodium hyaluronate and carboxymethylcellulose (Seprafilm; Genzyme, Cambridge, Massachusetts) around the repaired tendon segments. The study group comprised 2 groups of 20 chickens. In group I, the right gastrocnemius tendons of the chickens were cut smoothly, and after tendon and sheath repair, the skin was sutured. In group II, the right gastrocnemius tendons of the chickens were cut, the tendons were repaired, and before skin closure, Seprafilm was wrapped around the repaired tendon segments. Plastic splints were used for holding the chickens' ankles in a neutral position, and they were allowed weight bearing for 8 weeks. In group II, anatomic space between the tendon-sheath and tendon was clear and the tendon-sheath complex was sliding easily around the repaired tendon segment, and this complex was more functional both biomechanically and histologically. Also, the Seprafilm-applied tendons (group II) were observed to be biomechanically more resistant to the tensile forces in group I. Seprafilm is an easily applied interpositional material that can be used safely to prevent adhesion during the tendon healing process. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Negative-pressure wound therapy and early pedicle flap reconstruction of the chest wall after epirubicin extravasation.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Marios; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Bednarek, Marzena; Arafkas, Mohamed; Holschneider, Philipp; Hübner, Gunnar

    2017-05-15

    Accidental extravasation is a serious iatrogenic injury among patients receiving anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. The aim of this work is to present a combination therapy for chest wall reconstruction following epirubicin extravasation. Herein, we report a 68-year-old woman with massive soft tissue necrosis of the anterolateral chest wall after epirubicin extravasation from a port implanted in the subclavicular area. The necrotic tissue was resected, the port was removed, and negative-pressure wound therapy was applied. Three weeks later, a latissimus dorsi pedicle flap was successfully used to cover the defect. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a strategy comprising the combination of negative-pressure wound therapy and a latissimus pedicle flap for reconstruction of the chest wall after soft tissue necrosis following epirubicin extravasation.

  4. Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture Military Medicine Radiology Corner, 2006 Radiology Corner Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture Contributors: CPT Michael...treatment of a 56-year-old man with complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon . The mechanism of injury, symptoms, and findings at physical...be used in pre-operative planning. Introduction Rupture of the distal biceps tendon is a relatively uncommon injury, but delayed diagnosis may

  5. Tendon Functional Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Screen, H.R.C.; Birk, D.E.; Kadler, K.E.; Ramirez, F; Young, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of a series, summarising views expressed at the Orthopaedic Research Society New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. This particular article reviews the three workshops held under the “Functional Extracellular Matrix” stream. The workshops focused on the roles of the tendon extracellular matrix, such as performing the mechanical functions of tendon, creating the local cell environment and providing cellular cues. Tendon is a complex network of matrix and cells, and its biological functions are influenced by widely-varying extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as age, nutrition, exercise levels and biomechanics. Consequently, tendon adapts dynamically during development, ageing and injury. The workshop discussions identified research directions associated with understanding cell-matrix interactions to be of prime importance for developing novel strategies to target tendon healing or repair. PMID:25640030

  6. Therapeutics for tendon regeneration: a multidisciplinary review of tendon research for improved healing.

    PubMed

    Paredes, J J; Andarawis-Puri, Nelly

    2016-11-01

    Tendon injuries, known as tendinopathies, are common musculoskeletal injuries that affect a wide range of the population. Canonical tendon healing is characterized by fibrosis, scar formation, and the loss of tissue mechanical and structural properties. Understanding the regenerative tendon environment is an area of increasing interest in the field of musculoskeletal research. Previous studies have focused on utilizing individual elements from the fields of biomechanics, developmental biology, cell and growth factor therapy, and tissue engineering in an attempt to develop regenerative tendon therapeutics. Still, the specific mechanism for regenerative healing remains unknown. In this review, we highlight some of the current approaches of tendon therapeutics and elucidate the differences along the tendon midsubstance and enthesis, exhibiting the necessity of location-specific tendon therapeutics. Furthermore, we emphasize the necessity of further interdisciplinary research in order to reach the desired goal of fully understanding the mechanisms underlying regenerative healing. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Neuronal regulation of tendon homoeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of tendon homoeostasis, including adaptation to loading, is still not fully understood. Accumulating data, however, demonstrates that in addition to afferent (sensory) functions, the nervous system, via efferent pathways which are associated with through specific neuronal mediators plays an active role in regulating pain, inflammation and tendon homeostasis. This neuronal regulation of intact-, healing- and tendinopathic tendons has been shown to be mediated by three major groups of molecules including opioid, autonomic and excitatory glutamatergic neuroregulators. In intact healthy tendons the neuromediators are found in the surrounding structures: paratenon, endotenon and epitenon, whereas the proper tendon itself is practically devoid of neurovascular supply. This neuroanatomy reflects that normal tendon homoeostasis is regulated from the tendon surroundings. After injury and during tendon repair, however, there is extensive nerve ingrowth into the tendon proper, followed by a time-dependent emergence of sensory, autonomic and glutamatergic mediators, which amplify and fine-tune inflammation and regulate tendon regeneration. In tendinopathic condition, excessive and protracted presence of sensory and glutamatergic neuromediators has been identified, suggesting involvement in inflammatory, nociceptive and hypertrophic (degenerative) tissue responses. Under experimental and clinical conditions of impaired (e.g. diabetes) as well as excessive (e.g. tendinopathy) neuromediator release, dysfunctional tendon homoeostasis develops resulting in chronic pain and gradual degeneration. Thus there is a prospect that in the future pharmacotherapy and tissue engineering approaches targeting neuronal mediators and their receptors may prove to be effective therapies for painful, degenerative and traumatic tendon disorders. PMID:23718724

  8. Angiopoietin‐like 4 promotes angiogenesis in the tendon and is increased in cyclically loaded tendon fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Mousavizadeh, Rouhollah; Scott, Alex; Lu, Alex; Ardekani, Gholamreza S; Behzad, Hayedeh; Lundgreen, Kirsten; Ghaffari, Mazyar; McCormack, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Key points Angiopoietin‐like 4 (ANGPTL4) modulates tendon neovascularization.Cyclic loading stimulates the activity of transforming growth factor‐β and hypoxia‐inducible factor 1α and thereby increases the expression and release of ANGPTL4 from human tendon cells.Targeting ANGPTL4 and its regulatory pathways is a potential avenue for regulating tendon vascularization to improve tendon healing or adaptation. Abstract The mechanisms that regulate angiogenic activity in injured or mechanically loaded tendons are poorly understood. The present study examined the potential role of angiopoietin‐like 4 (ANGPTL4) in the angiogenic response of tendons subjected to repetitive mechanical loading or injury. Cyclic stretching of human tendon fibroblasts stimulated the expression and release of ANGPTL4 protein via transforming growth factor‐β (TGF‐β) and hypoxia‐inducible factor 1α (HIF‐1α) signalling, and the released ANGPTL4 was pro‐angiogenic. Angiogenic activity was increased following ANGPTL4 injection into mouse patellar tendons, whereas the patellar tendons of ANGPTL4 knockout mice displayed reduced angiogenesis following injury. In human rotator cuff tendons, the expression of ANGPTL4 was correlated with the density of tendon endothelial cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study characterizing a role of ANGPTL4 in the tendon. ANGPTL4 may assist in the regulation of vascularity in the injured or mechanically loaded tendon. TGF‐β and HIF‐1α comprise two signalling pathways that modulate the expression of ANGPTL4 by mechanically stimulated tendon fibroblasts and, in the future, these could be manipulated to influence tendon healing or adaptation. PMID:26670924

  9. How Obesity Affects Tendons?

    PubMed

    Abate, Michele; Salini, Vincenzo; Andia, Isabel

    Several epidemiological and clinical observations have definitely demonstrated that obesity has harmful effects on tendons. The pathogenesis of tendon damage is multi-factorial. In addition to overload, attributable to the increased body weight, which significantly affects load-bearing tendons, systemic factors play a relevant role. Several bioactive peptides (chemerin, leptin, adiponectin and others) are released by adipocytes, and influence tendon structure by means of negative activities on mesenchymal cells. The ensuing systemic state of chronic, sub-clinic, low-grade inflammation can damage tendon structure. Metabolic disorders (diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and dislipidemia), frequently associated with visceral adiposity, are concurrent pathogenetic factors. Indeed, high glucose levels increase the formation of Advanced Glycation End-products, which in turn form stable covalent cross-links within collagen fibers, modifying their structure and functionality.Sport activities, so useful for preventing important cardiovascular complications, may be detrimental for tendons if they are submitted to intense acute or chronic overload. Therefore, two caution rules are mandatory: first, to engage in personalized soft training program, and secondly to follow regular check-up for tendon pathology.

  10. Lubricin Surface Modification Improves Tendon Gliding After Tendon Repair in a Canine Model in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Manabu; Sun, Yu-Long; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E.; Cha, Chung-Ja; Jay, Gregory D.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of lubricin on the gliding of repaired flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons in vitro. Canine FDP tendons were completely lacerated, repaired with a modified Pennington technique, and treated with one of the following solutions: saline, carbodiimide derivatized gelatin/hyaluronic acid (cd-HA-gelatin), carbodiimide derivatized gelatin to which lubricin was added in a second step (cd-gelatin + lubricin), or carbodiimide derivatized gelatin/HA + lubricin (cd-HA-gelatin + lubricin). After treatment, gliding resistance was measured up to 1,000 cycles of simulated flexion/extension motion. The increase in average and peak gliding resistance in cd-HA-gelatin, cd-gelatin + lubricin, and cd-HA-gelatin + lubricin tendons was less than the control tendons after 1,000 cycles (p < 0.05). The increase in average gliding resistance of cd-HA-gelatin + lubricin treated tendons was also less than that of the cd-HA-gelatin treated tendons (p < 0.05). The surfaces of the repaired tendons and associated pulleys were assessed qualitatively with scanning electron microscopy and appeared smooth after 1,000 cycles of tendon motion for the cd-HA-gelatin, cd-gelatin + lubricin, and cd-HA-gelatin + lubricin treated tendons, while that of the saline control appeared roughened. These results suggest that tendon surface modification can improve tendon gliding ability, with a trend suggesting that lubricin fixed on the repaired tendon may provide additional improvement over that provided by HA and gelatin alone. PMID:18683890

  11. Angiopoietin-like 4 promotes angiogenesis in the tendon and is increased in cyclically loaded tendon fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Mousavizadeh, Rouhollah; Scott, Alex; Lu, Alex; Ardekani, Gholamreza S; Behzad, Hayedeh; Lundgreen, Kirsten; Ghaffari, Mazyar; McCormack, Robert G; Duronio, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) modulates tendon neovascularization. Cyclic loading stimulates the activity of transforming growth factor-β and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and thereby increases the expression and release of ANGPTL4 from human tendon cells. Targeting ANGPTL4 and its regulatory pathways is a potential avenue for regulating tendon vascularization to improve tendon healing or adaptation. The mechanisms that regulate angiogenic activity in injured or mechanically loaded tendons are poorly understood. The present study examined the potential role of angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) in the angiogenic response of tendons subjected to repetitive mechanical loading or injury. Cyclic stretching of human tendon fibroblasts stimulated the expression and release of ANGPTL4 protein via transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) signalling, and the released ANGPTL4 was pro-angiogenic. Angiogenic activity was increased following ANGPTL4 injection into mouse patellar tendons, whereas the patellar tendons of ANGPTL4 knockout mice displayed reduced angiogenesis following injury. In human rotator cuff tendons, the expression of ANGPTL4 was correlated with the density of tendon endothelial cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study characterizing a role of ANGPTL4 in the tendon. ANGPTL4 may assist in the regulation of vascularity in the injured or mechanically loaded tendon. TGF-β and HIF-1α comprise two signalling pathways that modulate the expression of ANGPTL4 by mechanically stimulated tendon fibroblasts and, in the future, these could be manipulated to influence tendon healing or adaptation. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  12. [Achilles tendon rupture].

    PubMed

    Thermann, H; Hüfner, T; Tscherne, H

    2000-03-01

    The treatment of acute of Achilles tendon rupture experienced a dynamic development in the last ten years. Decisive for this development was the application of MRI and above all the ultrasonography in the diagnostics of the pathological changes and injuries of tendons. The question of rupture morphology as well as different courses of healing could be now evaluated objectively. These advances led consequently to new modalities in treatment concepts and rehabilitation protocols. The decisive input for improvements of the outcome results and particularly the shortening of the rehabilitation period came with introduction of the early functional treatment in contrast to immobilizing plaster treatment. In a prospective randomized study (1987-1989) at the Trauma Dept. of the Hannover Medical School could show no statistical differences comparing functional non-operative with functional operative therapy with a special therapy boot (Variostabil/Adidas). The crucial criteria for therapy selection results from the sonographically measured position of the tendon stumps in plantar flexion (20 degrees). With complete adaptation of the tendons' ends surgical treatment does not achieve better results than non-operative functional treatment in term of tendon healing and functional outcome. Regarding the current therapeutic standards each method has is advantages and disadvantages. Both, the operative and non-operative functional treatment enable a stable tendon healing with a low risk of re-rupture (1-2%). Meanwhile there is consensus for early functional after-treatment of the operated Achilles' tendons. There seems to be a trend towards non-operative functional treatment in cases of adequate sonographical findings, or to minimal invasive surgical techniques.

  13. Assessment of Postoperative Tendon Quality in Patients With Achilles Tendon Rupture Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Tendon Fiber Tracking.

    PubMed

    Sarman, Hakan; Atmaca, Halil; Cakir, Ozgur; Muezzinoglu, Umit Sefa; Anik, Yonca; Memisoglu, Kaya; Baran, Tuncay; Isik, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Although pre- and postoperative imaging of Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) has been well documented, radiographic evaluations of postoperative intratendinous healing and microstructure are still lacking. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an innovative technique that offers a noninvasive method for describing the microstructure characteristics and organization of tissues. DTI was used in the present study for quantitative assessment of fiber continuity postoperatively in patients with acute ATR. The data from 16 patients with ATR from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The microstructure of ART was evaluated using tendon fiber tracking, tendon continuity, fractional anisotropy, and apparent diffusion coefficient values by way of DTI. The distal and proximal portions were measured separately in both the ruptured and the healthy extremities of each patient. The mean patient age was 41.56 ± 8.49 (range 26 to 56) years. The median duration of follow-up was 21 (range 6 to 80) months. The tendon fractional anisotropy values of the ruptured Achilles tendon were significantly lower statistically than those of the normal side (p = .001). However, none of the differences between the 2 groups with respect to the distal and proximal apparent diffusion coefficient were statistically significant (p = .358 and p = .899, respectively). In addition, the fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient measurements were not significantly different in the proximal and distal regions of the ruptured tendons compared with the healthy tendons. The present study used DTI and fiber tracking to demonstrate the radiologic properties of postoperative Achilles tendons with respect to trajectory and tendinous fiber continuity. Quantifying DTI and fiber tractography offers an innovative and effective tool that might be able to detect microstructural abnormalities not appreciable using conventional radiologic techniques. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle

  14. Instantaneous centers of rotation in dorsi/plantar flexion movements of posterior-type plastic ankle-foot orthoses.

    PubMed

    Sumiya, T; Suzuki, Y; Kasahara, T; Ogata, H

    1997-07-01

    Hingeless plastic ankle-foot orthoses (PAFOs) achieve ankle motion by flexing about the ankle joint. Instantaneous centers of rotation (ICRs) in dorsi- and plantarflexion movements, used as a measure of PAFO axes of movement, were measured to evaluate their fit to ankle motion. Thirty different PAFOs were fabricated and their stiffness modified in three stages. They were dorsi- and plantarflexed 16 degrees at 2 degrees-intervals using an original device. Displacement of two marks on the lateral calf-cuff were traced photographically, and ICRs were determined by plotting intersections of vertical bisectors for each displacement. The ICRs converged on the junction between the calf shell and the shoe insert. They deviated posteriorly from the anatomical ankle axis and caused the calf-cuff to move up-down during dorsi- and plantarflexion movements. However, this poor fit of the PAFO to ankle motion can be sufficiently compensated for by fastening straps more loosely.

  15. [Rupture of the Achilles tendon].

    PubMed

    Ulmar, B; Simon, S; Eschler, A; Mittlmeier, T

    2014-10-01

    The rupture of the Achilles tendon is the most frequent tendon rupture in humans and it is associated with increasing incidence. The main risk factor is intrinsic degeneration of the tendon. During the rupture the person feels a whiplash or dagger thrust-like pain, followed by restricted walking ability and decreased plantar flexion of the ankle. The positive Simmond/Thompson test and a palpable dent above the tendon rupture are pathognomical. Diagnostically, ultrasound of the tendon and lateral x-ray of the calcaneus (bony pull-out of the tendon insertion) are necessary. Regarding correct indication and treatment modalities, most established conservative and surgical therapies realize optimal functional results. Surgical treatment promises better primary stability and slightly earlier better functional results, but there is the potential for surgical complications. Conservative therapy is associated with higher rates of re-rupture and healing of the tendon under elongation. Therefore, therapy planning in Achilles tendon rupture should be determined based on each patient. We recommend surgical treatment in patients with higher sporting demands and in younger patients (< 50 years).

  16. Tendon elasticity and muscle function.

    PubMed

    Alexander, R McNeill

    2002-12-01

    Vertebrate animals exploit the elastic properties of their tendons in several different ways. Firstly, metabolic energy can be saved in locomotion if tendons stretch and then recoil, storing and returning elastic strain energy, as the animal loses and regains kinetic energy. Leg tendons save energy in this way when birds and mammals run, and an aponeurosis in the back is also important in galloping mammals. Tendons may have similar energy-saving roles in other modes of locomotion, for example in cetacean swimming. Secondly, tendons can recoil elastically much faster than muscles can shorten, enabling animals to jump further than they otherwise could. Thirdly, tendon elasticity affects the control of muscles, enhancing force control at the expense of position control.

  17. Fatigue loading of tendon

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Jennifer H; Screen, Hazel R C

    2013-01-01

    Tendon injuries, often called tendinopathies, are debilitating and painful conditions, generally considered to develop as a result of tendon overuse. The aetiology of tendinopathy remains poorly understood, and whilst tendon biopsies have provided some information concerning tendon appearance in late-stage disease, there is still little information concerning the mechanical and cellular events associated with disease initiation and progression. Investigating this in situ is challenging, and numerous models have been developed to investigate how overuse may generate tendon fatigue damage and how this may relate to tendinopathy conditions. This article aims to review these models and our current understanding of tendon fatigue damage. We review the strengths and limitations of different methodologies for characterizing tendon fatigue, considering in vitro methods that adopt both viable and non-viable samples, as well as the range of different in vivo approaches. By comparing data across model systems, we review the current understanding of fatigue damage development. Additionally, we compare these findings with data from tendinopathic tissue biopsies to provide some insights into how these models may relate to the aetiology of tendinopathy. Fatigue-induced damage consistently highlights the same microstructural, biological and mechanical changes to the tendon across all model systems and also correlates well with the findings from tendinopathic biopsy tissue. The multiple testing routes support matrix damage as an important contributor to tendinopathic conditions, but cellular responses to fatigue appear complex and often contradictory. PMID:23837793

  18. Surgical anatomy of the radial nerve in the deltopectoral approach for revision shoulder arthroplasty and periprosthetic fracture fixation: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Michael C; Hendel, Michael D; Chen, Xiang; Warren, Russell F; Dines, David M; Gulotta, Lawrence V

    2017-12-01

    Radial nerve injury is a rare but clinically significant complication of revision shoulder arthroplasty and fixation of native and periprosthetic proximal humeral fractures. Understanding of the anatomic relationship between the radial nerve as it enters the humeral spiral groove and anterior shoulder landmarks in a deltopectoral approach is necessary to avoid iatrogenic radial nerve injury. Eight forequarter cadaveric specimens were dissected through a deltopectoral approach. Distances between the radial nerve entry into the proximal spiral groove and the coracoid process, distal lesser tuberosity/inferior subscapularis insertion, superior latissimus insertion, and inferior latissimus insertion were measured. Means, standard deviations, and ranges were determined for each distance. The radial nerve entry into the proximal spiral groove averaged 133.1 mm (range, 110.3-153.0 mm) from the coracoid process, 101.9 mm (range, 76.5-124.3 mm) from the distal lesser tuberosity/inferior subscapularis insertion, 81.0 mm (range, 63.4-101.5 mm) from the superior latissimus insertion, and 39.6 mm (range, 25.5-55.4 mm) from the inferior latissimus insertion. The proximal spiral groove was distal to the inferior latissimus insertion in all specimens. The risk of iatrogenic injury to the radial nerve at the spiral groove may be minimized through proper identification and protection or avoidance of circumferential fixation. However, if encircling fixation with cerclage cables is necessary, instrumentation proximal to the inferior edge of the latissimus dorsi insertion may reduce the risk of radial nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tendon 'turnover lengthening' technique.

    PubMed

    Cerovac, S; Miranda, B H

    2013-11-01

    Tendon defect reconstruction is amongst the most technically challenging areas in hand surgery. Tendon substance deficiency reconstruction techniques include lengthening, grafting, two-stage reconstruction and tendon transfers, however each is associated with unique challenges over and above direct repair. We describe a novel 'turnover lengthening' technique for hand tendons that has successfully been applied to the repair of several cases, including a case of attritional flexor and traumatic extensor tendon rupture in two presented patients where primary tenorrhaphy was not possible. In both cases a good post-operative outcome was achieved, as the patients were happy having returned back to normal activities of daily living such that they were discharged 12 weeks post-operatively. Our technique avoids the additional morbidity and complications associated with grafting, transfers and two stage reconstructions. It is quick, simple and reproducible for defects not exceeding 3-4 cm, provides a means of immediate one stage reconstruction, no secondary donor site morbidity and does not compromise salvage by tendon transfer and/or two-stage reconstruction in cases of failure. To our knowledge no such technique has been previously been described to reconstruct such hand tendon defects. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Arnold, P.G.; Pairolero, P.C.

    In the patient with a radiation ulcer of the chest wall, the first question is whether the lesion contains persistent or recurrent cancer. It is also important to determine whether any other local problems such as mediastinal abscess may interfere with the reconstruction. Whether or not cancer is present, all nonviable tissue must be removed. If cancer is not present, and a partial thickness of the chest remains, the authors prefer transposition of the greater omentum for repair. If cancer is present, the physiologic defect resulting from cancer resection and wound debridement is far more severe, and a muscle ormore » musculocutaneous flap usually is appropriate. The pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, external oblique, rectus abdominis, and trapezius muscles have been utilized; the authors most often use the pectoralis or latissimus muscles. 27 references.« less

  1. Scaffolds in Tendon Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Lamberti, Alfredo; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering techniques using novel scaffold materials offer potential alternatives for managing tendon disorders. Tissue engineering strategies to improve tendon repair healing include the use of scaffolds, growth factors, cell seeding, or a combination of these approaches. Scaffolds have been the most common strategy investigated to date. Available scaffolds for tendon repair include both biological scaffolds, obtained from mammalian tissues, and synthetic scaffolds, manufactured from chemical compounds. Preliminary studies support the idea that scaffolds can provide an alternative for tendon augmentation with an enormous therapeutic potential. However, available data are lacking to allow definitive conclusion on the use of scaffolds for tendon augmentation. We review the current basic science and clinical understanding in the field of scaffolds and tissue engineering for tendon repair. PMID:22190961

  2. Conversion of muscle fiber types in regenerating chicken muscles following cross-reinnervation.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, T; Akiba, T; Ashmore, C R

    1986-01-01

    Slow-tonic anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) and fast-twitch posterior latissimus dorsi (PLD) muscles of 7 to 10-day-old White Leghorn chickens were crushed and allowed to be reinnervated by their own nerve, or crushed and transplanted to the other side and allowed to be reinnervated by the nerve of the side to which they were transplanted. Following transplantation, changes in the weight of the muscle, fiber-type composition and innervation pattern during regeneration were investigated. Normal growth rate of PLD was about twice that of ALD. Regenerating PLD, however, atrophied rapidly after crushing and denervation whether innervated by its own nerve or the other nerve type, whereas ALD reinnervated by its own nerve showed marked hypertrophy. PLD fibers transformed rapidly to fast-twitch alpha or slow-tonic (ST) fibers when they were reinnervated by PLD or ALD nerve, respectively. When ALD fibers were reinnervated by their own nerve, they differentiated into ST fibers that were surrounded by smaller immature fibers. ALD fibers were, however, resistant to complete control by fast-twitch PLD nerve and contained a large number of slow fibers (ST and beta) long after transplantation. Slow fibers in regenerates were initially multiply innervated, but later transformed into fast-twitch alpha fibers that were focally innervated. The mode of differentiation and innervation pattern of different muscle fiber types in regenerating muscles are discussed.

  3. Brown class III maxillectomy defects reconstruction with prefabricated titanium mesh and soft tissue free flap.

    PubMed

    Dediol, Emil; Uglešić, Vedran; Zubčić, Vedran; Knežević, Predrag

    2013-07-01

    Midface reconstruction is one of the most challenging tasks for the reconstructive surgeon. We present a technique for the reconstruction of the midface after total maxillectomy with preservation of orbital contents. Skeletal reconstruction is achieved with a preoperatively bent titanium sheet mesh on a universal skeletal model. The alveolar ridge, the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus, the zygomatic prominence, the lower orbital rim, and the orbital floor are reconstructed with a titanium mesh. A soft tissue free flap, preferably anterolateral thigh free flap, is harvested as well. A part of the flap is deepithelized and put in front of the mesh to prevent exposure, and the other part is used for palatal reconstruction. Four male and 1 female patients were reconstructed with titanium mesh. Four free flaps were raised: 3 anterolateral thigh and 1 latissimus dorsi. All free flaps survived. All patients received postoperative irradiation with 64 Gy. Median follow-up was 12 months; no major complications occurred. Mesh was exposed in only 1 case, which was managed successfully with resuspension of the heavy latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. Midface projection and height, globe position, ocular movements, and vision where satisfactory in all cases. Midface reconstruction with titanium mesh and soft tissue free flap is a reliable and safe method for functional and aesthetic reconstruction after maxillectomy.

  4. Multiple tendon ruptures of unknown etiology.

    PubMed

    Axibal, Derek P; Anderson, John G

    2013-10-01

    Tendon ruptures are common findings in foot and ankle practice. The etiology of tendon ruptures tends to be multifactorial-usually due to a combination of trauma, effects of systemic diseases, adverse effects of medications, and obesity. We present an unusual case of right Achilles tendinitis, left Achilles tendon rupture, bilateral peroneus longus tendon rupture, and left peroneus brevis tendon rupture of unknown etiology. This case report highlights the need for research for other possible, lesser known etiologies of tendon pathology. Therapeutic, Level IV, Case Study.

  5. Tendon and ligament imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, R J; O'Connor, P J; Grainger, A J

    2012-01-01

    MRI and ultrasound are now widely used for the assessment of tendon and ligament abnormalities. Healthy tendons and ligaments contain high levels of collagen with a structured orientation, which gives rise to their characteristic normal imaging appearances as well as causing particular imaging artefacts. Changes to ligaments and tendons as a result of disease and injury can be demonstrated using both ultrasound and MRI. These have been validated against surgical and histological findings. Novel imaging techniques are being developed that may improve the ability of MRI and ultrasound to assess tendon and ligament disease. PMID:22553301

  6. Mechanical Strength of the Side-to-Side Tendon Attachment for Mismatched Tendon Sizes and Shapes

    PubMed Central

    Fridén, Jan; Tirrell, Timothy F.; Bhola, Siddharth; Lieber, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Certain combinations are advised against in tendon transfers due to size or shape mismatches between donor and recipient tendons. In this study, ultimate load, stiffness and Young’s modulus were measured in two tendon-to-tendon attachments with intentionally mismatched donor and recipient tendons - pronator teres (PT)-to-extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU)-to-extensor digitorum communis (EDC). FCU-EDC attachments failed at higher loads than PT-to-ECRB attachments but they had similar modulus and stiffness values. Ultimate tensile strength of the tendon attachments exceeded the maximum predicted contraction force of any of the affected muscles, with safety factors of 4x and 2x for the FCU-to-EDC and PT-to-ECRB constructs, respectively. This implies that size and shape mismatch should not be a contraindication to tendon attachment in transfers. Further, these safety factors strongly suggest that no postoperative immobilization of these attachments is necessary. PMID:24413573

  7. Bilateral Patellar Tendon Rupture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Bilateral patellar tendon rupture Military Medicine Radiology Corner, Volume 173, July, 2009...Radiology Corner Bilateral patellar tendon rupture (#37) Guarantor: 2dLt Ramon A. Riojas, USAF, MSC1 Contributors: 2dLt Ramon A. Riojas...with the abbreviated answer in the July 2009 issue. 1 The authors present a case of bilateral patellar tendon rupture in an active duty male exiting

  8. Optimization of human tendon tissue engineering: peracetic acid oxidation for enhanced reseeding of acellularized intrasynovial tendon.

    PubMed

    Woon, Colin Y L; Pridgen, Brian C; Kraus, Armin; Bari, Sina; Pham, Hung; Chang, James

    2011-03-01

    Tissue engineering of human flexor tendons combines tendon scaffolds with recipient cells to create complete cell-tendon constructs. Allogenic acellularized human flexor tendon has been shown to be a useful natural scaffold. However, there is difficulty repopulating acellularized tendon with recipient cells, as cell penetration is restricted by a tightly woven tendon matrix. The authors evaluated peracetic acid treatment in optimizing intratendinous cell penetration. Cadaveric human flexor tendons were harvested, acellularized, and divided into experimental groups. These groups were treated with peracetic acid in varying concentrations (2%, 5%, and 10%) and for varying time periods (4 and 20 hours) to determine the optimal treatment protocol. Experimental tendons were analyzed for differences in tendon microarchitecture. Additional specimens were reseeded by incubation in a fibroblast cell suspension at 1 × 10(6) cells/ml. This group was then analyzed for reseeding efficacy. A final group underwent biomechanical studies for strength. The optimal treatment protocol comprising peracetic acid at 5% concentration for 4 hours produced increased scaffold porosity, improving cell penetration and migration. Treated scaffolds did not show reduced collagen or glycosaminoglycan content compared with controls (p = 0.37 and p = 0.65, respectively). Treated scaffolds were cytotoxic to neither attached cells nor the surrounding cell suspension. Treated scaffolds also did not show inferior ultimate tensile stress or elastic modulus compared with controls (p = 0.26 and p = 0.28, respectively). Peracetic acid treatment of acellularized tendon scaffolds increases matrix porosity, leading to greater reseeding. It may prove to be an important step in tissue engineering of human flexor tendon using natural scaffolds.

  9. The distal biceps tendon.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christopher C; Jarrett, Claudius D; Brown, Brandon T

    2013-04-01

    Distal biceps tendon ruptures continue to be an important injury seen and treated by upper extremity surgeons. Since the mid-1980s, the emphasis has been placed on techniques that limit complications or improve initial tendon-to-bone fixation strength. Recently, basic science research has expanded the knowledge base regarding the biceps tendon structure, footprint anatomy, and biomechanics. Clinical data have further delineated the results of conservative and surgical management of both partial and complete tears in acute or chronic states. The current literature on the distal biceps tendon is described in detail. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tendon Driven Finger Actuation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); hide

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a robotic hand having at least one finger. An actuation system for the robotic finger includes an actuator assembly which is supported by the robot and is spaced apart from the finger. A tendon extends from the actuator assembly to the at least one finger and ends in a tendon terminator. The actuator assembly is operable to actuate the tendon to move the tendon terminator and, thus, the finger.

  11. Changes in Achilles tendon mechanical properties following eccentric heel drop exercise are specific to the free tendon.

    PubMed

    Obst, S J; Newsham-West, R; Barrett, R S

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical loading of the Achilles tendon during isolated eccentric contractions could induce immediate and region-dependent changes in mechanical properties. Three-dimensional ultrasound was used to examine the immediate effect of isolated eccentric exercise on the mechanical properties of the distal (free tendon) and proximal (gastrocnemii) regions of the Achilles tendon. Participants (n = 14) underwent two testing sessions in which tendon measurements were made at rest and during a 30% and 70% isometric plantar flexion contractions immediately before and after either: (a) 3 × 15 eccentric heel drops or (b) 10-min rest. There was a significant time-by-session interaction for free tendon length and strain for all loading conditions (P < 0.05). Pairwise comparisons revealed a significant increase in free tendon length and strain at all contraction intensities after eccentric exercise (P < 0.05). There was no significant time-by-session interaction for the gastrocnemii (medial or lateral) aponeurosis or tendon for any of the measured parameters. Immediate changes in Achilles tendon mechanical properties were specific to the free tendon and consistent with changes due to mechanical creep. These findings suggest that the mechanical properties of the free tendon may be more vulnerable to change with exercise compared with the gastrocnemii aponeurosis or tendon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mechanisms of tendon injury and repair

    PubMed Central

    Thomopoulos, Stavros; Parks, William C.; Rifkin, Daniel B.; Derwin, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Tendon disorders are common and lead to significant disability, pain, healthcare cost, and lost productivity. A wide range of injury mechanisms exist leading to tendinopathy or tendon rupture. Tears can occur in healthy tendons that are acutely overloaded (e.g., during a high speed or high impact event) or lacerated (e.g., a knife injury). Tendinitis or tendinosis can occur in tendons exposed to overuse conditions (e.g., an elite swimmer’s training regimen) or intrinsic tissue degeneration (e.g., age-related degeneration). The healing potential of a torn or pathologic tendon varies depending on anatomic location (e.g., Achilles vs. rotator cuff) and local environment (e.g., intrasynovial vs. extrasynovial). Although healing occurs to varying degrees, in general healing of repaired tendons follows the typical wound healing course, including an early inflammatory phase, followed by proliferative and remodeling phases. Numerous treatment approaches have been attempted to improve tendon healing, including growth factor- and cell-based therapies and rehabilitation protocols. This review will describe the current state of knowledge of injury and repair of the three most common tendinopathies-- flexor tendon lacerations, Achilles tendon rupture, and rotator cuff disorders-- with a particular focus on the use of animal models for understanding tendon healing. PMID:25641114

  13. Magnetotherapy: The quest for tendon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pesqueira, Tamagno; Costa-Almeida, Raquel; Gomes, Manuela E

    2018-05-09

    Tendons are mechanosensitive tissues that connect and transmit the forces generated by muscles to bones by allowing the conversion of mechanical input into biochemical signals. These physical forces perform the fundamental work of preserving tendon homeostasis assuring body movements. However, overloading causes tissue injuries, which leads us to the field of tendon regeneration. Recently published reviews have broadly shown the use of biomaterials and different strategies to attain tendon regeneration. In this review, our focus is the use of magnetic fields as an alternative therapy, which has demonstrated clinical relevance in tendon medicine because of their ability to modulate cell fate. Yet the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms still need to be elucidated. While providing a brief outlook about specific signalling pathways and intracellular messengers as framework in play by tendon cells, application of magnetic fields as a subcategory of physical forces is explored, opening up a compelling avenue to enhance tendon regeneration. We outline here useful insights on the effects of magnetic fields both at in vitro and in vivo levels, particularly on the expression of tendon genes and inflammatory cytokines, ultimately involved in tendon regeneration. Subsequently, the potential of using magnetically responsive biomaterials in tendon tissue engineering is highlighted and future directions in magnetotherapy are discussed. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Experimental evaluation of multiscale tendon mechanics.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fei; Lake, Spencer P

    2017-07-01

    Tendon's primary function is a mechanical link between muscle and bone. The hierarchical structure of tendon and specific compositional constituents are believed to be critical for proper mechanical function. With increased appreciation for tendon importance and the development of various technological advances, this review paper summarizes recent experimental approaches that have been used to study multiscale tendon mechanics, includes an overview of studies that have evaluated the role of specific tissue constituents, and also proposes challenges/opportunities facing tendon study. Tendon has been demonstrated to have specific structural characteristics (e.g., multi-level hierarchy, crimp pattern, helix) and complex mechanical properties (e.g., non-linearity, anisotropy, viscoelasticity). Physical mechanisms including uncrimping, fiber sliding, and collagen reorganization have been shown to govern tendon mechanical responses under both static and dynamic loading. Several tendon constituents with relatively small quantities have been suggested to play a role in its mechanics, although some results are conflicting. Further research should be performed to understand the interplay and communication of tendon mechanical properties across levels of the hierarchical structure, and further show how each of these components contribute to tendon mechanics. The studies summarized and discussed in this review have helped elucidate important aspects of multiscale tendon mechanics, which is a prerequisite for analyzing stress/strain transfer between multiple scales and identifying key principles of mechanotransduction. This information could further facilitate interpreting the functional diversity of tendons from different species, different locations, and even different developmental stages, and then better understand and identify fundamental concepts related to tendon degeneration, disease, and healing. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  15. Achilles Tendon Rupture

    MedlinePlus

    ... also help the muscle and tendon absorb more force and prevent injury. Vary your exercises. Alternate high-impact sports, such as running, with low-impact sports, such as walking, biking or swimming. Avoid activities that place excessive stress on your Achilles tendons, such as hill ...

  16. Collagen fibrils in functionally distinct tendons have differing structural responses to tendon rupture and fatigue loading.

    PubMed

    Herod, Tyler W; Chambers, Neil C; Veres, Samuel P

    2016-09-15

    In this study we investigate relationships between the nanoscale structure of collagen fibrils and the macroscale functional response of collagenous tissues. To do so, we study two functionally distinct classes of tendons, positional tendons and energy storing tendons, using a bovine forelimb model. Molecular-level assessment using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), functional crosslink assessment using hydrothermal isometric tension (HIT) analysis, and ultrastructural assessment using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study undamaged, ruptured, and cyclically loaded samples from the two tendon types. HIT indicated differences in both crosslink type and crosslink density, with flexor tendons having more thermally stable crosslinks than the extensor tendons (higher TFmax of >90 vs. 75.1±2.7°C), and greater total crosslink density than the extensor tendons (higher t1/2 of 11.5±1.9 vs. 3.5±1.0h after NaBH4 treatment). Despite having a lower crosslink density than flexor tendons, extensor tendons were significantly stronger (37.6±8.1 vs. 23.1±7.7MPa) and tougher (14.3±3.6 vs. 6.8±3.4MJ/m(3)). SEM showed that collagen fibrils in the tougher, stronger extensor tendons were able to undergo remarkable levels of plastic deformation in the form of discrete plasticity, while those in the flexor tendons were not able to plastically deform. When cyclically loaded, collagen fibrils in extensor tendons accumulated fatigue damage rapidly in the form of kink bands, while those in flexor tendons did not accumulate significant fatigue damage. The results demonstrate that collagen fibrils in functionally distinct tendons respond differently to mechanical loading, and suggests that fibrillar collagens may be subject to a strength vs. fatigue resistance tradeoff. Collagen fibrils-nanoscale biological cables-are the fundamental load-bearing elements of all structural human tissues. While all collagen fibrils share common features, such as being composed of a

  17. Bioreactor design for tendon/ligament engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake; Smith, David W; Lloyd, David G; Zheng, Ming H

    2013-04-01

    Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments.

  18. [Reconstruction of the extensor pollicis longus tendon by transposition of the extensor indicis tendon].

    PubMed

    Loos, A; Kalb, K; Van Schoonhoven, J; Landsleitner Dagger, B

    2003-12-01

    Rupture of the extensor pollicis longus-tendon (EPL) is a frequent complication after distal radius fractures. Other traumatic and non-traumatic reasons for this tendon lesion are known, including a theory about a disorder in the blood supply to the tendon itself. We examined 40 patients after reconstruction of the EPL-tendon in a mean follow-up time of 30 months. All patients were clinically examined and a DASH questionnaire was answered by all patients. The method to reconstruct the EPL-tendon was the transposition of the extensor indicis-tendon. After the operations the thumb was put in a splint for four weeks in a "hitch-hiker's-position". 31 ruptures of the tendon (77.5 %) were a result of trauma. In 20 of them (50 %) a distal radius fracture had occurred. Clinical examination included measurements of the movement of the thumb- and index-finger joints, the grip strength and the maximal span of the hand. Significant differences were not found. The isolated extension of the index finger was possible in all patients. But it was reduced in ten cases which represent 25 %. Our results were evaluated by the Geldmacher score to evaluate the reconstruction of the EPL-tendon. 20 % excellent, 65 % good, 12.5 % fair and 2.5 % poor results were reached. The Geldmacher score was used critically. We suggest its modification for the evaluation of thumb abduction. The DASH score reached a functional value of ten points which represents a very good result. In conclusion the extensor indicis-transposition is a safe method to reconstruct the EPL-tendon. Its substantial advantage is taking a healthy muscle as the motor, thereby avoiding the risk of using a degenerated muscle in late tendon reconstruction. A powerful extension of the index finger will be maintained by physical education. Generally, the loss of the extension of the index finger is negligible. It does not disturb the patients. But it has to be discussed with the patient before the operation.

  19. Effect of tendon tensioning: an in vitro study in porcine extensor tendons.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, David; Calvo, Rafael; Vaisman, Alex; Meleán, Patricio; Figueroa, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Graft tensioning is a controversial issue in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) that has not achieved consensus between peers. The purpose of this study is to determine if after tensioning tendon length and resistance to maximal load changes. We performed an in vitro study with 50 porcine extensors tendons. The first group (P=25) was tensioned with 80 N (19.97 lb) for 10 min, using an ACL graft preparation board. The second group (C=25) was used as control and was not tensioned. The average initial (groups P and C) and post tensioning tendon length (group C) were measured; the average initial and post tensioning tendon diameter were measured as well. All samples were fixated in a tube-clamp system connected to a tension sensor. The samples were stressed with continuous and progressive tension until ultimate failure at maximum load (UFML) occurs. The initial mean length was: P before tensioning=13.4 mm+/-1.4 mm (range 10.5-16.5); P after tensioning=13.8 mm+/-1.4 mm (range 11.5-16.5); C=13 mm+/-1.35 mm (p=0.005). The mean diameter was: P=5.6 mm (4.5-6); C=5.5 mm (range 4.5-6) (p>0.05). The UFML was: P=189.7 N (114-336); C=229.9 N (143-365) (p=0.029). Tendon tensioning with 80 N for 10 min produced 3% average elongation. These could be beneficial in ACLR since tendon tensioning decreases elongation of the graft after fixation. Regardless, tendon tensioning is not innocuous since it diminishes their resistance when continuously stressed until complete failure occurs.

  20. Structure-function relationships in tendons: a review

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Kaiser, E; Milz, S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current review is to highlight the structure-function relationship of tendons and related structures to provide an overview for readers whose interest in tendons needs to be underpinned by anatomy. Because of the availability of several recent reviews on tendon development and entheses, the focus of the current work is primarily directed towards what can best be described as the ‘tendon proper’ or the ‘mid-substance’ of tendons. The review covers all levels of tendon structure from the molecular to the gross and deals both with the extracellular matrix and with tendon cells. The latter are often called ‘tenocytes’ and are increasingly recognized as a defined cell population that is functionally and phenotypically distinct from other fibroblast-like cells. This is illustrated by their response to different types of mechanical stress. However, it is not only tendon cells, but tendons as a whole that exhibit distinct structure-function relationships geared to the changing mechanical stresses to which they are subject. This aspect of tendon biology is considered in some detail. Attention is briefly directed to the blood and nerve supply of tendons, for this is an important issue that relates to the intrinsic healing capacity of tendons. Structures closely related to tendons (joint capsules, tendon sheaths, pulleys, retinacula, fat pads and bursae) are also covered and the concept of a ‘supertendon’ is introduced to describe a collection of tendons in which the function of the whole complex exceeds that of its individual members. Finally, attention is drawn to the important relationship between tendons and fascia, highlighted by Wood Jones in his concept of an ‘ectoskeleton’ over half a century ago – work that is often forgotten today. PMID:18304204

  1. [Secondary tendon reconstruction on the thumb].

    PubMed

    Bickert, B; Kremer, T; Kneser, U

    2016-12-01

    Closed tendon ruptures of the thumb that require secondary reconstruction can affect the extensor pollicis longus (EPL), extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) and flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendons. Treatment of rupture of the EPB tendon consists of refixation to the bone and temporary transfixation of the joint. In the case of preexisting or posttraumatic arthrosis, definitive arthrodesis of the thumb is the best procedure. Closed ruptures of the EPL and FPL tendons at the wrist joint cannot be treated by direct tendon suture. Rupture of the EPL tendon occurs after distal radius fractures either due to protruding screws or following conservative treatment especially in undisplaced fractures. Transfer of the extensor indicis tendon to the distal EPL stump is a good option and free interposition of the palmaris longus tendon is a possible alternative. The tension should be adjusted to slight overcorrection, which can be checked intraoperatively by performing the tenodesis test. Closed FPL ruptures at the wrist typically occur 3-6 months after osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures with palmar plates and are mostly characterized by crepitation and pain lasting for several weeks. They can be prevented by premature plate removal, synovectomy and carpal tunnel release. For treatment of a ruptured FPL tendon in adult patients the options for tendon reconstruction should be weighed up against the less complicated tenodesis or arthrodesis of the thumb interphalangeal joint.

  2. Tendon neuroplastic training: changing the way we think about tendon rehabilitation: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Rio, Ebonie; Kidgell, Dawson; Moseley, G Lorimer; Docking, Sean; Purdam, Craig; Cook, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Tendinopathy can be resistant to treatment and often recurs, implying that current treatment approaches are suboptimal. Rehabilitation programmes that have been successful in terms of pain reduction and return to sport outcomes usually include strength training. Muscle activation can induce analgesia, improving self-efficacy associated with reducing one's own pain. Furthermore, strength training is beneficial for tendon matrix structure, muscle properties and limb biomechanics. However, current tendon rehabilitation may not adequately address the corticospinal control of the muscle, which may result in altered control of muscle recruitment and the consequent tendon load, and this may contribute to recalcitrance or symptom recurrence. Outcomes of interest include the effect of strength training on tendon pain, corticospinal excitability and short interval cortical inhibition. The aims of this concept paper are to: (1) review what is known about changes to the primary motor cortex and motor control in tendinopathy, (2) identify the parameters shown to induce neuroplasticity in strength training and (3) align these principles with tendon rehabilitation loading protocols to introduce a combination approach termed as tendon neuroplastic training. Strength training is a powerful modulator of the central nervous system. In particular, corticospinal inputs are essential for motor unit recruitment and activation; however, specific strength training parameters are important for neuroplasticity. Strength training that is externally paced and akin to a skilled movement task has been shown to not only reduce tendon pain, but modulate excitatory and inhibitory control of the muscle and therefore, potentially tendon load. An improved understanding of the methods that maximise the opportunity for neuroplasticity may be an important progression in how we prescribe exercise-based rehabilitation in tendinopathy for pain modulation and potentially restoration of the corticospinal

  3. Hamstring tendon versus patellar tendon anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using biodegradable interference fit fixation: a prospective matched-group analysis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael; Kääb, Max J; Schallock, Jessica; Haas, Norbert P; Weiler, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    There are still controversies about graft selection for primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, especially with respect to knee stability and functional outcome. Biodegradable interference screw fixation of hamstring tendon grafts provides clinical results similar to those achieved with identical fixation of bone-patellar tendon-bone grafts. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. In 1996 and 1997, primary isolated anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft was performed in 72 patients. Since 1998, hamstring tendons were used as routine grafts. Matched patients with a hamstring tendon graft were selected from a database (n = 284). All patients were followed prospectively for a minimum of 2 years with KT-1000 arthrometer testing, International Knee Documentation Committee score, and Lysholm score. In the bone-patellar tendon-bone group, 9 patients were excluded because of bilateral rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament, 3 patients (4.2%) had a graft rupture, and 4 patients were lost to follow-up (follow-up rate, 92.1%), leaving 56 patients for a matched-group analysis. In the hamstring tendon database, the graft rupture rate was 5.6% (P = .698). The Lysholm score was 89.7 in the patellar tendon group and 94 in the hamstring tendon group (P = .003). The KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side difference was 2.6 mm for the patellar tendon group and 2.1 mm for the hamstring tendon group (P = .041). There were significantly less positive pivot-shift test results in the hamstring tendon group (P = .005), and hamstring tendon patients showed lower thigh atrophy (P = .024) and patellofemoral crepitus (P = .003). Overall International Knee Documentation Committee scores were better (P = .001) in the hamstring tendon group (hamstring tendon: 34 x A, 21 x B, 0 x C, 0 x D; bone-patellar tendon-bone: 17 x A, 32 x B, 6 x C, 0 x D). In this comparison of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone and

  4. Bioreactor Design for Tendon/Ligament Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B.; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake

    2013-01-01

    Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments. PMID:23072472

  5. Conditioning of the Achilles tendon via ankle exercise improves correlations between sonographic measures of tendon thickness and body anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Wearing, Scott C; Grigg, Nicole L; Hooper, Sue L; Smeathers, James E

    2011-05-01

    Although conditioning is routinely used in mechanical tests of tendon in vitro, previous in vivo research evaluating the influence of body anthropometry on Achilles tendon thickness has not considered its potential effects on tendon structure. This study evaluated the relationship between Achilles tendon thickness and body anthropometry in healthy adults both before and after resistive ankle plantarflexion exercise. A convenience sample of 30 healthy male adults underwent sonographic examination of the Achilles tendon in addition to standard anthropometric measures of stature and body weight. A 10-5 MHz linear array transducer was used to acquire longitudinal sonograms of the Achilles tendon, 20 mm proximal to the tendon insertion. Participants then completed a series (90-100 repetitions) of conditioning exercises against an effective resistance between 100% and 150% body weight. Longitudinal sonograms were repeated immediately on completion of the exercise intervention, and anteroposterior Achilles tendon thickness was determined. Achilles tendon thickness was significantly reduced immediately following conditioning exercise (t = 9.71, P < 0.001), resulting in an average transverse strain of -18.8%. In contrast to preexercise measures, Achilles tendon thickness was significantly correlated with body weight (r = 0.72, P < 0.001) and to a lesser extent height (r = 0.45, P = 0.01) and body mass index (r = 0.63, P < 0.001) after exercise. Conditioning of the Achilles tendon via resistive ankle exercises induces alterations in tendon structure that substantially improve correlations between Achilles tendon thickness and body anthropometry. It is recommended that conditioning exercises, which standardize the load history of tendon, are employed before measurements of sonographic tendon thickness in vivo.

  6. Time-Dependent Alterations of MMPs, TIMPs and Tendon Structure in Human Achilles Tendons after Acute Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Minkwitz, Susann; Schmock, Aysha; Kurtoglu, Alper; Tsitsilonis, Serafeim; Manegold, Sebastian; Klatte-Schulz, Franka

    2017-01-01

    A balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) is required to maintain tendon homeostasis. Variation in this balance over time might impact on the success of tendon healing. This study aimed to analyze structural changes and the expression profile of MMPs and TIMPs in human Achilles tendons at different time-points after rupture. Biopsies from 37 patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture were taken at surgery and grouped according to time after rupture: early (2–4 days), middle (5–6 days), and late (≥7 days), and intact Achilles tendons served as control. The histological score increased from the early to the late time-point after rupture, indicating the progression towards a more degenerative status. In comparison to intact tendons, qRT-PCR analysis revealed a significantly increased expression of MMP-1, -2, -13, TIMP-1, COL1A1, and COL3A1 in ruptured tendons, whereas TIMP-3 decreased. Comparing the changes over time post rupture, the expression of MMP-9, -13, and COL1A1 significantly increased, whereas MMP-3 and -10 expression decreased. TIMP expression was not significantly altered over time. MMP staining by immunohistochemistry was positive in the ruptured tendons exemplarily analyzed from early and late time-points. The study demonstrates a pivotal contribution of all investigated MMPs and TIMP-1, but a minor role of TIMP-2, -3, and -4, in the early human tendon healing process. PMID:29053586

  7. Extradural myelomeningocele reconstruction using local turnover fascial flaps and midline linear skin closure.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kamlesh B; Taghinia, Amir H; Proctor, Mark R; Warf, Benjamin C; Greene, Arin K

    2012-11-01

    Myelomeningocele is the most common neural tube defect. Repair typically involves deep closure with regional muscle flaps (e.g. latissimus dorsi, gluteus maximus) and skin closure with rotation, bipedicle, or rhomboid flaps. We describe the reconstruction of large myelomeningocele defects using (1) local fascial turnover flaps with or without paraspinous muscle flaps for deep coverage of the dural repair followed by (2) linear, midline skin closure. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Angiogenesis in healing autogenous flexor-tendon grafts.

    PubMed

    Gelberman, R H; Chu, C R; Williams, C S; Seiler, J G; Amiel, D

    1992-09-01

    On the basis of recent evidence that flexor tendon grafts may heal without the ingrowth of vascular adhesions, eighteen autogenous donor tendons of intrasynovial and extrasynovial origin were transferred to the synovial sheaths in the forepaws of nine dogs, and controlled passive mobilization was instituted early in the postoperative period. The angiogenic responses of the tendon grafts were determined with perfusion studies with India ink followed by cleaing of the tissues with the Spalteholz technique at two, four, and six weeks. A consistent pattern of neovascularization was noted in the donor tendons of extrasynovial origin. Vascular adhesions arising from the flexor digitorum superficialis and the tendon sheath enveloped the tendon grafts by two weeks. By six weeks, the vascularity of the tendon grafts of extrasynovial origin appeared completely integrated with that of the surrounding tissues. Examination of cross sections revealed that the segments of tendon had been completely vascularized by obliquely oriented intratendinous vessels. In contrast, the flexor tendon grafts of intrasynovial origin healed without ingrowth of vascular adhesions. Primary intrinsic neovascularization took place from the proximal and, to a lesser extent, distal sites of the sutures. Examination of cross sections revealed vessels extending through the surface layer of the tendon graft, with small vessels penetrating the interior of the tendons at regular intervals.

  9. Human tendon behaviour and adaptation, in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, S Peter; Narici, Marco V; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Kjaer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Tendon properties contribute to the complex interaction of the central nervous system, muscle–tendon unit and bony structures to produce joint movement. Until recently limited information on human tendon behaviour in vivo was available; however, novel methodological advancements have enabled new insights to be gained in this area. The present review summarizes the progress made with respect to human tendon and aponeurosis function in vivo, and how tendons adapt to ageing, loading and unloading conditions. During low tensile loading or with passive lengthening not only the muscle is elongated, but also the tendon undergoes significant length changes, which may have implications for reflex responses. During active loading, the length change of the tendon far exceeds that of the aponeurosis, indicating that the aponeurosis may more effectively transfer force onto the tendon, which lengthens and stores elastic energy subsequently released during unloading, in a spring-like manner. In fact, data recently obtained in vivo confirm that, during walking, the human Achilles tendon provides elastic strain energy that can decrease the energy cost of locomotion. Also, new experimental evidence shows that, contrary to earlier beliefs, the metabolic activity in human tendon is remarkably high and this affords the tendon the ability to adapt to changing demands. With ageing and disuse there is a reduction in tendon stiffness, which can be mitigated with resistance exercises. Such adaptations seem advantageous for maintaining movement rapidity, reducing tendon stress and risk of injury, and possibly, for enabling muscles to operate closer to the optimum region of the length–tension relationship. PMID:17855761

  10. Deficits in heel-rise height and achilles tendon elongation occur in patients recovering from an Achilles tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Steele, Robert; Manal, Kurt

    2012-07-01

    Whether an Achilles tendon rupture is treated surgically or not, complications such as muscle weakness, decrease in heel-rise height, and gait abnormalities persist after injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if side-to-side differences in maximal heel-rise height can be explained by differences in Achilles tendon length. Case series; level of evidence, 4. Eight patients (mean [SD] age of 46 [13] years) with acute Achilles tendon rupture and 10 healthy subjects (mean [SD] age of 28 [8] years) were included in the study. Heel-rise height, Achilles tendon length, and patient-reported outcome were measured 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. Achilles tendon length was evaluated using motion analysis and ultrasound imaging. The Achilles tendon length test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.97) was excellent. For the healthy subjects, there were no side-to-side differences in tendon length and heel-rise height. Patients with Achilles tendon ruptures had significant differences between the injured and uninjured side for both tendon length (mean [SD] difference, 2.6-3.1 [1.2-1.4] cm, P = .017-.028) and heel-rise height (mean [SD] difference, -4.1 to -6.1 [1.7-1.8] cm, P = .012-.028). There were significant negative correlations (r = -0.943, P = .002, and r = -0.738, P = .037) between the side-to-side difference in heel-rise height and Achilles tendon length at the 6- and 12-month evaluations, respectively. The side-to-side difference found in maximal heel-rise height can be explained by a difference in Achilles tendon length in patients recovering from an Achilles tendon rupture. Minimizing tendon elongation appears to be an important treatment goal when aiming for full return of function.

  11. Measuring Regional Changes in Damaged Tendon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Catherine Kayt Vincent

    Mechanical properties of tendon predict tendon health and function, but measuring these properties in vivo is difficult. An ultrasound-based (US) analysis technique called acoustoelastography (AE) uses load-dependent changes in the reflected US signal to estimate tissue stiffness non-invasively. This thesis explores whether AE can provide information about stiffness alteration resulting from tendon tears both ex vivo and in vivo. An ex vivo ovine infraspinatus tendon model suggests that the relative load transmitted by the different tendon layers transmit different fractions of the load and that ultrasound echo intensity change during cyclic loading decreases, becoming less consistent once the tendon is torn. An in vivo human tibialis anterior tendon model using electrically stimulated twitch contractions investigated the feasibility of measuring the effect in vivo. Four of the five subjects showed the expected change and that the muscle contraction times calculated using the average grayscale echo intensity change compared favorably with the times calculated based on the force data. Finally an AE pilot study with patients who had rotator cuff tendon tears found that controlling the applied load and the US view of the system will be crucial to a successful in vivo study.

  12. Tendon sheath fibroma in the thigh.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Vincent M; Ashana, Adedayo O; de la Cruz, Michael; Lackman, Richard D

    2012-04-01

    Tendon sheath fibromas are rare, benign soft tissue tumors that are predominantly found in the fingers, hands, and wrists of young adult men. This article describes a tendon sheath fibroma that developed in the thigh of a 70-year-old man, the only known tendon sheath fibroma to form in this location. Similar to tendon sheath fibromas that develop elsewhere, our patient's lesion presented as a painless, slow-growing soft tissue nodule. Physical examination revealed a firm, nontender mass with no other associated signs or symptoms. Although the imaging appearance of tendon sheath fibromas varies, our patient's lesion appeared dark on T1- and bright on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. It was well marginated and enhanced with contrast.Histologically, tendon sheath fibromas are composed of dense fibrocollagenous stromas with scattered spindle-shaped fibroblasts and narrow slit-like vascular spaces. Most tendon sheath fibromas can be successfully removed by marginal excision, although 24% of lesions recur. No lesions have metastasized. Our patient's tendon sheath fibroma was removed by marginal excision, and the patient remained disease free 35 months postoperatively. Despite its rarity, tendon sheath fibroma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a thigh mass on physical examination or imaging, especially if it is painless, nontender, benign appearing, and present in men. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. The promoting effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on tendon healing involves tendon outgrowth, cell survival, and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Hsun; Tsai, Wen-Chung; Lin, Miao-Sui; Hsu, Ya-Hui; Pang, Jong-Hwei Su

    2011-03-01

    Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, composed of 15 amino acids, is a partial sequence of body protection compound (BPC) that is discovered in and isolated from human gastric juice. Experimentally it has been demonstrated to accelerate the healing of many different wounds, including transected rat Achilles tendon. This study was designed to investigate the potential mechanism of BPC 157 to enhance healing of injured tendon. The outgrowth of tendon fibroblasts from tendon explants cultured with or without BPC 157 was examined. Results showed that BPC 157 significantly accelerated the outgrowth of tendon explants. Cell proliferation of cultured tendon fibroblasts derived from rat Achilles tendon was not directly affected by BPC 157 as evaluated by MTT assay. However, the survival of BPC 157-treated cells was significantly increased under the H(2)O(2) stress. BPC 157 markedly increased the in vitro migration of tendon fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as revealed by transwell filter migration assay. BPC 157 also dose dependently accelerated the spreading of tendon fibroblasts on culture dishes. The F-actin formation as detected by FITC-phalloidin staining was induced in BPC 157-treated fibroblasts. The protein expression and activation of FAK and paxillin were determined by Western blot analysis, and the phosphorylation levels of both FAK and paxillin were dose dependently increased by BPC 157 while the total amounts of protein was unaltered. In conclusion, BPC 157 promotes the ex vivo outgrowth of tendon fibroblasts from tendon explants, cell survival under stress, and the in vitro migration of tendon fibroblasts, which is likely mediated by the activation of the FAK-paxillin pathway.

  14. Role of tissue-engineered artificial tendon in healing of a large Achilles tendon defect model in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, Ali; Oryan, Ahmad; Meimandi-Parizi, Abdolhamid

    2013-09-01

    Treatment of large Achilles tendon defects is technically demanding. Tissue engineering is an option. We constructed a collagen-based artificial tendon, covered it with a polydioxanon (PDS) sheath, and studied the role of this bioimplant on experimental tendon healing in vivo. A 2-cm tendon gap was created in the left Achilles tendon of rabbits (n = 120). The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups: control (no implant), treated with tridimensional-collagen, and treated with tridimensional-collagen-bidimensional-PDS implants. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups of 60 and 120 days postinjury (DPI). Another 50 pilot animals were used to study the host-implant interaction. Physical activity of the animals was scored and ultrasonographic and bioelectrical characteristics of the injured tendons were investigated weekly. After euthanasia, macro, micro, and nano morphologies and biophysical and biomechanical characteristics of the healing tendons were studied. Treatment improved function of the animals, time dependently. At 60 and 120 DPI, the treated tendons showed significantly higher maximum load, yield, stiffness, stress, and modulus of elasticity compared with controls. The collagen implant induced inflammation and absorbed the migrating fibroblasts in the defect area. By its unique architecture, it aligned the fibroblasts and guided their proliferation and collagen deposition along the stress line of the tendon and resulted in improved collagen density, micro-amp, micro-ohm, water uptake, and delivery of the regenerated tissue. The PDS-sheath covering amplified these characteristics. The implants were gradually absorbed and replaced by a new tendon. Minimum amounts of peritendinous adhesion, muscle atrophy, and fibrosis were observed in the treated groups. Some remnants of the implants were preserved and accepted as a part of the new tendon. The implants were cytocompatible, biocompatible, biodegradable, and effective in tendon healing and regeneration. This

  15. Aging Does Not Alter Tendon Mechanical Properties During Homeostasis, but does Impair Flexor Tendon Healing

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Jessica E.; Bah, Ibrahima; Jonason, Jennifer H.; Buckley, Mark R.; Loiselle, Alayna E.

    2017-01-01

    Aging is an important factor in disrupted homeostasis of many tissues. While an increased incidence of tendinopathy and tendon rupture are observed with aging, it is unclear whether this is due to progressive changes in tendon cell function and mechanics over time, or an impaired repair reaction from aged tendons in response to insult or injury. In the present study we examined changes in the mechanical properties of Flexor Digitorum Longus (FDL), Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (FCU), and tail fascicles in both male and female C57Bl/6 mice between 3-27 months of age to better understand the effects of sex and age on tendon homeostasis. No change in max load at failure was observed in any group over the course of aging, although there were significant decreases in toe and linear stiffness in female mice from 3-months to 15, and to 22-27-months. No changes in cell proliferation were observed with aging, although an observable decrease in cellularity occurred in 31-month old tendons. Given that aging did not dramatically alter tendon mechanical homeostasis we hypothesized that a disruption in tendon homeostasis, via acute injury would result in an impaired healing response. Significant decreases in max load, stiffness, and yield load were observed in repairs of 22-month old mice, relative to 4-month old mice. No changes in cell proliferation were observed between young and aged, however a dramatic loss of bridging collagen extracellular matrix was observed in aged repairs suggest that matrix production, but not cell proliferation leads to impaired tendon healing with aging. PMID:28419543

  16. Stabilization of flail chest injuries: minimized approach techniques to treat the core of instability.

    PubMed

    Schulz-Drost, S; Grupp, S; Pachowsky, M; Oppel, P; Krinner, S; Mauerer, A; Hennig, F F; Langenbach, A

    2017-04-01

    Stabilizing techniques of flail chest injuries usually need wide approaches to the chest wall. Three main regions need to be considered when stabilizing the rib cage: median-anterior with dissection of pectoral muscle; lateral-axillary with dissection of musculi (mm) serratus, externus abdominis; posterior inter spinoscapular with division of mm rhomboidei, trapezius and latissimus dorsi. Severe morbidity due to these invasive approaches needs to be considered. This study discusses possibilities for minimized approaches to the shown regions. Fifteen patients were stabilized by locked plate osteosynthesis (MatrixRib ® ) between May 2012 and April 2014 and prospectively followed up. Flail chest injuries were managed through limited incisions to the anterior, the lateral, and the posterior parts of the chest wall or their combinations. Each approach was 4-10 cm using Alexis ® retractor. One minimized approach offered sufficient access at least to four ribs posterior and laterally, four pairs of ribs anterior in all cases. There was no need to divide latissimus dorsi muscle. Trapezius und rhomboid muscles were only limited divided, whereas a subcutaneous dissection of serratus and abdominis muscles was necessary. A follow-up showed sufficient consolidation. pneumothorax (2) and seroma (2). Minimized approaches allow sufficient stabilization of severe dislocated rib fractures without extensive dissection or division of the important muscles. Keeping the arm and, thus, the scapula mobile is very important for providing the largest reachable surface of the rib cage through each approach.

  17. Surgical repair of chronic patellar tendon rupture in total knee replacement with ipsilateral hamstring tendons.

    PubMed

    Spoliti, Marco; Giai Via, Alessio; Padulo, Johnny; Oliva, Francesco; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    Patellar tendon rupture is a serious complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Its reconstruction in patients with chronic ruptures is technically demanding. This article reports the results of surgical reconstruction of neglected patellar tendon rupture in TKA using autologous hamstring tendons. Nine TKA patients (six women and three men) (mean age at index surgery 68 years) with chronic patellar tendon tears underwent reconstruction with ipsilateral hamstrings tendon, leaving the distal insertion in situ. The clinical diagnosis was supported by imaging (anterior-posterior and 30° flexion lateral radiographs). Insall-Salvati index, range of motion, and leg extension test were recorded preoperatively and at last follow-up. The modified Cincinnati rating system and the Kujala score were administered. The patients sustained the patellar tendon tear an average of 8 weeks before the procedure. At final follow-up of 4 years (range 2-8 years), the median of extension lag was 5° (range 0°-15°; DS = 5). The median of post-operative Insall-Salvati index was 1.4 (range 1.3-1.8; SD = 0.15; p = 0.002) compared to the preoperative index of 1.7 (range 1.5-2.2; SD = 0.23). The mean modified Cincinnati and Kujala scores significantly increased compared with the preoperative ones (p < 0.01). At final follow-up, all patients were able to walk without brace or aids, and they were satisfied with the procedure. Based on our retrospective study of nine patients, reconstruction of neglected patellar tendon rupture in TKA with autologous hamstring tendons is feasible and safe, and provides good functional recovery. Case series, Level IV.

  18. Structure-mechanics relationships in mineralized tendons.

    PubMed

    Spiesz, Ewa M; Zysset, Philippe K

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we review the hierarchical structure and the resulting elastic properties of mineralized tendons as obtained by various multiscale experimental and computational methods spanning from nano- to macroscale. The mechanical properties of mineralized collagen fibres are important to understand the mechanics of hard tissues constituted by complex arrangements of these fibres, like in human lamellar bone. The uniaxial mineralized collagen fibre array naturally occurring in avian tendons is a well studied model tissue for investigating various stages of tissue mineralization and the corresponding elastic properties. Some avian tendons mineralize with maturation, which results in a graded structure containing two zones of distinct morphology, circumferential and interstitial. These zones exhibit different amounts of mineral, collagen, pores and a different mineral distribution between collagen fibrillar and extrafibrillar space that lead to distinct elastic properties. Mineralized tendon cells have two phenotypes: elongated tenocytes placed between fibres in the circumferential zone and cuboidal cells with lower aspect ratios in the interstitial zone. Interestingly some regions of avian tendons seem to be predestined to mineralization, which is exhibited as specific collagen cross-linking patterns as well as distribution of minor tendon constituents (like proteoglycans) and loss of collagen crimp. Results of investigations in naturally mineralizing avian tendons may be useful in understanding the pathological mineralization occurring in some human tendons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Soft tissue coverage of the elbow in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Pirela-Cruz, Miguel A; Reddy, Kartheek K; Higgs, Matthew

    2007-09-01

    Two cases that required soft tissue coverage to the anterior aspect of the elbow are presented. A fasciocutaneous intercostal perforator chest wall flap was used for one patient when only skin and fascia coverage was required. A latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap was used to provide soft tissue coverage and supply motor power for elbow flexion after contracture release in the other. The surgical techniques for each of these flaps are discussed in the context of addressing soft tissue traumatic injuries about the elbow in a developing country with limited resources.

  20. Ultrasonographic assessment of the equine palmar tendons

    PubMed Central

    Padaliya, N. R.; Ranpariya, J. J.; Kumar, Dharmendra; Javia, C. B.; Barvalia, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the equine palmar tendon by ultrasonography (USG) in standing the position. Materials and Methods: USG of palmar tendons was performed in 40 adult horses using linear transducer having frequency of 10-18 MHz (e-soate, My Lab FIVE) and L52 linear array transducer (Titan, SonoSite) with frequencies ranging from 8 to 10 MHz. Palmar tendon was divided into 7 levels from distal to accessory carpal bone up to ergot in transverse scanning and 3 levels in longitudinal scanning. Results: The USG evaluation was very useful for diagnosis of affections of the conditions such as chronic bowed tendon, suspensory ligament desmitis, carpal sheath tenosynovitis and digital sheath effusions. The mean cross-sectional area (cm2) of affected tendons was significantly increased in affected than normal tendons. The echogenicity was also found reduced in affected tendons and ligaments along with disorganization of fiber alignment depending on the severity of lesion and injury. Conclusion: USG proved ideal diagnostic tool for diagnosis and post-treatment healing assessment of tendon injuries in horses. PMID:27047074

  1. Surgical Treatment for Failure of Repair of Patellar and Quadriceps Tendon Rupture With Ipsilateral Hamstring Tendon Graft.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Papalia, Rocco; Torre, Guglielmo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    Tears of the patellar and quadriceps tendon are common in the active population, especially in athletes. At present, several techniques for surgical repair and reconstruction are available. When reruptures occur, a reconstruction is mandatory. In the present paper, we describe a surgical technique for patellar and quadriceps tendon reconstruction using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. After routine hamstring tendon harvesting, the tendon ends are prepared using a whip stitch. A transverse tunnel is drilled in the midportion of the patella, the hamstring graft is passed through the patella, and firmly secured to the patellar tunnel openings with sutures. The details of the technique are fully described. Autologous ipsilateral hamstring tendon grafts provide a secure sound means to manage these challenging injuries.

  2. Markers for the identification of tendon-derived stem cells in vitro and tendon stem cells in situ - update and future development.

    PubMed

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee

    2015-06-02

    The efficacy of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) for the promotion of tendon and tendon-bone junction repair has been reported in animal studies. Modulation of the tendon stem cell niche in vivo has also been reported to influence tendon structure. There is a need to have specific and reliable markers that can define TDSCs in vitro and tendon stem cells in situ for several reasons: to understand the basic biology of TDSCs and their subpopulations in vitro; to understand the identity, niches and functions of tendon/progenitor stem cells in vivo; to meet the governmental regulatory requirements for quality of TDSCs when translating the exciting preclinical findings into clinical trial/practice; and to develop new treatment strategies for mobilizing endogenous stem/progenitor cells in tendon. TDSCs were reported to express the common mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers and some embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers, and there were attempts to use these markers to label tendon stem cells in situ. Are these stem cell markers useful for the identification of TDSCs in vitro and tracking of tendon stem cells in situ? This review aims to discuss the values of the panel of MSC, ESC and tendon-related markers for the identification of TDSCs in vitro. Important factors influencing marker expression by TDSCs are discussed. The usefulness and limitations of the panel of MSC, ESC and tendon-related markers for tracking stem cells in tendon, especially tendon stem cells, in situ are then reviewed. Future research directions are proposed.

  3. Collagen structure of tendon relates to function.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Marco; Trirè, Alessandra; Quaranta, Marilisa; Orsini, Ester; Ottani, Victoria

    2007-03-30

    A tendon is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone, designed to transmit forces and withstand tension during muscle contraction. Tendon may be surrounded by different structures: 1) fibrous sheaths or retinaculae; 2) reflection pulleys; 3) synovial sheaths; 4) peritendon sheaths; 5) tendon bursae. Tendons contain a) few cells, mostly represented by tenoblasts along with endothelial cells and some chondrocytes; b) proteoglycans (PGs), mainly decorin and hyaluronan, and c) collagen, mostly type I. Tendon is a good example of a high ordered extracellular matrix in which collagen molecules assemble into filamentous collagen fibrils (formed by microfibrils) which aggregate to form collagen fibers, the main structural components. It represents a multihierarchical structure as it contains collagen molecules arranged in fibrils then grouped in fibril bundles, fascicles and fiber bundles that are almost parallel to the long axis of the tendon, named as primary, secondary and tertiary bundles. Collagen fibrils in tendons show prevalently large diameter, a D-period of about 67 nm and appear built of collagen molecules lying at a slight angle (< 5 degrees). Under polarized light microscopy the collagen fiber bundles appear crimped with alternative dark and light transverse bands. In recent studies tendon crimps observed via SEM and TEM show that the single collagen fibrils suddenly changing their direction contain knots. These knots of collagen fibrils inside each tendon crimp have been termed "fibrillar crimps", and even if they show different aspects they all may fulfil the same functional role. As integral component of musculoskeletal system, the tendon acts to transmit muscle forces to the skeletal system. There is no complete understanding of the mechanisms in transmitting/absorbing tensional forces within the tendon; however it seems likely that a flattening of tendon crimps may occur at a first stage of tendon stretching. Increasing

  4. Effect of soy lecithin on total cholesterol content, fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers (Korean native cattle).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang Zi; Park, Byung Ki; Hong, Byuong Chon; Ahn, Jun Sang; Shin, Jong Suh

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of soy lecithin on the total cholesterol content, the fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi in Hanwoo steers. Hanwoo steers (24 head) were fed two diets: Control (CON) (concentrate + alcohol-fermented feed (AFF)) and soy lecithin treatment (CON + soy lecithin at 0.5% of the AFF). Soy lecithin treatment increased average daily gain, serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the blood. A lower cholesterol concentration was found in the Longissimus dorsi for the soy lecithin diet compared to the CON diet. With respect to the marbling score and quality grade of Longissimus dorsi, soy lecithin supplementation significantly increased the C20:5n3, C22:4 and polyunsaturated fatty acids contents compared to the CON diet. Soy lecithin supplementation would alter the total cholesterol content, polyunsaturated fatty acid profile and meat quality of Longissimus dorsi. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Simultaneous characterizations of reflex and nonreflex dynamic and static changes in spastic hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sun G.; Ren, Yupeng; Liu, Lin; Roth, Elliot J.; Rymer, W. Zev

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes tonic and phasic stretch reflex and stiffness and viscosity changes associated with spastic hemiparesis. Perturbations were applied to the ankle of 27 hemiparetic and 36 healthy subjects under relaxed or active contracting conditions. A nonlinear delay differential equation model characterized phasic and tonic stretch reflex gains, elastic stiffness, and viscous damping. Tendon reflex was characterized with reflex gain and threshold. Reflexively, tonic reflex gain was increased in spastic ankles at rest (P < 0.038) and was not regulated with muscle contraction, indicating impaired tonic stretch reflex. Phasic-reflex gain in spastic plantar flexors was higher and increased faster with plantar flexor contraction (P < 0.012) than controls (P < 0.023) and higher in dorsi-flexors at lower torques (P < 0.038), primarily because of its increase at rest (P = 0.045), indicating exaggerated phasic stretch reflex especially in more spastic plantar flexors, which showed higher phasic stretch reflex gain than dorsi-flexors (P < 0.032). Spasticity was associated with increased tendon reflex gain (P = 0.002) and decreased threshold (P < 0.001). Mechanically, stiffness in spastic ankles was higher than that in controls across plantar flexion/dorsi-flexion torque levels (P < 0.032), and the more spastic plantar flexors were stiffer than dorsi-flexors at comparable torques (P < 0.031). Increased stiffness in spastic ankles was mainly due to passive stiffness increase (P < 0.001), indicating increased connective tissues/shortened fascicles. Viscous damping in spastic ankles was increased across the plantar flexion torque levels and at lower dorsi-flexion torques, reflecting increased passive viscous damping (P = 0.033). The more spastic plantar flexors showed higher viscous damping than dorsi-flexors at comparable torque levels (P < 0.047). Simultaneous characterizations of reflex and nonreflex changes in spastic hemiparesis may help to evaluate and treat

  6. Bone marrow induced osteogenesis in hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate implants.

    PubMed

    Vuola, J; Göransson, H; Böhling, T; Asko-Seljavaara, S

    1996-09-01

    In this experimental study, blocks of natural coral (calcium carbonate) and its structurally similar derivate in the form of hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate) were implanted in rat latissimus dorsi muscle with autogenous bone marrow to compare their bone-forming capability. A block without marrow placed in the opposite latissimus muscle served as a control. The animals were killed at 3, 6 and 12 weeks and, in the hydroxyapatite group, also at 24 weeks. The sections were analysed histologically and histomorphometrically. Bone was found only in implants containing bone marrow. Bone formation was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in coral than in hydroxyapatite implants at 3 weeks (10.8% versus 4.8%) and at 12 weeks (13.7% versus 6.3%, bone/total original block area). At 12 weeks all the coral implants had lost their original structure, and the cross-sectional area of the block had diminished to 40% of the original area.

  7. IFSSH Flexor Tendon Committee report 2014: from the IFSSH Flexor Tendon Committee (Chairman: Jin Bo Tang).

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin Bo; Chang, James; Elliot, David; Lalonde, Donald H; Sandow, Michael; Vögelin, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Hand surgeons continue to search for the best surgical flexor tendon repair and treatment of the tendon sheaths and pulleys, and they are attempting to establish postoperative regimens that fit diverse clinical needs. It is the purpose of this report to present the current views, methods, and suggestions of six senior hand surgeons from six different countries - all experienced in tendon repair and reconstruction. Although certainly there is common ground, the report presents provocative views and approaches. The report reflects an update in the views of the committee. We hope that it is helpful to surgeons and therapists in treating flexor tendon injuries.

  8. Grasp Assist Device with Shared Tendon Actuator Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bergelin, Bryan J. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A grasp assist device includes a glove with first and second tendon-driven fingers, a tendon, and a sleeve with a shared tendon actuator assembly. Tendon ends are connected to the respective first and second fingers. The actuator assembly includes a drive assembly having a drive axis and a tendon hook. The tendon hook, which defines an arcuate surface slot, is linearly translatable along the drive axis via the drive assembly, e.g., a servo motor thereof. The flexible tendon is routed through the surface slot such that the surface slot divides the flexible tendon into two portions each terminating in a respective one of the first and second ends. The drive assembly may include a ball screw and nut. An end cap of the actuator assembly may define two channels through which the respective tendon portions pass. The servo motor may be positioned off-axis with respect to the drive axis.

  9. Evolution of the Achilles tendon: The athlete's Achilles heel?

    PubMed

    Malvankar, S; Khan, W S

    2011-12-01

    The Achilles tendon is believed to have first developed two million years ago enabling humans to run twice as fast. However if the Achilles tendon is so important in terms of evolution, then why is this tendon so prone to injury - especially for those more active like athletes. The Achilles tendon had an integral role in evolving apes from a herbivorous diet to early humans who started hunting for food over longer distances, resulting in bipedal locomotion. Evolutionary advantages of the Achilles tendon includes it being the strongest tendon in the body, having an energy-saving mechanism for fast locomotion, allows humans to jump and run, and additionally is a spring and shock absorber during gait. Considering these benefits it is therefore not surprising that studies have shown athletes have thicker Achilles tendons than subjects who are less active. However, contradictory to these findings that show the importance of the Achilles tendon for athletes, it is well known that obtaining an Achilles tendon injury for an athlete can be career-altering. A disadvantage of the Achilles tendon is that the aetiology of its pathology is complicated. Achilles tendon ruptures are believed to be caused by overloading the tensed tendon, like during sports. However studies have also shown athlete Achilles tendon ruptures to have degenerative changes in the tendon. Other flaws of the Achilles tendon are its non-uniform vascularity and incomplete repair system which may suggest the Achilles tendon is on the edge of evolution. Research has shown that there is a genetic influence on the predisposition a person has towards Achilles tendon injuries. So if this tendon is here to stay in our anatomy, and it probably is due to the slow rate of evolution in humans, research in genetic modification could be used to decrease athletes' predisposition to Achilles tendinopathy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Rull James; Lin, Darius; Ehrlichman, Lauren K; Ellington, J Kent; Strasser, Nicholas; Kwon, John Y

    2014-02-19

    Peroneal tendon displacement (subluxation or dislocation) accompanying an intra-articular calcaneal fracture is often undetected and under-treated. The goals of this study were to determine (1) the prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures, (2) the association of tendon displacement with fracture classifications, (3) the association of tendon displacement with heel width, and (4) the rate of missed diagnosis of the tendon displacement on radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans and the resulting treatment rate. A retrospective radiographic review of all calcaneal fractures presenting at three institutions from June 30, 2006, to June 30, 2011, was performed. CT imaging of 421 intra-articular calcaneal fractures involving the posterior facet was available for review. The prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement was noted and its associations with fracture classification and heel width were evaluated. Peroneal tendon displacement was identified in 118 (28.0%) of the 421 calcaneal fracture cases. The presence of tendon displacement was significantly associated with joint-depression fractures compared with tongue-type fractures (p < 0.001). Only twelve (10.2%) of the 118 cases of peroneal tendon displacement had been identified in the radiology reports. Although sixty-five (55.1%) of the fractures with tendon displacement had been treated with internal fixation, the tendon displacement was treated surgically in only seven (10.8%) of these cases. Analysis of CT images showed a 28% prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Surgeons and radiologists are encouraged to consider this association.

  11. Subscapularis tendon tears

    PubMed Central

    Lenart, Brett A.; Ticker, Jonathan B.

    2017-01-01

    Tears of the subscapularis tendon have been under-recognised until recently. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is essential for diagnosis. A directed physical examination, including the lift-off, belly-press and increased passive external rotation can help identify tears of the subscapularis. All planes on MR imaging should be carefully evaluated to identify tears of the subscapularis, retraction, atrophy and biceps pathology. Due to the tendency of the tendon to retract medially, acute and traumatic full-thickness tears should be repaired. Chronic tears without significant degeneration should be considered for repair if no contraindication exists. Arthroscopic repair can be performed using a 30-degree arthroscope and a laterally-based single row repair; one anchor for full thickness tears ⩽ 50% of tendon length and two anchors for those ⩾ 50% of tendon length. Biceps pathology, which is invariably present, should be addressed by tenotomy or tenodesis. Timing of post-operative rehabilitation is dictated by the size of the repair and the security of the repair construct. The stages of rehabilitation typically involve a period of immobilisation followed by range of movement exercises, with a delay in active internal rotation (IR) and strengthening in IR. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:484–495. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.170015 PMID:29387471

  12. [Reconstruction of chronic Achilles tendon rupture with flexor hallucis longus tendon harvested using a minimally invasive technique].

    PubMed

    Miao, Xudong; Wu, Yongping; Tao, Huimin; Yang, Disheng

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of flexor hallucis longus tendon harvested using a minimally invasive technique in reconstruction of chronic Achilles tendon rupture. Between July 2006 and December 2009, 22 patients (22 feet) with chronic Achilles tendon rupture were treated, including 16 males and 6 females with a median age of 48 years (range, 28-65 years). The disease duration was 27-1,025 days (median, 51 days). Twenty-one patients had hooflike movement's history and 1 patient had no obvious inducement. The result of Thompson test was positive in 22 cases. The score was 53.04 +/- 6.75 according to American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle and hindfoot score system. MRI indicated that the gap of the chronic Achilles tendon rupture was 4.2-8.0 cm. A 3 cm-long incision was made vertically in the plantar aspect of the midfoot and a 1 cm-long transverse incision was made in a plantar flexor crease at the base of the great toe to harvest flexor hallucis longus tendon. The flexor hallucis longus tendon was 10.5-13.5 cm longer from tuber calcanei to the end of the Achilles tendon, and then the tendon was fixed to the tuber calcanei using interface screws or anchor nail after they were woven to form reflexed 3-bundle and sutured. Wound healed by first intention in all patients and no early complication occurred. Twenty-two patients were followed up 12-42 months (mean, 16.7 months). At 12 months after operation, The AOFAS ankle and hindfoot score was 92.98 +/- 5.72, showing significant difference when compared with that before operation (t= -40.903, P=0.000). The results were excellent in 18 cases, good in 2 cases, and fair in 2 cases with an excellent and good rate of 90.9%. No sural nerve injury, posterior tibial nerve injury, plantar painful scar, medial plantar nerve injury, and lateral plantar nerve injury occurred. Chronic Achilles tendon rupture reconstruction with flexor hallucis longus tendon harvested using a minimally invasive technique offers a

  13. Semitendinosus Tendon Autograft for Reconstruction of Large Defects in Chronic Achilles Tendon Ruptures.

    PubMed

    Dumbre Patil, Sampat Shivajirao; Dumbre Patil, Vaishali Sampat; Basa, Vikas Rajeshwarrao; Dombale, Ajay Birappa

    2014-07-01

    Chronic Achilles tendon ruptures are associated with considerable functional morbidity. When treated operatively, debridement of degenerated tendon ends may create large defects. Various procedures to reconstruct large defects have been described. We present a simple technique in which an autologous semitendinosus tendon graft is used to reconstruct defects larger than 5 cm in chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to describe our operative technique and its functional outcome. Achilles ruptures of more than 6 weeks duration were considered for the study. We treated 35 patients (20 males, 15 females) with symptomatic chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. The mean age was 47.4 years (range, 30 to 59). The smallest defect that we had reconstructed was 5 cm, and the largest was 9 cm in length. The average follow-up duration was 30.7 months (range, 20 to 42). Postoperatively, the strength of gastrocsoleus was measured by manual muscle testing (MMT) in non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing positions. All operated patients showed satisfactory functional outcome, good soft tissue healing, and no reruptures. The preoperative weight-bearing MMT of 2/5 improved to 4/5 or 5/5 postoperatively. In all patients, postoperative non-weight-bearing MMT was 5/5. All patients returned to their prerupture daily activity. We present a technique that is simple, with low morbidity. We believe it is a valuable option especially when allografts are not available. It is inexpensive as suture anchors or tenodesis screws are not used. This can be a useful option if other tendons (flexor hallucis longus, peroneus brevis, etc) are not available for transfer. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Specialization of tendon mechanical properties results from interfascicular differences

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Udeze, Chineye P.; Birch, Helen L.; Clegg, Peter D.; Screen, Hazel R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Tendons transfer force from muscle to bone. Specific tendons, including the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), also store and return energy. For efficient function, energy-storing tendons need to be more extensible than positional tendons such as the common digital extensor tendon (CDET), and when tested in vitro have a lower modulus and failure stress, but a higher failure strain. It is not known how differences in matrix organization contribute to distinct mechanical properties in functionally different tendons. We investigated the properties of whole tendons, tendon fascicles and the fascicular interface in the high-strain energy-storing SDFT and low-strain positional CDET. Fascicles failed at lower stresses and strains than tendons. The SDFT was more extensible than the CDET, but SDFT fascicles failed at lower strains than CDET fascicles, resulting in large differences between tendon and fascicle failure strain in the SDFT. At physiological loads, the stiffness at the fascicular interface was lower in the SDFT samples, enabling a greater fascicle sliding that could account for differences in tendon and fascicle failure strain. Sliding between fascicles prior to fascicle extension in the SDFT may allow the large extensions required in energy-storing tendons while protecting fascicles from damage. PMID:22764132

  15. Specialization of tendon mechanical properties results from interfascicular differences.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Udeze, Chineye P; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C

    2012-11-07

    Tendons transfer force from muscle to bone. Specific tendons, including the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), also store and return energy. For efficient function, energy-storing tendons need to be more extensible than positional tendons such as the common digital extensor tendon (CDET), and when tested in vitro have a lower modulus and failure stress, but a higher failure strain. It is not known how differences in matrix organization contribute to distinct mechanical properties in functionally different tendons. We investigated the properties of whole tendons, tendon fascicles and the fascicular interface in the high-strain energy-storing SDFT and low-strain positional CDET. Fascicles failed at lower stresses and strains than tendons. The SDFT was more extensible than the CDET, but SDFT fascicles failed at lower strains than CDET fascicles, resulting in large differences between tendon and fascicle failure strain in the SDFT. At physiological loads, the stiffness at the fascicular interface was lower in the SDFT samples, enabling a greater fascicle sliding that could account for differences in tendon and fascicle failure strain. Sliding between fascicles prior to fascicle extension in the SDFT may allow the large extensions required in energy-storing tendons while protecting fascicles from damage.

  16. Development of an Intelligent Stretching Device for Ankle Joints With Contracture/Spasticity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    percentage corresponded to background dorsi-flexion muscle contraction and 0% was the relaxed state. Next, tendon reflexes were evaluated...the representative cases, joint stiffness was reduced markedly after stretching across the range of muscle contraction (Fig. 5), including both

  17. The interfascicular matrix enables fascicle sliding and recovery in tendon, and behaves more elastically in energy storing tendons

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Godinho, Marta S.C.; Riley, Graham P.; Birch, Helen L.; Clegg, Peter D.; Screen, Hazel R.C.

    2015-01-01

    While the predominant function of all tendons is to transfer force from muscle to bone and position the limbs, some tendons additionally function as energy stores, reducing the cost of locomotion. Energy storing tendons experience extremely high strains and need to be able to recoil efficiently for maximum energy storage and return. In the equine forelimb, the energy storing superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) has much higher failure strains than the positional common digital extensor tendon (CDET). However, we have previously shown that this is not due to differences in the properties of the SDFT and CDET fascicles (the largest tendon subunits). Instead, there is a greater capacity for interfascicular sliding in the SDFT which facilitates the greater extensions in this particular tendon (Thorpe et al., 2012). In the current study, we exposed fascicles and interfascicular matrix (IFM) from the SDFT and CDET to cyclic loading followed by a test to failure. The results show that IFM mechanical behaviour is not a result of irreversible deformation, but the IFM is able to withstand cyclic loading, and is more elastic in the SDFT than in the CDET. We also assessed the effect of ageing on IFM properties, demonstrating that the IFM is less able to resist repetitive loading as it ages, becoming stiffer with increasing age in the SDFT. These results provide further indications that the IFM is important for efficient function in energy storing tendons, and age-related alterations to the IFM may compromise function and predispose older tendons to injury. PMID:25958330

  18. The interfascicular matrix enables fascicle sliding and recovery in tendon, and behaves more elastically in energy storing tendons.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Godinho, Marta S C; Riley, Graham P; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C

    2015-12-01

    While the predominant function of all tendons is to transfer force from muscle to bone and position the limbs, some tendons additionally function as energy stores, reducing the cost of locomotion. Energy storing tendons experience extremely high strains and need to be able to recoil efficiently for maximum energy storage and return. In the equine forelimb, the energy storing superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) has much higher failure strains than the positional common digital extensor tendon (CDET). However, we have previously shown that this is not due to differences in the properties of the SDFT and CDET fascicles (the largest tendon subunits). Instead, there is a greater capacity for interfascicular sliding in the SDFT which facilitates the greater extensions in this particular tendon (Thorpe et al., 2012). In the current study, we exposed fascicles and interfascicular matrix (IFM) from the SDFT and CDET to cyclic loading followed by a test to failure. The results show that IFM mechanical behaviour is not a result of irreversible deformation, but the IFM is able to withstand cyclic loading, and is more elastic in the SDFT than in the CDET. We also assessed the effect of ageing on IFM properties, demonstrating that the IFM is less able to resist repetitive loading as it ages, becoming stiffer with increasing age in the SDFT. These results provide further indications that the IFM is important for efficient function in energy storing tendons, and age-related alterations to the IFM may compromise function and predispose older tendons to injury. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Muscle-tendon glucose uptake in Achilles tendon rupture and tendinopathy before and after eccentric rehabilitation: Comparative case reports.

    PubMed

    Masood, Tahir; Kalliokoski, Kari; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Finni, Taija

    2016-09-01

    Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) is the most common tendon rupture injury. The consequences of ATR on metabolic activity of the Achilles tendon and ankle plantarflexors are unknown. Furthermore, the effects of eccentric rehabilitation on metabolic activity patterns of Achilles tendon and ankle plantarflexors in ATR patients have not been reported thus far. We present a case study demonstrating glucose uptake (GU) in the Achilles tendon, the triceps surae, and the flexor hallucis longus of a post-surgical ATR patient before and after a 5-month eccentric rehabilitation. At baseline, three months post-surgery, all muscles and Achilles tendon displayed much higher GU in the ATR patient compared to a healthy individual despite lower plantarflexion force. After the rehabilitation, plantarflexion force increased in the operated leg while muscle GU was considerably reduced. The triceps surae muscles showed similar values to the healthy control. When compared to the healthy or a matched patient with Achilles tendon pain after 12 weeks of rehabilitation, Achilles tendon GU levels of ATR patient remained greater after the rehabilitation. Past studies have shown a shift in the metabolic fuel utilization towards glycolysis due to immobilization. Further research, combined with immuno-histological investigation, is needed to fully understand the mechanism behind excessive glucose uptake in ATR cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Partial supraspinatus tears are associated with tendon lengthening.

    PubMed

    Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A; Buck, Florian M; Farshad, Mazda; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Gerber, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Tendon tear may result in muscular retraction with the loss of contractile amplitude and strength of the rotator cuff muscles. Currently, neither a validated method of measuring supraspinatus tendon length nor normal values are known. It was therefore the purpose of this study to measure the normal length of the supraspinatus tendon and to determine whether partial tears are associated with changes in tendon length. MR examinations of 49 asymptomatic volunteers and 37 patients with arthroscopically proven, isolated partial tears of the supraspinatus tendon were compared. The ratio of the extramuscular tendon length to the distance between the footprint and the glenoid surface was calculated (TL/FG ratio). Tendon length measurements were taken by two independent readers at the bursal and articular surfaces at the anterior, the central and the posterior parts of the tendon. TL/FG ratios at the bursal surface of tendons with partial tears were significantly higher than those in the control group [anterior: 0.78 ± 0.20 vs. 0.66 ± 0.15 (p < 0.05); central: 0.61 ± 0.13 vs. 0.52 ± 0.10 (p < 0.05); posterior: 0.57 ± 0.15 vs. 0.52 ± 0.10 (p < 0.05)]. At the articular surface, differences were significant only anteriorly [0.60 ± 0.13, vs. 0.54 ± 0.10 (p < 0.05)]. A cut-off TL/FG ratio of 0.63 for measurements at the bursal surface in the center of the tendon achieved a sensitivity of 46 % and a specificity of 92 % for the identification of partial cuff tearing. A reproducible method for measurement of extramuscular supraspinatus tendon length is described. Partial tearing of the supraspinatus tendon is associated with significant tendon lengthening, suggesting failure in continuity, and this is most reliably measured on the bursal surface. III.

  1. A Biomechanical Comparison of Allograft Tendons for Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jeremiah E; Russell, Joseph P; Grieshober, Jason; Iacangelo, Abigail; Ellison, Benjamin A; Lease, T Dylan; Kim, Hyunchul; Henn, R Frank; Hsieh, Adam H

    2017-03-01

    Allograft tendons are frequently used for ligament reconstruction about the knee, but they entail availability and cost challenges. The identification of other tissues that demonstrate equivalent performance to preferred tendons would improve limitations. Hypothesis/Purpose: We compared the biomechanical properties of 4 soft tissue allograft tendons: tibialis anterior (TA), tibialis posterior (TP), peroneus longus (PL), and semitendinosus (ST). We hypothesized that allograft properties would be similar when standardized by the looped diameter. Controlled laboratory study. This study consisted of 2 arms evaluating large and small looped-diameter grafts: experiment A consisted of TA, TP, and PL tendons (n = 47 each) with larger looped diameters of 9.0 to 9.5 mm, and experiment B consisted of TA, TP, PL, and ST tendons (n = 53 each) with smaller looped diameters of 7.0 to 7.5 mm. Each specimen underwent mechanical testing to measure the modulus of elasticity (E), ultimate tensile force (UTF), maximal elongation at failure, ultimate tensile stress (UTS), and ultimate tensile strain (UTε). Experiment A: No significant differences were noted among tendons for UTF, maximal elongation at failure, and UTϵ. UTS was significantly higher for the PL (54 MPa) compared with the TA (44 MPa) and TP (43 MPa) tendons. E was significantly higher for the PL (501 MPa) compared with the TP (416 MPa) tendons. Equivalence testing showed that the TP and PL tendon properties were equivalent or superior to those of the TA tendons for all outcomes. Experiment B: All groups exhibited a similar E. UTF was again highest in the PL tendons (2294 N) but was significantly different from only the ST tendons (1915 N). UTϵ was significantly higher for the ST (0.22) compared with the TA (0.19) and TP (0.19) tendons. Equivalence testing showed that the TA, TP, and PL tendon properties were equivalent or superior to those of the ST tendons. Compared with TA tendons, TP and PL tendons of a given looped

  2. Rat supraspinatus muscle atrophy after tendon detachment.

    PubMed

    Barton, Elisabeth R; Gimbel, Jonathan A; Williams, Gerald R; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2005-03-01

    Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common tendon disorders found in the healthy population. Tendon tears not only affect the biomechanical properties of the tendon, but can also lead to debilitation of the muscles attached to the damaged tendons. The changes that occur in the muscle after tendon detachment are not well understood. A rat rotator cuff model was utilized to determine the time course of changes that occur in the supraspinatus muscle after tendon detachment. It was hypothesized that the lack of load on the supraspinatus muscle would cause a significant decrease in muscle mass and a conversion of muscle fiber properties toward those of fast fiber types. Tendons were detached at the insertion on the humerus without repair. Muscle mass, morphology and fiber properties were measured at one, two, four, eight, and 16 weeks after detachment. Tendon detachment resulted in a rapid loss of muscle mass, an increase in the proportion of fast muscle fibers, and an increase in the fibrotic content of the muscle bed, concomitant with the appearance of adhesions of the tendon to surrounding surfaces. At 16 weeks post-detachment, muscle mass and the fiber properties in the deep muscle layers returned to normal levels. However, the fiber shifts observed in the superficial layers persisted throughout the experiment. These results suggest that load returned to the muscle via adhesions to surrounding surfaces, which may be sufficient to reverse changes in muscle mass.

  3. The flexor digitorum profundus "demi-tendon"--a new technique for passage of the flexor profundus tendon through the A4 pulley.

    PubMed

    Elliot, D; Khandwala, A R; Ragoowansi, R

    2001-10-01

    The flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon may retract after avulsion or division in Zone 1. When treatment has been delayed, the oedematous tendon can be too swollen to pass freely through the A4 pulley. We present a new technique for dealing with this situation which depends on the "double-barrelled" nature of the distal part of the FDP tendon. One half of the tendon is excised longitudinally and the remaining "demi-tendon" is passed through the intact A4 pulley to allow tendon repair or re-attachment. This technique has been used in six cases in which passage of the FDP tendon through the A4 pulley would otherwise have been impossible. Copyright 2001 The British Society for Surgery of the Hand.

  4. THE ROLE OF MECHANOBIOLOGY IN TENDON HEALING

    PubMed Central

    Killian, Megan L.; Cavinatto, Leonardo; Galatz, Leesa M.; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical cues affect tendon healing, homeostasis, and development in a variety of settings. Alterations in the mechanical environment are known to result in changes in the expression of extracellular matrix proteins, growth factors, transcription factors, and cytokines that can alter tendon structure and cell viability. Loss of muscle force in utero or in the immediate postnatal period delays tendon and enthesis development. The response of healing tendons to mechanical load varies depending on anatomic location. Flexor tendons require motion to prevent adhesion formation, yet excessive force results in gap formation and subsequent weakening of the repair. Excessive motion in the setting of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction causes accumulation of macrophages, which are detrimental to tendon graft healing. Complete removal of load is detrimental to rotator cuff healing, yet large forces are also harmful. Controlled loading can enhance healing in most settings; however, a fine balance must be reached between loads that are too low (leading to a catabolic state) and too high (leading to micro-damage). This review will summarize existing knowledge of the mechanobiology of tendon development, homeostasis, and healing. PMID:22244066

  5. Elastofibroma dorsi: review of 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Cavallasca, Javier A; Sohn, Debora I; Borgia, Ariel R; Maliandi, María Del Rosario; Musuruana, Jorge L

    2012-01-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a benign, uncommon fibroelastic tissue condition, more common in women after the fifth decade of life. It is usually located in the subscapular region, and can sometimes be bilateral. We present 4 patients, between 53 and 73 years of age, with this disease. It is often an asymptomatic lesion that can manifest, even at its apex, with mild pain when moving the scapula. All our patients had pain.The diagnosis is based on clinical findings and imaging studies, especially ultrasound, computed tomography, and nuclear magnetic resonance. The biopsy is reserved for patients who have no characteristic signs on imaging. In our series, surgical excision was necessary in one of the patients, and in the others, clinical and imaging studies allowed us to arrive at a definitive diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel biodegradable PCL film for tendon reconstruction: Achilles tendon defect model in rats.

    PubMed

    Kazimoğlu, C; Bölükbaşi, S; Kanatli, U; Senköylü, A; Altun, N S; Babaç, C; Yavuz, H; Pişkin, E

    2003-09-01

    This study aims to investigate applicability of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) biodegradable films for repair of gaps in Achilles tendons in a rat model, also comparing surgical repair versus no repair approaches. PCL was synthesized with tailor-made properties, then, PCL films were prepared by solvent casting. Seventy-five outbred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: (i) sham operated (skin incision only); (ii) no repair (complete division of the Achilles tendon and plantaris tendon without repair); (iii) Achilles repair (with a modified Kessler type suture); and (iv) plasty of Achilles tendon defects with the biodegradable PCL films, and (v) animals subjected to 1 cm mid-substance defect with no repair. Functional performance was determined from the measurements of hindpaw prints utilizing the Achilles functional index. The animals were killed 8 weeks after surgery and histological and biomechanical evaluations were made. All groups subjected to Achilles tendon division had a significant functional impairment that gradually improved so that by day 28 there were no functional impairments in any group whereas animals with a defect remained impaired. The magnitude of the biomechanical and morphological changes at postoperative 8 weeks were similar for no repair group (conservative), Achilles repair group and tendonplasty group (biodegradable PCL film group). The initial rate of functional recovery was significantly different for primary suture, Achilles repair group and PCL film group (p>0.01). But, at the 28th day, functional recovery was quite similar to the other groups. In summary, our results suggest that the PCL film can be an alternative biomaterial for tendon replacement.

  7. Fibrocartilage associated with human tendons and their pulleys.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Qin, S; Ralphs, J R

    1995-01-01

    The presence of fibrocartilage in tendons that wrap around bony or fibrous pulleys is well known. It is an adaptation to resisting compression or shear, but the extent to which the structure of most human tendons is modified where they contact pulleys is less clear, for there has been no single comprehensive survey of a large number of sites. Less is known of the structure of the corresponding pulleys. In the present study, 38 regions of tendons that wrap around bony pulleys or pass beneath fibrous retinacula have been studied in routine histology sections taken from each of 2 or 3 elderly dissecting room cadavers. Most of the corresponding pulleys have also been examined. Fibrocartilage was present in 22 of the 38 tendon sites and it was most conspicuous where the tendons pressed predominantly against bone rather than retinacula and where they showed a large change in direction. Fibrocartilage was more characteristic of tendons at the ankle than the wrist, probably because the long axis of the foot is at right angles to that of the leg. There was considerable variation in the structure of tendon fibrocartilage. The most fibrocartilaginous tendons had oval or round cells embedded in a highly metachromatic matrix with interwoven or spiralling collagen fibres. At other sites, fibrocartilage cells were arranged in rows between parallel collagen fibres. The differences probably relate to differences in development. A single tendon could be modified at successive points along its length and fibrocartilage could be present in the endotenon and epitenon as well as in the tendon itself. Pathological changes seen in 'wrap around' tendons were fragmentation and partial delamination of the compressed surface, chondrocyte clustering, fatty infiltration and bone formation. Three types of pulleys were described for tendons--bony prominences and grooves, fibrous retinacula and synovial joints. The extent of cartilaginous differentiation on the periosteum of bony pulleys

  8. Achilles Tendon Rupture: Avoiding Tendon Lengthening during Surgical Repair and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Maquirriain, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Achilles tendon rupture is a serious injury for which the best treatment is still controversial. Its primary goal should be to restore normal length and tension, thus obtaining an optimal function. Tendon elongation correlates significantly with clinical outcome; lengthening is an important cause of morbidity and may produce permanent functional impairment. In this article, we review all factors that may influence the repair, including the type of surgical technique, suture material, and rehabilitation program, among many others. PMID:21966048

  9. The revitalisation of flexor tendon allografts with bone marrow stromal cells and mechanical stimulation: An ex vivo model revitalising flexor tendon allografts.

    PubMed

    Wu, J H; Thoreson, A R; Gingery, A; An, K N; Moran, S L; Amadio, P C; Zhao, C

    2017-03-01

    The present study describes a novel technique for revitalising allogenic intrasynovial tendons by combining cell-based therapy and mechanical stimulation in an ex vivo canine model. Specifically, canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons were used for this study and were divided into the following groups: (1) untreated, unprocessed normal tendon; (2) decellularised tendon; (3) bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC)-seeded tendon; and (4) BMSC-seeded and cyclically stretched tendon. Lateral slits were introduced on the tendon to facilitate cell seeding. Tendons from all four study groups were distracted by a servohydraulic testing machine. Tensile force and displacement data were continuously recorded at a sample rate of 20 Hz until 200 Newton of force was reached. Before testing, the cross-sectional dimensions of each tendon were measured with a digital caliper. Young's modulus was calculated from the slope of the linear region of the stress-strain curve. The BMSCs were labeled for histological and cell viability evaluation on the decellularized tendon scaffold under a confocal microscope. Gene expression levels of selected extracellular matrix tendon growth factor genes were measured. Results were reported as mean ± SD and data was analyzed with one-way ANOVAs followed by Tukey's post hoc multiple-comparison test. We observed no significant difference in cross-sectional area or in Young's modulus among the four study groups. In addition, histological sections showed that the BMSCs were aligned well and viable on the tendon slices after two-week culture in groups three and four. Expression levels of several extracellular matrix tendon growth factors, including collagen type I, collagen type III, and matrix metalloproteinase were significantly higher in group four than in group three (p < 0.05). Lateral slits introduced into de-cellularised tendon is a promising method of delivery of BMSCs without compromising cell viability and tendon mechanical properties. In addition

  10. Shear load transfer in high and low stress tendons.

    PubMed

    Kondratko-Mittnacht, Jaclyn; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Lakes, Roderic; Vanderby, Ray

    2015-05-01

    Tendon is an integral part of joint movement and stability, as it functions to transmit load from muscle to bone. It has an anisotropic, fibrous hierarchical structure that is generally loaded in the direction of its fibers/fascicles. Internal load distributions are altered when joint motion rotates an insertion site or when local damage disrupts fibers/fascicles, potentially causing inter-fiber (or inter-fascicular) shear. Tendons with different microstructures (helical versus linear) may redistribute loads differently. This study explored how shear redistributes axial loads in rat tail tendon (low stress tendons with linear microstructure) and porcine flexor tendon (high stress with helical microstructure) by creating lacerations on opposite sides of the tendon, ranging from about 20% to 60% of the tendon width, to create various magnitudes of shear. Differences in fascicular orientation were quantified using polarized light microscopy. Unexpectedly, both tendon types maintained about 20% of pre-laceration stress values after overlapping cuts of 60% of tendon width (no intact fibers end to end) suggesting that shear stress transfer can contribute more to overall tendon strength and stiffness than previously reported. All structural parameters for both tendon types decreased linearly with increasing laceration depth. The tail tendon had a more rapid decline in post-laceration elastic stress and modulus parameters as well as a more linear and less tightly packed fascicular structure, suggesting that positional tendons may be less well suited to redistribute loads via a shear mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Shear Load Transfer in High and Low Stress Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Kondratko-Mittnacht, Jaclyn; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Lakes, Roderic; Vanderby, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Background Tendon is an integral part of joint movement and stability, as it functions to transmit load from muscle to bone. It has an anisotropic, fibrous hierarchical structure that is generally loaded in the direction of its fibers/fascicles. Internal load distributions are altered when joint motion rotates an insertion site or when local damage disrupts fibers/fascicles, potentially causing inter-fiber (or inter-fascicular) shear. Tendons with different microstructure (helical versus linear) may redistribute loads differently. Method of Approach This study explored how shear redistributes axial loads in rat tail tendon (low stress tendons with linear microstructure) and porcine flexor tendon (high stress with helical microstructure) by creating lacerations on opposite sides of the tendon, ranging from about 20-60% of the tendon width, to create various magnitudes of shear. Differences in fascicular orientation were quantified using polarized light microscopy. Results and Conclusions Unexpectedly, both tendon types maintained about 20% of pre-laceration stress values after overlapping cuts of 60% of tendon width (no intact fibers end to end) suggesting that shear stress transfer can contribute more to overall tendon strength and stiffness than previously reported. All structural parameters for both tendon types decreased linearly with increasing laceration depth. The tail tendon had a more rapid decline in post-laceration elastic stress and modulus parameters as well as a more linear and less tightly packed fascicular structure, suggesting that positional tendons may be less well suited to redistribute loads via a shear mechanism. PMID:25700261

  12. Matrix metabolism rate differs in functionally distinct tendons.

    PubMed

    Birch, Helen L; Worboys, Sarah; Eissa, Sabry; Jackson, Brendan; Strassburg, Sandra; Clegg, Peter D

    2008-04-01

    Tendon matrix integrity is vital to ensure adequate mechanical properties for efficient function. Although historically tendon was considered to be relatively inert, recent studies have shown that tendon matrix turnover is active. During normal physiological activities some tendons are subjected to stress and strains much closer to their failure properties than others. Tendons with low safety margins are those which function as energy stores such as the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) and human Achilles tendon (AT). We postulate therefore that energy storing tendons suffer a higher degree of micro-damage and thus have a higher rate of matrix turnover than positional tendons. The hypothesis was tested using tissue from the equine SDFT and common digital extensor tendon (CDET). Matrix turnover was assessed indirectly by a combination of measurements for matrix age, markers of degradation, potential for degradation and protein expression. Results show that despite higher cellularity, the SDFT has lower relative levels of mRNA for collagen types I and III. Non-collagenous proteins, although expressed at different levels per cell, do not appear to differ between tendon types. Relative levels of mRNA for MMP1, MMP13 and both pro-MMP3 and MMP13 protein activity were significantly higher in the CDET. Correspondingly levels of cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) were higher in the CDET and tissue fluorescence lower suggesting more rapid turnover of the collagenous component. Reduced or inhibited collagen turnover in the SDFT may account for the high level of degeneration and subsequent injury compared to the CDET.

  13. Evaluating Changes in Tendon Crimp with Fatigue Loading as an ex vivo Structural Assessment of Tendon Damage

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Benjamin R.; Zuskov, Andrey; Sarver, Joseph J.; Buckley, Mark R.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The complex structure of tendons relates to their mechanical properties. Previous research has associated the waviness of collagen fibers (crimp) during quasi-static tensile loading to tensile mechanics, but less is known about the role of fatigue loading on crimp properties. In this study (IACUC approved), mouse patellar tendons were fatigue loaded while an integrated plane polariscope simultaneously assessed crimp properties. We demonstrate a novel structural mechanism whereby tendon crimp amplitude and frequency are altered with fatigue loading. In particular, fatigue loading increased the crimp amplitude across the tendon width and length, and these structural alterations were shown to be both region and load dependent. The change in crimp amplitude was strongly correlated to mechanical tissue laxity (defined as the ratio of displacement and gauge length relative to the first cycle of fatigue loading assessed at constant load throughout testing), at all loads and regions evaluated. Together, this study highlights the role of fatigue loading on tendon crimp properties as a function of load applied and region evaluated, and offers an additional structural mechanism for mechanical alterations that may lead to ultimate tendon failure. PMID:25773654

  14. [Anterior dislocation of the popliteus tendon].

    PubMed

    Martinez Molina, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    Review the most relevant aspects of the posterolateral corner anatomy of the knee, based on the analysis of papers that throughout the years have made important contributions to the knowledge of these structures. Last et al rejected the idea that the popliteal tendon is an isolated structure, suggesting rather that its variants are closely linked to other anatomical structures. The studies by Tria et al contributed the features of the tendon as it attaches to the lateral condyle, just to mention a couple of examples. This is the case of a 48 year-old female patient with a knee injury caused by an external rotation mechanism. Clinical features included pain, a protruding sensation in the lateral aspect of the knee, and voluntary pseudoblocking resulting from external rotation maneuvers. Knee arthroscopy was performed and dislocation of the popliteal tendon anterior to the lateral condyle was diagnosed, besides a longitudinal tear. The tendon was repositioned, radiofrequency was applied to both the tendon and the popliteal hiatus, and the former was kept in place with a plaster cast worn for 6 weeks. Even though the isolated tear or avulsion of the tendon has already been reported, the dislocation or instability of the popliteal tendon as it relates to the lateral femoral condyle has apparently not been approached yet. As we did in this case, other authors have also confirmed the diagnosis arthroscopically, Naver in 1985, Rose in 1988, and Burstein in 1990.

  15. Minimally invasive reconstruction of chronic achilles tendon ruptures using the ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft and interference screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Loppini, Mattia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Maffulli, Gayle D; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2013-05-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures represent more than 40% of all tendon ruptures requiring surgical management. About 20% of acute Achilles tendon tears are not diagnosed at the time of injury and become chronic, necessitating more complicated management than fresh injuries. Several techniques for the reconstruction of chronic tears of the Achilles tendon have been described, but the superiority of one technique over the others has not been demonstrated. Mini-invasive reconstruction of the Achilles tendon, with a gap lesion larger than 6 cm, using the ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft will result in improvement of the overall function with a low rate of complications. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between 2008 and 2010, the authors prospectively enrolled 28 consecutive patients (21 men and 7 women; median age, 46 years) with chronic closed ruptures of the Achilles tendon who had undergone reconstruction with a free semitendinosus tendon graft. They assessed the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS), maximum calf circumference, and isometric plantarflexion strength before surgery and at the last follow-up. Outcome of surgery and rate of complications were also recorded. The median follow-up after surgery was 31.4 months. The overall result of surgery was excellent/good in 26 (93%) of 28 patients. The ATRS improved from 42 (range, 29-55) to 86 (range, 78-95) (P < .0001). In the operated leg, the maximum calf circumference and isometric plantarflexion strength were significantly improved after surgery (P < .0001); however, their values remained significantly lower than those of the opposite side (P < .0001). All patients were able to walk on tiptoes and returned to their preinjury working occupation. No infections were recorded. Mini-invasive reconstruction of the Achilles tendon, with a gap lesion larger than 6 cm, using the ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft provides a significant improvement of symptoms and function, although calf

  16. Surgical treatment for partial rupture of the distal biceps tendon using palmaris longus tendon graft: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Yasuhiro; Wada, Takuro; Iba, Kousuke; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2018-03-08

    We report a case of a partial rupture of the distal biceps tendon that was surgically treated using a palmaris longus tendon graft. A 58-year-old man complained of increasing pain with resisted elbow flexion and supination in the antecubital fossa. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the irregularity of a distal attachment of the biceps brachii and peripheral signal changes. We diagnosed a partial rupture of the distal biceps tendon. Because conservative treatment failed, surgical treatment was performed through a single anterior approach. The insertion of the tendon was partially ruptured at the radial tuberosity. After the involved site was debrided, the palmaris longus tendon was grafted with suture anchors to reinforce the remaining tendon. Postoperative immobilization was not performed, and all moves were freed after 3 weeks. At the 6-year postoperative follow-up, the patient no longer experienced pain and returned to his original job without any limitations. Copyright © 2018 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Proteomic changes involved in tenderization of bovine Longissimus dorsi muscle during prolonged ageing.

    PubMed

    Polati, Rita; Menini, Michele; Robotti, Elisa; Millioni, Renato; Marengo, Emilio; Novelli, Enrico; Balzan, Stefania; Cecconi, Daniela

    2012-12-01

    To study proteomic changes involved in tenderization of bovine Longissimus dorsi four Charolaise heifers and four Charolaise bull's muscles were sampled at slaughter after early and long ageing (2-4°C for 12 and 26days respectively). Descriptive sensory evaluation of samples were performed and their tenderness evaluated by Warner-Bratzler shear force test. Protein composition of fresh muscle and of meat aged was analysed by cartesian and polar 2-D electrophoresis. Student's t-test and Ranking-PCA analyses were performed to detect proteomic modulation, and the selected protein spots were identified by nano-HPLC-Chip MS/MS. This research has demonstrated that there are no differences between proteomic patterns of male and females Longissimus dorsi muscle, and that the extension of ageing beyond 12days, did not brings any concrete advantage in terms of sensory quality. Furthermore, the data presented here demonstrated that meat maturation caused changes of the abundance of proteins involved in metabolic, structural, and stress related processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reconstruction of a ruptured patellar tendon using ipsilateral semitendinosus and gracilis tendons with preserved distal insertions: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute patellar tendon ruptures with poor tissue quality. Ruptures that have been neglected are difficult to repair. Several surgical techniques for the repair of the patellar tendon have been reported, however, these techniques remain difficult because of contractures, adhesions, and atrophy of the quadriceps muscle after surgery. Case presentation We report the cases of 2 Japanese patients (Case 1: a 16-year-old male and Case 2: a 43-year-old male) with patellar tendon ruptures who were treated by reconstruction using semitendinosus-gracilis (STG) tendons with preserved distal insertions. Retaining the original insertion of the STG appears to preserve its viability and provide the revascularization necessary to accelerate healing. Both tendons were placed in front of the patella, in a figure-of-eight fashion, providing stability to the patella. Conclusion Both patients recovered near normal strength and stability of the patellar tendon as well as restoration of function after the operation. PMID:24010848

  19. Using the zebrafish to understand tendon development and repair

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jessica W.; Galloway, Jenna L.

    2017-01-01

    Tendons are important components of our musculoskeletal system. Injuries to these tissues are very common, resulting from occupational-related injuries, sports-related trauma, and age-related degeneration. Unfortunately, there are few treatment options, and current therapies rarely restore injured tendons to their original function. An improved understanding of the pathways regulating their development and repair would have significant impact in stimulating the formulation of regenerative-based approaches for tendon injury. The zebrafish provides an ideal system in which to perform genetic and chemical screens to identify new pathways involved in tendon biology. Until recently, there had been few descriptions of tendons and ligaments in the zebrafish and their similarity to mammalian tendon tissues. In this chapter, we describe the development of the zebrafish tendon and ligament tissues in the context of their gene expression, structure, and interactions with neighboring musculoskeletal tissues. We highlight the similarities with tendon development in higher vertebrates, showing that the craniofacial tendons and ligaments in zebrafish morphologically, molecularly, and structurally resemble mammalian tendons and ligaments from embryonic to adult stages. We detail methods for fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry as an assay to examine morphological changes in the zebrafish musculoskeleton. Staining assays such as these could provide the foundation for screen-based approaches to identify new regulators of tendon development, morphogenesis, and repair. These discoveries would provide new targets and pathways to study in the context of regenerative medicine-based approaches to improve tendon healing. PMID:28129848

  20. An Overview of the Management of Flexor Tendon Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, M; Hindocha, S; Jordan, D; Saleh, M; Khan, W

    2012-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries still remain a challenging condition to manage to ensure optimal outcome for the patient. Since the first flexor tendon repair was described by Kirchmayr in 1917, several approaches to flexor tendon injury have enabled successful repairs rates of 70-90%. Primary surgical repair results in better functional outcome compared to secondary repair or tendon graft surgery. Flexor tendon injury repair has been extensively researched and the literature demonstrates successful repair requires minimal gapping at the repair site or interference with tendon vascularity, secure suture knots, smooth junction of tendon end and having sufficient strength for healing. However, the exact surgical approach to achieve success being currently used among surgeons is still controversial. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the results of studies demonstrating the current knowledge regarding the optimal approach for flexor tendon repair. Post-operative rehabilitation for flexor tendon surgery is another area, which has caused extensive debate in hand surgery. The trend to more active mobilisation protocols seems to be favoured but further study in this area is needed to find the protocol, which achieves function and gliding but avoids rupture of the tendons. Lastly despite success following surgery complications commonly still occur post surgery, including adhesion formation, tendon rupture and stiffness of the joints. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the appropriate management of these difficulties post surgery. New techniques in management of flexor tendon will also be discussed including external laser devices, addition of growth factors and cytokines. PMID:22431948

  1. 21 CFR 888.3025 - Passive tendon prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Passive tendon prosthesis. 888.3025 Section 888...) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3025 Passive tendon prosthesis. (a) Identification. A passive tendon prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted made of silicon elastomer or a...

  2. 21 CFR 888.3025 - Passive tendon prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Passive tendon prosthesis. 888.3025 Section 888...) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3025 Passive tendon prosthesis. (a) Identification. A passive tendon prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted made of silicon elastomer or a...

  3. [Results of flexor tendon sutures of the fingers with 2-strand (40 tendons) and 4-strand (64 tendons) core sutures].

    PubMed

    Winkel, R; Kalbhenn, O; Hoffmann, R

    2012-06-01

    This retrospective examination compares the results of finger flexor tendon sutures with 2 strands and 4 strands. It was checked, whether and how 2 more strands influenced the rupture rate, the movement of the finger and the contentment of the patients. From 1996 to 2000 for the core suture of the flexor tendon of fingers we used 2 strands. 35 patients with 40 tendon sutures of 73 patients were examined. From 2001 to 2005 we used for the core suture 2 loop threads. 53 patients with 64 tendon sutures from a total of 111 patients were examined. At least 12 months had passed between operation and the examination. The rupture rate and the range of movement of each finger joint and the total mobility of the affected fingers were evaluated. Each case was compared to the uninjured opposite hand. The functional result was judged according to the score of Buck-Gramcko. The patient's contentment was recorded by the DASH (disability of arm, shoulder and hand) score. Effects of gender, age, accompanying injuries, zone of the injury and their influence on the results were analysed. The Buck-Gramcko score showed in the 2-strand group a distribution from summarised 70% "excellent" and "good" and 30% "fair" and "poor". In the 4-strand-group the relation was 93.7% "excellent" and "good", 6.3% "fair", one "poor". In the 2-strand group 2/40 (5%) of the tendon sutures ruptured, in the 4-strand group 1/64 (1.6%) ruptured. The average DASH value in the 2-strands-group was 16.6/100, in the 4-strands-group 18.1/100 when 0 is the best possible result and 100 the worst. The patient judgement in the 2-strand group was summarised to 70% for "excellent" and "good" and 30% "fair" and "poor". In the 4-strand group the patient's judgment was summarised in 75% "excellent" and "good" and in 25% "fair". The results of flexor tendon sutures with 4-strand core sutures have been superior to the results with 2-strand core suture according to range of motion of the fingers (P <0.005). © Georg Thieme

  4. Biomechanical Cadaveric Evaluation of Partial Acute Peroneal Tendon Tears.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Emilio; Wagner, Pablo; Ortiz, Cristian; Radkievich, Ruben; Palma, Felipe; Guzmán-Venegas, Rodrigo

    2018-06-01

    No clear guideline or solid evidence exists for peroneal tendon tears to determine when to repair, resect, or perform a tenodesis on the damaged tendon. The objective of this study was to analyze the mechanical behavior of cadaveric peroneal tendons artificially damaged and tested in a cyclic and failure mode. The hypothesis was that no failure would be observed in the cyclic phase. Eight cadaveric long leg specimens were tested on a specially designed frame. A longitudinal full thickness tendon defect was created, 3 cm in length, behind the tip of the fibula, compromising 66% of the visible width of the peroneal tendons. Cyclic testing was initially performed between 50 and 200 N, followed by a load-to-failure test. Tendon elongation and load to rupture were measured. No tendon failed or lengthened during cyclic testing. The mean load to failure for peroneus brevis was 416 N (95% confidence interval, 351-481 N) and for the peroneus longus was 723 N (95% confidence interval, 578-868 N). All failures were at the level of the defect created. In a cadaveric model of peroneal tendon tears, 33% of remaining peroneal tendon could resist high tensile forces, above the physiologic threshold. Some peroneal tendon tears can be treated conservatively without risking spontaneous ruptures. When surgically treating a symptomatic peroneal tendon tear, increased efforts may be undertaken to repair tears previously considered irreparable.

  5. Augmented Repair of an Achilles Tendon Rupture Using the Flexor Digitorum Lateralis Tendon in a Toy Poodle.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Masaaki

    2016-11-01

    To report appositional augmentation of Achilles tendon rupture in a toy breed dog with an intact flexor digitorum lateralis (FDL) muscle tendon. Clinical case report. Two-year-old spayed female Toy Poodle with Achilles tendon rupture. The Achilles tendon was accidentally ruptured by hair clippers during grooming. The dog demonstrated a plantigrade stance without digital flexion of the right hind limb. The ruptured gastrocnemius and superficial digital flexor tendons were sutured to their respective cut ends using a simple locking loop pattern under a surgical microscope. The repair site was appositionally augmented by the caudally retracted intact FDL. An aluminum splint was applied on the plantar aspect to immobilize the tarsal joint for the first 2 weeks, after which a soft bandage was applied for another 2 weeks. At the 7 month follow-up no lameness was detected during walking and no complications associated with decreased FDL function such as digital contracture were observed. The range of motion of the tarsal joint had improved and could be flexed to ∼60° and extended fully. Use of the FDL is feasible for augmenting Achilles tendon repair in toy breed dogs. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. Bilateral Patellar Tendon Rupture.

    PubMed

    Kamienski, Mary

    The knee is the most complex and largest joint in the body. Injuries to any part of this joint affect the entire body. There are multiple injuries that can occur to the knee, with the most common being ligament and meniscus tears. A not-so-common injury to the knee is a patellar tendon rupture. A bilateral patellar tendon rupture is extremely rare. A case study of a 43-year-old man who sustained a bilateral patellar tendon rupture while playing softball is used to present this devastating injury. This discussion includes the incidence and diagnosis of the tear, surgical repair, as well as a description of the comprehensive rehabilitation process necessary to allow the patient to return to normal physical activity. Risks and complications of this surgery and the expected outcomes are also presented.

  7. Liposarcoma of the chest wall. Transformation of dedifferentiated liposarcoma from a recurrent lipoma.

    PubMed

    Bicakcioglu, Pinar; Sak, Serpil D; Tastepe, Abdullah I

    2012-08-01

    Liposarcoma is the second most common soft tissue sarcoma after malignant fibrous histiocytoma in adults. It is frequently found in the extremities and retroperitoneum; rarely it can be seen in the chest wall. We report a rare case of giant liposarcoma originating from the chest wall representing a transformation of a relapsing lipoma in the same region. We performed chest wall resection, reconstruction with latissimus dorsi muscle transposition via posterolateral thoracotomy. The patient received 4 series of adjuvant chemotherapy after the postoperative diagnosis of dedifferentiated liposarcoma. The patient had no postoperative complication and has remained disease-free for 30 months.

  8. Robot Arm with Tendon Connector Plate and Linear Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Millerman, Alexander (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Nguyen, Vienny (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a tendon-driven end effector, a linear actuator, a flexible tendon, and a plate assembly. The linear actuator assembly has a servo motor and a drive mechanism, the latter of which translates linearly with respect to a drive axis of the servo motor in response to output torque from the servo motor. The tendon connects to the end effector and drive mechanism. The plate assembly is disposed between the linear actuator assembly and the tendon-driven end effector and includes first and second plates. The first plate has a first side that defines a boss with a center opening. The second plate defines an accurate through-slot having tendon guide channels. The first plate defines a through passage for the tendon between the center opening and a second side of the first plate. A looped end of the flexible tendon is received within the tendon guide channels.

  9. [Flexor tendon repair: a short story].

    PubMed

    Moutet, F; Corcella, D; Forli, A; Mesquida, V

    2014-12-01

    This short story of flexor tendon repair aims to illustrate hesitations and wanderings of this surgery. Obviously tendon repair was very early considered, but it developed and diffused rather lately. It became a routine practice only in 20th century. This was due on the one hand, in Occident, to the Galen's dogmatic interdiction, on the other hand, to the repair difficulties of this paradoxical structure. Actually tendon is made of fibroblasts and collagen (sticky substances), and then its only goal is to move. According to this necessity, whatever the used techniques are, gliding is the final purpose. Technical evolutions are illustrated by historical contributions to flexor tendon surgery of several "giants" of hand surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Tendon Stem Cells in Chitosan/β-Glycerophosphate/Collagen Hydrogel on Achilles Tendon Healing in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhijin; Cao, Honghui; Gao, Shang; Yang, Mingyu; Lyu, Jingtong; Tang, Kanglai

    2017-09-27

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine whether the local application of tendon stem cells (TSCs) with chitosan/β-glycerophosphate/collagen(C/GP/Co) hydrogel promotes healing after an acute Achilles tendon injury in a rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to make an Achilles tendon defect model, then the animals were randomly divided into 4 groups consisting of 8 rats each: control group, hydrogel group, TSCs group, and TSCs with hydrogel group. At 2, 4, and 6 weeks after treatment, tendon samples were harvested, and the quality of tendon repair was evaluated based on histology, immunohistochemistry, and biomechanical properties. RESULTS Combining TSCs with C/GP/Co hydrogel significantly enhances tendon healing compared with the control, hydrogel, and TSCs groups. The improved healing was indicated by the improvement in histological and immunohistochemistry outcomes and the increase in the biomechanical properties of the regenerated tissue at both 4 and 6 weeks post-injury. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that the transplantation of TSCs combined with C/GP/Co hydrogel significantly improved the histological, immunohistochemistry, and biomechanical outcomes of the regenerated tissue at 4 and 6 weeks after implantation. TSCs with C/GP/Co hydrogel is a potentially effective treatment for tendon injury.

  11. New Developments Are Improving Flexor Tendon Repair.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin Bo

    2018-06-01

    New developments in primary tendon repair in recent decades include stronger core tendon repair techniques, judicious and adequate venting of critical pulleys, followed by a combination of passive and active digital flexion and extension. During repair, core sutures over the tendon should have sufficient suture purchase (no shorter than 0.7 to 1 cm) in each tendon end and must be sufficiently tensioned to resist loosening and gap formation between tendon ends. Slight or even modest bulkiness in the tendon substance at the repair site is not harmful, although marked bulkiness should always be avoided. To expose the tendon ends and reduce restriction to tendon gliding, the longest annular pulley in the fingers (i.e., the A2 pulley) can be vented partially with an incision over its distal or proximal sheath no longer than 1.5 to 2 cm; the annular pulley over the middle phalanx (i.e., the A4 pulley) can be vented entirely. Surgeons have not observed adverse effects on hand function after judicious and limited venting. The digital extension-flexion test to check the quality of the repair during surgery has become increasingly routine. A wide-awake surgical setting allows patient to actively move the digits. After surgery, surgeons and therapists protect patients with a short splint and flexible wrist positioning, and are now moving toward out-of-splint freer early active motion. Improved outcomes have been reported over the past decade with minimal or no rupture during postoperative active motion, along with lower rates of tenolysis.

  12. Rotator cuff tendon connections with the rotator cable.

    PubMed

    Rahu, Madis; Kolts, Ivo; Põldoja, Elle; Kask, Kristo

    2017-07-01

    The literature currently contains no descriptions of the rotator cuff tendons, which also describes in relation to the presence and characteristics of the rotator cable (anatomically known as the ligamentum semicirculare humeri). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the rotator cuff tendons in association with the rotator cable. Anatomic dissection was performed on 21 fresh-frozen shoulder specimens with an average age of 68 years. The rotator cuff tendons were dissected from each other and from the glenohumeral joint capsule, and the superior glenohumeral, coracohumeral, coracoglenoidal and semicircular (rotator cable) ligaments were dissected. Dissection was performed layer by layer and from the bursal side to the joint. All ligaments and tendons were dissected in fine detail. The rotator cable was found in all specimens. It was tightly connected to the supraspinatus (SSP) tendon, which was partly covered by the infraspinatus (ISP) tendon. The posterior insertion area of the rotator cable was located in the region between the middle and inferior facets of the greater tubercle of the humerus insertion areas for the teres minor (TM), and ISP tendons were also present and fibres from the SSP extended through the rotator cable to those areas. The connection between the rotator cable and rotator cuff tendons is tight and confirms the suspension bridge theory for rotator cuff tears in most areas between the SSP tendons and rotator cable. In its posterior insertion area, the rotator cable is a connecting structure between the TM, ISP and SSP tendons. These findings might explain why some patients with relatively large rotator cuff tears can maintain seamless shoulder function.

  13. Treatment of the neglected Achilles tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Nicholas J

    2012-04-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures are best managed acutely. Neglected Achilles tendon ruptures are debilitating injuries and the increased complexity of the situation must be appreciated. Surgical management is recommended, and only in the poorest surgical candidate is conservative treatment entertained. Numerous treatment algorithms and surgical techniques have been described. A V-Y advancement flap and flexor halluces longus tendon transfer have been found to be reliable and achieve good clinical outcomes for defects ranging from 2 cm to 8 cm. This article focuses on the treatment options for the neglected Achilles tendon rupture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between tendon stiffness and failure: a metaanalysis

    PubMed Central

    LaCroix, Andrew S.; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah E.; Lakes, Roderic S.

    2013-01-01

    Tendon is a highly specialized, hierarchical tissue designed to transfer forces from muscle to bone; complex viscoelastic and anisotropic behaviors have been extensively characterized for specific subsets of tendons. Reported mechanical data consistently show a pseudoelastic, stress-vs.-strain behavior with a linear slope after an initial toe region. Many studies report a linear, elastic modulus, or Young's modulus (hereafter called elastic modulus) and ultimate stress for their tendon specimens. Individually, these studies are unable to provide a broader, interstudy understanding of tendon mechanical behavior. Herein we present a metaanalysis of pooled mechanical data from a representative sample of tendons from different species. These data include healthy tendons and those altered by injury and healing, genetic modification, allograft preparation, mechanical environment, and age. Fifty studies were selected and analyzed. Despite a wide range of mechanical properties between and within species, elastic modulus and ultimate stress are highly correlated (R2 = 0.785), suggesting that tendon failure is highly strain-dependent. Furthermore, this relationship was observed to be predictable over controlled ranges of elastic moduli, as would be typical of any individual species. With the knowledge gained through this metaanalysis, noninvasive tools could measure elastic modulus in vivo and reasonably predict ultimate stress (or structural compromise) for diseased or injured tendon. PMID:23599401

  15. [Conservative functional treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures].

    PubMed

    Hüfner, T; Gaulke, R; Imrecke, J; Krettek, C; Stübig, T

    2010-09-01

    The conservative functional treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures has developed further over the last 20 years and is basically possible for 60-80% of patients. The treatment leads to success if the indications obtained by dynamic sonography are correctly interpreted (adaptation of the tendon ends up to 20 degrees plantar flexion), if the patient presents sufficient compliance and the physiotherapy is increasingly intensified depending on tendon healing. Modern ortheses allow an increased equinus position and therefore improved protection of the healing tendon. If these factors are present a relatively low re-rupture rate of only 7% can be achieved. The decisive advantage of conservative functional therapy is the avoidance of specific operative risks, such as infection and injury to the sural nerve. After removal of the orthesis the tendon should continue to be modeled using shoe insoles and raised heels.

  16. Position Control of Tendon-Driven Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E.; Platt, Robert, Jr.; Hargrave, B.; Pementer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Conventionally, tendon-driven manipulators implement some force control scheme based on tension feedback. This feedback allows the system to ensure that the tendons are maintained taut with proper levels of tensioning at all times. Occasionally, whether it is due to the lack of tension feedback or the inability to implement sufficiently high stiffnesses, a position control scheme is needed. This work compares three position controllers for tendon-driven manipulators. A new controller is introduced that achieves the best overall performance with regards to speed, accuracy, and transient behavior. To compensate for the lack of tension feedback, the controller nominally maintains the internal tension on the tendons by implementing a two-tier architecture with a range-space constraint. These control laws are validated experimentally on the Robonaut-2 humanoid hand. I

  17. Is the chronic painful tendinosis tendon a strong tendon?: a case study involving an Olympic weightlifter with chronic painful Jumper's knee.

    PubMed

    Gisslén, Karl; Ohberg, Lars; Alfredson, Håkan

    2006-09-01

    The chronic painful tendinosis tendon is generally considered a degenerated and weak tendon. However, this has not been scientifically verified, and is to be considered a hypothesis. We present here a case study involving a high-level Olympic weightlifter with chronic painful patellar tendinosis who started heavy-weight training very early after successful treatment with sclerosing injections. A 25-year-old super heavy-weight (+105 kg) Olympic weightlifter with 9 months duration of severe pain (prohibiting full training) in the proximal patellar tendon, where ultrasound and Doppler showed a widened tendon with structural changes and neovascularisation, was given one treatment with ultrasound and Doppler-guided injections of the sclerosing agent polidocanol. The injections targeted the neovessels posterior to the tendon. The patient was pain-free after the treatment, and already after 2-weeks he started with heavy-weight training (240 kg in deep squats) to try to qualify for the Olympics. Additional very heavy training on training camps, most often without having any discomfort or pain in the patellar tendon, resulted in Swedish records and ninth place at the European Championships 17 weeks after the treatment. Despite beating the national records, he did not qualify for the Olympics. Ultrasound and Doppler follow-ups have shown only a few remaining neovessels, and little structural tendon changes. This case questions previous theories about the weak tendinosis tendon, and stresses the importance of studies evaluating tendon strength.

  18. Uncovering the cellular and molecular changes in tendon stem/progenitor cells attributed to tendon aging and degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Julia; Popov, Cvetan; Klotz, Barbara; Alberton, Paolo; Prall, Wolf Christian; Haasters, Florian; Müller-Deubert, Sigrid; Ebert, Regina; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Jakob, Franz; Schieker, Matthias; Docheva, Denitsa

    2013-12-01

    Although the link between altered stem cell properties and tissue aging has been recognized, the molecular and cellular processes of tendon aging have not been elucidated. As tendons contain stem/progenitor cells (TSPC), we investigated whether the molecular and cellular attributes of TSPC alter during tendon aging and degeneration. Comparing TSPC derived from young/healthy (Y-TSPC) and aged/degenerated human Achilles tendon biopsies (A-TSPC), we observed that A-TSPC exhibit a profound self-renewal and clonogenic deficits, while their multipotency was still retained. Senescence analysis showed a premature entry into senescence of the A-TSPC, a finding accompanied by an upregulation of p16(INK4A). To identify age-related molecular factors, we performed microarray and gene ontology analyses. These analyses revealed an intriguing transcriptomal shift in A-TSPC, where the most differentially expressed probesets encode for genes regulating cell adhesion, migration, and actin cytoskeleton. Time-lapse analysis showed that A-TSPC exhibit decelerated motion and delayed wound closure concomitant to a higher actin stress fiber content and a slower turnover of actin filaments. Lastly, based on the expression analyses of microarray candidates, we suggest that dysregulated cell-matrix interactions and the ROCK kinase pathway might be key players in TSPC aging. Taken together, we propose that during tendon aging and degeneration, the TSPC pool is becoming exhausted in terms of size and functional fitness. Thus, our study provides the first fundamental basis for further exploration into the molecular mechanisms behind tendon aging and degeneration as well as for the selection of novel tendon-specific therapeutical targets. © 2013 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Tendinosis and ruptures of the Achilles tendon].

    PubMed

    Amlang, M H; Zwipp, H

    2012-02-01

    Tendinosis of the Achilles tendon is a degenerative-reparative structural change of the tendon with microdefects, increases in cross-section due to cicatricial tendon regeneration, neoangiogenesis and reduction of elasticity. The previously used term tendinitis is only rarely used for the chronic form since signs of inflammation such as redness and hyperthermia or elevated levels of inflammatory parameters on laboratory testing are generally absent. Duplex sonography with visualization of the neovascularization has become a valuable supplement not only for diagnostics but also for therapy planning. The classic, conservative therapy for painful tendinosis consists of oral anti-inflammatory drugs, pain-adapted load reduction, raising the heel, stretching the calf musculature, and various physiotherapeutic interventions. When conservative treatment over a period of 4 - 6 months fails to produce any or non-adequate pain relief, an indication for surgical treatment should be considered. In the therapy for fresh ruptures of the Achilles tendon further developments in minimally invasive techniques have led to a worldwide paradigm change over the past 10 years. The decisive advantage of minimally invasive surgical techniques is the lower risk of wound infection as compared to the sutures of the open technique. When compared with conservative functional therapy the minimally invasive repair has the advantage of being less dependent on the compliance of the patient since, in the early phase of tendon healing the suture prevents a separation of the tendon ends upon controlled movements. However, not every patient with a ruptured Achilles tendon should be treated with a minimally invasive repair. Open tendon reconstruction and functional conservative therapy are still justified when the correct indication is given. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Cell phenotypic variation in normal and damaged tendons

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, Peter D; Strassburg, Sandra; Smith, Roger K

    2007-01-01

    Injuries to tendons are common in both human athletes as well as in animals, such as the horse, which are used for competitive purposes. Furthermore, such injuries are also increasing in prevalence in the ageing, sedentary population. Tendon diseases often respond poorly to treatment and require lengthy periods of rehabilitation. The tendon has a unique extracellular matrix, which has developed to withstand the mechanical demands of such tensile-load bearing structures. Following injury, any repair process is inadequate and results in tissue that is distinct from original tendon tissue. There is growing evidence for the key role of the tendon cell (tenocyte) in both the normal physiological homeostasis and regulation of the tendon matrix and the pathological derangements that occur in disease. In particular, the tenocyte is considered to have a major role in effecting the subclinical matrix degeneration that is thought to occur prior to clinical disease, as well as in the severe degradative events that occur in the tendon at the onset of clinical disease. Furthermore, the tenocyte is likely to have a central role in the production of the biologically inadequate fibrocartilaginous repair tissue that develops subsequent to tendinopathy. Understanding the biology of the tenocyte is central to the development of appropriate interventions and drug therapies that will either prevent the onset of disease, or lead to more rapid and appropriate repair of injured tendon. Central to this is a full understanding of the proteolytic response in the tendon in disease by such enzymes as metalloproteinases, as well as the control of the inappropriate fibrocartilaginous differentiation. Finally, it is important that we understand the role of both intrinsic and extrinsic cellular elements in the repair process in the tendon subsequent to injury. PMID:17696903

  1. Tendon rupture associated with excessive smartphone gaming.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Luke; Cage, Dori N; Horn, Adam; Bishop, Frank; Klam, Warren P; Doan, Andrew P

    2015-06-01

    Excessive use of smartphones has been associated with injuries. A 29-year-old, right hand-dominant man presented with chronic left thumb pain and loss of active motion from playing a Match-3 puzzle video game on his smartphone all day for 6 to 8 weeks. On physical examination, the left extensor pollicis longus tendon was not palpable, and no tendon motion was noted with wrist tenodesis. The thumb metacarpophalangeal range of motion was 10° to 80°, and thumb interphalangeal range of motion was 30° to 70°. The clinical diagnosis was rupture of the left extensor pollicis longus tendon. The patient subsequently underwent an extensor indicis proprius (1 of 2 tendons that extend the index finger) to extensor pollicis longus tendon transfer. During surgery, rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon was seen between the metacarpophalangeal and wrist joints. The potential for video games to reduce pain perception raises clinical and social considerations about excessive use, abuse, and addiction. Future research should consider whether pain reduction is a reason some individuals play video games excessively, manifest addiction, or sustain injuries associated with video gaming.

  2. Stem Cell Applications in Tendon Disorders: A Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common cause of morbidity and a significant health burden on society. Tendons are structural tissues connecting muscle to bone and are prone to tearing and tendinopathy, an overuse or degenerative condition that is characterized by failed healing and cellular depletion. Current treatments, for tendon tear are conservative, surgical repair or surgical scaffold reconstruction. Tendinopathy is treated by exercises, injection therapies, shock wave treatments or surgical tendon debridement. However, tendons usually heal with fibrosis and scar tissue, which has suboptimal tensile strength and is prone to reinjury, resulting in lifestyle changes with activity restriction. Preclinical studies show that cell therapies have the potential to regenerate rather than repair tendon tissue, a process termed tenogenesis. A number of different cell lines, with varying degrees of differentiation, have being evaluated including stem cells, tendon derived cells and dermal fibroblasts. Even though cellular therapies offer some potential in treating tendon disorders, there have been few published clinical trials to determine the ideal cell source, the number of cells to administer, or the optimal bioscaffold for clinical use. PMID:22448174

  3. Force Model for Control of Tendon Driven Hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pena, Edward; Thompson, David E.

    1997-01-01

    Knowing the tendon forces generated for a given task such as grasping via a model, an artificial hand can be controlled. A two-dimensional force model for the index finger was developed. This system is assumed to be in static equilibrium, therefore, the equations of equilibrium were applied at each joint. Constraint equations describing the tendon branch connectivity were used. Gaussian elimination was used to solve for the unknowns of the Linear system. Results from initial work on estimating tendon forces in post-operative hands during active motion therapy were discussed. The results are important for understanding the effects of hand position on tendon tension, elastic effects on tendon tension, and overall functional anatomy of the hand.

  4. The role of animal models in tendon research

    PubMed Central

    Hast, M. W.; Zuskov, A.; Soslowsky, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a debilitating musculoskeletal condition which can cause significant pain and lead to complete rupture of the tendon, which often requires surgical repair. Due in part to the large spectrum of tendon pathologies, these disorders continue to be a clinical challenge. Animal models are often used in this field of research as they offer an attractive framework to examine the cascade of processes that occur throughout both tendon pathology and repair. This review discusses the structural, mechanical, and biological changes that occur throughout tendon pathology in animal models, as well as strategies for the improvement of tendon healing. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:193–202. PMID:24958818

  5. The Achilles tendon: fundamental properties and mechanisms governing healing

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Benjamin R.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review highlights recent research on Achilles tendon healing, and comments on the current clinical controversy surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of injury. The processes of Achilles tendon healing, as demonstrated through changes in its structure, composition, and biomechanics, are reviewed. Finally, a review of tendon developmental biology and mechano transductive pathways is completed to recognize recent efforts to augment injured Achilles tendons, and to suggest potential future strategies for therapeutic intervention and functional tissue engineering. Despite an abundance of clinical evidence suggesting that current treatments and rehabilitation strategies for Achilles tendon ruptures are equivocal, significant questions remain to fully elucidate the basic science mechanisms governing Achilles tendon injury, healing, treatment, and rehabilitation. PMID:25332943

  6. Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging in human achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Wengler, Kenneth; Fukuda, Takeshi; Tank, Dharmesh; Huang, Mingqian; Gould, Elaine S; Schweitzer, Mark E; He, Xiang

    2018-05-09

    Limited microcirculation has been implicated in Achilles tendinopathy and may affect healing and disease progression. Existing invasive and noninvasive approaches to evaluate tendon microcirculation lack sensitivity and spatial coverage. To develop a novel Achilles tendon intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MRI protocol to overcome the limitations from low tendon T 2 /T 2 * value and low intratendinous blood volume and blood velocity to evaluate tendon microcirculation. Prospective. Sixteen healthy male participants (age 31.0 ± 2.1) were recruited. A stimulated echo readout-segmented echo planar imaging (ste-RS-EPI) IVIM sequence at 3.0T. The feasibility of the proposed ste-RS-EPI IVIM protocol combined with Achilles tendon magic angle effect was evaluated. The sensitivity of the protocol was assessed by an exercise-induced intratendinous hemodynamic response in healthy participants. The vascular origin of the observed IVIM signal was validated by varying the diffusion mixing time and echo time. Two-tailed t-tests were used to evaluate differences (P < 0.05 was considered significant). Consistent with known tendon hypovascularity, the midportion Achilles tendon at baseline showed significantly lower IVIM-derived perfusion fraction (f p ) (3.1 ± 0.9%) compared to the proximal and distal Achilles tendon (6.0 ± 1.8% and 6.1 ± 2.0%, respectively; P < 0.01). Similarly, the midportion Achilles tendon exhibited significantly lower baseline blood flow index (D*×f p ) (40.9 ± 19.2, 18.3 ± 5.3, and 32.0 ± 9.4 in proximal, midportion, and distal Achilles tendon, respectively; P < 0.01). Eccentric heel-raise exercise led to ∼2 times increase of Achilles tendon blood flow in healthy participants. Consistent with its vascular origin, the estimated f p demonstrated a high dependency to IVIM protocol parameters, while the T 1 /T 2 -corrected absolute intratendinous microvascular blood volume fraction (V b ) did not vary. Achilles tendon ste-RS-EPI IVIM noninvasively

  7. Tendon entheses of the human masticatory muscles.

    PubMed

    Hems, T; Tillmann, B

    2000-09-01

    Tendons attach to the limb skeleton via chondral-apophysary or periosteal-diaphysary entheses. It was the aim of the present study to investigate the tendon entheses of the temporal, the masseter, as well as the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles, considering the biomechanics and the mode of osteogenesis at the attachment sites. The origin and insertion zones of the four masticatory muscles were studied histologically and by polarization light microscopy in six halves of human heads. Contrary to the limb skeleton no causal relationship between the histological structure of the tendon entheses and the osteogenic mode of the bone areas involved was observed in the masticatory muscles that were studied. Based on the histological findings, a purely structural classification of the tendon attachments irrespective of the osteogenesis is therefore proposed that is applicable to the entire skeleton. It is possible to distinguish between tendon entheses inserting into periosteum, into bone or into fibrocartilage. Tendon attachments with periosteal insertion are found at the temporal plane, the retromolar triangle, zygomatic arch, lateral pterygoid plate, in the caudal zone of the pterygoid fovea of the neck of mandible as well as major portions of the ramus and angle of the mandible. The attachment zones in which collagen fibrils of tendons insert into the bone via the periosteum correspond in their structure to plane periosteal-diaphysary insertions into the diaphyses of long bones. Attachment zones to the bone are present at the inferior temporal line, the base of the coronoid process, the caudal surface of the zygomatic arch, the cranial zones of the pterygoid fovea of the neck of the mandible as well as at circumscribed areas of the ramus and angle of the mandible. In these zones the collagen fibers of the tendon insert immediately into the bone without any mediation of other tissues. The entheses resemble those of circumscribed periosteal-diaphysary attachments to

  8. Closing the gap on Achilles tendon rupture: A cadaveric study quantifying the tendon apposition achieved with commonly used immobilisation practices.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ruaraidh; Sudlow, Alexis; Loizou, Constantinos; Loveday, David T; Smith, George

    2018-04-01

    The relative benefits of surgical and conservative treatment of Achilles tendon rupture are widely debated. With modern conservative management protocols, the re-rupture risk appears to fall to one similar to surgical repair with negligible loss of function. Conservative management typically employs a period of time in an equinus cast with sequential ankle dorsiflexion in a functional orthosis. The optimal duration of immobilisation and rate of dorsiflexion is unknown. We aimed to quantify the change in Achilles tendon approximation achieved in common immobilisation techniques to assist the design of rehabilitation protocols. Twelve fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens had 2.5cm of Achilles tendon excised. The gap between the tendon ends were measured via windowed full equinus casts and compared with functional boots with successively removed heel wedges. The greatest tendon apposition was achieved with the equinus cast. Each wedge removed decreased the reapproximation by approximately 5mm. This paper supports the early use of maximal equinus casting in early management of acute Achilles tendon ruptures. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anabolic and Catabolic Signaling Pathways in mouse Longissimus Dorsi after 30-day BION-M1 Spaceflight and Subsequent Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoev, Timur; Blottner, Dieter; Shenkman, Boris; Lomonosova, Yulia; Vilchinskaya, Natalia; Nemirovskaya, Tatiana; Salanova, Michele

    The aim of the study was to analyze some of the key markers regulating anabolic and catabolic processes in mouse m. longissimus dorsi, an important back muscle system for trunk stabilization, following 30-day spaceflight and 8-day recovery period. C57/black mice were divided into 3 groups: 1) Vivarium Control (n=7), 2) Flight (n=5), 3) Recovery (n=5). The experiment was carried out in accordance with the rules of biomedical ethics certified by the Russian Academy of Sciences Committee on Bioethics. Using Western-blotting analysis we determined the content of IRS-1, p-AMPK, MURF-1 and eEF2 in m. longissimus dorsi. The content of IRS-1 in mice m. longissimus dorsi after the 30-day flight did not differ from the control group, however, in the Recovery group IRS-1 level was 80% higher (p<0.05) as compared to Control. Phospho-AMPK content remained unchanged. In the Recovery group there was an increase of eEF2 by 75% compared to the Control (p<0.05). After spaceflight MuRF-1 content was increased more than 2 times compared to the control animals. Thus, our findings showed that the work of the IRS-1 - dependent signaling pathway is only active in the recovery period. The content of the ubiquitin-ligase MURF-1 that takes parts in degrading myosin heavy chain was increased after the spaceflight, however, after 8-day recovery period MURF-1 level did not exceed the control indicating normalization of protein degradation in m. longissimus dorsi. The work was supported by the program of basic research of RAS and Federal Space Program of Russia for the period of 2006-2015.

  10. Tendon allograft sterilized by peracetic acid/ethanol combined with gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mo; Zhang, Naili; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Youchen; Zhang, Yumin; Wang, Xusheng; Li, Baoming; Li, Baoxing

    2014-07-01

    Research and clinical applications have demonstrated that the effects of tendon allografts are comparable to those of autografts when reconstructing injured tendons or ligaments, but allograft safety remains problematic. Sterilisation could eliminate or decrease the possibility of disease transmission, but current methods seldom achieve satisfactory sterilisation without affecting the mechanical properties of the tendon. Peracetic acid-ethanol in combination with low-dose gamma irradiation (PE-R) would inactivate potential deleterious microorganisms without affecting mechanical and biocompatible properties of tendon allograft. Controlled laboratory design. HIV, PPV, PRV and BVDV inactivation was evaluated. After verifying viral inactivation, the treated tendon allografts were characterised by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing, and the cytocompatibility was assessed with an MTT assay and by subcutaneous implantation. Effective and efficient inactivation of HIV, PPV, PRV and BVDV was observed. Histological structure and ultrastructure were unchanged in the treated tendon allograft, which also exhibited comparable biomechanical properties and good biocompatibility. The preliminary results confirmed our hypothesis and demonstrated that the PE-R tendon allograft has significant potential as an alternative to ligament/tendon reconstruction. Tendon allografts have been extensively used in ligament reconstruction and tendon repair. However, current sterilisation methods have various shortcomings, so PE-R has been proposed. This study suggests that PE-R tendon allograft has great potential as an alternative for ligament/tendon reconstruction. Sterilisation has been a great concern for tendon allografts. However, most sterilisation methods cannot inactivate viruses and bacteria without impairing the mechanical properties of the tendon allograft. Peracetic acid/ethanol with gamma irradiation can effectively inactivate viruses and bacteria

  11. Conservative management of partial extensor tendon lacerations greater than half the width of the tendon in manual workers.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M

    2015-04-01

    Conservative management (without suturing or splints) of partial extensor tendon lacerations greater than half the width of the tendon has not been previously investigated. In this prospective study, a total of 45 injured tendons (with lacerations involving 55%-90% of the width of the tendon) in 39 patients were treated conservatively. Injury zones I, III, and V of the fingers; and zones I and III of the thumb were excluded. Immediate non-resistive active mobilization was initiated and continued for 4 weeks, followed by resistive exercises. Patients were allowed to go back to work after 6 weeks. There were no cases of ruptures, triggering, infection, or complex regional pain syndrome. At final follow-up (8-9 months after injury), all patients obtained full range of motion with no extension lags. All patients were able to go back to normal duties. We conclude that early active motion without the use of splints or sutures in major extensor tendon lacerations in zones II, IV, VI-VIII of the fingers; and zones II, IV, and V of the thumb is safe.

  12. Is there still a place for Achilles tendon lengthening?

    PubMed

    Tagoe, Mark T; Reeves, Neil D; Bowling, Frank L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with diabetes and ankle equinus are at particularly high risk for forefoot ulceration because of the development of high forefoot pressures. Stiffness in the triceps surae muscles and tendons are thought to be largely responsible for equinus in patients with diabetes and underpins the surgical rationale for Achilles tendon lengthening (ATL) procedures to alleviate this deformity and reduce ulcer risk. The established/traditional surgical approach is the triple hemisection along the length of the Achilles tendon. Although the percutaneous approach has been successful in achieving increases in ankle dorsiflexion >30°, the tendon rupture risk has led to some surgeons looking at alternative approaches. The gastrocnemius aponeurosis may be considered as an alternative because of the Achilles tendon's poor blood supply. ATL procedures are a balance between achieving adequate tendon lengthening and minimizing tendon rupture risk during or after surgery. After ATL surgery, the first 7 days should involve reduced loading and protected range of motion to avoid rupture, after which gradual reintroduction to loading should be encouraged to increase tendon strength. In summary, there is a moderate level of evidence to support surgical intervention for ankle joint equinus in patients with diabetes and forefoot ulceration that is non-responsive to other conservative treatments. Areas of caution for ATL procedures include the risk for overcorrection, tendon rupture and the tendon's poor blood supply. Further prospective randomized control trials are required to confirm the benefits of ATL procedures over conservative care and the most optimal anatomical sites for surgical intervention. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Achilles tendon reflex measuring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szebeszczyk, Janina; Straszecka, Joanna

    1995-06-01

    The examination of Achilles tendon reflex is widely used as a simple, noninvasive clinical test in diagnosis and pharmacological therapy monitoring in such diseases as: hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, diabetic neuropathy, the lower limbs obstructive angiopathies and intermittent claudication. Presented Achilles tendon reflect measuring system is based on the piezoresistive sensor connected with the cylinder-piston system. To determinate the moment of Achilles tendon stimulation a detecting circuit was used. The outputs of the measuring system are connected to the PC-based data acquisition board. Experimental results showed that the measurement accuracy and repeatability is good enough for diagnostics and therapy monitoring purposes. A user friendly, easy-to-operate measurement system fulfills all the requirements related to recording, presentation and storing of the patients' reflexograms.

  14. Tendon basic science: Development, repair, regeneration, and healing.

    PubMed

    Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Flatow, Evan L; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2015-06-01

    Tendinopathy and tendon rupture are common and disabling musculoskeletal conditions. Despite the prevalence of these injuries, a limited number of investigators are conducting fundamental, basic science studies focused on understanding processes governing tendinopathies and tendon healing. Development of effective therapeutics is hindered by the lack of fundamental guiding data on the biology of tendon development, signal transduction, mechanotransduction, and basic mechanisms underlying tendon pathogenesis and healing. To propel much needed progress, the New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference, co-sponsored by NIAMS/NIH, the Orthopaedic Research Society, and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, was held to promote exchange of ideas between tendon researchers and basic science experts from outside the tendon field. Discussed research areas that are underdeveloped and represent major hurdles to the progress of the field will be presented in this review. To address some of these outstanding questions, conference discussions and breakout sessions focused on six topic areas (Cell Biology and Mechanics, Functional Extracellular Matrix, Development, Mechano-biology, Scarless Healing, and Mechanisms of Injury and Repair), which are reviewed in this special issue and briefly presented in this review. Review articles in this special issue summarize the progress in the field and identify essential new research directions. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Regional strain variations in the human patellar tendon.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Stephen J; Ritchings, Tim; Mohamed, Azlan S A

    2014-07-01

    Characteristics of localized tendon strain in vivo are largely unknown. The present study examines local tendon strain between the deep, middle, and surface structures at the proximal and distal aspects of the patellar tendon during ramped isometric contractions. Male subjects (age 28.0 ± 6.3 yr) were examined for patellar tendon excursion (anterior, midsection, and posterior) during ramped isometric voluntary contractions using real-time B-mode ultrasonography and dynamometry. Regional tendon excursion measurements were compared using an automated pixel tracking method. Strain was determined from the tendon delta length normalized to initial/resting segment length. Strain increased from 10% to 100% of force for all regions. Significantly greater mean strain was seen for the anterior proximal region compared to the posterior and mid layer of the tendon (7.5% ± 1.1% vs 3.7% ± 0.5% vs 5.5% ± 1.0%; P < 0.05). Similarly, the distal posterior region showed greater mean strain compared to the mid and anterior regions (7.9% ± 0.6% vs 5.0% ± 0.6% vs 5.4% ± 0.6%; P < 0.05). Relative changes in strain differences from 50% to 100% of force for the proximal region were greatest for the anterior to midline regions (4.6% ± 0.6% and 5.6% ± 0.6%, respectively) and those for the distal region were also greatest for the anterior to midline regions (4.4% ± 0.2% and 5.3% ± 0.2%, respectively). The largest mean strain for the proximal region was at the anterior layer (7.5% ± 1.1%) and that for the distal tendon region was at the posterior layer (7.9% ± 0.9%). This study shows significant regional differences in strain during ramped isometric contractions for the patellar tendon. Lower proximal strains in the posterior tendon compared to the anterior region may be associated with the suggestion of "stress shielding" as an etiological factor in insertional tendinopathy.

  16. Torque Control of Underactuated Tendon-driven Robotic Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Wampler, Charles W. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having a total number of degrees of freedom (DOF) equal to at least n, an underactuated tendon-driven finger driven by n tendons and n DOF, the finger having at least two joints, being characterized by an asymmetrical joint radius in one embodiment. A controller is in communication with the robot, and controls actuation of the tendon-driven finger using force control. Operating the finger with force control on the tendons, rather than position control, eliminates the unconstrained slack-space that would have otherwise existed. The controller may utilize the asymmetrical joint radii to independently command joint torques. A method of controlling the finger includes commanding either independent or parameterized joint torques to the controller to actuate the fingers via force control on the tendons.

  17. Tendon biomechanics and mechanobiology--a minireview of basic concepts and recent advancements.

    PubMed

    Wang, James H-C; Guo, Qianping; Li, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Due to their unique hierarchical structure and composition, tendons possess characteristic biomechanical properties, including high mechanical strength and viscoelasticity, which enable them to carry and transmit mechanical loads (muscular forces) effectively. Tendons are also mechanoresponsive by adaptively changing their structure and function in response to altered mechanical loading conditions. In general, mechanical loading at physiological levels is beneficial to tendons, but excessive loading or disuse of tendons is detrimental. This mechanoadaptability is due to the cells present in tendons. Tendon fibroblasts (tenocytes) are the dominant tendon cells responsible for tendon homeostasis and repair. Tendon stem cells (TSCs), which were recently discovered, also play a vital role in tendon maintenance and repair by virtue of their ability to self-renew and differentiate into tenocytes. TSCs may also be responsible for chronic tendon injury, or tendinopathy, by undergoing aberrant differentiation into nontenocytes in response to excessive mechanical loading. Thus, it is necessary to devise optimal rehabilitation protocols to enhance tendon healing while reducing scar tissue formation and tendon adhesions. Moreover, along with scaffolds that can mimic tendon matrix environments and platelet-rich plasma, which serves as a source of growth factors, TSCs may be the optimal cell type for enhancing repair of injured tendons. Copyright © 2012 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Half-peroneus-longus-tendon graft augmentation for unqualified hamstring tendon graft of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Ting; Lu, Yung-Chang; Huang, Chang-Hung

    2015-09-01

    In some situations, harvested hamstring tendon grafts are not qualified for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This study aimed to present a reinforcing method with additional half peroneus longus tendon (half-PLT) graft augmentation. Eight cases underwent ACL reconstruction with unqualified hamstring tendon grafts (diameter <7 mm) and were salvaged by additional half-PLT graft augmentation. The pivot shift test and KT-1000 tests were performed 3 years after surgery. Functional evaluation of subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm scores was also done. In addition, Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) scores were used to evaluate the function of the ankle donor site. The diameter of unqualified four-strand hamstring tendon grafts was 6.2 mm on average (range, 6.0-6.5 mm). The average diameter of hamstring grafts with half-PLT augmentation was 9.6 mm (range, 9.5-10.0 mm). The pivot shift test was negative in all patients. No significant differences between normal and abnormal knees were found by KT-1000. The average IKDC score was 86.0 (range, 83 to 89), and the average Lysholm score was 84.4 (range, 80-90). The average FADI score for the donor sites of half-PLT was 135.8 (range, 134-136). Additional half-PLT can successfully and safely reinforce unqualified hamstring tendon grafts for ACL reconstruction.

  19. Tendon Reattachment to Bone in an Ovine Tendon Defect Model of Retraction Using Allogenic and Xenogenic Demineralised Bone Matrix Incorporated with Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Thangarajah, Tanujan; Shahbazi, Shirin; Pendegrass, Catherine J; Lambert, Simon; Alexander, Susan; Blunn, Gordon W

    2016-01-01

    Tendon-bone healing following rotator cuff repairs is mainly impaired by poor tissue quality. Demineralised bone matrix promotes healing of the tendon-bone interface but its role in the treatment of tendon tears with retraction has not been investigated. We hypothesized that cortical demineralised bone matrix used with minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells will result in improved function and restoration of the tendon-bone interface with no difference between xenogenic and allogenic scaffolds. In an ovine model, the patellar tendon was detached from the tibial tuberosity and a complete distal tendon transverse defect measuring 1 cm was created. Suture anchors were used to reattach the tendon and xenogenic demineralised bone matrix + minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells (n = 5), or allogenic demineralised bone matrix + minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells (n = 5) were used to bridge the defect. Graft incorporation into the tendon and its effect on regeneration of the enthesis was assessed using histomorphometry. Force plate analysis was used to assess functional recovery. Compared to the xenograft, the allograft was associated with significantly higher functional weight bearing at 6 (P = 0.047), 9 (P = 0.028), and 12 weeks (P = 0.009). In the allogenic group this was accompanied by greater remodeling of the demineralised bone matrix into tendon-like tissue in the region of the defect (p = 0.015), and a more direct type of enthesis characterized by significantly more fibrocartilage (p = 0.039). No failures of tendon-bone healing were noted in either group. Demineralised bone matrix used with minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells promotes healing of the tendon-bone interface in an ovine model of acute tendon retraction, with superior mechanical and histological results associated with use of an allograft.

  20. Extensor Tendon Injuries and Repairs in the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Kontor, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Due to their superficial course, the extensor tendons are frequently lacerated over the dorsum of the hand and fingers. Excellent functional results are obtained in repairs of simple tendon lacerations. ‘Open’ mallet lacerations over the distal IP joint or involving the central extensor slip over the proximal IP joint require more precise suturing methods. More proximal extensor tendon divisions near the wrist involve dissection of the retracted finger extensors or long thumb extensor in the distal forearm and more formal tendon repairs, including a possible tendon transfer to the thumb. ‘Closed injuries’, with varying degrees of extensor tendon disruption, occur at three main sites. The mallet injury at the DIP joint and the boutonnière deformity over the PIP joint are sometimes recognized late, but respond to conservative splinting for a minimum of four weeks with guarded motion avoiding secondary stiffening of the remaining small joints of the hand. Surgery of closed injuries most frequently involves the intra-articular traction fracture type of mallet deformities in which the DIP joint has taken the brunt of the injury. PMID:21286174

  1. In vivo study of the surgical anatomy of the axilla.

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Chakravorty, A; Gui, G P H

    2012-06-01

    Classical anatomical descriptions fail to describe variants often observed in the axilla as they are based on studies that looked at individual structures in isolation or textbooks of cadaveric dissections. The presence of variant anatomy heightens the risk of iatrogenic injury. The aim of this study was to document the nature and frequency of these anatomical variations based on in vivo peroperative surgical observations. Detailed anatomical relationships were documented prospectively during consecutive axillary dissections. Relationships between the thoracodorsal pedicle, course of the lateral thoracic vein, presence of latissimus dorsi muscle slips, variations in axillary and angular vein anatomy, and origins and branching of the intercostobrachial nerve were recorded. Among a total of 73 axillary dissections, 43 (59 per cent) revealed at least one anatomical variant. Most notable variants included aberrant courses of the thoracodorsal nerve in ten patients (14 per cent)--three variants; lateral thoracic vein in 12 patients (16 per cent)--four variants; bifid axillary veins in ten patients (14 per cent); latissimus dorsi muscle slips in four patients (5 per cent); and variants in intercostobrachial nerve origins and branching in 26 patients (36 per cent). The angular vein, a subscapular vein tributary, was found to be a constant axillary structure. Variations in axillary anatomical structures are common. Poor understanding of these variants can affect the adequacy of oncological clearance, lead to vascular injury, compromise planned microvascular procedures and result in chronic pain or numbness from nerve injury. Surgeons should be aware of the common anatomical variants to facilitate efficient and safe axillary surgery. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A comparison of capillary hydraulic conductivities in postural and locomotor muscle.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, P F; Gore, R W

    1982-09-01

    In a comparative skeletal muscle study Folkow and Halicka (Microvasc. Res. 1: 1-14, 1968) reported that the capillary filtration coefficient (CFC) of postural (red) muscle was two times the CFC of locomotor (white) muscle. It was concluded that the twofold difference in CFC was due solely to a difference in the perfused capillary surface areas (Sf) of red vs. white muscle. However, CFC is the product of capillary hydraulic conductivity (LP) and Sf. Hence their conclusion assumed that the average LP of red muscle capillaries is exactly equal to the average LP of white muscle capillaries. The following study was undertaken to test the validity of this assumption. The microocclusion procedures and analytical model described by Lee et al. (Circ. Res. 28: 358-370, 1971) and Gore [Am. J. Physiol. 242 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 11): H268-H287, 1982] were used to determine LP. Independent measurements of LP were recorded from single capillaries in red, anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) and white, posterior latissimus dorsi (PLD) muscles of chickens anesthetized with L.A. Thesia. We found that the mean capillary hydraulic conductivity in postural muscle [(LP)ALD = 0.20 +/- 0.06 (SE) micrometers . s-1 . cmH2O-1 (n = 11)] was significantly different from the mean capillary hydraulic conductivity in locomotor muscle [(LP)PLD = 0.061 +/- 0.01 micrometers . s-1 . cmH2O-1 (n = 14)] (P less than 0.05). These results provide direct evidence that observed differences in red vs. white muscle CFC's may not be due solely to different perfused capillary surface areas but may also be due to differences in capillary hydraulic conductivity.

  3. Tendon Reconstruction with Tissue Engineering Approach--A Review.

    PubMed

    Verdiyeva, Gunay; Koshy, Kiron; Glibbery, Natalia; Mann, Haroon; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2015-09-01

    Tendon injuries are a common and rising occurrence, associated with significant impairment to quality of life and financial burden to the healthcare system. Clinically, they represent an unresolved problem, due to poor natural tendon healing and the inability of current treatment strategies to restore the tendon to its native state. Tissue engineering offers a promising alternative, with the incorporation of scaffolds, cells and growth factors to support the complete regeneration of the tendon. The materials used in tendon engineering to date have provided significant advances in structural integrity and biological compatibility and in many cases the results obtained are superior to those observed in natural healing. However, grafts fail to reproduce the qualities of the pre-injured tendon and each has weaknesses subject to its constituent parts. Furthermore, many materials and cell types are being investigated concurrently, with seemingly little association or comparison between research results. In this review the properties of the most-investigated and effective components have been appraised in light of the surrounding literature, with research from early in-vitro experiments to clinical trials being discussed. Extensive comparisons have been made between scaffolds, cell types and growth factors used, listing strengths and weaknesses to provide a stable platform for future research. Promising future endeavours are also described in the field of nanocomposite material science, stem cell sources and growth factors, which may bypass weaknesses found in individual elements. The future of tendon engineering looks bright, with growing understanding in material technology, cell and growth factor application and encouraging recent advances bringing us ever closer to regenerating the native tendon.

  4. Modelling approaches for evaluating multiscale tendon mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fei; Lake, Spencer P.

    2016-01-01

    Tendon exhibits anisotropic, inhomogeneous and viscoelastic mechanical properties that are determined by its complicated hierarchical structure and varying amounts/organization of different tissue constituents. Although extensive research has been conducted to use modelling approaches to interpret tendon structure–function relationships in combination with experimental data, many issues remain unclear (i.e. the role of minor components such as decorin, aggrecan and elastin), and the integration of mechanical analysis across different length scales has not been well applied to explore stress or strain transfer from macro- to microscale. This review outlines mathematical and computational models that have been used to understand tendon mechanics at different scales of the hierarchical organization. Model representations at the molecular, fibril and tissue levels are discussed, including formulations that follow phenomenological and microstructural approaches (which include evaluations of crimp, helical structure and the interaction between collagen fibrils and proteoglycans). Multiscale modelling approaches incorporating tendon features are suggested to be an advantageous methodology to understand further the physiological mechanical response of tendon and corresponding adaptation of properties owing to unique in vivo loading environments. PMID:26855747

  5. Tendon material properties vary and are interdependent among turkey hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Matson, Andrew; Konow, Nicolai; Miller, Samuel; Konow, Pernille P; Roberts, Thomas J

    2012-10-15

    The material properties of a tendon affect its ability to store and return elastic energy, resist damage, provide mechanical feedback and amplify or attenuate muscle power. While the structural properties of a tendon are known to respond to a variety of stimuli, the extent to which material properties vary among individual muscles remains unclear. We studied the tendons of six different muscles in the hindlimb of Eastern wild turkeys to determine whether there was variation in elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength and resilience. A hydraulic testing machine was used to measure tendon force during quasi-static lengthening, and a stress-strain curve was constructed. There was substantial variation in tendon material properties among different muscles. Average elastic modulus differed significantly between some tendons, and values for the six different tendons varied nearly twofold, from 829±140 to 1479±106 MPa. Tendons were stretched to failure, and the stress at failure, or ultimate tensile stress, was taken as a lower-limit estimate of tendon strength. Breaking tests for four of the tendons revealed significant variation in ultimate tensile stress, ranging from 66.83±14.34 to 112.37±9.39 MPa. Resilience, or the fraction of energy returned in cyclic length changes was generally high, and one of the four tendons tested was significantly different in resilience from the other tendons (range: 90.65±0.83 to 94.02±0.71%). An analysis of correlation between material properties revealed a positive relationship between ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus (r(2)=0.79). Specifically, stiffer tendons were stronger, and we suggest that this correlation results from a constrained value of breaking strain, which did not vary significantly among tendons. This finding suggests an interdependence of material properties that may have a structural basis and may explain some adaptive responses observed in studies of tendon plasticity.

  6. Surface Modification Counteracts Adverse Effects Associated with Immobilization after Flexor Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Sun, Yu-Long; Jay, Gregory D.; Moran, Steven L.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Although post-rehabilitation is routinely performed following flexor tendon repair, in some clinical scenarios post-rehabilitation must be delayed. We investigated modification of the tendon surface using carbodiimide derivatized hyaluronic acid and lubricin (cd-HA-Lub) to maintain gliding function following flexor tendon repair with postoperative immobilization in a in vivo canine model. Flexor digitorum profundus tendons from the 2nd and 5th digits of one forepaw of six dogs were transected and repaired. One tendon in each paw was treated with cd-HA-Lub; the other repaired tendon was not treated. Following tendon repair, a forearm cast was applied to fully immobilize the operated forelimb for 10 days, after which the animals were euthanized. Digit normalized work of flexion (nWOF) and tendon gliding resistance were assessed. The nWOF of the FDP tendons treated with cd-HA-Lub was significantly lower than the nWOF of the untreated tendons (p < 0.01). The gliding resistance of cd-HA-Lub treated tendons was also significantly lower than that of the untreated tendons (p < 0.05). Surface treatment with cd-HA-Lub following flexor tendon repair provides an opportunity to improve outcomes for patients in whom the post-operative therapy must be delayed after flexor tendon repair. PMID:22714687

  7. Light microscopic histology of supraspinatus tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Franceschi, Francesco; Ruzzini, Laura; Rabitti, Carla; Morini, Sergio; Maffulli, Nicola; Forriol, Francisco; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2007-11-01

    We analysed the morphological features of the human surgical specimens of supraspinatus tendon from patients with rotator cuff tears. Tendon samples were harvested from 31 subjects (21 men and 10 women; mean age 51 years, range 38-64) who underwent arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear, and from five male patients who died of cardiovascular events (mean age, 69.6 years). Histological examination was performed using Haematoxylin and Eosin, Masson's Trichrome and Van Gieson's connective tissue stain. The specimens were examined twice by the same examiner under white light and polarized light microscopy. Particular effort was made to assess any evidence of the changes associated with tendinopathy. Within each specific category of tendon abnormalities, the chi-square test showed significant differences between the control and ruptured tendons (P < 0.05). Using the kappa statistics, the agreement between the two readings ranged from 0.57 to 0.84. We found thinning and disorientation of collagen fibres and chondroid metaplasia to be more pronounced on the articular side of the specimens from patients with rotator cuff tear (P < 0.05). The present study provides a description of the histological architecture of human surgical specimens of normal supraspinatus tendon from patients with rotator cuff tears and demonstrates more frequent tendon changes on the articular side of the rotator cuff.

  8. Flexor Tendon Repair With Looped Suture: 1 Versus 2 Knots.

    PubMed

    Gil, Joseph A; Skjong, Christian; Katarincic, Julia A; Got, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    To assess the strength of flexor tendon repair with looped suture. We hypothesized that, after passing the intact looped suture in the desired repair configuration, splitting the loop and tying 2 independent knots would increase the strength of flexor tendon repair. Thirty-two flexor tendons were harvested and were sharply transected in zone II. The tendons were repaired with a 4-strand core suture repair using 3-0 looped nonabsorbable nylon suture. The harvested tendons were randomly assigned and repaired with either a 1- or a 2-knot construct. The repaired flexor tendons were fixed in a servohydraulic material testing system and were loaded to failure either with uniaxial tension or cyclically. The average force at failure was 43 N for the 1-knot repair and 28 N for the 2-knot repair. The mode of failure of 15 of the flexor tendon repairs that were cyclically loaded to failure was suture pull-out. The average number of cycles and force in cyclic testing that caused failure of flexor tendon repairs was 134 cycles and 31 N for tendons repaired with looped 3-0 suture tied with 1 knot and 94 cycles and 33 N for tendons repaired with looped 3-0 suture tied with 2 knots. Our hypothesis was disproved by the results of this study. This study suggests that, when using looped suture, tying 2 independent knots instead of tying a single knot does not increase the strength of the flexor tendon repair. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of mushroom extract on textural properties and muscle protein degradation of bovine longissimus dorsi muscle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Ha; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Sae-Hun; Kim, Kyoung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Min; Jin, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Joo; Ryu, Youn-Chul

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the effects of Sarcodon aspratus, Agaricus bisporus, and Lentinula edodes aqueous extracts on the tenderization of bovine longissimus dorsi muscle. Meat quality and muscle protein degradation were examined as well. Beef chunks were marinated in distilled water (control), 5% S. aspratus (SA), 5% A. bisporus (AB), or 5% L. edodes (LE) extracts. SA was shown to have a higher enzymatic activity (p < 0.001) and water-holding capacity than LE (p < 0.01). SA and AB extracts exhibited lower shear force values compared with the control (p < 0.05). SA, AB, and LE showed superior muscle proteolytic effects compared with the control. SA demonstrated the ability to degrade myosin heavy chains and actin, which was not observed after AB and LE extract treatments. This suggests that SA extract may affect tenderization. Taken together, our results show that aqueous extract of S. aspratus affects the tenderness of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscle.

  10. Muscle-Tendon-Enthesis Unit.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Anthony S; Huang, Brady K; Pathria, Mini N

    2018-07-01

    Injuries to the muscle-tendon-enthesis unit are common and a significant source of pain and loss of function. This article focuses on the important anatomical and biomechanical considerations for each component of the muscle-tendon-enthesis unit. We review normal and pathologic conditions affecting this unit, illustrating the imaging appearance of common disorders on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. Knowledge of the anatomy and biomechanics of these structures is crucial for the radiologist to make accurate diagnoses and provide clinically relevant assessments. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Platelet-rich plasma in tendon-related disorders: results and indications.

    PubMed

    Filardo, Giuseppe; Di Matteo, Berardo; Kon, Elizaveta; Merli, Giulia; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2016-09-24

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is currently the most exploited strategy in the clinical practice to provide a regenerative stimulus for tendon healing. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the available evidence on the treatment of the main tendon disorders where PRP is currently applied. A systematic review of the literature was performed on the use of PRP as a treatment for tendinopathies focusing on the following sites: Achilles tendon, patellar tendon, rotator cuff tendons, and lateral elbow tendons. The following inclusion criteria for relevant articles were used: clinical trials written in English language up to 21 June 2016 on the use of PRP in the conservative or surgical treatment of the aforementioned tendinopathies. The research identified the following clinical trials dealing with the application of PRP in the selected tendons: 19 papers on patellar tendon (6 being RCTs: 4 dealing with PRP conservative application and 2 surgical), 24 papers on Achilles tendon (4 RCTs: 3 conservative and 1 surgical), 29 on lateral elbow tendons (17 RCTs, all conservative), and 32 on rotator cuff (22 RCTs: 18 surgical and 3 conservative). Patellar tendons seem to benefit from PRP injections, whereas in the Achilles tendon, PRP application is not indicated neither as a conservative approach nor as a surgical augmentation. Lateral elbow tendinopathy showed an improvement in most of the high-level studies, but the lack of proven superiority with respect to the more simple whole-blood injections still questions its use in the clinical practice. With regard to rotator cuff pathology, the vast majority of surgical RCTs documented a lack of beneficial effects, whereas there is still inconclusive evidence concerning its conservative application in rotator cuff disorders. Systematic review of level I-IV trials, Level IV.

  12. Sonographic differentiation of digital tendon rupture from adhesive scarring after primary surgical repair.

    PubMed

    Budovec, Joseph J; Sudakoff, Gary S; Dzwierzynski, William W; Matloub, Hani S; Sanger, James R

    2006-04-01

    After the surgical repair of finger tendons finger range of motion may be limited by tendon rupture or adhesive scarring. Differentiating tendon rupture from adhesive scarring may be difficult clinically. Digital tendon sonography allows the evaluation of tendon integrity in a dynamic setting. Our objective was to determine if sonography could differentiate tendon rupture from adhesive scarring in patients who have had primary tendon repair. A retrospective review was performed of the radiographic, clinical, and surgical records of patients referred for finger sonography over a 2-year period. Twenty-eight digits in 21 patients were evaluated for finger tendon disruption after primary surgical repair. The diagnosis of complete tendon rupture was made when 1 or more of the following was identified: a gap separating the proximal and distal tendon margins, visualization of only the proximal tendon margin, or visualization of only the distal tendon margin. Adhesive scarring was diagnosed if the tendon appeared intact with abnormal peritendinous soft tissue abutting or partially encasing the tendon, with synovial sheath thickening, or with restricted tendon motion during dynamic evaluation. Sonography correctly identified tendon rupture or adhesive scarring in 27 of 28 digits with 1 false-positive case (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 93%; positive-predictive value, 93%; negative-predictive value, 100%; accuracy, 96%). Sonography is an accurate modality for differentiating tendon rupture from adhesive scarring in patients with prior surgical tendon repair. Diagnostic, Level I.

  13. The role of the non-collagenous matrix in tendon function.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C

    2013-08-01

    Tendon consists of highly ordered type I collagen molecules that are grouped together to form subunits of increasing diameter. At each hierarchical level, the type I collagen is interspersed with a predominantly non-collagenous matrix (NCM) (Connect. Tissue Res., 6, 1978, 11). Whilst many studies have investigated the structure, organization and function of the collagenous matrix within tendon, relatively few have studied the non-collagenous components. However, there is a growing body of research suggesting the NCM plays an important role within tendon; adaptations to this matrix may confer the specific properties required by tendons with different functions. Furthermore, age-related alterations to non-collagenous proteins have been identified, which may affect tendon resistance to injury. This review focuses on the NCM within the tensional region of developing and mature tendon, discussing the current knowledge and identifying areas that require further study to fully understand structure-function relationships within tendon. This information will aid in the development of appropriate techniques for tendon injury prevention and treatment. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2013 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  14. Postinjury biomechanics of Achilles tendon vary by sex and hormone status

    PubMed Central

    Fryhofer, George W.; Freedman, Benjamin R.; Hillin, Cody D.; Salka, Nabeel S.; Pardes, Adam M.; Weiss, Stephanie N.; Farber, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures are common injuries. Sex differences are present in mechanical properties of uninjured Achilles tendon, but it remains unknown if these differences extend to tendon healing. We hypothesized that ovariectomized females (OVX) and males would exhibit inferior postinjury tendon properties compared with females. Male, female, and OVX Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32/group) underwent acclimation and treadmill training before blunt transection of the Achilles tendon midsubstance. Injured hindlimbs were immobilized for 1 wk, followed by gradual return to activity and assessment of active and passive hindlimb function. Animals were euthanized at 3 or 6 wk postinjury to assess tendon structure, mechanics, and composition. Passive ankle stiffness and range of motion were superior in females at 3 wk; however, by 6 wk, passive and active function were similar in males and females but remained inferior in OVX. At 6 wk, female tendons had greater normalized secant modulus, viscoelastic behavior, and laxity compared with males. Normalized secant modulus, cross-sectional area and tendon glycosaminoglycan composition were inferior in OVX compared with females at 6 wk. Total fatigue cycles until tendon failure were similar among groups. Postinjury muscle fiber size was better preserved in females compared with males, and females had greater collagen III at the tendon injury site compared with males at 6 wk. Despite male and female Achilles tendons withstanding similar durations of fatigue loading, early passive hindlimb function and tendon mechanical properties, including secant modulus, suggest superior healing in females. Ovarian hormone loss was associated with inferior Achilles tendon healing. PMID:27633741

  15. Supraspinatus tendon micromorphology in individuals with subacromial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Federico; Seitz, Amee L; Plummer, Hillary A; Chow, Kira; Bashford, Gregory R; Michener, Lori A

    Cross-sectional cohort. Tendon collagen organization can be estimated by peak spatial frequency radius (PSFR) on ultrasound images. Characterizing PSFR can define the contribution of collagen disruption to shoulder symptoms. The purpose of this was to characterize the (1) supraspinatus tendon PSFR in participants with subacromial pain syndrome (SPS) and healthy controls; (2) PSFR between participants grouped on a tendon visual quality score; and (3) relationship between PSFR with patient-reported pain, function, and shoulder strength. Participants with SPS (n = 20) and age, sex, and arm-dominance-matched healthy controls (n = 20) completed strength testing in scaption and external rotation, and patient-reported pain, and functional outcomes. Supraspinatus tendon ultrasound images were acquired, and PSFR was calculated for a region of interest 15 mm medial to the supraspinatus footprint. PSFR was compared between groups using an independent t-test and an analysis of variance to compare between 3 groups for visually qualitatively rated tendon abnormalities. Relationships between PSFR with pain, function, and strength were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient. Supraspinatus tendon PSFR was not different between groups (P = .190) or tendon qualitative ratings (P = .556). No relationship was found between PSFR and pain, functional loss, and strength (P > .05). Collagen disruption (PSFR) measured via ultrasound images of the supraspinatus tendon was not different between participants with SPS or in those with visually rated tendon defects. PSFR is not related to shoulder pain, function, and strength, suggesting that supraspinatus tendon collagen disorganization may not be a contributing factor to shoulder SPS. However, collagen disruption may not be isolated to a single region of interest. 3b: case-control study. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Step Cut Lengthening: A Technique for Treatment of Flexor Pollicis Longus Tendon Rupture.

    PubMed

    Chong, Chew-Wei; Chen, Shih-Heng

    2018-04-01

    Reconstruction of a tendon defect is a challenging task in hand surgery. Delayed repair of a ruptured flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon is often associated with tendon defect. Primary repair of the tendon is often not possible, particularly after debridement of the unhealthy segment of the tendon. As such, various surgical treatments have been described in the literature, including single-stage tendon grafting, 2-stage tendon grafting, flexor digitorum superficialis tendon transfer from ring finger, and interphalangeal joint arthrodesis. We describe step cut lengthening of FPL tendon for the reconstruction of FPL rupture. This is a single-stage reconstruction without the need for tendon grafting or tendon transfer. To our knowledge, no such technique has been previously described.

  17. [Rhabdomyolysis after lifting IKEA bags in a man using sertraline].

    PubMed

    Kummen, Ingvild; Jensen, Thomas Giver

    2016-12-12

    We present a case of a 28-year-old male, using sertraline, who experienced progressive oedema in both upper extremities after having lifted two IKEA bags weighing 20 kg each from his car up to the third floor. Blood creatine kinase (CK) level was measured 5,260 U/l, and the patient was admitted for oral rehydration with the diagnosis rhabdomyolysis. The MRI showed swelling in the triceps muscles and latissimus dorsi muscles resulting in compression of the brachial vein. We discuss the pathomechanism behind the increased CK level and the swelling, and the possible effect sertraline may have had on the development of rhabdomyolysis.

  18. Multiple variations of the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox.

    PubMed

    Thwin, San San; Fazlin, Fazlin; Than, Myo

    2014-01-01

    Multiple tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) in the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist can lead to the development of de Quervain's syndrome, which is caused by stenosing tenosynovitis. A cadaveric study was performed to establish the variations present in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox in a Malaysian population, in the hope that this knowledge would aid clinical investigation and surgical treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis. Routine dissection of ten upper limbs was performed to determine the variations in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist. In all the dissected upper limbs, the APL tendon of the first extensor compartment was found to have several (3-14) tendon slips. The insertion of the APL tendon slips in all upper limbs were at the base of the first metacarpal bone, trapezium and fascia of the opponens pollicis muscle; however, in seven specimens, they were also found to be attached to the fleshy belly of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. In two specimens, double tendons of the extensor pollicis longus located in the third extensor compartment were inserted into the capsule of the proximal interphalangeal joints before being joined to the extensor expansion. In two other specimens, the first extensor compartment had two osseofibrous tunnels divided by a septum that separated the APL tendon from the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. Multiple variations were found in the anatomical snuffbox region of the dissected upper limbs. Knowledge of these variations would be useful in interventional radiology and orthopaedic surgery.

  19. Multiple variations of the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox

    PubMed Central

    Thwin, San San; Zaini, Fazlin; Than, Myo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Multiple tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) in the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist can lead to the development of de Quervain's syndrome, which is caused by stenosing tenosynovitis. A cadaveric study was performed to establish the variations present in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox in a Malaysian population, in the hope that this knowledge would aid clinical investigation and surgical treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis. METHODS Routine dissection of ten upper limbs was performed to determine the variations in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist. RESULTS In all the dissected upper limbs, the APL tendon of the first extensor compartment was found to have several (3–14) tendon slips. The insertion of the APL tendon slips in all upper limbs were at the base of the first metacarpal bone, trapezium and fascia of the opponens pollicis muscle; however, in seven specimens, they were also found to be attached to the fleshy belly of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. In two specimens, double tendons of the extensor pollicis longus located in the third extensor compartment were inserted into the capsule of the proximal interphalangeal joints before being joined to the extensor expansion. In two other specimens, the first extensor compartment had two osseofibrous tunnels divided by a septum that separated the APL tendon from the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. CONCLUSION Multiple variations were found in the anatomical snuffbox region of the dissected upper limbs. Knowledge of these variations would be useful in interventional radiology and orthopaedic surgery. PMID:24452976

  20. Prevalence and Role of a Low-Lying Peroneus Brevis Muscle Belly in Patients With Peroneal Tendon Pathologic Features: A Potential Source of Tendon Subluxation.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Roya; Squire, Chad; Wassell, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A peroneus brevis low-lying muscle belly (LLMB) is a rare anomaly. A few published studies have supported the presence of this anomaly as an etiology for a peroneal tendon tear. However, the association between a peroneus brevis LLMB and tendon subluxation has not been well explored. In the present retrospective study, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intraoperative findings of 50 consecutive patients undergoing primary peroneal tendon surgery during a 5-year period were assessed. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI compared with the intraoperative findings for identifying peroneal tendon disease were investigated. The presence of associated peroneal tendon pathologic features in patients with and without a peroneus brevis LLMB was also compared. The sensitivity of MRI was high for identifying peroneal tenosynovitis (81.58%) and tear (85.71%). Although the sensitivity of MRI for detecting a peroneus brevis LLMB (3.23%) and tendon subluxation (10.00%) was low, MRI had high specificity at 94.74% and 100%, respectively. Intraoperatively, a peroneus brevis LLMB was seen in 62.00% of the patients with chronic lateral ankle pain and was associated with 64.52% of the patients with tenosynovitis, 29.03% of those with tendon subluxation, and 80.65% of those with a peroneus brevis tendon tear. Although the presence of a peroneus brevis LLMB did not show any statistically significant association with peroneus brevis tendon subluxation, of the 10 patients with intraoperatively observed tendon subluxation, 9 had a concomitant peroneus brevis LLMB. More studies with larger patient populations are needed to better investigate the role of a peroneus brevis LLMB as a mass-occupying lesion resulting in peroneal tendon subluxation. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. FROM ACUTE ACHILLES TENDON RUPTURE TO RETURN TO PLAY - A CASE REPORT EVALUATING RECOVERY OF TENDON STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, CLINICAL AND FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES.

    PubMed

    Zellers, Jennifer A; Cortes, Daniel H; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare

    2016-12-01

    Achilles tendon rupture results in significant functional deficits regardless of treatment strategy (surgical versus non-surgical intervention). Recovery post-rupture is highly variable, making comprehensive patient assessment critical. Assessment tools may change along the course of recovery as the patient progresses - for instance, moving from a seated heel-rise to standing heel-rise to jump testing. However, tools that serve as biomarkers for early recovery may be particularly useful in informing clinical decision-making. The purpose of this case report was to describe the progress of a young, athletic individual following Achilles tendon rupture managed non-surgically, using patient reported and functional performance outcome measures and comprehensively evaluating Achilles tendon structure and function incorporating a novel imaging technique (cSWE). The subject is a 26 year-old, female basketball coach who sustained an Achilles tendon rupture and was managed non-surgically. The subject was able to steadily progress using a gradual tendon loading treatment approach well-supported by the literature. Multiple evaluative techniques including the addition of diagnostic ultrasound imaging and continuous shear wave elastography (cSWE) to standard clinical tests and measures were used to assess patient-reported symptoms, tendon structure, and tendon functional performance. Five assessments were performed over the course of 2-14 months post-rupture. By the 14-month follow-up, the subject had achieved full self-reported function. Tendon structural and mechanical properties showed similar shear modulus by 14 months, however, viscosity continued to be lower and tendon length longer on the ruptured side. Functional performance, evidenced by the heel-rise test and jump tests, also showed a positive trajectory, however, deficits of 12-28% remained between ruptured and non-ruptured sides at 14 months. This case report outlines comprehensive outcomes assessment in an athletic

  2. Cell-laden composite suture threads for repairing damaged tendons.

    PubMed

    Costa-Almeida, Raquel; Domingues, Rui M A; Fallahi, Afsoon; Avci, Huseyin; Yazdi, Iman K; Akbari, Mohsen; Reis, Rui L; Tamayol, Ali; Gomes, Manuela E; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2018-04-01

    Tendons have limited regenerative capacity due to their low cellularity and hypovascular nature, which results in poor clinical outcomes of presently used therapies. As tendon injuries are often observed in active adults, it poses an increasing socio-economic burden on healthcare systems. Currently, suture threads are used during surgical repair to anchor the tissue graft or to connect injured ends. Here, we created composite suture threads coated with a layer of cell-laden hydrogel that can be used for bridging the injured tissue aiming at tendon regeneration. In addition, the fibres can be used to engineer 3-dimensional constructs through textile processes mimicking the architecture and mechanical properties of soft tissues, including tendons and ligaments. Encapsulated human tendon-derived cells migrated within the hydrogel and aligned at the surface of the core thread. An up-regulation of tendon-related genes (scleraxis and tenascin C) and genes involved in matrix remodelling (matrix metalloproteinases 1, matrix metalloproteinases 2) was observed. Cells were able to produce a collagen-rich matrix, remodelling their micro-environment, which is structurally comparable to native tendon tissue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Etiology and pathophysiology of tendon ruptures in sports.

    PubMed

    Kannus, P; Natri, A

    1997-04-01

    Of all spontaneous tendon ruptures, complete Achilles tendon tears are most closely associated with sports activities (1-3). Schönbauer (3) reported that 75% of all ruptures of the Achilles tendon are related to sports. In Plecko & Passl (2) the number was 60%. In our material of 430 cases, the number of sports-related Achilles ruptures was very similar (62%), while only 2% of ruptures of other tendons were sports-related (P < 0.001) (1). Also, the majority of Achilles reruptures occurred in sports. The ruptures occurred most often in soccer (34%), track and field (16%) and basketball (14%). The distribution of Achilles ruptures according to different sports varies considerably from country to country, according to the national sport traditions. For example, in northern and middle Europe, soccer, tennis, track and field, indoor ball games, downhill skiing, and gymnastics are the most common; and in North America, football, basketball, baseball, tennis and downhill skiing dominate the statistics (1, 2, 4). In sports, some Achilles ruptures are not spontaneous or degeneration-induced but may occur as a consequence of the remarkably high forces that are involved in the performance (2). Ruptures in the high jump or triple jump are good examples. In such cases, failure in the neuromuscular protective mechanisms due to fatigue or disturbed co-ordination can frequently be found. The spontaneous complete rupture of the supraspinatus tendon of the rotator cuff does not occur very frequently in sports. Those sports that include high-energy throwing movements, such as American and Finnish baseball, American football, rugby and discuss and javelin throwing, may, however, produce this injury. Partial tears and inflammations of the rotator cuff complex are much more frequent in throwing sports. The complete rupture of the proximal long head of the biceps brachii tendon is rare among competitive and recreational athletes. In our material, under 2% of these ruptures were

  4. Dental pulp stem cells express tendon markers under mechanical loading and are a potential cell source for tissue engineering of tendon-like tissue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ying; He, Sheng-Teng; Yan, Fu-Hua; Zhou, Peng-Fei; Luo, Kai; Zhang, Yan-Ding; Xiao, Yin; Lin, Min-Kui

    2016-12-16

    Postnatal mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. This study explored the possibility of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) for potential application in tendon tissue engineering. The expression of tendon-related markers such as scleraxis, tenascin-C, tenomodulin, eye absent homologue 2, collagens I and VI was detected in dental pulp tissue. Interestingly, under mechanical stimulation, these tendon-related markers were significantly enhanced when DPSCs were seeded in aligned polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibre scaffolds. Furthermore, mature tendon-like tissue was formed after transplantation of DPSC-PGA constructs under mechanical loading conditions in a mouse model. This study demonstrates that DPSCs could be a potential stem cell source for tissue engineering of tendon-like tissue.

  5. Tendon material properties vary and are interdependent among turkey hindlimb muscles

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Andrew; Konow, Nicolai; Miller, Samuel; Konow, Pernille P.; Roberts, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The material properties of a tendon affect its ability to store and return elastic energy, resist damage, provide mechanical feedback and amplify or attenuate muscle power. While the structural properties of a tendon are known to respond to a variety of stimuli, the extent to which material properties vary among individual muscles remains unclear. We studied the tendons of six different muscles in the hindlimb of Eastern wild turkeys to determine whether there was variation in elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength and resilience. A hydraulic testing machine was used to measure tendon force during quasi-static lengthening, and a stress–strain curve was constructed. There was substantial variation in tendon material properties among different muscles. Average elastic modulus differed significantly between some tendons, and values for the six different tendons varied nearly twofold, from 829±140 to 1479±106 MPa. Tendons were stretched to failure, and the stress at failure, or ultimate tensile stress, was taken as a lower-limit estimate of tendon strength. Breaking tests for four of the tendons revealed significant variation in ultimate tensile stress, ranging from 66.83±14.34 to 112.37±9.39 MPa. Resilience, or the fraction of energy returned in cyclic length changes was generally high, and one of the four tendons tested was significantly different in resilience from the other tendons (range: 90.65±0.83 to 94.02±0.71%). An analysis of correlation between material properties revealed a positive relationship between ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus (r2=0.79). Specifically, stiffer tendons were stronger, and we suggest that this correlation results from a constrained value of breaking strain, which did not vary significantly among tendons. This finding suggests an interdependence of material properties that may have a structural basis and may explain some adaptive responses observed in studies of tendon plasticity. PMID:22771746

  6. It's positive to be negative: Achilles tendon work loops during human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Zelik, Karl E; Franz, Jason R

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is increasingly used with motion and force data to quantify tendon dynamics during human movement. Frequently, tendon dynamics are estimated indirectly from muscle fascicle kinematics (by subtracting muscle from muscle-tendon unit length), but there is mounting evidence that this Indirect approach yields implausible tendon work loops. Since tendons are passive viscoelastic structures, when they undergo a loading-unloading cycle they must exhibit a negative work loop (i.e., perform net negative work). However, prior studies using this Indirect approach report large positive work loops, often estimating that tendons return 2-5 J of elastic energy for every 1 J of energy stored. More direct ultrasound estimates of tendon kinematics have emerged that quantify tendon elongations by tracking either the muscle-tendon junction or localized tendon tissue. However, it is unclear if these yield more plausible estimates of tendon dynamics. Our objective was to compute tendon work loops and hysteresis losses using these two Direct tendon kinematics estimates during human walking. We found that Direct estimates generally resulted in negative work loops, with average tendon hysteresis losses of 2-11% at 1.25 m/s and 33-49% at 0.75 m/s (N = 8), alluding to 0.51-0.98 J of tendon energy returned for every 1 J stored. We interpret this finding to suggest that Direct approaches provide more plausible estimates than the Indirect approach, and may be preferable for understanding tendon energy storage and return. However, the Direct approaches did exhibit speed-dependent trends that are not consistent with isolated, in vitro tendon hysteresis losses of about 5-10%. These trends suggest that Direct estimates also contain some level of error, albeit much smaller than Indirect estimates. Overall, this study serves to highlight the complexity and difficulty of estimating tendon dynamics non-invasively, and the care that must be taken to interpret biological function from

  7. [Ultrasound diagnostics of muscle and tendon injuries].

    PubMed

    Stević, Ruza; Masulović, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Sonography is a useful technique for the investigation of a number of musculoskeletal disorders. The most common indication for ultrasonography of muscles and tendons is the diagnosis of traumatic lesions, distinguishing them from other disorders and follow- up of healing process. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of ultrasound in the diagnosis of muscle and tendon injuries. The study included 170 patients (148 male and 22 female), mean age 29.6 years (range 14-60 years). All examinations were performed by linear transducer of 7.5-10 MHz, with longitudinal and transverse scanning. Ultrasound examination followed physical examination. Traumatic lesions of muscles were diagnosed in 113 patients (66.7%) and tendon injuries in 57 cases (33.2%). The muscle changes detected by ultrasonography were the following: 70 (61.9%) partial and two (1.76%) complete ruptures, 22 (19.46%) haematoma, 9 (7.96%) strains grade I, 4 fibroses and 4 ossifying myositis 4 (3.5%, respectively). Complications of muscle injuries were diagnosed in two cases, a muscular hernia and an arteriovenous fistula. Among tendon injuries, 21 (33.8%) ruptures and 36 (66.1%) tendinitis were diagnosed. Accompanying effusion in the bursa of patients with tendon injuries was found in 9 cases. Ultrasonography allowed visualization and objective assessment of the type and the extent of traumatic pathomorphological changes of muscles and tendons. Such diagnostic possibilities of ultrasonography are especially important in the choice of appropriate therapy.

  8. Central Tendon Injuries of Hamstring Muscles: Case Series of Operative Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lempainen, Lasse; Kosola, Jussi; Pruna, Ricard; Puigdellivol, Jordi; Sarimo, Janne; Niemi, Pekka; Orava, Sakari

    2018-02-01

    As compared with injuries involving muscle only, those involving the central hamstring tendon have a worse prognosis. Limited information is available regarding the surgical treatment of central tendon injuries of the hamstrings. To describe the operative treatment and outcomes of central tendon injuries of the hamstrings among athletes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Eight athletes (6 top level, 2 recreational) with central hamstring tendon injuries underwent magnetic resonance imaging and surgical treatment. The indication for surgery was recurrent (n = 6) or acute (n = 2) central hamstring tendon injury. All patients followed the same postoperative rehabilitation protocol, and return to play was monitored. Magnetic resonance imaging found a central tendon injury in all 3 hamstring muscles (long head of the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus) with disrupted tendon ends. In acute and recurrent central tendon injuries, full return to play was achieved at 2.5 to 4 months. There were no adverse events during follow-up. Central tendon injuries of the hamstrings can be successfully repaired surgically after acute and recurrent ruptures.

  9. Central Tendon Injuries of Hamstring Muscles: Case Series of Operative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lempainen, Lasse; Kosola, Jussi; Pruna, Ricard; Puigdellivol, Jordi; Sarimo, Janne; Niemi, Pekka; Orava, Sakari

    2018-01-01

    Background: As compared with injuries involving muscle only, those involving the central hamstring tendon have a worse prognosis. Limited information is available regarding the surgical treatment of central tendon injuries of the hamstrings. Purpose: To describe the operative treatment and outcomes of central tendon injuries of the hamstrings among athletes. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Eight athletes (6 top level, 2 recreational) with central hamstring tendon injuries underwent magnetic resonance imaging and surgical treatment. The indication for surgery was recurrent (n = 6) or acute (n = 2) central hamstring tendon injury. All patients followed the same postoperative rehabilitation protocol, and return to play was monitored. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging found a central tendon injury in all 3 hamstring muscles (long head of the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus) with disrupted tendon ends. In acute and recurrent central tendon injuries, full return to play was achieved at 2.5 to 4 months. There were no adverse events during follow-up. Conclusion: Central tendon injuries of the hamstrings can be successfully repaired surgically after acute and recurrent ruptures. PMID:29479545

  10. A rare knee extensor mechanism injury: Vastus intermedius tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Engin; Aydin, Canan Gonen; Akman, Yunus Emre; Gul, Murat; Arikan, Yavuz; Aycan, Osman Emre; Kabukcuoglu, Yavuz Selim

    2015-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon injuries are rare. There is a limited number of studies in the literature, reporting partial quadriceps tendon ruptures. We did not find any study reporting an isolated vastus intermedius tendon injury in the literature. A 22 years old professional rugby player with the complaints of pain in the right lower limb, decreased range of motion in right knee and a mass in the mid-anterior of the right thigh applied following an overloading on his hyperflexed knee during a rugby match. T2 sequence magnetic resonance images revealed discontinuity in the vastus intermedius tendon and intramuscular hematoma. The patient has been conservatively treated. Quadriceps tendon ruptures generally occur after the 4th decade in the presence of degenerative changes. Our case is a young professional rugby player. Isolated vastus intermedius tendon rupture is unusual. Conservative treatment is performed as the intermedius tendon is in the deepest layer of the quadriceps muscle. We report the first case of isolated rupture of the vastus intermedius tendon in the literature and we claim that disorder may be succesfully treated with conservative treatment and adequate physiotheraphy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. A rare knee extensor mechanism injury: Vastus intermedius tendon rupture

    PubMed Central

    Cetinkaya, Engin; Aydin, Canan Gonen; Akman, Yunus Emre; Gul, Murat; Arikan, Yavuz; Aycan, Osman Emre; Kabukcuoglu, Yavuz Selim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Quadriceps tendon injuries are rare. There is a limited number of studies in the literature, reporting partial quadriceps tendon ruptures. We did not find any study reporting an isolated vastus intermedius tendon injury in the literature. Presentation of case A 22 years old professional rugby player with the complaints of pain in the right lower limb, decreased range of motion in right knee and a mass in the mid-anterior of the right thigh applied following an overloading on his hyperflexed knee during a rugby match. T2 sequence magnetic resonance images revealed discontinuity in the vastus intermedius tendon and intramuscular hematoma. The patient has been conservatively treated. Discussion Quadriceps tendon ruptures generally occur after the 4th decade in the presence of degenerative changes. Our case is a young professional rugby player. Isolated vastus intermedius tendon rupture is unusual. Conservative treatment is performed as the intermedius tendon is in the deepest layer of the quadriceps muscle. Conclusion We report the first case of isolated rupture of the vastus intermedius tendon in the literature and we claim that disorder may be succesfully treated with conservative treatment and adequate physiotheraphy. PMID:26298093

  12. The histology of tendon attachments to bone in man.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Evans, E J; Copp, L

    1986-01-01

    Based on a parallel study of a wide range of human tendons from embalmed dissecting room subjects and from a study of dried bones, an explanation is offered for the well known similarity in gross appearance between the markings left by certain tendons (e.g. those of the rotator cuff) and by articular surfaces on dried bones. Epiphyseal tendons leave markings on bones that look like those left by articular surfaces. These tendons have a prominent zone of fibrocartilage at their attachment site and the deepest part of this is calcified, just as the deepest part of articular hyaline cartilage is calcified. After maceration of the soft tissues, the calcified (fibro) cartilage is left attached to the bone at articular surfaces and at the sites of tendon attachment. In all cases, the tissues separate at the basophilic tidemark between the calcified and uncalcified regions. This tidemark is smooth where there is much overlying uncalcified (fibro) cartilage and it is the smoothness that gives the typical appearance of the dried bone. Blood vessels do not generally traverse the tendon fibrocartilage plugs. Hence the areas are devoid of vascular foramina. The functional significance of tendon fibrocartilage is discussed with particular reference to supraspinatus. It is suggested that the uncalcified fibrocartilage ensures that the tendon fibres do not bend, splay out or become compressed at a hard tissue interface, and are thereby offered some protection from wear and tear. It is also suggested that the fibrocartilage plug of supraspinatus prevents the tendon from rubbing on the head of the humerus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3693113

  13. Tendon biomechanics and mechanobiology - a mini-review of basic concepts and recent advancements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, James H-C.; Guo, Qianping; Li, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Due to their unique hierarchical structure and composition, tendons possess characteristic biomechanical properties, including high mechanical strength and viscoelasticity, which enable them to carry and transmit mechanical loads (muscular forces) effectively. Tendons are also mechano-responsive by adaptively changing their structure and function in response to altered mechanical loading conditions. In general, mechanical loading at physiological levels is beneficial to tendons, but excessive loading or disuse of tendons is detrimental. This mechano-adaptability is due to the cells present in tendons. Tendon fibroblasts (tenocytes) are the dominant tendon cells responsible for tendon homeostasis and repair. Tendon stem cells (TSCs), which were recently discovered, also play a vital role in tendon maintenance and repair by virtue of their ability to self-renew and differentiate into tenocytes. TSCs may also be responsible for chronic tendon injury, or tendinopathy, by undergoing aberrant differentiation into non-tenocytes in response to excessive mechanical loading. Thus, it is necessary to devise optimal rehabilitation protocols in order to enhance tendon healing while reducing scar tissue formation and tendon adhesions. Moreover, along with scaffolds that can mimic tendon matrix environments and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which serves as a source of growth factors, TSCs may be the optimal cell type for enhancing repair of injured tendons. PMID:21925835

  14. Contraction dynamics and function of the muscle-tendon complex depend on the muscle fibre-tendon length ratio: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Mörl, Falk; Siebert, Tobias; Häufle, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Experimental studies show different muscle-tendon complex (MTC) functions (e.g. motor or spring) depending on the muscle fibre-tendon length ratio. Comparing different MTC of different animals examined experimentally, the extracted MTC functions are biased by, for example, MTC-specific pennation angle and fibre-type distribution or divergent experimental protocols (e.g. influence of temperature or stimulation on MTC force). Thus, a thorough understanding of variation of these inner muscle fibre-tendon length ratios on MTC function is difficult. In this study, we used a hill-type muscle model to simulate MTC. The model consists of a contractile element (CE) simulating muscle fibres, a serial element (SE) as a model for tendon, and a parallel elastic element (PEE) modelling tissue in parallel to the muscle fibres. The simulation examines the impact of length variations of these components on contraction dynamics and MTC function. Ensuring a constant overall length of the MTC by L(MTC) = L(SE) + L(CE), the SE rest length was varied over a broad physiological range from 0.1 to 0.9 MTC length. Five different MTC functions were investigated by simulating typical physiological experiments: the stabilising function with isometric contractions, the motor function with contractions against a weight, the capability of acceleration with contractions against a small inertial mass, the braking function by decelerating a mass, and the spring function with stretch-shortening cycles. The ratio of SE and CE mainly determines the MTC function. MTC with comparably short tendon generates high force and maximal shortening velocity and is able to produce maximal work and power. MTC with long tendon is suitable to store and release a maximum amount of energy. Variation of muscle fibre-tendon ratio yielded two peaks for MTC's force response for short and long SE lengths. Further, maximum work storage capacity of the SE is at long relL(SE,0). Impact of fibre-tendon length ratio on MTC

  15. Dedicated ultrasound speckle tracking to study tendon displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korstanje, Jan-Wiebe H.; Selles, Ruud W.; Stam, Henk J.; Hovius, Steven E. R.; Bosch, Johan G.

    2009-02-01

    Ultrasound can be used to study tendon and muscle movement. However, quantization is mostly based on manual tracking of anatomical landmarks such as the musculotendinous junction, limiting the applicability to a small number of muscle-tendon units. The aim of this study is to quantify tendon displacement without employing anatomical landmarks, using dedicated speckle tracking in long B-mode image sequences. We devised a dedicated two-dimensional multikernel block-matching scheme with subpixel accuracy to handle large displacements over long sequences. Images were acquired with a Philips iE33 with a 7 MHz linear array and a VisualSonics Vevo 770 using a 40 MHz mechanical probe. We displaced the flexor digitorum superficialis of two pig cadaver forelegs with three different velocities (4,10 and 16 mm/s) over 3 distances (5, 10, 15 mm). As a reference, we manually determined the total displacement of an injected hyperechogenic bullet in the tendons. We automatically tracked tendon parts with and without markers and compared results to the true displacement. Using the iE33, mean tissue displacement underestimations for the three different velocities were 2.5 +/- 1.0%, 1.7 +/- 1.1% and 0.7 +/- 0.4%. Using the Vevo770, mean tissue displacement underestimations were 0.8 +/- 1.3%, 0.6 +/- 0.3% and 0.6 +/- 0.3%. Marker tracking displacement underestimations were only slightly smaller, showing limited tracking drift for non-marker tendon tissue as well as for markers. This study showed that our dedicated speckle tracking can quantify extensive tendon displacement with physiological velocities without anatomical landmarks with good accuracy for different types of ultrasound configurations. This technique allows tracking of a much larger range of muscle-tendon units than by using anatomical landmarks.

  16. Relationship between chronic pathologies of the supraspinatus tendon and the long head of the biceps tendon: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Redondo-Alonso, Lucía; Chamorro-Moriana, Gema; Jiménez-Rejano, José Jesús; López-Tarrida, Patricio; Ridao-Fernández, Carmen

    2014-11-18

    Chronic supraspinatus tendinopathy is a common clinical problem that causes functional and labor disabilities in the population. It is the most frequent cause of shoulder pain. This pathology may be frequently associated to the affectation of the long head of biceps tendon (LHBT), the main stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint together with the supraspinatus. The main aim of this work is to study the prevalence of lesions in LHBT associated to the chronic pathology of the supraspinatus tendon. A systematic review was carried out between May to July 2013 in the electronic databases: CINAHL, WOK, Medline, Scopus, PEDro, IME (CSIC) and Dialnet. The keywords used were: 1) in English: chronic, supraspinatus "long head of the biceps tendon", biceps, rotator cuff, tendinosis, tendinopathy, evaluation, examination; 2) in Spanish: supraespinoso, biceps, tendinopatía. Inclusion criteria of the articles included subjects with a previously diagnosed chronic pathology of rotator cuff (RC) without previous surgery or any other pathologies of the shoulder complex. The total number of articles included in the study were five. The results show an epidemiological relationship between both tendons. The age of the subjects included in the review was between 35 and 80 years, and some of the studies seem to indicate that the tendinopathy is more frequent in men than in women. The sample size of the studies varies according to the design, the highest being composed of 229 subjects, and the minimum of 28. Not all the articles selected specify the diagnostic testing, though the ones most normally used are arthroscopy, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and assessment tests. The percentage of associated lesions of LHBT and supraspinatus tendon is between 78.5% and 22%, with a major prevalence in the studies with a smaller sample. The review of literature corroborates an association between the chronic pathology of the supraspinatus tendon and LHBT due to the epidemiological data. In

  17. Preinjury and postinjury running analysis along with measurements of strength and tendon length in a patient with a surgically repaired Achilles tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Willy, Richard; Davis, Irene

    2012-06-01

    Case report. The Achilles tendon is the most frequently ruptured tendon, and the incidence of Achilles tendon rupture has increased in the last decade. The rupture generally occurs without any preceding warning signs, and therefore preinjury data are seldom available. This case represents a unique opportunity to compare preinjury running mechanics with postinjury evaluation in a patient with an Achilles tendon rupture. A 23-year-old female sustained a right complete Achilles tendon rupture while playing soccer. Running mechanics data were collected preinjury, as she was a healthy participant in a study on running analysis. In addition, patient-reported symptoms, physical activity level, strength, ankle range of motion, heel-rise ability, Achilles tendon length, and running kinetics were evaluated 1 year after surgical repair. During running, greater ankle dorsiflexion and eversion and rearfoot abduction were noted on the involved side postinjury when compared to preinjury data. In addition, postinjury, the magnitude of all kinetics data was lower on the involved limb when compared to the uninvolved limb. The involved side displayed differences in strength, ankle range of motion, heel rise, and tendon length when compared to the uninvolved side 1 year after injury. Despite a return to normal running routine and reports of only minor limitations with running, considerable changes were noted in running biomechanics 1 year after injury. Calf muscle weakness and Achilles tendon elongation were also found when comparing the involved and uninvolved sides.

  18. System and Method for Tensioning a Robotically Actuated Tendon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A tendon tensioning system includes a tendon having a proximal end and a distal end, an actuator, and a motor controller. The actuator may include a drive screw and a motor, and may be coupled with the proximal end of the tendon and configured to apply a tension through the tendon in response to an electrical current. The motor controller may be electrically coupled with the actuator, and configured to provide an electrical current having a first amplitude to the actuator until a stall tension is achieved through the tendon; provide a pulse current to the actuator following the achievement of the stall tension, where the amplitude of the pulse current is greater than the first amplitude, and return the motor to a steady state holding current following the conclusion of the pulse current.

  19. Cellular therapy in bone-tendon interface regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rothrauff, Benjamin B; Tuan, Rocky S

    2014-01-01

    The intrasynovial bone-tendon interface is a gradual transition from soft tissue to bone, with two intervening zones of uncalcified and calcified fibrocartilage. Following injury, the native anatomy is not restored, resulting in inferior mechanical properties and an increased risk of re-injury. Recent in vivo studies provide evidence of improved healing when surgical repair of the bone-tendon interface is augmented with cells capable of undergoing chondrogenesis. In particular, cellular therapy in bone-tendon healing can promote fibrocartilage formation and associated improvements in mechanical properties. Despite these promising results in animal models, cellular therapy in human patients remains largely unexplored. This review highlights the development and structure-function relationship of normal bone-tendon insertions. The natural healing response to injury is discussed, with subsequent review of recent research on cellular approaches for improved healing. Finally, opportunities for translating in vivo findings into clinical practice are identified. PMID:24326955

  20. Method of Breast Reconstruction Determines Venous Thromboembolism Risk Better Than Current Prediction Models

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Niyant V.; Wagner, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk models including the Davison risk score and the 2005 Caprini risk assessment model have been validated in plastic surgery patients. However, their utility and predictive value in breast reconstruction has not been well described. We sought to determine the utility of current VTE risk models in this population and the VTE rate observed in various methods of breast reconstruction. Methods: A retrospective review of breast reconstructions by a single surgeon was performed. One hundred consecutive transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) patients, 100 consecutive implant patients, and 100 consecutive latissimus dorsi patients were identified over a 10-year period. Patient demographics and presence of symptomatic VTE were collected. 2005 Caprini risk scores and Davison risk scores were calculated for each patient. Results: The TRAM reconstruction group was found to have a higher VTE rate (6%) than the implant (0%) and latissimus (0%) reconstruction groups (P < 0.01). Mean Davison risk scores and 2005 Caprini scores were similar across all reconstruction groups (P > 0.1). The vast majority of patients were stratified as high risk (87.3%) by the VTE risk models. However, only TRAM reconstruction patients demonstrated significant VTE risk. Conclusions: TRAM reconstruction appears to have a significantly higher risk of VTE than both implant and latissimus reconstruction. Current risk models do not effectively stratify breast reconstruction patients at risk for VTE. The method of breast reconstruction appears to have a significant role in patients’ VTE risk. PMID:26090287

  1. In vitro structural properties of braided tendon grafts.

    PubMed

    Nicklin, S; Waller, C; Walker, P; Chung, W K; Walsh, W R

    2000-01-01

    In an effort to increase strength in hamstring tendon grafts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, braiding or weaving of the tendons has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to examine the biomechanical properties of two braiding techniques compared with a four-stranded tendon graft using a sheep model. Digital extensor tendons from 5 adult sheep were harvested in 28 matched pairs and randomly allocated to French plait or four-stranded weave. The grafts were tested in a hydraulic testing machine with the tendons secured in brass grips frozen with liquid carbon dioxide. The tendons were preconditioned to a distraction of 1 mm for 10 cycles followed by testing to failure at 50 mm/sec, with a data acquisition rate of 1,000 Hz. The stiffness, ultimate load to failure, and the mode of failure were recorded. All braided samples failed at the midsubstance, while the four-stranded controls failed at the grip interface. There was a significant reduction in strength and stiffness of the braided samples compared with the controls. This study demonstrated that braiding decreases the strength and stiffness of a four-stranded tendon graft by up to 54% and 85%, respectively. This finding is supported by the wo