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Sample records for latitudinal gradient genetic

  1. Ontogenetic changes in genetic variances of age-dependent plasticity along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson-Örtman, V; Rogell, B; Stoks, R; Johansson, F

    2015-01-01

    The expression of phenotypic plasticity may differ among life stages of the same organism. Age-dependent plasticity can be important for adaptation to heterogeneous environments, but this has only recently been recognized. Whether age-dependent plasticity is a common outcome of local adaptation and whether populations harbor genetic variation in this respect remains largely unknown. To answer these questions, we estimated levels of additive genetic variation in age-dependent plasticity in six species of damselflies sampled from 18 populations along a latitudinal gradient spanning 3600 km. We reared full sib larvae at three temperatures and estimated genetic variances in the height and slope of thermal reaction norms of body size at three points in time during ontogeny using random regression. Our data show that most populations harbor genetic variation in growth rate (reaction norm height) in all ontogenetic stages, but only some populations and ontogenetic stages were found to harbor genetic variation in thermal plasticity (reaction norm slope). Genetic variances in reaction norm height differed among species, while genetic variances in reaction norm slope differed among populations. The slope of the ontogenetic trend in genetic variances of both reaction norm height and slope increased with latitude. We propose that differences in genetic variances reflect temporal and spatial variation in the strength and direction of natural selection on growth trajectories and age-dependent plasticity. Selection on age-dependent plasticity may depend on the interaction between temperature seasonality and time constraints associated with variation in life history traits such as generation length. PMID:25649500

  2. A latitudinal phylogeographic diversity gradient in birds.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian Tilston; Seeholzer, Glenn F; Harvey, Michael G; Cuervo, Andrés M; Brumfield, Robb T

    2017-04-01

    High tropical species diversity is often attributed to evolutionary dynamics over long timescales. It is possible, however, that latitudinal variation in diversification begins when divergence occurs within species. Phylogeographic data capture this initial stage of diversification in which populations become geographically isolated and begin to differentiate genetically. There is limited understanding of the broader implications of intraspecific diversification because comparative analyses have focused on species inhabiting and evolving in restricted regions and environments. Here, we scale comparative phylogeography up to the hemisphere level and examine whether the processes driving latitudinal differences in species diversity are also evident within species. We collected genetic data for 210 New World bird species distributed across a broad latitudinal gradient and estimated a suite of metrics characterizing phylogeographic history. We found that lower latitude species had, on average, greater phylogeographic diversity than higher latitude species and that intraspecific diversity showed evidence of greater persistence in the tropics. Factors associated with species ecologies, life histories, and habitats explained little of the variation in phylogeographic structure across the latitudinal gradient. Our results suggest that the latitudinal gradient in species richness originates, at least partly, from population-level processes within species and are consistent with hypotheses implicating age and environmental stability in the formation of diversity gradients. Comparative phylogeographic analyses scaled up to large geographic regions and hundreds of species can show connections between population-level processes and broad-scale species-richness patterns.

  3. Effect of latitudinal gradient and impact of logging on genetic diversity of Cedrela lilloi along the Argentine Yungas Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Inza, Maria V; Zelener, Noga; Fornes, Luis; Gallo, Leonardo A

    2012-01-01

    Cedrela lilloi C. DC. (cedro coya, Meliaceae), an important south American timber species, has been historically overexploited through selective logging in Argentine Yungas Rainforest. Management and conservation programs of the species require knowledge of its genetic variation patterns; however, no information is available. Molecular genetic variability of the species was characterized to identify high-priority populations for conservation and domestication purposes. Fourteen native populations (160 individuals) along a latitudinal gradient and with different logging's intensities were assessed by 293 polymorphic AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers. Genetic diversity was low (Ht = 0.135), according to marginal location of the species in Argentina. Most of the diversity was distributed within populations (87%). Northern populations showed significant higher genetic diversity (R2= 0.69) that agreed with latitudinal pattern of distribution of taxonomic diversity in the Yungas. Three clusters were identified by Bayesian analysis in correspondence with northern, central, and southern Yungas. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant genetic differences among latitudinal clusters even when logging (ΦRT = 0.07) and unlogging populations (ΦPT = 0.10) were separately analyzed. Loss of genetic diversity with increasing logging intensity was observed between neighboring populations with different disturbance (ΦPT = 0.03–0.10). Bottlenecks in disturbed populations are suggested as the main cause. Our results emphasize both: the necessity of maintaining the genetic diversity in protected areas that appear as possible long-term refuges of the species; and to rescue for the national system of protected areas some high genetic diversity populations that are on private fields. PMID:23170208

  4. Genetic structure and bio-climatic modeling support allopatric over parapatric speciation along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Four of the five species of Telopea (Proteaceae) are distributed in a latitudinal replacement pattern on the south-eastern Australian mainland. In similar circumstances, a simple allopatric speciation model that identifies the origins of genetic isolation within temporal geographic separation is considered as the default model. However, secondary contact between differentiated lineages can result in similar distributional patterns to those arising from a process of parapatric speciation (where gene flow between lineages remains uninterrupted during differentiation). Our aim was to use the characteristic distributional patterns in Telopea to test whether it reflected the evolutionary models of allopatric or parapatric speciation. Using a combination of genetic evidence and environmental niche modelling, we focused on three main questions: do currently described geographic borders coincide with genetic and environmental boundaries; are there hybrid zones in areas of secondary contact between closely related species; did species distributions contract during the last glacial maximum resulting in distributional gaps even where overlap and hybridisation currently occur? Results Total genomic DNA was extracted from 619 individuals sampled from 36 populations representing the four species. Seven nuclear microsatellites (nSSR) and six chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSR) were amplified across all populations. Genetic structure and the signature of admixture in overlap zones was described using the Bayesian clustering methods implemented in STUCTURE and NewHybrids respectively. Relationships between chlorotypes were reconstructed as a median-joining network. Environmental niche models were produced for all species using environmental parameters from both the present day and the last glacial maximum (LGM). The nSSR loci amplified a total of 154 alleles, while data for the cpSSR loci produced a network of six chlorotypes. STRUCTURE revealed an optimum number of five

  5. Heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura along a latitudinal gradient: Contrasting patterns between plastic and genetic responses.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Luis E; Rezende, Enrico L; Santos, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    Susceptibility to global warming relies on how thermal tolerances respond to increasing temperatures through plasticity or evolution. Climatic adaptation can be assessed by examining the geographic variation in thermal-related traits. We studied latitudinal patterns in heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura reared at two temperatures. We used four static stressful temperatures to estimate the thermal death time (TDT) curves, and two ramping assays with fast and slow heating rates. Thermal death time curves allow estimation of the critical thermal maximum (CT(max)), by extrapolating to the temperature that would knock down the flies almost "instantaneously," and the thermal sensitivity to increasing stressful temperatures. We found a positive latitudinal cline for CT(max), but no clinal pattern for knockdown temperatures estimated from the ramping assays. Although high-latitude populations were more tolerant to an acute heat stress, they were also more sensitive to prolonged exposure to less stressful temperatures, supporting a trade-off between acute and chronic heat tolerances. Conversely, developmental plasticity did not affect CT(max) but increased the tolerance to chronic heat exposition. The patterns observed from the TDT curves help to understand why the relationship between heat tolerance and latitude depends on the methodology used and, therefore, these curves provide a more complete and reliable measurement of heat tolerance.

  6. Molecular evolution and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient

    PubMed Central

    Dowle, E J; Morgan-Richards, M; Trewick, S A

    2013-01-01

    Species density is higher in the tropics (low latitude) than in temperate regions (high latitude) resulting in a latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG). The LBG must be generated by differential rates of speciation and/or extinction and/or immigration among regions, but the role of each of these processes is still unclear. Recent studies examining differences in rates of molecular evolution have inferred a direct link between rate of molecular evolution and rate of speciation, and postulated these as important drivers of the LBG. Here we review the molecular genetic evidence and examine the factors that might be responsible for differences in rates of molecular evolution. Critical to this is the directionality of the relationship between speciation rates and rates of molecular evolution. PMID:23486082

  7. Ephemeral ecological speciation and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Cutter, Asher D; Gray, Jeremy C

    2016-10-01

    The richness of biodiversity in the tropics compared to high-latitude parts of the world forms one of the most globally conspicuous patterns in biology, and yet few hypotheses aim to explain this phenomenon in terms of explicit microevolutionary mechanisms of speciation and extinction. We link population genetic processes of selection and adaptation to speciation and extinction by way of their interaction with environmental factors to drive global scale macroecological patterns. High-latitude regions are both cradle and grave with respect to species diversification. In particular, we point to a conceptual equivalence of "environmental harshness" and "hard selection" as eco-evolutionary drivers of local adaptation and ecological speciation. By describing how ecological speciation likely occurs more readily at high latitudes, with such nascent species especially prone to extinction by fusion, we derive the ephemeral ecological speciation hypothesis as an integrative mechanistic explanation for latitudinal gradients in species turnover and the net accumulation of biodiversity.

  8. Evolution and the latitudinal diversity gradient: speciation, extinction and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Mittelbach, Gary G; Schemske, Douglas W; Cornell, Howard V; Allen, Andrew P; Brown, Jonathan M; Bush, Mark B; Harrison, Susan P; Hurlbert, Allen H; Knowlton, Nancy; Lessios, Harilaos A; McCain, Christy M; McCune, Amy R; McDade, Lucinda A; McPeek, Mark A; Near, Thomas J; Price, Trevor D; Ricklefs, Robert E; Roy, Kaustuv; Sax, Dov F; Schluter, Dolph; Sobel, James M; Turelli, Michael

    2007-04-01

    A latitudinal gradient in biodiversity has existed since before the time of the dinosaurs, yet how and why this gradient arose remains unresolved. Here we review two major hypotheses for the origin of the latitudinal diversity gradient. The time and area hypothesis holds that tropical climates are older and historically larger, allowing more opportunity for diversification. This hypothesis is supported by observations that temperate taxa are often younger than, and nested within, tropical taxa, and that diversity is positively correlated with the age and area of geographical regions. The diversification rate hypothesis holds that tropical regions diversify faster due to higher rates of speciation (caused by increased opportunities for the evolution of reproductive isolation, or faster molecular evolution, or the increased importance of biotic interactions), or due to lower extinction rates. There is phylogenetic evidence for higher rates of diversification in tropical clades, and palaeontological data demonstrate higher rates of origination for tropical taxa, but mixed evidence for latitudinal differences in extinction rates. Studies of latitudinal variation in incipient speciation also suggest faster speciation in the tropics. Distinguishing the roles of history, speciation and extinction in the origin of the latitudinal gradient represents a major challenge to future research.

  9. Diversification rates and the latitudinal gradient of diversity in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Soria-Carrasco, Víctor; Castresana, Jose

    2012-01-01

    The latitudinal gradient of species richness has frequently been attributed to higher diversification rates of tropical groups. In order to test this hypothesis for mammals, we used a set of 232 genera taken from a mammalian supertree and, additionally, we reconstructed dated Bayesian phylogenetic trees of 100 genera. For each genus, diversification rate was estimated taking incomplete species sampling into account and latitude was assigned considering the heterogeneity in species distribution ranges. For both datasets, we found that the average diversification rate was similar among all latitudinal bands. Furthermore, when we used phylogenetically independent contrasts, we did not find any significant correlation between latitude and diversification parameters, including different estimates of speciation and extinction rates. Thus, other factors, such as the dynamics of dispersal through time, may be required to explain the latitudinal gradient of diversity in mammals. PMID:22896648

  10. Structure of Benthic Communities along the Taiwan Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    De Palmas, Stéphane; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2016-01-01

    The distribution and the structure of benthic assemblages vary with latitude. However, few studies have described benthic communities along large latitudinal gradients, and patterns of variation are not fully understood. Taiwan, lying between 21.90°N and 25.30°N, is located at the center of the Philippine-Japan arc and lies at the northern margin of coral reef development. A wide range of habitats is distributed along this latitudinal gradient, from extensive fringing coral reefs at the southern coast to non-reefal communities at the north. In this study, we examined the structure of benthic communities around Taiwan, by comparing its assemblages in four regions, analyzing the effects of the latitudinal gradient, and highlighting regional characteristics. A total of 25 sites, 125 transects, and 2,625 photographs were used to analyze the benthic communities. Scleractinian corals present an obvious gradient of increasing diversity from north to south, whereas macro-algae diversity is higher on the north-eastern coast. At the country scale, Taiwanese coral communities were dominated by turf algae (49%). At the regional scale, we observed an important heterogeneity that may be caused by local disturbances and habitat degradation that smooths out regional differences. In this context, our observations highlight the importance of managing local stressors responsible for reef degradation. Overall, this study provides an important baseline upon which future changes in benthic assemblages around Taiwan can be assessed. PMID:27513665

  11. Radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain G.; Tomczyk, Steven; Ulrich, Roger K.; Woodard, Martin F.

    1988-01-01

    The frequency splittings of intermediate-degree (3 to 170 deg) p-mode oscillations obtained from a 16-day subset of observations were analyzed. Results show evidence for both radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity. From 0.6 to 0.95 solar radii, the solar internal angular velocity increases systematically from 440 to 463 nHz, corresponding to a positive radial gradient of 66 nHz/solar radius for that portion of the solar interior. Analysis also indicates that the latitudinal differential rotation gradient which is seen at the solar surface persists throughout the convection zone, although there are indications that the differential rotation might disappear entirely below the base of the convection zone. The analysis was extended to include comparisons with additional observational studies and between earlier results and the results of additional inversions of several of the observational datasets. All the comparisons reinforce conclusions regarding the existence of radial and latitudinal gradients in the internal angular velocity.

  12. Latitudinal gradients in ecosystem engineering by oysters vary across habitats.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Dominic; Cole, Victoria J; Bishop, Melanie J

    2016-04-01

    Ecological theory predicts that positive interactions among organisms will increase across gradients of increasing abiotic stress or consumer pressure. This theory has been supported by empirical studies examining the magnitude of ecosystem engineering across environmental gradients and between habitat settings at local scale. Predictions that habitat setting, by modifying both biotic and abiotic factors, will determine large-scale gradients in ecosystem engineering have not been tested, however. A combination of manipulative experiments and field surveys assessed whether along the east Australian coastline: (1) facilitation of invertebrates by the oyster Saccostrea glomerata increased across a latitudinal gradient in temperature; and (2) the magnitude of this effect varied between intertidal rocky shores and mangrove forests. It was expected that on rocky shores, where oysters are the primary ecosystem engineer, they would play a greater role in ameliorating latitudinal gradients in temperature than in mangroves, where they are a secondary ecosystem engineer living under the mangrove canopy. On rocky shores, the enhancement of invertebrate abundance in oysters as compared to bare microhabitat decreased with latitude, as the maximum temperatures experienced by intertidal organisms diminished. By contrast, in mangrove forests, where the mangrove canopy resulted in maximum temperatures that were cooler and of greater humidity than on rocky shores, we found no evidence of latitudinal gradients of oyster effects on invertebrate abundance. Contrary to predictions, the magnitude by which oysters enhanced biodiversity was in many instances similar between mangroves and rocky shores. Whether habitat-context modifies patterns of spatial variation in the effects of ecosystem engineers on community structure will depend, in part, on the extent to which the environmental amelioration provided by an ecosystem engineer replicates that of other co-occurring ecosystem engineers.

  13. Mid-Paleozoic latitudinal predation gradient: Distribution of brachiopod ornamentation reflects shifting Carboniferous climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, Gregory P.; Kelley, Patricia H.

    2001-02-01

    Shell ornamentation in modern oceans increases toward the tropics in conjunction with an equatorward increase in shell-breaking predation. Latitudinal gradients in antipredatory ornamentation were previously documented for Devonian brachiopods. We examined the latitudinal distribution of shell ornamentation in Tournaisian, Visean, and Namurian articulate brachiopods to test the hypothesis that the latitudinal gradient in antipredatory ornamentation was present in the Carboniferous. We found a statistically significant latitudinal ornamentation gradient, which was most pronounced in the Tournaisian, when the latitudinal temperature gradient was most steep. These results support the hypothesis that a latitudinal gradient in defensive morphology occurred as a result of the mid-Paleozoic increase in predation. Although the mid-Paleozoic and late Mesozoic intervals of predator-prey escalation may have differed in dynamics and intensity, both episodes produced adaptations in prey morphology that varied along a latitudinal gradient.

  14. Latitudinal gradients in marine diatom and coccolithophore diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Colleen; Vogt, Meike; Leblanc, Karine; Gruber, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    Latitudinal gradients in biodiversity have long been recognised in terrestrial ecosystems, with the highest diversity of many groups occurring in the tropics and declining towards the poles. For marine phytoplankton, a latitudinal gradient has been observed in dinoflagellates, and there seems to be some consensus that coccolithophore diversity also follows the typical pattern of highest diversity at low latitudes. Mixed results have so far been reported for marine diatoms. We use the new MAREDAT (Marine Ecosystem DATa) diatom and coccolithophore datasets to investigate global patterns in species diversity. This database contains global biomass and abundance observations for 10 plankton functional groups, including 91 704 samples of diatom abundance and biomass and 11 703 for coccolithophores. We find evidence for a poleward decline in species richness and diversity for both groups, with total observed species richness per 5 degree latitudinal band declining by approximately 75% between the equator and 60°. Mean station diversity is measured using both species richness and the Shannon diversity index. For the diatoms, species richness per station declines from a mean of 25 between 20°S and 20°N to values less than 10 for stations above 60°S and N. For the coccolithophores, the trend is less clear: mean station richness reaches a maximum of 22 between 10 and 15°N and shows a clear northward decline, with only one species per station reported north of 60°N. Mean coccolithophore richness per station is, however, relatively low at the equator, with highest richness per station in the Southern Hemisphere observed between 20 and 40°S. Highest richness and diversity of both groups is associated with low group-specific biomass and low total chlorophyll, with higher productivity regions typically dominated by one or few species.

  15. Bimodality of Latitudinal Gradients in Marine Species Richness.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Chhaya; Saeedi, Hanieh; Costello, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    The paradigm for the latitudinal gradient in species richness is that it is unimodal with a tropical peak. For 27 published studies, and global datasets of 65 000 recent and 50 000 fossil marine species, we found that almost all datasets were significantly bimodal with a dip in species richness near the equator. The locations of mid-latitude peaks varied between taxa and were higher in the northern hemisphere where the continental shelf is greatest. Our findings support hypotheses of tropical species evolving in response to temperature variation near the edges of the tropics and available high-productivity habitat. They suggest that the equator may already be too hot for some species and that the modes may move further apart due to climate warming.

  16. Climate and Biological Controls of Carbon Fluxes along latitudinal gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Yuan, J.; Niu, S.

    2012-12-01

    It has not been carefully examined whether relative importance of climate and biological controls of carbon fluxes is similar among various ecosystem types along latitudinal gradients from the tropical to polar region. We hypothesize that except tropical regions, there is a consistent pattern of climate and biological controls of carbon fluxes across all the other ecosystems. We tested the hypothesis by analyzing data of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from nearly 200 eddy-flux towers distributed worldwide and simulated gross primary production (GPP) from the Australian Community Atmosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model. Specifically, we estimated yearly NEE (i.e., NEP), carbon uptake period (CUP) and seasonal maximum of NEE (NEE¬_max) from eddy-flux data. Similarly, we estimated CUP, GPP_max, seasonal maximum leaf area index (LAI_max), and Vcmax from the model across the globe. Our regression analysis indicates that NEP is very tightly correlated with the product of CUP and NEE_max cross all sites. Similarly, simulated GPP is highly correlated with the product of CUP and GPP_max over the globe in the CABLE model. CUP is related to phenology and represents climate control of carbon fluxes while NEE_max or GPP_max is determined by biological processes and thus represents biological control of carbon processes. We further analyzed relationships of GPP_max with LAI_max and Vcmax individually or in combination. GPP_max is highly correlated with them. This talk will present results of our analysis and explain our hypothesis test regarding relative importance of biological and climate controls of carbon fluxes along the latitudinal gradients.

  17. A Latitudinal Diversity Gradient in Terrestrial Bacteria of the Genus Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Doroghazi, James R.; Campbell, Ashley N.; Kelly, Peter J.; Choudoir, Mallory J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift. Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and both beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Hence, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift. PMID:27073097

  18. Southern hospitality: a latitudinal gradient in gene flow in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P; Eernisse, Douglas J

    2007-03-01

    In recent years population genetics and phylogeographic studies have become increasingly valuable tools for inferring both historical and present-day genetic patterns within marine species. Here, we take a comparative approach to population-level study, analyzing original mitochondrial DNA data from 969 individuals representing 28 chiton (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) species to uncover large-scale genetic patterns along the Pacific coast of North America. The data reveal a distinct latitudinal connectivity gradient among chitons: species that exist at lower latitudes tend to have more isolated populations. This trend appears to be a product of between-species differences; within species, no significant gradient in connectivity is observed. Lower average annual sea surface temperatures are hypothesized to contribute to longer larval duration (and by extension, greater connectivity) among lecithotrophic species, providing a mechanism for the observed positive correlation between gene flow and latitude. Because increased isolation among populations may lead to speciation, a latitudinal trend in gene flow may contribute to the increased species diversity observed at lower latitudes.

  19. Latitudinal diversity gradients in Mesozoic non-marine turtles

    PubMed Central

    Holroyd, Patricia A.; Valdes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG)—the pattern of increasing taxonomic richness with decreasing latitude—is prevalent in the structure of the modern biota. However, some freshwater taxa show peak richness at mid-latitudes; for example, extant Testudines (turtles, terrapins and tortoises) exhibit their greatest diversity at 25° N, a pattern sometimes attributed to recent bursts of climatically mediated species diversification. Here, we test whether this pattern also characterizes the Mesozoic distribution of turtles, to determine whether it was established during either their initial diversification or as a more modern phenomenon. Using global occurrence data for non-marine testudinate genera, we find that subsampled richness peaks at palaeolatitudes of 15–30° N in the Jurassic, 30–45° N through the Cretaceous to the Campanian, and from 30° to 60° N in the Maastrichtian. The absence of a significant diversity peak in southern latitudes is consistent with results from climatic models and turtle niche modelling that demonstrate a dearth of suitable turtle habitat in Gondwana during the Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. Our analyses confirm that the modern testudinate LBG has a deep-time origin and further demonstrate that LBGs are not always expressed as a smooth, equator-to-pole distribution. PMID:28018649

  20. Latitudinal diversity gradients in Mesozoic non-marine turtles.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, David B; Holroyd, Patricia A; Valdes, Paul; Barrett, Paul M

    2016-11-01

    The latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG)-the pattern of increasing taxonomic richness with decreasing latitude-is prevalent in the structure of the modern biota. However, some freshwater taxa show peak richness at mid-latitudes; for example, extant Testudines (turtles, terrapins and tortoises) exhibit their greatest diversity at 25° N, a pattern sometimes attributed to recent bursts of climatically mediated species diversification. Here, we test whether this pattern also characterizes the Mesozoic distribution of turtles, to determine whether it was established during either their initial diversification or as a more modern phenomenon. Using global occurrence data for non-marine testudinate genera, we find that subsampled richness peaks at palaeolatitudes of 15-30° N in the Jurassic, 30-45° N through the Cretaceous to the Campanian, and from 30° to 60° N in the Maastrichtian. The absence of a significant diversity peak in southern latitudes is consistent with results from climatic models and turtle niche modelling that demonstrate a dearth of suitable turtle habitat in Gondwana during the Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. Our analyses confirm that the modern testudinate LBG has a deep-time origin and further demonstrate that LBGs are not always expressed as a smooth, equator-to-pole distribution.

  1. Latitudinal diversity gradients in Mesozoic non-marine turtles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, David B.; Holroyd, Patricia A.; Valdes, Paul; Barrett, Paul M.

    2016-11-01

    The latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG)-the pattern of increasing taxonomic richness with decreasing latitude-is prevalent in the structure of the modern biota. However, some freshwater taxa show peak richness at mid-latitudes; for example, extant Testudines (turtles, terrapins and tortoises) exhibit their greatest diversity at 25° N, a pattern sometimes attributed to recent bursts of climatically mediated species diversification. Here, we test whether this pattern also characterizes the Mesozoic distribution of turtles, to determine whether it was established during either their initial diversification or as a more modern phenomenon. Using global occurrence data for non-marine testudinate genera, we find that subsampled richness peaks at palaeolatitudes of 15-30° N in the Jurassic, 30-45° N through the Cretaceous to the Campanian, and from 30° to 60° N in the Maastrichtian. The absence of a significant diversity peak in southern latitudes is consistent with results from climatic models and turtle niche modelling that demonstrate a dearth of suitable turtle habitat in Gondwana during the Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. Our analyses confirm that the modern testudinate LBG has a deep-time origin and further demonstrate that LBGs are not always expressed as a smooth, equator-to-pole distribution.

  2. Mangrove pore water exchange across a latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Douglas R.; Maher, Damien T.; Macklin, Paul A.; Santos, Isaac R.

    2016-04-01

    We combined observations of the natural tracer radon (222Rn) with hydrodynamic models across a broad latitudinal gradient covering several climate zones to estimate pore water exchange rates in mangroves. Pore water exchange ranged from 2.1 to 35.5 cm d-1 from temperate to tropical regions and averaged 16.3 ± 5.1 cm d-1. If upscaled to the global weighted mangrove area, pore water exchange in mangroves would recirculate the entire volume of water overlying the continental shelf in less than 153 years. Although pore water exchange (recirculated seawater) and river discharge represent different pathways for water entering the coastal ocean, the estimated global mangrove pore water exchange would be equal to approximately one third of annual global river discharge to the ocean (3.84 × 1013 m3 yr-1). Because biogeochemical processes in mangroves are largely dependent on pore water exchange, these large exchange rates have major implications for coastal nutrient, carbon, and greenhouse gas cycling in tropical marine systems.

  3. Influence of the Latitudinal Temperature Gradient on Soil Dust Concentration and Deposition in Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegen, Ina; Rind, David

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the effects of changes in the latitudinal temperature gradient and the global mean temperature on dust concentration in the Northern Hemisphere, experiments with the GISS GCM (Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model) are performed. The dust concentration over Greenland is calculated from sources in central and eastern Asia, which are integrated on-line in the model. The results show that an increase in the latitudinal temperature gradient increases both the Asian dust source strength and the concentration over Greenland. The source increase is the result of increased surface winds, and to a minor extent, the increase in Greenland dust is also associated with increased northward transport. Cooling the climate in addition to this increased gradient leads to a decrease in precipitation scavenging, which helps produce a further (slight) increase in Greenland dust in this experiment. Reducing the latitudinal gradient reduces the surface wind and hence the dust source, with a subsequent reduction in Greenland dust concentrations. Warming the climate in addition to this reduced gradient leads to a further reduction in Greenland dust due to enhanced precipitation scavenging. These results can be used to evaluate the relationship of Greenland ice core temperature changes to changes in the latitudinal and global temperatures.

  4. Influence of the Latitudinal Temperature Gradient on Soil Dust Concentration and Deposition in Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegen, Ina; Rind, David

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the effects of changes in the latitudinal temperature gradient and the global mean temperature on dust concentration in the Northern Hemisphere, experiments with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model (GISS GCM) are performed. The dust concentration over Greenland is calculated from sources in central and eastern Asia, which are integrated on-line in the model. The results show that an increase in the latitudinal temperature gradient increases both the Asian dust source strength and the concentration over Greenland. The source increase is the result of increased surface winds, and to a minor extent, the increase in Greenland dust is also associated with increased northward transport. Cooling the climate in addition to this increased gradient leads to a decrease in precipitation scavenging, which helps produce a further (slight) increase in Greenland dust in this experiment. Reducing the latitudinal gradient reduces the surface wind and hence the dust source, with a subsequent reduction in Greenland dust concentrations. Warming the climate in addition to this reduced gradient leads to a further reduction in Greenland dust due to enhanced precipitation scavenging. These results can be used to evaluate the relationship of Greenland ice core temperature changes to changes in the latitudinal and global temperatures.

  5. Origination and Immigration Drive Latitudinal Gradients in Marine Functional Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Berke, Sarah K.; Jablonski, David; Krug, Andrew Z.; Valentine, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Global patterns in the functional attributes of organisms are critical to understanding biodiversity trends and predicting biotic responses to environmental change. In the first global marine analysis, we find a strong decrease in functional richness, but a strong increase in functional evenness, with increasing latitude using intertidal-to-outer-shelf bivalves as a model system (N = 5571 species). These patterns appear to be driven by the interplay between variation in origination rates among functional groups, and latitudinal patterns in origination and range expansion, as documented by the rich fossil record of the group. The data suggest that (i) accumulation of taxa in spatial bins and functional categories has not impeded continued diversification in the tropics, and (ii) extinctions will influence ecosystem function differentially across latitudes. PMID:25036112

  6. Soil organic nitrogen mineralization across a global latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. L.; Kielland, K.; Sinclair, F. L.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Newsham, K. K.; Farrar, J. F.; Murphy, D. V.

    2009-03-01

    Understanding and accurately predicting the fate of carbon and nitrogen in the terrestrial biosphere remains a central goal in ecosystem science. Amino acids represent a key pool of C and N in soil, and their availability to plants and microorganisms has been implicated as a major driver in regulating ecosystem functioning. Because of potential differences in biological diversity and litter quality, it has been thought that soils from different latitudes and plant communities may possess intrinsically different capacities to perform key functions such as the turnover of amino acids. In this study we measured the soil solution concentration and microbial mineralization of amino acids in soils collected from 40 latitudinal points from the Arctic through to Antarctica. Our results showed that soil solution amino acid concentrations were relatively similar between sites and not strongly related to latitude. In addition, when constraints of temperature and moisture were removed, we demonstrate that soils worldwide possess a similar innate capacity to rapidly mineralize amino acids. Similarly, we show that the internal partitioning of amino acid-C into catabolic and anabolic processes is conservative in microbial communities and independent of global position. This supports the view that the conversion of high molecular weight (MW) organic matter to low MW compounds is the rate limiting step in organic matter breakdown in most ecosystems.

  7. Latitudinal gradients of cosmic rays and the polarity reversal of the heliospheric magnetic field: A preliminary evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newkirk, G., Jr.; Lockwood, J. A.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Simpson, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Within the statistical limits imposed by the currently available data and the noise inherent in the determination of the latitudinal gradient, no evidence for the expected change in the latitudinal gradient from pre-1980 to post-1980 epochs can be found. In addition, the rigidity dependence of the gradient appears to be the same in the two epochs. Thus, no evidence is found for a sensitivity of the latitudinal gradient to the polarity of the largescale heliospheric magnetic field such as has been predicted by models incorporating particle drifts.

  8. Inferred calcification rate of a temperate azooxanthellate caryophylliid coral along a wide latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroselli, E.; Brambilla, V.; Ricci, F.; Mattioli, G.; Levy, O.; Falini, G.; Dubinsky, Z.; Goffredo, S.

    2016-09-01

    Correlations between environmental parameters (depth temperature and solar radiation) and growth parameters (bulk skeletal density, linear extension rate and net calcification rate) of the solitary azooxanthellate coral, Caryophyllia inornata, were investigated along an 8° latitudinal gradient on the western Italian coasts. Net calcification rate correlated positively with both bulk skeletal density and linear extension rate, showing that C. inornata allocates calcification resources evenly to thickening the skeleton and increasing linear growth. Overall, the three growth parameters did not follow gradients in the two environmental parameters, showing a different trend compared to most studies on zooxanthellate corals. However, the results are in agreement with the only previous analysis of an azooxanthellate coral, Leptopsammia pruvoti, studied along the same latitudinal gradient. In a comparison of the response to temperature of all Mediterranean species whose growth has been investigated to date, azooxanthellate corals were more tolerant to temperature increases than zooxanthellate corals.

  9. Species richness and the analytic geometry of latitudinal and altitudinal gradients.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, Root

    2008-09-01

    Extensive empirical work has shown that species richness decreases roughly exponentially or quadratically with latitude. What appears to be a latitudinal gradient in fact may simply be a negative correlation of latitude with area at that latitude, due to convergence of lines of meridian at the poles. There is simply less area at high latitudes, which means fewer niches and fewer opportunities for speciation, hence diminished biodiversity at high latitudes. Similarly, analytic geometry of a cone shows that species number should decrease linearly with altitude on a conical mountain. Here, I provide an explicit mathematical model of the area hypothesis of species richness along latitude and altitude gradients. I re-analyze a previously published latitudinal gradient dataset and show that species number is a linear function of the predicted area and that species number is more fully explained by predicted area than by a quadratic function of latitude. However, analytic geometry is not needed if precise measures of area are known.

  10. Latitudinal gradients in biotic niche breadth vary across ecosystem types.

    PubMed

    Cirtwill, Alyssa R; Stouffer, Daniel B; Romanuk, Tamara N

    2015-11-22

    Several properties of food webs-the networks of feeding links between species-are known to vary systematically with the species richness of the underlying community. Under the 'latitude-niche breadth hypothesis', which predicts that species in the tropics will tend to evolve narrower niches, one might expect that these scaling relationships could also be affected by latitude. To test this hypothesis, we analysed the scaling relationships between species richness and average generality, vulnerability and links per species across a set of 196 empirical food webs. In estuarine, marine and terrestrial food webs there was no effect of latitude on any scaling relationship, suggesting constant niche breadth in these habitats. In freshwater communities, on the other hand, there were strong effects of latitude on scaling relationships, supporting the latitude-niche breadth hypothesis. These contrasting findings indicate that it may be more important to account for habitat than latitude when exploring gradients in food-web structure.

  11. Loss of epiphytic diversity along a latitudinal gradient in southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Gregorio; Martínez, Isabel; García, Aroa

    2012-06-01

    Latitudinal gradients that involve macroclimatic changes can affect the diversity of several groups of plants and animals. Here we examined the effect of a latitudinal gradient on epiphytic communities on a single host species (Fagus sylvatica) to test the core-periphery theory. The latitudinal span considered, covering two biogeographic regions, is associated with major changes in rainfall during the dry season. Because bryophytes and lichens are poikilohydric, we hypothesized that their species richness and composition might vary at different latitudes. We also speculated how epiphytic communities may respond to future climate change. The present study was carried out in Spain, and three latitudes that cover the distributional range of F. sylvatica were selected. The presence/absence and coverage of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes were identified on 540 trees (180 in each zone). We found consistent south to north change in the total richness and in the richness of bryophytes and of lichens separately, all of which tend to increase at higher latitudes due to the presence of several hygrophytic species. Epiphytic composition also differed significantly among the three latitudes, and the similarity decreased when the latitudinal span was greater. In addition, high species turnover was driven by the increased rainfall at higher latitudes. We conclude that epiphytic communities have a similar pattern to the predictors of the core-periphery theory from populations, and they suffer a great impoverishment in species richness at lower latitudes, coincident with the southern boundary of the F. sylvatica distribution.

  12. Range-Wide Latitudinal and Elevational Temperature Gradients for the World's Terrestrial Birds: Implications under Global Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    La Sorte, Frank A.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Jetz, Walter; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface temperature gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding ranges of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in temperature along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these temperature gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (range size, shape, and orientation) and projected changes in temperature under climate change. Elevational temperature gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal temperature gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in temperature. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational temperature gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' ranges, how and why these gradients vary among species, and the capacity

  13. Range-wide latitudinal and elevational temperature gradients for the world's terrestrial birds: implications under global climate change.

    PubMed

    La Sorte, Frank A; Butchart, Stuart H M; Jetz, Walter; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface temperature gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding ranges of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in temperature along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these temperature gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (range size, shape, and orientation) and projected changes in temperature under climate change. Elevational temperature gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal temperature gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in temperature. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational temperature gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' ranges, how and why these gradients vary among species, and the capacity

  14. Phylogenetic niche conservatism explains an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in freshwater arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Morinière, Jérôme; Van Dam, Matthew H.; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Bergsten, Johannes; Michat, Mariano C.; Hendrich, Lars; Ribera, Ignacio; Toussaint, Emmanuel F.A.; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the general increase in species richness from temperate regions to the tropics remain equivocal. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this astonishing pattern but additional empirical studies are needed to shed light on the drivers at work. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the cosmopolitan diving beetle subfamily Colymbetinae, the majority of which are found in the Northern hemisphere, hence exhibiting an inversed latitudinal diversity gradient. We reconstructed a dated phylogeny using 12 genes, to investigate the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics in the Colymbetinae. We aimed to identify the role that phylogenetic niche conservatism plays in the inversed diversification pattern seen in this group. Our results suggest that Colymbetinae originated in temperate climates, which supports the hypothesis that their distribution is the result of an ancestral adaptation to temperate environmental conditions rather than tropical origins, and that temperate niche conservatism can generate and/or maintain inverse latitudinal diversity gradients. PMID:27215956

  15. Phylogenetic niche conservatism explains an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in freshwater arthropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morinière, Jérôme; van Dam, Matthew H.; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Bergsten, Johannes; Michat, Mariano C.; Hendrich, Lars; Ribera, Ignacio; Toussaint, Emmanuel F. A.; Balke, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the general increase in species richness from temperate regions to the tropics remain equivocal. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this astonishing pattern but additional empirical studies are needed to shed light on the drivers at work. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the cosmopolitan diving beetle subfamily Colymbetinae, the majority of which are found in the Northern hemisphere, hence exhibiting an inversed latitudinal diversity gradient. We reconstructed a dated phylogeny using 12 genes, to investigate the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics in the Colymbetinae. We aimed to identify the role that phylogenetic niche conservatism plays in the inversed diversification pattern seen in this group. Our results suggest that Colymbetinae originated in temperate climates, which supports the hypothesis that their distribution is the result of an ancestral adaptation to temperate environmental conditions rather than tropical origins, and that temperate niche conservatism can generate and/or maintain inverse latitudinal diversity gradients.

  16. Determination of galactic cosmic ray latitudinal gradient using Earth based detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    BADRUDDIN; Yadav, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Using cosmic ray intensity data from the Deep River Neutron monitor and the relation between solar wind velocity and heliomagnetic latitude, an attempt is made to evaluate quantitatively the latitudinal gradient of cosmic ray intensity during the periods dominated by a two sector pattern. Assuming a constant orientation of the heliospheric current sheet on a time scale of the order of a year, a relationship is determined between cosmic ray intensity and heliomagnetic latitude.

  17. Distribution of dominant zooplankton species along a latitudinal gradient in China sea during spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiayi; Xu, Zhaoli; Gao, Qian

    2016-06-01

    Dominant species of zooplankton community vary with latitude. Though China possesses a vast coastal area in northwestern Pacific, studies on the latitudinal dominant species gradient are rare. We collected zooplankton samples from Haizhou Bay (34.56°-35.19°N, 119.51°-120.30°E), Yueqing Bay (28.14°-28.38°N, 121.10°-121.21°E) and Dongshan Bay (23.65°-23.90°N, 117.45°-117.60°E) in May 2012 and May 2013 to preliminarily characterize the latitudinal dominant species distribution. All the samples were collected vertically using a 0.505 mm mesh plankton net with 0.8 m in mouth diameter from bottom to surface. Calanus sinicus, Aidanosagitta crassa, Labidocera euchaeta, Zonosagitta nagae, Acartia pacifica and Paracalanus parvus were found to be dominant. C. sinicus was the most dominant species and the unique one occurred in all three bays. With latitude decreasing, both the abundance and proportion of C. sinicus declined sharply. Cluster analysis showed that the 6 dominant species could be divided into 3 groups, based on their occurrences in the three bays. Our results suggested that the distribution of dominant species along the coast of China has a significant latitudinal gradient. C. sinicus which widely distributes in the coastal water of the northwestern Pacific can well adapt to the temperature at different latitudes. The high abundance in Haizhou Bay indicated that C. sinicus was an exemplary warm-temperate species, and more commonly occurs in the north of China seas. The ecological characteristics of dominant species change from warm-temperate type in high-latitudinal bays to warm water type in low-latitudinal bays.

  18. Can Rapoport's rule be rescued? Modeling causes of the latitudinal gradient in species richness

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.H.; Gaines, S.D.

    1999-12-01

    The latitudinal gradient in species richness, wherein species richness peaks near the equator and declines toward the poles, is a widely recognized phenomenon that holds true for many taxa in all habitat types. Understanding the causative mechanism of mechanisms that generate the latitudinal gradient in species richness (LGSR) has been a major challenge, and the gradient remains unexplained. A different latitudinal trend (named Rapoport's rule), in which the mean size of species geographical ranges tends to decline toward the equator, has been hypothesized by G.C. Stevens to play a key role in generating the LGSR when coupled with a version of the rescue effect, in which local populations toward the fringes of geographical ranges are sustained by immigration. The Stevens hypothesis is now commonly cited as a potential explanation for the LGSR and has provoked numerous empirical studies in macroecology and biogeography. However, important aspects of the hypothesis are not obvious in Steven's verbal model and may go unrecognized, despite their major implications for empirical work related to large-scale ecological and evolutionary processes. Here the authors present mathematical simulation models that test the logical structure of the Stevens hypothesis, examine effects on global patterns of species richness produced by the mechanisms (Rapoport's rule and the rescue effect) explicitly identified by Stevens, and investigate the additional effect of competition.

  19. BVOC emissions from English oak (Quercus robur) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) along a latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    intensities and the potential stability in relative compound contribution across a latitudinal gradient.

  20. Ecosystem-Wide Morphological Structure of Leaf-Litter Ant Communities along a Tropical Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rogério R.; Brandão, Carlos Roberto F.

    2014-01-01

    General principles that shape community structure can be described based on a functional trait approach grounded on predictive models; increased attention has been paid to factors accounting for the functional diversity of species assemblages and its association with species richness along environmental gradients. We analyze here the interaction between leaf-litter ant species richness, the local communities' morphological structure and fundamental niche within the context of a northeast-southeast latitudinal gradient in one of the world's most species-rich ecosystems, the Atlantic Forest, representing 2,700 km of tropical rainforest along almost 20o of latitude in eastern Brazil. Our results are consistent with an ecosystem-wide pattern in communities' structure, with relatively high species turnover but functionally analogous leaf-litter ant communities' organization. Our results suggest directional shifts in the morphological space along the environmental gradient from overdispersed to aggregated (from North to South), suggesting that primary productivity and environmental heterogeneity (altitude, temperature and precipitation in the case) determine the distribution of traits and regulate the assembly rules, shaping local leaf-litter ant communities. Contrary to the expected and most common pattern along latitudinal gradients, the Atlantic Forest leaf litter ant communities show an inverse pattern in richness, that is, richer communities in higher than in lower latitudes. The morphological specialization of communities showed more morphologically distinct communities at low latitudes and species redundancy at high latitudes. We claim that an inverse latitudinal gradient in primary productivity and environmental heterogeneity across the Atlantic forest may affect morphological diversity and species richness, enhancing species coexistence mechanisms, and producing thus the observed patterns. We suggest that a functional framework based on flexible enough traits

  1. Defense pattern of Chinese cork oak across latitudinal gradients: influences of ontogeny, herbivory, climate and soil nutrients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Jian-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qiang; Deng, Yun-Peng; Ni, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Kang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Qi; Lei, Jing-Pin; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of latitudinal patterns in plant defense and herbivory is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. Using a widely distributed species in East Asia, Quercus variabilis, we aim to reveal defense patterns of trees with respect to ontogeny along latitudinal gradients. Six leaf chemical (total phenolics and total condensed tannin concentrations) and physical (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and dry mass concentration) defensive traits as well as leaf herbivory (% leaf area loss) were investigated in natural Chinese cork oak (Q. variabilis) forests across two ontogenetic stages (juvenile and mature trees) along a ~14°-latitudinal gradient. Our results showed that juveniles had higher herbivory values and a higher concentration of leaf chemical defense substances compared with mature trees across the latitudinal gradient. In addition, chemical defense and herbivory in both ontogenetic stages decreased with increasing latitude, which supports the latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis and optimal defense theory. The identified trade-offs between chemical and physical defense were primarily determined by environmental variation associated with the latitudinal gradient, with the climatic factors (annual precipitation, minimum temperature of the coldest month) largely contributing to the latitudinal defense pattern in both juvenile and mature oak trees. PMID:27252112

  2. Defense pattern of Chinese cork oak across latitudinal gradients: influences of ontogeny, herbivory, climate and soil nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Jian-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qiang; Deng, Yun-Peng; Ni, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Kang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Qi; Lei, Jing-Pin; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of latitudinal patterns in plant defense and herbivory is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. Using a widely distributed species in East Asia, Quercus variabilis, we aim to reveal defense patterns of trees with respect to ontogeny along latitudinal gradients. Six leaf chemical (total phenolics and total condensed tannin concentrations) and physical (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and dry mass concentration) defensive traits as well as leaf herbivory (% leaf area loss) were investigated in natural Chinese cork oak (Q. variabilis) forests across two ontogenetic stages (juvenile and mature trees) along a ~14°-latitudinal gradient. Our results showed that juveniles had higher herbivory values and a higher concentration of leaf chemical defense substances compared with mature trees across the latitudinal gradient. In addition, chemical defense and herbivory in both ontogenetic stages decreased with increasing latitude, which supports the latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis and optimal defense theory. The identified trade-offs between chemical and physical defense were primarily determined by environmental variation associated with the latitudinal gradient, with the climatic factors (annual precipitation, minimum temperature of the coldest month) largely contributing to the latitudinal defense pattern in both juvenile and mature oak trees.

  3. Defense pattern of Chinese cork oak across latitudinal gradients: influences of ontogeny, herbivory, climate and soil nutrients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Jian-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qiang; Deng, Yun-Peng; Ni, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Kang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Qi; Lei, Jing-Pin; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-06-02

    Knowledge of latitudinal patterns in plant defense and herbivory is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. Using a widely distributed species in East Asia, Quercus variabilis, we aim to reveal defense patterns of trees with respect to ontogeny along latitudinal gradients. Six leaf chemical (total phenolics and total condensed tannin concentrations) and physical (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and dry mass concentration) defensive traits as well as leaf herbivory (% leaf area loss) were investigated in natural Chinese cork oak (Q. variabilis) forests across two ontogenetic stages (juvenile and mature trees) along a ~14°-latitudinal gradient. Our results showed that juveniles had higher herbivory values and a higher concentration of leaf chemical defense substances compared with mature trees across the latitudinal gradient. In addition, chemical defense and herbivory in both ontogenetic stages decreased with increasing latitude, which supports the latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis and optimal defense theory. The identified trade-offs between chemical and physical defense were primarily determined by environmental variation associated with the latitudinal gradient, with the climatic factors (annual precipitation, minimum temperature of the coldest month) largely contributing to the latitudinal defense pattern in both juvenile and mature oak trees.

  4. An evaluation of the latitudinal gradient of chlorophyll in the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W.; Broughton, J.; Kudela, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Tracking of spatial and temporal trends in phytoplankton abundance and distribution is an important step toward understanding large-scale macroecological processes in the ocean. Measurements of ocean radiance from satellite-borne sensors, such as SeaWiFS and MODIS, can be used to estimate surface chlorophyll concentration, which is a good indicator of phytoplankton biomass. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the latitudinal gradient in chlorophyll concentration within the California Current first reported by Ware and Thomson (2005). They found that average chlorophyll concentration tended to increase steadily from 32-48°N latitude. This concentration gradient was reevaluated using a longer dataset and an algorithm refined for the region. Radiance data from the MODIS-Aqua instrument were obtained for every year from 2002 through 2013. Data included annual averages of remote sensing radiance as well as monthly averages for February, April, and August. These months were chosen to represent each of the three oceanographic seasons present in the California Current. Estimates of chlorophyll concentration were derived from these data using the CALFIT algorithm developed by Kahru et al. (2012). The resulting maps of chlorophyll concentration were processed in MATLAB and linear regressions were performed using SYSTAT 13 software. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) latitudinal trend in chlorophyll was observed in the annual averaged data as well as in the averaged seasonal data from February and August. No significant trend was observed in the averaged April data. Chlorophyll concentration was positively correlated with latitude in every instance, except in April 2003 and April 2005, where a negative correlation was observed. The positive latitudinal trend was strongest during August and weakest during April. Strong peaks in chlorophyll were observed near San Francisco Bay and the mouth of the Columbia River, suggesting that river-borne nutrient input may be

  5. On the processes generating latitudinal richness gradients: identifying diagnostic patterns and predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbert, Allen H.; Stegen, James C.

    2014-12-02

    Many processes have been put forward to explain the latitudinal gradient in species richness. Here, we use a simulation model to examine four of the most common hypotheses and identify patterns that might be diagnostic of those four hypotheses. The hypotheses examined include (1) tropical niche conservatism, or the idea that the tropics are more diverse because a tropical clade origin has allowed more time for diversification in the tropics and has resulted in few species adapted to extra-tropical climates. (2) The productivity, or energetic constraints, hypothesis suggests that species richness is limited by the amount of biologically available energy in a region. (3) The tropical stability hypothesis argues that major climatic fluctuations and glacial cycles in extratropical regions have led to greater extinction rates and less opportunity for specialization relative to the tropics. (4) Finally, the speciation rates hypothesis suggests that the latitudinal richness gradient arises from a parallel gradient in rates of speciation. We found that tropical niche conservatism can be distinguished from the other three scenarios by phylogenies which are more balanced than expected, no relationship between mean root distance and richness across regions, and a homogeneous rate of speciation across clades and through time. The energy gradient, speciation gradient, and disturbance gradient scenarios all exhibited phylogenies which were more imbalanced than expected, showed a negative relationship between mean root distance and richness, and diversity-dependence of speciation rate estimates through time. Using Bayesian Analysis of Macroevolutionary Mixtures on the simulated phylogenies, we found that the relationship between speciation rates and latitude could distinguish among these three scenarios. We emphasize the importance of considering multiple hypotheses and focusing on diagnostic predictions instead of predictions that are consistent with more than one hypothesis.

  6. Soil bacterial endemism and potential functional redundancy in natural broadleaf forest along a latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Deng, Ye; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycling, however, the relationship between soil microbial taxa diversity and their function in natural ecosystems is largely unknown. To determine how soil bacteria community and function are linked from the local to regional scale, we studied soil bacteria community composition, potential function and environmental conditions in natural and mature broadleaf forests along a latitudinal gradient in China, using the Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and GeoChip technologies. The results showed strong biogeographic endemism pattern in soil bacteria were existed, and the spatial distance and climatic variables were the key controlling factors for this pattern. Therefore, dispersal limitation and environmental selection may represent two key processes in generating and maintaining the soil bacterial biogeographic pattern. By contrast, the soil bacterial potential function is highly convergent along the latitudinal gradient and there were highly differing bacterial community compositions, and the soil chemistry may include the main factors active in shaping the soil bacterial potential function. Therefore, the soil bacterial potential function may be affected by local gradients in resource availability, and predicting soil bacterial potential function requires knowledge of abiotic and biotic environmental factors.

  7. Soil bacterial endemism and potential functional redundancy in natural broadleaf forest along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Deng, Ye; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycling, however, the relationship between soil microbial taxa diversity and their function in natural ecosystems is largely unknown. To determine how soil bacteria community and function are linked from the local to regional scale, we studied soil bacteria community composition, potential function and environmental conditions in natural and mature broadleaf forests along a latitudinal gradient in China, using the Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and GeoChip technologies. The results showed strong biogeographic endemism pattern in soil bacteria were existed, and the spatial distance and climatic variables were the key controlling factors for this pattern. Therefore, dispersal limitation and environmental selection may represent two key processes in generating and maintaining the soil bacterial biogeographic pattern. By contrast, the soil bacterial potential function is highly convergent along the latitudinal gradient and there were highly differing bacterial community compositions, and the soil chemistry may include the main factors active in shaping the soil bacterial potential function. Therefore, the soil bacterial potential function may be affected by local gradients in resource availability, and predicting soil bacterial potential function requires knowledge of abiotic and biotic environmental factors. PMID:27357005

  8. Clonality-climate relationships along latitudinal gradient across China: adaptation of clonality to environments.

    PubMed

    Ye, Duo; Hu, Yukun; Song, Minghua; Pan, Xu; Xie, Xiufang; Liu, Guofang; Ye, Xuehua; Dong, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Plant clonality, the ability of a plant species to reproduce itself vegetatively through ramets (shoot-root units), occurs in many plant species and is considered to be more frequent in cold or wet environments. However, a deeper understanding on the clonality-climate relationships along large geographic gradients is still scarce. In this study we revealed the clonality-climate relationships along latitudinal gradient of entire China spanning from tropics to temperate zones using clonality data for 4015 vascular plant species in 545 terrestrial communities. Structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that, in general, the preponderance of clonality increased along the latitudinal gradient towards cold, dry or very wet environments. However, the distribution of clonality in China was significantly but only weakly correlated with latitude and four climatic factors (mean annual temperature, temperature seasonality, mean annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality). Clonality of woody and herbaceous species had opposite responses to climatic variables. More precisely, woody clonality showed higher frequency in wet or climatically stable environments, while herbaceous clonality preferred cold, dry or climatically instable environments. Unexplained variation in clonality may be owed to the influences of other environmental conditions and to different clonal strategies and underlying traits adopted by different growth forms and phylogenetic lineages. Therefore, in-depth research in terms of more detailed clonal growth form, phylogeny and additional environmental variables are encouraged to further understand plant clonality response to climatic and/or edaphic conditions.

  9. Assessment of tannin variation in Tamarisk foliage across a latitudinal gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hussey, A.M.; Kimball, B.A.; Friedman, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Certain phenotypic traits of plants vary with latitude of origin. To understand if tannin concentration varies among populations of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) according to a latitudinal gradient, an analytical method was adapted from an enological tannin assay. The tannin content (wet basis) of tamarisk foliage collected from 160 plants grown in a common garden ranged from 8.26 to 62.36 mg/g and was not correlated with the latitude of the original North American plant collection site. Tannins do not contribute to observed differences in herbivory observed among these tamarisk populations.

  10. Faster Speciation and Reduced Extinction in the Tropics Contribute to the Mammalian Latitudinal Diversity Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Jonathan; Condamine, Fabien L.; Jiguet, Frederic; Morlon, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The increase in species richness from the poles to the tropics, referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient, is one of the most ubiquitous biodiversity patterns in the natural world. Although understanding how rates of speciation and extinction vary with latitude is central to explaining this pattern, such analyses have been impeded by the difficulty of estimating diversification rates associated with specific geographic locations. Here, we use a powerful phylogenetic approach and a nearly complete phylogeny of mammals to estimate speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates associated with the tropical and temperate biomes. Overall, speciation rates are higher, and extinction rates lower, in the tropics than in temperate regions. The diversity of the eight most species-rich mammalian orders (covering 92% of all mammals) peaks in the tropics, except that of the Lagomorpha (hares, rabbits, and pikas) reaching a maxima in northern-temperate regions. Latitudinal patterns in diversification rates are strikingly consistent with these diversity patterns, with peaks in species richness associated with low extinction rates (Primates and Lagomorpha), high speciation rates (Diprotodontia, Artiodactyla, and Soricomorpha), or both (Chiroptera and Rodentia). Rates of range expansion were typically higher from the tropics to the temperate regions than in the other direction, supporting the “out of the tropics” hypothesis whereby species originate in the tropics and disperse into higher latitudes. Overall, these results suggest that differences in diversification rates have played a major role in shaping the modern latitudinal diversity gradient in mammals, and illustrate the usefulness of recently developed phylogenetic approaches for understanding this famous yet mysterious pattern. PMID:24492316

  11. Faster speciation and reduced extinction in the tropics contribute to the Mammalian latitudinal diversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Jonathan; Condamine, Fabien L; Jiguet, Frederic; Morlon, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The increase in species richness from the poles to the tropics, referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient, is one of the most ubiquitous biodiversity patterns in the natural world. Although understanding how rates of speciation and extinction vary with latitude is central to explaining this pattern, such analyses have been impeded by the difficulty of estimating diversification rates associated with specific geographic locations. Here, we use a powerful phylogenetic approach and a nearly complete phylogeny of mammals to estimate speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates associated with the tropical and temperate biomes. Overall, speciation rates are higher, and extinction rates lower, in the tropics than in temperate regions. The diversity of the eight most species-rich mammalian orders (covering 92% of all mammals) peaks in the tropics, except that of the Lagomorpha (hares, rabbits, and pikas) reaching a maxima in northern-temperate regions. Latitudinal patterns in diversification rates are strikingly consistent with these diversity patterns, with peaks in species richness associated with low extinction rates (Primates and Lagomorpha), high speciation rates (Diprotodontia, Artiodactyla, and Soricomorpha), or both (Chiroptera and Rodentia). Rates of range expansion were typically higher from the tropics to the temperate regions than in the other direction, supporting the "out of the tropics" hypothesis whereby species originate in the tropics and disperse into higher latitudes. Overall, these results suggest that differences in diversification rates have played a major role in shaping the modern latitudinal diversity gradient in mammals, and illustrate the usefulness of recently developed phylogenetic approaches for understanding this famous yet mysterious pattern.

  12. Mississippian coral latitudinal diversity gradients (western interior United States): Testing the limits of high resolution diversity data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, G.E.; Sando, W.J.; Raymond, A.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of high resolution diversity data for Mississippian corals in the western interior United States yielded mild latitudinal diversity gradients despite the small geographic area covered by samples and a large influence on diversity patterns by geographic sampling intensity (sample bias). Three competing plate tectonic reconstructions were tested using the diversity patterns. Although none could be forcefully rejected, one reconstruction proved less consistent with diversity patterns than the other two and additional coral diversity data from farther north in Canada would better discriminate the two equivalent reconstructions. Despite the relatively high sampling intensity represented by the analyzed database, diversity patterns were greatly affected by sample abundance and distribution. Hence, some effort at recognizing and accounting for sample bias should be undertaken in any study of latitudinal diversity gradients. Small-scale geographic lumping of sample localities had only small effects on geographic diversity patterns. However, large-scale (e.g., regional) geographic lumping of diversity data may not yield latitudinally sensitive diversity patterns. Temporal changes in coral diversity in this region reflect changes in eustacy, local tectonism, and terrigenous sediment flux, far more than they do shifting latitude. Highest regional diversity occurred during the interval when the studied region occupied the highest latitude. Therefore, diversity data from different regions may not be comparable, in terms of latitudinal inference. Small-scale stratigraphic lumping of the data caused a nearly complete loss of the latitudinal diversity patterns apparent prior to lumping. Hence, the narrowest possible stratigraphic resolution should be maintained in analyzing latitudinal diversity gradients.

  13. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper.

  14. Diversity and Distribution of Freshwater Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria across a Wide Latitudinal Gradient.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Isabel; Sarmento, Hugo; Priscu, John C; Chiuchiolo, Amy; González, José M; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) have been shown to exist in numerous marine and brackish environments where they are hypothesized to play important ecological roles. Despite their potential significance, the study of freshwater AAPs is in its infancy and limited to local investigations. Here, we explore the occurrence, diversity and distribution of AAPs in lakes covering a wide latitudinal gradient: Mongolian and German lakes located in temperate regions of Eurasia, tropical Great East African lakes, and polar permanently ice-covered Antarctic lakes. Our results show a widespread distribution of AAPs in lakes with contrasting environmental conditions and confirm that this group is composed of different members of the Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. While latitude does not seem to strongly influence AAP abundance, clear patterns of community structure and composition along geographic regions were observed as indicated by a strong macro-geographical signal in the taxonomical composition of AAPs. Overall, our results suggest that the distribution patterns of freshwater AAPs are likely driven by a combination of small-scale environmental conditions (specific of each lake and region) and large-scale geographic factors (climatic regions across a latitudinal gradient).

  15. Diversity and Distribution of Freshwater Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria across a Wide Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Ferrera, Isabel; Sarmento, Hugo; Priscu, John C.; Chiuchiolo, Amy; González, José M.; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) have been shown to exist in numerous marine and brackish environments where they are hypothesized to play important ecological roles. Despite their potential significance, the study of freshwater AAPs is in its infancy and limited to local investigations. Here, we explore the occurrence, diversity and distribution of AAPs in lakes covering a wide latitudinal gradient: Mongolian and German lakes located in temperate regions of Eurasia, tropical Great East African lakes, and polar permanently ice-covered Antarctic lakes. Our results show a widespread distribution of AAPs in lakes with contrasting environmental conditions and confirm that this group is composed of different members of the Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. While latitude does not seem to strongly influence AAP abundance, clear patterns of community structure and composition along geographic regions were observed as indicated by a strong macro-geographical signal in the taxonomical composition of AAPs. Overall, our results suggest that the distribution patterns of freshwater AAPs are likely driven by a combination of small-scale environmental conditions (specific of each lake and region) and large-scale geographic factors (climatic regions across a latitudinal gradient). PMID:28275369

  16. Olson's Extinction and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient of tetrapods in the Permian.

    PubMed

    Brocklehurst, Neil; Day, Michael O; Rubidge, Bruce S; Fröbisch, Jörg

    2017-04-12

    The terrestrial vertebrate fauna underwent a substantial change in composition between the lower and middle Permian. The lower Permian fauna was characterized by diverse and abundant amphibians and pelycosaurian-grade synapsids. During the middle Permian, a therapsid-dominated fauna, containing a diverse array of parareptiles and a considerably reduced richness of amphibians, replaced this. However, it is debated whether the transition is a genuine event, accompanied by a mass extinction, or whether it is merely an artefact of the shift in sampling from the palaeoequatorial latitudes to the palaeotemperate latitudes. Here we use an up-to-date biostratigraphy and incorporate recent discoveries to thoroughly review the Permian tetrapod fossil record. We suggest that the faunal transition represents a genuine event; the lower Permian temperate faunas are more similar to lower Permian equatorial faunas than middle Permian temperate faunas. The transition was not consistent across latitudes; the turnover occurred more rapidly in Russia, but was delayed in North America. The argument that the mass extinction is an artefact of a latitudinal biodiversity gradient and a shift in sampling localities is rejected: sampling correction demonstrates an inverse latitudinal biodiversity gradient was prevalent during the Permian, with peak diversity in the temperate latitudes.

  17. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ECKLONIA RADIATA (LAMINARIALES) TO A LATITUDINAL GRADIENT IN OCEAN TEMPERATURE(1).

    PubMed

    Staehr, Peter A; Wernberg, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    We tested the ability of sporophytes of a small kelp, Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, to adjust their photosynthesis, respiration, and cellular processes to increasingly warm ocean climates along a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature (∼4°C). Tissue concentrations of pigment and nutrients decreased with increasing ocean temperature. Concurrently, a number of gradual changes in the metabolic balance of E. radiata took place along the latitudinal gradient. Warm-acclimatized kelps had 50% lower photosynthetic rates and 90% lower respiration rates at the optimum temperature than did cool-acclimatized kelps. A reduction in temperature sensitivity was also observed as a reduction in Q10 -values from cool- to warm-acclimatized kelps for gross photosynthesis (Q10 : 3.35 to 1.45) and respiration (Q10 : 3.82 to 1.65). Respiration rates were more sensitive to increasing experimental temperatures (10% higher Q10 -values) than photosynthesis and had a higher optimum temperature, irrespective of sampling location. To maintain a positive carbon balance, E. radiata increased the critical light demand (Ec ) exponentially with increasing experimental temperature. The temperature dependency of Ec was, however, weakened with increasing ocean temperature, such that the critical light demand was relaxed in kelp acclimated to higher ocean temperatures. Nevertheless, calculations of critical depth limits suggested that direct effects of future temperature increases are unlikely to be as strong as effects of reduced water clarity, another globally increasing problem in coastal areas.

  18. Plant species invasions along the latitudinal gradient in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Barnett, D.; Flather, C.; Kartesz, J.; Peterjohn, B.

    2005-01-01

    It has been long established that the richness of vascular plant species and many animal taxa decreases with increasing latitude, a pattern that very generally follows declines in actual and potential evapotranspiration, solar radiation, temperature, and thus, total productivity. Using county-level data on vascular plants from the United States (3000 counties in the conterminous 48 states), we used the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to evaluate competing models predicting native and nonnative plant species density (number of species per square kilometer in a county) from various combinations of biotic variables (e.g., native bird species density, vegetation carbon, normalized difference vegetation index), environmental/topographic variables (elevation, variation in elevation, the number of land cover classes in the county; radiation, mean precipitation, actual evapotranspiration, and potential evapotranspiration), and human variables (human population density, crop-land, and percentage of disturbed lands in a county). We found no evidence of a latitudinal gradient for the density of native plant species and a significant, slightly positive latitudinal gradient for the density of nonnative plant species. We found stronger evidence of a significant, positive productivity gradient (vegetation carbon) for the density of native plant species and nonnative plant species. We found much stronger significant relationships when biotic, environmental/topographic, and human variables were used to predict native plant species density and nonnative plant species density. Biotic variables generally had far greater influence in multivariate models than human or environmental/topographic variables. Later, we found that the best, single, positive predictor of the density of nonnative plant species in a county was the density of native plant species in a county. While further study is needed, it may be that, while humans facilitate the initial establishment invasions of nonnative

  19. Clock polymorphism in Pacific salmon: evidence for variable selection along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Kathleen G; Ford, Michael J; Hard, Jeffrey J

    2010-12-22

    Seasonal timing of life-history events is often under strong natural selection. The Clock gene is a central component of an endogenous circadian clock that senses changes in photoperiod (day length) and mediates seasonal behaviours. Among Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), seasonal timing of migration and breeding is influenced by photoperiod. To expand a study of 42 North American Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations, we tested whether duplicated Clock genes contribute to population differences in reproductive timing. Specifically, we examined geographical variation along a similar latitudinal gradient in the polyglutamine domain (PolyQ) of OtsClock1a and OtsClock1b among 53 populations of three species: chum (Oncorhynchus keta), coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). We found evidence for variable selection on OtsClock1b that corresponds to latitudinal variation in reproductive timing among these species. We evaluated the contribution of day length and a freshwater migration index to OtsClock1b PolyQ domain variation using regression trees and found that day length at spawning explains much of the variation in OtsClock1b allele frequency among chum and Chinook, but not coho and pink salmon populations. Our findings suggest that OtsClock1b mediates seasonal adaptation and influences geographical variation in reproductive timing in some of these highly migratory species.

  20. Clock polymorphism in Pacific salmon: evidence for variable selection along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kathleen G.; Ford, Michael J.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal timing of life-history events is often under strong natural selection. The Clock gene is a central component of an endogenous circadian clock that senses changes in photoperiod (day length) and mediates seasonal behaviours. Among Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), seasonal timing of migration and breeding is influenced by photoperiod. To expand a study of 42 North American Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations, we tested whether duplicated Clock genes contribute to population differences in reproductive timing. Specifically, we examined geographical variation along a similar latitudinal gradient in the polyglutamine domain (PolyQ) of OtsClock1a and OtsClock1b among 53 populations of three species: chum (Oncorhynchus keta), coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). We found evidence for variable selection on OtsClock1b that corresponds to latitudinal variation in reproductive timing among these species. We evaluated the contribution of day length and a freshwater migration index to OtsClock1b PolyQ domain variation using regression trees and found that day length at spawning explains much of the variation in OtsClock1b allele frequency among chum and Chinook, but not coho and pink salmon populations. Our findings suggest that OtsClock1b mediates seasonal adaptation and influences geographical variation in reproductive timing in some of these highly migratory species. PMID:20610428

  1. Plasticity versus environmental canalization: population differences in thermal responses along a latitudinal gradient in Drosophila serrata.

    PubMed

    Liefting, Maartje; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ellers, Jacintha

    2009-08-01

    The phenotypic plasticity of traits, defined as the ability of a genotype to express different phenotypic values of the trait across a range of environments, can vary between habitats depending on levels of temporal and spatial heterogeneity. Other traits can be insensitive to environmental perturbations and show environmental canalization. We tested levels of phenotypic plasticity in diverse Drosophila serrata populations along a latitudinal cline ranging from a temperate, variable climate to a tropical, stable climate by measuring developmental rate and size-related traits at three temperatures (16 degrees C, 22 degrees C, and 28 degrees C). We then compared the slopes of the thermal reaction norms among populations. The 16-22 degrees C part of the reaction norms for developmental rate was flatter (more canalized) for the temperate populations than for the tropical populations. However, slopes for the reaction norms of the two morphological traits (wing size, wing:thorax ratio), were steeper (more plastic) in the temperate versus the tropical populations over the entire thermal range. The different latitudinal patterns in plasticity for developmental rate and the morphological traits may reflect contrasting selection pressures along the tropical-temperate thermal gradient.

  2. The latitudinal gradient of species-area relationships for vascular plants of North America.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hong; Fridley, Jason D; Palmer, Michael W

    2007-11-01

    The species-area relationship (SAR), describing the increase in species richness with increasing area, and the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), describing the decrease in species richness with increasing latitude, are the oldest and most robust patterns in biogeography, yet connections between them remain poorly understood. Here, using 1,742 floras covering the entirety of North America north of Mexico (NAM) and including all of NAM's native species of vascular plants, we show that the slope of the SAR consistently decreases with increasing latitude. This trend is general and holds for subsets of the floras in eastern and western NAM. The southernmost latitudinal quarter of NAM exhibits SARs more than twice as steep as those of the northernmost quarter for both eastern and western regions. This decrease in SAR slope with increasing latitude is consistent with the environmental texture hypothesis and Rapoport's rule, and it suggests that more detailed studies of species endemism in relation to environmental and historical factors will yield significant insights into the underlying causes of SAR and LDG patterns.

  3. Latitudinal species diversity gradient of marine zooplankton for the last three million years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Hunt, Gene; Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Stoll, Danielle K.

    2012-01-01

    High tropical and low polar biodiversity is one of the most fundamental patterns characterising marine ecosystems, and the influence of temperature on such marine latitudinal diversity gradients is increasingly well documented. However, the temporal stability of quantitative relationships among diversity, latitude and temperature is largely unknown. Herein we document marine zooplankton species diversity patterns at four time slices [modern, Last Glacial Maximum (18 000 years ago), last interglacial (120 000 years ago), and Pliocene (~3.3–3.0 million years ago)] and show that, although the diversity-latitude relationship has been dynamic, diversity-temperature relationships are remarkably constant over the past three million years. These results suggest that species diversity is rapidly reorganised as species' ranges respond to temperature change on ecological time scales, and that the ecological impact of future human-induced temperature change may be partly predictable from fossil and paleoclimatological records.

  4. Highly consistent effects of plant litter identity and functional traits on decomposition across a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Makkonen, Marika; Berg, Matty P; Handa, I Tanya; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; van Ruijven, Jasper; van Bodegom, Peter M; Aerts, Rien

    2012-09-01

    Plant litter decomposition is a key process in terrestrial carbon cycling, yet the relative importance of various control factors remains ambiguous at a global scale. A full reciprocal litter transplant study with 16 litter species that varied widely in traits and originated from four forest sites covering a large latitudinal gradient (subarctic to tropics) showed a consistent interspecific ranking of decomposition rates. At a global scale, variation in decomposition was driven by a small subset of litter traits (water saturation capacity and concentrations of magnesium and condensed tannins). These consistent findings, that were largely independent of the varying local decomposer communities, suggest that decomposer communities show little specialisation and high metabolic flexibility in processing plant litter, irrespective of litter origin. Our results provide strong support for using trait-based approaches in modelling the global decomposition component of biosphere-atmosphere carbon fluxes.

  5. Late Cenozoic onset of the latitudinal diversity gradient of North American mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcot, Jonathan D.; Fox, David L.; Niebuhr, Spencer R.

    2016-06-01

    The decline of species richness from equator to pole, or latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is nearly universal among clades of living organisms, yet whether it was such a pervasive pattern in the geologic past remains uncertain. Here, we calculate the strength of the LDG for terrestrial mammals in North America over the past 65 My, using 27,903 fossil occurrences of Cenozoic terrestrial mammals from western North America downloaded from the Paleobiology Database. Accounting for temporal and spatial variation in sampling, the LDG was substantially weaker than it is today for most of the Cenozoic and the robust modern LDG of North American mammals evolved only over the last 4 My. The strength of the LDG correlates negatively with global temperature, suggesting a role of global climate patterns in the establishment and maintenance of the LDG for North American mammals.

  6. Late Cenozoic onset of the latitudinal diversity gradient of North American mammals

    PubMed Central

    Marcot, Jonathan D.; Fox, David L.; Niebuhr, Spencer R.

    2016-01-01

    The decline of species richness from equator to pole, or latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is nearly universal among clades of living organisms, yet whether it was such a pervasive pattern in the geologic past remains uncertain. Here, we calculate the strength of the LDG for terrestrial mammals in North America over the past 65 My, using 27,903 fossil occurrences of Cenozoic terrestrial mammals from western North America downloaded from the Paleobiology Database. Accounting for temporal and spatial variation in sampling, the LDG was substantially weaker than it is today for most of the Cenozoic and the robust modern LDG of North American mammals evolved only over the last 4 My. The strength of the LDG correlates negatively with global temperature, suggesting a role of global climate patterns in the establishment and maintenance of the LDG for North American mammals. PMID:27298355

  7. Selective Pressure along a Latitudinal Gradient Affects Subindividual Variation in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Mar; Guitián, José; Guitián, Pablo; Larrinaga, Asier R.

    2013-01-01

    Individual plants produce repeated structures such as leaves, flowers or fruits, which, although belonging to the same genotype, are not phenotypically identical. Such subindividual variation reflects the potential of individual genotypes to vary with micro-environmental conditions. Furthermore, variation in organ traits imposes costs to foraging animals such as time, energy and increased predation risk. Therefore, animals that interact with plants may respond to this variation and affect plant fitness. Thus, phenotypic variation within an individual plant could be, in part, an adaptive trait. Here we investigated this idea and we found that subindividual variation of fruit size of Crataegus monogyna, in different populations throughout the latitudinal gradient in Europe, was explained at some extent by the selective pressures exerted by seed-dispersing birds. These findings support the hypothesis that within-individual variation in plants is an adaptive trait selected by interacting animals which may have important implications for plant evolution. PMID:24069297

  8. Late Cenozoic onset of the latitudinal diversity gradient of North American mammals.

    PubMed

    Marcot, Jonathan D; Fox, David L; Niebuhr, Spencer R

    2016-06-28

    The decline of species richness from equator to pole, or latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is nearly universal among clades of living organisms, yet whether it was such a pervasive pattern in the geologic past remains uncertain. Here, we calculate the strength of the LDG for terrestrial mammals in North America over the past 65 My, using 27,903 fossil occurrences of Cenozoic terrestrial mammals from western North America downloaded from the Paleobiology Database. Accounting for temporal and spatial variation in sampling, the LDG was substantially weaker than it is today for most of the Cenozoic and the robust modern LDG of North American mammals evolved only over the last 4 My. The strength of the LDG correlates negatively with global temperature, suggesting a role of global climate patterns in the establishment and maintenance of the LDG for North American mammals.

  9. Temporal latitudinal-gradient dynamics and tropical instability of deep-sea species diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Hunt, G.; Cronin, T. M.; Okahashi, H.

    2009-01-01

    A benthic microfaunal record from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean over the past four glacial-interglacial cycles was investigated to understand temporal dynamics of deep-sea latitudinal species diversity gradients (LSDGs). The results demonstrate unexpected instability and high amplitude fluctuations of species diversity in the tropical deep ocean that are correlated with orbital-scale oscillations in global climate: Species diversity is low during glacial and high during interglacial periods. This implies that climate severely influences deep-sea diversity, even at tropical latitudes, and that deep-sea LSDGs, while generally present for the last 36 million years, were weakened or absent during glacial periods. Temporally dynamic LSDGs and unstable tropical diversity require reconsideration of current ecological hypotheses about the generation and maintenance of biodiversity as they apply to the deep sea, and underscore the potential vulnerability and conservation importance of tropical deep-sea ecosystems.

  10. Climate Effects on Methylmercury Bioaccumulation Along a Latitudinal Gradient in the Eastern Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetelat, J.; Richardson, M.; MacMillan, G. A.; Amyot, M.; Hintelmann, H.; Crump, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates that inorganic mercury (Hg) loadings to Arctic lakes decline with latitude. However, monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in fish and their prey do not decline in a similar fashion, suggesting that higher latitude lakes are more vulnerable to Hg inputs. Preliminary results will be presented from a three-year study (2012-2015) of climate effects on MMHg bioaccumulation in lakes of the eastern Canadian Arctic. We have investigated mercury transport and accumulation processes in lakes and ponds from three study regions along a latitudinal gradient in climate-controlled ecosystem types in the Canadian Arctic, specifically sub-Arctic taiga, Arctic tundra and polar desert. In each water body, we measured key aspects of MMHg bioaccumulation—MMHg bioavailability to benthic food webs and organism growth rates—as well as how watershed characteristics affect the transport of Hg and organic carbon to lakes. Novel approaches were incorporated including the use of passive samplers (Diffusive Gradient in Thin Film samplers or DGTs) to estimate sediment bioavailable MMHg concentrations and tissue RNA content to compare organism short-term growth rates. A comparison of Arctic tundra and sub-Arctic taiga lakes showed that surface water concentrations of MMHg were strongly and positively correlated to total Hg concentrations both within and among study regions, implying strong control of inorganic Hg supply. Sediment concentrations of bioavailable MMHg were highly variable among lakes, although average concentrations were similar between study regions. Local environmental conditions appear to have a strong influence on sediment potential for MMHg supply. Lake-dwelling Arctic char from tundra lakes had similar or higher total Hg concentrations compared with brook trout from sub-Arctic lakes that were exposed to higher water MMHg concentrations. Potential environmental drivers of these patterns will be discussed. This latitudinal study will provide new

  11. Inversion of plant dominance-diversity relationships along a latitudinal stress gradient.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Paul J; MacDougall, Andrew S; Stanley, Amanda G; Kaye, Thomas N; Dunwiddie, Peter W

    2012-06-01

    Species interactions affect plant diversity through the net effects of competition and facilitation, with the latter more prevalent in physically stressful environments when plant cover ameliorates abiotic stress. One explanation for species loss in invader-dominated systems is a shift in the competition-facilitation balance, with competition intensifying in areas formerly structured by facilitation. We test this possibility with a 10-site prairie meta-experiment along a 500-km latitudinal stress gradient, quantifying the relationships among abiotic stress, exotic dominance, and native plant recruitment over five years. The latitudinal gradient is inversely correlated with abiotic stress, with lower latitudes more moisture- and nutrient-limited. We observed strong negative effects by invasive dominant grasses on plant establishment, but only in northern sites with lower-stress environments. At these locations, disturbance was critical for recruitment by reducing the suppressive dominant (invasive) canopy. In more stressful environments to the south, the impacts of the dominant invaders on plant establishment became facilitative, and diversity was more limited by seed availability. Disturbance prevented recruitment because seedling survival depended on a protective plant canopy, presumably because the canopy reduced temperature or moisture stress. Seed limitation was similarly prevalent in all sites. Our work confirms the importance of facilitation as an organizing process for plants in higher-stress environments, even with transformations of species composition and dominance. It also demonstrates that the mechanisms regulating diversity, including invader impacts, can vary within the same plant community depending on environmental context. Because limits on native plant recruitment are environmentally contingent, management strategies that seek to increase diversity, including invader eradication, must account for site-level variations in the balance between biotic

  12. Planktonic equatorial diversity troughs: fact or artifact? Latitudinal diversity gradients in Radiolaria.

    PubMed

    Boltovskoy, Demetrio; Correa, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to the classical notion of an increasing biodiversity from the poles to the equator, a number of studies concluded that the diversity of marine species is highest at the middle latitudes, and decreases at the equator. Using a worldwide database critically compiled from 72 surveys (307 species, 4,807 water column and surface sediment samples), we analyzed the latitudinal gradients in species richness (LGSR) of a highly diversified group of marine holoplanktonic protists, the polycystine Radiolaria. Species richness values were corrected for uneven sample coverage and sample size, and contrasted with gradients in 11 environmental variables. Radiolarian species richness decreases from the equator to the poles both in the water column and in the surface sediments and is tightly coupled with temperature throughout the entire thermal range of marine waters. In the tropical Pacific Ocean, a conspicuous east-west gradient in diversity is also associated with temperature. Globally, diversity is negatively correlated with mean annual concentrations of nutrients (N, P, Si) and chlorophyll a. Disagreements with results reported for many other oceanic plankton may stem from the reduction of 3D distributional patterns onto 2D or 1D spaces, to the intermittent mixing of Subtropical and Subpolar species at the middle latitudes, and to a Mid-Domain Effect. The fact that radiolarian LGSR do not show this drop at the equator is partly due to methodological and database-related differences, and probably also in part a reflection of taxon-specific traits.

  13. Phenotypic plasticity of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along a broad latitudinal gradient on the Pacific Coast of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined morphological and physiological leaf traits of Spartina densiflora plants in populations from invaded estuarine sites across broad latitudinal and climate gradients along the Pacific west coast of North America, and in favourable conditions in a common garden experiment. We hypothesized ...

  14. Size-Frequency Distributions along a Latitudinal Gradient in Middle Permian Fusulinoideans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yichun; Payne, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic gradients in body size within and among living species are commonly used to identify controls on the long-term evolution of organism size. However, the persistence of these gradients over evolutionary time remains largely unknown because ancient biogeographic variation in organism size is poorly documented. Middle Permian fusulinoidean foraminifera are ideal for investigating the temporal persistence of geographic gradients in organism size because they were diverse and abundant along a broad range of paleo-latitudes during this interval (∼275–260 million years ago). In this study, we determined the sizes of Middle Permian fusulinoidean fossils from three different paleo-latitudinal zones in order to examine the relationship between the size of foraminifers and regional environment. We recovered the following results: keriothecal fusulinoideans are substantially larger than nonkeriothecal fusulinoideans; fusulinoideans from the equatorial zone are typically larger than those from the north and south transitional zones; neoschwagerinid specimens within a single species are generally larger in the equatorial zone than those in both transitional zones; and the nonkeriothecal fusulinoideans Staffellidae and Schubertellidae have smaller size in the north transitional zone. Fusulinoidean foraminifers differ from most other marine taxa in exhibiting larger sizes closer to the equator, contrary to Bergmann's rule. Meridional variation in seasonality, water temperature, nutrient availability, and carbonate saturation level are all likely to have favored or enabled larger sizes in equatorial regions. Temporal variation in atmospheric oxygen concentrations have been shown to account for temporal variation in fusulinoidean size during Carboniferous and Permian time, but oxygen availability appears unlikely to explain biogeographic variation in fusulinoidean sizes, because dissolved oxygen concentrations in seawater typically increase away from the equator due to

  15. Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in East Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. Location: East Asia from the Arctic to tropical regions, an area crossing over 50?? of latitudes and covering the eastern part of China, Korea, Japan and the eastern part of Russia. Methods: East Asia is divided into forty-five geographical regions. Based on the similarity of their world-wide distributional patterns, a total of 2808 indigenous genera of seed plants found in East Asia were grouped into fourteen geographical elements, belonging to three major categories (cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate). The 50??-long latitudinal gradient of East Asia was divided into five latitudinal zones, each of c. 10??. Phytogeographical relationships of East Asia to latitude and climatic variables were examined based on the forty-five regional floras. Results: Among all geographical and climatic variables considered, latitude showed the strongest relationship to phytogeographical composition. Tropical genera (with pantropical, amphi-Pacific tropical, palaeotropical, tropical Asia-tropical Australia, tropical Asia-tropical Africa and tropical Asia geographical elements combined) accounted for c. 80% of the total genera at latitude 20??N and for c. 0% at latitude 55-60??N. In contrast, temperate genera (including holarctic, eastern Asia-North America, temperate Eurasia, temperate Asia, Mediterranean, western Asia to central Asia, central Asia and eastern Asia geographical elements) accounted for 15.5% in the southernmost latitude and for 80% at 55-60??N, from where northward the percentage tended to level off. The proportion of cosmopolitan genera increased gradually with latitude from 5% at the southernmost latitude to 21% at 55-60??N, where it levelled off northward. In general, the genera present in a more

  16. Relative effects of time for speciation and tropical niche conservatism on the latitudinal diversity gradient of phyllostomid bats.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Richard D

    2011-08-22

    Determinants of contemporary patterns of diversity, particularly those spanning extensive latitudinal gradients, are some of the most intensely debated issues in ecology. Recently, focus has shifted from a contemporary environmental perspective to a historical one in an attempt to better understand the construction of latitudinal gradients. Although the vast majority of research on historical mechanisms has focused on tropical niche conservatism (TNC), other historical scenarios could produce similar latitudinal gradients. Herein, I formalize predictions to distinguish between two such historical processes--namely time for speciation (TFS) and TNC--and test relative support based on diversity gradients of New World bats. TFS and TNC are distinctly spatial and environmental mechanisms, respectively. Nonetheless, because of the way that environmental characteristics vary spatially, these two mechanisms are hard to distinguish. Evidence provided herein suggests that TNC has had a more important effect than TFS in determining diversity gradients of New World bats. Indeed, relative effects of different historical mechanisms, as well as relative effects of historical and contemporary environmental determinants, are probably context-dependent. Future research should move away from attempting to identify the mechanism with primacy and instead attempt to understand the particular contexts in which different mechanisms have greater influence on diversity gradients.

  17. Geographic variation in thermal physiological performance of the intertidal crab Petrolisthes violaceus along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D; Opitz, Tania; Lagos, Nelson A; Timmermann, Tania; Lardies, Marco A

    2014-12-15

    Environmental temperature has profound effects on the biological performance and biogeographical distribution of ectothermic species. Variation of this abiotic factor across geographic gradients is expected to produce physiological differentiation and local adaptation of natural populations depending on their thermal tolerances and physiological sensitivities. Here, we studied geographic variation in whole-organism thermal physiology of seven populations of the porcelain crab Petrolisthes violaceus across a latitudinal gradient of 3000 km, characterized by a cline of thermal conditions. Our study found that populations of P. violaceus show no differences in the limits of their thermal performance curves and demonstrate a negative correlation of their optimal temperatures with latitude. Additionally, our findings show that high-latitude populations of P. violaceus exhibit broader thermal tolerances, which is consistent with the climatic variability hypothesis. Interestingly, under a future scenario of warming oceans, the thermal safety margins of P. violaceus indicate that lower latitude populations can physiologically tolerate the ocean-warming scenarios projected by the IPCC for the end of the twenty-first century.

  18. Variation in Size and Growth of the Great Scallop Pecten maximus along a Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Chauvaud, Laurent; Patry, Yann; Jolivet, Aurélie; Cam, Emmanuelle; Le Goff, Clement; Strand, Øivind; Charrier, Grégory; Thébault, Julien; Lazure, Pascal; Gotthard, Karl; Clavier, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between growth and temperature will aid in the evaluation of thermal stress and threats to ectotherms in the context of anticipated climate changes. Most Pecten maximus scallops living at high latitudes in the northern hemisphere have a larger maximum body size than individuals further south, a common pattern among many ectotherms. We investigated differences in daily shell growth among scallop populations along the Northeast Atlantic coast from Spain to Norway. This study design allowed us to address precisely whether the asymptotic size observed along a latitudinal gradient, mainly defined by a temperature gradient, results from differences in annual or daily growth rates, or a difference in the length of the growing season. We found that low annual growth rates in northern populations are not due to low daily growth values, but to the smaller number of days available each year to achieve growth compared to the south. We documented a decrease in the annual number of growth days with age regardless of latitude. However, despite initially lower annual growth performances in terms of growing season length and growth rate, differences in asymptotic size as a function of latitude resulted from persistent annual growth performances in the north and sharp declines in the south. Our measurements of daily growth rates throughout life in a long-lived ectothermic species provide new insight into spatio-temporal variations in growth dynamics and growing season length that cannot be accounted for by classical growth models that only address asymptotic size and annual growth rate. PMID:22649553

  19. Temporal dynamics of deep-sea latitudinal species diversity gradient based on paleoceanographic/micropaleontologic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, M.; Hunt, G.; Okahashi, H.

    2009-12-01

    Macroecology investigates large-scale ecological phenomena, such as regional-global trends in ecosystem properties and biodiversity, and is used to better understand recent human-induced ecosystem degradation. Paleoceanography investigates physical/chemical parameters, biogeochemical cycles, ocean circulation, and ocean-atmosphere interaction, but rarely includes ecosystem-scale biological processes. Here we adopt a macroecological approach to paleoceanography and present sediment core records of the temporal dynamics of deep-sea species diversity gradients using ostracodes from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean for the past four glacial-interglacial cycles. Results show unexpected instability and high amplitude fluctuations in species diversity in the tropical deep ocean. The results imply that the modern deep-sea latitudinal species diversity gradient is unexpectedly dynamic over short time intervals and collapsed during glacial periods. Unstable tropical diversity requires reconsideration of current ecological hypotheses about the generation and maintenance of biodiversity as they apply to the deep sea, and underscores the potential vulnerability and conservation importance of tropical deep-sea ecosystems.

  20. The mossy north: an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in European bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rubén G; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe; Petitpierre, Blaise; Araújo, Miguel B; Svenning, Jens-C; Baselga, Andrés; Fernández-González, Federico; Gómez-Rubio, Virgilio; Muñoz, Jesús; Suarez, Guillermo M; Luoto, Miska; Guisan, Antoine; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-05-06

    It remains hotly debated whether latitudinal diversity gradients are common across taxonomic groups and whether a single mechanism can explain such gradients. Investigating species richness (SR) patterns of European land plants, we determine whether SR increases with decreasing latitude, as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness and turnover in the north and in the south, respectively, indicating species exclusion towards the north and increased opportunities for speciation in the south. Liverworts exhibit the highest levels of nestedness, suggesting that they represent the most sensitive group to the impact of past climate change. Nevertheless, although the extent of liverwort species turnover in the south is substantially and significantly lower than in spermatophytes, liverworts share with the latter a higher nestedness in the north and a higher turn-over in the south, in contrast to mosses and ferns. The extent to which the similarity in the patterns displayed by spermatophytes and liverworts reflects a similar assembly mechanism remains, however, to be demonstrated.

  1. The mossy north: an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in European bryophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, Rubén G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe; Petitpierre, Blaise; Araújo, Miguel B.; Svenning, Jens-C.; Baselga, Andrés; Fernández-González, Federico; Gómez-Rubio, Virgilio; Muñoz, Jesús; Suarez, Guillermo M.; Luoto, Miska; Guisan, Antoine; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-05-01

    It remains hotly debated whether latitudinal diversity gradients are common across taxonomic groups and whether a single mechanism can explain such gradients. Investigating species richness (SR) patterns of European land plants, we determine whether SR increases with decreasing latitude, as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness and turnover in the north and in the south, respectively, indicating species exclusion towards the north and increased opportunities for speciation in the south. Liverworts exhibit the highest levels of nestedness, suggesting that they represent the most sensitive group to the impact of past climate change. Nevertheless, although the extent of liverwort species turnover in the south is substantially and significantly lower than in spermatophytes, liverworts share with the latter a higher nestedness in the north and a higher turn-over in the south, in contrast to mosses and ferns. The extent to which the similarity in the patterns displayed by spermatophytes and liverworts reflects a similar assembly mechanism remains, however, to be demonstrated.

  2. Local selection across a latitudinal gradient shapes nucleotide diversity in balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera L.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stephen R; Levsen, Nicholas; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Olson, Matthew S; Tiffin, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Molecular studies of adaptive evolution often focus on detecting selective sweeps driven by positive selection on a species-wide scale; however, much adaptation is local, particularly of ecologically important traits. Here, we look for evidence of range-wide and local adaptation at candidate genes for adaptive phenology in balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera, a widespread forest tree whose range extends across environmental gradients of photoperiod and growing season length. We examined nucleotide diversity of 27 poplar homologs of the flowering-time network-a group of genes that control plant developmental phenology through interactions with environmental cues such as photoperiod and temperature. Only one gene, ZTL2, showed evidence of reduced diversity and an excess of fixed replacement sites, consistent with a species-wide selective sweep. Two other genes, LFY and FRI, harbored high levels of nucleotide diversity and exhibited elevated differentiation between northern and southern accessions, suggesting local adaptation along a latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, FRI has also been identified as a target of local selection between northern and southern accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that this gene may be commonly involved in ecological adaptation in distantly related species. Our findings suggest an important role for local selection shaping molecular diversity and reveal limitations of inferring molecular adaptation from analyses designed only to detect species-wide selective sweeps.

  3. Susceptibility to a metal under global warming is shaped by thermal adaptation along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Dinh Van, Khuong; Janssens, Lizanne; Debecker, Sara; De Jonge, Maarten; Lambret, Philippe; Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor; Bervoets, Lieven; Stoks, Robby

    2013-09-01

    Global warming and contamination represent two major threats to biodiversity that have the potential to interact synergistically. There is the potential for gradual local thermal adaptation and dispersal to higher latitudes to mitigate the susceptibility of organisms to contaminants and global warming at high latitudes. Here, we applied a space-for-time substitution approach to study the thermal dependence of the susceptibility of Ischnura elegans damselfly larvae to zinc in a common garden warming experiment (20 and 24 °C) with replicated populations from three latitudes spanning >1500 km in Europe. We observed a striking latitude-specific effect of temperature on the zinc-induced mortality pattern; local thermal adaptation along the latitudinal gradient made Swedish, but not French, damselfly larvae more susceptible to zinc at 24 °C. Latitude- and temperature-specific differences in zinc susceptibility may be related to the amount of energy available to defend against and repair damage since Swedish larvae showed a much stronger zinc-induced reduction of food intake at 24 °C. The pattern of local thermal adaptation indicates that the predicted temperature increase of 4 °C by 2100 will strongly magnify the impact of a contaminant such as zinc at higher latitudes unless there is thermal evolution and/or migration of lower latitude genotypes. Our results underscore the critical importance of studying the susceptibility to contaminants under realistic warming scenarios taking into account local thermal adaptation across natural temperature gradients.

  4. The mossy north: an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in European bryophytes

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Rubén G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe; Petitpierre, Blaise; Araújo, Miguel B.; Svenning, Jens-C.; Baselga, Andrés; Fernández-González, Federico; Gómez-Rubio, Virgilio; Muñoz, Jesús; Suarez, Guillermo M.; Luoto, Miska; Guisan, Antoine; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-01-01

    It remains hotly debated whether latitudinal diversity gradients are common across taxonomic groups and whether a single mechanism can explain such gradients. Investigating species richness (SR) patterns of European land plants, we determine whether SR increases with decreasing latitude, as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness and turnover in the north and in the south, respectively, indicating species exclusion towards the north and increased opportunities for speciation in the south. Liverworts exhibit the highest levels of nestedness, suggesting that they represent the most sensitive group to the impact of past climate change. Nevertheless, although the extent of liverwort species turnover in the south is substantially and significantly lower than in spermatophytes, liverworts share with the latter a higher nestedness in the north and a higher turn-over in the south, in contrast to mosses and ferns. The extent to which the similarity in the patterns displayed by spermatophytes and liverworts reflects a similar assembly mechanism remains, however, to be demonstrated. PMID:27151094

  5. Scots pine fine roots adjust along a 2000-km latitudinal climatic gradient.

    PubMed

    Zadworny, Marcin; McCormack, M Luke; Mucha, Joanna; Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    Patterns of plant biomass allocation and functional adjustments along climatic gradients are poorly understood, particularly belowground. Generally, low temperatures suppress nutrient release and uptake, and forests under such conditions have a greater proportion of their biomass in roots. However, it is not clear whether 'more roots' means better capacity to acquire soil resources. Herein we quantified patterns of fine-root anatomy and their biomass distribution across Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) populations both along a 2000-km latitudinal gradient and within a common garden experiment with a similar range of populations. We found that with decreasing mean temperature, a greater percentage of Scots pine root biomass was allocated to roots with higher potential absorptive capacity. Similar results were seen in the common experimental site, where cold-adapted populations produced roots with greater absorptive capacity than populations originating from warmer climates. These results demonstrate that plants growing in or originated from colder climates have more acquisitive roots, a trait that is likely adaptive in the face of the low resource availability typical of cold soils.

  6. Comparison of Forest Soil Carbon Dynamics at Five Sites Along a Latitudinal Gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    2011-01-01

    Carbon stocks, and C:N ratios, were measured in the forest floor, mineral soil, and two mineral soil fractions (particulate and mineral-associated organic matter, POM and MOM, respectively) at five forest sites, ranging from 60 to 100 years old, along a latitudinal gradient in the eastern United States. Sampling at four sites was replicated over two consecutive years. For many measurements (like forest floor carbon stocks, cumulative soil organic carbon stocks to 20 cm, and the fraction of whole soil carbon in POM), there was no significant difference between years at each site despite the use of somewhat different sampling methods. With one exception, forest floor and mineral soil carbon stocks increased from warm, southern, sites (with fine-textured soils) to northern, cool, sites (with more coarse-textured soils). The exception was a northern site, with less than 10% silt-clay content, that had a soil organic carbon stock similar to those measured at southern sites. Soil carbon at each site was partitioned into two pools (labile and stable) on the basis of carbon measured in the forest floor and POM and MOM fractions from the mineral soil. A two-compartment steady-state model, with randomly varying parameter values, was used in probabilistic calculations to estimate the turnover time of labile soil organic carbon (MRTU) and the annual transfer of labile carbon to stable carbon (k2) at each site in two different years. Based on empirical data, the turnover time of stable soil carbon (MRTS) was determined by mean annual temperature and increased from 30 to 100 years from south to north. Moving from south to north, MRTU increased from approximately 5 to 14 years. Consistent with prior studies, 13C enrichment factors ( ) from the Rayleigh equation, that describe the rate of change in 13C through the soil profile, were an indicator of soil carbon turnover times along the latitudinal gradient. Consistent with its role in stabilization of soil organic carbon, silt

  7. Genetically based latitudinal clines in Artemisia californica drive parallel clines in arthropod communities.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Jessica D; Datu, Andrew; Tran, Thi; Sheng, Daniel C; Mooney, Kailen A

    2017-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in plant traits has been clearly shown to drive the structure of associated arthropod communities at the spatial scale of individual plant populations. Nevertheless, it is largely unknown whether plant trait variation among populations drives landscape-scale variation in arthropod communities, and how the strength of such plant genetic effects compares to, and interacts with, those of environmental variation. We documented the structure of arthropod communities on Artemisia californica for two consecutive years in a common garden of plants sourced from five populations along a 5° latitudinal gradient and grown under precipitation treatments approximating the four-fold difference between the north and south range margins for this species. Previous study of plant traits from this garden documented clinal genetic variation, suggesting local adaptation to this environmental gradient, as well as effects of precipitation manipulation that were consistent among populations (i.e., no genotype-by-environment interaction). Within the common garden, arthropod density, evenness, and diversity increased clinally with population source latitude, and arthropod community composition (i.e., species relative abundance) showed a north-south divide. The 2.6-fold cline of northward increase in arthropod density in the common garden was mirrored by a 6.4-fold increase in arthropod density on wild plants sampled along the species range. In contrast to the strong influence of plant genotype, the precipitation manipulation only influenced arthropod community composition, and plant genetic effects on arthropods operated independently of precipitation regime (no genotype-by-environment interaction). Accordingly, we conclude that the strongest driver of landscape-level variation in arthropod communities in this foundational plant species is not variation in the abiotic environment itself, but rather variation in plant traits underlain by the evolutionary process of

  8. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples.

    PubMed

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V "Italica" in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project "BAMBi" (PNRA 2010/A1.10).

  9. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

  10. Latitudinal gradients of species richness in the deep-sea benthos of the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Rex, M A; Stuart, C T; Coyne, G

    2000-04-11

    Latitudinal species diversity gradients (LSDGs) in the Northern Hemisphere are the most well established biogeographic patterns on Earth. Despite long-standing interest in LSDGs as a central problem in ecology, their explanation remains uncertain. In terrestrial as well as coastal and pelagic marine ecosystems, these poleward declines in diversity typically have been represented and interpreted in terms of species richness, the number of coexisting species. Newly discovered LSDGs in the bathyal (500-4,000 m) benthos of the North Atlantic may help to resolve the underlying causes of these large-scale trends because the deep sea is such a physically distinct environment. However, a major problem in comparing surface and deep-sea LSDGs is that the latter have been measured differently, by using species diversity indices that are affected by both species richness and the evenness of relative abundance. Here, we demonstrate that deep-sea isopods, gastropods, and bivalves in the North Atlantic do exhibit poleward decreases in species richness, just as those found in other environments. A comprehensive systematic revision of the largest deep-sea gastropod family (Turridae) has provided a unique database on geographic distributions that is directly comparable to those used to document LSDGs in surface biotas. This taxon also shows a poleward decline in the number of species. Seasonal organic enrichment from sinking phytodetritus is the most plausible ecological explanation for deep-sea LSDGs and is the environmental factor most consistently associated with depressed diversity in a variety of bathyal habitats.

  11. Cyanobacterial diversity of western European biological soil crusts along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Laura; Loewen-Schneider, Katharina; Maier, Stefanie; Büdel, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria associated with biological soil crusts (BSCs) have important attributes, such as nitrogen fixation and soil stabilisation. However, research on these organisms has been minimal, and their diversity and distribution throughout temperate Europe is currently unknown. The SCIN (Soil Crust International) project is a multidisciplinary research initiative that aims to achieve improved understanding of the BSCs of Europe, one facet being an investigation into the cyanobacterial communities of BSCs across a latitudinal gradient. Cyanobacteria assemblages were analysed by both morphological and molecular analysis. Two treatments were applied prior to DNA extraction, continued sample wetting and a dry sample process, and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicons were processed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results reveal high and variable cyanobacterial diversity with each site showing a unique assemblage. Many common cyanobacterial genera, for example Nostoc and Microcoleus, were found in all sites but the abundances of different genera varied considerably. The polyphasic approach was found to be essential in recording the presence of important cyanobacteria that a single method itself did not highlight. The wet and dry treatments showed some differences in diversity, but mainly in abundance, this may suggest how cyanobacterial composition of BSCs changes with seasonal variability. PMID:27411981

  12. Mean annual precipitation explains spatiotemporal patterns of Cenozoic mammal beta diversity and latitudinal diversity gradients in North America.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Danielle; Hassall, Christopher; Gorelick, Root; Rybczynski, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Spatial diversity patterns are thought to be driven by climate-mediated processes. However, temporal patterns of community composition remain poorly studied. We provide two complementary analyses of North American mammal diversity, using (i) a paleontological dataset (2077 localities with 2493 taxon occurrences) spanning 21 discrete subdivisions of the Cenozoic based on North American Land Mammal Ages (36 Ma--present), and (ii) climate space model predictions for 744 extant mammals under eight scenarios of future climate change. Spatial variation in fossil mammal community structure (β diversity) is highest at intermediate values of continental mean annual precipitation (MAP) estimated from paleosols (∼ 450 mm/year) and declines under both wetter and drier conditions, reflecting diversity patterns of modern mammals. Latitudinal gradients in community change (latitudinal turnover gradients, aka LTGs) increase in strength through the Cenozoic, but also show a cyclical pattern that is significantly explained by MAP. In general, LTGs are weakest when continental MAP is highest, similar to modern tropical ecosystems in which latitudinal diversity gradients are weak or undetectable. Projections under modeled climate change show no substantial change in β diversity or LTG strength for North American mammals. Our results suggest that similar climate-mediated mechanisms might drive spatial and temporal patterns of community composition in both fossil and extant mammals. We also provide empirical evidence that the ecological processes on which climate space models are based are insufficient for accurately forecasting long-term mammalian response to anthropogenic climate change and inclusion of historical parameters may be essential.

  13. Photosynthetic performance in Sphagnum transplanted along a latitudinal nitrogen deposition gradient.

    PubMed

    Granath, Gustaf; Strengbom, Joachim; Breeuwer, Angela; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank; Rydin, Håkan

    2009-04-01

    Increased N deposition in Europe has affected mire ecosystems. However, knowledge on the physiological responses is poor. We measured photosynthetic responses to increasing N deposition in two peatmoss species (Sphagnum balticum and Sphagnum fuscum) from a 3-year, north-south transplant experiment in northern Europe, covering a latitudinal N deposition gradient ranging from 0.28 g N m(-2) year(-1) in the north, to 1.49 g N m(-2) year(-1) in the south. The maximum photosynthetic rate (NP(max)) increased southwards, and was mainly explained by tissue N concentration, secondly by allocation of N to the photosynthesis, and to a lesser degree by modified photosystem II activity (variable fluorescence/maximum fluorescence yield). Although climatic factors may have contributed, these results were most likely attributable to an increase in N deposition southwards. For S. fuscum, photosynthetic rate continued to increase up to a deposition level of 1.49 g N m(-2) year(-1), but for S. balticum it seemed to level out at 1.14 g N m(-2) year(-1). The results for S. balticum suggested that transplants from different origin (with low or intermediate N deposition) respond differently to high N deposition. This indicates that Sphagnum species may be able to adapt or physiologically adjust to high N deposition. Our results also suggest that S. balticum might be more sensitive to N deposition than S. fuscum. Surprisingly, NP(max) was not (S. balticum), or only weakly (S. fuscum) correlated with biomass production, indicating that production is to a great extent is governed by factors other than the photosynthetic capacity.

  14. Global Patterns in Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction: A Latitudinal Gradient in Nitrogen Retention and Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, W. L.; Thompson, A. W.; Bradbury, D.; Chapin, F. S.; Ewel, J. J.; Firestone, M. K.

    2003-12-01

    Increased nitrogen (N) deposition in humid environments has the potential to significantly increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions via nitrification and denitrification. This potential N loss may be significantly offset by N retention from dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). In this study, we report on rates of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to N2O and ammonium along a latitudinal gradient from the tropics to the boreal forest. We conducted laboratory experiments with forest soils from Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, California, and Alaska to determine maximum potential rates of DNRA and N2O production. We also conducted field experiments in Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, and Alaska to estimate in situ rates. Maximum potential rates of DNRA ranged from 10 ug/g/d in fertilized poplar forests in Alaska to 0.3 ug/g/d in unfertilized polyculture plantations in Costa Rica. At all sites, rates of DNRA appeared to be nitrate limited. On average, temperate and boreal forests had greater potential rates of DNRA (5 +/- 1 ug/g/d) than tropical forests (3 +/- 1 ug/g/d). Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased rates of DNRA in Alaska. Rates of maximum potential N2O flux were generally lower than DNRA rates (0.16 to 4 ug/g/d). In field experiments, rates of DNRA were greatest in tropical rain forests in Puerto Rico, followed by wet forests in Costa Rica, and black spruce forests in Alaska. Although field DNRA rates were low in Alaska, they accounted for up to 13 % of gross mineralization and 24 % of gross nitrification. At all sites, rates of N2O flux via denitrification and nitrification were significantly lower than N retention via DNRA. Our results suggest that this previously unmeasured N cycling pathway effectively competes with processes resulting in N-trace gas loss from a range of forested ecosystems.

  15. Life history attributes of fishes along the latitudinal gradient of the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of two short-lived species (emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides and sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki) and three long-lived species (freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens, river carpsucker Carpiodes carpio, and sauger Stizostedion canadense) were studied in the Missouri River to examine spatial variations in life history characteristics across a latitudinal and thermal gradient (38??47???N to 48??03???N). The life history characteristics included longevity (maximum age), the rate at which asymptotic length was approached (K from the von Bertalanffy growth equation), the mean back-calculated length at age, and growth rates during the first year of life (mm/degree-day and mm/d). The mean water temperature and number of days in the growing season averaged 1.3 times greater in the southern than in the northern latitudes, while degree-days averaged twice as great. The longevity of all species except freshwater drum increased significantly from south to north, but the relationships between maximum age and latitude were curvilinear for short-lived species and linear for long-lived species. The von Bertalanffy growth coefficient for river carpsuckers and saugers increased from north to south, as indicated by significant negative relationships between K and latitude. Mean back-calculated length at age was negatively related to latitude for freshwater drums (???age 4) and saugers (ages 1-5) but positively related to latitude for river carpsuckers (???age 6). One of the growth rates examined (mm/degree-day) increased significantly from low to high latitudes for emerald shiners, sicklefin chubs, freshwater drums, and river carpsuckers during the first growing season. The other growth rate (mm/d) increased significantly from low to high latitudes for emerald shiners but was inversely related to latitude for saugers. These results suggest that the thermal regime related to latitude influences the life history characteristics of fishes in the Missouri River.

  16. Human birth seasonality: latitudinal gradient and interplay with childhood disease dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Bakker, Micaela; Bakker, Kevin M.; King, Aaron A.; Rohani, Pejman

    2014-01-01

    More than a century of ecological studies have demonstrated the importance of demography in shaping spatial and temporal variation in population dynamics. Surprisingly, the impact of seasonal recruitment on infectious disease systems has received much less attention. Here, we present data encompassing 78 years of monthly natality in the USA, and reveal pronounced seasonality in birth rates, with geographical and temporal variation in both the peak birth timing and amplitude. The timing of annual birth pulses followed a latitudinal gradient, with northern states exhibiting spring/summer peaks and southern states exhibiting autumn peaks, a pattern we also observed throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Additionally, the amplitude of United States birth seasonality was more than twofold greater in southern states versus those in the north. Next, we examined the dynamical impact of birth seasonality on childhood disease incidence, using a mechanistic model of measles. Birth seasonality was found to have the potential to alter the magnitude and periodicity of epidemics, with the effect dependent on both birth peak timing and amplitude. In a simulation study, we fitted an susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered model to simulated data, and demonstrated that ignoring birth seasonality can bias the estimation of critical epidemiological parameters. Finally, we carried out statistical inference using historical measles incidence data from New York City. Our analyses did not identify the predicted systematic biases in parameter estimates. This may be owing to the well-known frequency-locking between measles epidemics and seasonal transmission rates, or may arise from substantial uncertainty in multiple model parameters and estimation stochasticity. PMID:24695423

  17. Human birth seasonality: latitudinal gradient and interplay with childhood disease dynamics.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Bakker, Micaela; Bakker, Kevin M; King, Aaron A; Rohani, Pejman

    2014-05-22

    More than a century of ecological studies have demonstrated the importance of demography in shaping spatial and temporal variation in population dynamics. Surprisingly, the impact of seasonal recruitment on infectious disease systems has received much less attention. Here, we present data encompassing 78 years of monthly natality in the USA, and reveal pronounced seasonality in birth rates, with geographical and temporal variation in both the peak birth timing and amplitude. The timing of annual birth pulses followed a latitudinal gradient, with northern states exhibiting spring/summer peaks and southern states exhibiting autumn peaks, a pattern we also observed throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Additionally, the amplitude of United States birth seasonality was more than twofold greater in southern states versus those in the north. Next, we examined the dynamical impact of birth seasonality on childhood disease incidence, using a mechanistic model of measles. Birth seasonality was found to have the potential to alter the magnitude and periodicity of epidemics, with the effect dependent on both birth peak timing and amplitude. In a simulation study, we fitted an susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered model to simulated data, and demonstrated that ignoring birth seasonality can bias the estimation of critical epidemiological parameters. Finally, we carried out statistical inference using historical measles incidence data from New York City. Our analyses did not identify the predicted systematic biases in parameter estimates. This may be owing to the well-known frequency-locking between measles epidemics and seasonal transmission rates, or may arise from substantial uncertainty in multiple model parameters and estimation stochasticity.

  18. The latitudinal species richness gradient in New World woody angiosperms is consistent with the tropical conservatism hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoff, Andrew J.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Weiser, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Plant diversity, like that of most other taxonomic groups, peaks in the tropics, where climatic conditions are warm and wet, and it declines toward the temperate and polar zones as conditions become colder and drier, with more seasonally variable temperatures. Climate and evolutionary history are often considered competing explanations for the latitudinal gradient, but they are linked by the evolutionarily conserved environmental adaptations of species and the history of Earth’s climate system. The tropical conservatism hypothesis (TCH) invokes niche conservatism, climatic limitations on establishment and survival, and paleoclimatic history to explain the latitudinal diversity gradient. Here, we use latitudinal distributions for over 12,500 woody angiosperm species, a fossil-calibrated supertree, and null modeling to test predictions of the TCH. Regional assemblages in the northern and southern temperate zones are less phylogenetically diverse than expected based on their species richness, because temperate taxa are clustered into relatively few clades. Moreover, lineages with temperate affinities are generally younger and nested within older, more tropical lineages. As predicted by the TCH, the vast majority of temperate lineages have arisen since global cooling began at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (34 Mya). By linking physiological tolerances of species to evolutionary and biogeographic processes, phylogenetic niche conservatism may provide a theoretical framework for a generalized explanation for Earth’s predominant pattern of biodiversity. PMID:24847062

  19. Latitudinal variation in genetic divergence of populations and the potential for future speciation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R; McKay, John K

    2004-05-01

    The increase in biological diversity with decreasing latitude is widely appreciated but the cause of the pattern is unknown. This pattern reflects latitudinal variation in both the origin of new species (cladogenesis) and the number of species that coexist. Here we address latitudinal variation in species origination, by examining population genetic processes that influence speciation. Previous data suggest a greater number of speciation events at lower latitudes. If speciation events occur more frequently at lower latitudes, we predicted that genetic divergence among populations within species, an important component of cladogenesis, should be greater among lower latitude populations. We tested this prediction using within-species patterns of mtDNA variation across 60 vertebrate species that collectively spanned six continents, two oceans, and 119 degrees latitude. We found greater genetic divergence of populations, controlling for geographic distance, at lower latitudes within species. This pattern remained statistically significant after removing populations that occur in localities previously covered by continental glaciers during the last glaciation. Results suggest that lower latitude populations within species exhibit greater evolutionary independence, increasing the likelihood that mutation, recombination, selection, and/or drift will lead to divergence of traits important for reproductive isolation and speciation. Results are consistent with a greater influence of seasonality, reduced energy, and/or glacial (Milankovitch) cycles acting on higher latitude populations, and represent one of the few tests of predictions of latitudinal variation in speciation rates using population genetic data.

  20. Dynamics of absorption properties along a latitudinal gradient: sources of absorption in Australian inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestir, E. L.; Campbell, G.; Malthus, T. J.; Dekker, A.; Botha, E.

    2013-12-01

    Australian inland waters are optically complex and vary spatially and temporally. Inversion of optical remote sensing data for the retrieval of optically active water quality constituents (chlorophyll, colored dissolved organic matter and total suspended solids) is impeded by the scarcity of inherent optical property (IOP) data sets. In 2012 a major measurement program commenced to improve understanding of IOPs in Australia. Seven large lakes were sampled along a latitudinal gradient in Eastern Australia; in situ observations were made of the absorption properties of the water quality during two epochs (wet and dry season). This study documents the seasonal, inter & intra lake variability of the absorption budget of Australian lakes. These data reveal the sources of biogeochemical constituents determining the light climate of lakes. Optically active water quality constituents (total suspended solids, chlorophyll-a, and colored dissolved organic matter) varied significantly between wet and dry season and between lakes. The primary contribution to the absorption budget was from non-algal particulate matter (NAP; 10-60%), followed by colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM; 20-80%). Absorption from phytoplankton contributed only 0-30% of the total budget. This indicates that these lakes are primarily light limited, though the limitation comes from multiple sources. The contribution of NAP to the total absorption budget showed the greatest amount of variance between wet and dry seasons. Examination of the organic matter and estimated phytoplankton biomass contributions to TSS reveal that chlorophyll is not the primary source of organic matter in Australian lakes: allochthonous inputs are the primary trophic driver. Finally, there is strong regional and seasonal variation in the IOPs of the lakes, with the exception of the slope of CDOM. The slope of CDOM was not significantly different between seasons (p=0.94). Non-parametric stepwise multiple comparisons showed the

  1. Latitudinal TEC gradients over polar ionosphere using high latitude GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagimuratov, Irk; Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina; Tepenitsyna, Nadezhda; Yakimova, Galina; Ephishov, I. I.

    The GPS observations of Greenland network were used to analyze the latitudinal variations of TEC at the high-latitudes ionosphere. This network provides unique opportunity to monitor TEC variability in polar ionosphere on a regular base. GPS stations are arranged along the latitude over the range 60-83°N (65°-87° Corrected Geomagnetic Latitude) near of 30°-40° longitudes. More than 20 GPS stations are located closely with one another along latitude. The distance between stations is about 1°-2°.Such spatial resolution provides the possibility to analyze the detailed structure of latitudinal TEC profiles. The standard procedure of processing GPS observations was used for TEC estimation. On this base it was obtained the diurnal TEC variations over all Greenland stations. The TEC data is used to form latitudinal profiles (TEC section) covered subauroral, auroral and polar ionosphere. In the report the observations of TEC for quiet and disturbed ionosphere during several geomagnetic storms occurred in September 2011 are presented. During quiet conditions in the night-time TEC profiles demonstrated invariable values about of 4-6 TECU in latitudinal region of 60°-75°N; then it presented THE increase towards the higher latitude and reached the value of 10 TECU near 80°N. The daytime profiles revealed TEC decrease toward high latitude in keeping with 0.8 TECU/degree. During storm the structure of latitudinal TEC profiles was essentially changed with agreement to the development of geomagnetic storm. The positive effect was observed at subauroral and auroral latitudes, negative effect was prevailed at the polar region. During the night time the ionospheric trough can be observed. In the report features of the behavior of latitudinal profiles at high-latitude ionosphere for September 2011 events were discussed.

  2. Temperature and diet effects on omnivorous fish performance: Implications for the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrens, M.D.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2007-01-01

    Herbivorous fishes show a clear latitudinal diversity gradient, making up a larger proportion of the fish species in a community in tropical waters than in temperate waters. One proposed mechanism that could drive this gradient is a physiological constraint due to temperature. One prediction based on this mechanism is that if herbivorous fishes could shift their diet to animal material, they would be better able to grow, survive, and reproduce in cold waters. We tested this prediction on the omnivore Girella nigricans under different temperature and diet regimes using RNA-DNA ratios as an indicator of performance. Fish had increased performance (100%) at low temperatures (12??C) when their diet was supplemented with animal material. In contrast, at higher temperatures (17, 22, and 27??C) fish showed no differences between diets. This indicates that omnivorous fishes could increase their performance at low temperatures by consuming more animal matter. This study supports the hypothesis that a relative increase in the nutritional value of plant material at warmer temperatures could drive the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes. ?? 2007 NRC.

  3. Shell properties of commercial clam Chamelea gallina are influenced by temperature and solar radiation along a wide latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Gizzi, Francesca; Caccia, Maria Giulia; Simoncini, Ginevra Allegra; Mancuso, Arianna; Reggi, Michela; Fermani, Simona; Brizi, Leonardo; Fantazzini, Paola; Stagioni, Marco; Falini, Giuseppe; Piccinetti, Corrado; Goffredo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Phenotype can express different morphologies in response to biotic or abiotic environmental influences. Mollusks are particularly sensitive to different environmental parameters, showing macroscale shell morphology variations in response to environmental parameters. Few studies concern shell variations at the different scale levels along environmental gradients. Here, we investigate shell features at the macro, micro and nanoscale, in populations of the commercially important clam Chamelea gallina along a latitudinal gradient (~400 km) of temperature and solar radiation in the Adriatic Sea (Italian cost). Six populations of clams with shells of the same length were analyzed. Shells from the warmest and the most irradiated population were thinner, with more oval shape, more porous and lighter, showing lower load fracture. However, no variation was observed in shell CaCO3 polymorphism (100% aragonite) or in compositional and textural shell parameters, indicating no effect of the environmental parameters on the basic processes of biomineralization. Because of the importance of this species as commercial resource in the Adriatic Sea, the experimentally quantified and significant variations of mass and fracture load in C. gallina shells along the latitudinal gradient may have economic implications for fisheries producing different economical yield for fishermen and consumers along the Adriatic coastline. PMID:27805037

  4. Woody plant encroachment effect on soil organic carbon dynamics: results from a latitudinal gradient in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellis, Guido; Chiti, Tommaso; Moscatelli, Maria Cristina; Marinari, Sara; Papale, Dario

    2016-04-01

    Woody plant encroachment into pastures and grasslands represents a significant land cover change phenomenon, with a considerable impact on carbon dynamics at an ecosystem level. It was estimated that 7.64% of the Southern Europe land was subject to that process between 1950 to 2010. As a result of woody encroachment, changes in vegetation composition can produce substantial changes to the soil organic carbon (SOC) cycle. Despite the numerous papers published on land-use change, an evaluation of the IPCC terrestrial carbon pools changes occurring during woody encroachment on abandoned pastures and grasslands is still lacking, particularly for the Italian territory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of woody encroachment on carbon sequestration over abandoned pastures and grasslands in Alpine and Apennine ecosystems, with a particular focus on the SOC. We applied a chronosequence approach to seven selected sites located along a latitudinal gradient in Italy. Each chronosequence consisted of a pasture currently managed, three sites abandoned at different times in the past and, finally, a mature forest stand representing the last phase of the succession. The European Commission sampling protocols to certify SOC changes was adopted to estimate the variations following woody encroachment. Soil samples were collected at different depths in the topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (30-70 cm), despite the original protocol formulation being limited to the topsoil only. In addition, aboveground living biomass (AGB), dead wood and litter were also measured following international protocols. Considering all C pools together, woody plant encroachment leads to a progressive C stock accumulation in all the chronosequences. The total C stock of mature forest stands ranges from 1.78±0.11 times (Eastern Alps) to 2.48±0.31 times (central Apennine) the initial value on pastures. Unsurprisingly, the C stocks of AGB, dead wood and litter all increase during the

  5. Do turtles follow the rules? Latitudinal gradients in species richness, body size, and geographic range area of the world's turtles.

    PubMed

    Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Burroughs, Robert W; Feldman, Chris R

    2015-05-01

    Understanding how and why biodiversity is structured across the globe has been central to ecology, evolution, and biogeography even before those disciplines took their modern forms. Three global-scale patterns in particular have been the focus of research and debate for decades: latitudinal gradients in species richness (richness decreases with increasing latitude), body size (body size increases with increasing latitude in endotherms; Bergmann's rule), and geographic range size (range size increases with increasing latitude; Rapoport's rule). Despite decades of study, the generality and robustness of these trends have been debated, as have their underlying causes. Here we investigate latitudinal gradients in species richness, body size, and range size in the world's turtles (Testudines), and add more evidence that these rules do not seem to apply across all taxa. We show that turtle diversity actually peaks at 25° north, a highly unusual global pattern. Turtles also fail to follow Bergmann's Rule, and may show the converse (larger at lower latitudes), though trends are weak. Turtles also show a complex relationship between latitude and range size that does not directly follow Rapoport's rule. Body size and geographic range size are significantly correlated, and multiple abiotic and biotic variables help explain the relationships between latitude and species diversity, body size, and range size. Although we show that turtles do not strictly follow some classic biogeographical rules, we also call for further in-depth research to investigate potential causal mechanisms for these atypical patterns.

  6. Latitudinal species diversity gradient of mushroom corals off eastern Australia: a baseline from the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2015-11-01

    Based on a study of mushroom coral species of eastern Australia, a decrease in species richness can be discerned from north to south. Eastern Australia, including the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), is one of only few coral reef areas suitable for studies on large-scale latitudinal biodiversity patterns. Such patterns may help to recognize biogeographic boundaries and factors regulating biodiversity. Owing to the eastern Australian long coastline, such studies are a logistic challenge unless reliable distribution data are already available, as in museum collections. A large coral collection predominantly sampled from this area in the 1970s is present in the Museum of Tropical Queensland (MTQ). The scleractinian family Fungiidae (mushroom corals), representing about 10% of Indo-Pacific reef coral species, was selected as proxy. It was represented by 1289 specimens belonging to 34 species with latitudinal ranges between 09°09‧S and 31°28‧S. The fauna of the northernmost reefs in the Gulf of Papua and the Torres Strait, and north of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), was represented by a maximum of 30 fungiids. From here a southward decline in species number was observed, down to Lord Howe Island with only one species. Together with previous records, the mushroom coral fauna of eastern Australia consists of 37 species, which is more diverse than hitherto known and similar to numbers found in the Coral Triangle. Future field surveys in the GBR should specifically target rarely known species, which are mainly small and found at depths >25 m. In the light of global climate change, they may also show whether previously recorded species are still present and whether their latitudinal ranges have shifted, using the 1970s records as a baseline.

  7. Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in eastern Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. The large-scale patterns of phytogeography in East Asia are strongly related to latitude, which covaries with several climatic variables such as temperature. Evolutionary processes such as the adaptation of plants to cold climates and current and past land connections are likely responsible for the observed latitudinal patterns.

  8. What can multiple phylogenies say about the latitudinal diversity gradient? A new look at the tropical conservatism, out of the tropics, and diversification rate hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Roland; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Harding, Larisa E

    2013-06-01

    We reviewed published phylogenies and selected 111 phylogenetic studies representing mammals, birds, insects, and flowering plants. We then mapped the latitudinal range of all taxa to test the relative importance of the tropical conservatism, out of the tropics, and diversification rate hypotheses in generating latitudinal diversity gradients. Most clades originated in the tropics, with diversity peaking in the zone of origin. Transitions of lineages between latitudinal zones occurred at 16-22% of the tree nodes. The most common type of transition was range expansions of tropical lineages to encompass also temperate latitudes. Thus, adaptation to new climatic conditions may not represent a major obstacle for many clades. These results contradict predictions of the tropical conservatism hypothesis (i.e., few clades colonizing extratropical latitudes), but support the out-of-the-tropics model (i.e., tropical originations and subsequent latitudinal range expansions). Our results suggest no difference in diversification between tropical and temperate sister lineages; thus, diversity of tropical clades was not explained by higher diversification rates in this zone. Moreover, lineages with latitudinal stasis diversified more compared to sister lineages entering a new latitudinal zone. This preserved preexisting diversity differences between latitudinal zones and can be considered a new mechanism for why diversity tends to peak in the zone of origin.

  9. The geography of fear: a latitudinal gradient in anti-predator escape distances of birds across Europe.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Mario; Møller, Anders Pape; Flensted-Jensen, Einar; Grim, Tomáš; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Jokimäki, Jukka; Markó, Gábor; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    All animals flee from potential predators, and the distance at which this happens is optimized so the benefits from staying are balanced against the costs of flight. Because predator diversity and abundance decreases with increasing latitude, and differs between rural and urban areas, we should expect escape distance when a predator approached the individual to decrease with latitude and depend on urbanization. We measured the distance at which individual birds fled (flight initiation distance, FID, which represents a reliable and previously validated surrogate measure of response to predation risk) following a standardized protocol in nine pairs of rural and urban sites along a ca. 3000 km gradient from Southern Spain to Northern Finland during the breeding seasons 2009-2010. Raptor abundance was estimated by means of standard point counts at the same sites where FID information was recorded. Data on body mass and phylogenetic relationships among bird species sampled were extracted from the literature. An analysis of 12,495 flight distances of 714 populations of 159 species showed that mean FID decreased with increasing latitude after accounting for body size and phylogenetic effects. This decrease was paralleled by a similar cline in an index of the abundance of raptors. Urban populations had consistently shorter FIDs, supporting previous findings. The difference between rural and urban habitats decreased with increasing latitude, also paralleling raptor abundance trends. Overall, the latitudinal gradient in bird fear was explained by raptor abundance gradients, with additional small effects of latitude and intermediate effects of habitat. This study provides the first empirical documentation of a latitudinal trend in anti-predator behavior, which correlated positively with a similar trend in the abundance of predators.

  10. Latitudinal gradients in tree ring stable carbon and oxygen isotopes reveal differential climate influences of the North American Monsoon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szejner, Paul; Wright, William E.; Babst, Flurin; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Trouet, Valerie; Leavitt, Steven W.; Ehleringer, James R.; Monson, Russell K.

    2016-07-01

    The arrival of the North American Monsoon System (NAMS) terminates a presummer hyperarid period in the southwestern United States (U.S.), providing summer moisture that is favorable for forest growth. Montane forests in this region rely on winter snowpack to drive much of their growth; the extent to which they use NAMS moisture is uncertain. We addressed this by studying stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in earlywood and latewood from 11 sites along a latitudinal gradient extending from Arizona and New Mexico to Utah. This study provides the first regional perspective on the relative roles of winter versus summer precipitation as an ecophysiological resource. Here we present evidence that Ponderosa pine uses NAMS moisture differentially across this gradient. 13C/12C ratios suggest that photosynthetic water use efficiency during latewood formation is more sensitive to summer precipitation at the northern than at the southern sites. This is likely due to the fact that NAMS moisture provides sufficiently favorable conditions for tree photosynthesis and growth during most years in the southern sites, whereas the northern sites experience larger summer moisture variability, which in some years is limiting growth. Cellulose δ18O and δ13C values revealed that photoassimilates in the southern sites were produced under higher vapor pressure deficit conditions during spring compared to summer, demonstrating a previously underappreciated effect of seasonal differences in atmospheric humidity on tree ring isotope ratios. Our findings suggest that future changes in NAMS will potentially alter productivity and photosynthetic water use dynamics differentially along latitudinal gradients in southwestern U.S. montane forests.

  11. The Geography of Fear: A Latitudinal Gradient in Anti-Predator Escape Distances of Birds across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Mario; Møller, Anders Pape; Flensted-Jensen, Einar; Grim, Tomáš; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Jokimäki, Jukka; Markó, Gábor; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    All animals flee from potential predators, and the distance at which this happens is optimized so the benefits from staying are balanced against the costs of flight. Because predator diversity and abundance decreases with increasing latitude, and differs between rural and urban areas, we should expect escape distance when a predator approached the individual to decrease with latitude and depend on urbanization. We measured the distance at which individual birds fled (flight initiation distance, FID, which represents a reliable and previously validated surrogate measure of response to predation risk) following a standardized protocol in nine pairs of rural and urban sites along a ca. 3000 km gradient from Southern Spain to Northern Finland during the breeding seasons 2009–2010. Raptor abundance was estimated by means of standard point counts at the same sites where FID information was recorded. Data on body mass and phylogenetic relationships among bird species sampled were extracted from the literature. An analysis of 12,495 flight distances of 714 populations of 159 species showed that mean FID decreased with increasing latitude after accounting for body size and phylogenetic effects. This decrease was paralleled by a similar cline in an index of the abundance of raptors. Urban populations had consistently shorter FIDs, supporting previous findings. The difference between rural and urban habitats decreased with increasing latitude, also paralleling raptor abundance trends. Overall, the latitudinal gradient in bird fear was explained by raptor abundance gradients, with additional small effects of latitude and intermediate effects of habitat. This study provides the first empirical documentation of a latitudinal trend in anti-predator behavior, which correlated positively with a similar trend in the abundance of predators. PMID:23724070

  12. Sap-feeding insects on forest trees along latitudinal gradients in northern Europe: a climate-driven patterns.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Mikhail V; Stekolshchikov, Andrey V; Söderman, Guy; Labina, Eugenia S; Zverev, Vitali; Zvereva, Elena L

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the latitudinal patterns in biotic interactions, and especially in herbivory, is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. We used sap-feeding insects as a model group to test the hypotheses that the strength of plant-herbivore interactions in boreal forests decreases with latitude and that this latitudinal pattern is driven primarily by midsummer temperatures. We used a replicated sampling design and quantitatively collected and identified all sap-feeding insects from four species of forest trees along five latitudinal gradients (750-1300 km in length, ten sites in each gradient) in northern Europe (59 to 70°N and 10 to 60°E) during 2008-2011. Similar decreases in diversity of sap-feeding insects with latitude were observed in all gradients during all study years. The sap-feeder load (i.e. insect biomass per unit of foliar biomass) decreased with latitude in typical summers, but increased in an exceptionally hot summer and was independent of latitude during a warm summer. Analysis of combined data from all sites and years revealed dome-shaped relationships between the loads of sap-feeders and midsummer temperatures, peaking at 17 °C in Picea abies, at 19.5 °C in Pinus sylvestris and Betula pubescens and at 22 °C in B. pendula. From these relationships, we predict that the losses of forest trees to sap-feeders will increase by 0-45% of the current level in southern boreal forests and by 65-210% in subarctic forests with a 1 °C increase in summer temperatures. The observed relationships between temperatures and the loads of sap-feeders differ between the coniferous and deciduous tree species. We conclude that climate warming will not only increase plant losses to sap-feeding insects, especially in subarctic forests, but can also alter plant-plant interactions, thereby affecting both the productivity and the structure of future forest ecosystems.

  13. Diversity of planktonic fish larvae along a latitudinal gradient in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean estimated through DNA barcodes.

    PubMed

    Ardura, Alba; Morote, Elvira; Kochzius, Marc; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Mid-trophic pelagic fish are essential components of marine ecosystems because they represent the link between plankton and higher predators. Moreover, they are the basis of the most important fisheries resources; for example, in African waters. In this study, we have sampled pelagic fish larvae in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean along a latitudinal gradient between 37°N and 2°S. We have employed Bongo nets for plankton sampling and sorted visually fish and fish larvae. Using the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) as a DNA barcode, we have identified 44 OTUs down to species level that correspond to 14 families, with Myctophidae being the most abundant. A few species were cosmopolitan and others latitude-specific, as was expected. The latitudinal pattern of diversity did not exhibit a temperate-tropical cline; instead, it was likely correlated with environmental conditions with a decline in low-oxygen zones. Importantly, gaps and inconsistencies in reference DNA databases impeded accurate identification to the species level of 49% of the individuals. Fish sampled from tropical latitudes and some orders, such as Perciformes, Myctophiformes and Stomiiformes, were largely unidentified due to incomplete references. Some larvae were identified based on morphology and COI analysis for comparing time and costs employed from each methodology. These results suggest the need of reinforcing DNA barcoding reference datasets of Atlantic bathypelagic tropical fish that, as main prey of top predators, are crucial for ecosystem-based management of fisheries resources.

  14. Diversity of planktonic fish larvae along a latitudinal gradient in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean estimated through DNA barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Morote, Elvira; Kochzius, Marc; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Mid-trophic pelagic fish are essential components of marine ecosystems because they represent the link between plankton and higher predators. Moreover, they are the basis of the most important fisheries resources; for example, in African waters. In this study, we have sampled pelagic fish larvae in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean along a latitudinal gradient between 37°N and 2°S. We have employed Bongo nets for plankton sampling and sorted visually fish and fish larvae. Using the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) as a DNA barcode, we have identified 44 OTUs down to species level that correspond to 14 families, with Myctophidae being the most abundant. A few species were cosmopolitan and others latitude-specific, as was expected. The latitudinal pattern of diversity did not exhibit a temperate-tropical cline; instead, it was likely correlated with environmental conditions with a decline in low-oxygen zones. Importantly, gaps and inconsistencies in reference DNA databases impeded accurate identification to the species level of 49% of the individuals. Fish sampled from tropical latitudes and some orders, such as Perciformes, Myctophiformes and Stomiiformes, were largely unidentified due to incomplete references. Some larvae were identified based on morphology and COI analysis for comparing time and costs employed from each methodology. These results suggest the need of reinforcing DNA barcoding reference datasets of Atlantic bathypelagic tropical fish that, as main prey of top predators, are crucial for ecosystem-based management of fisheries resources. PMID:27761307

  15. Growth rate responses of Missouri and lower Yellowstone river fishes to a latitudinal gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pegg, M.A.; Pierce, C.L.

    2001-01-01

    Growth rate coefficients estimated for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, emerald shiners Notropis atherinoides, freshwater drums Aplodinotus grunniens, river carpsuckers Carpiodes carpio and saugers Stizostedion canadense collected in 1996-1998 from nine river sections of the Missouri and lower Yellowstone rivers at two life-stages (young-of-the-year and age 1 + years) were significantly different among sections. However, they showed no river-wide latitudinal trend except for age 1 + years emerald shiners that did show a weak negative relation between growth and both latitude and length of growing season. The results suggest growth rates of fishes along the Missouri River system are complex and could be of significance in the management and conservation of fish communities in this altered system. ?? 2001 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Reproductive output of a non-zooxanthellate temperate coral is unaffected by temperature along an extended latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Airi, Valentina; Prantoni, Selena; Calegari, Marco; Lisini Baldi, Veronica; Gizzi, Francesca; Marchini, Chiara; Levy, Oren; Falini, Giuseppe; Dubinsky, Zvy; Goffredo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Global environmental change, in marine ecosystems, is associated with concurrent shifts in water temperature, circulation, stratification, and nutrient input, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Variations in seawater temperature might alter physiological functioning, reproductive efficiency, and demographic traits of marine organisms, leading to shifts in population size and abundance. Differences in temperature tolerances between organisms can identify individual and ecological characteristics, which make corals able to persist and adapt in a climate change context. Here we investigated the possible effect of temperature on the reproductive output of the solitary non-zooxanthellate temperate coral Leptopsammia pruvoti, along an 8° latitudinal gradient. Samples have been collected in six populations along the gradient and each polyp was examined using histological and cyto-histometric analyses. We coupled our results with previous studies on the growth, demography, and calcification of L. pruvoti along the same temperature gradient, and compared them with those of another sympatric zooxanthellate coral Balanophyllia europaea to understand which trophic strategy makes the coral more tolerant to increasing temperature. The non-zooxanthellate species seemed to be quite tolerant to temperature increases, probably due to the lack of the symbiosis with zooxanthellae. To our knowledge, this is the first field investigation of the relationship between reproductive output and temperature increase of a temperate asymbiotic coral, providing novel insights into the poorly studied non-zooxanthellate scleractinians.

  17. Reproductive output of a non-zooxanthellate temperate coral is unaffected by temperature along an extended latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Airi, Valentina; Prantoni, Selena; Calegari, Marco; Lisini Baldi, Veronica; Gizzi, Francesca; Marchini, Chiara; Levy, Oren; Falini, Giuseppe; Dubinsky, Zvy; Goffredo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Global environmental change, in marine ecosystems, is associated with concurrent shifts in water temperature, circulation, stratification, and nutrient input, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Variations in seawater temperature might alter physiological functioning, reproductive efficiency, and demographic traits of marine organisms, leading to shifts in population size and abundance. Differences in temperature tolerances between organisms can identify individual and ecological characteristics, which make corals able to persist and adapt in a climate change context. Here we investigated the possible effect of temperature on the reproductive output of the solitary non-zooxanthellate temperate coral Leptopsammia pruvoti, along an 8° latitudinal gradient. Samples have been collected in six populations along the gradient and each polyp was examined using histological and cyto-histometric analyses. We coupled our results with previous studies on the growth, demography, and calcification of L. pruvoti along the same temperature gradient, and compared them with those of another sympatric zooxanthellate coral Balanophyllia europaea to understand which trophic strategy makes the coral more tolerant to increasing temperature. The non-zooxanthellate species seemed to be quite tolerant to temperature increases, probably due to the lack of the symbiosis with zooxanthellae. To our knowledge, this is the first field investigation of the relationship between reproductive output and temperature increase of a temperate asymbiotic coral, providing novel insights into the poorly studied non-zooxanthellate scleractinians. PMID:28158213

  18. Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biancucci, L.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    1. Latitudinal variation in clutch sizes of birds is a well described, but poorly understood pattern. Many hypotheses have been proposed, but few have been experimentally tested, and none have been universally accepted by researchers. 2. The nest size hypothesis posits that higher nest predation in the tropics favours selection for smaller nests and thereby constrains clutch size by shrinking available space for eggs and/or nestlings in the nest. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in a tropical forest and a comparative study between temperate and tropical field sites. 3. Specifically, we tested if: (i) predation increased with nest size; (ii) tropical birds had smaller nests controlled for body size; and (iii) clutch size was explained by nest size controlled for body size. 4. Experimental swapping of nests of different sizes showed that nest predation increased with nest size in the tropical site. Moreover, nest predation rates were higher in species with larger nests in both sites. However, nest size, corrected for body mass and phylogeny, did not differ between sites and was not related to clutch size between sites. 5. Hence, nest predation can exert selection on nest size as predicted by the hypothesis. Nest size increased with adult body mass, such that adult size might indirectly influence reproductive success through effects on nest size and nest predation risk. Ultimately, however, selection from nest predation on nest size does not explain the smaller clutch sizes typical of the tropics.

  19. Herbivory Differentially Affects Plant Fitness in Three Populations of the Perennial Herb Lythrum salicaria along a Latitudinal Gradient.

    PubMed

    Lehndal, Lina; Ågren, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Herbivory can negatively and selectively affect plant fitness by reducing growth, survival and reproductive output, thereby influencing plant population dynamics and evolution. Latitudinal variation in intensity of herbivory is common, but the extent to which it translates into corresponding variation in effects on plant performance is still poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that variation in the fitness-consequences of herbivory mirror differences in intensity of herbivory among three natural populations of the perennial herb Lythrum salicaria along a latitudinal gradient from southern to northernmost Sweden. We documented intensity of herbivory and examined its effect on survival, growth and reproductive output over two years by experimentally removing herbivores with insecticide. The intensity of herbivory and the effects of herbivory on plant fitness were strongest in the southern population, intermediate in the central population and weakest in the northern population. The mean proportion of the leaf area removed ranged from 11% in the southern to 3% in the northern population. Herbivore removal increased plant height 1.5-fold in the southern and 1.2-fold in the central population, the proportion plants flowering 4-fold in the southern and 2-fold in the central population, and seed production per flower 1.6-fold in the southern and 1.2-fold in the central population, but did not affect plant fitness in the northern population. Herbivore removal thus affected the relative fecundity of plants in the three populations: In the control, seed output per plant was 8.6 times higher in the northern population compared to the southern population, whereas after herbivore removal it was 2.5 times higher in the southern population. The results demonstrate that native herbivores may strongly affect the demographic structure of L. salicaria populations and thereby shape geographic patterns of seed production. They further suggest that the strength of herbivore

  20. Thermal tolerance in the Andean toad Rhinella spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae) at three sites located along a latitudinal gradient in Chile.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Nicza Alveal; Díaz-Páez, Helen; Ortiz, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Rhinella spinulosa is one of the anuran species with the greatest presence in Chile. This species mainly inhabits mountain habitats and is distributed latitudinally along the western slope of the Andes Range. These habitats undergo great temperature fluctuations, exerting pressure on the amphibian. To identify the physiological strategies and thermal behavior of this species, we analyzed the temperature variables CTmin, CTmax, TTR, τheat, and τcool in individuals of three sites from a latitudinal gradient (22°S to 37°S). The amphibians were acclimated to 10°C and 20°C and fed ad libitum. The results indicate that the species has a high thermal tolerance range, with a mean of 38.14±1.34°C, a critical thermal maxima of 34.6-41.4°C, and a critical thermal minima of 2.6-0.8°C, classifying the species as eurythermic. Furthermore, there were significant differences in CTmáx and TTR only in the northern site. The differences in thermal time constants between sites are due to the effects of size and body mass. For example, those from the central site had larger size and greater thermal inertia; therefore, they warmed and cooled in a slower manner. The wide thermal limits determined in R. spinulosa confirm that it is a thermo-generalist species, a characteristic that allows the species to survive in adverse microclimatic conditions. The level of plasticity in critical temperatures seems ecologically relevant and supports the acclimatization of thermal limits as an important factor for ectothermic animals to adapt to climate change.

  1. Latitudinal gradients in abundance, and the causes of rarity in the tropics: a test using Australian honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae).

    PubMed

    Symonds, Matthew R E; Christidis, Les; Johnson, Christopher N

    2006-09-01

    Several studies have uncovered interspecific latitudinal gradients in abundance (population density) such that tropical species tend to be, on average, less abundant than species at higher latitudes. The causes of this relationship remain poorly studied, in contrast to the relative wealth of literature examining the relationship to latitude of other variables such as range size and body mass. We used a cross-species phylogenetic comparative approach and a spatial approach to examine three potential determining factors (distribution, reproductive output and climate) that might explain why abundance correlates with latitude, using data from 54 species of honeyeaters (Meliphagidae) in woodland environments in eastern Australia. There is a strong positive correlation between mean abundance and latitude in these birds. Reproductive output (clutch size) was positively linked to both abundance and latitude, but partial correlation analysis revealed that clutch size is not related to abundance once the effects of latitude are removed. A subsequent multiple regression model that also considered range size, clutch size and body mass showed that latitude is the only strong predictor of abundance in honeyeaters. In the separate spatial analysis, the climatic variables that we considered (temperature, rainfall and seasonality) were all strongly linked to latitude, but none served as a better predictor of abundance than latitude per se, either individually or collectively. The most intriguing result of our analyses was that the cross-species latitudinal pattern in abundance was not evident within species. This suggests an intrinsic cause of the pattern of 'rarity in the tropics' in Australian honeyeaters. We suggest that evolutionary age may provide a key to understanding patterns of abundance in these birds.

  2. The metabolic theory of ecology convincingly explains the latitudinal diversity gradient of neotropical freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Dayani; Cassemiro, Fernanda A S; Agostinho, Carlos S; Marques, Elineide E; Agostinho, Angelo A

    2014-02-01

    In the context of diversity gradients, the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) posits that the logarithm of species richness should decrease linearly with the inverse of temperature, resulting in a specific slope. However, the empirical validity of this model depends on whether the data do not violate certain assumptions. Here, we test the predictions of MTE evaluating all of its assumptions simultaneously. We used Neotropical freshwater fish and tested whether the logarithm of species richness varied negatively and linearly with temperature, resulting in the slope value specified by the MTE. As we observed that the assumption of the energetic equivalence of populations was not achieved, we also analyzed whether the energetic nonequivalence of populations could be responsible for the possible lack of fit to the MTE predictions. Our results showed that the relationship between richness and the inverse of temperature was linear, negative and significant and included the slope value predicted by the MTE. With respect to the assumptions, we observed that there was no spatial variation in the average energy flux of populations or in the body size and abundance of species. However, the energetic equivalence of populations was not achieved and the violation of this assumption did not affect the predictive power of the model. We conclude that the validity of the assumptions (spatial invariance in the average flux energy of populations and spatial invariance in the body size and abundance, especially) is required for the correct interpretation of richness patterns. Furthermore, we conclude that MTE is robust in its explanation of diversity gradients for freshwater fish, proving to be a valuable tool in describing ecological complexity from individuals to ecosystems.

  3. Inferred calcification rate of a Mediterranean azooxanthellate coral is uncoupled with sea surface temperature along an 8° latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Correlations between sea surface temperature (SST) and growth parameters of the solitary azooxanthellate Dendrophylliid Leptopsammia pruvoti were assessed along an 8° latitudinal gradient on western Italian coasts (Mediterranean Sea), to check for possible negative effects of increasing temperature as the ones reported for a closely related, sympatric but zooxanthellate species. Results Calcification rate was correlated with skeletal density but not with linear extension rate, indicating that calcium carbonate deposition was preferentially allocated to keep a constant skeletal density. Unlike most studies on both temperate and tropical zooxanthellate corals, where calcification rate is strongly related to environmental parameters such as SST, in the present study calcification rate was not correlated with SST. Conclusions The lower sensitivity of L. pruvoti to SST with respect to other sympatric zooxanthellate corals, such as Balanophyllia europaea, may rely on the absence of a temperature induced inhibition of photosynthesis, and thus the absence of an inhibition of the calcification process. This study is the first field investigation of the relationship between SST and the three growth parameters of an azooxanthellate coral. Increasing research effort on determining the effects of temperature on biological traits of the poorly studied azooxanthellate scleractinians may help to predict the possible species assemblage shifts that are likely to occur in the immediate future as a consequence of global climatic change. PMID:23163981

  4. Reproductive Efficiency of a Mediterranean Endemic Zooxanthellate Coral Decreases with Increasing Temperature along a Wide Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Airi, Valentina; Gizzi, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Levy, Oren; Dubinsky, Zvy; Goffredo, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Investments at the organismal level towards reproduction and growth are often used as indicators of health. Understanding how such energy allocation varies with environmental conditions may, therefore, aid in predicting possible responses to global climatic change in the near future. For example, variations in seawater temperature may alter the physiological functioning, behavior, reproductive output and demographic traits (e.g., productivity) of marine organisms, leading to shifts in the structure, spatial range, and abundance of populations. This study investigated variations in reproductive output associated with local seawater temperature along a wide latitudinal gradient on the western Italian coast, in the zooxanthellate Mediterranean coral, Balanophyllia europaea. Reproductive potential varied significantly among sites, where B. europaea individuals from the warmest site experienced loss of oocytes during gametogenesis. Most of the early oocytes from warmest sites did not reach maturity, possibly due to inhibition of metabolic processes at high temperatures, causing B. europaea to reabsorb the oocytes and utilize them as energy for other vital functions. In a progressively warming Mediterranean, the efficiency of the energy invested in reproduction could be considerably reduced in this species, thereby affecting vital processes. Given the projected increase in seawater temperature as a consequence of global climate change, the present study adds evidence to the threats posed by high temperatures to the survival of B. europaea in the next decades. PMID:24618568

  5. The Latitudinal Gradient of Rainfall, Mineralogy, Albedo and Magnetic Susceptibility in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E. R.; Balsam, W.; Schaaf, C.; Yang, X.; Zhang, Q.; Ji, J.; Rossman, G.; Garimella, S.; Oldfield, F.; Lyons, J. R.; Ellwood, B.; Hartman, H.; Hicks, E.; Mansot, J. L.; Cesaire, T.; Thomas, P.

    2008-12-01

    In order to investigate the effect of climate on soil and surface sediment properties we examined four transects around the Sahara Desert. The transects were located in Mali, Niger, Benin, Togo, Egypt and Morocco and, with the exception of Egypt, each crossed a significant climatological rainfall gradient. The Egyptian transect was designed to characterize one of the driest portions of the Sahara Desert. Our study included laboratory measurements of mineralogy (XRD), elemental composition (XRF), grain size, optical reflectance (lab), magnetic susceptibility (MS)and remanences. In addition, albedo was determined from the MODIS satellite imagery from space. Many of our laboratory measurements exhibited variations with the rainfall gradient. Iron oxides (hematite and goethite), kaolinite, Al2O3, and TiO2 increased with increasing rainfall whereas SiO2, illite, and grain size decreased with increasing rainfall. Both laboratory-determined reflectivity and satellite-determine albedo decreased as rainfall increased. In part, this decrease in reflectivity/albedo with increasing rainfall appears to be the result of hematite, the dominant coloring agent for the soil in this region and the origin of the 'red' Sahel. The physical interpretation of these results centers on rainfall as a long-term leaching agent of surface material, and the control of physical properties by specific mineralogy. SiO2 is highly reflective and iron oxides are strongly absorptive in the visible range. The solubility of SiO2 in rainwater is orders of magnitude larger than all the iron oxides, with hematite the least soluble. It has long been recognized that leaching by rainfall produces dark red laterite in the near-surface oxidizing environment, a prominent geological feature throughout the high rainfall belt of West Africa. Laterite beds represent simultaneous enrichments of all iron oxides and a reduction in SiO2 by leaching. In the Sahara desert where rainfall is minimal (<10 mm/yr), SiO2 is

  6. Climate dependence of feldspar weathering in shale soils along a latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dere, Ashlee L.; White, Timothy S.; April, Richard H.; Reynolds, Brian; Miller, Thomas E.; Knapp, Elizabeth P.; McKay, Larry D.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2013-12-01

    Although regolith, the mantle of physically, chemically, and biologically altered material overlying bedrock, covers much of Earth’s continents, the rates and mechanisms of regolith formation are not well quantified. Without this knowledge, predictions of the availability of soil to sustain Earth’s growing population are problematic. To quantify the influence of climate on regolith formation, a transect of study sites has been established on the same lithology - Silurian shale - along a climatic gradient in the northern hemisphere as part of the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, Pennsylvania, USA. The climate gradient is bounded by a cold/wet end member in Wales and a warm/wet end member in Puerto Rico; in between, mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) increase to the south through New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Tennessee and Alabama. The site in Puerto Rico does not lie on the same shale formation as the Appalachian sites but is similar in composition. Soils and rocks were sampled at geomorphologically similar ridgetop sites to compare and model shale weathering along the transect. Focusing on the low-concentration, non-nutrient element Na, we observe that the extent and depth of Na depletion is greater where mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP) are higher. Na depletion, a proxy for feldspar weathering, is the deepest reaction documented in the augerable soil profiles. This may therefore be the reaction that initiates the transformation of high bulk-density bedrock to regolith of low bulk density. Based on the shale chemistry along the transect, the time-integrated Na release rate (QNa) increases exponentially as a function of MAT and linearly with MAP. NY, the only site with shale-till parent material, is characterized by a QNa that is 18 times faster than PA, an observation which is attributed to the increased surface area of minerals due to grinding of the glacier and kinetically limited

  7. Relationships between growth, population dynamics, and environmental parameters in the solitary non-zooxanthellate scleractinian coral Caryophyllia inornata along a latitudinal gradient in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroselli, E.; Ricci, F.; Brambilla, V.; Mattioli, G.; Levy, O.; Falini, G.; Dubinsky, Z.; Goffredo, S.

    2016-06-01

    The ecology of scleractinian corals may be understood through comparisons between population demographic data and environmental parameters. Growth (growth constant and maximum size) and demographic parameters (population structure stability, instantaneous mortality rate, average age of individuals, percentage of immature individuals, age at maximum biomass, and average age of biomass) of the solitary, non-zooxanthellate, and temperate coral Caryophyllia inornata were investigated at six sites along an 8° latitudinal gradient of temperature and solar radiation (SR) on the western Italian coasts. Growth parameters were homogeneous among populations across the investigated latitudinal range. While demographic parameters were not correlated with depth temperature, populations were progressively less stable and showed a deficiency of young individuals with increasing SR, likely as a result of the lowered energetic resources due to reduced zooplankton availability. These results contrast with data from another Mediterranean non-zooxanthellate solitary coral, Leptopsammia pruvoti, investigated along the same gradient, which shows no correlation between population demography and temperature or SR.

  8. Red mangrove life history variables along latitudinal and anthropogenic stress gradients.

    PubMed

    Proffitt, C Edward; Travis, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Mangroves migrate northward in Florida and colonize marshes historically dominated by salt marsh species. In theory, this migration should be facilitated by greater numbers of propagules stemming from increased reproductive activity and greater genetic variability caused by outcrossing. We aimed to determine if stand reproduction and % outcrossing were affected by cold stress (stress increases with latitude), anthropogenic stress (human population density as a proxy), and years since a major hurricane. Further, we wished to determine if mutation rate varied with the stressors and if that affected stand reproduction. Both coasts of Florida from the southern Florida Keys to Tampa Bay on the Gulf of Mexico coast, and Merritt Island on the Atlantic coast. We conducted field surveys of frequency of reproducing trees (104,211 trees surveyed in 102 forested stands), incidence of trees showing albinism in propagules, and% outcrossing estimated from the ratio of albino:normal propagules. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test a conceptual model that served as a multivariate hypothesis. Reproductive frequencies varied by site and increased with latitude although more strongly on the Gulf coast. Our SEM results indicate that outcrossing increases in this predominately selfing species under conditions of cold and anthropogenic stress, and that this increases reproductive output in the population. Further, we find that increased mutation rates suppress stand reproductive output but there is no significant relationship between outcrossing and mutation rate. Tree size responded to stressors but did not affect stand reproduction. Reproduction increased with years since major hurricane. Potential for colonization of northern Florida salt marshes by mangroves is enhanced by increased reproductive rates that provides more propagules and outcrossing that should enhance genetic variation thereby promoting adaptation to novel environmental conditions. Natural (cold) stress

  9. Red mangrove life history variables along latitudinal and anthropogenic stress gradients

    PubMed Central

    Proffitt, C Edward; Travis, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves migrate northward in Florida and colonize marshes historically dominated by salt marsh species. In theory, this migration should be facilitated by greater numbers of propagules stemming from increased reproductive activity and greater genetic variability caused by outcrossing. We aimed to determine if stand reproduction and % outcrossing were affected by cold stress (stress increases with latitude), anthropogenic stress (human population density as a proxy), and years since a major hurricane. Further, we wished to determine if mutation rate varied with the stressors and if that affected stand reproduction. Both coasts of Florida from the southern Florida Keys to Tampa Bay on the Gulf of Mexico coast, and Merritt Island on the Atlantic coast. We conducted field surveys of frequency of reproducing trees (104,211 trees surveyed in 102 forested stands), incidence of trees showing albinism in propagules, and% outcrossing estimated from the ratio of albino:normal propagules. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test a conceptual model that served as a multivariate hypothesis. Reproductive frequencies varied by site and increased with latitude although more strongly on the Gulf coast. Our SEM results indicate that outcrossing increases in this predominately selfing species under conditions of cold and anthropogenic stress, and that this increases reproductive output in the population. Further, we find that increased mutation rates suppress stand reproductive output but there is no significant relationship between outcrossing and mutation rate. Tree size responded to stressors but did not affect stand reproduction. Reproduction increased with years since major hurricane. Potential for colonization of northern Florida salt marshes by mangroves is enhanced by increased reproductive rates that provides more propagules and outcrossing that should enhance genetic variation thereby promoting adaptation to novel environmental conditions. Natural (cold) stress

  10. Bacterial Community Responses to Soils along a Latitudinal and Vegetation Gradient on the Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Quanchao; Dong, Yanghong; An, Shaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacterial communities play an important role in nutrient recycling and storage in terrestrial ecosystems. Loess soils are one of the most important soil resources for maintaining the stability of vegetation ecosystems and are mainly distributed in northwest China. Estimating the distributions and affecting factors of soil bacterial communities associated with various types of vegetation will inform our understanding of the effect of vegetation restoration and climate change on these processes. In this study, we collected soil samples from 15 sites from north to south on the Loess Plateau of China that represent different ecosystem types and analyzed the distributions of soil bacterial communities by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. The results showed that the 142444 sequences were grouped into 36816 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. The results of the analysis showed that the dominant taxonomic phyla observed in all samples were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the two most abundant groups in all samples. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased from 14.73% to 40.22% as the ecosystem changed from forest to sandy, while the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased from 35.35% to 21.40%. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria had significant correlations with mean annual precipitation (MAP), pH, and soil moisture and nutrients. MAP was significantly correlated with soil chemical and physical properties. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes correlated significantly with MAP, suggesting that MAP was a key factor that affected the soil bacterial community composition. However, along with the MAP gradient, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria had narrow ranges that did not significantly vary with the soil and environmental factors. Overall, we conclude that the edaphic properties and/or vegetation

  11. Abundance, diversity, and latitudinal gradients of southeastern Atlantic and Antarctic abyssal gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrödl, M.; Bohn, J. M.; Brenke, N.; Rolán, E.; Schwabe, E.

    2011-03-01

    Mollusca are widely used for deriving concepts on deep-sea biology and biodiversity, yet abyssal collections are limited to only a few regions of the world ocean and biased toward the northern Atlantic. The present study compares gastropod molluscs sampled along a transect through the southern Atlantic from the equator to Antarctica. The DIVA I and II expeditions concentrated on the hardly explored Guinea, Angola, and Cape Basins. Of the 145 deep-sea deployments (5025-5656 m depth) analyzed to date, 20 have yielded 68 specimens of benthic gastropods, representing 27 species. Only five abyssal species were previously known, four of them from the northern Atlantic deep sea; the remainder appear to be undescribed. Interestingly, there is no faunal overlap with the nearby Antarctic deep-sea. Most of these DIVA species (63%) are represented by single individuals, or limited to one or two stations. The rarity (i.e. 0.55 specimens m -2 calculated from quantitative corers) and still undetectable patchiness of southeastern Atlantic abyssal gastropods may indicate "source-sink" dynamics, but comparison is needed with thus far hardly explored regional bathyal faunas. The BRENKE-epibenthic sledge (EBS) may be efficient at surveying the abyssal gastropod species richness, but is shown to drastically underestimate true abundances. Low diversity values throughout the three southern Atlantic ocean basins do further challenge earlier estimates of a hyperdiverse global abyssal macrofauna. Comparative EBS data available from the southern hemisphere indicate a gradient from the equatorial Guinea Basin towards higher gastropod abundances and diversity in Antarctica. This is in clear contrast to the paradigm of a globally strongly decreasing marine diversity from lower to higher latitudes, highlighting the importance of further exploring the southern fauna from the tropics to Antarctica.

  12. Bacterial Community Responses to Soils along a Latitudinal and Vegetation Gradient on the Loess Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Quanchao; Dong, Yanghong; An, Shaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacterial communities play an important role in nutrient recycling and storage in terrestrial ecosystems. Loess soils are one of the most important soil resources for maintaining the stability of vegetation ecosystems and are mainly distributed in northwest China. Estimating the distributions and affecting factors of soil bacterial communities associated with various types of vegetation will inform our understanding of the effect of vegetation restoration and climate change on these processes. In this study, we collected soil samples from 15 sites from north to south on the Loess Plateau of China that represent different ecosystem types and analyzed the distributions of soil bacterial communities by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. The results showed that the 142444 sequences were grouped into 36816 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. The results of the analysis showed that the dominant taxonomic phyla observed in all samples were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the two most abundant groups in all samples. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased from 14.73% to 40.22% as the ecosystem changed from forest to sandy, while the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased from 35.35% to 21.40%. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria had significant correlations with mean annual precipitation (MAP), pH, and soil moisture and nutrients. MAP was significantly correlated with soil chemical and physical properties. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes correlated significantly with MAP, suggesting that MAP was a key factor that affected the soil bacterial community composition. However, along with the MAP gradient, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria had narrow ranges that did not significantly vary with the soil and environmental factors. Overall, we conclude that the edaphic properties and/or vegetation

  13. Effect of temperature and host tree on cold hardiness of hemlock looper eggs along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Rochefort, Sophie; Berthiaume, Richard; Hébert, Christian; Charest, Martin; Bauce, Eric

    2011-06-01

    The hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria, is an economically important insect pest of Canadian forests which overwinters as eggs. Although the hemlock looper causes extensive damages, no information on the mechanisms related to its cold tolerance is known. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of temperature and exposure duration on hemlock looper winter survival but also to identify seasonal supercooling capacity and cryoprotectant levels of three populations along a latitudinal gradient. As host plant may contribute to offspring overwintering success, cold tolerance of hemlock looper eggs from parents whose larvae were fed on three different tree species was also measured. Mean supercooling point (SCP) of hemlock looper eggs was lower than -30 °C from October through the following spring with values being as low as -47 °C in February. Trehalose was the most abundant sugar found in hemlock looper eggs with a peak concentration of 0.3 μg mg⁻¹ DW⁻¹. Glycerol, a polyol, was more often absent in eggs of the different populations and tree species tested in the study. When exposed to different temperature regimes for various periods of time, significant mortality of hemlock looper eggs occurred at higher temperatures than the mean SCP. Thus, hemlock looper could be considered as a chill tolerant species. No clear pattern of population and host plant effects on SCP and cryoprotectants was detected in this study. However, when exposed to different winter temperatures and exposure duration, hemlock looper from higher latitudes survived better (survival rates ranging between 0 and 89% at -20 °C) than those from lower latitudes (survival rates ranging between 0 and 56% at -20 °C). Our results may contribute to a better understanding of hemlock looper winter biology and thus facilitate predictions of outbreaks and range expansion.

  14. Spatial Analyses of Benthic Habitats to Define Coral Reef Ecosystem Regions and Potential Biogeographic Boundaries along a Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Marine organism diversity typically attenuates latitudinally from tropical to colder climate regimes. Since the distribution of many marine species relates to certain habitats and depth regimes, mapping data provide valuable information in the absence of detailed ecological data that can be used to identify and spatially quantify smaller scale (10 s km) coral reef ecosystem regions and potential physical biogeographic barriers. This study focused on the southeast Florida coast due to a recognized, but understudied, tropical to subtropical biogeographic gradient. GIS spatial analyses were conducted on recent, accurate, shallow-water (0–30 m) benthic habitat maps to identify and quantify specific regions along the coast that were statistically distinct in the number and amount of major benthic habitat types. Habitat type and width were measured for 209 evenly-spaced cross-shelf transects. Evaluation of groupings from a cluster analysis at 75% similarity yielded five distinct regions. The number of benthic habitats and their area, width, distance from shore, distance from each other, and LIDAR depths were calculated in GIS and examined to determine regional statistical differences. The number of benthic habitats decreased with increasing latitude from 9 in the south to 4 in the north and many of the habitat metrics statistically differed between regions. Three potential biogeographic barriers were found at the Boca, Hillsboro, and Biscayne boundaries, where specific shallow-water habitats were absent further north; Middle Reef, Inner Reef, and oceanic seagrass beds respectively. The Bahamas Fault Zone boundary was also noted where changes in coastal morphologies occurred that could relate to subtle ecological changes. The analyses defined regions on a smaller scale more appropriate to regional management decisions, hence strengthening marine conservation planning with an objective, scientific foundation for decision making. They provide a framework for similar

  15. Bud phenology and growth are subject to divergent selection across a latitudinal gradient in Populus angustifolia and impact adaptation across the distributional range and associated arthropods.

    PubMed

    Evans, Luke M; Kaluthota, Sobadini; Pearce, David W; Allan, Gerard J; Floate, Kevin; Rood, Stewart B; Whitham, Thomas G

    2016-07-01

    Temperate forest tree species that span large geographical areas and climatic gradients often have high levels of genetic variation. Such species are ideal for testing how neutral demographic factors and climate-driven selection structure genetic variation within species, and how this genetic variation can affect ecological communities. Here, we quantified genetic variation in vegetative phenology and growth traits in narrowleaf cottonwood, Populus angustifolia, using three common gardens planted with genotypes originating from source populations spanning the species' range along the Rocky Mountains of North America (ca. 1700 km). We present three main findings. First, we found strong evidence of divergent selection (Q ST > F ST) on fall phenology (bud set) with adaptive consequences for frost avoidance. We also found evidence for selection on bud flush duration, tree height, and basal diameter, resulting in population differentiation. Second, we found strong associations with climate variables that were strongly correlated with latitude of origin. More strongly differentiated traits also showed stronger climate correlations, which emphasizes the role that climate has played in divergent selection throughout the range. We found population × garden interaction effects; for some traits, this accounted for more of the variance than either factor alone. Tree height was influenced by the difference in climate of the source and garden locations and declined with increasing transfer distance. Third, growth traits were correlated with dependent arthropod community diversity metrics. Synthesis. Overall, we conclude that climate has influenced genetic variation and structure in phenology and growth traits and leads to local adaptation in P. angustifolia, which can then impact dependent arthropod species. Importantly, relocation of genotypes far northward or southward often resulted in poor growth, likely due to a phenological mismatch with photoperiod, the proximate

  16. Phylogenetic support for the Tropical Niche Conservatism Hypothesis despite the absence of a clear latitudinal species richness gradient in Yunnan's woody flora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, G.; Zhang, M. G.; Liu, C.; Zhou, Z.; Chen, W.; Slik, J. W. F.

    2014-05-01

    The Tropical Niche Conservatism Hypothesis (TCH) tries to explain the generally observed latitudinal gradient of increasing species diversity towards the tropics. To date, few studies have used phylogenetic approaches to assess its validity, even though such methods are especially suited to detect changes in niche structure. We test the TCH using modeled distributions of 1898 woody species in Yunnan Province (southwest China) in combination with a family level phylogeny. Unlike predicted, species richness and phylogenetic diversity did not show a latitudinal gradient, but identified two high diversity zones, one in Northwest and one in South Yunnan. Despite this, the underlying residual phylogenetic diversity showed a clear decline away from the tropics, while the species composition became progressingly more phylogenetically clustered towards the North. These latitudinal changes were strongly associated with more extreme temperature variability and declining precipitation and soil water availability, especially during the dry season. Our results suggests that the climatically more extreme conditions outside the tropics require adaptations for successful colonization, most likely related to the plant hydraulic system, that have been acquired by only a limited number of phylogenetically closely related plant lineages. We emphasize the importance of phylogenetic approaches for testing the TCH.

  17. Chill coma temperatures appear similar along a latitudinal gradient, in contrast to divergent chill coma recovery times, in two widespread ant species.

    PubMed

    Maysov, Andrey

    2014-08-01

    Populations of widely distributed ectotherms demonstrate different cold resistance corresponding to the local climate. However, efficiently thermoregulating ectotherms could avoid divergence in cold resistance. Two species of ants, previously shown to even out latitudinal differences of mean summer temperatures in their nests, were used to test this hypothesis by comparing the temperature dependence of cold resistance in three distant populations (from 50°, 60° and 67°N). The species differ in habitat preferences, one (Myrmica rubra) being less stenotopic than the other (M. ruginodis). Therefore, three different predictions were made about their cold resistance: along the latitudinal gradient, it might be similar within the two species (because of thermoregulation within nests/habitats) or similar only in M. rubra (as a result of thermoregulation among habitats), or divergent at least in M. rubra (no effect of thermoregulation). Among populations of both species, neither differences nor latitudinal trends in chill coma temperature were statistically significant after 11 months of standard conditions, with or without cold hardening. In contrast, recovery time significantly differed among populations in both species, although its latitudinal trends were strongly curvilinear: in M. rubra, the intermediate population tended towards the slowest recovery, and in M. ruginodis, it tended towards the fastest. After 22 months, the patterns remained the same, except that M. ruginodis showed a significant linear latitudinal trend in chill coma temperature (with no significant populational differences). Hence, thermoregulation, both within and among habitats, apparently does keep chill coma temperatures similar. Recovery rate demonstrates divergence, but its curvilinear trends suggest a connection with climates experienced by ancestral populations.

  18. Comparison of genetic algorithms with conjugate gradient methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, J. L.; Foo, N. Y.; Zeigler, B. P.

    1972-01-01

    Genetic algorithms for mathematical function optimization are modeled on search strategies employed in natural adaptation. Comparisons of genetic algorithms with conjugate gradient methods, which were made on an IBM 1800 digital computer, show that genetic algorithms display superior performance over gradient methods for functions which are poorly behaved mathematically, for multimodal functions, and for functions obscured by additive random noise. Genetic methods offer performance comparable to gradient methods for many of the standard functions.

  19. Environmental rather than spatial factors structure bacterioplankton communities in shallow lakes along a > 6000 km latitudinal gradient in South America.

    PubMed

    Souffreau, Caroline; Van der Gucht, Katleen; van Gremberghe, Ineke; Kosten, Sarian; Lacerot, Gissell; Lobão, Lúcia Meirelles; de Moraes Huszar, Vera Lúcia; Roland, Fabio; Jeppesen, Erik; Vyverman, Wim; De Meester, Luc

    2015-07-01

    Metacommunity studies on lake bacterioplankton indicate the importance of environmental factors in structuring communities. Yet most of these studies cover relatively small spatial scales. We assessed the relative importance of environmental and spatial factors in shaping bacterioplankton communities across a > 6000 km latitudinal range, studying 48 shallow lowland lakes in the tropical, tropicali (isothermal subzone of the tropics) and tundra climate regions of South America using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) differed significantly across regions. Although a large fraction of the variation in BCC remained unexplained, the results supported a consistent significant contribution of local environmental variables and to a lesser extent spatial variables, irrespective of spatial scale. Upon correction for space, mainly biotic environmental factors significantly explained the variation in BCC. The abundance of pelagic cladocerans remained particularly significant, suggesting grazer effects on bacterioplankton communities in the studied lakes. These results confirm that bacterioplankton communities are predominantly structured by environmental factors, even over a large-scale latitudinal gradient (6026 km), and stress the importance of including biotic variables in studies that aim to understand patterns in BCC.

  20. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmoshin; Hohn, Sönke; Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wahl, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.

  1. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming.

    PubMed

    Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmoshin; Hohn, Sönke; Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Voolstra, Christian R; Wahl, Martin

    2015-03-10

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.

  2. Broad-scale latitudinal patterns of genetic diversity among native European and introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations.

    PubMed

    Schrey, A W; Grispo, M; Awad, M; Cook, M B; McCoy, E D; Mushinsky, H R; Albayrak, T; Bensch, S; Burke, T; Butler, L K; Dor, R; Fokidis, H B; Jensen, H; Imboma, T; Kessler-Rios, M M; Marzal, A; Stewart, I R K; Westerdahl, H; Westneat, D F; Zehtindjiev, P; Martin, L B

    2011-03-01

    Introduced species offer unique opportunities to study evolution in new environments, and some provide opportunities for understanding the mechanisms underlying macroecological patterns. We sought to determine how introduction history impacted genetic diversity and differentiation of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), one of the most broadly distributed bird species. We screened eight microsatellite loci in 316 individuals from 16 locations in the native and introduced ranges. Significant population structure occurred between native than introduced house sparrows. Introduced house sparrows were distinguished into one North American group and a highly differentiated Kenyan group. Genetic differentiation estimates identified a high magnitude of differentiation between Kenya and all other populations, but demonstrated that European and North American samples were differentiated too. Our results support previous claims that introduced North American populations likely had few source populations, and indicate house sparrows established populations after introduction. Genetic diversity also differed among native, introduced North American, and Kenyan populations with Kenyan birds being least diverse. In some cases, house sparrow populations appeared to maintain or recover genetic diversity relatively rapidly after range expansion (<50 years; Mexico and Panama), but in others (Kenya) the effect of introduction persisted over the same period. In both native and introduced populations, genetic diversity exhibited large-scale geographic patterns, increasing towards the equator. Such patterns of genetic diversity are concordant with two previously described models of genetic diversity, the latitudinal model and the species diversity model.

  3. Out of the tropics, but how? Fossils, bridge species, and thermal ranges in the dynamics of the marine latitudinal diversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, David; Belanger, Christina L; Berke, Sarah K; Huang, Shan; Krug, Andrew Z; Roy, Kaustuv; Tomasovych, Adam; Valentine, James W

    2013-06-25

    Latitudinal diversity gradients are underlain by complex combinations of origination, extinction, and shifts in geographic distribution and therefore are best analyzed by integrating paleontological and neontological data. The fossil record of marine bivalves shows, in three successive late Cenozoic time slices, that most clades (operationally here, genera) tend to originate in the tropics and then expand out of the tropics (OTT) to higher latitudes while retaining their tropical presence. This OTT pattern is robust both to assumptions on the preservation potential of taxa and to taxonomic revisions of extant and fossil species. Range expansion of clades may occur via "bridge species," which violate climate-niche conservatism to bridge the tropical-temperate boundary in most OTT genera. Substantial time lags (∼5 Myr) between the origins of tropical clades and their entry into the temperate zone suggest that OTT events are rare on a per-clade basis. Clades with higher diversification rates within the tropics are the most likely to expand OTT and the most likely to produce multiple bridge species, suggesting that high speciation rates promote the OTT dynamic. Although expansion of thermal tolerances is key to the OTT dynamic, most latitudinally widespread species instead achieve their broad ranges by tracking widespread, spatially-uniform temperatures within the tropics (yielding, via the nonlinear relation between temperature and latitude, a pattern opposite to Rapoport's rule). This decoupling of range size and temperature tolerance may also explain the differing roles of species and clade ranges in buffering species from background and mass extinctions.

  4. [Distribution of the genetic diversity of the Siberian stone pine, Pinus sibirica Du Tour, along the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles].

    PubMed

    Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N; Belokon', M M; Belokon', Iu S; Politov, D V

    2014-05-01

    The Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) is one of the main forest-forming coniferous species of the boreal ecosystems of Western Siberia. We used the isozyme method to analyze 11 ecotypes representing the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles within the species range, including samples from the geographic boundaries of the distribution. The genetic structure of the ecotypes is described on the basis of the variability for 26 isozyme loci encoding for 16 enzyme systems. The greatest genetic diversity was observed in the taiga ecotypes in the central part of the studied area, while the ecotypes along the species range boundaries were shown to be genetically depauperized. Approximately 8.1% of the observed genetic diversity is attributed to differences between the studied ecotypes. We detected high levels of genetic diversity for the Fest_2, Pgm_1, Sod_4, and a few otherloci, as well as a correlation between allele frequencies and geographical locations of the populations. The results of multivariate analysis of allelic frequencies as well as cluster analysis allowed us to discriminate three major groups of ecotypes: north-eastern, central and south-western. In view of our results, we compare two hypotheses: one which attributes the spatial distribution of genetic variations to the selectivity for some of the polymorphic allozyme loci, and the other based in the history of the formation of the range of the Siberian stone pine.

  5. Out of the tropics, but how? Fossils, bridge species, and thermal ranges in the dynamics of the marine latitudinal diversity gradient

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, David; Belanger, Christina L.; Berke, Sarah K.; Huang, Shan; Krug, Andrew Z.; Roy, Kaustuv; Tomasovych, Adam; Valentine, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Latitudinal diversity gradients are underlain by complex combinations of origination, extinction, and shifts in geographic distribution and therefore are best analyzed by integrating paleontological and neontological data. The fossil record of marine bivalves shows, in three successive late Cenozoic time slices, that most clades (operationally here, genera) tend to originate in the tropics and then expand out of the tropics (OTT) to higher latitudes while retaining their tropical presence. This OTT pattern is robust both to assumptions on the preservation potential of taxa and to taxonomic revisions of extant and fossil species. Range expansion of clades may occur via “bridge species,” which violate climate-niche conservatism to bridge the tropical-temperate boundary in most OTT genera. Substantial time lags (∼5 Myr) between the origins of tropical clades and their entry into the temperate zone suggest that OTT events are rare on a per-clade basis. Clades with higher diversification rates within the tropics are the most likely to expand OTT and the most likely to produce multiple bridge species, suggesting that high speciation rates promote the OTT dynamic. Although expansion of thermal tolerances is key to the OTT dynamic, most latitudinally widespread species instead achieve their broad ranges by tracking widespread, spatially-uniform temperatures within the tropics (yielding, via the nonlinear relation between temperature and latitude, a pattern opposite to Rapoport’s rule). This decoupling of range size and temperature tolerance may also explain the differing roles of species and clade ranges in buffering species from background and mass extinctions. PMID:23759748

  6. An ensemble average method to estimate absolute TEC using radio beacon-based differential phase measurements: Applicability to regions of large latitudinal gradients in plasma density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampi, Smitha V.; Bagiya, Mala S.; Chakrabarty, D.; Acharya, Y. B.; Yamamoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    A GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) system for total electron content (TEC) measurements using 150 and 400 MHz transmissions from Low-Earth Orbiting Satellites (LEOS) is fabricated in house and made operational at Ahmedabad (23.04°N, 72.54°E geographic, dip latitude 17°N) since May 2013. This system receives the 150 and 400 MHz transmissions from high-inclination LEOS. The first few days of observations are presented in this work to bring out the efficacy of an ensemble average method to convert the relative TECs to absolute TECs. This method is a modified version of the differential Doppler-based method proposed by de Mendonca (1962) and suitable even for ionospheric regions with large spatial gradients. Comparison of TECs derived from a collocated GPS receiver shows that the absolute TECs estimated by this method are reliable estimates over regions with large spatial gradient. This method is useful even when only one receiving station is available. The differences between these observations are discussed to bring out the importance of the spatial differences between the ionospheric pierce points of these satellites. A few examples of the latitudinal variation of TEC during different local times using GRBR measurements are also presented, which demonstrates the potential of radio beacon measurements in capturing the large-scale plasma transport processes in the low-latitude ionosphere.

  7. Analysis of seasonal ozone budget and spring ozone latitudinal gradient variation in the boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xuewei; Zhu, Bin; Kang, Hanqing; Gao, Jinhui

    2014-09-01

    The ozone (O3) budget in the boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region (AP) was studied from 2001 to 2007 using the output of Model of Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). The model-simulated O3 data agree well with observed values. O3 budget analysis using the model output confirms that the dominant factor controlling seasonal variation of O3 differs by region. Photochemistry was found to play a critical role over Japan, the Korean Peninsula and Eastern China. Over the northwestern Pacific Ocean, advective flux was found to drive the seasonal variation of O3 concentrations. The large latitudinal gradient in O3 with a maximum of 52 ppbv over the marine boundary layer around 35°N during the spring was mainly due to chemistry; meanwhile, advection was found to weaken the gradient. The contribution of stratospheric O3 was ranked second (20%) to the local contribution (25%) in Japan and the Korean Peninsula near 35°N. The rate of O3 export from China's boundary layer was the highest (approximately 30%) in low latitudes and decreased with increasing latitude, while the contribution of North America and Europe increased with increasing latitude, from 10% in lower latitudes to 24% in higher latitudes.

  8. Osmolality and Non-Structural Carbohydrate Composition in the Secondary Phloem of Trees across a Latitudinal Gradient in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; von Arx, Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C.; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L.; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L.; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter

  9. Ecological Diversity in South American Mammals: Their Geographical Distribution Shows Variable Associations with Phylogenetic Diversity and Does Not Follow the Latitudinal Richness Gradient.

    PubMed

    Fergnani, Paula Nilda; Ruggiero, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which the latitudinal gradient in species richness may be paralleled by a similar gradient of increasing functional or phylogenetic diversity is a matter of controversy. We evaluated whether taxonomic richness (TR) is informative in terms of ecological diversity (ED, an approximation to functional diversity) and phylogenetic diversity (AvPD) using data on 531 mammal species representing South American old autochthonous (marsupials, xenarthrans), mid-Cenozoic immigrants (hystricognaths, primates) and newcomers (carnivorans, artiodactyls). If closely related species are ecologically more similar than distantly related species, AvPD will be a strong predictor of ED; however, lower ED than predicted from AvPD may be due to species retaining most of their ancestral characters, suggesting niche conservatism. This pattern could occur in tropical rainforests for taxa of tropical affinity (old autochthonous and mid-Cenozoic immigrants) and in open and arid habitats for newcomers. In contrast, higher ED than expected from AvPD could occur, possibly in association with niche evolution, in arid and open habitats for taxa of tropical affinity and in forested habitats for newcomers. We found that TR was a poor predictor of ED and AvPD. After controlling for TR, there was considerable variability in the extent to which AvPD accounted for ED. Taxa of tropical affinity did not support the prediction of ED deficit within tropical rainforests, rather, they showed a mosaic of regions with an excess of ED interspersed with zones of ED deficit within the tropics; newcomers showed ED deficit in arid and open regions. Some taxa of tropical affinity showed excess of ED in tropical desert areas (hystricognaths) or temperate semideserts (xenarthrans); newcomers showed excess of ED at cold-temperate latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. This result suggests that extreme climatic conditions at both temperate and tropical latitudes may have promoted niche evolution in mammals.

  10. Latitudinal Gradients in the Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes of Tree-Ring Cellulose Reveal Differential Climate Influences of the North American Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szejner, P.; Wright, W. E.; Babst, F.; Belmecheri, S.; Trouet, V.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Leavitt, S. W.; Monson, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Summer rainfall plays an important role sustaining different types of ecosystems in the Southwestern US. The arrival of the monsoon breaks the early summer hyper-arid period in the region providing unique seasonal conditions for these ecosystems to thrive. It is unknown to what extent monsoon rainfall is used by Ponderosa pine forests, which occupy many mountain ecosystems in the Western US. While these forests clearly rely on winter snowpack to drive much of their annual net primary productivity, the extent to which they supplement winter moisture, with summer monsoon moisture needs to be clarified. It is likely that there are north-south gradients in the degree to which forests rely on monsoon moisture, as the summer monsoon system tends to become diminished as it moves progressively northward. We addressed these gaps in our knowledge about the monsoon by studying stable Carbon and Oxygen isotopes in earlywood and latewood α-cellulose from cores taken from trees in eleven sites along a latitudinal gradient extending from Southern Arizona and New Mexico toward Utah. Here we show evidence that Ponderosa pine trees from most of these sites use monsoon water to support growth during the late summer, and the fractional use of monsoon precipitation is strongest in the southernmost sites. This study provides new physiological evidence on the influence of the North American monsoon and winter precipitation on tree growth in montane ecosystems of the Western US. Using these results, we predict differences in the susceptibility of southern and northern montane forests to future climate change. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This work was funded by an NSF Macrosystems Grant #1065790

  11. Ecological Diversity in South American Mammals: Their Geographical Distribution Shows Variable Associations with Phylogenetic Diversity and Does Not Follow the Latitudinal Richness Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Fergnani, Paula Nilda; Ruggiero, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which the latitudinal gradient in species richness may be paralleled by a similar gradient of increasing functional or phylogenetic diversity is a matter of controversy. We evaluated whether taxonomic richness (TR) is informative in terms of ecological diversity (ED, an approximation to functional diversity) and phylogenetic diversity (AvPD) using data on 531 mammal species representing South American old autochthonous (marsupials, xenarthrans), mid-Cenozoic immigrants (hystricognaths, primates) and newcomers (carnivorans, artiodactyls). If closely related species are ecologically more similar than distantly related species, AvPD will be a strong predictor of ED; however, lower ED than predicted from AvPD may be due to species retaining most of their ancestral characters, suggesting niche conservatism. This pattern could occur in tropical rainforests for taxa of tropical affinity (old autochthonous and mid-Cenozoic immigrants) and in open and arid habitats for newcomers. In contrast, higher ED than expected from AvPD could occur, possibly in association with niche evolution, in arid and open habitats for taxa of tropical affinity and in forested habitats for newcomers. We found that TR was a poor predictor of ED and AvPD. After controlling for TR, there was considerable variability in the extent to which AvPD accounted for ED. Taxa of tropical affinity did not support the prediction of ED deficit within tropical rainforests, rather, they showed a mosaic of regions with an excess of ED interspersed with zones of ED deficit within the tropics; newcomers showed ED deficit in arid and open regions. Some taxa of tropical affinity showed excess of ED in tropical desert areas (hystricognaths) or temperate semideserts (xenarthrans); newcomers showed excess of ED at cold-temperate latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. This result suggests that extreme climatic conditions at both temperate and tropical latitudes may have promoted niche evolution in mammals

  12. Prescribed-burning vs. wildfire: management implications for annual carbon emissions along a latitudinal gradient of Calluna vulgaris-dominated vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, V. M.; Alday, J. G.; Lee, H.; Allen, K. A.; Marrs, R. H.

    2015-11-01

    A~present challenge in fire ecology is to optimize management techniques so that ecological services are maximized and C emissions minimized. Here, we model the effects of different prescribed-burning rotation intervals and wildfires on carbon emissions (present and future) in British moorlands. Biomass-accumulation curves from four Calluna-dominated ecosystems along a north-south, climatic gradient in Great Britain were calculated and used within a matrix-model based on Markov Chains to calculate above-ground biomass-loads, and annual C losses under different prescribed-burning rotation intervals. Additionally, we assessed the interaction of these parameters with an increasing wildfire return interval. We observed that litter accumulation patterns varied along the latitudinal gradient, with differences between northern (colder and wetter) and southern sites (hotter and drier). The accumulation patterns of the living vegetation dominated by Calluna were determined by site-specific conditions. The optimal prescribed-burning rotation interval for minimizing annual carbon losses also differed between sites: the rotation interval for northern sites was between 30 and 50 years, whereas for southern sites a hump-backed relationship was found with the optimal interval either between 8 to 10 years or between 30 to 50 years. Increasing wildfire frequency interacted with prescribed-burning rotation intervals by both increasing C emissions and modifying the optimum prescribed-burning interval for C minimum emission. This highlights the importance of studying site-specific biomass accumulation patterns with respect to environmental conditions for identifying suitable fire-rotation intervals to minimize C losses.

  13. Use of a latitudinal gradient in bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) production to examine physiological controls of biotic boundaries and potential responses to environment change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.A.; McKee, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: Predictions of vegetation change with global warming require models that accurately reflect physiological processes underlying growth limitations and species distributions. However, information about environmental controls on physiology and consequent effects on species boundaries and ecosystem functions such as production is limited, especially for forested wetlands that are potentially important carbon sinks. Location: The bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) region of the south-eastern United States was studied to examine how production of an important forested wetland varies with latitude and temperature as well as local hydrology. Methods: We used published data to analyse litter production across a latitudinal gradient from 26.2 to 37.8?? N to determine how bald cypress swamps might respond to alternate climate conditions and what changes might occur throughout the distributional range. Results: Litterfall rates followed a bell shaped curve, indicating that production was more limited at the distributional boundaries (c. 225 g/m2 year-1) compared to the mid-range (795-1126 g/m2 year-1). This pattern suggests that conditions are sub-optimal near both boundaries and that the absence of populations outside this latitudinal range may be largely due to physiological constraints on the carbon balance of dominant species. While dispersal limitations cannot be totally discounted, competition with other wetland types at the extremes of the range does not seem likely to be important because the relative basal area of bald cypress does not decrease near the edges of the range. Impaired hydrology depressed production across the entire range, but more in the south than the north. Main conclusions: Our findings suggest that (1) physiological limitations constrain biotic boundaries of bald cypress swamps; (2) future changes in global temperature would affect litter production in a nonlinear manner across the distributional range; (3) local changes in hydrology may

  14. Baseline corticosterone and stress response in the Thorn-tailed Rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda) along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Quirici, Verónica; Venegas, Cristóbal I; González-Gómez, Paulina L; Castaño-Villa, Gabriel J; Wingfield, John C; Vásquez, Rodrigo A

    2014-03-01

    Glucocorticoids are essential for life and their secretion is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). The HPA axis is often divided into two components: baseline glucocorticoids levels and stress response glucocorticoids levels, which are affected by changes in ambient temperature and productivity among others factors. An approximation to evaluate how a species copes with these changes is to evaluate differences of this hormone amongst populations of the same species that inhabit places ideally presenting all the possible combinations of temperature and productivity. We aimed to evaluate whether environmental temperature or productivity, represent challenges in terms of stress in the Thorn-tailed Rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda). We examined circulating baseline levels of CORT and stress responses from three populations, covering the whole geographic distribution of the species across large gradients in weather conditions. If low temperature influences baseline CORT levels, we expect higher levels of this hormone in the southernmost population (higher latitude). However, if productivity is the factor that influences baseline CORT levels, we expect the contrary pattern, that is, lower values of this hormone in the southernmost population (more productive environment). We observed that baseline CORT levels presented lower values in the southernmost population, supporting the environmental productivity hypothesis. Secondly, we tested the hypothesis that individuals breeding at higher latitudes should have a lower stress response than individuals breeding at lower latitudes. Contrary to our expectations, we found that stress response did not vary among populations in any of the three years. We concluded that low environmental temperatures did not represent a stress situation for the Thorn-tailed Rayadito if food abundance was sufficient to support energetic demands.

  15. Seasonality, weather and climate affect home range size in roe deer across a wide latitudinal gradient within Europe.

    PubMed

    Morellet, Nicolas; Bonenfant, Christophe; Börger, Luca; Ossi, Federico; Cagnacci, Francesca; Heurich, Marco; Kjellander, Petter; Linnell, John D C; Nicoloso, Sandro; Sustr, Pavel; Urbano, Ferdinando; Mysterud, Atle

    2013-11-01

    1. Because many large mammal species have wide geographical ranges, spatially distant populations may be confronted with different sets of environmental conditions. Investigating how home range (HR) size varies across environmental gradients should yield a better understanding of the factors affecting large mammal ecology. 2. We evaluated how HR size of a large herbivore, the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), varies in relation to seasonality, latitude (climate), weather, plant productivity and landscape features across its geographical range in Western Europe. As roe deer are income breeders, expected to adjust HR size continuously to temporal variation in food resources and energetic requirements, our baseline prediction was for HR size to decrease with proxies of resource availability. 3. We used GPS locations of roe deer collected from seven study sites (EURODEER collaborative project) to estimate fixed-kernel HR size at weekly and monthly temporal scales. We performed an unusually comprehensive analysis of variation in HR size among and within populations over time across the geographical range of a single species using generalized additive mixed models and linear mixed models, respectively. 4. Among populations, HR size decreased with increasing values for proxies of forage abundance, but increased with increases in seasonality, stochastic variation of temperature, latitude and snow cover. Within populations, roe deer HR size varied over time in relation to seasonality and proxies of forage abundance in a consistent way across the seven populations. Thus, our findings were broadly consistent across the distributional range of this species, demonstrating a strong and ubiquitous link between the amplitude and timing of environmental seasonality and HR size at the continental scale. 5. Overall, the variability in average HR size of roe deer across Europe reflects the interaction among local weather, climate and seasonality, providing valuable insight into the

  16. High density of tree-cavities and snags in tropical dry forest of western Mexico raises questions for a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Leopoldo; Renton, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that a latitudinal gradient exists of a low density of snags and high density of naturally-formed tree-cavities in tropical vs. temperate forests, though few cavities may have characteristics suitable for nesting by birds. We determined snag and cavity density, characteristics, and suitability for birds in a tropical dry forest biome of western Mexico, and evaluated whether our data fits the trend of snag and cavity density typically found in tropical moist and wet forests. We established five 0.25-ha transects to survey and measure tree-cavities and snags in each of three vegetation types of deciduous, semi-deciduous, and mono-dominant Piranhea mexicana forest, comprising a total of 3.75 ha. We found a high density of 77 cavities/ha, with 37 cavities suitable for birds/ha, where density, and characteristics of cavities varied significantly among vegetation types. Lowest abundance of cavities occurred in deciduous forest, and these were in smaller trees, at a lower height, and with a narrower entrance diameter. Only 8.6% of cavities were excavated by woodpeckers, and only 11% of cavities were occupied, mainly by arthropods, though 52% of all cavities were unsuitable for birds. We also found a high density of 56 snags/ha, with greatest density in deciduous forest (70 snags/ha), though these were of significantly smaller diameter, and snags of larger diameter were more likely to contain cavities. The Chamela-Cuixmala tropical dry forest had the highest density of snags recorded for any tropical or temperate forest, and while snag density was significantly correlated with mean snag dbh, neither latitude nor mean dbh predicted snag density in ten forest sites. The high spatial aggregation of snag and cavity resources in tropical dry forest may limit their availability, particularly for large-bodied cavity adopters, and highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in providing resources for primary and secondary cavity-nesters.

  17. Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive ( Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research.

  18. Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive (Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; Del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research.

  19. High Density of Tree-Cavities and Snags in Tropical Dry Forest of Western Mexico Raises Questions for a Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Leopoldo; Renton, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that a latitudinal gradient exists of a low density of snags and high density of naturally-formed tree-cavities in tropical vs. temperate forests, though few cavities may have characteristics suitable for nesting by birds. We determined snag and cavity density, characteristics, and suitability for birds in a tropical dry forest biome of western Mexico, and evaluated whether our data fits the trend of snag and cavity density typically found in tropical moist and wet forests. We established five 0.25-ha transects to survey and measure tree-cavities and snags in each of three vegetation types of deciduous, semi-deciduous, and mono-dominant Piranhea mexicana forest, comprising a total of 3.75 ha. We found a high density of 77 cavities/ha, with 37 cavities suitable for birds/ha, where density, and characteristics of cavities varied significantly among vegetation types. Lowest abundance of cavities occurred in deciduous forest, and these were in smaller trees, at a lower height, and with a narrower entrance diameter. Only 8.6% of cavities were excavated by woodpeckers, and only 11% of cavities were occupied, mainly by arthropods, though 52% of all cavities were unsuitable for birds. We also found a high density of 56 snags/ha, with greatest density in deciduous forest (70 snags/ha), though these were of significantly smaller diameter, and snags of larger diameter were more likely to contain cavities. The Chamela-Cuixmala tropical dry forest had the highest density of snags recorded for any tropical or temperate forest, and while snag density was significantly correlated with mean snag dbh, neither latitude nor mean dbh predicted snag density in ten forest sites. The high spatial aggregation of snag and cavity resources in tropical dry forest may limit their availability, particularly for large-bodied cavity adopters, and highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in providing resources for primary and secondary cavity-nesters. PMID:25615612

  20. Scope of Gradient and Genetic Algorithms in Multivariable Function Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali; Sen, S. K.

    2007-01-01

    Global optimization of a multivariable function - constrained by bounds specified on each variable and also unconstrained - is an important problem with several real world applications. Deterministic methods such as the gradient algorithms as well as the randomized methods such as the genetic algorithms may be employed to solve these problems. In fact, there are optimization problems where a genetic algorithm/an evolutionary approach is preferable at least from the quality (accuracy) of the results point of view. From cost (complexity) point of view, both gradient and genetic approaches are usually polynomial-time; there are no serious differences in this regard, i.e., the computational complexity point of view. However, for certain types of problems, such as those with unacceptably erroneous numerical partial derivatives and those with physically amplified analytical partial derivatives whose numerical evaluation involves undesirable errors and/or is messy, a genetic (stochastic) approach should be a better choice. We have presented here the pros and cons of both the approaches so that the concerned reader/user can decide which approach is most suited for the problem at hand. Also for the function which is known in a tabular form, instead of an analytical form, as is often the case in an experimental environment, we attempt to provide an insight into the approaches focusing our attention toward accuracy. Such an insight will help one to decide which method, out of several available methods, should be employed to obtain the best (least error) output. *

  1. Sunlight-induced DNA damage in marine micro-organisms collected along a latitudinal gradient from 70 degrees N to 68 degrees S.

    PubMed

    Meador, Jarah A; Baldwin, Amy J; Catala, Phillipe; Jeffrey, Wade H; Joux, Fabien; Moss, Joseph A; Dean Pakulski, J; Stevens, Richard; Mitchell, David L

    2009-01-01

    We examined ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA damage in marine micro-organisms collected from surface seawater along a latitudinal transect in the Central Pacific Ocean from 70 degrees N to 68 degrees S. Samples were collected predawn and incubated under ambient UVR in transparent incubators at in situ temperatures until late afternoon at which time they were filtered into primarily bacterioplankton and eukaryotic fractions. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4) photoproducts [(6-4)PDs] were quantified in DNA extracts using radioimmunoassays. UVB was lowest in the polar regions and highest near the equator and correlations between UVB and DNA damage were observed. The eukaryotic fraction showed significant CPDs across the entire transect; (6-4)PDs were detected only in the tropics. The bacterial fraction showed no accumulation of (6-4)PDs at any latitude, although residual (6-4)PDs were observed. Bacterial cell volumes were greatest in the sub-Arctic and northern temperate latitudes and lower in the tropics and southern hemisphere, a unique observation that parallels Bergmann's rule. A strong negative correlation was observed between cell volume and CPDs. The environmental impact of solar UVR on marine micro-organisms in the open ocean is complex and our results suggest that several factors such as DNA repair, cell size, temperature, salinity, nutrients and species composition are important in determining relative sensitivity.

  2. Increasing minimum daily temperatures are associated with enhanced pesticide use in cultivated soybean along a latitudinal gradient in the mid-western United States.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum daily temperature (lowest 24 h recorded temperature in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum daily temperature (1999-2013) from -28.6°C (Minnesota) to -5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this temperature range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum daily temperatures and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum daily temperature could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term temperature data (1977-2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum daily temperatures for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising minimum daily

  3. Limited Genetic Connectivity between Gorgonian Morphotypes along a Depth Gradient.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Federica; Gori, Andrea; Lopez-González, Pablo; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Rossi, Sergio; Gili, Josep-Maria; Abbiati, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Gorgonian species show a high morphological variability in relation to the environment in which they live. In coastal areas, parameters such as temperature, light, currents, and food availability vary significantly with depth, potentially affecting morphology of the colonies and the structure of the populations, as well as their connectivity patterns. In tropical seas, the existence of connectivity between shallow and deep populations supported the hypothesis that the deep coral reefs could potentially act as (reproductive) refugia fostering re-colonization of shallow areas after mortality events. Moreover, this hypothesis is not so clear accepted in temperate seas. Eunicella singularis is one of the most common gorgonian species in Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, playing an important role as ecosystem engineer by providing biomass and complexity to the coralligenous habitats. It has a wide bathymetric distribution ranging from about 10 m to 100 m. Two depth-related morphotypes have been identified, differing in colony morphology, sclerite size and shape, and occurrence of symbiotic algae, but not in mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. In the present study the genetic structure of E. singularis populations along a horizontal and bathymetric gradient was assessed using microsatellites and ITS1 sequences. Restricted gene flow was found at 30-40 m depth between the two Eunicella morphotypes. Conversely, no genetic structuring has been found among shallow water populations within a spatial scale of ten kilometers. The break in gene flow between shallow and deep populations contributes to explain the morphological variability observed at different depths. Moreover, the limited vertical connectivity hinted that the refugia hypothesis does not apply to E. singularis. Re-colonization of shallow water populations, occasionally affected by mass mortality events, should then be mainly fueled by larvae from other shallow water populations.

  4. Limited Genetic Connectivity between Gorgonian Morphotypes along a Depth Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Andrea; Lopez-González, Pablo; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Rossi, Sergio; Gili, Josep-Maria; Abbiati, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Gorgonian species show a high morphological variability in relation to the environment in which they live. In coastal areas, parameters such as temperature, light, currents, and food availability vary significantly with depth, potentially affecting morphology of the colonies and the structure of the populations, as well as their connectivity patterns. In tropical seas, the existence of connectivity between shallow and deep populations supported the hypothesis that the deep coral reefs could potentially act as (reproductive) refugia fostering re-colonization of shallow areas after mortality events. Moreover, this hypothesis is not so clear accepted in temperate seas. Eunicella singularis is one of the most common gorgonian species in Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, playing an important role as ecosystem engineer by providing biomass and complexity to the coralligenous habitats. It has a wide bathymetric distribution ranging from about 10 m to 100 m. Two depth-related morphotypes have been identified, differing in colony morphology, sclerite size and shape, and occurrence of symbiotic algae, but not in mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. In the present study the genetic structure of E. singularis populations along a horizontal and bathymetric gradient was assessed using microsatellites and ITS1 sequences. Restricted gene flow was found at 30–40 m depth between the two Eunicella morphotypes. Conversely, no genetic structuring has been found among shallow water populations within a spatial scale of ten kilometers. The break in gene flow between shallow and deep populations contributes to explain the morphological variability observed at different depths. Moreover, the limited vertical connectivity hinted that the refugia hypothesis does not apply to E. singularis. Re-colonization of shallow water populations, occasionally affected by mass mortality events, should then be mainly fueled by larvae from other shallow water populations. PMID:27490900

  5. The Genetic Contribution to Phenological Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, J. M.; Roelle, J. E.; Cade, B. S.

    2009-12-01

    Variation in phenology is often attributed to a changing climate. However, in wild populations some of the variation in phenology over space and time is a consequence of genetic variation. We used a common garden consisting of paired collections of native and introduced riparian trees sampled along a latitudinal gradient to explore the genetic component of latitudinal phenological variation. The garden in Fort Collins, Colorado (latitude 40.6°N), included 681 native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) and introduced saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis and hybrids) collected from 15 sites at 29.2-47.6°N in the central United States. In the common garden both species showed latitudinal variation in fall, but not spring, leaf phenology, demonstrating that the latitudinal gradient in fall phenology observed in the field reflects both genetic and climatic variation, while the latitudinal gradient in spring phenology observed in the field reflects climatic variation alone. In contrast, cold hardiness showed strong genetic variation in both fall and spring for both species. The latitudinal variation in fall phenology and cold hardiness of saltcedar appears to have evolved through hybridization and natural selection in the 150 years since introduction. We suggest that phenological networks observing wild populations include marked trees replicated in common gardens to distinguish genetic and environmental influences on phenology.

  6. No divergence in Cassiope tetragona: persistence of growth response along a latitudinal temperature gradient and under multi-year experimental warming

    PubMed Central

    Weijers, Stef; Greve Alsos, Inger; Bronken Eidesen, Pernille; Broekman, Rob; Loonen, Maarten J.J.E.; Rozema, Jelte

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona (Arctic bell-heather) is increasingly used for arctic climate reconstructions, the reliability of which depends on the existence of a linear climate–growth relationship. This relationship was examined over a high-arctic to sub-arctic temperature gradient and under multi-year artificial warming at a high-arctic site. Methods Growth chronologies of annual shoot length, as well as total leaf length, number of leaves and average leaf length per year, were constructed for three sites. Cassiope tetragona was sampled near its cold tolerance limit at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, at its assumed climatic optimum in Endalen, Svalbard, and near its European southern limit at Abisko, Sweden. Together these sites represent the entire temperature gradient of this species. Leaf life span was also determined. Each growing season from 2004 to 2010, 17 open top chambers (OTCs) were placed near Ny-Ålesund, thus increasing the daily mean temperatures by 1·23°C. At the end of the 2010 growing season, shoots were harvested from OTCs and control plots, and growth parameters were measured. Key Results All growth parameters, except average leaf length, exhibited a linear positive response (R2 between 0·63 and 0·91) to mean July temperature over the temperature gradient. Average leaf life span was 1·4 years shorter in sub-arctic Sweden compared with arctic Svalbard. All growth parameters increased in response to the experimental warming; the leaf life span was, however, not significantly affected by OTC warming. Conclusions The linear July temperature–growth relationships, as well as the 7 year effect of experimental warming, confirm that the growth parameters annual shoot length, total leaf length and number of leaves per year can reliably be used for monitoring and reconstructing temperature changes. Furthermore, reconstructing July temperature from these parameters is not hampered by divergence. PMID:22700943

  7. Climatic controls of aboveground net primary production in semi-arid grasslands along a latitudinal gradient portend low sensitivity to warming.

    PubMed

    Mowll, Whitney; Blumenthal, Dana M; Cherwin, Karie; Smith, Anine; Symstad, Amy J; Vermeire, Lance T; Collins, Scott L; Smith, Melinda D; Knapp, Alan K

    2015-04-01

    Although climate models forecast warmer temperatures with a high degree of certainty, precipitation is the primary driver of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in most grasslands. Conversely, variations in temperature seldom are related to patterns of ANPP. Thus forecasting responses to warming is a challenge, and raises the question: how sensitive will grassland ANPP be to warming? We evaluated climate and multi-year ANPP data (67 years) from eight western US grasslands arrayed along mean annual temperature (MAT; ~7-14 °C) and mean annual precipitation (MAP; ~250-500 mm) gradients. We used regression and analysis of covariance to assess relationships between ANPP and temperature, as well as precipitation (annual and growing season) to evaluate temperature sensitivity of ANPP. We also related ANPP to the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI), which combines precipitation and evapotranspiration to better represent moisture available for plant growth. Regression models indicated that variation in growing season temperature was negatively related to total and graminoid ANPP, but precipitation was a stronger predictor than temperature. Growing season temperature was also a significant parameter in more complex models, but again precipitation was consistently a stronger predictor of ANPP. Surprisingly, neither annual nor growing season SPEI were as strongly related to ANPP as precipitation. We conclude that forecasted warming likely will affect ANPP in these grasslands, but that predicting temperature effects from natural climatic gradients is difficult. This is because, unlike precipitation, warming effects can be positive or negative and moderated by shifts in the C3/C4 ratios of plant communities.

  8. Climatic controls of aboveground net primary production in semi-arid grasslands along a latitudinal gradient portend low sensitivity to warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mowll, Whitney; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Cherwin, Karie; Smith, Anine; Symstad, Amy J.; Vermeire, Lance; Collins, Scott L.; Smith, Melinda D.; Knapp, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    Although climate models forecast warmer temperatures with a high degree of certainty, precipitation is the primary driver of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in most grasslands. Conversely, variations in temperature seldom are related to patterns of ANPP. Thus forecasting responses to warming is a challenge, and raises the question: how sensitive will grassland ANPP be to warming? We evaluated climate and multi-year ANPP data (67 years) from eight western US grasslands arrayed along mean annual temperature (MAT; ~7-14 °C) and mean annual precipitation (MAP; ~250-500 mm) gradients. Weused regression and analysis of covariance to assess relationships between ANPP and temperature, as well as precipitation (annual and growing season) to evaluate temperature sensitivity of ANPP. We also related ANPP to the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI), which combines precipitation and evapotranspiration to better represent moisture available for plant growth. Regression models indicated that variation in growing season temperature was negatively related to total and graminoid ANPP, but precipitation was a stronger predictor than temperature. Growing season temperature was also a significant parameter in more complex models, but again precipitation was consistently a stronger predictor of ANPP. Surprisingly, neither annual nor growing season SPEI were as strongly related to ANPP as precipitation. We conclude that forecasted warming likely will affect ANPP in these grasslands, but that predicting temperature effects from natural climatic gradients is difficult. This is because, unlike precipitation, warming effects can be positive or negative and moderated by shifts in the C3/C4 ratios of plant communities.

  9. Latitudinal gradient of airborne polyfluorinated alkyl substances in the marine atmosphere between Germany and South Africa (53 degrees N-33 degrees S).

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Annika; Berger, Urs; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Temme, Christian

    2007-05-01

    Neutral, volatile polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) were determined in high-volume air samples collected onboard the German research vessel Polarstern during cruise ANTXXIII-1 between Bremerhaven, Germany (53 degrees N) and Capetown, Republic of South Africa (33 degrees S) in fall 2005. An optimized and validated analytical protocol was used for the determination of several fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) as well as N-alkylated fluorooctane sulfonamides and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSAs/FOSEs). Quantitative analyses were done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study provides the first concentration data of airborne PFAS from the Southern Hemisphere. Results indicate a strongly decreasing concentration gradient from the European continent toward less industrialized regions. The study confirms that airborne PFAS are mainly restricted to the Northern Hemisphere with a maximum concentration of 190 pg/m3 (8:2 FTOH) in the first sample collected in the channel between the European mainland and the UK. However, south of the equator, trace amounts of several FTOHs and FOSAs with a maximum of 14 pg/m3 (8:2 FTOH) could still be detected. Furthermore, a selection of ionic PFAS including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were determined in the particulate phase of high-volume air samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Levels of ionic PFAS were almost 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of neutral PFAS, with maximum concentrations in the first sample of 2.5 pg/m3 (PFOS) and 2.0 pg/m3 (PFOA).

  10. Patterns of structural and defense investments in fine roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) across a strong temperature and latitudinal gradient in Europe.

    PubMed

    Zadworny, Marcin; McCormack, M Luke; Żytkowiak, Roma; Karolewski, Piotr; Mucha, Joanna; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2017-03-01

    Plant functional traits may be altered as plants adapt to various environmental constraints. Cold, low fertility growing conditions are often associated with root adjustments to increase acquisition of limiting nutrient resources, but they may also result in construction of roots with reduced uptake potential but higher tissue persistence. It is ultimately unclear whether plants produce fine roots of different structure in response to decreasing temperatures and whether these changes represent a trade-off between root function or potential root persistence. We assessed patterns of root construction based on various root morphological, biochemical and defense traits including root diameter, specific root length (SRL), root tissue density (RTD), C:N ratio, phenolic compounds, and number of phellem layers across up to 10 root orders in diverse populations of Scots pine along a 2000-km climatic gradient in Europe. Our results showed that different root traits are related to mean annual temperature (MAT) and expressed a pattern of higher root diameter and lower SRL and RTD in northern sites with lower MAT. Among absorptive roots, we observed a gradual decline in chemical defenses (phenolic compounds) with decreasing MAT. In contrast, decreasing MAT resulted in an increase of structural protection (number of phellem layers) in transport fine roots. This indicated that absorptive roots with high capacity for nutrient uptake, and transport roots with low uptake capacity, were characterized by distinct and contrasting trade-offs. Our observations suggest that diminishing structural and chemical investments into the more distal, absorptive roots in colder climates is consistent with building roots of higher absorptive capacity. At the same time, roots that play a more prominent role in transport of nutrients and water within the root system saw an increase in structural investment, which can increase persistence and reduce long-term costs associated with their frequent

  11. MILLIMETER-SCALE GENETIC GRADIENTS AND COMMUNITY-LEVEL MOLECULAR CONVERGENCE IN A HYPERSALINE MICROBIAL MAT

    SciTech Connect

    Fenner, Marsha W; Kunin, Victor; Raes, Jeroen; Harris, J. Kirk; Spear, John R.; Walker, Jeffrey J.; Ivanova, Natalia; Mering, Christian von; Bebout, Brad M.; Pace, Norman R.; Bork, Peer; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-04-30

    To investigate the extent of genetic stratification in structured microbial communities, we compared the metagenomes of 10 successive layers of a phylogenetically complex hypersaline mat from Guerrero Negro, Mexico. We found pronounced millimeter-scale genetic gradients that are consistent with the physicochemical profile of the mat. Despite these gradients, all layers displayed near identical and acid-shifted isoelectric point profiles due to a molecular convergence of amino acid usage indicating that hypersalinity enforces an overriding selective pressure on the mat community.

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure in contemporary house sparrow populations along an urbanization gradient

    PubMed Central

    Vangestel, C; Mergeay, J; Dawson, D A; Callens, T; Vandomme, V; Lens, L

    2012-01-01

    House sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have suffered major declines in urban as well as rural areas, while remaining relatively stable in suburban ones. Yet, to date no exhaustive attempt has been made to examine how, and to what extent, spatial variation in population demography is reflected in genetic population structuring along contemporary urbanization gradients. Here we use putatively neutral microsatellite loci to study if and how genetic variation can be partitioned in a hierarchical way among different urbanization classes. Principal coordinate analyses did not support the hypothesis that urban/suburban and rural populations comprise two distinct genetic clusters. Comparison of FST values at different hierarchical scales revealed drift as an important force of population differentiation. Redundancy analyses revealed that genetic structure was strongly affected by both spatial variation and level of urbanization. The results shown here can be used as baseline information for future genetic monitoring programmes and provide additional insights into contemporary house sparrow dynamics along urbanization gradients. PMID:22588131

  13. Variation and Genetic Structure in Platanus mexicana (Platanaceae) along Riparian Altitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Hernández, Dulce M.; Lozada-García, J. Armando; Flores-Estévez, Norma; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vázquez-Torres, S. Mario

    2015-01-01

    Platanus mexicana is a dominant arboreal species of riparian ecosystems. These ecosystems are associated with altitudinal gradients that can generate genetic differences in the species, especially in the extremes of the distribution. However, studies on the altitudinal effect on genetic variation to riparian species are scarce. In Mexico, the population of P. mexicana along the Colipa River (Veracruz State) grows below its reported minimum altitude range, possibly the lowest where this tree grows. This suggests that altitude might be an important factor in population genetics differentiation. We examined the genetic variation and population structuring at four sites with different altitudes (70, 200, 600 and 1700 m a.s.l.) using ten inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. The highest value for Shannon index and Nei’s gene diversity was obtained at 1700 m a.s.l. (He = 0.27, Ne = 1.47, I = 0.42) and polymorphism reached the top value at the middle altitude (% p = 88.57). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and STRUCTURE analysis indicated intrapopulation genetic differentiation. The arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram identified 70 m a.s.l. as the most genetically distant site. The genetic structuring resulted from limited gene flow and genetic drift. This is the first report of genetic variation in populations of P. mexicana in Mexico. This research highlights its importance as a dominant species, and its ecological and evolutionary implications in altitudinal gradients of riparian ecosystems. PMID:25607732

  14. Variation and genetic structure in Platanus mexicana (Platanaceae) along riparian altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Galván-Hernández, Dulce M; Lozada-García, J Armando; Flores-Estévez, Norma; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vázquez-Torres, S Mario

    2015-01-19

    Platanus mexicana is a dominant arboreal species of riparian ecosystems. These ecosystems are associated with altitudinal gradients that can generate genetic differences in the species, especially in the extremes of the distribution. However, studies on the altitudinal effect on genetic variation to riparian species are scarce. In Mexico, the population of P. mexicana along the Colipa River (Veracruz State) grows below its reported minimum altitude range, possibly the lowest where this tree grows. This suggests that altitude might be an important factor in population genetics differentiation. We examined the genetic variation and population structuring at four sites with different altitudes (70, 200, 600 and 1700 m a.s.l.) using ten inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. The highest value for Shannon index and Nei's gene diversity was obtained at 1700 m a.s.l. (He = 0.27, Ne = 1.47, I = 0.42) and polymorphism reached the top value at the middle altitude (% p = 88.57). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and STRUCTURE analysis indicated intrapopulation genetic differentiation. The arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram identified 70 m a.s.l. as the most genetically distant site. The genetic structuring resulted from limited gene flow and genetic drift. This is the first report of genetic variation in populations of P. mexicana in Mexico. This research highlights its importance as a dominant species, and its ecological and evolutionary implications in altitudinal gradients of riparian ecosystems.

  15. Temperature-Stress Resistance and Tolerance along a Latitudinal Cline in North American Arabidopsis lyrata

    PubMed Central

    Wos, Guillaume; Willi, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    The study of latitudinal gradients can yield important insights into adaptation to temperature stress. Two strategies are available: resistance by limiting damage, or tolerance by reducing the fitness consequences of damage. Here we studied latitudinal variation in resistance and tolerance to frost and heat and tested the prediction of a trade-off between the two strategies and their costliness. We raised plants of replicate maternal seed families from eight populations of North American Arabidopsis lyrata collected along a latitudinal gradient in climate chambers and exposed them repeatedly to either frost or heat stress, while a set of control plants grew under standard conditions. When control plants reached maximum rosette size, leaf samples were exposed to frost and heat stress, and electrolyte leakage (PEL) was measured and treated as an estimate of resistance. Difference in maximum rosette size between stressed and control plants was used as an estimate of tolerance. Northern populations were more frost resistant, and less heat resistant and less heat tolerant, but—unexpectedly—they were also less frost tolerant. Negative genetic correlations between resistance and tolerance to the same and different thermal stress were generally not significant, indicating only weak trade-offs. However, tolerance to frost was consistently accompanied by small size under control conditions, which may explain the non-adaptive latitudinal pattern for frost tolerance. Our results suggest that adaptation to frost and heat is not constrained by trade-offs between them. But the cost of frost tolerance in terms of plant size reduction may be important for the limits of species distributions and climate niches. PMID:26110428

  16. Temperature-stress resistance and tolerance along a latitudinal cline in North American Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed

    Wos, Guillaume; Willi, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    The study of latitudinal gradients can yield important insights into adaptation to temperature stress. Two strategies are available: resistance by limiting damage, or tolerance by reducing the fitness consequences of damage. Here we studied latitudinal variation in resistance and tolerance to frost and heat and tested the prediction of a trade-off between the two strategies and their costliness. We raised plants of replicate maternal seed families from eight populations of North American Arabidopsis lyrata collected along a latitudinal gradient in climate chambers and exposed them repeatedly to either frost or heat stress, while a set of control plants grew under standard conditions. When control plants reached maximum rosette size, leaf samples were exposed to frost and heat stress, and electrolyte leakage (PEL) was measured and treated as an estimate of resistance. Difference in maximum rosette size between stressed and control plants was used as an estimate of tolerance. Northern populations were more frost resistant, and less heat resistant and less heat tolerant, but-unexpectedly-they were also less frost tolerant. Negative genetic correlations between resistance and tolerance to the same and different thermal stress were generally not significant, indicating only weak trade-offs. However, tolerance to frost was consistently accompanied by small size under control conditions, which may explain the non-adaptive latitudinal pattern for frost tolerance. Our results suggest that adaptation to frost and heat is not constrained by trade-offs between them. But the cost of frost tolerance in terms of plant size reduction may be important for the limits of species distributions and climate niches.

  17. Genetic signatures of ecological diversity along an urbanization gradient

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, James L.; Lowell, Natalie C.; Shelton, Andrew O.; Samhouri, Jameal F.; Hennessey, Shannon M.; Feist, Blake E.; Williams, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of work in environmental science and ecology, estimating human influences on ecosystems remains challenging. This is partly due to complex chains of causation among ecosystem elements, exacerbated by the difficulty of collecting biological data at sufficient spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales. Here, we demonstrate the utility of environmental DNA (eDNA) for quantifying associations between human land use and changes in an adjacent ecosystem. We analyze metazoan eDNA sequences from water sampled in nearshore marine eelgrass communities and assess the relationship between these ecological communities and the degree of urbanization in the surrounding watershed. Counter to conventional wisdom, we find strongly increasing richness and decreasing beta diversity with greater urbanization, and similar trends in the diversity of life histories with urbanization. We also find evidence that urbanization influences nearshore communities at local (hundreds of meters) rather than regional (tens of km) scales. Given that different survey methods sample different components of an ecosystem, we then discuss the advantages of eDNA—which we use here to detect hundreds of taxa simultaneously—as a complement to traditional ecological sampling, particularly in the context of broad ecological assessments where exhaustive manual sampling is impractical. Genetic data are a powerful means of uncovering human-ecosystem interactions that might otherwise remain hidden; nevertheless, no sampling method reveals the whole of a biological community. PMID:27672503

  18. Genetic and phenotypic variation along an ecological gradient in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baillie, Shauna M.; Muir, Andrew M.; Hansen, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.; Bentzen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAdaptive radiation involving a colonizing phenotype that rapidly evolves into at least one other ecological variant, or ecotype, has been observed in a variety of freshwater fishes in post-glacial environments. However, few studies consider how phenotypic traits vary with regard to neutral genetic partitioning along ecological gradients. Here, we present the first detailed investigation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycushthat considers variation as a cline rather than discriminatory among ecotypes. Genetic and phenotypic traits organized along common ecological gradients of water depth and geographic distance provide important insights into diversification processes in a lake with high levels of human disturbance from over-fishing.ResultsFour putative lake trout ecotypes could not be distinguished using population genetic methods, despite morphological differences. Neutral genetic partitioning in lake trout was stronger along a gradient of water depth, than by locality or ecotype. Contemporary genetic migration patterns were consistent with isolation-by-depth. Historical gene flow patterns indicated colonization from shallow to deep water. Comparison of phenotypic (Pst) and neutral genetic variation (Fst) revealed that morphological traits related to swimming performance (e.g., buoyancy, pelvic fin length) departed more strongly from neutral expectations along a depth gradient than craniofacial feeding traits. Elevated phenotypic variance with increasing water depth in pelvic fin length indicated possible ongoing character release and diversification. Finally, differences in early growth rate and asymptotic fish length across depth strata may be associated with limiting factors attributable to cold deep-water environments.ConclusionWe provide evidence of reductions in gene flow and divergent natural selection associated with water depth in Lake Superior. Such information is relevant for documenting intraspecific biodiversity in the largest freshwater lake

  19. Environmental gradients shape the genetic structure of two medicinal Salvia species in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Gharaibeh, M M; Hamasha, H R; Rosche, C; Lachmuth, S; Wesche, K; Hensen, I

    2017-03-01

    Environmental gradients, and particularly climatic variables, exert a strong influence on plant distribution and, potentially, population genetic diversity and differentiation. Differences in water availability can cause among-population variation in ecological processes and can thus interrupt populations' connectivity and isolate them environmentally. The present study examines the effect of environmental heterogeneity on plant populations due to environmental isolation unrelated to geographic distance. Using AFLP markers, we analyzed genetic diversity and differentiation among 12 Salvia spinosa populations and 13 Salvia syriaca populations from three phytogeographical regions (Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Arabian) representing the extent of the species' geographic range in Jordan. Differences in geographic location and climate were considered in the analyses. For both species, flowering phenology varied among populations and regions. Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Arabian populations had higher genetic diversity than Mediterranean populations, and genetic diversity increased significantly with increasing temperature. Genetic diversity in Salvia syriaca was affected by population size, while genetic diversity responded to drought in S. spinosa. For both species, high levels of genetic differentiation were found as well as two well-supported phytogeographical groups of populations, with Mediterranean populations clustering in one group and the Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Arabian populations in another. Genetic distance was significantly correlated to environmental distance, but not to geographic distance. Our data indicate that populations from moist vs. arid environments are environmentally isolated, where environmental gradients affect their flowering phenology, limit gene flow and shape their genetic structure. We conclude that environmental heterogeneity may act as driver for the observed variation in genetic diversity.

  20. Correlating genetic variation in carbon isotopic composition with complex climatic gradients.

    PubMed Central

    Comstock, J P; Ehleringer, J R

    1992-01-01

    Genetic variation in both carbon isotope discrimination and the proportions of leaf and photosynthetic twig tissues were observed in ecotypes of Hymenoclea salsola T.G., a common shrub in the deserts of the western United States, when grown under common garden conditions. These variations were correlated with climatic conditions in the habitats of origin through a model that described the leaf-to-air water vapor gradients experienced by plants during the growing season. Both carbon isotope discrimination and the proportion of leaves in the canopy were lower in plants derived from habitats with higher leaf-to-air vapor gradients, despite the fact that some of these sites received relatively high amounts of annual precipitation. These patterns were consistent with the notion that plants are able to maintain substantial control of water-use efficiency over large environmental gradients of temperature and moisture availability. PMID:1502194

  1. Genetic and environmental influences on leaf phenology and cold hardiness of native and introduced riparian trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.M.; Roelle, J.E.; Cade, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    To explore the roles of plasticity and genetic variation in the response to spatial and temporal climate variation, we established a common garden consisting of paired collections of native and introduced riparian trees sampled along a latitudinal gradient. The garden in Fort Collins, Colorado (latitude 40.6??N), included 681 native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) and introduced saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis and hybrids) collected from 15 sites at 29.2-47.6??N in the central United States. In the common garden both species showed latitudinal variation in fall, but not spring, leaf phenology, suggesting that the latitudinal gradient in fall phenology observed in the field results at least in part from inherited variation in the critical photoperiod, while the latitudinal gradient in spring phenology observed in the field is largely a plastic response to the temperature gradient. Populations from higher latitudes exhibited earlier bud set and leaf senescence. Cold hardiness varied latitudinally in both fall and spring for both species. For cottonwood, cold hardiness began earlier and ended later in northern than in southern populations. For saltcedar northern populations were hardier throughout the cold season than southern populations. Although cottonwood was hardier than saltcedar in midwinter, the reverse was true in late fall and early spring. The latitudinal variation in fall phenology and cold hardiness of saltcedar appears to have developed as a result of multiple introductions of genetically distinct populations, hybridization and natural selection in the 150 years since introduction. ?? 2011 US Government.

  2. Genetic and environmental influences on leaf phenology and cold hardiness of native and introduced riparian trees.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jonathan M; Roelle, James E; Cade, Brian S

    2011-11-01

    To explore the roles of plasticity and genetic variation in the response to spatial and temporal climate variation, we established a common garden consisting of paired collections of native and introduced riparian trees sampled along a latitudinal gradient. The garden in Fort Collins, Colorado (latitude 40.6°N), included 681 native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) and introduced saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis and hybrids) collected from 15 sites at 29.2-47.6°N in the central United States. In the common garden both species showed latitudinal variation in fall, but not spring, leaf phenology, suggesting that the latitudinal gradient in fall phenology observed in the field results at least in part from inherited variation in the critical photoperiod, while the latitudinal gradient in spring phenology observed in the field is largely a plastic response to the temperature gradient. Populations from higher latitudes exhibited earlier bud set and leaf senescence. Cold hardiness varied latitudinally in both fall and spring for both species. For cottonwood, cold hardiness began earlier and ended later in northern than in southern populations. For saltcedar northern populations were hardier throughout the cold season than southern populations. Although cottonwood was hardier than saltcedar in midwinter, the reverse was true in late fall and early spring. The latitudinal variation in fall phenology and cold hardiness of saltcedar appears to have developed as a result of multiple introductions of genetically distinct populations, hybridization and natural selection in the 150 years since introduction.

  3. Latitudinal variation in sensitivity of flower bud formation to high temperature in Japanese Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    Control of flowering time plays a key role in the successful range expansion of plants. Taraxacum officinale has expanded throughout Japan during the 110 years after it was introduced into a cool temperate region. The present study tested a hypothesis that there is a genetic difference in the bud formation time in relation to temperature along latitudinal gradient of T. officinale populations. In Experiment 1, plants from three populations at different latitudes (26, 36, and 43°N) were grown at three temperatures. Time to flower bud appearance did not significantly differ among the three populations when plants were grown at 14 °C, whereas it increased with increasing latitude when grown at 19 and 24 °C. Rosette diameter was not different among the populations, indicating that the variation in bud formation time reflected a difference in genetic control rather than size variation. The latitudinal variation in bud appearance time was confirmed by Experiment 2 in which plants from 17 population were used. In Experiment 3, the size of plants that exhibited late-flowering was studied to test a hypothesis that the variation in flowering time reflects dormancy of vegetative growth, but the late-flowering plants were found to continue growth, indicating that vegetative dormancy was not the cause of the variation. The results clearly indicate that the degree of suppression of flower bud formation at high temperature decreases with latitude from north to south, which is under genetic control.

  4. Non-random distribution of individual genetic diversity along an environmental gradient

    PubMed Central

    Porlier, Mélody; Bélisle, Marc; Garant, Dany

    2009-01-01

    Improving our knowledge of the links between ecology and evolution is especially critical in the actual context of global rapid environmental changes. A critical step in that direction is to quantify how variation in ecological factors linked to habitat modifications might shape observed levels of genetic variability in wild populations. Still, little is known on the factors affecting levels and distribution of genetic diversity at the individual level, despite its vital underlying role in evolutionary processes. In this study, we assessed the effects of habitat quality on population structure and individual genetic diversity of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along a gradient of agricultural intensification in southern Québec, Canada. Using a landscape genetics approach, we found that individual genetic diversity was greater in poorer quality habitats. This counter-intuitive result was partly explained by the settlement patterns of tree swallows across the landscape. Individuals of higher genetic diversity arrived earlier on their breeding grounds and settled in the first available habitats, which correspond to intensive cultures. Our results highlight the importance of investigating the effects of environmental variability on individual genetic diversity, and of integrating information on landscape structure when conducting such studies. PMID:19414469

  5. Genetic diversity and species diversity of stream fishes covary across a land-use gradient.

    PubMed

    Blum, Michael J; Bagley, Mark J; Walters, David M; Jackson, Suzanne A; Daniel, F Bernard; Chaloud, Deborah J; Cade, Brian S

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity and species diversity are expected to covary according to area and isolation, but may not always covary with environmental heterogeneity. In this study, we examined how patterns of genetic and species diversity in stream fishes correspond to local and regional environmental conditions. To do so, we compared population size, genetic diversity and divergence in central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) to measures of species diversity and turnover in stream fish assemblages among similarly sized watersheds across an agriculture-forest land-use gradient in the Little Miami River basin (Ohio, USA). Significant correlations were found in many, but not all, pair-wise comparisons. Allelic richness and species richness were strongly correlated, for example, but diversity measures based on allele frequencies and assemblage structure were not. In-stream conditions related to agricultural land use were identified as significant predictors of genetic diversity and species diversity. Comparisons to population size indicate, however, that genetic diversity and species diversity are not necessarily independent and that variation also corresponds to watershed location and glaciation history in the drainage basin. Our findings demonstrate that genetic diversity and species diversity can covary in stream fish assemblages, and illustrate the potential importance of scaling observations to capture responses to hierarchical environmental variation. More comparisons according to life history variation could further improve understanding of conditions that give rise to parallel variation in genetic diversity and species diversity, which in turn could improve diagnosis of anthropogenic influences on aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Genetic diversity and species diversity of stream fishes covary across a land-use gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blum, M.J.; Bagley, M.J.; Walters, D.M.; Jackson, S.A.; Daniel, F.B.; Chaloud, D.J.; Cade, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity and species diversity are expected to covary according to area and isolation, but may not always covary with environmental heterogeneity. In this study, we examined how patterns of genetic and species diversity in stream fishes correspond to local and regional environmental conditions. To do so, we compared population size, genetic diversity and divergence in central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) to measures of species diversity and turnover in stream fish assemblages among similarly sized watersheds across an agriculture-forest land-use gradient in the Little Miami River basin (Ohio, USA). Significant correlations were found in many, but not all, pair-wise comparisons. Allelic richness and species richness were strongly correlated, for example, but diversity measures based on allele frequencies and assemblage structure were not. In-stream conditions related to agricultural land use were identified as significant predictors of genetic diversity and species diversity. Comparisons to population size indicate, however, that genetic diversity and species diversity are not necessarily independent and that variation also corresponds to watershed location and glaciation history in the drainage basin. Our findings demonstrate that genetic diversity and species diversity can covary in stream fish assemblages, and illustrate the potential importance of scaling observations to capture responses to hierarchical environmental variation. More comparisons according to life history variation could further improve understanding of conditions that give rise to parallel variation in genetic diversity and species diversity, which in turn could improve diagnosis of anthropogenic influences on aquatic ecosystems. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Geographical gradients in selection can reveal genetic constraints for evolutionary responses to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Marshall, Dustin; Dupont, Sam; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D; Bodrossy, Levente; Hobday, Alistair J

    2017-02-01

    Geographical gradients in selection can shape different genetic architectures in natural populations, reflecting potential genetic constraints for adaptive evolution under climate change. Investigation of natural pH/pCO2 variation in upwelling regions reveals different spatio-temporal patterns of natural selection, generating genetic and phenotypic clines in populations, and potentially leading to local adaptation, relevant to understanding effects of ocean acidification (OA). Strong directional selection, associated with intense and continuous upwellings, may have depleted genetic variation in populations within these upwelling regions, favouring increased tolerances to low pH but with an associated cost in other traits. In contrast, diversifying or weak directional selection in populations with seasonal upwellings or outside major upwelling regions may have resulted in higher genetic variances and the lack of genetic correlations among traits. Testing this hypothesis in geographical regions with similar environmental conditions to those predicted under climate change will build insights into how selection may act in the future and how populations may respond to stressors such as OA.

  8. Concordance between genetic and species diversity in coral reef fishes across the Pacific Ocean biodiversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Messmer, Vanessa; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L; Planes, Serge

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between genetic diversity and species diversity provides insights into biogeography and historic patterns of evolution and is critical for developing contemporary strategies for biodiversity conservation. Although concordant large-scale clines in genetic and species diversity have been described for terrestrial organisms, whether these parameters co-vary in marine species remains largely unknown. We examined patterns of genetic diversity for 11 coral reef fish species sampled at three locations across the Pacific Ocean species diversity gradient (Australia: ∼1600 species; New Caledonia: ∼1400 species; French Polynesia: ∼800 species). Combined genetic diversity for all 11 species paralleled the decline in species diversity from West to East, with French Polynesia exhibiting lowest total haplotype and nucleotide diversities. Haplotype diversity consistently declined toward French Polynesia in all and nucleotide diversity in the majority of species. The French Polynesian population of most species also exhibited significant genetic differentiation from populations in the West Pacific. A number of factors may have contributed to the general positive correlation between genetic and species diversity, including location and time of species origin, vicariance events, reduced gene flow with increasing isolation, and decreasing habitat area from West to East. However, isolation and habitat area, resulting in reduced population size, are likely to be the most influential.

  9. Genetic delineation of local provenance defines seed collection zones along a climate gradient

    PubMed Central

    Hufford, Kristina M.; Veneklaas, Erik J.; Lambers, Hans; Krauss, Siegfried L.

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to re-establish native plant species should consider intraspecific variation if we are to restore genetic diversity and evolutionary potential. Data describing spatial genetic structure and the scale of adaptive differentiation are needed for restoration seed sourcing. Genetically defined provenance zones provide species-specific guidelines for the distance within which seed transfer likely maintains levels of genetic diversity and conserves locally adapted traits. While a growing number of studies incorporate genetic marker data in delineation of local provenance, they often fail to distinguish the impacts of neutral and non-neutral variation. We analysed population genetic structure for 134 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in Stylidium hispidum (Stylidiaceae) along a north–south transect of the species' range with the goal to estimate the distance at which significant genetic differences occur among source and recipient populations in restoration. In addition, we tested AFLP markers for signatures of selection, and examined the relationship of neutral and putatively selected markers with climate variables. Estimates of population genetic structure revealed significant levels of differentiation (ΦPT = 0.23) and suggested a global provenance distance of 45 km for pairwise comparisons of 16 populations. Of the 134 markers, 13 exhibited evidence of diversifying selection (ΦPT = 0.52). Using data for precipitation and thermal gradients, we compared genetic, geographic and environmental distance for subsets of neutral and selected markers. Strong isolation by distance was detected in all cases, but positive correlations with climate variables were present only for markers with signatures of selection. We address findings in light of defining local provenance in ecological restoration. PMID:26755503

  10. Coral reefs. Limited scope for latitudinal extension of reef corals.

    PubMed

    Muir, Paul R; Wallace, Carden C; Done, Terence; Aguirre, J David

    2015-06-05

    An analysis of present-day global depth distributions of reef-building corals and underlying environmental drivers contradicts a commonly held belief that ocean warming will promote tropical coral expansion into temperate latitudes. Using a global data set of a major group of reef corals, we found that corals were confined to shallower depths at higher latitudes (up to 0.6 meters of predicted shallowing per additional degree of latitude). Latitudinal attenuation of the most important driver of this phenomenon-the dose of photosynthetically available radiation over winter-would severely constrain latitudinal coral range extension in response to ocean warming. Latitudinal gradients in species richness for the group also suggest that higher winter irradiance at depth in low latitudes allowed a deep-water fauna that was not viable at higher latitudes.

  11. Genome-wide genetic diversity of rove beetle populations along a metal pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Giska, Iwona; Babik, Wiesław; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; van Straalen, Nico M; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2015-09-01

    To what extent chemical contamination affects genetic diversity of wild populations remains an open question in ecotoxicology. Here we used a genome-wide approach (615 nuclear RADseq loci containing 3017 SNPs) and a mtDNA fragment (ATP6) to analyze the effect of long-term exposure to elevated concentrations of metals (Cd, Pb, Zn) on genetic diversity in rove beetle (Staphylinus erythropterus) populations living along a pollution gradient in Poland. In total, 96 individuals collected from six sites at increasing distance from the source of pollution were analyzed. We found weak differentiation between populations suggesting extensive gene flow. The highest genetic diversity was observed in a population inhabiting the polluted site with the highest metal availability. This may suggest increased mutation rates, possibly in relation to elevated oxidative stress levels. The polluted site could also act as an ecological sink receiving numerous migrants from neighboring populations. Despite higher genetic diversity at the most polluted site, there was no correlation between the genetic diversity and metal pollution or other soil properties. We did not find a clear genomic signature of local adaptation to metal pollution. Like in some other cases of metal tolerance in soil invertebrates, high mobility may counteract possible effects of local selective forces associated with soil pollution.

  12. Adaptive latitudinal cline of photoperiodic diapause induction in the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Paolucci, S; van de Zande, L; Beukeboom, L W

    2013-04-01

    Living in seasonally changing environments requires adaptation to seasonal cycles. Many insects use the change in day length as a reliable cue for upcoming winter and respond to shortened photoperiod through diapause. In this study, we report the clinal variation in photoperiodic diapause induction in populations of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis collected along a latitudinal gradient in Europe. In this species, diapause occurs in the larval stage and is maternally induced. Adult Nasonia females were exposed to different photoperiodic cycles and lifetime production of diapausing offspring was scored. Females switched to the production of diapausing offspring after exposure to a threshold number of photoperiodic cycles. A latitudinal cline was found in the proportion of diapausing offspring, the switch point for diapause induction measured as the maternal age at which the female starts to produce diapausing larvae, and the critical photoperiod for diapause induction. Populations at northern latitudes show an earlier switch point, higher proportions of diapausing individuals and longer critical photoperiods. Since the photoperiodic response was measured under the same laboratory conditions, the observed differences between populations most likely reflect genetic differences in sensitivity to photoperiodic cues, resulting from local adaptation to environmental cycles. The observed variability in diapause response combined with the availability of genomic tools for N. vitripennis represent a good opportunity to further investigate the genetic basis of this adaptive trait.

  13. Genetic variability in geographic populations of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita)

    PubMed Central

    Oromi, N; Richter-Boix, A; Sanuy, D; Fibla, J

    2012-01-01

    Across altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, the proportion of suitable habitats varies, influencing the individual dispersal that ultimately can produce differentiation among populations. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is distributed across a wide geographic range that qualifies the species as interesting for a geographic analysis of its genetic variability. Five populations of B. calamita in the Sierra de Gredos (Spain) were studied in an altitudinal gradient ranging from 750 to 2270 m using microsatellite markers. In addition, we analyzed the latitudinal genetic variation in B. calamita within a global European distribution using genetic diversity parameters (mean number of alleles per locus [Ma] and expected heterozygosity [HE]) obtained from our results and those published in the literature. The low level of genetic differentiation found between populations of B. calamita (Fst ranging from 0.0115 to 0.1018) and the decreases in genetic diversity with altitude (Ma from 13.6 to 8.3, HE from 0.82 to 0.74) can be interpreted by the combined effects of discontinuous habitat, produced mainly by the high slopes barriers and geographic distance. In the latitudinal gradient, genetic diversity decreases from south to north as a consequence of the colonization of the species from the Pleistocene refugium. We conclude that the genetic variability in B. calamita along its wide altitudinal and latitudinal geographic distribution mainly reflects the colonization history of the species after the last glacial period. PMID:22957202

  14. Genetic variability in geographic populations of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita).

    PubMed

    Oromi, N; Richter-Boix, A; Sanuy, D; Fibla, J

    2012-08-01

    Across altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, the proportion of suitable habitats varies, influencing the individual dispersal that ultimately can produce differentiation among populations. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is distributed across a wide geographic range that qualifies the species as interesting for a geographic analysis of its genetic variability. Five populations of B. calamita in the Sierra de Gredos (Spain) were studied in an altitudinal gradient ranging from 750 to 2270 m using microsatellite markers. In addition, we analyzed the latitudinal genetic variation in B. calamita within a global European distribution using genetic diversity parameters (mean number of alleles per locus [M(a)] and expected heterozygosity [H(E)]) obtained from our results and those published in the literature. The low level of genetic differentiation found between populations of B. calamita (F(st) ranging from 0.0115 to 0.1018) and the decreases in genetic diversity with altitude (M(a) from 13.6 to 8.3, H(E) from 0.82 to 0.74) can be interpreted by the combined effects of discontinuous habitat, produced mainly by the high slopes barriers and geographic distance. In the latitudinal gradient, genetic diversity decreases from south to north as a consequence of the colonization of the species from the Pleistocene refugium. We conclude that the genetic variability in B. calamita along its wide altitudinal and latitudinal geographic distribution mainly reflects the colonization history of the species after the last glacial period.

  15. Genetic structure along an elevational gradient in Hawaiian honeycreepers reveals contrasting evolutionary responses to avian malaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggert, L.S.; Terwilliger, L.A.; Woodworth, B.L.; Hart, P.J.; Palmer, D.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background. The Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) are one of the best-known examples of an adaptive radiation, but their persistence today is threatened by the introduction of exotic pathogens and their vector, the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Historically, species such as the amakihi (Hemignathus virens), the apapane (Himatione sanguinea), and the iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) were found from the coastal lowlands to the high elevation forests, but by the late 1800's they had become extremely rare in habitats below 900 m. Recently, however, populations of amakihi and apapane have been observed in low elevation habitats. We used twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate patterns of genetic structure, and to infer responses of these species to introduced avian malaria along an elevational gradient on the eastern flanks of Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. Results. Our results indicate that amakihi have genetically distinct, spatially structured populations that correspond with altitude. We detected very few apapane and no iiwi in low-elevation habitats, and genetic results reveal only minimal differentiation between populations at different altitudes in either of these species. Conclusion. Our results suggest that amakihi populations in low elevation habitats have not been recolonized by individuals from mid or high elevation refuges. After generations of strong selection for pathogen resistance, these populations have rebounded and amakihi have become common in regions in which they were previously rare or absent. ?? 2008 Eggert et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  16. Genetic structure along an elevational gradient in Hawaiian honeycreepers reveals contrasting evolutionary responses to avian malaria

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) are one of the best-known examples of an adaptive radiation, but their persistence today is threatened by the introduction of exotic pathogens and their vector, the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Historically, species such as the amakihi (Hemignathus virens), the apapane (Himatione sanguinea), and the iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) were found from the coastal lowlands to the high elevation forests, but by the late 1800's they had become extremely rare in habitats below 900 m. Recently, however, populations of amakihi and apapane have been observed in low elevation habitats. We used twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate patterns of genetic structure, and to infer responses of these species to introduced avian malaria along an elevational gradient on the eastern flanks of Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. Results Our results indicate that amakihi have genetically distinct, spatially structured populations that correspond with altitude. We detected very few apapane and no iiwi in low-elevation habitats, and genetic results reveal only minimal differentiation between populations at different altitudes in either of these species. Conclusion Our results suggest that amakihi populations in low elevation habitats have not been recolonized by individuals from mid or high elevation refuges. After generations of strong selection for pathogen resistance, these populations have rebounded and amakihi have become common in regions in which they were previously rare or absent. PMID:19014596

  17. Latitudinal variation in cold hardiness in introduced Tamarix and native Populus

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jonathan M; Roelle, James E; Gaskin, John F; Pepper, Alan E; Manhart, James R

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the evolution of clinal variation in an invasive plant, we compared cold hardiness in the introduced saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, Tamarix chinensis, and hybrids) and the native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera). In a shadehouse in Colorado (41°N), we grew plants collected along a latitudinal gradient in the central United States (29–48°N). On 17 occasions between September 2005 and June 2006, we determined killing temperatures using freeze-induced electrolyte leakage and direct observation. In midwinter, cottonwood survived cooling to −70°C, while saltcedar was killed at −33 to −47°C. Frost sensitivity, therefore, may limit northward expansion of saltcedar in North America. Both species demonstrated inherited latitudinal variation in cold hardiness. For example, from September through January killing temperatures for saltcedar from 29.18°N were 5–21°C higher than those for saltcedar from 47.60°N, and on September 26 and October 11, killing temperatures for cottonwood from 33.06°N were >43°C higher than those for cottonwood from 47.60°N. Analysis of nine microsatellite loci showed that southern saltcedars are more closely related to T. chinensis while northern plants are more closely related to T. ramosissima. Hybridization may have introduced the genetic variability necessary for rapid evolution of the cline in saltcedar cold hardiness. PMID:25567800

  18. Latitudinal variation in cold hardiness in introduced Tamarix and native Populus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Roelle, James E.; Gaskin, John F.; Pepper, Alan E.; Manhart, James R.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the evolution of clinal variation in an invasive plant, we compared cold hardiness in the introduced saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, Tamarix chinensis, and hybrids) and the native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoidessubsp. monilifera). In a shadehouse in Colorado (41°N), we grew plants collected along a latitudinal gradient in the central United States (29–48°N). On 17 occasions between September 2005 and June 2006, we determined killing temperatures using freeze-induced electrolyte leakage and direct observation. In midwinter, cottonwood survived cooling to −70°C, while saltcedar was killed at −33 to −47°C. Frost sensitivity, therefore, may limit northward expansion of saltcedar in North America. Both species demonstrated inherited latitudinal variation in cold hardiness. For example, from September through January killing temperatures for saltcedar from 29.18°N were 5–21°C higher than those for saltcedar from 47.60°N, and on September 26 and October 11, killing temperatures for cottonwood from 33.06°N were >43°C higher than those for cottonwood from 47.60°N. Analysis of nine microsatellite loci showed that southern saltcedars are more closely related to T. chinensis while northern plants are more closely related to T. ramosissima. Hybridization may have introduced the genetic variability necessary for rapid evolution of the cline in saltcedar cold hardiness.

  19. A Single-Lap Joint Adhesive Bonding Optimization Method Using Gradient and Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Finckenor, Jeffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    A natural process for any engineer, scientist, educator, etc. is to seek the most efficient method for accomplishing a given task. In the case of structural design, an area that has a significant impact on the structural efficiency is joint design. Unless the structure is machined from a solid block of material, the individual components which compose the overall structure must be joined together. The method for joining a structure varies depending on the applied loads, material, assembly and disassembly requirements, service life, environment, etc. Using both metallic and fiber reinforced plastic materials limits the user to two methods or a combination of these methods for joining the components into one structure. The first is mechanical fastening and the second is adhesive bonding. Mechanical fastening is by far the most popular joining technique; however, in terms of structural efficiency, adhesive bonding provides a superior joint since the load is distributed uniformly across the joint. The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for optimizing single-lap joint adhesive bonded structures using both gradient and genetic algorithms and comparing the solution process for each method. The goal of the single-lap joint optimization is to find the most efficient structure that meets the imposed requirements while still remaining as lightweight, economical, and reliable as possible. For the single-lap joint, an optimum joint is determined by minimizing the weight of the overall joint based on constraints from adhesive strengths as well as empirically derived rules. The analytical solution of the sin-le-lap joint is determined using the classical Goland-Reissner technique for case 2 type adhesive joints. Joint weight minimization is achieved using a commercially available routine, Design Optimization Tool (DOT), for the gradient solution while an author developed method is used for the genetic algorithm solution. Results illustrate the critical design variables

  20. Latitudinal concordance between biogeographic regionalization, community structure, and richness patterns: a study on the reptiles of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Youhua; Srivastava, Diane S.

    2015-02-01

    Latitudinal patterns in species richness may be affected by both continuous variations in macroecological factors as well as discrete change between biogeographic regions. We examined whether latitudinal reptilian richness and community structure in China were best explained by three macroecological patterns (mid-domain effects, Rapoport's rule effects, or environmental correlates) within or across the ranges of biogeographic realms. The results showed that (1) there was a weak mid-domain effect within the Oriental Realm. However, the mid-domain effect was detected neither at the overall regional scale nor in the Palaearctic Realm. (2) Rapoport's rule was only weakly supported for reptilian fauna in China at lower latitudinal areas. (3) Environmental variables were more strongly correlated with species' latitudinal community structure and richness patterns at the scale of biogeographic realms. Based on the faunal similarity of reptilian community across latitudinal bands, we proposed a latitudinal delineation scheme at 34° N for dividing East Asia into Oriental and Palaearctic biogeographic realms. At last, at the functional group level, we also evaluated the relevant ecological patterns for lizard and snake species across different latitudinal bins, showing that the distributions of lizards presented strong mid-domain effects at the latitudinal ranges within the Oriental Realm and over the whole range but did not support Rapoport's rule. In comparison, snake species supported Rapoport's rule at low latitudinal zones but did not present any remarkable mid-domain effects at any spatial extents. In conclusion, biogeographic realms are an appropriate scale for studying macroecological patterns. Reptilian latitudinal richness patterns of China were explained by a combination of environmental factors and geometric constraints, while the latitudinal community structure patterns were greatly affected by environmental gradients. Functional guilds present differentiated

  1. Minimisation of the wall shear stress gradients in bypass grafts anastomoses using meshless CFD and genetic algorithms optimisation.

    PubMed

    El Zahab, Zaher; Divo, Eduardo; Kassab, Alain

    2010-02-01

    The wall shear stress (WSS) spatial and temporal gradients are two hemodynamics parameters correlated with endothelial damage. Those two gradients become well pronounced in a bypass graft anastomosis geometry where the blood flow patterns are quite disturbed. The WSS gradient minimisation on the host artery floor can be achieved by optimising the anastomosis shape and hence may lead to an improved long-term post-surgical performance of the graft. The anastomosis shape optimisation can be executed via an integrated computational tool comprised of a meshless computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and a genetic algorithm (GA) shape optimiser. The meshless CFD solver serves to evaluate the WSS gradients and the GA optimiser serves to search for the end-to-side distal anastomosis (ETSDA) optimal shape that best minimises those gradients. We utilise a meshless CFD method to resolve hemodynamics and a GA for the purpose of optimisation. We consider three different anastomotic models: the conventional ETSDA, the Miller Cuff ETSDA and the hood ETSDA. The results reported herein demonstrate that the graft calibre should always be maximised whether a conventional or Miller Cuff ETSDA model is utilised. Also, it was noted that the Miller Cuff height should be minimised. The choice of an optimal anastomotic angle should be optimised to achieve a compromise between the concurrent minimisations of both the spatial WSS gradient and the temporal WSS gradient.

  2. What drivers phenotypic divergence in Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) on large-scale gradient, climate or genetic differentiation?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shan; Ma, Linna; Guo, Chengyuan; Wang, Renzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the driving factors among-population divergence is an important task in evolutionary biology, however the relative contribution from natural selection and neutral genetic differentiation has been less debated. A manipulation experiment was conducted to examine whether the phenotypic divergence of Leymus chinensis depended on climate variations or genetic differentiations at 18 wild sites along a longitudinal gradient from 114 to 124°E in northeast China and at common garden condition of transplantation. Demographical, morphological and physiological phenotypes of 18 L. chinensis populations exhibited significant divergence along the gradient, but these divergent variations narrowed significantly at the transplantation. Moreover, most of the phenotypes were significantly correlated with mean annual precipitation and temperature in wild sites, suggesting that climatic variables played vital roles in phenotypic divergence of the species. Relative greater heterozygosity (HE), genotype evenness (E) and Shannon-Wiener diversity (I) in western group of populations suggested that genetic differentiation also drove phenotypic divergence of the species. However, neutral genetic differentiation (FST = 0.041) was greatly lower than quantitative differentiation (QST = 0.199), indicating that divergent selection/climate variable was the main factor in determining the phenotypic divergence of the species along the large-scale gradient. PMID:27195668

  3. What drivers phenotypic divergence in Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) on large-scale gradient, climate or genetic differentiation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shan; Ma, Linna; Guo, Chengyuan; Wang, Renzhong

    2016-05-01

    Elucidating the driving factors among-population divergence is an important task in evolutionary biology, however the relative contribution from natural selection and neutral genetic differentiation has been less debated. A manipulation experiment was conducted to examine whether the phenotypic divergence of Leymus chinensis depended on climate variations or genetic differentiations at 18 wild sites along a longitudinal gradient from 114 to 124°E in northeast China and at common garden condition of transplantation. Demographical, morphological and physiological phenotypes of 18 L. chinensis populations exhibited significant divergence along the gradient, but these divergent variations narrowed significantly at the transplantation. Moreover, most of the phenotypes were significantly correlated with mean annual precipitation and temperature in wild sites, suggesting that climatic variables played vital roles in phenotypic divergence of the species. Relative greater heterozygosity (HE), genotype evenness (E) and Shannon-Wiener diversity (I) in western group of populations suggested that genetic differentiation also drove phenotypic divergence of the species. However, neutral genetic differentiation (FST = 0.041) was greatly lower than quantitative differentiation (QST = 0.199), indicating that divergent selection/climate variable was the main factor in determining the phenotypic divergence of the species along the large-scale gradient.

  4. Preliminary Structural Design Using Topology Optimization with a Comparison of Results from Gradient and Genetic Algorithm Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Adam O.; Tinker, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, genetic algorithm based and gradient-based topology optimization is presented in application to a real hardware design problem. Preliminary design of a planetary lander mockup structure is accomplished using these methods that prove to provide major weight savings by addressing the structural efficiency during the design cycle. This paper presents two alternative formulations of the topology optimization problem. The first is the widely-used gradient-based implementation using commercially available algorithms. The second is formulated using genetic algorithms and internally developed capabilities. These two approaches are applied to a practical design problem for hardware that has been built, tested and proven to be functional. Both formulations converged on similar solutions and therefore were proven to be equally valid implementations of the process. This paper discusses both of these formulations at a high level.

  5. Latitudinal patterns of organochlorine contamination in plankton

    SciTech Connect

    Koening, B.G.; Lean, D.R.S.

    1994-12-31

    It has been suggested that the high Arctic will be the final sink for organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Through evaporation and deposition processes, OCs may move from warm to cool climates with air mass movements. Fundamental questions that remain unanswered are how far north do OCs travel and do the relative proportions of OCs in biota change along a latitudinal gradient? To answer these questions, zooplankton were sampled from a series of lakes along a transect from the Great Lakes (43{degree}N) to Ellesmere Island (85{degree}N). Zooplankton are useful indicators of environmental levels of OCs because they are ubiquitous, easy to sample, and form an integral part of the food chain leading to fish. Moreover, deposition patterns of OCs are more realistically reflected by zooplankton than by higher trophic level organisms because less trophic modification can occur and zooplankton do not, like fish, selectively exclude or metabolize specific OCs. Zooplankton were analyzed for a suite of OC contaminants that encompass a wide range in their respective water solubilities, vapor pressures and k{sub ow} values. Results indicate that the proportions of specific compounds, relative to the total OCs, do change with latitude. In samples from high latitudes, highly volatile compounds are found in higher proportions than compounds with low vapor pressures.

  6. Latitudinal Dependence of the Radial IMF Component: Coronal Imprint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Smith, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements by Ulysses have confirmed that there is no significant gradient with respect to heliomagnetic latitude in the radial component, B(sub r,) of the interplanetary magnetic field. In the corona, the plasma, beta is much less than 1, except directly above streamers, so longitudinal and latitudinal gradients in field strength will relax due to the transverse magnetic pressure gradient force as the solar wind carries magnetic flux away from the Sun. This happens quickly enough so that the field is essentially uniform by 5 - 10 solar radius, apparently remaining so as it is carried to beyond 1 AU. Here, we illustrate the coronal relaxation with a qualitative physical argument and by reference to a detailed Magneto HydroDynamics (MHD) simulation.

  7. Latitudinal variation in population structure of wintering Pacific Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, J.L.; Sedinger, J.S.; Ward, D.H.; Hagmeier, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    Latitudinal variation in population structure during the winter has been reported in many migratory birds, but has been documented in few species of waterfowl. Variation in environmental and social conditions at wintering sites can potentially influence the population dynamics of differential migrants. We examined latitudinal variation in sex and age classes of wintering Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). Brant are distributed along a wide latitudinal gradient from Alaska to Mexico during the winter. Accordingly, migration distances for brant using different wintering locations are highly variable and winter settlement patterns are likely associated with a spatially variable food resource. We used resightings of brant banded in southwestern Alaska to examine sex and age ratios of birds wintering at Boundary Bay in British Columbia, and at San Quintin Bay, Ojo de Liebre Lagoon, and San Ignacio Lagoon in Baja California from 1998 to 2000. Sex ratios were similar among wintering locations for adults and were consistent with the mating strategy of geese. The distribution of juveniles varied among wintering areas, with greater proportions of juveniles observed at northern (San Quintin Bay and Ojo de Liebre Lagoon) than at southern (San Ignacio Lagoon) locations in Baja California. We suggest that age-related variation in the winter distribution of Pacific Black Brant is mediated by variation in productivity among individuals at different wintering locations and by social interactions among wintering family groups.

  8. Connecting thermal physiology and latitudinal niche partitioning in marine Synechococcus.

    PubMed

    Pittera, Justine; Humily, Florian; Thorel, Maxine; Grulois, Daphné; Garczarek, Laurence; Six, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Marine Synechococcus cyanobacteria constitute a monophyletic group that displays a wide latitudinal distribution, ranging from the equator to the polar fronts. Whether these organisms are all physiologically adapted to stand a large temperature gradient or stenotherms with narrow growth temperature ranges has so far remained unexplored. We submitted a panel of six strains, isolated along a gradient of latitude in the North Atlantic Ocean, to long- and short-term variations of temperature. Upon a downward shift of temperature, the strains showed strikingly distinct resistance, seemingly related to their latitude of isolation, with tropical strains collapsing while northern strains were capable of growing. This behaviour was associated to differential photosynthetic performances. In the tropical strains, the rapid photosystem II inactivation and the decrease of the antioxydant β-carotene relative to chl a suggested a strong induction of oxidative stress. These different responses were related to the thermal preferenda of the strains. The northern strains could grow at 10 °C while the other strains preferred higher temperatures. In addition, we pointed out a correspondence between strain isolation temperature and phylogeny. In particular, clades I and IV laboratory strains were all collected in the coldest waters of the distribution area of marine Synechococus. We, however, show that clade I Synechococcus exhibit different levels of adaptation, which apparently reflect their location on the latitudinal temperature gradient. This study reveals the existence of lineages of marine Synechococcus physiologically specialised in different thermal niches, therefore suggesting the existence of temperature ecotypes within the marine Synechococcus radiation.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA markers reveal high genetic diversity but low genetic differentiation in the black fly Simulium tani Takaoka & Davies along an elevational gradient in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Low, Van Lun; Adler, Peter H; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Lim, Phaik Eem; Tan, Tiong Kai; Lim, Yvonne A L; Chen, Chee Dhang; Norma-Rashid, Yusoff; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The population genetic structure of Simulium tani was inferred from mitochondria-encoded sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI) and II (COII) along an elevational gradient in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. A statistical parsimony network of 71 individuals revealed 71 haplotypes in the COI gene and 43 haplotypes in the COII gene; the concatenated sequences of the COI and COII genes revealed 71 haplotypes. High levels of genetic diversity but low levels of genetic differentiation were observed among populations of S. tani at five elevations. The degree of genetic diversity, however, was not in accordance with an altitudinal gradient, and a Mantel test indicated that elevation did not have a limiting effect on gene flow. No ancestral haplotype of S. tani was found among the populations. Pupae with unique structural characters at the highest elevation showed a tendency to form their own haplotype cluster, as revealed by the COII gene. Tajima's D, Fu's Fs, and mismatch distribution tests revealed population expansion of S. tani in Cameron Highlands. A strong correlation was found between nucleotide diversity and the levels of dissolved oxygen in the streams where S. tani was collected.

  10. LATITUDINAL GRADIENTS IN BENTHIC COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN ATLANTIC ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates from estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North America from Cape Cod, MA, to Biscayne Bay, FL, were compared. Benthic data were collected over a 5 year period (1990 to 1995) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Envi...

  11. Inherited variability in multiple traits determines fitness in populations of an annual legume from contrasting latitudinal origins

    PubMed Central

    Milla, Rubén; Escudero, Adrián; Iriondo, Jose María

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Variation in fitness depends on corresponding variation in multiple traits which have both genetically controlled and plastic components. These traits are subjected to varying degrees of local adaptation in specific populations and, consequently, are genetically controlled to different extents. In this study it is hypothesized that modulation of different traits would have contrasting relevance for the fitness of populations of diverse origins. Specifically, assuming that environmental pressures vary across a latitudinal gradient, it is suggested that inherited variation in traits differentially determines fitness in annual Lupinus angustifolius populations from contrasting latitudinal origins in western Spain. Methods Seeds of L. angustifolius from three contrasting origins were grown in a common garden. Traits related to more plastic vegetative growth and more genetically conserved phenology were measured, together with estimates of reproductive success. Fitness was estimated by the number of viable seeds per plant. Structural Equation Models were used to infer causal relationships among multiple traits and fitness, separating the direct and indirect effects of morphological, phenological and reproductive traits. Key Results Phenological, vegetative and reproductive traits accounted for most of the fitness variation. Fitness was highest in plants of southernmost origin, mainly due to earlier flowering. Fitness within each seed origin was controlled by variation in different traits. Southern origin plants that grew to a larger size achieved higher fitness. However, plant size in plants of northernmost origin was irrelevant, but early flowering promoted higher fitness. Variation in fruit and seed set had a greater effect on the fitness of plants of central origin than phenological and size variation. Conclusions It is concluded that modulation of a functional trait can be relevant to fitness in a given population (i.e. affecting intensity and

  12. Genetic and cytological evidence that heterocyst patterning is regulated by inhibitor gradients that promote activator decay.

    PubMed

    Risser, Douglas D; Callahan, Sean M

    2009-11-24

    The formation of a pattern of differentiated cells from a group of seemingly equivalent, undifferentiated cells is a central paradigm of developmental biology. Several species of filamentous cyanobacteria differentiate nitrogen-fixing heterocysts at regular intervals along unbranched filaments to form a periodic pattern of two distinct cell types. This patterning has been used to exemplify application of the activator-inhibitor model to periodic patterns in biology. The activator-inhibitor model proposes that activators and inhibitors of differentiation diffuse from source cells to form concentration gradients that in turn mediate patterning, but direct visualization of concentration gradients of activators and inhibitors has been difficult. Here we show that the periodic pattern of heterocysts produced by cyanobacteria relies on two inhibitors of heterocyst differentiation, PatS and HetN, in a manner consistent with the predictions of the activator-inhibitor model. Concentration gradients of the activator, HetR, were observed adjacent to heterocysts, the natural source of PatS and HetN, as well as adjacent to vegetative cells that were manipulated to overexpress a gene encoding either of the inhibitors. Gradients of HetR relied on posttranslational decay of HetR. Deletion of both patS and hetN genes prevented the formation of gradients of HetR, and a derivative of the inhibitors was shown to promote decay of HetR in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results provide strong support for application of the activator-inhibitor model to heterocyst patterning and, more generally, the formation of periodic patterns in biological systems.

  13. Latitudinal Dependence of the Radial IMF Component - Interplanetary Imprint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Smith, E. J.; Phillips, J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Nerney, S.

    1996-01-01

    Ulysses measurements have confirmed that there is no significant gradient with respect to heliomagnetic latitude in the radial component, B(sub r,), of the interplanetary magnetic field. There are two processes responsible for this observation. In the corona, the plasma beta is much less than 1, except directly above streamers, so both longitudinal and latitudinal (meridional) gradients in field strength will relax, due to the transverse magnetic pressure gradient force, as the solar wind carries magnetic flux away from the Sun. This happens so quickly that the field is essentially uniform by 5 solar radius. Beyond 10 solar radius, beta is greater than 1 and it is possible for a meridional thermal pressure gradient to redistribute magnetic flux - an effect apparently absent in Ulysses and earlier ICE and Interplanetary Magnetic Physics (IMP) data. We discuss this second effect here, showing that its absence is mainly due to the perpendicular part of the anisotropic thermal pressure gradient in the interplanetary medium being too small to drive significant meridional transport between the Sun and approx. 4 AU. This is done using a linear analytic estimate of meridional transport. The first effect was discussed in an earlier paper.

  14. Genetic Adaptation vs. Ecophysiological Plasticity of Photosynthetic-Related Traits in Young Picea glauca Trees along a Regional Climatic Gradient.

    PubMed

    Benomar, Lahcen; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Rainville, André; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; Margolis, Hank A

    2016-01-01

    Assisted population migration (APM) is the intentional movement of populations within a species range to sites where future environmental conditions are projected to be more conducive to growth. APM has been proposed as a proactive adaptation strategy to maintain forest productivity and to reduce the vulnerability of forest ecosystems to projected climate change. The validity of such a strategy will depend on the adaptation capacity of populations, which can partially be evaluated by the ecophysiological response of different genetic sources along a climatic gradient. This adaptation capacity results from the compromise between (i) the degree of genetic adaptation of seed sources to their environment of origin and (ii) the phenotypic plasticity of functional trait which can make it possible for transferred seed sources to positively respond to new growing conditions. We examined phenotypic variation in morphophysiological traits of six seed sources of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) along a regional climatic gradient in Québec, Canada. Seedlings from the seed sources were planted at three forest sites representing a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient of 2.2°C. During the second growing season, we measured height growth (H2014) and traits related to resources use efficiency and photosynthetic rate (A max). All functional traits showed an adaptive response to the climatic gradient. Traits such as H2014, A max, stomatal conductance (g s ), the ratio of mesophyll to stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency showed significant variation in both physiological plasticity due to the planting site and seed source variation related to local genetic adaptation. However, the amplitude of seed source variation was much less than that related to plantation sites in the area investigated. The six seed sources showed a similar level of physiological plasticity. H2014, A max and g s , but not carboxylation capacity (V

  15. Genetic Adaptation vs. Ecophysiological Plasticity of Photosynthetic-Related Traits in Young Picea glauca Trees along a Regional Climatic Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Benomar, Lahcen; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S.; Rainville, André; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; Margolis, Hank A.

    2016-01-01

    Assisted population migration (APM) is the intentional movement of populations within a species range to sites where future environmental conditions are projected to be more conducive to growth. APM has been proposed as a proactive adaptation strategy to maintain forest productivity and to reduce the vulnerability of forest ecosystems to projected climate change. The validity of such a strategy will depend on the adaptation capacity of populations, which can partially be evaluated by the ecophysiological response of different genetic sources along a climatic gradient. This adaptation capacity results from the compromise between (i) the degree of genetic adaptation of seed sources to their environment of origin and (ii) the phenotypic plasticity of functional trait which can make it possible for transferred seed sources to positively respond to new growing conditions. We examined phenotypic variation in morphophysiological traits of six seed sources of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) along a regional climatic gradient in Québec, Canada. Seedlings from the seed sources were planted at three forest sites representing a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient of 2.2°C. During the second growing season, we measured height growth (H2014) and traits related to resources use efficiency and photosynthetic rate (Amax). All functional traits showed an adaptive response to the climatic gradient. Traits such as H2014, Amax, stomatal conductance (gs), the ratio of mesophyll to stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency showed significant variation in both physiological plasticity due to the planting site and seed source variation related to local genetic adaptation. However, the amplitude of seed source variation was much less than that related to plantation sites in the area investigated. The six seed sources showed a similar level of physiological plasticity. H2014, Amax and gs, but not carboxylation capacity (Vcmax), were

  16. Model-based Layer Estimation using a Hybrid Genetic/Gradient Search Optimization Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D; Lehman, S; Dowla, F

    2007-05-17

    A particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is combined with a gradient search method in a model-based approach for extracting interface positions in a one-dimensional multilayer structure from acoustic or radar reflections. The basic approach is to predict the reflection measurement using a simulation of one-dimensional wave propagation in a multi-layer, evaluate the error between prediction and measurement, and then update the simulation parameters to minimize the error. Gradient search methods alone fail due to the number of local minima in the error surface close to the desired global minimum. The PSO approach avoids this problem by randomly sampling the region of the error surface around the global minimum, but at the cost of a large number of evaluations of the simulator. The hybrid approach uses the PSO at the beginning to locate the general area around the global minimum then switches to the gradient search method to zero in on it. Examples of the algorithm applied to the detection of interior walls of a building from reflected ultra-wideband radar signals are shown. Other possible applications are optical inspection of coatings and ultrasonic measurement of multilayer structures.

  17. The natural latitudinal distribution of atmospheric CO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John A.; Orr, James C.

    2000-12-01

    Although poorly understood, the north-south distribution of the natural component of atmospheric CO 2 offers information essential to improving our understanding of the exchange of CO 2 between the atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere. The natural or unperturbed component is equivalent to that part of the atmospheric CO 2 distribution which is controlled by non-anthropogenic CO 2 fluxes from the ocean and terrestrial biosphere. Models should be able to reproduce the true north-south gradient in CO 2 due to the natural component before they can reliably estimate present-day CO 2 sources and sinks and predict future atmospheric CO 2. We have estimated the natural latitudinal distribution of atmospheric CO 2, relative to the South Pole, using measurements of atmospheric CO 2 during 1959-1991 and corresponding estimates of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. Key features of the natural latitudinal distribution include: (1) CO 2 concentrations in the northern hemisphere that are lower than those in the southern hemisphere; (2) CO 2 concentration differences that are higher in the tropics (associated with outgassing of the oceans) than those currently measured; and (3) CO 2 concentrations over the southern ocean that are relatively uniform. This natural latitudinal distribution and its sensitivity to increasing fossil fuel emissions both indicate that near-surface concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 in the northern hemisphere are naturally lower than those in the southern hemisphere. Models that find the contrary will also mismatch present-day CO 2 in the northern hemisphere and incorrectly ascribe that region as a large sink of anthropogenic CO 2.

  18. Connecting thermal physiology and latitudinal niche partitioning in marine Synechococcus

    PubMed Central

    Pittera, Justine; Humily, Florian; Thorel, Maxine; Grulois, Daphné; Garczarek, Laurence; Six, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Marine Synechococcus cyanobacteria constitute a monophyletic group that displays a wide latitudinal distribution, ranging from the equator to the polar fronts. Whether these organisms are all physiologically adapted to stand a large temperature gradient or stenotherms with narrow growth temperature ranges has so far remained unexplored. We submitted a panel of six strains, isolated along a gradient of latitude in the North Atlantic Ocean, to long- and short-term variations of temperature. Upon a downward shift of temperature, the strains showed strikingly distinct resistance, seemingly related to their latitude of isolation, with tropical strains collapsing while northern strains were capable of growing. This behaviour was associated to differential photosynthetic performances. In the tropical strains, the rapid photosystem II inactivation and the decrease of the antioxydant β-carotene relative to chl a suggested a strong induction of oxidative stress. These different responses were related to the thermal preferenda of the strains. The northern strains could grow at 10 °C while the other strains preferred higher temperatures. In addition, we pointed out a correspondence between strain isolation temperature and phylogeny. In particular, clades I and IV laboratory strains were all collected in the coldest waters of the distribution area of marine Synechococus. We, however, show that clade I Synechococcus exhibit different levels of adaptation, which apparently reflect their location on the latitudinal temperature gradient. This study reveals the existence of lineages of marine Synechococcus physiologically specialised in different thermal niches, therefore suggesting the existence of temperature ecotypes within the marine Synechococcus radiation. PMID:24401861

  19. Seascape genetics along environmental gradients in the Arabian Peninsula: insights from ddRAD sequencing of anemonefishes.

    PubMed

    Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Dibattista, Joseph D; Piatek, Marek J; Gaither, Michelle R; Harrison, Hugo B; Nanninga, Gerrit B; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the processes that shape patterns of genetic structure across space is a central aim of landscape genetics. However, it remains unclear how geographical features and environmental variables shape gene flow, particularly for marine species in large complex seascapes. Here, we evaluated the genomic composition of the two-band anemonefish Amphiprion bicinctus across its entire geographical range in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, as well as its close relative, Amphiprion omanensis endemic to the southern coast of Oman. Both the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea are complex and environmentally heterogeneous marine systems that provide an ideal scenario to address these questions. Our findings confirm the presence of two genetic clusters previously reported for A. bicinctus in the Red Sea. Genetic structure analyses suggest a complex seascape configuration, with evidence of both isolation by distance (IBD) and isolation by environment (IBE). In addition to IBD and IBE, genetic structure among sites was best explained when two barriers to gene flow were also accounted for. One of these coincides with a strong oligotrophic-eutrophic gradient at around 16-20˚N in the Red Sea. The other agrees with a historical bathymetric barrier at the straight of Bab al Mandab. Finally, these data support the presence of interspecific hybrids at an intermediate suture zone at Socotra and indicate complex patterns of genomic admixture in the Gulf of Aden with evidence of introgression between species. Our findings highlight the power of recent genomic approaches to resolve subtle patterns of gene flow in marine seascapes.

  20. Latitudinal differences in the hibernation characteristics of woodchucks (Marmota monax).

    PubMed

    Zervanos, Stam M; Maher, Christine R; Waldvogel, Jerry A; Florant, Gregory L

    2010-01-01

    There is little information on the phenotypic flexibility of hibernation characteristics within species. To address this issue, we observed differences in hibernation characteristics of three free-ranging populations of woodchucks (Marmota monax) distributed along a latitudinal gradient from Maine to South Carolina. Data from free-ranging animals exhibited a direct relationship between latitude and length of the hibernation season. As expected, woodchucks in the northern latitudes hibernated longer than those in the southern latitudes. Also, the length of interbout arousals decreased with increase in latitude, whereas the length of torpor bouts and the number of arousals increased. Thus, we observed phenotypic plasticity in hibernation characteristics based primarily on latitudinal temperature differences in each population. Further analysis revealed a direct relationship between latitude and total time spent in torpor. Maine animals spent 68% more time in torpor than South Carolina animals. However, total time spent euthermic did not differ among the three populations. The "cost-benefit" hypothesis of hibernation may help to explain these results. It assumes that hibernators avoid the physiological stress of torpor by staying euthermic as much as possible. Woodchucks in each population maximized time spent euthermic, utilizing torpor only at the level needed to survive winter hibernation and to commence reproduction in the spring.

  1. Coupling of soil prokaryotic diversity and plant diversity across latitudinal forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Hu, Hang-Wei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Li-Mei; Chen, Bao-Dong; Chen, Wei-Ping; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The belowground soil prokaryotic community plays a cardinal role in sustaining the stability and functions of forest ecosystems. Yet, the nature of how soil prokaryotic diversity co-varies with aboveground plant diversity along a latitudinal gradient remains elusive. By establishing three hundred 400-m2 quadrats from tropical rainforest to boreal forest in a large-scale parallel study on both belowground soil prokaryote and aboveground tree and herb communities, we found that soil prokaryotic diversity couples with the diversity of herbs rather than trees. The diversity of prokaryotes and herbs responds similarly to environmental factors along the latitudinal gradient. These findings revealed that herbs provide a good predictor of belowground biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and provide new perspective on the aboveground and belowground interactions in forest ecosystems.

  2. Coupling of soil prokaryotic diversity and plant diversity across latitudinal forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Hu, Hang-Wei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Li-Mei; Chen, Bao-Dong; Chen, Wei-Ping; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-19

    The belowground soil prokaryotic community plays a cardinal role in sustaining the stability and functions of forest ecosystems. Yet, the nature of how soil prokaryotic diversity co-varies with aboveground plant diversity along a latitudinal gradient remains elusive. By establishing three hundred 400-m(2) quadrats from tropical rainforest to boreal forest in a large-scale parallel study on both belowground soil prokaryote and aboveground tree and herb communities, we found that soil prokaryotic diversity couples with the diversity of herbs rather than trees. The diversity of prokaryotes and herbs responds similarly to environmental factors along the latitudinal gradient. These findings revealed that herbs provide a good predictor of belowground biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and provide new perspective on the aboveground and belowground interactions in forest ecosystems.

  3. Coupling of soil prokaryotic diversity and plant diversity across latitudinal forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Hu, Hang-Wei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Li-Mei; Chen, Bao-Dong; Chen, Wei-Ping; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The belowground soil prokaryotic community plays a cardinal role in sustaining the stability and functions of forest ecosystems. Yet, the nature of how soil prokaryotic diversity co-varies with aboveground plant diversity along a latitudinal gradient remains elusive. By establishing three hundred 400-m2 quadrats from tropical rainforest to boreal forest in a large-scale parallel study on both belowground soil prokaryote and aboveground tree and herb communities, we found that soil prokaryotic diversity couples with the diversity of herbs rather than trees. The diversity of prokaryotes and herbs responds similarly to environmental factors along the latitudinal gradient. These findings revealed that herbs provide a good predictor of belowground biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and provide new perspective on the aboveground and belowground interactions in forest ecosystems. PMID:26781165

  4. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp. PMID:27158895

  5. The roles of genetic drift and natural selection in quantitative trait divergence along an altitudinal gradient in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Luo, Y; Widmer, A; Karrenberg, S

    2015-02-01

    Understanding how natural selection and genetic drift shape biological variation is a central topic in biology, yet our understanding of the agents of natural selection and their target traits is limited. We investigated to what extent selection along an altitudinal gradient or genetic drift contributed to variation in ecologically relevant traits in Arabidopsis thaliana. We collected seeds from 8 to 14 individuals from each of 14 A. thaliana populations originating from sites between 800 and 2700 m above sea level in the Swiss Alps. Seed families were grown with and without vernalization, corresponding to winter-annual and summer-annual life histories, respectively. We analyzed putatively neutral genetic divergence between these populations using 24 simple sequence repeat markers. We measured seven traits related to growth, phenology and leaf morphology that are rarely reported in A. thaliana and performed analyses of altitudinal clines, as well as overall QST-FST comparisons and correlation analyses among pair-wise QST, FST and altitude of origin differences. Multivariate analyses suggested adaptive differentiation along altitude in the entire suite of traits, particularly when expressed in the summer-annual life history. Of the individual traits, a decrease in rosette leaf number in the vegetative state and an increase in leaf succulence with increasing altitude could be attributed to adaptive divergence. Interestingly, these patterns relate well to common within- and between-species trends of smaller plant size and thicker leaves at high altitude. Our results thus offer exciting possibilities to unravel the underlying mechanisms for these conspicuous trends using the model species A. thaliana.

  6. The roles of genetic drift and natural selection in quantitative trait divergence along an altitudinal gradient in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Y; Widmer, A; Karrenberg, S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how natural selection and genetic drift shape biological variation is a central topic in biology, yet our understanding of the agents of natural selection and their target traits is limited. We investigated to what extent selection along an altitudinal gradient or genetic drift contributed to variation in ecologically relevant traits in Arabidopsis thaliana. We collected seeds from 8 to 14 individuals from each of 14 A. thaliana populations originating from sites between 800 and 2700 m above sea level in the Swiss Alps. Seed families were grown with and without vernalization, corresponding to winter-annual and summer-annual life histories, respectively. We analyzed putatively neutral genetic divergence between these populations using 24 simple sequence repeat markers. We measured seven traits related to growth, phenology and leaf morphology that are rarely reported in A. thaliana and performed analyses of altitudinal clines, as well as overall QST-FST comparisons and correlation analyses among pair-wise QST, FST and altitude of origin differences. Multivariate analyses suggested adaptive differentiation along altitude in the entire suite of traits, particularly when expressed in the summer-annual life history. Of the individual traits, a decrease in rosette leaf number in the vegetative state and an increase in leaf succulence with increasing altitude could be attributed to adaptive divergence. Interestingly, these patterns relate well to common within- and between-species trends of smaller plant size and thicker leaves at high altitude. Our results thus offer exciting possibilities to unravel the underlying mechanisms for these conspicuous trends using the model species A. thaliana. PMID:25293874

  7. Microgeographic patterns of genetic divergence and adaptation across environmental gradients in Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jill T.; Perera, Nadeesha; Chowdhury, Bashira; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic and biotic conditions often vary continuously across the landscape, imposing divergent selection on local populations. We used a provenance trial approach to examine microgeographic variation in local adaptation in Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae), a perennial forb native to the Rocky Mountains. In montane ecosystems, environmental conditions change considerably over short spatial scales, such that neighboring populations can be subject to different selective pressures. Using accessions from southern (Colorado) and northern (Idaho) populations, we characterized spatial variation in genetic similarity via microsatellite markers. We then transplanted genotypes from multiple local populations into common gardens in both regions. Continuous variation in local adaptation emerged for several components of fitness. In Idaho, genotypes from warmer environments (low elevation or south facing sites) were poorly adapted to the north-facing garden. In high and low elevation Colorado gardens, susceptibility to insect herbivory increased with source elevation. In the high elevation Colorado garden, germination success peaked for genotypes that evolved at similar elevations as the garden, and declined for genotypes from higher and lower elevations. We also found evidence for local maladaptation in survival and fecundity components of fitness in the low elevation Colorado garden. This approach is a necessary first step in predicting how global change could affect evolutionary dynamics. PMID:26656218

  8. Microgeographic Patterns of Genetic Divergence and Adaptation across Environmental Gradients in Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jill T; Perera, Nadeesha; Chowdhury, Bashira; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Abiotic and biotic conditions often vary continuously across the landscape, imposing divergent selection on local populations. We used a provenance trial approach to examine microgeographic variation in local adaptation in Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae), a perennial forb native to the Rocky Mountains. In montane ecosystems, environmental conditions change considerably over short spatial scales, such that neighboring populations can be subject to different selective pressures. Using accessions from southern (Colorado) and northern (Idaho) populations, we characterized spatial variation in genetic similarity via microsatellite markers. We then transplanted genotypes from multiple local populations into common gardens in both regions. Continuous variation in local adaptation emerged for several components of fitness. In Idaho, genotypes from warmer environments (low-elevation or south-facing sites) were poorly adapted to the north-facing garden. In high- and low-elevation Colorado gardens, susceptibility to insect herbivory increased with source elevation. In the high-elevation Colorado garden, germination success peaked for genotypes that evolved at elevations similar to that of the garden and decreased for genotypes from higher and lower elevations. We also found evidence for local maladaptation in survival and fecundity components of fitness in the low-elevation Colorado garden. This approach is a first step in predicting how global change could affect evolutionary dynamics.

  9. Proximate causes of adaptive growth rates: growth efficiency variation among latitudinal populations of Rana temporaria.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, B; Laurila, A

    2005-07-01

    In ectothermic organisms, declining season length and lower temperature towards higher latitudes often select for latitudinal variation in growth and development. However, the energetic mechanisms underlying this adaptive variation are largely unknown. We investigated growth, food intake and growth efficiency of Rana temporaria tadpoles from eight populations along a 1500 km latitudinal gradient across Sweden. To gain an insight into the mechanisms of adaptation at organ level, we also examined variation in tadpole gut length. The tadpoles were raised at two temperatures (16 and 20 degrees C) in a laboratory common garden experiment. We found increased growth rate towards higher latitudes, regardless of temperature treatment. This increase in growth was not because of a higher food intake rate, but populations from higher latitudes had higher growth efficiency, i.e. they were more efficient at converting ingested food into body mass. Low temperature reduced growth efficiency most strongly in southern populations. Relative gut length increased with latitude, and tadpoles at low temperature tended to have longer guts. However, variation in gut length was not the sole adaptive explanation for increased growth efficiency as latitude and body length still explained significant amounts of variation in growth efficiency. Hence, additional energetic adaptations are probably involved in growth efficiency variation along the latitudinal gradient.

  10. Local adaptation and oceanographic connectivity patterns explain genetic differentiation of a marine diatom across the North Sea-Baltic Sea salinity gradient.

    PubMed

    Sjöqvist, C; Godhe, A; Jonsson, P R; Sundqvist, L; Kremp, A

    2015-06-01

    Drivers of population genetic structure are still poorly understood in marine micro-organisms. We exploited the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition for investigating the seascape genetics of a marine diatom, Skeletonema marinoi. Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were analysed in 354 individuals from ten locations to analyse population structure of the species along a 1500-km-long salinity gradient ranging from 3 to 30 psu. To test for salinity adaptation, salinity reaction norms were determined for sets of strains originating from three different salinity regimes of the gradient. Modelled oceanographic connectivity was compared to directional relative migration by correlation analyses to examine oceanographic drivers. Population genetic analyses showed distinct genetic divergence of a low-salinity Baltic Sea population and a high-salinity North Sea population, coinciding with the most evident physical dispersal barrier in the area, the Danish Straits. Baltic Sea populations displayed reduced genetic diversity compared to North Sea populations. Growth optima of low salinity isolates were significantly lower than those of strains from higher native salinities, indicating local salinity adaptation. Although the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition was identified as a barrier to gene flow, migration between Baltic Sea and North Sea populations occurred. However, the presence of differentiated neutral markers on each side of the transition zone suggests that migrants are maladapted. It is concluded that local salinity adaptation, supported by oceanographic connectivity patterns creating an asymmetric migration pattern between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, determines genetic differentiation patterns in the transition zone.

  11. Local adaptations in bryophytes revisited: the genetic structure of the calcium-tolerant peatmoss Sphagnum warnstorfii along geographic and pH gradients.

    PubMed

    Mikulášková, Eva; Hájek, Michal; Veleba, Adam; Johnson, Matthew G; Hájek, Tomáš; Shaw, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    Bryophytes dominate some ecosystems despite their extraordinary sensitivity to habitat quality. Nevertheless, some species behave differently across various regions. The existence of local adaptations is questioned by a high dispersal ability, which is thought to redistribute genetic variability among populations. Although Sphagnum warnstorfii is an important ecosystem engineer in fen peatlands, the causes of its rather wide niche along the pH/calcium gradient are poorly understood. Here, we studied the genetic variability of its global populations, with a detailed focus on the wide pH/calcium gradient in Central Europe. Principal coordinates analysis of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci revealed a significant gradient coinciding with water pH, but independent of geography; even samples from the same fens were clearly separated along this gradient. However, most of the genetic variations remained unexplained, possibly because of the introgression from phylogenetically allied species. This explanation is supported by the small heterogeneous cluster of samples that appeared when populations morphologically transitional to S. subnites, S. rubellum, or S. russowii were included into the analysis. Alternatively, this unexplained variation might be attributed to a legacy of glacial refugia with recently dissolved ecological and biogeographic consequences. Isolation by distance appeared at the smallest scale only (up to 43 km). Negative spatial correlations occurred more frequently, mainly at long distances (up to 950 km), implying a genetic similarity among samples which are very distant geographically. Our results confirm the high dispersal ability of peatmosses, but simultaneously suggested that their ability to cope with a high pH/calcium level is at least partially determined genetically, perhaps via specific physiological mechanisms or a hummock-forming ability.

  12. Local adaptations in bryophytes revisited: the genetic structure of the calcium-tolerant peatmoss Sphagnum warnstorfii along geographic and pH gradients

    PubMed Central

    Mikulášková, Eva; Hájek, Michal; Veleba, Adam; Johnson, Matthew G; Hájek, Tomáš; Shaw, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    Bryophytes dominate some ecosystems despite their extraordinary sensitivity to habitat quality. Nevertheless, some species behave differently across various regions. The existence of local adaptations is questioned by a high dispersal ability, which is thought to redistribute genetic variability among populations. Although Sphagnum warnstorfii is an important ecosystem engineer in fen peatlands, the causes of its rather wide niche along the pH/calcium gradient are poorly understood. Here, we studied the genetic variability of its global populations, with a detailed focus on the wide pH/calcium gradient in Central Europe. Principal coordinates analysis of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci revealed a significant gradient coinciding with water pH, but independent of geography; even samples from the same fens were clearly separated along this gradient. However, most of the genetic variations remained unexplained, possibly because of the introgression from phylogenetically allied species. This explanation is supported by the small heterogeneous cluster of samples that appeared when populations morphologically transitional to S. subnites, S. rubellum, or S. russowii were included into the analysis. Alternatively, this unexplained variation might be attributed to a legacy of glacial refugia with recently dissolved ecological and biogeographic consequences. Isolation by distance appeared at the smallest scale only (up to 43 km). Negative spatial correlations occurred more frequently, mainly at long distances (up to 950 km), implying a genetic similarity among samples which are very distant geographically. Our results confirm the high dispersal ability of peatmosses, but simultaneously suggested that their ability to cope with a high pH/calcium level is at least partially determined genetically, perhaps via specific physiological mechanisms or a hummock-forming ability. PMID:25628880

  13. ULYSSES plasma parameters: latitudinal, radial, and temporal variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, B. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Phillips, J. L.; Bame, S.; Gosling, J. T.; McComas, D.; Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N. R.; Suess, S. T.

    1996-12-01

    Observations by the Ulysses SWOOPS plasma experiment are used to investigate spatial and temporal gradients during the mission, with emphasis on more recent high latitude observations including the recent South Pole to North Pole passage during solar minimum. Compared to lower latitudes, the high latitude solar wind had higher average speed, proton temperature, and momentum flux, and lower number flux density. As the average momentum flux observed in the high speed wind was 21% greater than at the equator, during solar minimum the distance to the heliopause will be comparatively less in the solar equatorial plane than over the poles. The long term temporal gradients of momentum flux over the life of the mission are considerably larger than the latitudinal gradient observed by Ulysses during solar minimum. A modest North-South high latitude asymmetry is observed in the plasma parameters; the velocity is on the average 13km/s to 24km/s greater at Northern latitudes than at Southern, and temperature is also higher. The North-South temperature asymmetry is greater than can be explained by the North-South velocity difference and the dependence of solar wind temperature upon speed. The power law dependence of temperature on heliocentric distance, r, at high latitudes is in range r^-0.81^ to r^-1.03^, where r^-0.81^ is the Southern latitude result and r^-1.03^ the Northern. The parameter T/n^1/2^, where T is temperature and n is proton number density, can be better predicted from speed than can temperature alone. Comparison with calculations based on source models and magnetograph data indicate that the expansion of open coronal field lines close to the Sun was greater in the Southern hemisphere than in the Northern; this anticorrelation with the expansion factor is consistent with previous observational and theoretical work.

  14. Optimal defense theory explains deviations from latitudinal herbivory defense hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kooyers, Nicholas J; Blackman, Benjamin K; Holeski, Liza M

    2017-04-01

    The latitudinal herbivory defense hypothesis (LHDH) postulates that the prevalence of species interactions, including herbivory, is greater at lower latitudes, leading to selection for increased levels of plant defense. While latitudinal defense clines may be caused by spatial variation in herbivore pressure, optimal defense theory predicts that clines could also be caused by ecogeographic variation in the cost of defense. For instance, allocation of resources to defense may not increase plant fitness when growing seasons are short and plants must reproduce quickly. Here we use a common garden experiment to survey genetic variation for constitutive and induced phenylpropanoid glycoside (PPG) concentrations across 35 Mimulus guttatus populations over a ~13° latitudinal transect. Our sampling regime is unique among studies of the LHDH in that it allows us to disentangle the effects of growing season length from those of latitude, temperature, and elevation. For five of the seven PPGs surveyed, we find associations between latitude and plant defense that are robust to population structure. However, contrary to the LHDH, only two PPGs were found at higher levels in low latitude populations, and total PPG concentrations were higher at higher latitudes. PPG levels are strongly correlated with growing season length, with higher levels of PPGs in plants from areas with longer growing seasons. Further, flowering time is positively correlated with the concentration of nearly all PPGs, suggesting that there may be a strong trade-off between development time and defense production. Our results reveal that ecogeographic patterns in plant defense may reflect variation in the cost of producing defense compounds in addition to variation in herbivore pressure. Thus, the biogeographic pattern predicted by the LHDH may not be accurate because the underlying factors driving variation in defense, in this case, growing season length, are not always associated with latitude in the same

  15. Latitudinal Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in the Agricultural Soils of Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liuqin; Deng, Ye; Wang, Shang; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    The response of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) and archaeal (AOA) communities to individual environmental variables (e.g., pH, temperature, and carbon- and nitrogen-related soil nutrients) has been extensively studied, but how these environmental conditions collectively shape AOB and AOA distributions in unmanaged agricultural soils across a large latitudinal gradient remains poorly known. In this study, the AOB and AOA community structure and diversity in 26 agricultural soils collected from eastern China were investigated by using quantitative PCR and bar-coded 454 pyrosequencing of the amoA gene that encodes the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. The sampling locations span over a 17° latitude gradient and cover a range of climatic conditions. The Nitrosospira and Nitrososphaera were the dominant clusters of AOB and AOA, respectively; but the subcluster-level composition of Nitrosospira-related AOB and Nitrososphaera-related AOA varied across the latitudinal gradient. Variance partitioning analysis showed that geography and climatic conditions (e.g., mean annual temperature and precipitation), as well as carbon-/nitrogen-related soil nutrients, contributed more to the AOB and AOA community variations (∼50% in total) than soil pH (∼10% in total). These results are important in furthering our understanding of environmental conditions influencing AOB and AOA community structure across a range of environmental gradients. PMID:25002421

  16. Altitudinal variation of demographic life-history traits does not mimic latitudinal variation in natterjack toads (Bufo calamita).

    PubMed

    Oromi, Neus; Sanuy, Delfi; Sinsch, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    In anuran amphibians, age- and size-related life-history traits vary along latitudinal and altiudinal gradients. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that altitudinal and latitudinal effects cause similar responses by assessing demographic life-history traits in nine Bufo calamita populations inhabiting elevations from sea level to 2270 m. Skeletochronologically determined age at maturity and longevity increased at elevations exceeding 2000 m, but female potential reproductive lifespan (PRLS) did not increase with altitude, as it did with latitude. Integrating the available evidence, it was found that lifetime fecundity of natterjacks decreased at the upper altitudinal range because PRLS was about the same as in lowland populations but females were smaller. In contrast, small size of northern females was compensated for by increased PRLS which minimised latitudinal variation of lifetime fecundity. Thus, this study provides evidence that altitudinal effects on life-history traits do not mimic latitudinal effects. Life-history trait variation along the altitudinal gradient seems to respond directly to the shortening of the annual activity period. As there is no evidence for increasing mortality in highland populations, reduced lifetime fecundity may be the ultimate reason for the natterjacks' inability to colonise elevations exceeding 2500 m.

  17. Genetic structure along an altitudinal gradient in Lippia origanoides, a promising aromatic plant species restricted to semiarid areas in northern South America

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Vela, Nelson Enrique; Sánchez, María Isabel Chacón

    2012-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of Lippia origanoides, a species of the Verbenaceae family that shows promise as a crop plant, was investigated along an altitudinal gradient in the basin of the Chicamocha River in northeastern Colombia. The economic importance of the species, quality of its essential oils, and the fact that it is restricted to some few semiarid areas in northern South America may put the species at risk in a scenario of uncontrolled harvest of natural populations. Lippia origanoides was sampled along an altitudinal gradient from 365 to 2595 m.a.s.l. throughout Chicamocha River Canyon, a semiarid area in northeastern Colombia. Genetic diversity was assessed by means of AFLP markers. The number of AFLP loci (355) and the number of individuals sampled (173) were sufficient to reliably identify four populations at contrasting altitudes (FST = 0.18, P-value < 0.0000), two populations in the lower basin, one population in the medium basin, and one population in the upper basin, with a low level of admixture between them. In average, genetic diversity within populations was relatively high (Ht = 0.32; I = 0.48); nevertheless, diversity was significantly reduced at higher altitude, a pattern that may be consistent with a scenario of range expansion toward higher elevations in an environment with more extreme conditions. The differences in altitude among the basins in the Chicamocha River seem to be relevant in determining the genetic structure of this species. PMID:23170204

  18. Genetic structure along an altitudinal gradient in Lippia origanoides, a promising aromatic plant species restricted to semiarid areas in northern South America.

    PubMed

    Vega-Vela, Nelson Enrique; Sánchez, María Isabel Chacón

    2012-11-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of Lippia origanoides, a species of the Verbenaceae family that shows promise as a crop plant, was investigated along an altitudinal gradient in the basin of the Chicamocha River in northeastern Colombia. The economic importance of the species, quality of its essential oils, and the fact that it is restricted to some few semiarid areas in northern South America may put the species at risk in a scenario of uncontrolled harvest of natural populations. Lippia origanoides was sampled along an altitudinal gradient from 365 to 2595 m.a.s.l. throughout Chicamocha River Canyon, a semiarid area in northeastern Colombia. Genetic diversity was assessed by means of AFLP markers. The number of AFLP loci (355) and the number of individuals sampled (173) were sufficient to reliably identify four populations at contrasting altitudes (F(ST) = 0.18, P-value < 0.0000), two populations in the lower basin, one population in the medium basin, and one population in the upper basin, with a low level of admixture between them. In average, genetic diversity within populations was relatively high (Ht = 0.32; I = 0.48); nevertheless, diversity was significantly reduced at higher altitude, a pattern that may be consistent with a scenario of range expansion toward higher elevations in an environment with more extreme conditions. The differences in altitude among the basins in the Chicamocha River seem to be relevant in determining the genetic structure of this species.

  19. Latitudinal variation in reproductive strategies by the migratory Louisiana Waterthrush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattsson, B.J.; Latta, S.C.; Cooper, R.J.; Mulvihill, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated hypotheses that seek to explain breeding strategies of the Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia motacilla) that vary across a latitudinal gradient. On the basis of data from 418 nests of color-banded individuals in southwestern Pennsylvania and 700 km south in the Georgia Piedmont, we found that clutch size in replacement nests and probability of renesting were significantly greater in Pennsylvania (clutch size 4.4; renesting probability 0.66) than in Georgia (clutch size 3.8; renesting probability 0.54). Contrasts of the remaining measures of breeding were not statistically significant, and, in particular, mean daily nest survival in the two study areas was nearly identical (0.974 in Pennsylvania; 0.975 in Georgia). An individual-based model of fecundity (i.e., number of fledged young per adult female), predicted that approximately half of the females in both Pennsylvania and Georgia fledge at least one young, and mean values for fecundity in Pennsylvania and Georgia were 2.28 and 1.91, respectively. On the basis of greater support for the food-limitation hypothesis than for the season-length hypothesis, the trade-off between breeding in a region with more food but making a longer migration may be greater for waterthrushes breeding farther north than for those breeding farther south. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  20. Global latitudinal variations in marine copepod diversity and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Isabelle; Beaugrand, Grégory; Ibanez, Frédéric; Gasparini, Stéphane; Chiba, Sanae; Legendre, Louis

    2009-09-07

    Latitudinal gradients in diversity are among the most striking features in ecology. For terrestrial species, climate (i.e. temperature and precipitation) is believed to exert a strong influence on the geographical distributions of diversity through its effects on energy availability. Here, we provide the first global description of geographical variation in the diversity of marine copepods, a key trophic link between phytoplankton and fish, in relation to environmental variables. We found a polar-tropical difference in copepod diversity in the Northern Hemisphere where diversity peaked at subtropical latitudes. In the Southern Hemisphere, diversity showed a tropical plateau into the temperate regions. This asymmetry around the Equator may be explained by climatic conditions, in particular the influence of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone, prevailing mainly in the northern tropical region. Ocean temperature was the most important explanatory factor among all environmental variables tested, accounting for 54 per cent of the variation in diversity. Given the strong positive correlation between diversity and temperature, local copepod diversity, especially in extra-tropical regions, is likely to increase with climate change as their large-scale distributions respond to climate warming.

  1. No Latitudinal Trends in Body Size of Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Z.; Payne, J.; Seixas, G.

    2012-12-01

    Many organisms, such as penguins and polar bears, follow Bergmann's rule, which states that body size of animals tends to increase as temperature decreases, and thus as latitude increases toward to poles. A study of marine mollusk bivalves across a latitudinal gradient found no correlation between body size and latitude along the North American Pacific Coast, suggesting that the body size of marine bivalves might be controlled by other factors. This posed the question: Is there a lack of correlation between latitude and body size for all marine invertebrates or is it unique to marine bivalves? In this study, we examined four suborders of benthic foraminifera, Lagenina, Miliolina, Rotaliina, and Textulariina, a diverse phylum of amoeboid protists, to determine the relationship between body size and latitude within and across suborders at the global scale. We measured the shell (test) dimensions of foraminifera from a compilation of monograph images of type specimens. The mean test size as well as the maximum body size of those foraminifera suborders does not vary with increasing latitude. Our results show that foraminifera do not follow Bergmann's rule, consistent with the body size distribution pattern observed in marine bivalves. Different biological and environmental factors that vary between foraminifera suborders, such as life habitats, behaviors, and physiology, might have a greater influence on body size distributions.

  2. Ecotypes of an ecologically dominant prairie grass (Andropogon gerardii) exhibit genetic divergence across the U.S. Midwest grasslands' environmental gradient.

    PubMed

    Gray, Miranda M; St Amand, Paul; Bello, Nora M; Galliart, Matthew B; Knapp, Mary; Garrett, Karen A; Morgan, Theodore J; Baer, Sara G; Maricle, Brian R; Akhunov, Eduard D; Johnson, Loretta C

    2014-12-01

    Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is an ecologically dominant grass with wide distribution across the environmental gradient of U.S. Midwest grasslands. This system offers an ideal natural laboratory to study population divergence and adaptation in spatially varying climates. Objectives were to: (i) characterize neutral genetic diversity and structure within and among three regional ecotypes derived from 11 prairies across the U.S. Midwest environmental gradient, (ii) distinguish between the relative roles of isolation by distance (IBD) vs. isolation by environment (IBE) on ecotype divergence, (iii) identify outlier loci under selection and (iv) assess the association between outlier loci and climate. Using two primer sets, we genotyped 378 plants at 384 polymorphic AFLP loci across regional ecotypes from central and eastern Kansas and Illinois. Neighbour-joining tree and PCoA revealed strong genetic differentiation between Kansas and Illinois ecotypes, which was better explained by IBE than IBD. We found high genetic variability within prairies (80%) and even fragmented Illinois prairies, surprisingly, contained high within-prairie genetic diversity (92%). Using Bayenv2, 14 top-ranked outlier loci among ecotypes were associated with temperature and precipitation variables. Six of seven BayeScanFST outliers were in common with Bayenv2 outliers. High genetic diversity may enable big bluestem populations to better withstand changing climates; however, population divergence supports the use of local ecotypes in grassland restoration. Knowledge of genetic variation in this ecological dominant and other grassland species will be critical to understanding grassland response and restoration challenges in the face of a changing climate.

  3. Global latitudinal-asymmetric vegetation growth trends and their driving mechanisms: 1982-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E; Hoffman, Forrest M; Zhu, Zaichun; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    Using a recent Leaf Area Index (LAI) dataset and the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4), we investigate percent changes and controlling factors of global vegetation growth for the period 1982 to 2009. Over that 28-year period, both the remote-sensing estimate and model simulation show a significant increasing trend in annual vegetation growth. Latitudinal asymmetry appeared in both products, with small increases in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and larger increases at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The south-to-north asymmetric land surface warming was assessed to be the principal driver of this latitudinal asymmetry of LAI trend. Heterogeneous precipitation functioned to decrease this latitudinal LAI gradient, and considerably regulated the local LAI change. CO2 fertilization during the last three decades, was simulated to be the dominant cause for the enhanced vegetation growth. Our study, though limited by observational and modeling uncertainties, adds further insight into vegetation growth trends and environmental correlations. These validation exercises also provide new quantitative and objective metrics for evaluation of land ecosystem process models at multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  4. Latitudinal Controls on Topography: The Role of Precipitation and Fluvial Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, C.; Yanites, B.

    2014-12-01

    Observations from the North and South American Cordillera show that mean and maximum elevations decrease with increasing latitude. The trend in elevation follows the latitudinal dependence of snowline altitudes. This correlation between elevation and snowline altitude has been the impetus behind the glacial 'buzzsaw' hypothesis, which states that glaciers limit the elevation of mountain peaks. Underlying this hypothesis is an assumption that elevations prior to glaciation were either uniform, randomly distributed, or followed a pattern that is no longer present. However, there may be other factors that are responsible for these patterns, such as latitudinal trends in precipitation. Here, we address this assumption and the necessity of glacial erosion in explaining the latitudinal trend in elevation. We use the CHILD landscape evolution model parameterized by modern precipitation data along a latitudinal gradient in the Andes to predict the topography in the absence of glaciation. Using NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis precipitation data from 1981-2010, we derive storm duration, intensity, and frequency statistics for a series of locations along the Andean orogen. For each location, we run a model using a sequence of storms generated from these statistics. Erodibility and rock-uplift are held constant between the different locations and the models are run until topographic steady-state is achieved. We also present runs exploring the role of a threshold for bedrock detachment in the modeled results. For each run, we track the maximum and mean elevation as well as the time to steady-state. Preliminary results for all cases show that fluvial processes alone are sufficient to account for the latitudinal dependence of topography. For example, landscapes produced with precipitation statistics similar to the dry central Andes are more than an order of magnitude higher than landscapes from the southern, wetter, part of the orogen. Future analysis will use precipitation data from

  5. Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic warming

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Lesins, Glen K; Wang, Muyin

    2010-12-08

    Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current warming of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the warming.

  6. Latitudinal and taxonomic patterns in the feeding ecologies of fish larvae: A literature synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llopiz, Joel K.

    2013-01-01

    , likely reflecting differences in the overall structure of planktonic food webs over large latitudinal gradients.

  7. RNA/DNA ratios in American glass eels (Anguilla rostrata): evidence for latitudinal variation in physiological status and constraints to oceanic migration?

    PubMed Central

    Laflamme, Simon; Côté, Caroline; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Castonguay, Martin; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    During their larval leptocephalus phase, newly hatched American eels undergo an extensive oceanic migration from the Sargasso Sea toward coastal and freshwater habitats. Their subsequent metamorphosis into glass eel is accompanied by drastic morphological and physiological changes preceding settlement over a wide geographic range. The main objective of this study was to compare RNA/DNA ratios and condition factor among glass eels in order to test the null hypothesis of no difference in physiological status and metabolic activity of glass eels at the outcome of their oceanic migration. This was achieved by analyzing glass eel samples collected at the mouth of 17 tributaries covering a latitudinal gradient across the species distribution range from Florida to Gaspésie (Québec). Our main observations were (i) a latitudinal increase in mean total length; (ii) a latitudinal variation in mean RNA/DNA ratios, which was best explained by a quadratic model reaching its minimum in the central range of sampling locations; and (iii) a latitudinal variation in Fulton's condition factor, which was best explained by a quadratic model reaching its maximum in the central range of sampling locations. Below we discuss the possible links between latitudinal variation in glass eel physiological status and variable energetic and environmental constraints to oceanic migration as a function of latitudinal distribution. PMID:22837833

  8. Revealing latitudinal patterns of mitochondrial DNA diversity in Chileans.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Moreno, Fabián; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Martinón-Torres, Federico; García-Magariños, Manuel; Pantoja-Astudillo, Jaime A; Aguirre-Morales, Eugenia; Bustos, Patricio; Salas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The territory of Chile is particularly long and narrow, which combined with its mountainous terrain, makes it a unique scenario for human genetic studies. We obtained 995 control region mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from Chileans representing populations living at different latitudes of the country from the North to the southernmost region. The majority of the mtDNA profiles are of Native American origin (∼88%). The remaining haplotypes are mostly of recent European origin (∼11%), and only a minor proportion is of recent African ancestry (∼1%). While these proportions are relatively uniform across the country, more structured patterns of diversity emerge when examining the variation from a phylogeographic perspective. For instance, haplogroup A2 reaches ∼9% in the North, and its frequency decreases gradually to ∼1% in the southernmost populations, while the frequency of haplogroup D (sub-haplogroups D1 and D4) follows the opposite pattern: 36% in the southernmost region, gradually decreasing to 21% in the North. Furthermore, there are remarkable signatures of founder effects in specific sub-clades of Native American (e.g. haplogroups D1j and D4p) and European (e.g. haplogroups T2b3 and K1a4a1a+195) ancestry. We conclude that the magnitude of the latitudinal differences observed in the patterns of mtDNA variation might be relevant in forensic casework.

  9. Connectivity in grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) determined using empirical and simulated genetic data

    PubMed Central

    Momigliano, Paolo; Harcourt, Robert; Robbins, William D.; Stow, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) can be one of the numerically dominant high order predators on pristine coral reefs, yet their numbers have declined even in the highly regulated Australian Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Marine Park. Knowledge of both large scale and fine scale genetic connectivity of grey reef sharks is essential for their effective management, but no genetic data are yet available. We investigated grey reef shark genetic structure in the GBR across a 1200 km latitudinal gradient, comparing empirical data with models simulating different levels of migration. The empirical data did not reveal any genetic structuring along the entire latitudinal gradient sampled, suggesting regular widespread dispersal and gene flow of the species throughout most of the GBR. Our simulated datasets indicate that even with substantial migrations (up to 25% of individuals migrating between neighboring reefs) both large scale genetic structure and genotypic spatial autocorrelation at the reef scale were maintained. We suggest that present migration rates therefore exceed this level. These findings have important implications regarding the effectiveness of networks of spatially discontinuous Marine Protected Areas to protect reef sharks. PMID:26314287

  10. Connectivity in grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) determined using empirical and simulated genetic data.

    PubMed

    Momigliano, Paolo; Harcourt, Robert; Robbins, William D; Stow, Adam

    2015-08-28

    Grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) can be one of the numerically dominant high order predators on pristine coral reefs, yet their numbers have declined even in the highly regulated Australian Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Marine Park. Knowledge of both large scale and fine scale genetic connectivity of grey reef sharks is essential for their effective management, but no genetic data are yet available. We investigated grey reef shark genetic structure in the GBR across a 1200 km latitudinal gradient, comparing empirical data with models simulating different levels of migration. The empirical data did not reveal any genetic structuring along the entire latitudinal gradient sampled, suggesting regular widespread dispersal and gene flow of the species throughout most of the GBR. Our simulated datasets indicate that even with substantial migrations (up to 25% of individuals migrating between neighboring reefs) both large scale genetic structure and genotypic spatial autocorrelation at the reef scale were maintained. We suggest that present migration rates therefore exceed this level. These findings have important implications regarding the effectiveness of networks of spatially discontinuous Marine Protected Areas to protect reef sharks.

  11. Altitudinal vs Latitudinal Climactic Drivers: A Comparison of a Relict Picea and Abies Forest in the Southern Appalachians versus the Hemi-Boreal Transition Zone off Southern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A.; Lafon, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Identification of biotic and abiotic determinants of tree species range limits is critical for understanding the effects of climate change on species distributions. Upward shifts of species distributions in montane areas have been widely reported but there have been few reports of latitudinal range retractions. Previous studies have indicated that southern latitudinal limits of a species range are dictated by biotic factors such as competition while others have suggested that abiotic factors, such as temperature, dictate these limits. We investigated the potential climatic gradients at the southern latitudinal limit of the Spruce (Picea) and Fir (Abies) species that dominate the Canadian boreal forest community as well as relict boreal forests containing similar species found in the high elevation areas of the Southern Appalachians. Existing research has suggested that relict ecosystems are more sensitive to climate change and can be indicative of future changes at latitudinal range limits. Expanding on this literature, we hypothesized that we would see similar gradients in climatic variables at the southern latitudinal limit of the Canadian boreal forest and those in the relict boreal forests southern Appalachians acting as controlling factors of these species distributions. We used forty years of climate data from weather stations along the southern edge of the boreal forest in the Canadian Shield provinces, species distribution data from the Canadian National Forest Inventory, (CNFI) geospatial data from the National Park Service (NPS), and historical weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to perform our analysis. Our results indicate different climate variables act as controls of warm edge range limits of the Canadian boreal forest than those of the relict boreal forest of the southern Appalachians. However, we believe range retractions of the relict forest may be indicative of a more gradual response of similar species

  12. Latitudinally dependent Trimpi effects: Modeling and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clilverd, Mark A.; Yeo, Richard F.; Nunn, David; Smith, Andy J.

    1999-09-01

    Modeling studies show that the exclusion of the propagating VLF wave from the ionospheric region results in the decline of Trimpi magnitude with patch altitude. In large models such as Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) this exclusion does not occur inherently in the code, and high-altitude precipitation modeling can produce results that are not consistent with observations from ground-based experiments. The introduction to LWPC of realistic wave attenuation of the height gain functions in the ionosphere solves these computational problems. This work presents the first modeling of (Born) Trimpi scattering at long ranges, taking into account global inhomogeneities and continuous mode conversion along all paths, by employing the full conductivity perturbation matrix. The application of the more realistic height gain functions allows the prediction of decreasing Trimpi activity with increasing latitude, primarily through the mechanism of excluding the VLF wave from regions of high conductivity and scattering efficiency. Ground-based observations from Faraday and Rothera, Antarctica, in September and October 1995 of Trimpi occurring on the NPM (Hawaii) path provide data that are consistent with these predictions. Latitudinal variations in Trimpi occurrence near L=2.5, with a significant decrease of about 70% occurrence between L=2.4 and L=2.8, have been observed at higher L shell resolution than in previous studies (i.e., 2

  13. Latitudinal variation of thermospheric hydrogen near solstice from AE-D observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanatani, S.; Breig, E. L.

    1988-01-01

    Variations of thermospheric neutral atomic hydrogen with latitude during a solstice season near solar minimum were investigated using data acquired with the polar-orbiting AE-D satellite. Hydrogen concentrations at low latitude were found to be comparable to those found from observations with the AE-E satellite, but were slightly higher than concentrations derived from the 1983 mass spectrometer incoherent scatter atmospheric model. Results confirm the general summer-to-winter density increase, large latitudinal gradients in the summer hemisphere, and the winter enhancement of hydrogen observed in AE-C nighttime measurements. The AE-D data, however, show a small polar depression in hydrogen concentration at high winter latitudes, attributed to atmospheric dynamics following auroral heating. The density gradients observed by AE-D in the summer hemisphere were in sharp contrast to the more constant horizontal daytime profiles reported from OGO-6 and previous AE-C measurements, indicating the possibility of local time effects.

  14. Latitudinal variation in lifespan within species is explained by the metabolic theory of ecology

    PubMed Central

    Munch, Stephan B.; Salinas, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Many ectotherms exhibit striking latitudinal gradients in lifespan. However, it is unclear whether lifespan gradients in distantly related taxa share a common mechanistic explanation. We compiled data on geographic variation in lifespan in ectotherms from around the globe to determine how much of this intraspecific variation in lifespan may be explained by temperature using the simple predictions of the metabolic theory of ecology. We found that the metabolic theory accurately predicts how lifespan varies with temperature within species in a wide range of ectotherms in both controlled laboratory experiments and free-living populations. After removing the effect of temperature, only a small fraction of species showed significant trends with latitude. There was, however, considerable residual intraspecific variation indicating that other, more local factors are likely to be important in determining lifespan within species. These findings suggest that, given predicted increases in global temperature, lifespan of ectotherms may be substantially shortened in the future. PMID:19666552

  15. Latitudinal variation of phytoplankton communities in the western Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min Joo, Hyoung; Lee, Sang H.; Won Jung, Seung; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Hwan Lee, Jin

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that photosynthetic eukaryotes are an active and often dominant component of Arctic phytoplankton assemblages. In order to explore this notion at a large scale, samples were collected to investigate the community structure and biovolume of phytoplankton along a transect in the western Arctic Ocean. The transect included 37 stations at the surface and subsurface chlorophyll a maximum (SCM) depths in the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Canadian Basin from July 19 to September 5, 2008. Phytoplankton (>2 μm) were identified and counted. A cluster analysis of abundance and biovolume data revealed different assemblages over the shelf, slope, and basin regions. Phytoplankton communities were composed of 71 taxa representing Dinophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Dictyochophyceae, Prasinophyceae, and Prymnesiophyceae. The most abundant species were of pico- to nano-size at the surface and SCM depths at most stations. Nano- and pico-sized phytoplankton appeared to be dominant in the Bering Sea, whereas diatoms and nano-sized plankton provided the majority of taxon diversity in the Bering Strait and in the Chukchi Sea. From the western Bering Sea to the Bering Strait, the abundance, biovolume, and species diversity of phytoplankton provided a marked latitudinal gradient towards the central Arctic. Although pico- and nano-sized phytoplankton contributed most to cell abundance, their chlorophyll a contents and biovolumes were less than those of the larger micro-sized taxa. Micro-sized phytoplankton contributed most to the biovolume in the largely ice-free waters of the western Arctic Ocean during summer 2008.

  16. Large-scale longitudinal gradients of genetic diversity: a meta-analysis across six phyla in the Mediterranean basin

    PubMed Central

    Conord, Cyrille; Gurevitch, Jessica; Fady, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity is the diversity of life at all scales, from genes to ecosystems. Predicting its patterns of variation across the globe is a fundamental issue in ecology and evolution. Diversity within species, that is, genetic diversity, is of prime importance for understanding past and present evolutionary patterns, and highlighting areas where conservation might be a priority. Using published data on the genetic diversity of species whose populations occur in the Mediterranean basin, we calculated a coefficient of correlation between within-population genetic diversity indices and longitude. Using a meta-analysis framework, we estimated the role of biological, ecological, biogeographic, and marker type factors on the strength and magnitude of this correlation in six phylla. Overall, genetic diversity increases from west to east in the Mediterranean basin. This correlation is significant for both animals and plants, but is not uniformly expressed for all groups. It is stronger in the southern than in the northern Mediterranean, in true Mediterranean plants than in plants found at higher elevations, in trees than in other plants, and in bi-parentally and paternally than in maternally inherited DNA makers. Overall, this correlation between genetic diversity and longitude, and its patterns across biological and ecological traits, suggests the role of two non-mutually exclusive major processes that shaped the genetic diversity in the Mediterranean during and after the cold periods of the Pleistocene: east-west recolonization during the Holocene and population size contraction under local Last Glacial Maximum climate in resident western and low elevation Mediterranean populations. PMID:23145344

  17. GenGIS 2: Geospatial Analysis of Traditional and Genetic Biodiversity, with New Gradient Algorithms and an Extensible Plugin Framework

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Donovan H.; Mankowski, Timothy; Zangooei, Somayyeh; Porter, Michael S.; Armanini, David G.; Baird, Donald J.; Langille, Morgan G. I.; Beiko, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    GenGIS is free and open source software designed to integrate biodiversity data with a digital map and information about geography and habitat. While originally developed with microbial community analyses and phylogeography in mind, GenGIS has been applied to a wide range of datasets. A key feature of GenGIS is the ability to test geographic axes that can correspond to routes of migration or gradients that influence community similarity. Here we introduce GenGIS version 2, which extends the linear gradient tests introduced in the first version to allow comprehensive testing of all possible linear geographic axes. GenGIS v2 also includes a new plugin framework that supports the development and use of graphically driven analysis packages: initial plugins include implementations of linear regression and the Mantel test, calculations of alpha-diversity (e.g., Shannon Index) for all samples, and geographic visualizations of dissimilarity matrices. We have also implemented a recently published method for biomonitoring reference condition analysis (RCA), which compares observed species richness and diversity to predicted values to determine whether a given site has been impacted. The newest version of GenGIS supports vector data in addition to raster files. We demonstrate the new features of GenGIS by performing a full gradient analysis of an Australian kangaroo apple data set, by using plugins and embedded statistical commands to analyze human microbiome sample data, and by applying RCA to a set of samples from Atlantic Canada. GenGIS release versions, tutorials and documentation are freely available at http://kiwi.cs.dal.ca/GenGIS, and source code is available at https://github.com/beiko-lab/gengis. PMID:23922841

  18. Latitudinal Libration in a Triaxial Ellipsoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebron, D.; Vantieghem, S.; Noir, J.

    2014-12-01

    As a consequence of gravitational coupling with their orbital partners, the rotational dynamics of planets and moons exhibits periodic variations in time, such as precession, libration and nutation. Moreover, most planets are subject to tidal forces, which in combination with the planet's rotation, result in a departure from a purely spherically symmetric object. In this theoretical-numerical study, we investigate the flows driven by latitudinal libration (i.e. an oscillation of the figure axis with respect to the mean rotation axis) within liquid cores of triaxial ellipsoidal shape. We first derive a uniform-vorticity solution for the equations of motion, and find that it can resonate with the spin-over inertial mode. Using a reduced model of viscosity (J. Noir and D. Cébron, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 737 (2013)), we deduce that the amplitude of the flow at resonance diverges as the inverse square-root of the Ekman number. Our results are consistent with previous studies in a spheroidal geometry (K. Zhang et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 696 (2012)). In a following step, we address the dynamical stability of this uniform-vorticity flow. We show that it is prone to inertial instabilities arising from a parametric resonance between two free inertial modes and the base flow. We also show that the vigor of the instability is governed by the frequency and two parameters that capture the dependence on the libration amplitude and geometry. The resonant nature of these phenomena suggests that libration in latitude, despite its small amplitude, may drive strong flows within planetary cores with possibly major implications for heat transport, dissipation and magnetic field generation/induction. This is discussed at planetary settings for the cores of the Moon, Io and Mercury, and the ancient lunar core.

  19. Dynamics of the ITCZ-Equatorial Cold Tongue Complex and Causes of theLatitudinal Climate Asymmetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Yuqing

    1999-06-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean-coastline model driven by solar radiation is advanced to understand the essential physics determining the annual cycle of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)-equatorial cold tongue (ECT) complex and associated latitudinal climate asymmetry. With a thermocline depth similar to that of the western Pacific, the aquaplanet climate is latitudinal symmetric and stable. The presence of an oceanic eastern boundary supports an east-west asymmetric climate and an ECT due to unstable air-sea interaction and counter stabilization provided by zonal differential surface buoyancy flux. Formation of latitudinal climate asymmetry requires the presence of the ECT.The antisymmetric solar forcing due to annual variation of the solar declination angle can convert a stable latitudinal symmetric climate into a bistable-state latitudinal asymmetric climate by changing trade winds, which in turn control annual variations of the ECT. The ECT then interacts with ITCZ, providing a self-maintenance mechanism for ITCZ to linger in one hemisphere, either the northern or southern, depending on initial conditions. The establishment of the bistable-state asymmetry requires a delicate balance between counter effects of the antisymmetric solar forcing and self-maintenance. Two factors are critical for the latter: (i) The annual variation of ECT follows the SST of the ITCZ-free hemisphere and the meridional SST gradients between the ECT and ITCZ sustain moisture convergence, which prolongs residence of the ITCZ in summer hemisphere. (ii) The latent heat released in the ITCZ produces remarkable asymmetry in Hadley circulation and trades between the two hemispheres, and the stronger evaporation cooling in the ITCZ-free hemisphere delays and weakens the warming and convection development in that hemisphere.The annual cycle of insolation due to the earth-sun distance variation may convert the bistable-state asymmetry into a preferred latitudinal asymmetric climate. The

  20. Microchip capillary gel electrophoresis using programmed field strength gradients for the ultra-fast analysis of genetically modified organisms in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Jeong; Chae, Joon-Seok; Chang, Jun Keun; Kang, Seong Ho

    2005-08-12

    We have developed a novel method for the ultra-fast analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in soybeans by microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (MCGE) using programmed field strength gradients (PFSG) in a conventional glass double-T microchip. Under the programmed electric field strength and 0.3% poly(ethylene oxide) sieving matrix, the GMO in soybeans was analyzed within only 11 s of the microchip. The MCGE-PFSG method was a program that changes the electric field strength during GMO analysis, and was also applied to the ultra-fast analysis of PCR products. Compared to MCGE using a conventional and constantly applied electric field, the MCGE-PFSG analysis generated faster results without the loss of resolving power and reproducibility for specific DNA fragments (100- and 250-bp DNA) of GM-soybeans. The MCGE-PFSG technique may prove to be a new tool in the GMO analysis due to its speed, simplicity, and high efficiency.

  1. Contrasting growth forecasts across the geographical range of Scots pine due to altitudinal and latitudinal differences in climatic sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Matías, Luis; Linares, Juan C; Sánchez-Miranda, Ángela; Jump, Alistair S

    2017-01-18

    Ongoing changes in global climate are altering ecological conditions for many species. The consequences of such changes are typically most evident at the edge of a species' geographical distribution, where differences in growth or population dynamics may result in range expansions or contractions. Understanding population responses to different climatic drivers along wide latitudinal and altitudinal gradients is necessary in order to gain a better understanding of plant responses to ongoing increases in global temperature and drought severity. We selected Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a model species to explore growth responses to climatic variability (seasonal temperature and precipitation) over the last century through dendrochronological methods. We developed linear models based on age, climate and previous growth to forecast growth trends up to year 2100 using climatic predictions. Populations were located at the treeline across a latitudinal gradient covering the northern, central and southernmost populations and across an altitudinal gradient at the southern edge of the distribution (treeline, medium and lower elevations). Radial growth was maximal at medium altitude and treeline of the southernmost populations. Temperature was the main factor controlling growth variability along the gradients, although the timing and strength of climatic variables affecting growth shifted with latitude and altitude. Predictive models forecast a general increase in Scots pine growth at treeline across the latitudinal distribution, with southern populations increasing growth up to year 2050, when it stabilizes. The highest responsiveness appeared at central latitude, and moderate growth increase is projected at the northern limit. Contrastingly, the model forecasted growth declines at lowland-southern populations, suggesting an upslope range displacement over the coming decades. Our results give insight into the geographical responses of tree species to climate change

  2. Variation in morphological characters of two invasive leafminers, Liriomyza huidobrensis and L. sativae, across a tropical elevation gradient.

    PubMed

    Tantowijoyo, Warsito; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in morphological traits along elevation and latitudinal gradients in ectotherms are often interpreted in terms of the temperature-size rule, which states that the body size of organisms increases under low temperatures, and is therefore expected to increase with elevation and latitude. However other factors like host plant might contribute to spatial patterns in size as well, particularly for polyphagous insects. Here elevation patterns for trait size and shape in two leafminer species are examined, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and L. sativae Blanchard, along a tropical elevation gradient in Java, Indonesia. Adult leafminers were trapped from different locations in the mountainous area of Dieng in the province of Central Java. To separate environmental versus genetic effects, L. huidobrensis originating from 1378 m and 2129 m ASL were reared in the laboratory for five generations. Size variation along the elevation gradient was only found in L. huidobrensis and this followed expectations based on the temperature-size rule. There were also complex changes in wing shape along the gradient. Morphological differences were influenced by genetic and environmental effects. Findings are discussed within the context of adaptation to different elevations in the two species.

  3. Variation in Morphological Characters of Two Invasive Leafminers, Liriomyza huidobrensis and L. sativae, across a Tropical Elevation Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Tantowijoyo, Warsito; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in morphological traits along elevation and latitudinal gradients in ectotherms are often interpreted in terms of the temperature-size rule, which states that the body size of organisms increases under low temperatures, and is therefore expected to increase with elevation and latitude. However other factors like host plant might contribute to spatial patterns in size as well, particularly for polyphagous insects. Here elevation patterns for trait size and shape in two leafminer species are examined, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and L. sativae Blanchard, along a tropical elevation gradient in Java, Indonesia. Adult leafminers were trapped from different locations in the mountainous area of Dieng in the province of Central Java. To separate environmental versus genetic effects, L. huidobrensis originating from 1378 m and 2129 m ASL were reared in the laboratory for five generations. Size variation along the elevation gradient was only found in L. huidobrensis and this followed expectations based on the temperature-size rule. There were also complex changes in wing shape along the gradient. Morphological differences were influenced by genetic and environmental effects. Findings are discussed within the context of adaptation to different elevations in the two species. PMID:21867436

  4. Salix transect of Europe: latitudinal patterns in willow diversity from Greece to arctic Norway

    PubMed Central

    Ruzzier, Enrico; Belyaeva, Irina; Percy, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Willows (Salix spp.) are ecosystem "foundation species" that are hosts to large numbers of associated insects. Determining their patterns of distribution across Europe is therefore of interest for understanding the spatial distribution of associated fauna. The aim of this study was to record species composition at multiple sites on a long latitudinal gradient (megatransect) across Europe as a baseline for the future detailed analysis of insect fauna at these sites. In this way we used willow stands as comparable mesocosms in which to study floristic and faunistic changes with latitude across Europe. New information To determine spatial patterning of  an ecologically important group on a latitudinal gradient across Europe, we sampled willows at the stand level in 42 sites, approximately 100 km apart, from the Aegean (38.8°N) to the Arctic Ocean (70.6°N), but at a similar longitude (21.2 to 26.1°E). The sites were predominantly lowland (elevations 1 to 556 metres amsl, median = 95 m) and wet (associated with rivers, lakes, drainage ditches or wet meadows). The median number of willow taxa (species and hybrids) per stand was four, and varied from one to nine. There is a progressive increase in willow diversity from south to north with the median number of taxa per stand in southern Europe being three, and in northern Europe six. A total of 20 willow species were recorded, along with 12 hybrids. The most widespread willow in the transect was Salix alba L. (occurring in 20 sites out of 42) followed by S. triandra L. (15 sites), S. caprea L., S. phylicifolia L. (14 sites) and S. myrsinifolia Salisb., Salix ×fragilis L. (13 sites). Voucher specimens from this study are deposited in the herbaria of the Natural History Museum (BM) and the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (K). These samples provide a "snapshot" of willow diversity along a latitudinal gradient and an indication of the geographically changing taxonomic diversity that is

  5. Genetic structure of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus in Japan indicates a gradient of bidirectional but asymmetric introgression.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lindsay V; Stewart, J Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya; Toma, Yo; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup; Jørgensen, Uffe; Zhao, Hua; Peng, Junhua; Yoo, Ji Hye; Heo, Kweon; Yu, Chang Yeon; Yamada, Toshihiko; Sacks, Erik J

    2015-07-01

    Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites. Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicated a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M. sinensis DNA. Among phenotypically M. sacchariflorus tetraploids, M. sinensis ancestry averaged 7% and ranged from 1-39%, with introgression greatest in southern Japan. Unexpectedly, rare (~1%) diploid M. sinensis individuals from northern Japan were found with 6-27% M. sacchariflorus ancestry. Population structure of M. sinensis in Japan included three groups, and was driven primarily by distance, and secondarily by geographic barriers such as mountains and straits. Miscanthus speciation is a complex and dynamic process. In contrast to limited introgression between diploid M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. These results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars.

  6. Genetic structure of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus in Japan indicates a gradient of bidirectional but asymmetric introgression

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, Lindsay V.; Stewart, J. Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya; ...

    2015-01-24

    Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites. Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicatedmore » a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M. sinensis DNA. Among phenotypically M. sacchariflorus tetraploids, M. sinensis ancestry averaged 7% and ranged from 1-39%, with introgression greatest in southern Japan. Unexpectedly, rare (~1%) diploid M. sinensis individuals from northern Japan were found with 6-27% M. sacchariflorus ancestry. Population structure of M. sinensis in Japan included three groups, and was driven primarily by distance, and secondarily by geographic barriers such as mountains and straits. Miscanthus speciation is a complex and dynamic process. In contrast to limited introgression between diploid M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. Ultimately, these results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars.« less

  7. A latitudinal cline in flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana modulated by the flowering time gene FRIGIDA.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, John R; Weinig, Cynthia; Ungerer, Mark; Olsen, Kenneth M; Mays, Charlotte; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Purugganan, Michael D; Schmitt, Johanna

    2004-03-30

    A latitudinal cline in flowering time in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana has been widely predicted because the environmental cues that promote flowering vary systematically with latitude, but evidence for such clines has been lacking. Here, we report evidence of a significant latitudinal cline in flowering time among 70 Northern European and Mediterranean ecotypes when grown under ecologically realistic conditions in a common garden environment. The detected cline, however, is found only in ecotypes with alleles of the flowering time gene FRIGIDA (FRI) that lack major deletions that would disrupt protein function, whereas there is no relationship between flowering time and latitude of origin among accessions with FRI alleles containing such deletions. Analysis of climatological data suggests that late flowering in accessions with putatively functional FRI was associated with reduced January precipitation at the site of origin, consistent with previous reports of a positive genetic correlation between water use efficiency and flowering time in Arabidopsis, and the pleiotropic effects of FRI of increasing water use efficiency. In accessions collected from Southern latitudes, we detected that putatively functional FRI alleles were associated with accelerated flowering relative to accessions with nonfunctional FRI under the winter conditions of our experiment. These results suggest that the ecological function of the vernalization requirement conferred by FRI differs across latitudes. More generally, our results indicate that by combining ecological and molecular genetic data, it is possible to understand the forces acting on life history transitions at the level of specific loci.

  8. A latitudinal cline in flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana modulated by the flowering time gene FRIGIDA

    PubMed Central

    Stinchcombe, John R.; Weinig, Cynthia; Ungerer, Mark; Olsen, Kenneth M.; Mays, Charlotte; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S.; Purugganan, Michael D.; Schmitt, Johanna

    2004-01-01

    A latitudinal cline in flowering time in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana has been widely predicted because the environmental cues that promote flowering vary systematically with latitude, but evidence for such clines has been lacking. Here, we report evidence of a significant latitudinal cline in flowering time among 70 Northern European and Mediterranean ecotypes when grown under ecologically realistic conditions in a common garden environment. The detected cline, however, is found only in ecotypes with alleles of the flowering time gene FRIGIDA (FRI) that lack major deletions that would disrupt protein function, whereas there is no relationship between flowering time and latitude of origin among accessions with FRI alleles containing such deletions. Analysis of climatological data suggests that late flowering in accessions with putatively functional FRI was associated with reduced January precipitation at the site of origin, consistent with previous reports of a positive genetic correlation between water use efficiency and flowering time in Arabidopsis, and the pleiotropic effects of FRI of increasing water use efficiency. In accessions collected from Southern latitudes, we detected that putatively functional FRI alleles were associated with accelerated flowering relative to accessions with nonfunctional FRI under the winter conditions of our experiment. These results suggest that the ecological function of the vernalization requirement conferred by FRI differs across latitudes. More generally, our results indicate that by combining ecological and molecular genetic data, it is possible to understand the forces acting on life history transitions at the level of specific loci. PMID:15070783

  9. Spatial distribution patterns in macrobenthos along a latitudinal transect at the deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedenin, A.; Budaeva, N.; Mokievsky, V.; Pantke, C.; Soltwedel, T.; Gebruk, A.

    2016-08-01

    Spatial distribution patterns of benthic organisms are the focus of various faunal marine studies. However, data on horizontal and bathymetric distribution of the deep-sea macrofauna are still scattered and incomplete, and conclusions are usually based on a low number of samples. Spatial distribution of benthic macrofauna was studied based on the material collected during the RV Polarstern expedition ARK-XXVII/2 in July 2012. Eleven stations along the latitudinal transect at the LTER (Long-Term Ecological Research) observatory HAUSGARTEN in the Fram Strait were taken at depths of about 2.3-2.7 km. Macrofauna was obtained using the box corer. A half core (0.125 m2) was taken at each station and four subcores (0.03 m2) were taken from each core and used for the quantitative analysis. The results suggest that a single, highly variable community with the dominance of polychaetes Galathowenia fragilis and Myriochele heeri inhabits the studied area. No latitudinal gradient in the community was revealed. The prevalence of a spatial variability in the community structure at a scale larger than the full sample per station (0.125 m2) was detected. Several abundant taxa (e.g. the polychaetes Prionospio sp. and Galathowenia fragilis) tend to form patches within a full sample.

  10. Transcontinental latitudinal variation in song performance and complexity in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon)

    PubMed Central

    Kaluthota, Chinthaka; Brinkman, Benjamin E.; dos Santos, Ednei B.; Rendall, Drew

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in latitudinal effects on animal behaviour and life history. One recent focus is on birdsong, which is hypothesized to be more elaborated or complex in the north temperate zone compared with the tropics. Current evidence is mixed and based on cross-species comparisons, or single species with restricted distributions. We circumvent these limitations using a transcontinental sample of 358 songs from house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) at 281 locations spanning more than 100° of latitude (52° N–55° S) across the Americas. We found a significant latitudinal gradient in several basic elements of song performance and complexity between north temperate and tropical populations. Furthermore, we document convergence in song patterns between populations at higher latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Effects were strongest for the number of elements in a song, and the rate of element production, both increasing towards the poles, with similar but weaker effects for other song dimensions (e.g. number of unique elements, trills and trill rate). We consider possible causes related to variable habitats and morphology, concluding that the shorter breeding seasons at higher latitudes in both hemispheres may favour greater song elaboration to mediate territory competition and mate choice. PMID:26865297

  11. Genetic diversity of Desulfovibrio spp. in environmental samples analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of [NiFe] hydrogenase gene fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Wawer, C; Muyzer, G

    1995-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Desulfovibrio species in environmental samples was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified [NiFe] hydrogenase gene fragments. Five different PCR primers were designed after comparative analysis of [NiFe] hydrogenase gene sequences from three Desulfovibrio species. These primers were tested in different combinations on the genomic DNAs of a variety of hydrogenase-containing and hydrogenase-lacking bacteria. One primer pair was found to be specific for Desulfovibrio species only, while the others gave positive results with other bacteria also. By using this specific primer pair, we were able to amplify the [NiFe] hydrogenase genes of DNAs isolated from environmental samples and to detect the presence of Desulfovibrio species in these samples. However, only after DGGE analysis of these PCR products could the number of different Desulfovibrio species within the samples be determined. DGGE analysis of PCR products from different bioreactors demonstrated up to two bands, while at least five distinguishable bands were detected in a microbial mat sample. Because these bands most likely represent as many Desulfovibrio species present in these samples, we conclude that the genetic diversity of Desulfovibrio species in the natural microbial mat is far greater than that in the experimental bioreactors. PMID:7793940

  12. Genomewide scan for adaptive differentiation along altitudinal gradient in the Andrew's toad Bufo andrewsi.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baocheng; Lu, Di; Liao, Wen Bo; Merilä, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of humans, dogs and rodents have started to discover the genetic underpinnings of high altitude adaptations, yet amphibians have received little attention in this respect. To identify possible signatures of adaptation to altitude, we performed a genome scan of 15 557 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained with restriction site-associated DNA sequencing of pooled samples from 11 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi) from the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, spanning an altitudinal gradient from 1690 to 2768 m.a.s.l. We discovered significant geographic differentiation among all sites, with an average FST   = 0.023 across all SNPs. Apart from clear patterns of isolation by distance, we discovered numerous outlier SNPs showing strong associations with variation in altitude (1394 SNPs), average annual temperature (1859 SNPs) or both (1051 SNPs). Levels and patterns of genetic differentiation in these SNPs were consistent with the hypothesis that they have been subject to directional selection and reflect adaptation to altitudinal variation among the study sites. Genes with footprints of selection were significantly enriched in binding and metabolic processes. Several genes potentially related to high altitude adaptation were identified, although the identity and functional significance of most genomic targets of selection remain unknown. In general, the results provide genomic support for results of earlier common garden and low coverage genetic studies that have uncovered substantial adaptive differentiation along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients in amphibians.

  13. Evolution and ecology meet molecular genetics: adaptive phenotypic plasticity in two isolated Negev desert populations of Acacia raddiana at either end of a rainfall gradient

    PubMed Central

    Ward, David; Shrestha, Madan K.; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The ecological, evolutionary and genetic bases of population differentiation in a variable environment are often related to the selection pressures that plants experience. We compared differences in several growth- and defence-related traits in two isolated populations of Acacia raddiana trees from sites at either end of an extreme environmental gradient in the Negev desert. Methods We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to determine the molecular differences between populations. We grew plants under two levels of water, three levels of nutrients and three levels of herbivory to test for phenotypic plasticity and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Key Results The RAPD analyses showed that these populations are highly genetically differentiated. Phenotypic plasticity in various morphological traits in A. raddiana was related to patterns of population genetic differentiation between the two study sites. Although we did not test for maternal effects in these long-lived trees, significant genotype × environment (G × E) interactions in some of these traits indicated that such plasticity may be adaptive. Conclusions The main selection pressure in this desert environment, perhaps unsurprisingly, is water. Increased water availability resulted in greater growth in the southern population, which normally receives far less rain than the northern population. Even under the conditions that we defined as low water and/or nutrients, the performance of the seedlings from the southern population was significantly better, perhaps reflecting selection for these traits. Consistent with previous studies of this genus, there was no evidence of trade-offs between physical and chemical defences and plant growth parameters in this study. Rather, there appeared to be positive correlations between plant size and defence parameters. The great variation in several traits in both populations may result in a diverse potential for responding to selection pressures in

  14. Latitudinal clines: an evolutionary view on biological rhythms†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Hut, Roelof A.; Paolucci, Silvia; Dor, Roi; Kyriacou, Charalambos P.; Daan, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Properties of the circadian and annual timing systems are expected to vary systematically with latitude on the basis of different annual light and temperature patterns at higher latitudes, creating specific selection pressures. We review literature with respect to latitudinal clines in circadian phenotypes as well as in polymorphisms of circadian clock genes and their possible association with annual timing. The use of latitudinal (and altitudinal) clines in identifying selective forces acting on biological rhythms is discussed, and we evaluate how these studies can reveal novel molecular and physiological components of these rhythms. PMID:23825204

  15. Two Birch Species Demonstrate Opposite Latitudinal Patterns in Infestation by Gall-Making Mites in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Skoracka, Anna; Zverev, Vitali; Lewandowski, Mariusz; Zvereva, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    Latitudinal patterns in herbivory, i.e. variations in plant losses to animals with latitude, are generally explained by temperature gradients. However, earlier studies suggest that geographical variation in abundance and diversity of gall-makers may be driven by precipitation rather than by temperature. To test the above hypothesis, we examined communities of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on leaves of Betula pendula and B. pubescens in boreal forests in Northern Europe. We sampled ten sites for each of five latitudinal gradients from 2008–2011, counted galls of six morphological types and identified mites extracted from these galls. DNA analysis revealed cryptic species within two of six morphologically defined mite species, and these cryptic species induced different types of galls. When data from all types of galls and from two birch species were pooled, the percentage of galled leaves did not change with latitude. However, we discovered pronounced variation in latitudinal changes between birch species. Infestation by eriophyoid mites increased towards the north in B. pendula and decreased in B. pubescens, while diversity of galls decreased towards the north in B. pendula and did not change in B. pubescens. The percentage of galled leaves did not differ among geographical gradients and study years, but was 20% lower in late summer relative to early summer, indicating premature abscission of infested leaves. Our data suggest that precipitation has little effect on abundance and diversity of eriophyoid mites, and that climate warming may impose opposite effects on infestation of two birch species by galling mites, favouring B. pendula near the northern tree limit. PMID:27835702

  16. Gill's model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, revisited: The role of latitudinal variations in wind stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, David P.; Munday, David R.; Allison, Lesley C.; Hay, Russell J.; Johnson, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Gill's (1968) model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is reinterpreted for a stratified, reduced-gravity ocean, where the barotropic streamfunction is replaced by the pycnocline depth, and the bottom drag coefficient by the Gent and McWilliams eddy diffusivity. The resultant model gives a simple description of the lateral structure of the ACC that is consistent with contemporary descriptions of ACC dynamics. The model is used to investigate and interpret the sensitivity of the ACC to the latitudinal profile of the surface wind stress. A substantial ACC remains when the wind jet is shifted north of the model Drake Passage, even by several thousand kilometers. The integral of the wind stress over the circumpolar streamlines is found to be a useful predictor of the magnitude of the volume transport through the model Drake Passage, although it is necessary to correct for basin-wide zonal pressure gradients in order to obtain good quantitative agreement.

  17. Latitudinal variation in diapause duration and post-winter development in two pierid butterflies in relation to phenological specialization.

    PubMed

    Posledovich, Diana; Toftegaard, Tenna; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan; Gotthard, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Diapause plays a central role in insect life cycles by allowing survival during adverse seasonal conditions as well as synchronizing life cycles with the period of mate and food availability. Seasonal timing is expected to be particularly important for species that are dependent on resources available during a short time window-so-called phenological specialists-and latitudinal clines in seasonality are expected to favor local adaptation in phenological timing. However, to what degree latitudinal variation in diapause dynamics and post-winter development due to such local adaptation is influenced by the degree of phenological specialization is not well known. We experimentally studied two pierid butterfly species and found that the phenological specialist Anthocharis cardamines had shorter diapause duration than the phenological generalist Pieris napi along a latitudinal gradient in Sweden. Moreover, diapause duration increased with latitude in P. napi but not in A. cardamines. Sensitivity of the two species to winter thermal conditions also differed; additional cold temperature during the winter period shortened diapause duration for P. napi pupae but not for A. cardamines pupae. In both species, post-winter pupal development was faster after longer periods of cold conditions, and more southern populations developed faster than northern populations. Post-winter development was also invariably faster at higher temperatures in both species. We argue that the observed differences in diapause dynamics between the two species might be explained by the difference in phenological specialization that influences the costs of breaking diapause too early in the season.

  18. Latitudinal patterns in the life-history traits of three isolated Atlantic populations of the deep-water shrimp Plesionika edwardsii (Decapoda, Pandalidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, José A.; Pajuelo, José G.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Ruiz-Díaz, Raquel; Delgado, João; Góis, Ana R.; Martins, Albertino

    2016-11-01

    Patterns in the life-history traits of the pandalid shrimp Plesionika edwardsii are studied for the first time in three isolated Atlantic populations (Madeira, Canaries and Cape Verde Islands) to gain an understanding of their latitudinal variations. The maximum carapace size of the populations studied, as well as the maximum weight, showed clear latitudinal patterns. The patterns observed may be a consequence of the temperature experienced by shrimps during development, 1.37 ° C higher in the Canaries and 5.96 ° C higher in the Cape Verde Islands than in Madeira. These temperature differences among populations may have induced phenotypic plasticity because the observed final body size decreased as the temperature increased. A latitudinal north-south pattern was also observed in the maximum size of ovigerous females, with larger sizes found in the Madeira area and lower sizes observed in the Cape Verde Islands. A similar pattern was observed in the brood size and maximum egg size. Females of P. edwardsii produced smaller eggs in the Cape Verde Islands than did those at the higher latitude in Madeira. P. edwardsii was larger at sexual maturity in Madeira than in the Cape Verde Islands. The relative size at sexual maturity is not affected by latitude or environmental factors and is the same in the three areas studied, varying slightly between 0.568 and 0.585. P. edwardsii had a long reproductive season with ovigerous females observed all year round, although latitudinal variations were observed. Seasonally, there were more ovigerous females in spring and summer in Madeira and from winter to summer in the Cape Verde Islands. P. edwardsii showed a latitudinal pattern in size, with asymptotic size and growth rate showing a latitudinal compensation gradient as a result of an increased growth performance in the Madeira population compared to that of the Cape Verde Islands.

  19. Tracking Chemotactic Migration of a Genetically Engineered Bacterium in the Presence of Constructed Nutrient Gradients Within a Sandy Aquifer in Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Ford, R. M.; Metge, D. W.; Wang, M.; Toepfer, A. A.; McGowan, S. B.

    2008-05-01

    Due to our increasing dependence upon groundwater resources, there is a growing need to remediate shallow aquifers contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Often, trichloroethene (TCE) travels into zones of low permeability thereby making removal difficult by traditional pump-and-treat technologies. In addition, degradation of TCE by native microbial communities can result in buildup of highly toxic intermediates such as vinyl chloride. Bioaugmentation, involving addition of specialized bacterial consortia to an aquifer, can facilitate more complete degradation into harmless byproducts. Also, it is believed that chemotaxis, the ability of bacteria to swim towards higher concentrations of a chemical perceived as beneficial to survival, may expedite movement of introduced bacteria to where they are needed. However, there is no quantitative information about chemotaxis at the field scale and the evidence for bacterial chemotaxis during bioaugmentation has been largely anecdotal. In this study, the chemotactic migration of the bacterium, Pseudomonas stutzeri in a TCE-contaminated, sand- and-gravel aquifer in Cape Cod, Massachusetts was measured. P. stutzeri is known to denitrify as well as degrade a variety of aromatic and chlorinated solvents and is often advocated as a candidate for bioaugmentation. This bacterium was genetically engineered to be resistant to ampicillin and produce blue- fluorescing protein (BFP) in order to facilitate maintaining the bacteria in pure culture and later to track them in the environment. The study involved a natural-gradient injection and recovery test in which vertical gradients of an electron donor (acetate) and acceptor (nitrate) were created within the sandy aquifer sediments above an amendment of the genetically engineered P. stutzeri. The bacteria, nitrate, and acetate were allowed to be advected with the natural flow of groundwater past close-interval, multi-level samplers that were installed downgradient from the points of

  20. Latitudinal profiles of solar protons in the Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazutin, L.

    2016-02-01

    Dynamics of the latitudinal profiles penetrating into magnetosphere solar protons is studied using particle spectrometers data on board of the low latitude satellite CORONAS-F with orbit inclination ∼83o. Formations of several different types of the profiles during magnetic storms are considered.

  1. Longitudinal and latitudinal distribution of perfluoroalkyl compounds in the surface water of the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Lutz; Barber, Jonathan L; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2009-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were determined in 2 L surface water samples collected in the Atlantic Ocean onboard the research vessels Maria S. Merian along the longitudinal gradient from Las Palmas (Spain) to St. Johns (Canada) (15 degrees W to 52 degrees W) and Polarstern along the latitudinal gradient from the Bay of Biscay to the South Atlantic Ocean (46 degrees N to 26 degrees S) in spring and fall 2007, respectively. After filtration the dissolved and particulate phases were extracted separately, and PFC concentrationswere determined using high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to tandem mass spectrometry. No PFCs were detected in the particulate phase. This study provides the first concentration data of perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA), perfluorohexanoic acid, and perfluoroheptanoic acid from the Atlantic Ocean. Results indicate that trans-Atlantic Ocean currents caused the decreasing concentration gradient from the Bay of Biscay to the South Atlantic Ocean and the concentration drop-off close to the Labrador Sea. Maximum concentrations were found for FOSA, perfluorooctanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoic acid at 302, 291, and 229 pg L(-1), respectively. However, the concentration of each single compound was usually in the tens of picograms per liter range. South of the equator only FOSA and below 4 degrees S no PFCs could be detected.

  2. The latitudinal dependence of the solar radiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, Wolfgang; Shapiro, Alexander; Schmutz, Werner; Krivova, Natalie

    2013-04-01

    Active regions and sunspots occur predominantly at low to mid heliographic latitudes. Hence, it seems reasonable to assume that the radiant output of the sun is not spherically symmetrical. Due to the relatively small inclination (~7.25°) of the solar rotation axis this asphericity is difficult to detect in integrated disk data taken from an ecliptic-bound vantage point. A histogram analysis of 13 years of VIRGO TSI data revealed a slight north-south asymmetry with maximal deviations of ±4 parts in 10^5. Interestingly, the north-south asymmetry persists even after subtracting the simulated TSI data by Krivova et al. (2003) from the VIRGO TSI measurements. The Krivova time series attributes the TSI to magnetic activity patterns as observed by MDI (sunspots, faculae, and plage). The asymmetry thus seems to be of a different origin, i.e. unrelated to sunspots, faculae, or plage, although smaller magnetic structures might contribute to the asymmetry. We will also investigate a potential asymmetry in the equator-to-pole temperature gradient. At this point we can only speculate if the observed asymmetry is characteristic of solar cycle 23, which is covered by the VIRGO time series, or more fundamental. In any case it would be very interesting to extend the TSI vs. latitude curve towards higher heliographic latitudes.

  3. Latitudinal Discontinuity in Thermal Conditions along the Nearshore of Central-Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Fabian J.; Largier, John L.; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30–32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4–10 years at 15 sites between 28–35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30–31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30–31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species

  4. Latitudinal discontinuity in thermal conditions along the nearshore of central-northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Fabian J; Largier, John L; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30-32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4-10 years at 15 sites between 28-35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30-31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30-31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species

  5. Comparative population genomics of latitudinal variation in Drosophila simulans and Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Machado, Heather E; Bergland, Alan O; O'Brien, Katherine R; Behrman, Emily L; Schmidt, Paul S; Petrov, Dmitri A

    2016-02-01

    Examples of clinal variation in phenotypes and genotypes across latitudinal transects have served as important models for understanding how spatially varying selection and demographic forces shape variation within species. Here, we examine the selective and demographic contributions to latitudinal variation through the largest comparative genomic study to date of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila melanogaster, with genomic sequence data from 382 individual fruit flies, collected across a spatial transect of 19 degrees latitude and at multiple time points over 2 years. Consistent with phenotypic studies, we find less clinal variation in D. simulans than D. melanogaster, particularly for the autosomes. Moreover, we find that clinally varying loci in D. simulans are less stable over multiple years than comparable clines in D. melanogaster. D. simulans shows a significantly weaker pattern of isolation by distance than D. melanogaster and we find evidence for a stronger contribution of migration to D. simulans population genetic structure. While population bottlenecks and migration can plausibly explain the differences in stability of clinal variation between the two species, we also observe a significant enrichment of shared clinal genes, suggesting that the selective forces associated with climate are acting on the same genes and phenotypes in D. simulans and D. melanogaster.

  6. Comparative population genomics of latitudinal variation in Drosophila simulans and Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    MACHADO, HEATHER E.; BERGLAND, ALAN O.; O’BRIEN, KATHERINE R.; BEHRMAN, EMILY L.; SCHMIDT, PAUL S.; PETROV, DMITRI A.

    2016-01-01

    Examples of clinal variation in phenotypes and genotypes across latitudinal transects have served as important models for understanding how spatially varying selection and demographic forces shape variation within species. Here, we examine the selective and demographic contributions to latitudinal variation through the largest comparative genomic study to date of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila melanogaster, with genomic sequence data from 382 individual fruit flies, collected across a spatial transect of 19 degrees latitude and at multiple time points over 2 years. Consistent with phenotypic studies, we find less clinal variation in D. simulans than D. melanogaster, particularly for the autosomes. Moreover, we find that clinally varying loci in D. simulans are less stable over multiple years than comparable clines in D. melanogaster. D. simulans shows a significantly weaker pattern of isolation by distance than D. melanogaster and we find evidence for a stronger contribution of migration to D. simulans population genetic structure. While population bottlenecks and migration can plausibly explain the differences in stability of clinal variation between the two species, we also observe a significant enrichment of shared clinal genes, suggesting that the selective forces associated with climate are acting on the same genes and phenotypes in D. simulans and D. melanogaster. PMID:26523848

  7. Genetic consequences of fragmentation in “arbor vitae,” eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.), toward the northern limit of its distribution range

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huaitong; Tremblay, Francine; Bergeron, Yves; Paul, Véronique; Chen, Cungen

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that marginal fragmented populations of eastern white cedar (EWC) are genetically isolated due to reduced pollen and gene flow. In accordance with the central-marginal model, we predicted a decrease in population genetic diversity and an increase in differentiation along the latitudinal gradient from the boreal mixed-wood to northern coniferous forest. A total of 24 eastern white cedar populations were sampled along the north-south latitudinal gradient for microsatellite genotyping analysis. Positive Fis values and heterozygote deficiency were observed in populations from the marginal (Fis = 0.244; PHW = 0.0042) and discontinuous zones (Fis = 0.166; PHW = 0.0042). However, populations from the continuous zone were in HW equilibrium (Fis = −0.007; PHW = 0.3625). There were no significant latitudinal effects on gene diversity (Hs), allelic richness (AR), or population differentiation (Fst). Bayesian and NJT (neighbor-joining tree) analyses demonstrated the presence of a population structure that was partly consistent with the geographic origins of the populations. The impact of population fragmentation on the genetic structure of EWC is to create a positive inbreeding coefficient, which was two to three times higher on average than that of a population from the continuous zone. This result indicated a higher occurrence of selfing within fragmented EWC populations coupled with a higher degree of gene exchange among near-neighbor relatives, thereby leading to significant inbreeding. Increased population isolation was apparently not correlated with a detectable effect on genetic diversity. Overall, the fragmented populations of EWC appear well-buffered against effects of inbreeding on genetic erosion. PMID:23145335

  8. Genetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  9. The effect of latitudinal gradient on the species diversity of Chinese litter-dwelling thrips

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Xiaoli; Wu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Abstract To understand the global distribution patterns of litter-dwelling thrips, a total 150 leaf litter samples were collected from 6 natural reserves located in three climatic regions, temperate, subtropical and tropical. The results showed the relative abundance of Thysanoptera was over 3.0% in 4 natural reserves from subtropical and tropical zone, and reached 5.9% in one tropical reserve, only less than Acarina and Collembola. In contrast it was only 0.3% in the warm temperate natural reserves, and no thrips were collected in a mid temperate reserve. The order on the average species numbers per plot of litter thrips was tropic > subtropics > temperate (n=25, p<0.05). Mean density of litter thrips per plots in the tropics and subtropics was significantly higher than that in the temperate region (n=25, p<0.05), but the average density was not significantly different between tropical and subtropical zones (n=25, p>0.05). The diversity of litter thrips in the tropics and subtropics was much higher than that in the temperate area based on comparsions of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’), Pielou eveness index (J), and Simpson dominance index (D). All of these results indicated that litter-dwelling thrips lived mainly in tropical and subtropical regions; meanwhile, species number and relative abundance increased with decreasing latitude. PMID:25061351

  10. Opposite latitudinal gradients in projected ocean acidification and bleaching impacts on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    van Hooidonk, Ruben; Maynard, Jeffrey Allen; Manzello, Derek; Planes, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and the services they provide are seriously threatened by ocean acidification and climate change impacts like coral bleaching. Here, we present updated global projections for these key threats to coral reefs based on ensembles of IPCC AR5 climate models using the new Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) experiments. For all tropical reef locations, we project absolute and percentage changes in aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) for the period between 2006 and the onset of annual severe bleaching (thermal stress >8 degree heating weeks); a point at which it is difficult to believe reefs can persist as we know them. Severe annual bleaching is projected to start 10-15 years later at high-latitude reefs than for reefs in low latitudes under RCP8.5. In these 10-15 years, Ωarag keeps declining and thus any benefits for high-latitude reefs of later onset of annual bleaching may be negated by the effects of acidification. There are no long-term refugia from the effects of both acidification and bleaching. Of all reef locations, 90% are projected to experience severe bleaching annually by 2055. Furthermore, 5% declines in calcification are projected for all reef locations by 2034 under RCP8.5, assuming a 15% decline in calcification per unit of Ωarag. Drastic emissions cuts, such as those represented by RCP6.0, result in an average year for the onset of annual severe bleaching that is ~20 years later (2062 vs. 2044). However, global emissions are tracking above the current worst-case scenario devised by the scientific community, as has happened in previous generations of emission scenarios. The projections here for conditions on coral reefs are dire, but provide the most up-to-date assessment of what the changing climate and ocean acidification mean for the persistence of coral reefs.

  11. Effects of climate change on tidal marshes along a latitudinal gradient in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorne, Karen M.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Ambrose, Rich F.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Freeman, Chase M.; Janousek, Christopher N.; Brown, Lauren N.; Holmquist, James R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Powelson, Katherine W.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-08-05

    Public SummaryThe coastal region of California supports a wealth of ecosystem services including habitat provision for wildlife and fisheries. Tidal marshes, mudflats, and shallow bays within coastal estuaries link marine, freshwater and terrestrial habitats, and provide economic and recreational benefits to local communities. Climate change effects such as sea-level rise (SLR) are altering these habitats, but we know little about how these areas will change over the next 50–100 years. Our study examined the projected effects of three recent SLR scenarios produced for the West Coast of North America on tidal marshes in California. We compiled physical and biological data, including coastal topography, tidal inundation, plant composition, and sediment accretion to project how SLR may alter these ecosystems in the future. The goal of our research was to provide results that support coastal management and conservation efforts across California. Under a low SLR scenario, all study sites remained vegetated tidal wetlands, with most sites showing little elevation and vegetation change relative to sea level. At most sites, mid SLR projections led to increases in low marsh habitat at the expense of middle and high marsh habitat. Marshes at Morro Bay and Tijuana River Estuary were the most vulnerable to mid SLR with many areas becoming intertidal mudflat. Under a high SLR scenario, most sites were projected to lose vegetated habitat, eventually converting to intertidal mudflats. Our results suggest that California marshes are vulnerable to major habitat shifts under mid or high rates of SLR, especially in the latter part of the century. Loss of vegetated tidal marshes in California due to SLR is expected to impact ecosystem services that are dependent on coastal wetlands such as wildlife habitat, carbon sequestration, improved water quality, and coastal protection from storms.

  12. Relationships among predatory fish, sea urchins and barrens in Mediterranean rocky reefs across a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, P; Dulcić, J

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies conducted on a local scale emphasised the potential of trophic cascades in Mediterranean rocky reefs (involving predatory fish, sea urchins and macroalgae) in affecting the transition between benthic communities dominated by erected macroalgae and barrens (i.e., bare rock with partial cover of encrusting algae). Distribution patterns of fish predators of sea urchins (Diplodus sargus sargus, Diplodus vulgaris, Coris julis and Thalassoma pavo), sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula) and barrens, and fish predation rates upon sea urchins, were assessed in shallow (3-6m depth) sublittoral rocky reefs in the northern, central and southern sectors of the eastern Adriatic Sea, i.e., on a large spatial scale of hundreds of kilometres. No dramatic differences were observed in predatory fish density across latitude, except for a lower density of small D. sargus sargus in the northern Adriatic and an increasing density of T. pavo from north to south. P. lividus did not show any significant difference across latitude, whereas A. lixula was more abundant in the southern than in the central Adriatic. Barrens were more extended in the southern than in the central and northern sectors, and were related with sea urchin density. Fish predation upon adult sea urchins did not change on a large scale, whereas it was slightly higher in the southern sector for juveniles when predation rates of both urchins were pooled. Results show that: (1) assemblages of predatory fish and sea urchins, and barren extent change across latitude in the eastern Adriatic Sea, (2) the weak relations between predatory fish density and predation rates on urchins reveal that factors other than top-down control can be important over large scale (with the caveat that the study was conducted in fished areas) and (3) patterns of interaction among strongly interacting taxa could change on large spatial scales and the number of species involved.

  13. Latitudinal gradients in sea ice and primary production determine Arctic seabird colony size in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Laidre, Kristin L; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Nyeland, Jens; Mosbech, Anders; Boertmann, David

    2008-12-07

    Sea ice loss will indirectly alter energy transfer through the pelagic food web and ultimately impact apex predators. We quantified spring-time trends in sea ice recession around each of 46 thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) colonies in west Greenland across 20 degrees of latitude and investigated the magnitude and timing of the associated spring-time primary production. A geographical information system was used to extract satellite-based observations of sea ice concentration from the Nimbus-7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR, 1979-1987) and the Defence Meteorological Satellite Programs Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSMI, 1987-2004), and satellite-based observations of chlorophyll a from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS: EOS-Terra satellite) in weekly intervals in circular buffers around each colony site (150 km in radius). Rapid recession of high Arctic seasonal ice cover created a temporally predictable primary production bloom and associated trophic cascade in water gradually exposed to solar radiation. This pattern was largely absent from lower latitudes where little to no sea ice resulted in a temporally variable primary production bloom driven by nutrient cycling and upwelling uncoupled to ice. The relationship between the rate and variability of sea ice recession and colony size of thick-billed murres shows that periodical confinement of the trophic cascade at high latitudes determines the carrying capacity for Arctic seabirds during the breeding period.

  14. Commercial Plant Production and Consumption Still Follow the Latitudinal Gradient in Species Diversity despite Economic Globalization

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Erik J.; Helmus, Matthew R.; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Polasky, Stephen; Lasky, Jesse R.; Zanne, Amy E.; Pearse, William D.; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Miteva, Daniela A.; Fagan, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing trade between countries and gains in income have given consumers around the world access to a richer and more diverse set of commercial plant products (i.e., foods and fibers produced by farmers). According to the economic theory of comparative advantage, countries open to trade will be able to consume more–in terms of volume and diversity–if they concentrate production on commodities that they can most cost-effectively produce, while importing goods that are expensive to produce, relative to other countries. Here, we perform a global analysis of traded commercial plant products and find little evidence that increasing globalization has incentivized agricultural specialization. Instead, a country’s plant production and consumption patterns are still largely determined by local evolutionary legacies of plant diversification. Because tropical countries harbor a greater diversity of lineages across the tree of life than temperate countries, tropical countries produce and consume a greater diversity of plant products than do temperate countries. In contrast, the richer and more economically advanced temperate countries have the capacity to produce and consume more plant species than the generally poorer tropical countries, yet this collection of plant species is drawn from fewer branches on the tree of life. Why have countries not increasingly specialized in plant production despite the theoretical financial incentive to do so? Potential explanations include the persistence of domestic agricultural subsidies that distort production decisions, cultural preferences for diverse local food production, and that diverse food production protects rural households in developing countries from food price shocks. Less specialized production patterns will make crop systems more resilient to zonal climatic and social perturbations, but this may come at the expense of global crop production efficiency, an important step in making the transition to a hotter and more crowded world. PMID:27706180

  15. Latitudinal gradients in greenhouse seawater δ(18) O: evidence from Eocene sirenian tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Clementz, Mark T; Sewall, Jacob O

    2011-04-22

    The Eocene greenhouse climate state has been linked to a more vigorous hydrologic cycle at mid- and high latitudes; similar information on precipitation levels at low latitudes is, however, limited. Oxygen isotopic fluxes track moisture fluxes and, thus, the δ(18)O values of ocean surface waters can provide insight into hydrologic cycle changes. The offset between tropical δ(18)O values from sampled Eocene sirenian tooth enamel and modern surface waters is greater than the expected 1.0 per mil increase due to increased continental ice volume. This increased offset could result from suppression of surface-water δ(18)O values by a tropical, annual moisture balance substantially wetter than that of today. Results from an atmospheric general circulation model support this interpretation and suggest that Eocene low latitudes were extremely wet.

  16. Microplastic abundance, distribution and composition along a latitudinal gradient in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kanhai, La Daana K; Officer, Rick; Lyashevska, Olga; Thompson, Richard C; O'Connor, Ian

    2017-02-15

    Microplastics in the world's oceans are a global concern due to the potential threat they pose to marine organisms. This study investigated microplastic abundance, distribution and composition in the Atlantic Ocean on a transect from the Bay of Biscay to Cape Town, South Africa. Microplastics were sampled from sub-surface waters using the underway system of the RV Polarstern. Potential microplastics were isolated from samples and FT-IR spectroscopy was used to identify polymer types. Of the particles analysed, 63% were rayon and 37% were synthetic polymers. The majority of microplastics were identified as polyesters (49%) and blends of polyamide or acrylic/polyester (43%). Overall, fibres (94%) were predominant. Average microplastic abundance in the Atlantic Ocean was 1.15±1.45particlesm(-3). Of the 76 samples, 14 were from the Benguela upwelling and there was no statistically significant difference in microplastic abundance between upwelled and non-upwelled sites.

  17. A latitudinal gradient in large-scale beta diversity for vascular plants in North America.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hong; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2007-08-01

    Species turnover, or beta diversity, has been predicted to decrease with increasing latitude, but few studies have tested this relationship. Here, we examined the beta diversity-latitude relationship for vascular plants at a continental scale, based on complete species lists of native vascular plants for entire states or provinces in North America (north of Mexico). We calculated beta diversity as the slope of the relationship between the natural logarithm of the Jaccard index (lnJ ) for families, genera or species, and both geographic distance and climate difference within five latitude zones. We found that beta diversity decreased from south to north; within latitude zones, it decreased from species to genera and families. Geographic and climatic distance explained about the same proportion of the variance in lnJ in zones south of c. 50 degrees N. North of this latitude, nearly all the explained variance in lnJ was attributable to geographic distance. Therefore, decreasing beta diversity from south to north reflects decreasing climate differentiation within more northerly latitude zones, and primarily post-glacial dispersal limitation north of 50 degrees N.

  18. Commercial Plant Production and Consumption Still Follow the Latitudinal Gradient in Species Diversity despite Economic Globalization.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Erik J; Helmus, Matthew R; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Polasky, Stephen; Lasky, Jesse R; Zanne, Amy E; Pearse, William D; Kraft, Nathan J B; Miteva, Daniela A; Fagan, William F

    2016-01-01

    Increasing trade between countries and gains in income have given consumers around the world access to a richer and more diverse set of commercial plant products (i.e., foods and fibers produced by farmers). According to the economic theory of comparative advantage, countries open to trade will be able to consume more-in terms of volume and diversity-if they concentrate production on commodities that they can most cost-effectively produce, while importing goods that are expensive to produce, relative to other countries. Here, we perform a global analysis of traded commercial plant products and find little evidence that increasing globalization has incentivized agricultural specialization. Instead, a country's plant production and consumption patterns are still largely determined by local evolutionary legacies of plant diversification. Because tropical countries harbor a greater diversity of lineages across the tree of life than temperate countries, tropical countries produce and consume a greater diversity of plant products than do temperate countries. In contrast, the richer and more economically advanced temperate countries have the capacity to produce and consume more plant species than the generally poorer tropical countries, yet this collection of plant species is drawn from fewer branches on the tree of life. Why have countries not increasingly specialized in plant production despite the theoretical financial incentive to do so? Potential explanations include the persistence of domestic agricultural subsidies that distort production decisions, cultural preferences for diverse local food production, and that diverse food production protects rural households in developing countries from food price shocks. Less specialized production patterns will make crop systems more resilient to zonal climatic and social perturbations, but this may come at the expense of global crop production efficiency, an important step in making the transition to a hotter and more crowded world.

  19. Sources of Controversy Surrounding Latitudinal Patterns in Herbivory and Defense.

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Nunes, Krystal A; Baskett, Carina; Kotanen, Peter M

    2016-10-01

    Both herbivory and plant defenses against herbivores have been predicted to increase toward tropical regions. Early tests of this latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis (LHDH) were supportive, but accumulating evidence has been mixed. We argue that the lack of clarity might be due to heterogeneity in methodology and problems with study design and interpretation. We suggest possible solutions. Latitudinal studies need to carefully consider spatial and phylogenetic scale, to link plant defense measurements to herbivore performance, and to incorporate additional concepts from plant defense theory such as tolerance and induced defense. In addition, we call for consistent measures of herbivory to standardize comparisons across biomes. Improving methodology in future studies of LHDH should resolve much of the current controversy.

  20. Optimal programmable unambiguous discriminator between two unknown latitudinal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunian, XiaoBing; Li, YuWei; Zhou, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Two unknown states can be unambiguously distinguished by a universal programmable discriminator, which has been widely discussed in previous works and the optimal solution has also been obtained. In this paper, we investigate the programmable unambiguous discriminator between two unknown "latitudinal" states, which lie in a subspace of the total state space. By equivalence of unknown pure states to known average mixed states, the optimal solution for this problem is systematically derived, and the analytical success probabilities for the optimal unambiguous discrimination are obtained. It is beyond one's expectation that the optimal setting for the programmable unambiguous discrimination between two unknown "latitudinal" states is the same as that for the universal ones. The results in this work can be used for the realization of the programmable discriminator in laboratory.

  1. Widespread range expansions shape latitudinal variation in insect thermal limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Lesley T.

    2016-06-01

    Current anthropogenic impacts, including habitat modification and climate change, may contribute to a sixth mass extinction. To mitigate these impacts and slow further losses of biodiversity, we need to understand which species are most at risk and identify the factors contributing to current and future declines. Such information is often obtained through large-scale, comparative and biogeographic analysis of lineages or traits that are potentially sensitive to ongoing anthropogenic change--for instance to predict which regions are most susceptible to climate change-induced biodiversity loss. However, for this approach to be generally successful, the underlying causes of identified geographical trends need to be carefully considered. Here, I augment and reanalyse a global data set of insect thermal tolerances, evaluating the contribution of recent and contemporary range expansions to latitudinal variation in thermal niche breadth. Previous indications that high-latitude ectotherms exhibit broad thermal niches and high warming tolerances held only for species undergoing range expansions or invasions. In contrast, species with stable or declining geographic ranges exhibit latitudinally decreasing absolute thermal tolerances and no latitudinal variation in tolerance breadths. Thus, non-range-expanding species, particularly insular or endemic species, which are often of highest conservation priority, are unlikely to tolerate future climatic warming at high latitudes.

  2. Latitudinal and photic effects on diel foraging and predation risk in freshwater pelagic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Adam G; Beauchamp, David A

    2015-03-01

    Clark & Levy (American Naturalist, 131, 1988, 271-290) described an antipredation window for smaller planktivorous fish during crepuscular periods when light permits feeding on zooplankton, but limits visual detection by piscivores. Yet, how the window is influenced by the interaction between light regime, turbidity and cloud cover over a broad latitudinal gradient remains unexplored. We evaluated how latitudinal and seasonal shifts in diel light regimes alter the foraging-risk environment for visually feeding planktivores and piscivores across a natural range of turbidities and cloud covers. Pairing a model of aquatic visual feeding with a model of sun and moon illuminance, we estimated foraging rates of an idealized planktivore and piscivore over depth and time across factorial combinations of latitude (0-70°), turbidity (0.1-5 NTU) and cloud cover (clear to overcast skies) during the summer solstice and autumnal equinox. We evaluated the foraging-risk environment based on changes in the magnitude, duration and peak timing of the antipredation window. The model scenarios generated up to 10-fold shifts in magnitude, 24-fold shifts in duration and 5.5-h shifts in timing of the peak antipredation window. The size of the window increased with latitude. This pattern was strongest during the solstice. In clear water at low turbidity (0.1-0.5 NTU), peaks in the magnitude and duration of the window formed at 57-60° latitude, before falling to near zero as surface waters became saturated with light under a midnight sun and clear skies at latitudes near 70°. Overcast dampened the midnight sun enough to allow larger windows to form in clear water at high latitudes. Conversely, at turbidities ≥ 2 NTU, greater reductions in the visual range of piscivores than planktivores created a window for long periods at high latitudes. Latitudinal dependencies were essentially lost during the equinox, indicating a progressive compression of the window from early summer into autumn

  3. Global distribution of a key trophic guild contrasts with common latitudinal diversity patterns.

    PubMed

    Boyero, Luz; Pearson, Richard G; Dudgeon, David; Graça, Manuel A S; Gessner, Mark O; Albariño, Ricardo J; Ferreira, Verónica; Yule, Catherine M; Boulton, Andrew J; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Callisto, Marcos; Chauvet, Eric; Ramírez, Alonso; Chará, Julián; Moretti, Marcelo S; Gonçalves, José F; Helson, Julie E; Chará-Serna, Ana M; Encalada, Andrea C; Davies, Judy N; Lamothe, Sylvain; Cornejo, Aydeè; Li, Aggie O Y; Buria, Leonardo M; Villanueva, Verónica D; Zúñiga, María C; Pringle, Catherine M

    2011-09-01

    Most hypotheses explaining the general gradient of higher diversity toward the equator are implicit or explicit about greater species packing in the tropics. However, global patterns of diversity within guilds, including trophic guilds (i.e., groups of organisms that use similar food resources), are poorly known. We explored global diversity patterns of a key trophic guild in stream ecosystems, the detritivore shredders. This was motivated by the fundamental ecological role of shredders as decomposers of leaf litter and by some records pointing to low shredder diversity and abundance in the tropics, which contrasts with diversity patterns of most major taxa for which broad-scale latitudinal patterns haven been examined. Given this evidence, we hypothesized that shredders are more abundant and diverse in temperate than in tropical streams, and that this pattern is related to the higher temperatures and lower availability of high-quality leaf litter in the tropics. Our comprehensive global survey (129 stream sites from 14 regions on six continents) corroborated the expected latitudinal pattern and showed that shredder distribution (abundance, diversity and assemblage composition) was explained by a combination of factors, including water temperature (some taxa were restricted to cool waters) and biogeography (some taxa were more diverse in particular biogeographic realms). In contrast to our hypothesis, shredder diversity was unrelated to leaf toughness, but it was inversely related to litter diversity. Our findings markedly contrast with global trends of diversity for most taxa, and with the general rule of higher consumer diversity at higher levels of resource diversity. Moreover, they highlight the emerging role of temperature in understanding global patterns of diversity, which is of great relevance in the face of projected global warming.

  4. Evidence of latitudinal fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners along the Baltic Sea region

    SciTech Connect

    Agrell, C.; Okla, L.; Larsson, P.; Backe, C.; Wania, F.

    1999-04-15

    Annual cycles of the atmospheric concentrations of PCBs were determined at 16 (mostly rural) stations around the Baltic Sea between 1990 and 1993. The concentration levels of individual congeners were found to be influenced by their physical-chemical properties, ambient temperature, and geographical location. Median levels of PCBs were similar at all stations except at one urban site near Riga. A latitudinal gradient with higher levels in the south was found for the sum of PCB as well as for individual congeners, and the gradient was more pronounced for the low volatility congeners. As a result, the high volatility congeners increased in relative importance with latitude. Generally, PCB concentrations increased with temperature, but slopes of the partial pressure in air versus reciprocal temperature were different between congeners and between stations. In general, the low volatility congeners were more temperature dependent than the high volatility PCB congeners. Steep slopes at a sampling location indicate that the concentration in air is largely determined by diffusive exchange with soils. Lack of a temperature dependence may be due to the influence of long-range transported air masses at remote sites and due to the episodic or random nature of PCB sources at urban sites.

  5. Gradient networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toroczkai, Zoltán; Kozma, Balázs; Bassler, Kevin E.; Hengartner, N. W.; Korniss, G.

    2008-04-01

    Gradient networks are defined (Toroczkai and Bassler 2004 Nature 428 716) as directed graphs formed by local gradients of a scalar field distributed on the nodes of a substrate network G. We present the derivation for some of the general properties of gradient graphs and give an exact expression for the in-degree distribution R(l) of the gradient network when the substrate is a binomial (Erd{\\;\\kern -0.10em \\raise -0.35ex \\{{^{^{\\prime\\prime}}}}\\kern -0.57em \\o} s-Rényi) random graph, G_{N,p} , and the scalars are independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables. We show that in the limit N \\to \\infty, p \\to 0, z = pN = \\mbox{const} \\gg 1, R(l)\\propto l^{-1} for l < l_c = z , i.e., gradient networks become scale-free graphs up to a cut-off degree. This paper presents the detailed derivation of the results announced in Toroczkai and Bassler (2004 Nature 428 716).

  6. Latitudinal variation in herbivore pressure in Atlantic Coast salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Steven C; Ho, Chuan-Kai; Salgado, Cristiano S; Wieski, Kazimierz; Davé, Nilam; Kunza, Amy E; Wason, Elizabeth L

    2009-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in latitudinal variation in ecological patterns and processes, there is to date weak and conflicting evidence that herbivore pressure varies with latitude. We used three approaches to examine latitudinal variation in herbivore pressure in Atlantic Coast salt marshes, focusing on five abundant plant taxa: the grass Spartina alterniflora, the congeneric rushes Juncus gerardii and J. roemerianus, the forb Solidago sempervirens, and the shrubs Iva frutescens and Baccharis halimifolia. Herbivore counts indicated that chewing and gall-making herbivores were typically > or = 10 times more abundant at low-latitude sites than at high-latitude sites, but sucking herbivores did not show a clear pattern. For two herbivore taxa (snails and tettigoniid grasshoppers), correctly interpreting latitudinal patterns required an understanding of the feeding ecology of the species, because the species common at high latitudes did not feed heavily on plant leaves whereas the related species common at low latitudes did. Damage to plants from chewing herbivores was 2-10 times greater at low-latitude sites than at high-latitude sites. Damage to transplanted "phytometer" plants was 100 times greater for plants transplanted to low- than to high-latitude sites, and two to three times greater for plants originating from high- vs. low-latitude sites. Taken together, these results provide compelling evidence that pressure from chewing and gall-making herbivores is greater at low vs. high latitudes in Atlantic Coast salt marshes. Sucking herbivores do not show this pattern and deserve greater study. Selective pressure due to greater herbivore damage at low latitudes is likely to partially explain documented patterns of low plant palatability to chewing herbivores and greater plant defenses at low latitudes, but other factors may also play a role in mediating these geographic patterns.

  7. Latitudinal variability of arsine, germane and phosphine in Jupiter's troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, Rohini Sara; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution 5-μm observations of Jupiter from the CRIRES instrument at the Very Large Telescope are used to measure latitudinal variability in AsH3, GeH4 and PH3. The 5-micron region is a spectral window allowing us to probe down to Jupiter's middle troposphere (4-8 bar). CRIRES observations in 2012 and 2013 provide high-resolution (R=96,000) latitudinally-resolved spectra in the 4.7-5.2 μm region. In the middle troposphere, AsH3, GeH4and PH3 are disequilibrium species that are only present because of rapid upwelling from deeper regions of the planet. Their observed abundances depend on the chemical lifetimes, the strength of the vertical mixing and the rate of photolytic destruction, and are therefore likely to vary with latitude. We analyse the CRIRES observations using the NEMESIS radiative transfer code and retrieval algorithm in order to search for any latitudinal variability in the disequilibrium species. We find that there is a significant degeneracy between the retrieved gaseous abundances and the cloud structure - specifically, the scattering properties of the main tropospheric cloud deck, and the presence/absence of an additional deep cloud. Because of these degeneracies, there is no clear evidence for any variability in GeH4. However, for AsH3 and PH3, there are significant latitudinal differences in the observed lineshape that cannot be accounted for by clouds. We conclude that both of these gases show an enhancement at high latitudes. In the case of AsH3, the retrieved abundance varies from subsolar in the equatorial regions (as seen in previous studies) to supersolar in the polar regions. Our findings are in contrast with the theoretical simulations of Wang et al. (2016, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2016.04.027), which predict that AsH3 and PH3 should not vary with latitude, and that GeH4 should decrease in abundance at high latitudes.

  8. North-South gradients of melanomas and non-melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Moan, Johan; Grigalavicius, Mantas; Baturaite, Zivile; Juzeniene, Asta; Dahlback, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Incidence rates of skin cancer increase with decreasing latitude in Norway, as in many other countries with white populations. The latitudinal trends of the incidence rates of skin cancer were studied and compared with data for vitamin D-induced by UV and for vitamin D intake. The north-south gradient for CMM incidence rates on sun exposed skin is much smaller than those for BCC and SCC, and that for BCC is smaller than that for SCC. This indicates that SCC and BCC are mainly due to solar UVB, while UVA may play a significant role for CMM and a smaller role for BCC, since the north-south gradient of annual UVB fluences is larger than that of UVA fluences. However, there is an inverse latitudinal gradient of skin cancer in central Europe. This is probably due to a gradient of skin color, since white skin is an important determinant of increased risk of skin cancer. The role of vitamin D for skin cancer risk is difficult to evaluate, since serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, as well as vitamin D intakes, are widely different from country to country. Still, epidemiological evidence indicates a role: for melanomas arising on non-sun exposed body localizations (uveal melanomas, melanomas arising in the vulva and perianal/anorectal regions) there appears to be no latitudinal gradient, or, a negative gradient, i.e., increasing rates with decreasing latitude as would be expected if UV-generated vitamin D plays a protective role. Both skin cancer risk and vitamin D photosynthesis decrease with increasing skin darkness. PMID:24494053

  9. Latitudinal variation of the polar cusp during a geomagnetic storm

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, C.

    1982-01-01

    Large amplitude latitudinal variation of the polar cusp position was observed during the intense geomagnetic storm of 15--16 February 1980. The observation of the polar cusp, identified as the region of intense but extremely soft electron precipitation, was made by two nearly noon-midnight orbit DMSP satellites over both northern and southern hemispheres. The latitudinal shift of the polar cusp is observed to be related to the intensity variation of the ring current indicated by the hourly Dst values. The polar cusp region moved from its normal location at approx.76/sup 0/ gm lat down to approx.62/sup 0/ gm lat at the peak of this storm. This movement took about 5 hours and was detected over both hemispheres. A drastic variation in the width of the cusp region was also observed; it is very narrow (approx.1/sup 0/) during the equatorial shift and expands to > or approx. =5/sup 0/ during the poleward recovery. Variation of the polar cusp latitude with that of the Dst index was also seen during the period before the intense storm.

  10. Latitudinal trends and temporal shifts in the catch composition of bottom trawls conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Duane E.; Lauth, Robert R.

    2012-06-01

    Latitudinal species diversity gradients are well known in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems throughout the world. However, trends in relative abundance and other shifts in community structure with latitude, which can be more sensitive to environmental shifts such as climate change, have received less attention. Here we investigate latitudinal trends in the seafloor community of the eastern Bering Sea using catches of fishes and epibenthic invertebrates in bottom trawl surveys conducted from 1982 to 2010. Our results indicate that the overall biomass of the epibenthic community declines with increasing latitude in the eastern Bering Sea. This latitudinal trend is primarily driven by declining fish catches in the northern Bering Sea, which in turn reflects changes in the structure of the fish community. The fish fauna in northern latitudes is increasingly dominated by gadids, though the species composition of the gadid fauna also changes with latitude, with smaller species becoming more common in the north. The biomass of the invertebrate megafauna remains relatively consistent throughout the eastern Bering Sea, but invertebrates make up a larger proportion of the catch in bottom trawls conducted at higher latitudes. The epibenthic invertebrate megafauna in the eastern Bering Sea is composed primarily of sea stars (Asteriidae) and oregoniid crabs (Chionoecetes and Hyas), though no clear latitudinal trends in the invertebrate community are evident. Limited trawl data from the eastern Chukchi Sea indicate that the fish community farther north is even more heavily dominated by gadids, and the epibenthic invertebrate community is dominated by asteriid sea stars. Temperature data from bottom trawl surveys in the southeastern Bering Sea over the past decade indicate that there was a distinct temperature shift around 2005, and the relatively warm years of 2001-2005 were followed by five relatively cold years. This shift in the summer temperature regime of the Bering

  11. Compensation and climate: Latitudinal variation in ecototherm response to environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, C.G.

    1995-06-01

    Thermal preference measured in a laboratory thermal gradient, and field body temperatures in a field enclosure, contrast the fundamental and realized thermal niches of ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata) from northern, central, and southern locations. The relatively warmer thermal preference of southern turtles appears to result in lower body temperatures and relatively shorter activity periods. Variation in thermal constraints are input into computer simulations of ectotherm response to climate to assess latitudinal variation in turtle response to microclimate cooling (4{degrees} C), current climate (1970-1990), and climatic warming (3-5{degrees} C). Climatic warming is calculated to lead to a northward shift in turtle range and distribution with increases in northern and declines in southern populations. Microclimate cooling is estimated to result in declines in northern areas and in the core of the box turtle range. The local changes in microclimate, such as can result from shifts in land-use, can be greater than those resulting from large scale changes in climate. Suggesting that land managers and conservation biologists need to focus greater attention on the impact of changes in within patch structure of plant associations and its implications for alteration of microclimate and species life history.

  12. Latitudinal variation in the degree of crassulacean acid metabolism in Puya chilensis.

    PubMed

    Quezada, I M; Zotz, G; Gianoli, E

    2014-07-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a photosynthetic pathway found in many plant species from arid and semiarid environments. Few studies aiming to characterise plant species as CAM or C3 account for inter-population differences in photosynthetic pathway, often relying on samples taken from herbarium material and/or a single plant or population. This may be especially problematic for species growing under contrasting climate conditions, as is the case for species with a wide geographic range. We used Puya chilensis, a species previously reported as CAM and C3, to study among-population variation in expression of the CAM pathway within its distribution range, which spans a significant climate gradient. We carried out a wide sampling scheme, including five populations and a combination of analytical methods (quantification of nocturnal acidification and stable isotope measurements). The study populations of P. chilensis encompass the entire latitudinal distribution range, from semi-arid to temperate oceanic climates. Our results indicate that CAM decreased with latitude. However, even in the southern (wetter) populations, where δ13C values were indicative of C3 metabolism, we found some nocturnal acidification. We stress the value of using two methods along with the use of samples from different populations, as this allows more reliable conclusions on the photosynthetic pathway for 'probable' CAM species that face varying climate conditions within their distribution ranges.

  13. Latitudinal trends in Spartina alterniflora productivity and the response of coastal marshes to global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Morris, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Marshes worldwide are actively degrading in response to increased sea level rise rates and reduced sediment delivery, though the growth rate of vegetation plays a critical role in determining their stability. We have compiled 56 measurements of above-ground annual productivity for Spartina alterniflora, the dominant macrophyte in North American coastal wetlands. Our compilation indicates a significant latitudinal gradient in productivity, which we interpret to be determined primarily by temperature and/or the length of growing season. Simple linear regression yields a 27 g m-2 yr -1 increase in productivity with an increase of mean annual temperature by one degree C. If temperatures warm 2?4 C over the next century, then marsh productivity may increase by 10?40%, though physiological research suggests that increases in the north could potentially be offset by some decreases in the south. This increase in productivity is roughly equivalent to estimates of marsh lost due to future sea level change. If a warming-induced stimulation of vegetation growth will enhance vertical accretion and limit erosion, then the combined effects of global change may be to increase the total productivity and ecosystem services of tidal wetlands, at least in Northern latitudes.

  14. Common garden comparisons of native and introduced plant populations: latitudinal clines can obscure evolutionary inferences

    PubMed Central

    Colautti, Robert I; Maron, John L; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2009-01-01

    Common garden studies are increasingly used to identify differences in phenotypic traits between native and introduced genotypes, often ignoring sources of among-population variation within each range. We re-analyzed data from 32 common garden studies of 28 plant species that tested for rapid evolution associated with biological invasion. Our goals were: (i) to identify patterns of phenotypic trait variation among populations within native and introduced ranges, and (ii) to explore the consequences of this variation for how differences between the ranges are interpreted. We combined life history and physiologic traits into a single principal component (PCALL) and also compared subsets of traits related to size, reproduction, and defense (PCSIZE, PCREP, and PCDEF, respectively). On average, introduced populations exhibited increased growth and reproduction compared to native conspecifics when latitude was not included in statistical models. However, significant correlations between PC-scores and latitude were detected in both the native and introduced ranges, indicating population differentiation along latitudinal gradients. When latitude was explicitly incorporated into statistical models as a covariate, it reduced the magnitude and reversed the direction of the effect for PCALL and PCSIZE. These results indicate that unrecognized geographic clines in phenotypic traits can confound inferences about the causes of evolutionary change in invasive plants. PMID:25567860

  15. Latitudinal and longitudinal clines of phenotypic plasticity in the invasive herb Solidago canadensis in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Junmin; Du, Leshan; Guan, Wenbin; Yu, Fei-Hai; van Kleunen, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is thought to be important for plants in variable environments. The climatic variability hypothesis poses that populations at higher latitudes, due to the stronger variation in temperature, there should be more plastic in response to temperature than populations at lower latitudes. Similarly, populations at locations with stronger precipitation fluctuations should be more plastic in response to water availability than populations at locations with less variable precipitation. We sampled seven and nine populations of Solidago canadensis, a North American native that is invasive in China, along a latitudinal (temperature variability) and a longitudinal (precipitation variability) gradient, respectively, in China, and grew them under two temperature treatments and two water-availability treatments, respectively. Among the four traits with significant variation in plasticity among populations in response to temperature, plasticity of leaf length-to-width ratio was significantly positively correlated with latitude and temperature seasonality of the populations. In addition, root/shoot ratio and water-use efficiency showed significant variation in plasticity among populations in response to water availability, and plasticities of these two traits were significantly negatively correlated with longitude and positively correlated with precipitation seasonality. The observed geographic clines in plasticity suggest that phenotypic plasticity of S. canadensis may have evolved rapidly in regions with different climatic conditions, and this may have contributed to the spread of this invasive species.

  16. Plasticity in latitudinal patterns of leaf N and P of Oryza rufipogon in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W; Wang, Z; Xing, W; Liu, G

    2014-09-01

    Characterising the adaptability in nature of plant stoichiometric patterns across geographic or environmental gradients is important in advancing our understanding of the organisation of plant-nutrient relationships. We examined correlations between plant nutrient traits, latitude, longitude, climate and soil variables in 34 populations of Oryza rufipogon across its range. We further compared the responses of population transplants at two experimental gardens: one beyond its northern natural range and another near the southern limit, to assess the nature of geographic variation in plant nutrients. The study showed that leaf P of O. rufipogon in the field was negatively correlated with latitude and largely depended on temperature and soil P availability. Leaf N was not related to latitude but was significantly correlated with precipitation and soil N concentration. Leaf N:P ratio was largely determined by absorption efficiency of P. Transplantation revealed that there were no significant associations of leaf nutrients with geographic, climatic or soil variables of origin in either of the experimental gardens, indicating phenotypic plasticity. However, examination of relationships between response ratios of leaf nutrients and change ratio of climate and soil environments, as well as norms of reaction in the transplantation experiment, revealed more complexity, suggesting both substantial genotypic diversity and the existence of genotype × environment interactions in these populations of O. rufipogon. These data indicate that adaptive plasticity response of plants to temperature and soil P availability significantly explain the observed shifts in leaf N, P and N:P of O. rufipogon along latitudinal gradients.

  17. The interplanetary magnetic field: Radial and latitudinal dependences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabarova, O. V.

    2013-11-01

    Results of the analysis of spacecraft measurements at 1-5.4 AU are presented within the scope of the large-scale interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) structure investigation. The work is focused on revealing of the radial IMF component ( B r ) variations with heliocentric distance and latitude as seen by Ulysses. It was found out that | B r | decreases as ˜ r -5/3 in the ecliptic plane vicinity (±10° of latitude), which is consistent with the previous results obtained on the basis of the analysis of in-ecliptic measurements from five spacecraft. The difference between the experimentally found ( r -5/3) and commonly used ( r -2) radial dependence of B r may lead to mistakes in the IMF recalculations from point to point in the heliosphere. This can be one of the main sources of the "magnetic flux excess" effect, which is exceeding of the distantly measured magnetic flux over the values obtained through the measurements at the Earth orbit. It is shown that the radial IMF component can be considered as independent of heliolatitude in a rough approximation only. More detailed analysis demonstrates an expressed | B r | (as well as the IMF strength) increase in the latitudinal vicinity of ±30° relative to the ecliptic plane. Also, a slight increase of the both parameters is observed in the polar solar wind. The comparison of the B r distributions confirms that, at the same radial distance, B r values are higher at low than at high latitudes. The analysis of the latitudinal and radial dependences of the B r distribution's bimodality is performed. The B r bimodality is more expressed at high than in the low-latitude solar wind, and it is observed at greater radial distances at high latitudes. The investigation has not revealed any dependence between B r and the solar wind speed V. The two-peak distribution of the solar wind speed as measured by Ulysses is a consequence of a strong latitudinal and solar cycle dependence of V. It is shown that the solar wind speed in high

  18. Response of heterotrophic and autotrophic microbial plankton to inorganic and organic inputs along a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, S.; Fernández, E.; Calvo-Díaz, A.; Marañón, E.; Morán, X. A. G.; Teira, E.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric nutrient deposition into the open ocean increased over the past decades as a result of human activity and water-soluble organic nitrogen accounts for up to 30% of the total nitrogen inputs. The effects of inorganic and/or organic nutrient inputs on phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria have never been concurrently assessed in open ocean oligotrophic communities over a wide spatial gradient. We studied the effects of potentially limiting inorganic (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, silica) and organic nutrient (glucose, aminoacids) inputs on microbial plankton biomass, community structure and metabolism in five microcosm experiments conducted along a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean (from 26° N to 29° S). Primary production rates increased up to 1.8-fold. Bacterial respiration and microbial community respiration increased up to 14.3 and 12.7-fold, respectively. Bacterial production and bacterial growth efficiency increased up to 58.8-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively. The largest increases were measured after mixed inorganic-organic nutrients additions. Changes in microbial plankton biomass were small as compared with those in metabolic rates. A north to south increase in the response of heterotrophic bacteria was observed, which could be related to a latitudinal gradient in phosphorus availability. Our results suggest that organic matter inputs associated with atmospheric deposition into the Atlantic Ocean will result in a predominantly heterotrophic versus autotrophic response and in increases in bacterial growth efficiency, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. Subtle differences in the initial environmental and biological conditions are likely to result in differential microbial responses to inorganic and organic matter inputs.

  19. Post-LIA glacier changes along a latitudinal transect in the Central Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, R.; Brardinoni, F.; Crosta, G. B.

    2014-07-01

    The variability of glacier response to atmospheric temperature rise in different topo-climatic settings is still matter of debate. To address this question in the Central Italian Alps we compile a post-LIA (Little Ice Age) multitemporal glacier inventory (1860-1954-1990-2003-2007) along a latitudinal transect that originates north of the continental divide in the Livigno mountains, and extends south through the Disgrazia and Orobie ranges, encompassing continental-to-maritime climatic settings. In these sub-regions we examine area change of 111 glaciers. Overall, total glacierized area has declined from 34.1 to 10.1 km2, with a substantial increase in the number of small glaciers due to fragmentation. Average annual decrease (AAD) in glacier area has risen of about an order of magnitude from 1860-1990 (Livigno: 0.45; Orobie: 0.42; and Disgrazia: 0.39 % a-1) to 1990-2007 (Livigno: 3.08; Orobie: 2.44; and Disgrazia: 2.27 % a-1). This ranking changes when considering glaciers <0.5 km2 only (i.e., we remove the confounding caused by large glaciers in Disgrazia), so that post-1990 AAD follows the latitudinal gradient and Orobie glaciers stand out (Livigno: 4.07; Disgrazia: 3.57; and Orobie: 2.47 % a-1). More recent (2007-2013) field-based mass balances in three selected small glaciers confirm post-1990 trends showing consistent highest retreat in continental Livigno and minimal area loss in maritime Orobie, with Disgrazia displaying a transitional behaviour. We argue that the recent resilience of glaciers in Orobie is a consequence of their decoupling from synoptic atmospheric temperature trends. A decoupling that arises from the combination of local topographic configuration (i.e., deep, north-facing cirques) and high winter precipitation, which ensures high snow-avalanche supply, as well as high summer shading and sheltering. Our hypothesis is further supported by the lack of correlations between glacier change and glacier attributes in Orobie, as well by the higher

  20. Post-LIA glacier changes along a latitudinal transect in the Central Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, R.; Brardinoni, F.; Crosta, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    The variability of glacier response to atmospheric temperature rise in different topo-climatic settings is still a matter of debate. To address this question in the Central Italian Alps, we compile a post-LIA (Little Ice Age) multitemporal glacier inventory (1860-1954-1990-2003-2007) along a latitudinal transect that originates north of the continental divide in the Livigno Mountains and extends south through the Disgrazia and Orobie ranges, encompassing continental-to-maritime climatic settings. In these sub-regions, we examine the area change of 111 glaciers. Overall, the total glacierized area has declined from 34.1 to 10.1 km2, with a substantial increase in the number of small glaciers due to fragmentation. The average annual decrease (AAD) in glacier area has risen by about 1 order of magnitude from 1860-1990 (Livigno: 0.45; Orobie: 0.42; and Disgrazia: 0.39 % a-1) to 1990-2007 (Livigno: 3.08; Orobie: 2.44; and Disgrazia: 2.27 % a-1). This ranking changes when considering glaciers smaller than 0.5 km2 only (i.e., we remove the confounding caused by large glaciers in Disgrazia), so that post-1990 AAD follows the latitudinal gradient and Orobie glaciers stand out (Livigno: 4.07; Disgrazia: 3.57; and Orobie: 2.47 % a-1). More recent (2007-2013) field-based mass balances in three selected small glaciers confirm post-1990 trends showing the consistently highest retreat in continental Livigno and minimal area loss in maritime Orobie, with Disgrazia displaying transitional behavior. We argue that the recent resilience of glaciers in Orobie is a consequence of their decoupling from synoptic atmospheric temperature trends, a decoupling that arises from the combination of local topographic configuration (i.e., deep, north-facing cirques) and high winter precipitation, which ensures high snow-avalanche supply, as well as high summer shading and sheltering. Our hypothesis is further supported by the lack of correlations between glacier change and glacier attributes in

  1. Analysis of the latitudinal variability of tropospheric ozone in the Arctic using the large number of aircraft and ozonesonde observations in early summer 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancellet, Gerard; Daskalakis, Nikos; Raut, Jean Christophe; Tarasick, David; Hair, Jonathan; Quennehen, Boris; Ravetta, François; Schlager, Hans; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Thompson, Anne M.; Johnson, Bryan; Thomas, Jennie L.; Law, Katharine S.

    2016-10-01

    During the 2008 International Polar Year, the POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements, and Models of Climate Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport) campaign, conducted in summer over Greenland and Canada, produced a large number of measurements from three aircraft and seven ozonesonde stations. Here we present an observation-integrated analysis based on three different types of O3 measurements: airborne lidar, airborne UV absorption or chemiluminescence measurement, and intensified electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde profiles. Discussion of the latitudinal and vertical variability of tropospheric ozone north of 55° N during this period is performed with the aid of a regional model (WFR-Chem). The model is able to reproduce the O3 latitudinal and vertical variability but with a negative O3 bias of 6-15 ppbv in the free troposphere above 4 km, especially over Canada. For Canada, large average CO concentrations in the free troposphere above 4 km ( > 130 ppbv) and the weak correlation (< 30 %) of O3 and PV suggest that stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) is not the major contributor to average tropospheric ozone at latitudes less than 70° N, due to the fact that local biomass burning (BB) emissions were significant during the 2008 summer period. Conversely, significant STE is found over Greenland according to the better O3 vs. PV correlation ( > 40 %) and the higher values of the 75th PV percentile. It is related to the persistence of cyclonic activity during the summer over Baffin Bay. Using differences between average concentration above Northern and Southern Canada, a weak negative latitudinal summer ozone gradient of -6 to -8 ppbv is found in the mid-troposphere between 4 and 8 km. This is attributed to an efficient O3 photochemical production from BB emissions at latitudes less than 65° N, while the STE contribution is more homogeneous in the latitude range 55-70° N. A positive ozone latitudinal gradient of

  2. AFLP Genome Scanning Reveals Divergent Selection in Natural Populations of Liriodendron chinense (Magnoliaceae) along a Latitudinal Transect

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ai-Hong; Wei, Na; Fritsch, Peter W.; Yao, Xiao-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding adaptive genetic variation and its relation to environmental factors are important for understanding how plants adapt to climate change and for managing genetic resources. Genome scans for the loci exhibiting either notably high or low levels of population differentiation (outlier loci) provide one means of identifying genomic regions possibly associated with convergent or divergent selection. In this study, we combined Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) genome scan and environmental association analysis to test for signals of natural selection in natural populations of Liriodendron chinense (Chinese Tulip Tree; Magnoliaceae) along a latitudinal transect. We genotyped 276 individuals from 11 populations of L. chinense using 987 AFLP markers. Both frequency-based (Dfdist and BayeScan) and correlation-based (MLM) methods were applied to detect outlier loci. Our analyses recovered both neutral and potentially adaptive genetic differentiation among populations of L. chinense. We found moderate genetic diversity within populations and high genetic differentiation among populations with reduced genetic diversity toward the periphery of the species ranges. Nine AFLP marker loci showed evidence of being outliers for population differentiation for both detection methods. Of these, six were strongly associated with at least one climate factor. Temperature, precipitation, and radiation were found to be three important factors influencing local adaptation of L. chinense. The outlier AFLP loci are likely not the target of natural selection, but the neighboring genes of these loci might be involved in local adaptation. Hence, these candidates should be validated by further studies. PMID:27303414

  3. Relating Paleoclimate Data and Past Temperature Gradients: Some Suggestive Rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David

    1999-01-01

    Understanding tropical sensitivity is perhaps the major concern confronting researchers, for both past and future climate change issues. Tropical data has been beset by contradictions, and many techniques applicable to the extratropics are either unavailable or fraught with uncertainty when applied at low latitudes. Paleoclimate data, if interpreted within the context of the latitudinal temperature gradient data they imply, can be used to estimate what happened to tropical temperatures in the past, and provide a first guess for what might happen in the future. The approach is made possible by the modeling result that atmospheric dynamical changes, and the climate impacts they produce, respond primarily to temperature gradient changes. Here we review some "rules" obtained from GCM (General Circulation Model) experiments with different sea surface temperature gradients and different forcing, that can be used to relate paleoclimate reconstructions to the likely temperature gradient changes they suggest.

  4. Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Capsicum represents one of several well characterized Solanaceous genera. A wealth of classical and molecular genetics research is available for the genus. Information gleaned from its cultivated relatives, tomato and potato, provide further insight for basic and applied studies. Early ...

  5. Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintaining genetic variation in wild populations of Arctic organisms is fundamental to the long-term persistence of high latitude biodiversity. Variability is important because it provides options for species to respond to changing environmental conditions and novel challenges such as emerging path...

  6. The population genetic structure of Littorina littorea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) along a pollution gradient in the Scheldt estuary (The Netherlands) using RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    De Wolf, Hans; Blust, Ronny; Backeljau, Thierry

    2004-06-05

    The population genetic structure of the periwinkle Littorina littorea was analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Three primers, coding for six putative polymorphic loci were surveyed to infer the genetic structure of seven populations located along the heavily polluted Western (i.e. in order of decreasing pollution load W1, W2, W3 and R1) and the relatively clean Eastern Scheldt (E1, E2 and E3) estuary (The Netherlands). A genetic distance based UPGMA (Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean) dendrogram revealed an estuary-related structuring, as Eastern and Western Scheldt sites formed two separate clusters. The Western Scheldt cluster was, however, much more heterogeneous, with three RAPD loci revealing a significant genetic heterogeneity compared to none when the Eastern Scheldt sites were compared. Overall mean heterozygosity levels were high, but did not reveal a difference between the estuaries. The current data (1) confirm the patterns of variation previously observed with electrophoretic analyses of esterases and (2) strongly support that these patterns of variation have a genetic basis, in the presence of intense gene flow. In addition, it is suggested that selection, rather than bottleneck effects, induced by the less favourable living conditions at W1, W2 and W3 are responsible for the genetic patterning.

  7. Large-scale pattern of genetic differentiation within African rainforest trees: insights on the roles of ecological gradients and past climate changes on the evolution of Erythrophleum spp (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evolutionary events that have shaped biodiversity patterns in the African rainforests are still poorly documented. Past forest fragmentation and ecological gradients have been advocated as important drivers of genetic differentiation but their respective roles remain unclear. Using nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs) and chloroplast non-coding sequences (pDNA), we characterised the spatial genetic structure of Erythrophleum (Fabaceae) forest trees in West and Central Africa (Guinea Region, GR). This widespread genus displays a wide ecological amplitude and taxonomists recognize two forest tree species, E. ivorense and E. suaveolens, which are difficult to distinguish in the field and often confused. Results Bayesian-clustering applied on nSSRs of a blind sample of 648 specimens identified three major gene pools showing no or very limited introgression. They present parapatric distributions correlated to rainfall gradients and forest types. One gene pool is restricted to coastal evergreen forests and corresponds to E. ivorense; a second one is found in gallery forests from the dry forest zone of West Africa and North-West Cameroon and corresponds to West-African E. suaveolens; the third gene pool occurs in semi-evergreen forests and corresponds to Central African E. suaveolens. These gene pools have mostly unique pDNA haplotypes but they do not form reciprocally monophyletic clades. Nevertheless, pDNA molecular dating indicates that the divergence between E. ivorense and Central African E. suaveolens predates the Pleistocene. Further Bayesian-clustering applied within each major gene pool identified diffuse genetic discontinuities (minor gene pools displaying substantial introgression) at a latitude between 0 and 2°N in Central Africa for both species, and at a longitude between 5° and 8°E for E. ivorense. Moreover, we detected evidence of past population declines which are consistent with historical habitat fragmentation induced by Pleistocene climate

  8. Genetic diversity and connectivity remain high in Holothuria polii (Delle Chiaje 1823) across a coastal lagoon-open sea environmental gradient.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Chen, Carlos; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

    2010-08-01

    Coastal lagoons represent habitats with widely heterogeneous environmental conditions, particularly as regards salinity and temperature, which fluctuate in both space and time. These characteristics suggest that physical and ecological factors could contribute to the genetic divergence among populations occurring in coastal lagoon and open-coast environments. This study investigates the genetic structure of Holothuria polii at a micro-geographic scale across the Mar Menor coastal lagoon and nearby marine areas, estimating the mitochondrial DNA variation in two gene fragments, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rRNA (16S). Dataset of mitochondrial sequences was also used to test the influence of environmental differences between coastal lagoon and marine waters on population genetic structure. All sampled locations exhibited high levels of haplotype diversity and low values of nucleotide diversity. Both genes showed contrasting signals of genetic differentiation (non-significant differences using COI and slight differences using 16S, which could due to different mutation rates or to differential number of exclusive haplotypes. We detected an excess of recent mutations and exclusive haplotypes, which can be generated as a result of population growth. However, selective processes can be also acting on the gene markers used; highly significant generalized additive models have been obtained considering genetic data from 16S gene and independent variables such as temperature and salinity.

  9. Natural Genetic Variation and Candidate Genes for Morphological Traits in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Valeria Paula; Mensch, Julián; Hasson, Esteban; Fanara, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Body size is a complex character associated to several fitness related traits that vary within and between species as a consequence of environmental and genetic factors. Latitudinal and altitudinal clines for different morphological traits have been described in several species of Drosophila and previous work identified genomic regions associated with such variation in D. melanogaster. However, the genetic factors that orchestrate morphological variation have been barely studied. Here, our main objective was to investigate genetic variation for different morphological traits associated to the second chromosome in natural populations of D. melanogaster along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Argentina. Our results revealed weak clinal signals and a strong population effect on morphological variation. Moreover, most pairwise comparisons between populations were significant. Our study also showed important within-population genetic variation, which must be associated to the second chromosome, as the lines are otherwise genetically identical. Next, we examined the contribution of different candidate genes to natural variation for these traits. We performed quantitative complementation tests using a battery of lines bearing mutated alleles at candidate genes located in the second chromosome and six second chromosome substitution lines derived from natural populations which exhibited divergent phenotypes. Results of complementation tests revealed that natural variation at all candidate genes studied, invected, Fasciclin 3, toucan, Reticulon-like1, jing and CG14478, affects the studied characters, suggesting that they are Quantitative Trait Genes for morphological traits. Finally, the phenotypic patterns observed suggest that different alleles of each gene might contribute to natural variation for morphological traits. However, non-additive effects cannot be ruled out, as wild-derived strains differ at myriads of second chromosome loci that may interact

  10. Natural Genetic Variation and Candidate Genes for Morphological Traits in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Valeria Paula; Mensch, Julián; Hasson, Esteban; Fanara, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Body size is a complex character associated to several fitness related traits that vary within and between species as a consequence of environmental and genetic factors. Latitudinal and altitudinal clines for different morphological traits have been described in several species of Drosophila and previous work identified genomic regions associated with such variation in D. melanogaster. However, the genetic factors that orchestrate morphological variation have been barely studied. Here, our main objective was to investigate genetic variation for different morphological traits associated to the second chromosome in natural populations of D. melanogaster along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Argentina. Our results revealed weak clinal signals and a strong population effect on morphological variation. Moreover, most pairwise comparisons between populations were significant. Our study also showed important within-population genetic variation, which must be associated to the second chromosome, as the lines are otherwise genetically identical. Next, we examined the contribution of different candidate genes to natural variation for these traits. We performed quantitative complementation tests using a battery of lines bearing mutated alleles at candidate genes located in the second chromosome and six second chromosome substitution lines derived from natural populations which exhibited divergent phenotypes. Results of complementation tests revealed that natural variation at all candidate genes studied, invected, Fasciclin 3, toucan, Reticulon-like1, jing and CG14478, affects the studied characters, suggesting that they are Quantitative Trait Genes for morphological traits. Finally, the phenotypic patterns observed suggest that different alleles of each gene might contribute to natural variation for morphological traits. However, non-additive effects cannot be ruled out, as wild-derived strains differ at myriads of second chromosome loci that may interact

  11. Population divergence along lines of genetic variance and covariance in the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Colautti, Robert I; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2011-09-01

    Evolution during biological invasion may occur over contemporary timescales, but the rate of evolutionary change may be inhibited by a lack of standing genetic variation for ecologically relevant traits and by fitness trade-offs among them. The extent to which these genetic constraints limit the evolution of local adaptation during biological invasion has rarely been examined. To investigate genetic constraints on life-history traits, we measured standing genetic variance and covariance in 20 populations of the invasive plant purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) sampled along a latitudinal climatic gradient in eastern North America and grown under uniform conditions in a glasshouse. Genetic variances within and among populations were significant for all traits; however, strong intercorrelations among measurements of seedling growth rate, time to reproductive maturity and adult size suggested that fitness trade-offs have constrained population divergence. Evidence to support this hypothesis was obtained from the genetic variance-covariance matrix (G) and the matrix of (co)variance among population means (D), which were 79.8% (95% C.I. 77.7-82.9%) similar. These results suggest that population divergence during invasive spread of L. salicaria in eastern North America has been constrained by strong genetic correlations among life-history traits, despite large amounts of standing genetic variation for individual traits.

  12. Gene movement and genetic association with regional climate gradients in California valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) in the face of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sork, Victoria L.; Davis, Frank W.; Westfall, Robert; Flint, Alan L.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Wang, Hongfang; Grivet, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    Rapid climate change jeopardizes tree populations by shifting current climate zones. To avoid extinction, tree populations must tolerate, adapt, or migrate. Here we investigate geographic patterns of genetic variation in valley oak, Quercus lobata N??e, to assess how underlying genetic structure of populations might influence this species' ability to survive climate change. First, to understand how genetic lineages shape spatial genetic patterns, we examine historical patterns of colonization. Second, we examine the correlation between multivariate nuclear genetic variation and climatic variation. Third, to illustrate how geographic genetic variation could interact with regional patterns of 21st Century climate change, we produce region-specific bioclimatic distributions of valley oak using Maximum Entropy (MAXENT) models based on downscaled historical (1971-2000) and future (2070-2100) climate grids. Future climatologies are based on a moderate-high (A2) carbon emission scenario and two different global climate models. Chloroplast markers indicate historical range-wide connectivity via colonization, especially in the north. Multivariate nuclear genotypes show a strong association with climate variation that provides opportunity for local adaptation to the conditions within their climatic envelope. Comparison of regional current and projected patterns of climate suitability indicates that valley oaks grow in distinctly different climate conditions in different parts of their range. Our models predict widely different regional outcomes from local displacement of a few kilometres to hundreds of kilometres. We conclude that the relative importance of migration, adaptation, and tolerance are likely to vary widely for populations among regions, and that late 21st Century conditions could lead to regional extinctions. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Signatures of natural selection in the mitochondrial genomes of Tachycineta swallows and their implications for latitudinal patterns of the 'pace of life'.

    PubMed

    Stager, Maria; Cerasale, David J; Dor, Roi; Winkler, David W; Cheviron, Zachary A

    2014-08-01

    Latitudinal variation in avian life histories can be summarized as a slow-fast continuum, termed the 'pace of life', that encompasses patterns in life span, reproduction, and rates of development among tropical and temperate species. Much of the variation in avian pace of life is tied to differences in rates of long-term metabolic energy expenditure. Given the vital role of the mitochondrion in metabolic processes, studies of variation in the mitochondrial genome may offer opportunities to establish mechanistic links between genetic variation and latitudinal 'pace of life' patterns. Using comparative genomic analyses, we examined complete mitochondrial genome sequences obtained from nine, broadly distributed Tachycineta swallow species to test for signatures of natural selection across the mitogenome within a phylogenetic framework. Our results show that although purifying selection is the dominant selective force acting on the mitochondrial genome in Tachycineta, three mitochondrial genes (ND2, ND5, and CYTB) contain regions that exhibit signatures of diversifying selection. Two of these genes (ND2 and ND5) encode interacting subunits of NADH dehydrogenase, and amino residues that were inferred to be targets of positive selection were disproportionately concentrated in these genes. Moreover, the positively selected sites exhibited a phylogenetic pattern that could be indicative of adaptive divergence between "fast" and "slow" lineages. These results suggest that functional variation in cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase could mechanistically contribute to latitudinal 'pace of life' patterns in Tachycineta.

  14. Latitudinal variation in resistance and tolerance to herbivory in the perennial herb Lythrum salicaria is related to intensity of herbivory and plant phenology.

    PubMed

    Lehndal, L; Ågren, J

    2015-03-01

    Both the length of the growing season and the intensity of herbivory often vary along climatic gradients, which may result in divergent selection on plant phenology, and on resistance and tolerance to herbivory. In Sweden, the length of the growing season and the number of insect herbivore species feeding on the perennial herb Lythrum salicaria decrease from south to north. Previous common-garden experiments have shown that northern L. salicaria populations develop aboveground shoots earlier in the summer and finish growth before southern populations do. We tested the hypotheses that resistance and tolerance to damage vary with latitude in L. salicaria and are positively related to the intensity of herbivory in natural populations. We quantified resistance and tolerance of populations sampled along a latitudinal gradient by scoring damage from natural herbivores and fitness in a common-garden experiment in the field and by documenting oviposition and feeding preference by specialist leaf beetles in a glasshouse experiment. Plant resistance decreased with latitude of origin, whereas plant tolerance increased. Oviposition and feeding preference in the glasshouse and leaf damage in the common-garden experiment were negatively related to damage in the source populations. The latitudinal variation in resistance was thus consistent with reduced selection from herbivores towards the northern range margin of L. salicaria. Variation in tolerance may be related to differences in the timing of damage in relation to the seasonal pattern of plant growth, as northern genotypes have developed further than southern have when herbivores emerge in early summer.

  15. A General, Synthetic Model for Predicting Biodiversity Gradients from Environmental Geometry.

    PubMed

    Gross, Kevin; Snyder-Beattie, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Latitudinal and elevational biodiversity gradients fascinate ecologists, and have inspired dozens of explanations. The geometry of the abiotic environment is sometimes thought to contribute to these gradients, yet evaluations of geometric explanations are limited by a fragmented understanding of the diversity patterns they predict. This article presents a mathematical model that synthesizes multiple pathways by which environmental geometry can drive diversity gradients. The model characterizes species ranges by their environmental niches and limits on range sizes and places those ranges onto the simplified geometries of a sphere or cone. The model predicts nuanced and realistic species-richness gradients, including latitudinal diversity gradients with tropical plateaus and mid-latitude inflection points and elevational diversity gradients with low-elevation diversity maxima. The model also illustrates the importance of a mid-environment effect that augments species richness at locations with intermediate environments. Model predictions match multiple empirical biodiversity gradients, depend on ecological traits in a testable fashion, and formally synthesize elements of several geometric models. Together, these results suggest that previous assessments of geometric hypotheses should be reconsidered and that environmental geometry may play a deeper role in driving biodiversity gradients than is currently appreciated.

  16. Assessing circumbinary habitable zones using latitudinal energy balance modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgan, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Previous attempts to describe circumbinary habitable zones (HZs) have been concerned with the spatial extent of the zone, calculated analytically according to the combined radiation field of both stars. By contrast to these `spatial HZs', we present a numerical analysis of the `orbital HZ', an HZ defined as a function of planet orbital elements. This orbital HZ is better equipped to handle (for example) eccentric planet orbits, and is more directly connected to the data returned by exoplanet observations. Producing an orbital HZ requires a large number of climate simulations to be run to investigate the parameter space - we achieve this using latitudinal energy balance models, which handle the insolation of the planet by both stars (including mutual eclipses), as well as the planetary atmosphere's ability to absorb, transfer and lose heat. We present orbital HZs for several known circumbinary planetary systems: Kepler-16, Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-47 and PH-1. Generally, the orbital HZs at zero eccentricity are consistent with spatial HZs derived by other authors, although we detect some signatures of variability that coincide with resonances between the binary and planet orbital periods. We confirm that Earth-like planets around Kepler-47 with Kepler-47c's orbital parameters could possess liquid water, despite current uncertainties regarding its eccentricity. Kepler-16b is found to be outside the HZ, as well as the other circumbinary planets investigated.

  17. Latitudinal dependence of variations in stratospheric NO2 content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruzdev, A. N.

    2008-06-01

    Diurnal and annual variations in the NO2 total content (TC), the effect of its decrease owing to the products of the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, its variations during an 11-year cycle of solar activity, and its linear trends are analyzed on the basis of data obtained from the ground-based spectrometric measurements of the NO2 TC in stratospheric vertical columns over the stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. Latitudinal dependence of the indicated variations and trends is revealed. The annual estimates of the linear trends of the NO2 TC are found to be mostly positive for the middle and low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere and negative for the middle and low latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The maximum values of the positive and negative trends amount to ˜10% per ten years. In the high and polar latitudes of both hemispheres, the annual trend estimates are statistically insignificant. Seasonal estimates of the trends may differ from their annual estimates. The trends and solar-activity effect in the NO2 TC, which were estimated by using the two-dimensional model SOCRATES, as well as the analytical estimates of a zonal mean trend of the NO2 TC, on the whole, significantly differ from the estimates obtained from the measurements.

  18. Latitudinal variation of helicity of photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Canfield, Richard C.; Metcalf, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    Using a 1988-1994 data set of original photospheric vector magnetograms as well as published data, we have studied the average magnetic helicity of 69 diverse active regions, adopting the linear force-free field parameter alpha as a measure. This average value was determined by minimizing the differences between the computed constant-alpha force-free and observed horizontal magnetic fields. The average magnetic helicity shows a sign difference at the 2 sigma level in opposite hemispheres. In our data set, 76% of the active regions in the northern hemisphere have negative helicity, and 69% in the southern hemisphere, positive. Although the data show considerable variation from one active region to the next, the data set as a whole suggest that the magnitude of the average helicity increases with solar latitude, starting at zero near the equator, reaches a maximum near 15 deg - 25 deg in both hemispheres, and drops back toward smaller values avove 35 deg - 40 deg. Qualitative comparison with published models shows that such latitudinal variation of the average magnetic helicity may result from either turbulent convective motions or differential rotation, although our studies of rotating sunspots lead us to favor the former.

  19. Physiological constraints and latitudinal breeding season in the Canidae.

    PubMed

    Valdespino, Carolina

    2007-01-01

    Physiological strategies that maximize reproductive success may be phylogenetically constrained or might have a plastic response to different environmental conditions. Among mammals, Canidae lend themselves to the study of these two influences on reproductive physiology because all the species studied to date have been characterized as monestrous (i.e., a single ovulatory event per breeding season), suggesting a phylogenetic effect. Greater flexibility could be associated with environments that are less seasonal, such as the tropics; however, little is known for many of the species from this region. To compensate for this lack of data, two regressions were done on the length of the reproductive season relative to the latitudinal distribution of a species: one with raw data and another with phylogenetically independent contrasts. There was a significant negative relationship, independent of phylogeny, with canids that have longer breeding seasons occurring at lower latitudes. In contrast, the pervasiveness of monestrus within Canidae appears to be phylogenetically constrained by their pairing/packing life and is most likely associated with monogamy. The persistence of the monestrous condition is supported by a captive study where a tropical canid, the fennec fox, Vulpes zerda, never exhibited polyestrous cycles despite a constant photoperiod (12L : 12D).

  20. Latitudinal and Seasonal Investigations of Storm-Time TEC Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adimula, I. A.; Oladipo, O. A.; Adebiyi, S. J.

    2016-07-01

    The ionosphere responds markedly and unpredictably to varying magnetospheric energy inputs caused by solar disturbances on the geospace. Knowledge of the impact of the space weather events on the ionosphere is important to assess the environmental effect on the operations of ground- and space-based technologies. Thus, global positioning system (GPS) measurements from the international GNSS service (IGS) database were used to investigate the ionospheric response to 56 geomagnetic storm events at six different latitudes comprising the northern and southern hemispheres in the Afro-European sector. Statistical distributions of total electron content (TEC) response show that during the main phase of the storms, enhancement of TEC is more pronounced in most of the seasons, regardless of the latitude and hemisphere. However, a strong seasonal dependence appears in the TEC response during the recovery phase. Depletion of TEC is majorly observed at the high latitude stations, and its appearance at lower latitudes is seasonally dependent. In summer hemisphere, the depletion of TEC is more pronounced in nearly all the latitudinal bands. In winter hemisphere, enhancement as well as depletion of TEC is observed over the high latitude, while enhancement is majorly observed over the mid and low latitudes. In equinoxes, the storm-time TEC distribution shows a fairly consistent characteristic with the summer distribution, particularly in the northern hemisphere.

  1. Latitudinal variation in virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton across the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Kristina D A; Huisman, Jef; Wilhelm, Steven W; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2016-02-01

    Viral lysis of phytoplankton constrains marine primary production, food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. Yet, little is known about the biogeographical distribution of viral lysis rates across the global ocean. To address this, we investigated phytoplankton group-specific viral lysis rates along a latitudinal gradient within the North Atlantic Ocean. The data show large-scale distribution patterns of different virus groups across the North Atlantic that are associated with the biogeographical distributions of their potential microbial hosts. Average virus-mediated lysis rates of the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were lower than those of the picoeukaryotic and nanoeukaryotic phytoplankton (that is, 0.14 per day compared with 0.19 and 0.23 per day, respectively). Total phytoplankton mortality (virus plus grazer-mediated) was comparable to the gross growth rate, demonstrating high turnover rates of phytoplankton populations. Virus-induced mortality was an important loss process at low and mid latitudes, whereas phytoplankton mortality was dominated by microzooplankton grazing at higher latitudes (>56°N). This shift from a viral-lysis-dominated to a grazing-dominated phytoplankton community was associated with a decrease in temperature and salinity, and the decrease in viral lysis rates was also associated with increased vertical mixing at higher latitudes. Ocean-climate models predict that surface warming will lead to an expansion of the stratified and oligotrophic regions of the world's oceans. Our findings suggest that these future shifts in the regional climate of the ocean surface layer are likely to increase the contribution of viral lysis to phytoplankton mortality in the higher-latitude waters of the North Atlantic, which may potentially reduce transfer of matter and energy up the food chain and thus affect the capacity of the northern North Atlantic to act as a long-term sink for CO2.

  2. Latitudinal variation in carbon storage can help predict changes in swamps affected by global warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.; McKee, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Plants may offer our best hope of removing greenhouse gases (gases that contribute to global warming) emitted to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels. At the same time, global warming could change environments so that natural plant communities will either need to shift into cooler climate zones, or become extirpated (Prasad and Iverson, 1999; Crumpacker and others, 2001; Davis and Shaw, 2001). It is impossible to know the future, but studies combining field observation of production and modeling can help us make predictions about what may happen to these wetland communities in the future. Widespread wetland types such as baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps in the southeastern portion of the United States could be especially good at carbon sequestration (amount of CO2 stored by forests) from the atmosphere. They have high levels of production and sometimes store undecomposed dead plant material in wet conditions with low oxygen, thus keeping gases stored that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere (fig. 1). To study the ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon, our project has taken two approaches. The first analysis looked at published data to develop an idea (hypothesis) of how production levels change across a temperature gradient in the baldcypress region (published data study). The second study tested this idea by comparing production levels across a latitudinal range by using swamps in similar field conditions (ongoing carbon storage study). These studies will help us make predictions about the future ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon in soil and plant biomass, as well as the ability of these forests to shift northward with global warming.

  3. Functional microarray analysis of nitrogen and carbon cycling genes across an Antarctic latitudinal transect.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Kang, Sanghoon; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Kowalchuk, George A

    2007-06-01

    Soil-borne microbial communities were examined via a functional gene microarray approach across a southern polar latitudinal gradient to gain insight into the environmental factors steering soil N- and C-cycling in terrestrial Antarctic ecosystems. The abundance and diversity of functional gene families were studied for soil-borne microbial communities inhabiting a range of environments from 51 degrees S (cool temperate-Falkland Islands) to 72 degrees S (cold rock desert-Coal Nunatak). The recently designed functional gene array used contains 24,243 oligonucleotide probes and covers >10,000 genes in >150 functional groups involved in nitrogen, carbon, sulfur and phosphorus cycling, metal reduction and resistance and organic contaminant degradation (He et al. 2007). The detected N- and C-cycle genes were significantly different across different sampling locations and vegetation types. A number of significant trends were observed regarding the distribution of key gene families across the environments examined. For example, the relative detection of cellulose degradation genes was correlated with temperature, and microbial C-fixation genes were more present in plots principally lacking vegetation. With respect to the N-cycle, denitrification genes were linked to higher soil temperatures, and N2-fixation genes were linked to plots mainly vegetated by lichens. These microarray-based results were confirmed for a number of gene families using specific real-time PCR, enzymatic assays and process rate measurements. The results presented demonstrate the utility of an integrated functional gene microarray approach in detecting shifts in functional community properties in environmental samples and provide insight into the forces driving important processes of terrestrial Antarctic nutrient cycling.

  4. Latitudinal variation in virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton across the North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Mojica, Kristina D A; Huisman, Jef; Wilhelm, Steven W; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2016-01-01

    Viral lysis of phytoplankton constrains marine primary production, food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. Yet, little is known about the biogeographical distribution of viral lysis rates across the global ocean. To address this, we investigated phytoplankton group-specific viral lysis rates along a latitudinal gradient within the North Atlantic Ocean. The data show large-scale distribution patterns of different virus groups across the North Atlantic that are associated with the biogeographical distributions of their potential microbial hosts. Average virus-mediated lysis rates of the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were lower than those of the picoeukaryotic and nanoeukaryotic phytoplankton (that is, 0.14 per day compared with 0.19 and 0.23 per day, respectively). Total phytoplankton mortality (virus plus grazer-mediated) was comparable to the gross growth rate, demonstrating high turnover rates of phytoplankton populations. Virus-induced mortality was an important loss process at low and mid latitudes, whereas phytoplankton mortality was dominated by microzooplankton grazing at higher latitudes (>56°N). This shift from a viral-lysis-dominated to a grazing-dominated phytoplankton community was associated with a decrease in temperature and salinity, and the decrease in viral lysis rates was also associated with increased vertical mixing at higher latitudes. Ocean-climate models predict that surface warming will lead to an expansion of the stratified and oligotrophic regions of the world's oceans. Our findings suggest that these future shifts in the regional climate of the ocean surface layer are likely to increase the contribution of viral lysis to phytoplankton mortality in the higher-latitude waters of the North Atlantic, which may potentially reduce transfer of matter and energy up the food chain and thus affect the capacity of the northern North Atlantic to act as a long-term sink for CO2. PMID:26262815

  5. SNP signatures of selection on standing genetic variation and their association with adaptive phenotypes along gradients of ecological speciation in lake whitefish species pairs (Coregonus spp.).

    PubMed

    Renaut, Sébastien; Nolte, Arne W; Rogers, Sean M; Derome, Nicolas; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-02-01

    As populations adapt to novel environments, divergent selection will promote heterogeneous genomic differentiation via reductions in gene flow for loci underlying adaptive traits. Using a data set of over 100 SNP markers, genome scans were performed to investigate the effect of natural selection maintaining differentiation in five lakes harbouring sympatric pairs of normal and dwarf lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). A variable proportion of SNPs (between 0% and 12%) was identified as outliers, which corroborated the predicted intensity of competitive interactions unique to each lake. Moreover, strong reduction in heterozygosity was typically observed for outlier loci in dwarf but not in normal whitefish, indicating that directional selection has been acting on standing genetic variation more intensively in dwarf whitefish. SNP associations in backcross hybrid progeny identified 16 genes exhibiting genotype-phenotype associations for four adaptive traits (growth, swimming activity, gill rakers and condition factor). However, neither simple relationship between elevated levels of genetic differentiation with adaptive phenotype nor conspicuous genetic signatures for parallelism at outlier loci were detected, which underscores the importance of independent evolution among lakes. The integration of phenotypic, transcriptomic and functional genomic information identified two candidate genes (sodium potassium ATPase and triosephosphate isomerase) involved in the recent ecological divergence of lake whitefish. Finally, the identification of several markers under divergent selection suggests that many genes, in an environment-specific manner, are recruited by selection and ultimately contributed to the repeated ecological speciation of a dwarf phenotype.

  6. Latitudinal exposure to DDTs, HCB, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in giant petrels (Macronectes spp.) across the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Roscales, Jose L; González-Solís, Jacob; Zango, Laura; Ryan, Peter G; Jiménez, Begoña

    2016-07-01

    Studies on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic wildlife are scarce, and usually limited to a single locality. As a result, wildlife exposure to POPs across the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. In this study, we report the differential exposure of the major southern ocean scavengers, the giant petrels, to POPs across a wide latitudinal gradient. Selected POPs (PCBs, HCB, DDTs, PBDEs) and related compounds, such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were analyzed in plasma of southern giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus) breeding on Livingston (62°S 61°W, Antarctica), Marion (46°S 37°E, sub-Antarctic), and Gough (40°S 10°W, cool temperate) islands. Northern giant petrels (Macronectes halli) from Marion Island were also studied. Stable isotope ratios of C and N (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) were used as dietary tracers of the marine habitat and trophic level, respectively. Breeding locality was a major factor explaining petrel exposure to POPs compared with species and sex. Significant relationships between δ(13)C values and POP burdens, at both inter- and intra-population levels, support latitudinal variations in feeding grounds as a key factor in explaining petrel pollutant burdens. Overall, pollutant levels in giant petrels decreased significantly with latitude, but the relative abundance (%) of the more volatile POPs increased towards Antarctica. DP was found at negligible levels compared with legacy POPs in Antarctic seabirds. Spatial POP patterns found in giant petrels match those predicted by global distribution models, and reinforce the hypothesis of atmospheric long-range transport as the main source of POPs in Antarctica. Our results confirm that wildlife movements out of the polar region markedly increase their exposure to POPs. Therefore, strategies for Antarctic wildlife conservation should consider spatial heterogeneity in exposure to marine pollution. Of particular relevance is the need to clarify the exposure of Antarctic predators to emerging

  7. Canopy interactions and physical stress gradients in subtidal communities.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Scott; Wernberg, Thomas; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Kendrick, Gary A; Anderson, Robert J; Bolton, John J; Rodgers, Kirsten L; Shears, Nick T; Leclerc, Jean-Charles; Lévêque, Laurent; Davoult, Dominique; Christie, Hartvig C

    2015-07-01

    Species interactions are integral drivers of community structure and can change from competitive to facilitative with increasing environmental stress. In subtidal marine ecosystems, however, interactions along physical stress gradients have seldom been tested. We observed seaweed canopy interactions across depth and latitudinal gradients to test whether light and temperature stress structured interaction patterns. We also quantified interspecific and intraspecific interactions among nine subtidal canopy seaweed species across three continents to examine the general nature of interactions in subtidal systems under low consumer pressure. We reveal that positive and neutral interactions are widespread throughout global seaweed communities and the nature of interactions can change from competitive to facilitative with increasing light stress in shallow marine systems. These findings provide support for the stress gradient hypothesis within subtidal seaweed communities and highlight the importance of canopy interactions for the maintenance of subtidal marine habitats experiencing environmental stress.

  8. Flat meridional temperature gradient in the early Eocene in the subsurface rather than surface ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Sze Ling; Laepple, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The early Eocene (49-55 million years ago) is a time interval characterized by elevated surface temperatures and atmospheric CO2 (refs ,), and a flatter-than-present latitudinal surface temperature gradient. The multi-proxy-derived flat temperature gradient has been a challenge to reproduce in model simulations, especially the subtropical warmth at the high-latitude surface oceans, inferred from the archaeal lipid-based palaeothermometry, . Here we revisit the interpretation by analysing a global collection of multi-proxy temperature estimates from sediment cores spanning millennia to millions of years. Comparing the variability between proxy types, we demonstrate that the present interpretation overestimates the magnitude of past climate changes on all timescales. We attribute this to an inappropriate calibration, which reflects subsurface ocean but is calibrated to the sea surface, where the latitudinal temperature gradient is steeper. Recalibrating the proxy to the temperatures of subsurface ocean, where the signal is probably formed, yields colder -temperatures and latitudinal gradient consistent with standard climate model simulations of the Eocene climate, invalidating the apparent, extremely warm polar sea surface temperatures. We conclude that there is a need to reinterpret -inferred marine temperature records in the literature, especially for reconstructions of past warm climates that rely heavily on this proxy as reflecting subsurface ocean.

  9. Genetic gradient of a host-parasite pair along a river persisted ten years against physical mobility: Baltic Salmo salar vs. Gyrodactylus salaris.

    PubMed

    Lumme, Jaakko; Anttila, Pasi; Rintamäki, Päivi; Koski, Perttu; Romakkaniemi, Atso

    2016-11-01

    The Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in the Tornio River in the Northern Baltic Sea basin accommodates a monogenean ectoparasite, Gyrodactylus salaris. The aim of the study was to understand the population structure of apparently co-adapted host-parasite system: no parasite-associated mortality has been reported. The parasite burden among salmon juveniles (parr) was monitored along 460km of the river in 2000-2009. Among the parr, 33.0% were infected (nfish=1913). The genetic structure of the parasite population was studied by sequencing an anonymous nuclear DNA marker (ADNAM1, three main genotypes) and mitochondrial CO1 (three clades, six haplotypes). During the ten years, the parasite population was strongly and stably genetically differentiated among up- and downstream nurseries (nADNAM1=411, FST=0.579; nCO1=443, FST=0.534). Infection prevalence among the smolts migrating to sea was higher than in the sedentary parr populations (82.2%, nfish=129). The spatial differentiation observed among the sedentary juveniles was reflected temporally in the smolt run: parasite genotypes dominating the upper part of the river arrived later than downstream dwellers (medians June 4 and June 2) to the trap 7km from the river mouth. The nuclear and mitochondrial markers were in stable disequilibrium which was not relaxed in the contact zone or among the smolts where the parasite clones often met on individual fish. Only five parasite specimens on smolts (nworms=217) were putative recent sexual recombinants. The contribution of extant salmon hatcheries into the infection was negligible. The host salmon population in Tornio River is known to show significant spatial differentiation (FST=0.022). The stable spatial genetic structure of the parasite against the high physical mobility suggested a possibility of local co-adaptation of the host-parasite subpopulations.

  10. [Latitudinal Changes in Plant Stoichiometric and Soil C, N, P Stoichiometry in Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Deng, Qiang; Yuan, Zhi-you; Jiao, Feng

    2015-08-01

    Field investigations and sampling were conducted in Loess Plateau, including Fu County, Ganquan County, Ansai County, Jingbian County and Hengshan County and Yuyang District. Our objective was to examine changes of leaf and soil stoichiometry characteristics along latitudinal gradient in Loess Plateau, and to provide references for the prediction of soil nutrient status of the ecosystem and constraints of plant nutrition elements in Loess Plateau. The results showed that (1) Across the 35.95 degrees-38.36 degrees N latitude gradient, leaf C, N and P stoichiometry were ranging from 336.95 to 477.38 mg x g(-1) for C, from 18.09 to 33.173 mg x g(-1) for N and from 1.07 to 1.73 mg x g(-1) for P, the arithmetic means were 442.9 mg x g(-1), 25.79 mg x g(-1) and 1.37 mg x g(-1), separately, the variation coefficients were 11.9%, 17.4% and 13.3%. There were obvious correlation between leaf C, N, P and latitude, leaf C, C : N ratio and C: P ratio significantly decreased with the increasing latitude, while leaf N and P significantly increased with the increasing latitude. The relationship between N: P ratio and latitude was not significant. (2) The content of soil organic C and soil total N decreased with increasing latitude and soil layer. In contrast, with the increase of latitude, soil P increased and then decreased. In the 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm soil layers, soil C: N ratio did not change significantly with latitude, while in the 20-40 cm layer, C: N ratio decreased obviously, but soil C: P and N: P ratios decreased with the increasing latitude in all soil layers. (3) Leaf C, C: N and C: P ratios were correlated to soil organic C, soil total N and soil total P in all soil layers, leaf N and P were correlated to soil organic C and soil total N, while leaf N: P ratio was not correlated to soil organic C, soil total N and soil total P. There was a certain correlation between the leaf C, N, P and latitude, however, the correlations between leaf and soil C, N, P were inconsistent

  11. On gradient field theories: gradient magnetostatics and gradient elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Markus

    2014-09-01

    In this work, the fundamentals of gradient field theories are presented and reviewed. In particular, the theories of gradient magnetostatics and gradient elasticity are investigated and compared. For gradient magnetostatics, non-singular expressions for the magnetic vector gauge potential, the Biot-Savart law, the Lorentz force and the mutual interaction energy of two electric current loops are derived and discussed. For gradient elasticity, non-singular forms of all dislocation key formulas (Burgers equation, Mura equation, Peach-Koehler stress equation, Peach-Koehler force equation, and mutual interaction energy of two dislocation loops) are presented. In addition, similarities between an electric current loop and a dislocation loop are pointed out. The obtained fields for both gradient theories are non-singular due to a straightforward and self-consistent regularization.

  12. Energy gradients and the geographic distribution of local ant diversity.

    PubMed

    Kaspari, Michael; Ward, Philip S; Yuan, May

    2004-08-01

    Geographical diversity gradients, even among local communities, can ultimately arise from geographical differences in speciation and extinction rates. We evaluated three models--energy-speciation, energy-abundance, and area--that predict how geographic trends in net diversification rates generate trends in diversity. We sampled 96 litter ant communities from four provinces: Australia, Madagascar, North America, and South America. The energy-speciation hypothesis best predicted ant species richness by accurately predicting the slope of the temperature diversity curve, and accounting for most of the variation in diversity. The communities showed a strong latitudinal gradient in species richness as well as inter-province differences in diversity. The former vanished in the temperature-diversity residuals, suggesting that the latitudinal gradient arises primarily from higher diversification rates in the tropics. However, inter-province differences in diversity persisted in those residuals--South American communities remained more diverse than those in North America and Australia even after the effects of temperature were removed.

  13. Enrichment of fetal cells from maternal blood by high gradient magnetic cell sorting (double MACS) for PCR-based genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Büsch, J; Huber, P; Pflüger, E; Miltenyi, S; Holtz, J; Radbruch, A

    1994-12-01

    For simple and effective isolation of fetal cells from peripheral maternal blood, we combined depletion of maternal cells and enrichment of fetal cells by high-gradient magnetic cell separation (MACS). First CD45+ and CD14+ cells were depleted from maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells by MACS. From the depleted fraction, CD71+ erythroid cells were enriched up to 80 per cent by MACS. This double-MACS' procedure yielded an average depletion rate of 780-fold and an average enrichment rate of 500-fold, with approximate recovery rates of 40-55 per cent. For paternity testing, cells from unseparated blood and the various fractions were analysed for polymorphism of the HLA-DQ-A1 locus and D1S80 locus by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In CD45-/CD71+ sorted cells from maternal blood, but not in unfractionated cells from maternal blood or CD45-/CD14- cells, paternal alleles could be detected. In the CD45-/CD71+ fraction, the relative frequency of paternal alleles compared with maternal alleles ranged from 1 in 20 to 1 in 200 (determined by titration and depending on the quality of separation and biological variation). In 7 out of 11 cases, between weeks 12 and 25 of gestation, we could identify paternal alleles by PCR, either HLA-DQ-A1 or D1S80. This double-MACS procedure is simple, fast, efficient, and reliable for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

  14. Genetic Diversity of the Biofilm Covering Montacuta ferruginosa (Mollusca, Bivalvia) as Evaluated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analysis and Cloning of PCR-Amplified Gene Fragments Coding for 16S rRNA†

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, David C.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Zwart, Gabriel; De Ridder, Chantal

    1998-01-01

    The shell of the bivalve Montacuta ferruginosa, a symbiont living in the burrow of an echinoid, is covered with a rust-colored biofilm. This biofilm includes different morphotypes of bacteria that are encrusted with a mineral rich in ferric ion and phosphate. The aim of this research was to determine the genetic diversity and phylogenetic affiliation of the biofilm bacteria. Also, the possible roles of the microorganisms in the processes of mineral deposition within the biofilm, as well as their impact on the biology of the bivalve, were assessed by phenotypic inference. The genetic diversity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of short (193-bp) 16S ribosomal DNA PCR products obtained with primers specific for the domain Bacteria. This analysis revealed a diverse consortium; 11 to 25 sequence types were detected depending on the method of DNA extraction used. Individual biofilms analyzed by using the same DNA extraction protocol did not produce identical DGGE profiles. However, different biofilms shared common bands, suggesting that similar bacteria can be found in different biofilms. The phylogenetic affiliations of the sequence types were determined by cloning and sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. Close relatives of the genera Pseudoalteromonas, Colwellia, and Oceanospirillum (members of the γ-Proteobacteria lineage), as well as Flexibacter maritimus (a member of the Cytophaga-Flavobacter-Bacteroides lineage), were found in the biofilms. We inferred from the results that some of the biofilm bacteria could play a role in the mineral formation processes. PMID:9726898

  15. Metabolic Rate and Climatic Fluctuations Shape Continental Wide Pattern of Genetic Divergence and Biodiversity in Fishes

    PubMed Central

    April, Julien; Hanner, Robert H.; Mayden, Richard L.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomically exhaustive and continent wide patterns of genetic divergence within and between species have rarely been described and the underlying evolutionary causes shaping biodiversity distribution remain contentious. Here, we show that geographic patterns of intraspecific and interspecific genetic divergence among nearly all of the North American freshwater fish species (>750 species) support a dual role involving both the late Pliocene-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and metabolic rate in determining latitudinal gradients of genetic divergence and very likely influencing speciation rates. Results indicate that the recurrent glacial cycles caused global reduction in intraspecific diversity, interspecific genetic divergence, and species richness at higher latitudes. At the opposite, longer geographic isolation, higher metabolic rate increasing substitution rate and possibly the rapid accumulation of genetic incompatibilities, led to an increasing biodiversity towards lower latitudes. This indicates that both intrinsic and extrinsic factors similarly affect micro and macro evolutionary processes shaping global patterns of biodiversity distribution. These results also indicate that factors favouring allopatric speciation are the main drivers underlying the diversification of North American freshwater fishes. PMID:23922969

  16. Genetic structure of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus in Japan indicates a gradient of bidirectional but asymmetric introgression

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Lindsay V.; Stewart, J. Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya; Toma, Yo; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup; Jorgensen, Uffe; Zhao, Hua; Peng, Junhua; Yoo, Ji Hye; Heo, Kweon; Yu, Chang Yeon; Yamada, Toshihiko; Sacks, Erik J.

    2015-01-24

    Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites. Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicated a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M. sinensis DNA. Among phenotypically M. sacchariflorus tetraploids, M. sinensis ancestry averaged 7% and ranged from 1-39%, with introgression greatest in southern Japan. Unexpectedly, rare (~1%) diploid M. sinensis individuals from northern Japan were found with 6-27% M. sacchariflorus ancestry. Population structure of M. sinensis in Japan included three groups, and was driven primarily by distance, and secondarily by geographic barriers such as mountains and straits. Miscanthus speciation is a complex and dynamic process. In contrast to limited introgression between diploid M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. Ultimately, these results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars.

  17. Insect responses to host plant provision beyond natural boundaries: latitudinal and altitudinal variation in a Chinese fig wasp community

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Quinnell, Rupert J; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Barwell, Louise; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Many plants are grown outside their natural ranges. Plantings adjacent to native ranges provide an opportunity to monitor community assembly among associated insects and their parasitoids in novel environments, to determine whether gradients in species richness emerge and to examine their consequences for host plant reproductive success. We recorded the fig wasps (Chalcidoidea) associated with a single plant resource (ovules of Ficus microcarpa) along a 1200 km transect in southwest China that extended for 1000 km beyond the tree's natural northern range margin. The fig wasps included the tree's agaonid pollinator and other species that feed on the ovules or are their parasitoids. Phytophagous fig wasps (12 species) were more numerous than parasitoids (nine species). The proportion of figs occupied by fig wasps declined with increasing latitude, as did the proportion of utilized ovules in occupied figs. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of fig wasps also significantly changed along both latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. Parasitoids declined more steeply with latitude than phytophages. Seed production declined beyond the natural northern range margin, and at high elevation, because pollinator fig wasps became rare or absent. This suggests that pollinator climatic tolerances helped limit the tree's natural distribution, although competition with another species may have excluded pollinators at the highest altitude site. Isolation by distance may prevent colonization of northern sites by some fig wasps and act in combination with direct and host-mediated climatic effects to generate gradients in community composition, with parasitoids inherently more sensitive because of declines in the abundance of potential hosts. PMID:26380693

  18. Insect responses to host plant provision beyond natural boundaries: latitudinal and altitudinal variation in a Chinese fig wasp community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Quinnell, Rupert J; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Barwell, Louise; Chen, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Many plants are grown outside their natural ranges. Plantings adjacent to native ranges provide an opportunity to monitor community assembly among associated insects and their parasitoids in novel environments, to determine whether gradients in species richness emerge and to examine their consequences for host plant reproductive success. We recorded the fig wasps (Chalcidoidea) associated with a single plant resource (ovules of Ficus microcarpa) along a 1200 km transect in southwest China that extended for 1000 km beyond the tree's natural northern range margin. The fig wasps included the tree's agaonid pollinator and other species that feed on the ovules or are their parasitoids. Phytophagous fig wasps (12 species) were more numerous than parasitoids (nine species). The proportion of figs occupied by fig wasps declined with increasing latitude, as did the proportion of utilized ovules in occupied figs. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of fig wasps also significantly changed along both latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. Parasitoids declined more steeply with latitude than phytophages. Seed production declined beyond the natural northern range margin, and at high elevation, because pollinator fig wasps became rare or absent. This suggests that pollinator climatic tolerances helped limit the tree's natural distribution, although competition with another species may have excluded pollinators at the highest altitude site. Isolation by distance may prevent colonization of northern sites by some fig wasps and act in combination with direct and host-mediated climatic effects to generate gradients in community composition, with parasitoids inherently more sensitive because of declines in the abundance of potential hosts.

  19. Latitudinal Variation of a Defensive Symbiosis in the Bugula neritina (Bryozoa) Sibling Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Linneman, Jonathan; Paulus, Darcy; Lim-Fong, Grace; Lopanik, Nicole B.

    2014-01-01

    Mutualistic relationships are beneficial for both partners and are often studied within a single environment. However, when the range of the partners is large, geographical differences in selective pressure may shift the relationship outcome from positive to negative. The marine bryozoan Bugula neritina is a colonial invertebrate common in temperate waters worldwide. It is the source of bioactive polyketide metabolites, the bryostatins. Evidence suggests that an uncultured vertically transmitted symbiont, “Candidatus Endobugula sertula”, hosted by B. neritina produces the bryostatins, which protect the vulnerable larvae from predation. Studies of B. neritina along the North American Atlantic coast revealed a complex of two morphologically similar sibling species separated by an apparent biogeographic barrier: the Type S sibling species was found below Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, while Type N was found above. Interestingly, the Type N colonies lack “Ca. Endobugula sertula” and, subsequently, defensive bryostatins; their documented northern distribution was consistent with traditional biogeographical paradigms of latitudinal variation in predation pressure. Upon further sampling of B. neritina populations, we found that both host types occur in wider distribution, with Type N colonies living south of Cape Hatteras, and Type S to the north. Distribution of the symbiont, however, was not restricted to Type S hosts. Genetic and microscopic evidence demonstrates the presence of the symbiont in some Type N colonies, and larvae from these colonies are endowed with defensive bryostatins and contain “Ca. Endobugula sertula”. Molecular analysis of the symbiont from Type N colonies suggests an evolutionarily recent acquisition, which is remarkable for a symbiont thought to be transmitted only vertically. Furthermore, most Type S colonies found at higher latitudes lack the symbiont, suggesting that this host-symbiont relationship is more flexible than previously

  20. Latitudinal variation of a defensive symbiosis in the Bugula neritina (Bryozoa) sibling species complex.

    PubMed

    Linneman, Jonathan; Paulus, Darcy; Lim-Fong, Grace; Lopanik, Nicole B

    2014-01-01

    Mutualistic relationships are beneficial for both partners and are often studied within a single environment. However, when the range of the partners is large, geographical differences in selective pressure may shift the relationship outcome from positive to negative. The marine bryozoan Bugula neritina is a colonial invertebrate common in temperate waters worldwide. It is the source of bioactive polyketide metabolites, the bryostatins. Evidence suggests that an uncultured vertically transmitted symbiont, "Candidatus Endobugula sertula", hosted by B. neritina produces the bryostatins, which protect the vulnerable larvae from predation. Studies of B. neritina along the North American Atlantic coast revealed a complex of two morphologically similar sibling species separated by an apparent biogeographic barrier: the Type S sibling species was found below Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, while Type N was found above. Interestingly, the Type N colonies lack "Ca. Endobugula sertula" and, subsequently, defensive bryostatins; their documented northern distribution was consistent with traditional biogeographical paradigms of latitudinal variation in predation pressure. Upon further sampling of B. neritina populations, we found that both host types occur in wider distribution, with Type N colonies living south of Cape Hatteras, and Type S to the north. Distribution of the symbiont, however, was not restricted to Type S hosts. Genetic and microscopic evidence demonstrates the presence of the symbiont in some Type N colonies, and larvae from these colonies are endowed with defensive bryostatins and contain "Ca. Endobugula sertula". Molecular analysis of the symbiont from Type N colonies suggests an evolutionarily recent acquisition, which is remarkable for a symbiont thought to be transmitted only vertically. Furthermore, most Type S colonies found at higher latitudes lack the symbiont, suggesting that this host-symbiont relationship is more flexible than previously thought. Our

  1. Latitudinal Variations of Auroral-Zone Ionization Distribution.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    coincident to about 500 km magnetic west of the radar scan path. Two scatter signatures observed on the ISIS ionograms were associated with two particular...with the CEP, were observed where the large-scale density gradients were greatest. Natural, intense, Cerenkov radio noise was observed on the ionograms ...oriented with respect to the yields Dp - 110 m2/s for the ionospheric conditions outlined electric field and neutral wind . above. Thus, the decay time, ra

  2. Pluto's Insolation History: Latitudinal Variations and Effects on Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, Alissa M.; Binzel, Richard P.

    2014-11-01

    Since previous insolation modeling in the early 1990’s, new atmospheric pressure data, increased computational power, and the upcoming flyby of the Pluto system by NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft have generated new motivation and increased capabilities for the study of Pluto’s complex long-term (million-years) insolation history. The two primary topics of interest in studying Pluto’s insolation history are the variations in insolation patterns when integrated over different intervals and the evolution of diurnal insolation patterns over the last several decades. We find latitudinal dichotomies when comparing average insolation over timescales of days, decades, centuries, and millennia. Depending on the timescales of volatile migration, some consequences of these insolation patterns may be manifested in the surface features revealed by New Horizons. For any single rotation of Pluto there is a latitude that receives more insolation relative to the others. Often this is the sub-subsolar latitude but it can also be an arctic circle latitude when near-polar regions of Pluto experience the "midnight sun". We define the amount of that greatest insolation value over the course of one rotation as the "maximum diurnal insolation" (MDI). We find that MDI is driven to its highest values when Pluto’s obliquity creates a long arctic summer (or “midnight sun”) beginning just after perihelion. Pluto’s atmospheric pressure, as measured through stellar occultation observations during the past three decades, appears to correlate with Pluto's currently occurring midnight sun as quantified by the MDI parameter. If insolation (as parameterized by the MDI value) is the single dominant factor driving Pluto's atmospheric pressure, this “Midnight Sun Model” predicts that Pluto's maximum atmospheric pressure will be reached in 2017 followed by a steady decline. Pluto's maximum diurnal insolation value begins dropping after 2017 due to two factors: Pluto’s sub-solar point

  3. Latitudinal distribution of prokaryotic picoplankton populations in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Schattenhofer, Martha; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Amann, Rudolf; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Tarran, Glen A; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2009-08-01

    Members of the prokaryotic picoplankton are the main drivers of the biogeochemical cycles over large areas of the world's oceans. In order to ascertain changes in picoplankton composition in the euphotic and twilight zones at an ocean basin scale we determined the distribution of 11 marine bacterial and archaeal phyla in three different water layers along a transect across the Atlantic Ocean from South Africa (32.9 degrees S) to the UK (46.4 degrees N) during boreal spring. Depth profiles down to 500 m at 65 stations were analysed by catalysed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and automated epifluorescence microscopy. There was no obvious overall difference in microbial community composition between the surface water layer and the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) layer. There were, however, significant differences between the two photic water layers and the mesopelagic zone. SAR11 (35 +/- 9%) and Prochlorococcus (12 +/- 8%) together dominated the surface waters, whereas SAR11 and Crenarchaeota of the marine group I formed equal proportions of the picoplankton community below the DCM (both approximately 15%). However, due to their small cell sizes Crenarchaeota contributed distinctly less to total microbial biomass than SAR11 in this mesopelagic water layer. Bacteria from the uncultured Chloroflexi-related clade SAR202 occurred preferentially below the DCM (4-6%). Distinct latitudinal distribution patterns were found both in the photic zone and in the mesopelagic waters: in the photic zone, SAR11 was more abundant in the Northern Atlantic Ocean (up to 45%) than in the Southern Atlantic gyre (approximately 25%), the biomass of Prochlorococcus peaked in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, and Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria bloomed in the nutrient-rich northern temperate waters and in the Benguela upwelling. In mesopelagic waters, higher proportions of SAR202 were present in both central gyre regions, whereas Crenarchaeota were clearly

  4. Bipolar Synchroneity and Latitudinal Timing of Holocene Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerson, E. A.; Mayewski, P. A.; Sneed, S. B.; Kurbatov, A. V.; Kreutz, K. J.; Zielinski, G. A.; Taylor, K. C.; Brook, E. J.; Steig, E. J.

    2003-12-01

    Bipolar synchroneity and latitudinal timing of Holocene climate change is investigated by comparing two precisely dated high resolution deep ice cores that provide instrumentally calibrated reconstructions of atmospheric circulation for the South Pacific region (Siple Dome (SD), West Antarctica) and the North Atlantic (GISP2). Levels of SD sea-salt (ss) Na over the most recent 1000 years are higher than those of the last 98,000 years. This is indicative of an increase in lower tropospheric marine transport to SD related to the southward migration of the Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) as a consequence of retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) grounding-line in the Ross Sea Embayment. Although background SD ssNa concentrations are related to the WAIS grounding-line retreat, shorter-term, millennial-scale increases (rapid climate change events) are evident in the SD core chemistry. The SD ssNa record shows increases at 8100, and from 6000 to 5000, 3000 to 2500, and 750 to 0 years before present (B.P.; present defined as A.D. 2000) that similar in timing to GISP2 ssNa increases. The latter, most recent event (henceforth the modern millennial, MM) occurs during the best-dated portion of the SD and GISP2 records (dating precision of 1 to 2 percent; resolution of 2.5 years per sample) at a time when the ASL, the major source of atmospheric circulation variability at SD, is at its most southward location. The MM event encompasses the start of the classical Little Ice Age (nominally 650 years B.P. or A.D. 1350) and is first recorded in SD ssNa 150 years before GISP2 ssNa. Dust increases at SD begin at 400 years B.P. when MM-related atmospheric circulation changes extend northward to latitudes where the dominant sources of extra-Antarctic dust are located (i.e., mid-latitude Southern Hemisphere continents). The atmospheric circulation proxy records from SD and GISP2 show that the MM event propagates through the troposphere from the high-latitudes to the mid-latitudes. The SD

  5. Gradient Index Lens Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-19

    Finally, an assessment of the current technologies in gradient index has been made. This includes a series of recommendations w’iich will be...17 III. Ray Tracing in Anamorphic Gradient Index Media ......... 20 IV. Fabrication of Six Gradient Index Samples ............. 27 V. Technology ...for a basic understanding of what can and cannot be done with gradient index lenses, aside from any lack of technology for making a paricular gradient

  6. Climate variation and regional gradients in population dynamics of two hole-nesting passerines.

    PubMed Central

    Saether, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; Møller, Anders Pape; Matthysen, Erik; Adriaensen, Frank; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Leivits, Agu; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Visser, Marcel E; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Both, Christiaan; Dhondt, André A; McCleery, Robin H; McMeeking, John; Potti, Jamie; Røstad, Ole Wiggo; Thomson, David

    2003-01-01

    Latitudinal gradients in population dynamics can arise through regional variation in the deterministic components of the population dynamics and the stochastic factors. Here, we demonstrate an increase with latitude in the contribution of a large-scale climate pattern, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), to the fluctuations in size of populations of two European hole-nesting passerine species. However, this influence of climate induced different latitudinal gradients in the population dynamics of the two species. In the great tit the proportion of the variability in the population fluctuations explained by the NAO increased with latitude, showing a larger impact of climate on the population fluctuations of this species at higher latitudes. In contrast, no latitudinal gradient was found in the relative contribution of climate to the variability of the pied flycatcher populations because the total environmental stochasticity increased with latitude. This shows that the population ecological consequences of an expected climate change will depend on how climate affects the environmental stochasticity in the population process. In both species, the effects will be larger in those parts of Europe where large changes in climate are expected. PMID:14667357

  7. Hodograph method to estimate the latitudinal profile of the field-line resonance frequency using the data from two ground magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V. A.; Kawano, H.; Mann, I. R.

    2013-05-01

    The hodograph method enables estimating the latitudinal profile of the field-line resonance (FLR) frequency ( f R ) using the data from two ground magnetometers. This paper provides the full details of this method for the first time, and uses a latitudinal chain of ground magnetometers to examine its validity and usefulness. The hodograph method merges the widely-used amplitude-ratio and cross-phase methods in a sense that the hodograph method uses both the amplitude ratio and the phase difference in a unified manner; further than that, the hodograph method provides f R at any latitude near those of the two ground magnetometers. It is accomplished by (1) making a complex number by using the amplitude ratio (phase difference) as its real (imaginary) part; (2) drawing thus obtained complex numbers (one number for one frequency) in the complex plane to make a hodograph; and (3) fitting to thus obtained hodograph a model satisfying the FLR condition, which is a circle with the assumption that the resonance width is independent of the latitude. To examine the validity and usefulness of the hodograph method, we apply it to a Pc 4 event observed by the Scandinavian BEAR array. We also apply the amplitude-phase gradient method (Pilipenko and Fedorov, 1994; Kawano et al., 2002) to the same event, and compare the results; this is the first article applying the both methods to the same dataset.

  8. Latitudinal plasma distribution in the dusk plasmaspheric bulge - Refilling phase and quasi-equilibrium state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decreau, P. M. E.; Carpenter, D.; Chappell, C. R.; Green, J.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Very low-energy trapped ions, mostly protons, have been observed in a region of moderate density characteristic of the plasmapause boundary and of the plasmaspheric bulge. The present paper is concerned with an examination of the latitudinal structure of the bulge under quasi-steady conditions and the conditions of the recovery phase. Details regarding the data base are considered along with observations of the morphology and dynamics of the bulge, the latitudinal density distribution in the expanded bulge, the convection scenario during the replenishment phase, and latitudinal effects on plasma characteristics during plasmasphere refilling. The data utilized have been mainly provided by the DE 1 and GEOS 2 spacecraft traveling in two perpendicular planes. It is found that the bulge is a dynamic region, where no reasonable interpretation of the observed density distribution can be achieved without taking into account the mechanism of magnetospheric convection.

  9. Latitudinal Distribution of Upper Stratospheric ClO as Derived from Space Borne Microwave Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aellig, C. P.; Kaempfer, N.; Rudin, C.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Degenhardt, W.; Hartogh, P.; Jarchow, C.; Kuenzi, K.; Olivero, J. J.; Croskey, C.; Waters, J. W.; Michelsen, H. A.

    1996-01-01

    Latitudinal distributions of upper stratospheric ClO measured by MAS during the three ATLAS missions are presented for northern hemisphere (NH) spring equinox in 1992, southern hemisphere (SH) early fall in 1993, and NH fall in 1994. The MAS ClO results are shown along with correlative MLS observations. The results of both instruments consistently show the same latitudinal features. The ClO maximum in the NH spring occurs at mid latitudes, whereas the latitudinal ClO maximum in both the NH and SH fall occurs at high latitudes. The volume mixing ratio maxima were significantly higher in the fall (0.7-0.8 ppbv) than in spring (0.5-0.6 ppbv). Qualitatively, these results are consistent with calculations of several 2-D models.

  10. Latitudinal variation in the recruitment dynamics of small pelagic fishes in the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshiro

    2007-07-01

    Oyashio associated species, subtropical round herring Etrumeus teres had a CV of 26% over the total catch during 1976-2003. For these small pelagic fishes, latitudinal variation in early life parameters and recruitment was evident at the levels of cohorts ( C. saira), stocks ( S. japonicus), and species (Clupeidae). Large variations were observed in the subarctic Oyashio and the Oyashio-affected transition waters, whereas relatively stable results were recorded for the subtropical Kuroshio and its branch, the Tsushima Warm Current. Because the cohorts of Pacific saury and stocks of chub mackerel are not genetically distinct, it is likely that the large variability in the northern waters was environmentally induced in these species. The differences in CVs among clupeids are probably the result of differences in specific reproductive strategies and the environmental characteristics of the waters inhabited by the different species.

  11. The role of ecological constraint in driving the evolution of avian song frequency across a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Weir, Jason T; Wheatcroft, David J; Price, Trevor D

    2012-09-01

    Just as features of the physical and biotic environment constrain evolution of ecological and morphological traits, they may also affect evolution of communication systems. Here we analyze constraints on rates of vocal evolution, using a large dataset of New World avian sister taxa. We show that species breeding in tropical forests sing at generally lower frequencies and across narrower bandwidths than species breeding in open habitats, or at high latitudes. We attribute these restrictions on birdsong frequency to the presence of high-frequency insect noise and greater degradation of high-frequency sounds in tropical forests. We fit Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models to show that recent evolution of song frequency has been more greatly constrained in tropical forests than elsewhere, that is, songs have shown less tendency to diverge over time in tropical forests, consistent with inferred acoustic restrictions. In addition, we find that song frequency has evolved more rapidly overall at high latitudes in both forest and open habitats. Besides a larger available sound window, other factors contributing to more rapid divergence at high latitudes may include an overall increased intensity of sexual selection, occupation of more divergent habitats, and the presence of fewer competing species.

  12. Tracing latitudinal gradient, river discharge and water masses along the subtropical South American coast using benthic Foraminifera assemblages.

    PubMed

    Eichler, P P B; Rodrigues, A R; Eichler, B B; Braga, E S; Campos, E J D

    2012-08-01

    More than 30% of Buccella peruviana (D'Orbigny), Globocassidulina crassa porrecta (Earland & Heron-Allen), Cibicides mackannai (Galloway & Wissler) and C. refulgens (Montfort) indicate the presence of cold Sub Antarctic Shelf Water in winter, from 33.5 to 38.3º S, deeper than 100 m, in the southern part of the study area. In summer, the abundance of this association decreases to less than 15% around 37.5-38.9º S where two species (Globocassidulina subglobosa (Brady), Uvigerina peregrina (Cushman) take over. G. subglobosa, U. peregrina, and Hanzawaia boueana (D'Orbigny) are found at 27-33º S in both seasons in less than 55 m deep in the northern part, and are linked with warm Subtropical Shelf Water and Tropical Water. Freshwater influence was signalized by high silicate concentration and by the presence of Pseudononion atlanticum (Cushman), Bolivina striatula (Cushman), Buliminella elegantissima (D'Orbigny), Bulimina elongata (D'Orbigny), Elphidium excavatum (Terquem), E. poeyanum (D'Orbigny), Ammobaculites exiguus (Cushman & Brönnimann), Arenoparrella mexicana (Kornfeld), Gaudryina exillis (Cushman & Brönnimann), Textularia earlandi (Parker) and thecamoebians in four sectors of the shelf. The presence of Bulimina marginata (D'Orbigny) between 34.1-32.8º S in the winter and 34.2-32.7º S in the summer indicates that the influence of the Subtropical Shelf Front on the sediment does not change seasonally, otherwise, the presence of Angulogerina angulosa (Williamson) in the winter, only in Mar del Plata (38.9º S), show that Malvinas currents are not influencing the sediment in the summer.

  13. Diversity and ecological structure of vibrios in benthic and pelagic habitats along a latitudinal gradient in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A; Silva, Bruno Sergio de O; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Valle, Cecilia; Alves, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Giselle; Garcia, Gizele; Lopes, Rubens M; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the diversity and population structure of the 775 Vibrio isolates from different locations of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SAO), including St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago (SPSPA), Abrolhos Bank (AB) and the St. Sebastian region (SS), between 2005 and 2010. In this study, 195 novel isolates, obtained from seawater and major benthic organisms (rhodoliths and corals), were compared with a collection of 580 isolates previously characterized (available at www.taxvibrio.lncc.br). The isolates were distributed in 8 major habitat spectra according to AdaptML analysis on the basis of pyrH phylogenetic reconstruction and ecological information, such as isolation source (i.e., corals: Madracis decactis, Mussismilia braziliensis, M. hispida, Phyllogorgia dilatata, Scolymia wellsi; zoanthids: Palythoa caribaeorum, P. variabilis and Zoanthus solanderi; fireworm: Hermodice carunculata; rhodolith; water and sediment) and sampling site regions (SPSPA, AB and SS). Ecologically distinct groups were discerned through AdaptML, which finds phylogenetic groups that are significantly different in their spectra of habitat preferences. Some habitat spectra suggested ecological specialization, with habitat spectra 2, 3, and 4 corresponding to specialization on SPSPA, AB, and SS, respectively. This match between habitat and location may reflect a minor exchange of Vibrio populations between geographically isolated benthic systems. Moreover, we found several widespread Vibrio species predominantly from water column, and different populations of a single Vibrio species from H. carunculata in ecologically distinct groups (H-1 and H-8 respectively). On the other hand, AdaptML detected phylogenetic groups that are found in both the benthos and in open water. The ecological grouping observed suggests dispersal and connectivity between the benthic and pelagic systems in AB. This study is a first attempt to characterize the biogeographic distribution of vibrios in both seawater and several benthic hosts in the SAO. The benthopelagic coupling observed here stands out the importance of vibrios in the global ocean health.

  14. The evolutionary stability of cross-sex, cross-trait genetic covariances.

    PubMed

    Gosden, Thomas P; Chenoweth, Stephen F

    2014-06-01

    Although knowledge of the selective agents behind the evolution of sexual dimorphism has advanced considerably in recent years, we still lack a clear understanding of the evolutionary durability of cross-sex genetic covariances that often constrain its evolution. We tested the relative stability of cross-sex genetic covariances for a suite of homologous contact pheromones of the fruit fly Drosophila serrata, along a latitudinal gradient where these traits have diverged in mean. Using a Bayesian framework, which allowed us to account for uncertainty in all parameter estimates, we compared divergence in the total amount and orientation of genetic variance across populations, finding divergence in orientation but not total variance. We then statistically compared orientation divergence of within-sex (G) to cross-sex (B) covariance matrices. In line with a previous theoretical prediction, we find that the cross-sex covariance matrix, B, is more variable than either within-sex G matrix. Decomposition of B matrices into their symmetrical and nonsymmetrical components revealed that instability is linked to the degree of asymmetry. We also find that the degree of asymmetry correlates with latitude suggesting a role for spatially varying natural selection in shaping genetic constraints on the evolution of sexual dimorphism.

  15. Coral spawning in the Gulf of Oman and relationship to latitudinal variation in spawning season in the northwest Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Howells, E. J.; Abrego, D.; Vaughan, G. O.; Burt, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information on sexual reproduction in scleractinian corals, there are regional gaps in reproductive records. In the Gulf of the Oman in the Arabian Sea, reproductive timing was assessed in four common species of broadcast spawning corals using field surveys of gamete maturity and aquarium observations of spawning activity. The appearance of mature gametes within the same month for Acropora downingi, A. hemprichii, Cyphastrea microphthalma and Platygyra daedalea (≥ 75% of colonies, n = 848) indicated a synchronous and multi-specific spawning season. Based on gamete disappearance and direct observations, spawning predominantly occurred during April in 2013 (75–100% of colonies) and May in 2014 (77–94% of colonies). The difference in spawning months between survey years was most likely explained by sea temperature and the timing of lunar cycles during late-stage gametogenesis. These reproductive records are consistent with a latitudinal gradient in peak broadcast spawning activity at reefs in the northwestern Indian Ocean which occurs early in the year at low latitudes (January to March) and progressively later in the year at mid (March to May) and high (June to September) latitudes. PMID:25501043

  16. Differential measurement of cosmic-ray gradient with respect to interplanetary current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christon, S. P.; Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; Behannon, K. W.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous magnetic field and charged particle measurements from the Voyager spacecraft at heliographic latitude separations from 10 deg. to 21 deg. are used to determine the latitude gradient of the galactic cosmic ray flux with respect to the interplanetary current sheet. By comparing the ratio of cosmic ray flux at Voyager 1 to that a Voyager 2 during periods when both spacecraft are first nort and then south of the interplanetary current sheet, we find an estimate of the latitudinal gradient with respect to the current sheet of approximately -0.15 + or 0.05% deg under restricted interplanetary conditions.

  17. Analysis of the Latitudinal Variability of Tropospheric Ozone in the Arctic Using the Large Number of Aircraft and Ozonesonde Observations in Early Summer 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancellet, Gerard; Daskalakis, Nikos; Raut, Jean Christophe; Tarasick, David; Hair, Jonathan; Quennehen, Boris; Ravetta, Francois; Schlager, Hans; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Thompson, Anne M.; Johnson, Bryan; Thomas, Jennie L.; Law, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    ( 40) and the higher 75th PV percentile. A weak negative latitudinal summer ozone gradient -6 to -8 ppbv is found over Canada in the mid troposphere between 4 and 8 km. This is attributed to an efficient O3 photochemical production due to the BB emissions at latitudes less than 65oN, while STE contribution is more homogeneous in the latitude range 55oN to 70oN. A positive ozone latitudinal gradient of 12 ppbv is observed in the same altitude range over Greenland not because of an increasing latitudinal influence of STE, but because of different long range transport from multiple mid-latitude sources (North America, Europe and even Asia for latitudes higher than 77oN).

  18. High and Distinct Range-Edge Genetic Diversity despite Local Bottlenecks

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Jorge; Castilho Coelho, Nelson; Alberto, Filipe; Valero, Myriam; Raimondi, Pete; Reed, Dan; Alvares Serrão, Ester

    2013-01-01

    The genetic consequences of living on the edge of distributional ranges have been the subject of a largely unresolved debate. Populations occurring along persistent low latitude ranges (rear-edge) are expected to retain high and unique genetic diversity. In contrast, currently less favourable environmental conditions limiting population size at such range-edges may have caused genetic erosion that prevails over past historical effects, with potential consequences on reducing future adaptive capacity. The present study provides an empirical test of whether population declines towards a peripheral range might be reflected on decreasing diversity and increasing population isolation and differentiation. We compare population genetic differentiation and diversity with trends in abundance along a latitudinal gradient towards the peripheral distribution range of Saccorhizapolyschides, a large brown seaweed that is the main structural species of kelp forests in SW Europe. Signatures of recent bottleneck events were also evaluated to determine whether the recently recorded distributional shifts had a negative influence on effective population size. Our findings show decreasing population density and increasing spatial fragmentation and local extinctions towards the southern edge. Genetic data revealed two well supported groups with a central contact zone. As predicted, higher differentiation and signs of bottlenecks were found at the southern edge region. However, a decrease in genetic diversity associated with this pattern was not verified. Surprisingly, genetic diversity increased towards the edge despite bottlenecks and much lower densities, suggesting that extinctions and recolonizations have not strongly reduced diversity or that diversity might have been even higher there in the past, a process of shifting genetic baselines. PMID:23967038

  19. Explaining the sawtooth: Latitudinal periodicity in a circadian gene correlates with shifts in generation number

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many species in temperate climates show latitudinal variation in life-cycle corresponding to synchronization with seasonal fluctuations in resources. In particular, insects often vary clinally in voltinism (the number of generations per year) which is determined by the timing of diapause terminatio...

  20. The role of spatial scale and background climate in the latitudinal temperature response to deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; De Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Davin, Edouard L.; Motesharrei, Safa; Zeng, Ning; Li, Shuangcheng; Kalnay, Eugenia

    2016-03-01

    Previous modeling and empirical studies have shown that the biophysical impact of deforestation is to warm the tropics and cool the extratropics. In this study, we use an earth system model of intermediate complexity to investigate how deforestation on various spatial scales affects ground temperature, with an emphasis on the latitudinal temperature response and its underlying mechanisms. Results show that the latitudinal pattern of temperature response depends nonlinearly on the spatial extent of deforestation and the fraction of vegetation change. Compared with regional deforestation, temperature change in global deforestation is greatly amplified in temperate and boreal regions but is dampened in tropical regions. Incremental forest removal leads to increasingly larger cooling in temperate and boreal regions, while the temperature increase saturates in tropical regions. The latitudinal and spatial patterns of the temperature response are driven by two processes with competing temperature effects: decrease in absorbed shortwave radiation due to increased albedo and decrease in evapotranspiration. These changes in the surface energy balance reflect the importance of the background climate in modifying the deforestation impact. Shortwave radiation and precipitation have an intrinsic geographical distribution that constrains the effects of biophysical changes and therefore leads to temperature changes that are spatially varying. For example, wet (dry) climate favors larger (smaller) evapotranspiration change; thus, warming (cooling) is more likely to occur. Our analysis reveals that the latitudinal temperature change largely results from the climate conditions in which deforestation occurs and is less influenced by the magnitude of individual biophysical changes such as albedo, roughness, and evapotranspiration efficiency.

  1. The role of spatial scale and background climate in the latitudinal temperature response to deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Davin, E. L.; Zeng, N.; Motesharrei, S.; Li, S. C.; Kalnay, E.

    2015-10-01

    Previous modeling and empirical studies have shown that the biophysical impact of deforestation is to warm the tropics and cool the extra-tropics. In this study, we use an earth system model to investigate how deforestation at various spatial scales affects ground temperature, with an emphasis on the latitudinal temperature response and its underlying mechanisms. Results show that the latitudinal pattern of temperature response depends non-linearly on the spatial extent of deforestation and the fraction of vegetation change. Compared with regional deforestation, temperature change in global deforestation is greatly amplified in temperate and boreal regions, but is dampened in tropical regions. Incremental forest removal leads to increasingly larger cooling in temperate and boreal regions, while the temperature increase saturates in tropical regions. The latitudinal and spatial patterns of the temperature response are driven by two processes with competing temperature effects: decreases in absorbed shortwave radiation due to increased albedo and decreases in evapotranspiration. These changes in the surface energy balance reflect the importance of the background climate on modifying the deforestation impact. Shortwave radiation and precipitation have an intrinsic geographical distribution that constrains the effects of biophysical changes and therefore leads to temperature changes that are spatially varying. For example, wet (dry) climate favors larger (smaller) evapotranspiration change, thus warming (cooling) is more likely to occur. Further analysis on the contribution of individual biophysical factors (albedo, roughness, and evapotranspiration efficiency) reveals that the latitudinal signature embodied in the temperature change probably result from the background climate conditions rather than the initial biophysical perturbation.

  2. Tightly linked zonal and meridional sea surface temperature gradients over the past five million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Alexey V.; Burls, Natalie J.; Lawrence, Kira T.; Peterson, Laura C.

    2015-12-01

    The climate of the tropics and surrounding regions is defined by pronounced zonal (east-west) and meridional (equator to mid-latitudes) gradients in sea surface temperature. These gradients control zonal and meridional atmospheric circulations, and thus the Earth’s climate. Global cooling over the past five million years, since the early Pliocene epoch, was accompanied by the gradual strengthening of these temperature gradients. Here we use records from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, including a new alkenone palaeotemperature record from the South Pacific, to reconstruct changes in zonal and meridional sea surface temperature gradients since the Pliocene, and assess their connection using a comprehensive climate model. We find that the reconstructed zonal and meridional temperature gradients vary coherently over this time frame, showing a one-to-one relationship between their changes. In our model simulations, we systematically reduce the meridional sea surface temperature gradient by modifying the latitudinal distribution of cloud albedo or atmospheric CO2 concentration. The simulated zonal temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific adjusts proportionally. These experiments and idealized modelling indicate that the meridional temperature gradient controls upper-ocean stratification in the tropics, which in turn controls the zonal gradient along the equator, as well as heat export from the tropical oceans. We conclude that this tight linkage between the two sea surface temperature gradients posits a fundamental constraint on both past and future climates.

  3. Planar gradient metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yadong; Fu, Yangyang; Chen, Huanyang

    2016-12-01

    Metamaterials possess exotic properties that do not exist in nature. Gradient metamaterials, which are characterized by a continuous spatial variation of their properties, provide a promising approach to the development of both bulk and planar optics. In particular, planar gradient metamaterials can be classified into three categories: gradient metasurfaces, gradient index metamaterials and gradient metallic gratings. In this Review, we summarize the progress made in the theoretical modelling of these materials, in their experimental implementation and in the design of functional devices. We discuss the use of planar gradient metamaterials for wave bending and focusing in free space, for supporting surface plasmon polaritons and for the realization of trapped rainbows. We also focus on the implementation of these materials in waveguide systems, which can enable electromagnetic cloaking, Fano resonances, asymmetric transmission and guided mode conversion. Finally, we discuss promising trends, such as the use of dielectric rather than metallic unit elements and the use of planar gradient metamaterials in 3D systems.

  4. A latitudinal cline in the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Clock gene: evidence for selection on PolyQ length variants

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kathleen G; Banks, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    A critical seasonal event for anadromous Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is the time at which adults migrate from the ocean to breed in freshwater. We investigated whether allelic variation at the circadian rhythm genes, OtsClock1a and OtsClock1b, underlies genetic control of migration timing among 42 populations in North America. We identified eight length variants of the functionally important polyglutamine repeat motif (PolyQ) of OtsClock1b while OtsClock1a PolyQ was highly conserved. We found evidence of a latitudinal cline in average allele length and frequency of the two most common OtsClock1b alleles. The shorter 335 bp allele increases in frequency with decreasing latitude while the longer 359 bp allele increases in frequency at higher latitudes. Comparison to 13 microsatellite loci showed that 335 and 359 bp deviate significantly from neutral expectations. Furthermore, a hierarchical gene diversity analysis based on OtsClock1b PolyQ variation revealed that run timing explains 40.9 per cent of the overall genetic variance among populations. By contrast, an analysis based on 13 microsatellite loci showed that run timing explains only 13.2 per cent of the overall genetic variance. Our findings suggest that length polymorphisms in OtsClock1b PolyQ may be maintained by selection and reflect an adaptation to ecological factors correlated with latitude, such as the seasonally changing day length. PMID:18713722

  5. Latitudinal Environmental Niches and Riverine Barriers Shaped the Phylogeography of the Central Chilean Endemic Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Viruel, Juan; Catalán, Pilar; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Pleistocene glaciations and geographical barriers on the phylogeographic patterns of lowland plant species in Mediterranean-climate areas of Central Chile are poorly understood. We used Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae), a dioecious geophyte extending 530 km from the Valparaíso to the Bío-Bío Regions, as a case study to disentangle the spatio-temporal evolution of populations in conjunction with latitudinal environmental changes since the Last Inter-Glacial (LIG) to the present. We used nuclear microsatellite loci, chloroplast (cpDNA) sequences and environmental niche modelling (ENM) to construct current and past scenarios from bioclimatic and geographical variables and to infer the evolutionary history of the taxa. We found strong genetic differentiation at nuclear microsatellite loci between the two subspecies of D. humilis, probably predating the LIG. Bayesian analyses of population structure revealed strong genetic differentiation of the widespread D. humilis subsp. humilis into northern and southern population groups, separated by the Maipo river. ENM revealed that the ecological niche differentiation of both groups have been maintained up to present times although their respective geographical distributions apparently fluctuated in concert with the climatic oscillations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Holocene. Genetic data revealed signatures of eastern and western postglacial expansion of the northern populations from the central Chilean depression, whereas the southern ones experienced a rapid southward expansion after the LGM. This study describes the complex evolutionary histories of lowland Mediterranean Chilean plants mediated by the summed effects of spatial isolation caused by riverine geographical barriers and the climatic changes of the Quaternary. PMID:25295517

  6. Latitudinal environmental niches and riverine barriers shaped the phylogeography of the Central Chilean endemic Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae).

    PubMed

    Viruel, Juan; Catalán, Pilar; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Pleistocene glaciations and geographical barriers on the phylogeographic patterns of lowland plant species in Mediterranean-climate areas of Central Chile are poorly understood. We used Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae), a dioecious geophyte extending 530 km from the Valparaíso to the Bío-Bío Regions, as a case study to disentangle the spatio-temporal evolution of populations in conjunction with latitudinal environmental changes since the Last Inter-Glacial (LIG) to the present. We used nuclear microsatellite loci, chloroplast (cpDNA) sequences and environmental niche modelling (ENM) to construct current and past scenarios from bioclimatic and geographical variables and to infer the evolutionary history of the taxa. We found strong genetic differentiation at nuclear microsatellite loci between the two subspecies of D. humilis, probably predating the LIG. Bayesian analyses of population structure revealed strong genetic differentiation of the widespread D. humilis subsp. humilis into northern and southern population groups, separated by the Maipo river. ENM revealed that the ecological niche differentiation of both groups have been maintained up to present times although their respective geographical distributions apparently fluctuated in concert with the climatic oscillations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Holocene. Genetic data revealed signatures of eastern and western postglacial expansion of the northern populations from the central Chilean depression, whereas the southern ones experienced a rapid southward expansion after the LGM. This study describes the complex evolutionary histories of lowland Mediterranean Chilean plants mediated by the summed effects of spatial isolation caused by riverine geographical barriers and the climatic changes of the Quaternary.

  7. Enzyme activities along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Knoltsch, Anna; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Takriti, Mounir; Richter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thus carbon and nutrient cycling in soils is mediated by the activity of extracellular enzymes. The specific activities of these enzymes and their ratios to each other represent the link between the composition of soil organic matter and the nutrient demand of the microbial community. Depending on the difference between microbial nutrient demand and substrate availability, extracellular enzymes can enhance or slow down different nutrient cycles in the soil. We investigated activities of six extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, leucine-amino-peptidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitotriosidase, phosphatase and phenoloxidase) in the topsoil organic horizon, topsoil mineral horizon and subsoil horizon in seven ecosystems along a 1,500 km-long North-South transect in Western Siberia. The transect included sites in the southern tundra, northern taiga, middle taiga, southern taiga, forest-steppe (in forested patches as well as in adjacent meadows) and Steppe. We found that enzyme patterns varied stronger with soil depth than between ecosystems. Differences between horizons were mainly based on the increasing ratio of oxidative enzymes to hydrolytic enzymes. Differences between sites were more pronounced in topsoil than in subsoil mineral horizons, but did not reflect the north-south transect and the related gradients in temperature and precipitation. The observed differences between sites in topsoil horizons might therefore result from differences in vegetation rather than climatic factors. The decreasing variability in the enzyme pattern with depth might also indicate that the composition of soil organic matter becomes more similar with soil depth, most likely by an increasing proportion of microbial remains compared to plant derived constituents of SOM. This also indicates, that SOM becomes less divers the more it is processed by soil microorganisms. Our findings highlight the importance of soil depth on enzyme

  8. Microbial eukaryote communities exhibit robust biogeographical patterns along a gradient of Patagonian and Antarctic lakes.

    PubMed

    Schiaffino, M Romina; Lara, Enrique; Fernández, Leonardo D; Balagué, Vanessa; Singer, David; Seppey, Christophe C W; Massana, Ramon; Izaguirre, Irina

    2016-12-01

    Microbial eukaryotes play important roles in aquatic ecosystem functioning. Unravelling their distribution patterns and biogeography provides important baseline information to infer the underlying mechanisms that regulate the biodiversity and complexity of ecosystems. We studied the distribution patterns and factors driving diversity gradients in microeukaryote communities (total, abundant, uncommon and rare community composition) along a latitudinal gradient of lakes distributed from Argentinean Patagonia to Maritime Antarctica using both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq). DGGE and abundant Illumina operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed both decreasing richness with latitude and significant differences between Patagonian and Antarctic lakes communities. In contrast, total richness did not change significantly across the latitudinal gradient, although evenness and diversity indices were significantly higher in Patagonian lakes. Beta-diversity was characterized by a high species turnover, influenced by both environmental and geographical descriptors, although this pattern faded in the rare community. Our results suggest the co-existence of a 'core biosphere' containing reduced number of abundant/dominant OTUs on which classical ecological rules apply, together with a much larger seedbank of rare OTUs driven by stochastic and reduced dispersal processes. These findings shed new light on the biogeographical patterns and forces structuring inland microeukaryote composition across broad spatial scales.

  9. Spatial gradients of GCR protons in the inner heliosphere derived from Ulysses COSPIN/KET and PAMELA measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieseler, J.; Heber, B.

    2016-05-01

    Context. During the transition from solar cycle 23 to 24 from 2006 to 2009, the Sun was in an unusual solar minimum with very low activity over a long period. These exceptional conditions included a very low interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strength and a high tilt angle, which both play an important role in the modulation of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in the heliosphere. Thus, the radial and latitudinal gradients of GCRs are very much expected to depend not only on the solar magnetic epoch, but also on the overall modulation level. Aims: We determine the non-local radial and the latitudinal gradients of protons in the rigidity range from ~0.45 to 2 GV. Methods: This was accomplished by using data from the satellite-borne experiment Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) at Earth and the Kiel Electron Telescope (KET) onboard Ulysses on its highly inclined Keplerian orbit around the Sun with the aphelion at Jupiter's orbit. Results: In comparison to the previous A> 0 solar magnetic epoch, we find that the absolute value of the latitudinal gradient is lower at higher and higher at lower rigidities. This energy dependence is therefore a crucial test for models that describe the cosmic ray transport in the inner heliosphere.

  10. The latitudinal variation of geoelectromagnetic disturbances during large (Dst≤-100 nT) geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, J. R.; Morley, S. K.; Jordanova, V. K.; Henderson, M. G.; Cowee, M. M.; Gjerloev, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    Geoelectromagnetic disturbances (GMDs) are an important consequence of space weather that can directly impact many types of terrestrial infrastructure. In this paper, we analyze 30 years of SuperMAG magnetometer data from the range of magnetic latitudes 20°≤λ≤75° to derive characteristic latitudinal profiles for median GMD amplitudes. Based on this data, we obtain a parameterization of these latitudinal profiles of different types of GMDs, providing an analytical fit with Dst-dependent parameters. We also obtain probabilistic estimates for the magnitudes of "100 year" GMDs, finding that Ḃ = 6.9 (3.60-12.9) nT/s should be expected at 45°≤λ < 50°, exceeding the 5 nT/s threshold for dangerous inductive heating.

  11. Global-scale latitudinal patterns of plant fine-root nitrogen and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z Y; Chen, Han Y H; Reich, Peter B

    2011-06-14

    Most water and essential soil nutrient uptake is carried out by fine roots in plants. It is therefore important to understand the global geographic patterns of fine-root nitrogen and phosphorus cycling. Here, by compiling plant root data from 211 studies in 51 countries, we show that live fine roots have low nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), but similar N:P ratios when compared with green leaves. The fine-root N:P ratio differs between biomes and declines exponentially with latitude in roots of all diameter classes. This is in contrast to previous reports of a linear latitudinal decline in green leaf N:P, but consistent with nonlinear declines in leaf litter N:P. Whereas the latitudinal N:P decline in both roots and leaves reflects collective influences of climate, soil age and weathering, differences in the shape of the response function may be a result of their different N and P use strategies.

  12. Spatio-temporal genetic structure and the effects of long-term fishing in two partially sympatric offshore demersal fishes.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Romina; von der Heyden, Sophie; Lipinski, Marek R; du Toit, Nina; Kainge, Paulus; Bloomer, Paulette; Matthee, Conrad A

    2016-12-01

    Environmental gradients have been shown to disrupt gene flow in marine species, yet their influence in structuring populations at depth remains poorly understood. The Cape hakes (Merluccius paradoxus and M. capensis) are demersal species co-occurring in the Benguela Current system, where decades of intense fishing resulted in severely depleted stocks in the past. Previous studies identified conflicting mtDNA genetic substructuring patterns and thus contrasting evolutionary trajectories for both species. Using 10 microsatellite loci, the control region of mtDNA and employing a seascape genetics approach, we investigated genetic connectivity and the impact of prolonged exploitation in the two species, which are characterized by different patterns of fishing pressure. Three consecutive years were sampled covering the entire distribution (N = 2100 fishes). Despite large estimated population sizes, both species exhibited low levels of contemporary genetic diversity (0.581 < HE  < 0.692), implying that fishing has had a significant impact on their genetic composition and evolutionary trajectories. Further, for M. paradoxus, significant temporal, but not spatial, divergence points to the presence of genetic chaotic patchiness. In contrast, M. capensis exhibited a clear latitudinal cline in genetic differentiation between Namibia and South Africa (FST  = 0.063, P < 0.05), with low (0.2% per generation) estimates of contemporary gene flow. Seascape analyses reveal an association with bathymetry and upwelling events, suggesting that adaptation to local environmental conditions may drive genetic differentiation in M. capensis. Importantly, our results highlight the need for temporal sampling in disentangling the complex factors that impact population divergence in marine fishes.

  13. The role of spatial scale and background climate in the latitudinal temperature response to deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; De Noblet-Decoudre, N.; Davin, E.; Zeng, N.; Motesharrei, S.; Li, S.; Kalnay, E.; Guo, S.

    2015-12-01

    Previous modeling and observational studies have shown that the biophysical impact of deforestation is warming in the tropics and cooling in extra-tropics. In this study, we performed experiments with an earth system model to investigate how deforestation at various spatial scales affects ground temperature, with emphasis on the latitudinal temperature response and the underlining mechanisms. Results show that the latitudinal pattern of temperature response non-linearly depends on the spatial extent of deforestation and the fraction of vegetation change. Compared with regional deforestation, temperature change in global deforestation is greatly amplified in temperate and boreal regions, but is dampened in tropical region. Incremental forest removal fraction leads to increasingly larger cooling under higher removal fraction in temperate and boreal regions, while the temperature increase saturates in tropical region. The latitudinal and spatial patterns of the temperature response are mainly determined by two processes with competing temperature effects, i.e., decreases in absorbed shortwave radiation and in evapotranspiration (ET). These changes in surface energy balance reflect the important role of background climate on modifying the deforestation impact, because shortwave radiation and precipitation have intrinsic geographical distribution, which constrain the effects of biophysical changes and therefore lead to spatially varying temperature change. For example, wet (dry) climate favors larger (smaller) ET change, thus warming (cooling) is more likely to occur. Further analysis on the contribution of individual biophysical factor (albedo, roughness, and evapotranspiration efficiency) reveals that the latitudinal signature embodied in the temperature change likely arises from background climate conditions rather than from the initial biophysical perturbation.

  14. Latitudinal GRBR-TEC estimation in Southeast Asia region based on the two-station method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watthanasangmechai, Kornyanat; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Saito, Akinori; Tsugawa, Takuya; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Supnithi, Pornchai; Yatini, Clara Yono

    2014-10-01

    Total electron content (TEC) is an important parameter for revealing latitudinal ionospheric structures, such as the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in Southeast Asia. Understanding the EIA is beneficial for studying equatorial spread F. To reveal the structures, the absolute TEC as a function of latitude must be accurately determined. In early 2012, we expanded a GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) network to provide latitudinal coverage in the Thailand-Indonesia sector. We employed the GRBR network to receive VHF and UHF signals from polar low-Earth-orbit satellites. The TEC offset is an unknown parameter in the absolute TEC estimation process. We propose a new technique based on the two-station method to estimate the offset for the latitudinal TEC estimation, and it works better than the original method for a sparse network. The TEC estimation system requires two iterations to minimize the root-mean-square error (RMSE). Once the RMSE reaches the global minimum, the absolute TECs are estimated simultaneously over five GRBR stations. GPS-TECs from local stations are used as the initial guess of the offset estimation. The height of the ionospheric pierce point is determined from the ionosonde hmF2. As a result, the latitudinal GRBR-TEC was successfully estimated from the polar orbit satellites. The two EIA humps were clearly captured by the GRBR-TEC. The result was well verified with the TEC reconstructed from the C/NOFS density data and the ionosonde bottomside data. This is a significant step showing that the GRBR is a useful tool for the study of low-latitude ionospheric features.

  15. Latitudinal distribution of stratospheric aerosols during the EASOE winter 1991/92

    SciTech Connect

    Neuber, R.; Beyerle, G. ); Fiocco, G.; Sarra, A. di ); Fricke, K.H. ); David, Ch.; Godin, S. ); Knudsen, B.M. ); Stefanutti, L.; Vaughan, G.

    1994-06-22

    This paper summarizes lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols spanning the latitude range from 44[degrees]N to 79[degrees]N, during the period of the EASOE campaign. The Arctic region measurements show no aerosol content above roughly 16 km, but the density is fairly constant at lower altitudes independent of latitude. The authors argue this indicates latitudinal transport of aerosol throughout the winter.

  16. Latitudinal variation in ambient UV-B radiation is an important determinant of Lolium perenne forage production, quality, and digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Comont, David; Winters, Ana; Gomez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    Few studies to date have considered the responses of agriculturally important forage grasses to UV-B radiation. Yet grasses such as Lolium perenne have a wide current distribution, representing exposure to a significant variation in ambient UV-B. The current study investigated the responses of L. perenne (cv. AberDart) to a simulated latitudinal gradient of UV-B exposure, representing biologically effective UV-B doses at simulated 70, 60, 50, 40, and 30° N latitudes. Aspects of growth, soluble compounds, and digestibility were assessed, and results are discussed in relation to UV-B effects on forage properties and the implications for livestock and bio-ethanol production. Aboveground biomass production was reduced by approximately 12.67% with every 1 kJ m–2 day–1 increase in biologically weighted UV-B. As a result, plants grown in the highest UV-B treatment had a total biomass of just 13.7% of controls. Total flavonoids were increased by approximately 76% by all UV-B treatments, while hydroxycinnamic acids increased in proportion to the UV-B dose. Conversely, the digestibility of the aboveground biomass and concentrations of soluble fructans were reduced by UV-B exposure, although soluble sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations were unaffected. These results highlight the capacity for UV-B to directly affect forage productivity and chemistry, with negative consequences for digestibility and bioethanol production. Results emphasize the need for future development and distribution of L. perenne varieties to take UV-B irradiance into consideration. PMID:23580749

  17. Latitudinal Clines of the Human Vitamin D Receptor and Skin Color Genes

    PubMed Central

    Tiosano, Dov; Audi, Laura; Climer, Sharlee; Zhang, Weixiong; Templeton, Alan R.; Fernández-Cancio, Monica; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Sánchez-Muro, José Miguel; El Kholy, Mohamed; Hochberg, Zèev

    2016-01-01

    The well-documented latitudinal clines of genes affecting human skin color presumably arise from the need for protection from intense ultraviolet radiation (UVR) vs. the need to use UVR for vitamin D synthesis. Sampling 751 subjects from a broad range of latitudes and skin colors, we investigated possible multilocus correlated adaptation of skin color genes with the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR), using a vector correlation metric and network method called BlocBuster. We discovered two multilocus networks involving VDR promoter and skin color genes that display strong latitudinal clines as multilocus networks, even though many of their single gene components do not. Considered one by one, the VDR components of these networks show diverse patterns: no cline, a weak declining latitudinal cline outside of Africa, and a strong in- vs. out-of-Africa frequency pattern. We confirmed these results with independent data from HapMap. Standard linkage disequilibrium analyses did not detect these networks. We applied BlocBuster across the entire genome, showing that our networks are significant outliers for interchromosomal disequilibrium that overlap with environmental variation relevant to the genes’ functions. These results suggest that these multilocus correlations most likely arose from a combination of parallel selective responses to a common environmental variable and coadaptation, given the known Mendelian epistasis among VDR and the skin color genes. PMID:26921301

  18. Factors Affecting the Latitudinal Location of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in a GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode

    2002-01-01

    The dominant role of the latitudinal peak of the sea surface temperature (SST) in determining the latitudinal location of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is well-known. However, the roles of the other factors are less well-known and are the topic of this study. These other factors include the inertial stability, the interaction between convection and surface fluxes and the interaction between convection and radiation. Since these interactions involve convection, in a model they involve the cumulus parameterization scheme. These factors are studied with a general circulation model with uniform SST and solar angle. Under the aforementioned model settings, the latitudinal location of the ITCZ is the latitude where the balance of two types of attraction on the ITCZ, both due to earth's rotation, exists. Directly related to the Coriolis parameter, the first type pulls the ITCZ toward the equator and is not sensitive to model design changes. Related to the convective circulation, the second type pulls the ITCZ poleward and is sensitive to model design changes. Due to the shape and the magnitude of the attractors, the balance of the two types of attractions is reached either at the equator or more than 10 degrees away from the equator. The former case results in a single ITCZ over the equator and the latter case a double ITCZ straddling the equator.

  19. On the dynamics of latitudinal profiles of low-energy solar protons in the Earth magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazutin, L. L.

    2017-03-01

    Many works have been devoted to studying the boundaries of the penetration of solar protons into the Earth's magnetosphere. This work first considers the dynamics of not only the boundary, but the latitudinal profiles of penetration in general depending on the energy and local time of measurement according to the data of the low-altitude CORONAS-F satellite. When flying through the polar cap, the isotropic pitchangle distribution of protons leads to the equality of the recorded precipitating flux and the proton flux in the interplanetary space. Beginning at a particular latitude, the proton flux begins to drop and, over time, reaches the level of the background of galactic cosmic rays. The latitudinal profile measured in this manner on the night side reaches the bending point when the Larmor radius of the proton becomes comparable with the radius of the curvature of the line of force; after partial trapping, the flux of precipitating protons successively drops. The protons are transferred to the day side by the magnetic drift and, unlike the night profile, the character of the day profile depends on the configuration of the entire magnetosphere. The character of latitudinal profiles has been studied depending on the local time and energy of the particles, which enabled the features of the magnetosphere deformation to be evaluated at certain times of magnetic storms.

  20. Phosgene in the UTLS: seasonal and latitudinal variations from MIPAS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeri, Massimo; Carlotti, Massimo; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Raspollini, Piera; Ridolfi, Marco; Dinelli, Bianca Maria

    2016-09-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) is a Fourier transform spectrometer that measured mid-infrared atmospheric limb emission spectra from July 2002 to April 2012 on board the polar-orbiting satellite ENVISAT. We have used MIPAS data to study the latitudinal variations of phosgene (COCl2 or carbonyl chloride) and, for the first time, its seasonal variation in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS). Retrievals of phosgene were made using the 830-860 cm-1 region, corresponding to the ν5 bands of COCl2. Unfortunately, in that region, the ν4 band of CFC-11, which is much stronger than COCl2 ν5, hides the phosgene emission. In order to evaluate seasonality and latitudinal distribution of phosgene we have analysed all the measurements made by MIPAS on days 18 and 20 of each month of 2008 with the optimized retrieval model (ORM) recently upgraded with the multi-target retrieval technique and with the optimal estimation functionality to apply external constraints to the state vector. Average seasonal profiles of phosgene show an evident latitudinal variability with the largest values observed in the tropical regions (maximum ≈ 35 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) at about 300 hPa). In the midlatitude and polar regions, the volume mixing ratio (VMR) values do not exceed 30 pptv and the vertical distributions are less peaked. Our analysis highlights that COCl2 seasonal variability is fairly low, apart from the polar regions.

  1. Predicting competitive shifts and responses to climate change based on latitudinal distributions of species assemblages.

    PubMed

    Lord, Joshua; Whitlatch, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Many terrestrial plant and marine benthic communities involve intense competition for space as a means to survive and reproduce. Superior competitors can dominate other species numerically with high reproductive rates, indirectly with high growth rates that facilitate space acquisition, or directly with competitive overgrowth. To assess how climate change could affect competitive interactions, we examined latitudinal patterns in growth rates and overgrowth competition via field surveys and experiments with marine epibenthic communities. Epibenthic fouling communities are dominated by invasive tunicates, bryozoans, and other species that grow on docks, boats, and other artificial structures. Fouling communities are space limited, so growth rate and overgrowth competition play an important role in shaping abundance patterns. We experimentally assessed temperature-dependent growth rates of several tunicates and bryozoans in eight regions spanning the U.S. east and west coasts. Several species displayed positive growth responses to warmer temperature in the northern portions of their latitudinal ranges, and vice versa. We used photo surveys of floating docks in at least 16 harbors in each region to compare communities and overgrowth competition. There was a strong correlation across species and regions between growth rate and competitive ability, indicating that growth plays an important role in competitive outcomes. Because growth rates are typically temperature dependent for organisms that compete for space, including terrestrial plants, fungi, algae, bacteria, and sessile benthic organisms, global warming could affect competitive outcomes. Our results suggest that these competitive shifts can be predicted by species' relative growth rates and latitudinal ranges.

  2. Gradient Driven Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannell, David

    2005-01-01

    We have worked with our collaborators at the University of Milan (Professor Marzio Giglio and his group-supported by ASI) to define the science required to measure gradient driven fluctuations in the microgravity environment. Such a study would provide an accurate test of the extent to which the theory of fluctuating hydrodynamics can be used to predict the properties of fluids maintained in a stressed, non-equilibrium state. As mentioned above, the results should also provide direct visual insight into the behavior of a variety of fluid systems containing gradients or interfaces, when placed in the microgravity environment. With support from the current grant, we have identified three key systems for detailed investigation. These three systems are: 1) A single-component fluid to be studied in the presence of a temperature gradient; 2) A mixture of two organic liquids to be studied both in the presence of a temperature gradient, which induces a steady-state concentration gradient, and with the temperature gradient removed, but while the concentration gradient is dying by means of diffusion; 3) Various pairs of liquids undergoing free diffusion, including a proteidbuffer solution and pairs of mixtures having different concentrations, to allow us to vary the differences in fluid properties in a controlled manner.

  3. Unimodal latitudinal pattern of land-snail species richness across northern Eurasian lowlands.

    PubMed

    Horsák, Michal; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale patterns of species richness and their causes are still poorly understood for most terrestrial invertebrates, although invertebrates can add important insights into the mechanisms that generate regional and global biodiversity patterns. Here we explore the general plausibility of the climate-based "water-energy dynamics" hypothesis using the latitudinal pattern of land-snail species richness across extensive topographically homogeneous lowlands of northern Eurasia. We established a 1480-km long latitudinal transect across the Western Siberian Plain (Russia) from the Russia-Kazakhstan border (54.5°N) to the Arctic Ocean (67.5°N), crossing eight latitudinal vegetation zones: steppe, forest-steppe, subtaiga, southern, middle and northern taiga, forest-tundra, and tundra. We sampled snails in forests and open habitats each half-degree of latitude and used generalized linear models to relate snail species richness to climatic variables and soil calcium content measured in situ. Contrary to the classical prediction of latitudinal biodiversity decrease, we found a striking unimodal pattern of snail species richness peaking in the subtaiga and southern-taiga zones between 57 and 59°N. The main south-to-north interchange of the two principal diversity constraints, i.e. drought stress vs. cold stress, explained most of the variance in the latitudinal diversity pattern. Water balance, calculated as annual precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration, was a single variable that could explain 81.7% of the variance in species richness. Our data suggest that the "water-energy dynamics" hypothesis can apply not only at the global scale but also at subcontinental scales of higher latitudes, as water availability was found to be the primary limiting factor also in this extratropical region with summer-warm and dry climate. A narrow zone with a sharp south-to-north switch in the two main diversity constraints seems to constitute the dominant and general pattern of

  4. Geographic variation in the Pine Barrens Treefrog (Hyla andersonii): concordance of genetic, morphometric and acoustic signal data.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Alexa R; Travis, Joseph; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty

    2015-07-01

    Delimiting species is important to every subfield in biology. Templeton's cohesion species concept uses genetic and ecological exchangeability to identify sets of populations that ought to be considered as the same species, and the lack of exchangeability helps determine which populations can be grouped as evolutionarily significant units (ESU) in conservation science. However, previous work assessing genetic and ecological interchangeability among populations has been limited in scope. Here, we provide a method for assessing exchangeability that incorporates multiple, independent lines of multivariate evidence in genetic, behavioural and morphological data. We use this approach to assess exchangeability across three disjunct groups of populations of the Pine Barrens Treefrog (Hyla andersonii) from the eastern United States. This species is considered threatened by each state in which it occurs and conservation management of this taxon requires a clearer understanding of how populations in these three regions may differ from one another. We find a strikingly concordant pattern in which the first axis of variation for each of the three types of data distinguishes populations along a latitudinal gradient and the second axis distinguishes the set of populations occurring in the Carolinas from those occurring in the New Jersey and Florida/Alabama regions. We know of no comparable data set that displays such concordance among different types of data across so large a geographic range. The overlap in trait values (i.e. exchangeability) between neighbouring regions, however, is substantial in all three types of data, which supports continued consideration of this taxon as a single species.

  5. High Gradient Induction Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J

    2004-11-29

    A concept being developed for high current electron beams may have application to HEDP and is described here. It involves the use of planar Blumlein stacks placed inside an induction cell. The output end of the Blumlein stack is applied across a high gradient insulator (HGI). These insulators have been used successfully in the presence of kilo Ampere-level electron beam currents for tens of nanoseconds at gradients of 20 MV/meter.

  6. Scintillations and TEC gradients from Europe to Africa: a picture by the MISW project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonsi, Lucilla; Spogli, Luca; Cesaroni, Claudio; Vadakke Veettil, Sreeja; Aquino, Marcio; Zin, Alberto; Wilhelm, Nicolas; Serant, Damien; Forte, Biagio; Mitchell, Cathryn N.; Grzesiak, Marcin; Kos, Timoslav; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Zurn, Martin; Enell, Carl-Fredrik; Haggstrom, Ingemar

    2016-04-01

    MISW (Mitigation of space weather threats to GNSS services) is an EU/FP7 project with the purpose of tackling the research challenges associated with Space Weather effects on GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). In particular, the objective of MISW is to develop suitable algorithms capable of enabling Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (e.g. EGNOS) in the low-latitude African sector. For this purpose, MISW has created a detailed picture of extreme space weather events that occurred in the past and in the current solar cycle. Despite its weakness, the current solar cycle exhibited two superstorms that happened during the descending phase, in March and in June 2015. The latter has been studied in detail through a careful analysis of GNSS data acquired by TEC (Total Electron Content) and scintillation monitors and by IGS and regional geodetic networks located in Europe and in Africa. The investigation enabled creating the actual scenarios of TEC gradients and scintillation that occurred over a wide latitudinal extent between 21 and 30 June 2015. The investigation is based on calibrated TEC from different receivers, aiming at the estimation of east-west and north-south TEC gradients and on the integration of calibrated TEC and TEC gradients with the scintillation data. The impact of the storm on GNSS performance has also been investigated in terms of losses of lock. The results of this study highlight the importance of assessing the latitudinal and the longitudinal TEC gradients as crucial information to identify to what extent different ionospheric sectors are severely affected by scintillation. On the other hand, this study also shows evidences of how TEC gradients are not always responsible for the observed scintillation. Finally, the outcomes of the study demonstrate the complex relation between scintillation, TEC gradients and losses of GNSS satellites lock.

  7. Geographical Gradients in Argentinean Terrestrial Mammal Species Richness and Their Environmental Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, Ana L.; Real, Raimundo; Kin, Marta S.; Guerrero, José Carlos; Galván, Betina; Barbosa, A. Márcia; Olivero, Jesús; Palomo, L. Javier; Vargas, J. Mario; Justo, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the main geographical trends of terrestrial mammal species richness (SR) in Argentina, assessing how broad-scale environmental variation (defined by climatic and topographic variables) and the spatial form of the country (defined by spatial filters based on spatial eigenvector mapping (SEVM)) influence the kinds and the numbers of mammal species along these geographical trends. We also evaluated if there are pure geographical trends not accounted for by the environmental or spatial factors. The environmental variables and spatial filters that simultaneously correlated with the geographical variables and SR were considered potential causes of the geographic trends. We performed partial correlations between SR and the geographical variables, maintaining the selected explanatory variables statistically constant, to determine if SR was fully explained by them or if a significant residual geographic pattern remained. All groups and subgroups presented a latitudinal gradient not attributable to the spatial form of the country. Most of these trends were not explained by climate. We used a variation partitioning procedure to quantify the pure geographic trend (PGT) that remained unaccounted for. The PGT was larger for latitudinal than for longitudinal gradients. This suggests that historical or purely geographical causes may also be relevant drivers of these geographical gradients in mammal diversity. PMID:23028254

  8. Examining the relationship between mercury and organic matter in lake sediments along a latitudinal transect in subarctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Jennifer M.; Sanei, Hamed; Parsons, Michael; Swindles, Graeme T.; Macumber, Andrew L.; Patterson, R. Timothy; Palmer, Michael; Falck, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    The accumulation of Hg in aquatic environments at both high and low latitudes can be controlled by organic matter through algal scavenging, thus complicating the interpretation of historical Hg profiles in lake sediments1,2,3. However, other recent studies suggest that algal scavenging is not important in governing Hg flux to sediments4, in some cases because of dilution by inorganic materials5. This study examines relationships between Hg and organic matter (OM) in over 100 lakes located between 60.5 and 65.4 °N and crossing the latitudinal tree-line in subarctic Canada. The latitudinal gradient approach in our study offers an opportunity to better understand climate and environmental controls on OM accumulation and its role in influencing Hg deposition in subarctic lacustrine environments. We used Rock Eval 6 pyrolysis to determine total organic carbon (TOC%), S1 (soluble OM consisting of degradable lipids and algal pigments), S2 (OM derived from highly aliphatic biomacromolecule structure of algal cell walls), and S3 (OM dominated by carbohydrates, lignins, and plant materials). Total Hg in sediments was measured using thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In these lake sediments, S2 composes the majority of TOC (Pearson's r = 0.978, p<0.01) and is negatively correlated with latitude (r = -0.475, p<0.01). S1 and TOC are also negatively correlated with latitude (r = -0.237 and -0.452, respectively, p<0.01). These associations are interpreted to reflect less autochthonous OM production and proportionally higher allochthonous OM input to more northern lakes (oxygen index vs. latitude r = 0.371, p<0.01). Similar to previous studies1,2,3 Mercury displays a significant positive association with S1 (r = 0.556, p<0.01), S2 (r = 0.518, p<0.01), and TOC (r = 0.504, p<0.01),supporting the hypothesis that OM influences Hg accumulation in subarctic lake sediments. References 1Sanei, H., Goodarzi, F. 2006. Relationship between organic

  9. Leaf Caloric Value from Tropical to Cold-Temperate Forests: Latitudinal Patterns and Linkage to Productivity.

    PubMed

    Song, Guangyan; Hou, Jihua; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jiahui; He, Nianpeng

    2016-01-01

    Leaf caloric value (LCV) reflects the capacity of a leaf to fix and accumulate solar energy through photosynthesis. We systematically investigated the LCV of 745 plant species in 9 forests, representing a range of tropical to cold-temperate forests along the 4700-km North-South Transect of Eastern China. The goals were to explore the latitudinal patterns of LCV at the levels of species, plant functional group, and community and to establish the relationship between LCV and gross primary productivity (GPP). Our results showed that LCV for all species ranged from 12.85 to 22.15 KJ g-1 with an average of 18.46 KJ g-1. Plant functional groups had a significant influence on LCV, with trees > shrubs > herbs, conifers > broadleaved trees, and evergreens > deciduous trees. The different values of LCV represented the long-term evolution and adaptation of plant species to different environments. Unexpectedly, no apparent latitudinal trends of LCV at community level were observed, although LCV at the species level clearly decreased with increasing latitude. Use efficiency of LCV (CUE, gC KJ-1), defined as the ratio of GPP to total LCV at the community level, varied quadratic with latitude and was lower in the middle latitudes. Climate (temperature and precipitation) may explain 52.9% of the variation in spatial patterns of CUE, which was positively correlated with aridity. Our findings are the first large-scale report of the latitudinal patterns of LCV in forests at the species, plant functional group, and community levels and provide new insights into the relationship between LCV and ecosystem functions in forest communities.

  10. Leaf Caloric Value from Tropical to Cold-Temperate Forests: Latitudinal Patterns and Linkage to Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Guangyan; Hou, Jihua; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jiahui; He, Nianpeng

    2016-01-01

    Leaf caloric value (LCV) reflects the capacity of a leaf to fix and accumulate solar energy through photosynthesis. We systematically investigated the LCV of 745 plant species in 9 forests, representing a range of tropical to cold-temperate forests along the 4700-km North-South Transect of Eastern China. The goals were to explore the latitudinal patterns of LCV at the levels of species, plant functional group, and community and to establish the relationship between LCV and gross primary productivity (GPP). Our results showed that LCV for all species ranged from 12.85 to 22.15 KJ g–1 with an average of 18.46 KJ g–1. Plant functional groups had a significant influence on LCV, with trees > shrubs > herbs, conifers > broadleaved trees, and evergreens > deciduous trees. The different values of LCV represented the long-term evolution and adaptation of plant species to different environments. Unexpectedly, no apparent latitudinal trends of LCV at community level were observed, although LCV at the species level clearly decreased with increasing latitude. Use efficiency of LCV (CUE, gC KJ–1), defined as the ratio of GPP to total LCV at the community level, varied quadratic with latitude and was lower in the middle latitudes. Climate (temperature and precipitation) may explain 52.9% of the variation in spatial patterns of CUE, which was positively correlated with aridity. Our findings are the first large-scale report of the latitudinal patterns of LCV in forests at the species, plant functional group, and community levels and provide new insights into the relationship between LCV and ecosystem functions in forest communities. PMID:27341474

  11. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect

    Temkin, Richard

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  12. Latitudinal variations in Titan's methane and haze from Cassini VIMS observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penteado, P.F.; Griffith, C.A.; Tomasko, M.G.; Engel, S.; See, C.; Doose, L.; Baines, K.H.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.; Nicholson, P.; Sotin, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze observations taken with Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), to determine the current methane and haze latitudinal distribution between 60??S and 40??N. The methane variation was measured primarily from its absorption band at 0.61 ??m, which is optically thin enough to be sensitive to the methane abundance at 20-50 km altitude. Haze characteristics were determined from Titan's 0.4-1.6 ??m spectra, which sample Titan's atmosphere from the surface to 200 km altitude. Radiative transfer models based on the haze properties and methane absorption profiles at the Huygens site reproduced the observed VIMS spectra and allowed us to retrieve latitude variations in the methane abundance and haze. We find the haze variations can be reproduced by varying only the density and single scattering albedo above 80 km altitude. There is an ambiguity between methane abundance and haze optical depth, because higher haze optical depth causes shallower methane bands; thus a family of solutions is allowed by the data. We find that haze variations alone, with a constant methane abundance, can reproduce the spatial variation in the methane bands if the haze density increases by 60% between 20??S and 10??S (roughly the sub-solar latitude) and single scattering absorption increases by 20% between 60??S and 40??N. On the other hand, a higher abundance of methane between 20 and 50 km in the summer hemisphere, as much as two times that of the winter hemisphere, is also possible, if the haze variations are minimized. The range of possible methane variations between 27??S and 19??N is consistent with condensation as a result of temperature variations of 0-1.5 K at 20-30 km. Our analysis indicates that the latitudinal variations in Titan's visible to near-IR albedo, the north/south asymmetry (NSA), result primarily from variations in the thickness of the darker haze layer, detected by Huygens DISR, above 80 km altitude. If we assume little to no latitudinal methane

  13. HIGH GRADIENT INDUCTION ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y; Blackfield, D; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Nunnally, W; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-06-21

    A new type of compact induction accelerator is under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that promises to increase the average accelerating gradient by at least an order of magnitude over that of existing induction machines. The machine is based on the use of high gradient vacuum insulators, advanced dielectric materials and switches and is stimulated by the desire for compact flash x-ray radiography sources. Research describing an extreme variant of this technology aimed at proton therapy for cancer will be described. Progress in applying this technology to several applications will be reviewed.

  14. Latitudinal Transport of Angular Momentum by Cellular Flows Observed with MDI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Gilman, Peter A.; Beck, John G.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed Doppler velocity images from the MDI instrument on SOHO to determine the latitudinal transport of angular momentum by the cellular photospheric flows. Doppler velocity images from 60-days in May to July of 1996 were processed to remove the p-mode oscillations, the convective blue shift, the axisymmetric flows, and any instrumental artifacts. The remaining cellular flows were examined for evidence of latitudinal angular momentum transport. Small cells show no evidence of any such transport. Cells the size of supergranules (30,000 km in diameter) show strong evidence for a poleward transport of angular momentum. This would be expected if supergranules are influenced by the Coriolis force, and if the cells are elongated in an east-west direction. We find good evidence for just such an east-west elongation of the supergranules. This elongation may be the result of differential rotation shearing the cellular structures. Data simulations of this effect support the conclusion that elongated supergranules transport angular momentum from the equator toward the poles, Cells somewhat larger than supergranules do not show evidence for this poleward transport. Further analysis of the data is planned to determine if the direction of angular momentum transport reverses for even larger cellular structures. The Sun's rapidly rotating equator must be maintained by such transport somewhere within the convection zone.

  15. Generalists and specialists along a latitudinal transect: patterns of thermal adaptation in six species of damselflies.

    PubMed

    Nilsson-Ortman, Viktor; Stoks, Robby; De Block, Marjan; Johansson, Frank

    2012-06-01

    Tropical organisms colonizing temperate environments face reduced average temperatures and dramatic thermal fluctuations. Theoretical models postulate that thermal specialization should be favored either when little environmental variation is experienced within generations or when among-generation variation is small relative to within-generation variation. To test these predictions, we studied six temperate species of damselflies differing in latitudinal distribution. We developed a computer model simulating how organisms experience environmental variation (accounting for diapause and voltinism) and performed a laboratory experiment assaying thermal sensitivities of growth rates. The computer model showed opposing latitudinal trends in among- and within-generation thermal variability: within-generation thermal variability decreased toward higher latitudes, whereas relative levels of among-generation thermal variability peaked at midlatitudes (where a shift in voltinism occurred). The growth experiment showed that low-latitude species were more thermally generalized than mid- and high-latitude species, supporting the prediction that generalists are favored under high levels of within-generation variation. Northern species had steeper, near-exponential reaction norms suggestive of thermal specialization. However, they had strikingly high thermal optima and grew very slowly over most of the thermal range they are expected to experience in the field. This observation is at present difficult to explain. These results highlight the importance of considering interactions between life history and environmental variation when deriving expectations of thermal adaptation.

  16. Special points in 11-year variations in the latitudinal characteristics of sunspot activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miletsky, E. V.; Nagovitsyn, Yu. A.

    2012-12-01

    It has been indicated that special moments (turning points), when certain characteristics of the latitudinal (equatorward) drift of the sunspot drift zone suddenly change, exist in each 11-year solar cycle. The moment when a sunspot formation low-latitude boundary minimum (T2), coordinated in time with the end of a polar magnetic field polarity reversal, exists has a special place among these points. A conclusion has been drawn that it is impossible to reconstruct polarity reversal moments in the past based on information about turning points T2. The average velocities of the latitudinal drift of the minimal, average, and maximal sunspot group latitudes have been calculated. It has been indicated that the closeness of the relationship between the first two velocities and the maximal activity amplitudes in the cycles differ substantially for the first (before point T2) and second (after point T2) cycle parts. The corresponding values of the correlation coefficients increase substantially in the second cycle (after point T2). It has been established that a relationship exists between some velocities calculated in these cycles and the activity amplitudes at maximums of the next cycles. A model for predicting future cycle maximums has been constructed based on this conclusion. The probable average annual Wolf number at a maximum of cycle 24 has been determined (W(24) = 93).

  17. Sensitivity of simulated climate to latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in SRM geoengineering methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modak, A.; Bala, G.

    2013-10-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering has been proposed as a potential option to counteract climate change. We perform a set of idealized geoengineering simulations to understand the global hydrological implications of varying the latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in SRM methods. We find that for a fixed total mass of sulfate aerosols (12.6 Mt of SO4), relative to a uniform distribution which mitigates changes in global mean temperature, global mean radiative forcing is larger when aerosol concentration is maximum at the poles leading to a warmer global mean climate and consequently an intensified hydrological cycle. Opposite changes are simulated when aerosol concentration is maximized in the tropics. We obtain a range of 1 K in global mean temperature and 3% in precipitation changes by varying the distribution pattern: this range is about 50% of the climate change from a doubling of CO2. Hence, our study demonstrates that a range of global mean climate states, determined by the global mean radiative forcing, are possible for a fixed total amount of aerosols but with differing latitudinal distribution, highlighting the need for a careful evaluation of SRM proposals.

  18. Latitudinal transects in the southeastern Pacific Ocean reveal a diverse but patchy distribution of phycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Trefault, N; Krock, B; Delherbe, N; Cembella, A; Vásquez, M

    2011-10-01

    Phycotoxin distribution and abundance was determined during an oceanographic expedition along a latitudinal transect of 27° extent in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from the fjords of Tierra del Fuego Island to offshore Copiapó in the Atacama region along the Chilean coast. Plankton samples were harvested at regular intervals during the entire cruise and later analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for domoic acid (DA) and lipophilic toxins. Although no evident toxic algal bloom was encountered during this transect, several phycotoxin analogues from distinct toxin groups were detected. These phycotoxins included DA, the pectenotoxins PTX-2, PTX-2sa and PTX-11, dinophystoxin-1 (DTX-1) and gymnodimine (GYM), which is the first report of this latter toxin in the southeast Pacific. A region-specific and rather disjunct distribution of GYM, DA and DTX-1 was observed, whereas PTX-2, PTX-2sa and PTX-11 were more widely distributed over almost the entire transect. This work represents the first assessment of lipophilic toxins through a wide latitudinal transect of the southeastern Pacific, revealing a patchy distribution of several phycotoxins and pointing out the specific geographical distribution of the putative toxigenic organisms.

  19. Latitudinal velocity structures up to the solar poles estimated from interplanetary scintillation tomography analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, M.; Fujiki, K.; Ohmi, T.; Tokumaru, M.; Yokobe, A.; Hakamada, K.

    2001-08-01

    The Ulysses spacecraft observed high-speed wind at high latitudes up to 80° and found that the high-speed solar wind increased in velocity gradually with latitude and that the velocity had asymmetry between Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We have investigated the velocity increase up to the polar regions for the Carrington rotations of 1908-1915 in the year 1996. For this purpose we have made tomographic analyses of the latitudinal structure of the solar wind speed using interplanetary scintillation data obtained at heliocentric distances of 0.1-0.9 AU and latitudes up to 90°. The tomographic analysis method was modified from its previous version [Kojima et al., 1998] so that it could obtain more reliable solutions with better sensitivity in the polar region than the previous method. The results from the observations in 1996 showed that the velocity increased with latitude and had the N-S asymmetry as observed by Ulysses. These features persisted during the period analyzed. Since the asymmetry was found in rather short period observations of several Carrington rotations and at distances within 0.9 AU, it is caused neither by temporal evolution of the solar wind structures nor by interactions in the solar wind in interplanetary space. These global latitudinal velocity structures agree qualitatively with the magnetic flux expansion factor.

  20. Manipulating the Gradient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaze, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

  1. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences.

  2. Vegetation biomass, leaf area index, and NDVI patterns and relationships along two latitudinal transects in arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Raynolds, M. K.; Kelley, A. M.; Jia, G.; Ping, C.; Michaelson, G.; Leibman, M. O.; Kaarlejärvi, E.; Khomutov, A.; Kuss, P.; Moskalenko, N.; Orekhov, P.; Matyshak, G.; Forbes, B. C.; Yu, Q.

    2009-12-01

    Analyses of vegetation properties along climatic gradients provide first order approximations as to how vegetation might respond to a temporally dynamic climate. Until recently, no systematic study of tundra vegetation had been conducted along bioclimatic transects that represent the full latitudinal extent of the arctic tundra biome. Since 1999, we have been collecting data on arctic tundra vegetation and soil properties along two such transects, the North American Arctic Transect (NAAT) and the Yamal Arctic Transect (YAT). The NAAT spans the arctic tundra from the Low Arctic of the North Slope of Alaska to the polar desert of Cape Isachsen on Ellef Ringnes Island in the Canadian Archipelago. The Yamal Arctic Transect located in northwest Siberia, Russia, presently ranges from the forest-tundra transition at Nadym to the High Arctic tundra on Belyy Ostrov off the north coast of the Yamal Peninsula. The summer warmth indices (SWI - sum of mean monthly temperatures greater than 0°C) range from approximately 40 °C months to 3 °C months from south to north. For largely zonal sites along these transects, we systematically collected leaf area index (LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI - PSII hand-held spectro-radiometer), and vegetation biomass (clip harvests). Site-averaged LAI ranges from 1.08 to 0 along the transects, yet can be highly variable at the landscape scale. Site-averaged NDVI ranges from 0.67 to 0.26 along the transects, and is less variable than LAI at the landscape scale. Total aboveground live biomass ranges from approximately 700 g m-2 to < 50 g m-2 along the NAAT, and from approximately 1100 g m-2 to < 400 g m-2 along the YAT (not including tree biomass at Nadym). LAI and NDVI are highly correlated logarithmically (r = 0.80) for the entire dataset. LAI is significantly related to total aboveground (live plus dead) vascular plant biomass, although there is some variability in the data (r = 0.63). NDVI is

  3. Carbon isotope evidence for the latitudinal distribution and wind speed dependence of the air-sea gas transfer velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Randerson, James T.; Primeau, François W.; Gruber, Nicolas; Menemenlis, Dimitris

    2006-11-01

    The air-sea gas transfer velocity is an important determinant of the exchange of gases, including CO2, between the atmosphere and ocean, but the magnitude of the transfer velocity and what factors control it remains poorly known. Here, we use oceanic and atmospheric observations of 14C and 13C to constrain the global mean gas transfer velocity as well as the exponent of its wind speed dependence, utilizing the distinct signatures left by the air-sea exchange of 14CO2 and 13CO2. While the atmosphere and ocean inventories of 14CO2 and 13CO2 constrain the mean gas transfer velocity, the latitudinal pattern in the atmospheric and oceanic 14C and 13C distributions contain information about the wind speed dependence. We computed the uptake of bomb 14C by the ocean for different transfer velocity patterns using pulse response functions from an ocean general circulation model, and evaluated the match between the predicted bomb 14C concentrations and observationally based estimates for the 1970s-1990s. Using a wind speed climatology based on satellite measurements, we solved either for the best-fit global relationship between gas exchange and mean wind speed or for the mean gas transfer velocity over each of 11 ocean regions. We also compared the predicted consequences of different gas exchange relationships on the rate of change and interhemisphere gradient of 14C in atmospheric CO2 with tree-ring and atmospheric measurements. Our results suggest that globally, the dependence of the air-sea gas transfer velocity on wind speed is close to linear, with an exponent of 0.5 +/- 0.4, and that the global mean gas transfer velocity at a Schmidt number of 660 is 20 +/- 3 cm/hr, similar to the results of previous analyses. We find that the air-sea flux of 13C estimated from atmosphere and ocean observations also suggests a lower than quadratic dependence of gas exchange on wind speed.

  4. Bigravity from gradient expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2016-05-04

    We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.

  5. Gradient magnetometer system balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Tsvetkov, Yury

    2005-08-01

    Earth's magnetic field study still remains one of the leading edges of experimental geophysics. Thus study is executed on the Earth surface, including ocean bottom, and on satellite heights using component, mostly flux-gate magnetometers. But balloon experiments with component magnetometers are very seldom, first of all because of great complexity of data interpretation. This niche still waits for new experimental ideology, which will allow to get the measurements results with high accuracy, especially in gradient mode. The great importance of precise balloon-borne component magnetic field gradient study is obvious. Its technical realization is based both on the available at the marked high-precision non-magnetic tiltmeters and on recent achievements of flux-gate magnetometry. The scientific goals of balloon-borne magnetic gradiometric experiment are discussed and its practical realization is proposed.

  6. Stress-gradient plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Srinath S.; Curtin, W. A.

    2011-01-01

    A new model, stress-gradient plasticity, is presented that provides unique mechanistic insight into size-dependent phenomena in plasticity. This dislocation-based model predicts strengthening of materials when a gradient in stress acts over dislocation source–obstacle configurations. The model has a physical length scale, the spacing of dislocation obstacles, and is validated by several levels of discrete-dislocation simulations. When incorporated into a continuum viscoplastic model, predictions for bending and torsion in polycrystalline metals show excellent agreement with experiments in the initial strengthening and subsequent hardening as a function of both sample-size dependence and grain size, when the operative obstacle spacing is proportional to the grain size. PMID:21911403

  7. Gradient Index Lens Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-25

    over six to nine readings at two to three input polarizations each. The first set of index values is calculated assuming ei = 450 These values are...TECHNICAL REPORT RG-CR-84-2 Sli GRADIENT INDEX LENS RESEARCH Prepared by: Duncan T. Moore The Institute of Optics University of Rochester Rochester...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Miten Data Fntered) READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COM