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Sample records for latitudinal gradient genetic

  1. The Genetic Content of Chromosomal Inversions across a Wide Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Pedro; Calabria, Gemma; Picão-Osório, João; Balanyà, Joan; Pascual, Marta

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence regarding the role of chromosomal inversions in relevant biological processes such as local adaptation and speciation. A classic example of the adaptive role of chromosomal polymorphisms is given by the clines of inversion frequencies in Drosophila subobscura, repeatable across continents. Nevertheless, not much is known about the molecular variation associated with these polymorphisms. We characterized the genetic content of ca. 600 individuals from nine European populations following a latitudinal gradient by analysing 19 microsatellite loci from two autosomes (J and U) and the sex chromosome (A), taking into account their chromosomal inversions. Our results clearly demonstrate the molecular genetic uniformity within a given chromosomal inversion across a large latitudinal gradient, particularly from Groningen (Netherlands) in the north to Málaga (Spain) in the south, experiencing highly diverse environmental conditions. This low genetic differentiation within the same gene arrangement across the nine European populations is consistent with the local adaptation hypothesis for th evolutionof chromosomal polymorphisms. We also show the effective role of chromosomal inversions in maintaining different genetic pools within these inverted genomic regions even in the presence of high gene flow. Inversions represent thus an important barrier to gene flux and can help maintain specific allelic combinations with positive effects on fitness. Consistent patterns of microsatellite allele-inversion linkage disequilibrium particularly in loci within inversions were also observed. Finally, we identified areas within inversions presenting clinal variation that might be under selection. PMID:23272126

  2. Ontogenetic changes in genetic variances of age-dependent plasticity along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson-Örtman, V; Rogell, B; Stoks, R; Johansson, F

    2015-01-01

    The expression of phenotypic plasticity may differ among life stages of the same organism. Age-dependent plasticity can be important for adaptation to heterogeneous environments, but this has only recently been recognized. Whether age-dependent plasticity is a common outcome of local adaptation and whether populations harbor genetic variation in this respect remains largely unknown. To answer these questions, we estimated levels of additive genetic variation in age-dependent plasticity in six species of damselflies sampled from 18 populations along a latitudinal gradient spanning 3600 km. We reared full sib larvae at three temperatures and estimated genetic variances in the height and slope of thermal reaction norms of body size at three points in time during ontogeny using random regression. Our data show that most populations harbor genetic variation in growth rate (reaction norm height) in all ontogenetic stages, but only some populations and ontogenetic stages were found to harbor genetic variation in thermal plasticity (reaction norm slope). Genetic variances in reaction norm height differed among species, while genetic variances in reaction norm slope differed among populations. The slope of the ontogenetic trend in genetic variances of both reaction norm height and slope increased with latitude. We propose that differences in genetic variances reflect temporal and spatial variation in the strength and direction of natural selection on growth trajectories and age-dependent plasticity. Selection on age-dependent plasticity may depend on the interaction between temperature seasonality and time constraints associated with variation in life history traits such as generation length. PMID:25649500

  3. Allen's rule revisited: quantitative genetics of extremity length in the common frog along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Alho, J S; Herczeg, G; Laugen, A T; Räsänen, K; Laurila, A; Merilä, J

    2011-01-01

    Ecogeographical rules linking climate to morphology have gained renewed interest because of climate change. Yet few studies have evaluated to what extent geographical trends ascribed to these rules have a genetic, rather than environmentally determined, basis. This applies especially to Allen's rule, which states that the relative extremity length decreases with increasing latitude. We studied leg length in the common frog (Rana temporaria) along a 1500 km latitudinal gradient utilizing wild and common garden data. In the wild, the body size-corrected femur and tibia lengths did not conform to Allen's rule but peaked at mid-latitudes. However, the ratio of femur to tibia length increased in the north, and the common garden data revealed a genetic cline consistent with Allen's rule in some trait and treatment combinations. While selection may have shortened the leg length in the north, the genetic trend seems to be partially masked by environmental effects. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. A latitudinal phylogeographic diversity gradient in birds

    PubMed Central

    Seeholzer, Glenn F.; Harvey, Michael G.; Cuervo, Andrés M.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2017-01-01

    High tropical species diversity is often attributed to evolutionary dynamics over long timescales. It is possible, however, that latitudinal variation in diversification begins when divergence occurs within species. Phylogeographic data capture this initial stage of diversification in which populations become geographically isolated and begin to differentiate genetically. There is limited understanding of the broader implications of intraspecific diversification because comparative analyses have focused on species inhabiting and evolving in restricted regions and environments. Here, we scale comparative phylogeography up to the hemisphere level and examine whether the processes driving latitudinal differences in species diversity are also evident within species. We collected genetic data for 210 New World bird species distributed across a broad latitudinal gradient and estimated a suite of metrics characterizing phylogeographic history. We found that lower latitude species had, on average, greater phylogeographic diversity than higher latitude species and that intraspecific diversity showed evidence of greater persistence in the tropics. Factors associated with species ecologies, life histories, and habitats explained little of the variation in phylogeographic structure across the latitudinal gradient. Our results suggest that the latitudinal gradient in species richness originates, at least partly, from population-level processes within species and are consistent with hypotheses implicating age and environmental stability in the formation of diversity gradients. Comparative phylogeographic analyses scaled up to large geographic regions and hundreds of species can show connections between population-level processes and broad-scale species-richness patterns. PMID:28406905

  5. A latitudinal phylogeographic diversity gradient in birds.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian Tilston; Seeholzer, Glenn F; Harvey, Michael G; Cuervo, Andrés M; Brumfield, Robb T

    2017-04-01

    High tropical species diversity is often attributed to evolutionary dynamics over long timescales. It is possible, however, that latitudinal variation in diversification begins when divergence occurs within species. Phylogeographic data capture this initial stage of diversification in which populations become geographically isolated and begin to differentiate genetically. There is limited understanding of the broader implications of intraspecific diversification because comparative analyses have focused on species inhabiting and evolving in restricted regions and environments. Here, we scale comparative phylogeography up to the hemisphere level and examine whether the processes driving latitudinal differences in species diversity are also evident within species. We collected genetic data for 210 New World bird species distributed across a broad latitudinal gradient and estimated a suite of metrics characterizing phylogeographic history. We found that lower latitude species had, on average, greater phylogeographic diversity than higher latitude species and that intraspecific diversity showed evidence of greater persistence in the tropics. Factors associated with species ecologies, life histories, and habitats explained little of the variation in phylogeographic structure across the latitudinal gradient. Our results suggest that the latitudinal gradient in species richness originates, at least partly, from population-level processes within species and are consistent with hypotheses implicating age and environmental stability in the formation of diversity gradients. Comparative phylogeographic analyses scaled up to large geographic regions and hundreds of species can show connections between population-level processes and broad-scale species-richness patterns.

  6. Effect of latitudinal gradient and impact of logging on genetic diversity of Cedrela lilloi along the Argentine Yungas Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Inza, Maria V; Zelener, Noga; Fornes, Luis; Gallo, Leonardo A

    2012-01-01

    Cedrela lilloi C. DC. (cedro coya, Meliaceae), an important south American timber species, has been historically overexploited through selective logging in Argentine Yungas Rainforest. Management and conservation programs of the species require knowledge of its genetic variation patterns; however, no information is available. Molecular genetic variability of the species was characterized to identify high-priority populations for conservation and domestication purposes. Fourteen native populations (160 individuals) along a latitudinal gradient and with different logging's intensities were assessed by 293 polymorphic AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers. Genetic diversity was low (Ht = 0.135), according to marginal location of the species in Argentina. Most of the diversity was distributed within populations (87%). Northern populations showed significant higher genetic diversity (R2= 0.69) that agreed with latitudinal pattern of distribution of taxonomic diversity in the Yungas. Three clusters were identified by Bayesian analysis in correspondence with northern, central, and southern Yungas. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant genetic differences among latitudinal clusters even when logging (ΦRT = 0.07) and unlogging populations (ΦPT = 0.10) were separately analyzed. Loss of genetic diversity with increasing logging intensity was observed between neighboring populations with different disturbance (ΦPT = 0.03–0.10). Bottlenecks in disturbed populations are suggested as the main cause. Our results emphasize both: the necessity of maintaining the genetic diversity in protected areas that appear as possible long-term refuges of the species; and to rescue for the national system of protected areas some high genetic diversity populations that are on private fields. PMID:23170208

  7. Adaptation to a latitudinal thermal gradient within a widespread copepod species: the contributions of genetic divergence and phenotypic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ricardo J; Sasaki, Matthew C; Burton, Ronald S

    2017-04-26

    Understanding how populations adapt to heterogeneous thermal regimes is essential for comprehending how latitudinal gradients in species diversification are formed, and how taxa will respond to ongoing climate change. Adaptation can occur by innate genetic factors, by phenotypic plasticity, or by a combination of both mechanisms. Yet, the relative contribution of such mechanisms to large-scale latitudinal gradients of thermal tolerance across conspecific populations remains unclear. We examine thermal performance in 11 populations of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus, ranging from Baja California Sur (Mexico) to British Columbia (Canada). Common garden experiments show that survivorship to acute heat-stress differs between populations (by up to 3.8°C in LD50 values), reflecting a strong genetic thermal adaptation. Using a split-brood experiment with two rearing temperatures, we also show that developmental phenotypic plasticity is beneficial to thermal tolerance (by up to 1.3°C), and that this effect differs across populations. Although genetic divergence in heat tolerance strongly correlates with latitude and temperature, differences in the plastic response do not. In the context of climate warming, our results confirm the general prediction that low-latitude populations are most susceptible to local extinction because genetic adaptation has placed physiological limits closer to current environmental maxima, but our results also contradict the prediction that phenotypic plasticity is constrained at lower latitudes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Genetic structure and bio-climatic modeling support allopatric over parapatric speciation along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Four of the five species of Telopea (Proteaceae) are distributed in a latitudinal replacement pattern on the south-eastern Australian mainland. In similar circumstances, a simple allopatric speciation model that identifies the origins of genetic isolation within temporal geographic separation is considered as the default model. However, secondary contact between differentiated lineages can result in similar distributional patterns to those arising from a process of parapatric speciation (where gene flow between lineages remains uninterrupted during differentiation). Our aim was to use the characteristic distributional patterns in Telopea to test whether it reflected the evolutionary models of allopatric or parapatric speciation. Using a combination of genetic evidence and environmental niche modelling, we focused on three main questions: do currently described geographic borders coincide with genetic and environmental boundaries; are there hybrid zones in areas of secondary contact between closely related species; did species distributions contract during the last glacial maximum resulting in distributional gaps even where overlap and hybridisation currently occur? Results Total genomic DNA was extracted from 619 individuals sampled from 36 populations representing the four species. Seven nuclear microsatellites (nSSR) and six chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSR) were amplified across all populations. Genetic structure and the signature of admixture in overlap zones was described using the Bayesian clustering methods implemented in STUCTURE and NewHybrids respectively. Relationships between chlorotypes were reconstructed as a median-joining network. Environmental niche models were produced for all species using environmental parameters from both the present day and the last glacial maximum (LGM). The nSSR loci amplified a total of 154 alleles, while data for the cpSSR loci produced a network of six chlorotypes. STRUCTURE revealed an optimum number of five

  9. Genetic structure and bio-climatic modeling support allopatric over parapatric speciation along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Maurizio; Allen, Chris B; Thurlby, Katie A G; Weston, Peter H; Milner, Melita L

    2012-08-20

    Four of the five species of Telopea (Proteaceae) are distributed in a latitudinal replacement pattern on the south-eastern Australian mainland. In similar circumstances, a simple allopatric speciation model that identifies the origins of genetic isolation within temporal geographic separation is considered as the default model. However, secondary contact between differentiated lineages can result in similar distributional patterns to those arising from a process of parapatric speciation (where gene flow between lineages remains uninterrupted during differentiation). Our aim was to use the characteristic distributional patterns in Telopea to test whether it reflected the evolutionary models of allopatric or parapatric speciation. Using a combination of genetic evidence and environmental niche modelling, we focused on three main questions: do currently described geographic borders coincide with genetic and environmental boundaries; are there hybrid zones in areas of secondary contact between closely related species; did species distributions contract during the last glacial maximum resulting in distributional gaps even where overlap and hybridisation currently occur? Total genomic DNA was extracted from 619 individuals sampled from 36 populations representing the four species. Seven nuclear microsatellites (nSSR) and six chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSR) were amplified across all populations. Genetic structure and the signature of admixture in overlap zones was described using the Bayesian clustering methods implemented in STUCTURE and NewHybrids respectively. Relationships between chlorotypes were reconstructed as a median-joining network. Environmental niche models were produced for all species using environmental parameters from both the present day and the last glacial maximum (LGM).The nSSR loci amplified a total of 154 alleles, while data for the cpSSR loci produced a network of six chlorotypes. STRUCTURE revealed an optimum number of five clusters

  10. Heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura along a latitudinal gradient: Contrasting patterns between plastic and genetic responses.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Luis E; Rezende, Enrico L; Santos, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    Susceptibility to global warming relies on how thermal tolerances respond to increasing temperatures through plasticity or evolution. Climatic adaptation can be assessed by examining the geographic variation in thermal-related traits. We studied latitudinal patterns in heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura reared at two temperatures. We used four static stressful temperatures to estimate the thermal death time (TDT) curves, and two ramping assays with fast and slow heating rates. Thermal death time curves allow estimation of the critical thermal maximum (CT(max)), by extrapolating to the temperature that would knock down the flies almost "instantaneously," and the thermal sensitivity to increasing stressful temperatures. We found a positive latitudinal cline for CT(max), but no clinal pattern for knockdown temperatures estimated from the ramping assays. Although high-latitude populations were more tolerant to an acute heat stress, they were also more sensitive to prolonged exposure to less stressful temperatures, supporting a trade-off between acute and chronic heat tolerances. Conversely, developmental plasticity did not affect CT(max) but increased the tolerance to chronic heat exposition. The patterns observed from the TDT curves help to understand why the relationship between heat tolerance and latitude depends on the methodology used and, therefore, these curves provide a more complete and reliable measurement of heat tolerance. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Molecular evolution and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient

    PubMed Central

    Dowle, E J; Morgan-Richards, M; Trewick, S A

    2013-01-01

    Species density is higher in the tropics (low latitude) than in temperate regions (high latitude) resulting in a latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG). The LBG must be generated by differential rates of speciation and/or extinction and/or immigration among regions, but the role of each of these processes is still unclear. Recent studies examining differences in rates of molecular evolution have inferred a direct link between rate of molecular evolution and rate of speciation, and postulated these as important drivers of the LBG. Here we review the molecular genetic evidence and examine the factors that might be responsible for differences in rates of molecular evolution. Critical to this is the directionality of the relationship between speciation rates and rates of molecular evolution. PMID:23486082

  12. The latitudinal biodiversity gradient through deep time.

    PubMed

    Mannion, Philip D; Upchurch, Paul; Benson, Roger B J; Goswami, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    Today, biodiversity decreases from equatorial to polar regions. This is a fundamental pattern governing the distribution of extant organisms, the understanding of which is critical to predicting climatically driven biodiversity loss. However, its causes remain unresolved. The fossil record offers a unique perspective on the evolution of this latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG), providing a dynamic system in which to explore spatiotemporal diversity fluctuations. Deep-time studies indicate that a tropical peak and poleward decline in species diversity has not been a persistent pattern throughout the Phanerozoic, but is restricted to intervals of the Palaeozoic and the past 30 million years. A tropical peak might characterise cold icehouse climatic regimes, whereas warmer greenhouse regimes display temperate diversity peaks or flattened gradients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extinction as a driver of avian latitudinal diversity gradients.

    PubMed

    Pulido-Santacruz, Paola; Weir, Jason T

    2016-04-01

    The role of historical factors in driving latitudinal diversity gradients is poorly understood. Here, we used an updated global phylogeny of terrestrial birds to test the role of three key historical factors-speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates-in generating latitudinal diversity gradients for eight major clades. We fit a model that allows speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates to differ, both with latitude and between the New and Old World. Our results consistently support extinction (all clades had lowest extinction where species richness was highest) as a key driver of species richness gradients across each of eight major clades. In contrast, speciation and dispersal rates showed no consistent latitudinal patterns across replicate bird clades, and thus are unlikely to represent general underlying drivers of latitudinal diversity gradients. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Ephemeral ecological speciation and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Cutter, Asher D; Gray, Jeremy C

    2016-10-01

    The richness of biodiversity in the tropics compared to high-latitude parts of the world forms one of the most globally conspicuous patterns in biology, and yet few hypotheses aim to explain this phenomenon in terms of explicit microevolutionary mechanisms of speciation and extinction. We link population genetic processes of selection and adaptation to speciation and extinction by way of their interaction with environmental factors to drive global scale macroecological patterns. High-latitude regions are both cradle and grave with respect to species diversification. In particular, we point to a conceptual equivalence of "environmental harshness" and "hard selection" as eco-evolutionary drivers of local adaptation and ecological speciation. By describing how ecological speciation likely occurs more readily at high latitudes, with such nascent species especially prone to extinction by fusion, we derive the ephemeral ecological speciation hypothesis as an integrative mechanistic explanation for latitudinal gradients in species turnover and the net accumulation of biodiversity.

  15. Evolution and the latitudinal diversity gradient: speciation, extinction and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Mittelbach, Gary G; Schemske, Douglas W; Cornell, Howard V; Allen, Andrew P; Brown, Jonathan M; Bush, Mark B; Harrison, Susan P; Hurlbert, Allen H; Knowlton, Nancy; Lessios, Harilaos A; McCain, Christy M; McCune, Amy R; McDade, Lucinda A; McPeek, Mark A; Near, Thomas J; Price, Trevor D; Ricklefs, Robert E; Roy, Kaustuv; Sax, Dov F; Schluter, Dolph; Sobel, James M; Turelli, Michael

    2007-04-01

    A latitudinal gradient in biodiversity has existed since before the time of the dinosaurs, yet how and why this gradient arose remains unresolved. Here we review two major hypotheses for the origin of the latitudinal diversity gradient. The time and area hypothesis holds that tropical climates are older and historically larger, allowing more opportunity for diversification. This hypothesis is supported by observations that temperate taxa are often younger than, and nested within, tropical taxa, and that diversity is positively correlated with the age and area of geographical regions. The diversification rate hypothesis holds that tropical regions diversify faster due to higher rates of speciation (caused by increased opportunities for the evolution of reproductive isolation, or faster molecular evolution, or the increased importance of biotic interactions), or due to lower extinction rates. There is phylogenetic evidence for higher rates of diversification in tropical clades, and palaeontological data demonstrate higher rates of origination for tropical taxa, but mixed evidence for latitudinal differences in extinction rates. Studies of latitudinal variation in incipient speciation also suggest faster speciation in the tropics. Distinguishing the roles of history, speciation and extinction in the origin of the latitudinal gradient represents a major challenge to future research.

  16. Diversification rates and the latitudinal gradient of diversity in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Soria-Carrasco, Víctor; Castresana, Jose

    2012-01-01

    The latitudinal gradient of species richness has frequently been attributed to higher diversification rates of tropical groups. In order to test this hypothesis for mammals, we used a set of 232 genera taken from a mammalian supertree and, additionally, we reconstructed dated Bayesian phylogenetic trees of 100 genera. For each genus, diversification rate was estimated taking incomplete species sampling into account and latitude was assigned considering the heterogeneity in species distribution ranges. For both datasets, we found that the average diversification rate was similar among all latitudinal bands. Furthermore, when we used phylogenetically independent contrasts, we did not find any significant correlation between latitude and diversification parameters, including different estimates of speciation and extinction rates. Thus, other factors, such as the dynamics of dispersal through time, may be required to explain the latitudinal gradient of diversity in mammals. PMID:22896648

  17. Decadal Changes in the World's Coastal Latitudinal Temperature Gradients.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Hannes; Doherty, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Most of the world's living marine resources inhabit coastal environments, where average thermal conditions change predictably with latitude. These coastal latitudinal temperature gradients (CLTG) coincide with important ecological clines,e.g., in marine species diversity or adaptive genetic variations, but how tightly thermal and ecological gradients are linked remains unclear. A first step is to consistently characterize the world's CLTGs. We extracted coastal cells from a global 1°×1° dataset of weekly sea surface temperatures (SST, 1982-2012) to quantify spatial and temporal variability of the world's 11 major CLTGs. Gradient strength, i.e., the slope of the linear mean-SST/latitude relationship, varied 3-fold between the steepest (North-American Atlantic and Asian Pacific gradients: -0.91°C and -0.68°C lat(-1), respectively) and weakest CLTGs (African Indian Ocean and the South- and North-American Pacific gradients: -0.28, -0.29, -0.32°C lat(-1), respectively). Analyzing CLTG strength by year revealed that seven gradients have weakened by 3-10% over the past three decades due to increased warming at high compared to low latitudes. Almost the entire South-American Pacific gradient (6-47°S), however, has considerably cooled over the study period (-0.3 to -1.7°C, 31 years), and the substantial weakening of the North-American Atlantic gradient (-10%) was due to warming at high latitudes (42-60°N, +0.8 to +1.6°C,31 years) and significant mid-latitude cooling (Florida to Cape Hatteras 26-35°N, -0.5 to -2.2°C, 31 years). Average SST trends rarely resulted from uniform shifts throughout the year; instead individual seasonal warming or cooling patterns elicited the observed changes in annual means. This is consistent with our finding of increased seasonality (i.e., summer-winter SST amplitude) in three quarters of all coastal cells (331 of 433). Our study highlights the regionally variable footprint of global climate change, while emphasizing ecological

  18. Radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain G.; Tomczyk, Steven; Ulrich, Roger K.; Woodard, Martin F.

    1988-01-01

    The frequency splittings of intermediate-degree (3 to 170 deg) p-mode oscillations obtained from a 16-day subset of observations were analyzed. Results show evidence for both radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity. From 0.6 to 0.95 solar radii, the solar internal angular velocity increases systematically from 440 to 463 nHz, corresponding to a positive radial gradient of 66 nHz/solar radius for that portion of the solar interior. Analysis also indicates that the latitudinal differential rotation gradient which is seen at the solar surface persists throughout the convection zone, although there are indications that the differential rotation might disappear entirely below the base of the convection zone. The analysis was extended to include comparisons with additional observational studies and between earlier results and the results of additional inversions of several of the observational datasets. All the comparisons reinforce conclusions regarding the existence of radial and latitudinal gradients in the internal angular velocity.

  19. Structure of Benthic Communities along the Taiwan Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    De Palmas, Stéphane; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2016-01-01

    The distribution and the structure of benthic assemblages vary with latitude. However, few studies have described benthic communities along large latitudinal gradients, and patterns of variation are not fully understood. Taiwan, lying between 21.90°N and 25.30°N, is located at the center of the Philippine-Japan arc and lies at the northern margin of coral reef development. A wide range of habitats is distributed along this latitudinal gradient, from extensive fringing coral reefs at the southern coast to non-reefal communities at the north. In this study, we examined the structure of benthic communities around Taiwan, by comparing its assemblages in four regions, analyzing the effects of the latitudinal gradient, and highlighting regional characteristics. A total of 25 sites, 125 transects, and 2,625 photographs were used to analyze the benthic communities. Scleractinian corals present an obvious gradient of increasing diversity from north to south, whereas macro-algae diversity is higher on the north-eastern coast. At the country scale, Taiwanese coral communities were dominated by turf algae (49%). At the regional scale, we observed an important heterogeneity that may be caused by local disturbances and habitat degradation that smooths out regional differences. In this context, our observations highlight the importance of managing local stressors responsible for reef degradation. Overall, this study provides an important baseline upon which future changes in benthic assemblages around Taiwan can be assessed. PMID:27513665

  20. Radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain G.; Tomczyk, Steven; Ulrich, Roger K.; Woodard, Martin F.

    1988-01-01

    The frequency splittings of intermediate-degree (3 to 170 deg) p-mode oscillations obtained from a 16-day subset of observations were analyzed. Results show evidence for both radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity. From 0.6 to 0.95 solar radii, the solar internal angular velocity increases systematically from 440 to 463 nHz, corresponding to a positive radial gradient of 66 nHz/solar radius for that portion of the solar interior. Analysis also indicates that the latitudinal differential rotation gradient which is seen at the solar surface persists throughout the convection zone, although there are indications that the differential rotation might disappear entirely below the base of the convection zone. The analysis was extended to include comparisons with additional observational studies and between earlier results and the results of additional inversions of several of the observational datasets. All the comparisons reinforce conclusions regarding the existence of radial and latitudinal gradients in the internal angular velocity.

  1. Latitudinal gradients in ecosystem engineering by oysters vary across habitats.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Dominic; Cole, Victoria J; Bishop, Melanie J

    2016-04-01

    Ecological theory predicts that positive interactions among organisms will increase across gradients of increasing abiotic stress or consumer pressure. This theory has been supported by empirical studies examining the magnitude of ecosystem engineering across environmental gradients and between habitat settings at local scale. Predictions that habitat setting, by modifying both biotic and abiotic factors, will determine large-scale gradients in ecosystem engineering have not been tested, however. A combination of manipulative experiments and field surveys assessed whether along the east Australian coastline: (1) facilitation of invertebrates by the oyster Saccostrea glomerata increased across a latitudinal gradient in temperature; and (2) the magnitude of this effect varied between intertidal rocky shores and mangrove forests. It was expected that on rocky shores, where oysters are the primary ecosystem engineer, they would play a greater role in ameliorating latitudinal gradients in temperature than in mangroves, where they are a secondary ecosystem engineer living under the mangrove canopy. On rocky shores, the enhancement of invertebrate abundance in oysters as compared to bare microhabitat decreased with latitude, as the maximum temperatures experienced by intertidal organisms diminished. By contrast, in mangrove forests, where the mangrove canopy resulted in maximum temperatures that were cooler and of greater humidity than on rocky shores, we found no evidence of latitudinal gradients of oyster effects on invertebrate abundance. Contrary to predictions, the magnitude by which oysters enhanced biodiversity was in many instances similar between mangroves and rocky shores. Whether habitat-context modifies patterns of spatial variation in the effects of ecosystem engineers on community structure will depend, in part, on the extent to which the environmental amelioration provided by an ecosystem engineer replicates that of other co-occurring ecosystem engineers.

  2. The latitudinal gradient of the NO peak density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesen, C. G.; Rusch, D. W.; Gerard, J.-C.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from SME observations of the latitudinal gradients of peak NO densities at about 110-km altitude during the solstice and equinox periods from 1982 through 1985. It is shown that the response of the peak NO densities to the declining level of solar activity varies with latitude, with the polar regions exhibiting low sensitivity and the low-latitude regions responding strongly. The SME data also revealed marked asymmetries in the latitudinal structure of the two hemispheres for each season and considerable day-to-day variations in the NO densities. The solar cycle minimum data for June were simulated using a two-dimensional model; results of sensitivity studies performed with varied quenching rate and eddy diffusion coefficient are presented.

  3. Mid-Paleozoic latitudinal predation gradient: Distribution of brachiopod ornamentation reflects shifting Carboniferous climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, Gregory P.; Kelley, Patricia H.

    2001-02-01

    Shell ornamentation in modern oceans increases toward the tropics in conjunction with an equatorward increase in shell-breaking predation. Latitudinal gradients in antipredatory ornamentation were previously documented for Devonian brachiopods. We examined the latitudinal distribution of shell ornamentation in Tournaisian, Visean, and Namurian articulate brachiopods to test the hypothesis that the latitudinal gradient in antipredatory ornamentation was present in the Carboniferous. We found a statistically significant latitudinal ornamentation gradient, which was most pronounced in the Tournaisian, when the latitudinal temperature gradient was most steep. These results support the hypothesis that a latitudinal gradient in defensive morphology occurred as a result of the mid-Paleozoic increase in predation. Although the mid-Paleozoic and late Mesozoic intervals of predator-prey escalation may have differed in dynamics and intensity, both episodes produced adaptations in prey morphology that varied along a latitudinal gradient.

  4. Latitudinal gradients in marine diatom and coccolithophore diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Colleen; Vogt, Meike; Leblanc, Karine; Gruber, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    Latitudinal gradients in biodiversity have long been recognised in terrestrial ecosystems, with the highest diversity of many groups occurring in the tropics and declining towards the poles. For marine phytoplankton, a latitudinal gradient has been observed in dinoflagellates, and there seems to be some consensus that coccolithophore diversity also follows the typical pattern of highest diversity at low latitudes. Mixed results have so far been reported for marine diatoms. We use the new MAREDAT (Marine Ecosystem DATa) diatom and coccolithophore datasets to investigate global patterns in species diversity. This database contains global biomass and abundance observations for 10 plankton functional groups, including 91 704 samples of diatom abundance and biomass and 11 703 for coccolithophores. We find evidence for a poleward decline in species richness and diversity for both groups, with total observed species richness per 5 degree latitudinal band declining by approximately 75% between the equator and 60°. Mean station diversity is measured using both species richness and the Shannon diversity index. For the diatoms, species richness per station declines from a mean of 25 between 20°S and 20°N to values less than 10 for stations above 60°S and N. For the coccolithophores, the trend is less clear: mean station richness reaches a maximum of 22 between 10 and 15°N and shows a clear northward decline, with only one species per station reported north of 60°N. Mean coccolithophore richness per station is, however, relatively low at the equator, with highest richness per station in the Southern Hemisphere observed between 20 and 40°S. Highest richness and diversity of both groups is associated with low group-specific biomass and low total chlorophyll, with higher productivity regions typically dominated by one or few species.

  5. Temporal dynamics within a contemporary latitudinal diversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jonathan A D; Frank, Kenneth T; Petrie, Brian; Leggett, William C; Shackell, Nancy L

    2008-09-01

    Poleward declines in species diversity [latitudinal diversity gradients (LDG)] remain among the oldest and most widespread of macroecological patterns. However, their contemporary dynamics remain largely unexplored even though changing ecological conditions, including global change, may modify LDG and their respective ecosystems. Here, we examine temporal variation within a temperate Northwest Atlantic LDG using 31 years of annual fisheries-independent surveys and explore its dynamics in relation to a dominant climate signal [the wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)] that varies interannually and alters the latitudinal gradient of Northwest Atlantic continental shelf bottom water temperatures. We found that the slopes of the annual LDG vary dramatically due to changes in geographic distributions of 100+ species, variations that are concealed within the cumulative, static LDG. These changes are strongly associated with changes in NAO sign and strength. This is the first illustration of temporal dynamics in a contemporary LDG and the first demonstration of the speed at which local environmental variations can alter an LDG. Our findings underscore the need to investigate factors that modify LDG separately from those that contribute to their origins.

  6. Bimodality of Latitudinal Gradients in Marine Species Richness.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Chhaya; Saeedi, Hanieh; Costello, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    The paradigm for the latitudinal gradient in species richness is that it is unimodal with a tropical peak. For 27 published studies, and global datasets of 65 000 recent and 50 000 fossil marine species, we found that almost all datasets were significantly bimodal with a dip in species richness near the equator. The locations of mid-latitude peaks varied between taxa and were higher in the northern hemisphere where the continental shelf is greatest. Our findings support hypotheses of tropical species evolving in response to temperature variation near the edges of the tropics and available high-productivity habitat. They suggest that the equator may already be too hot for some species and that the modes may move further apart due to climate warming.

  7. Climate and Biological Controls of Carbon Fluxes along latitudinal gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Yuan, J.; Niu, S.

    2012-12-01

    It has not been carefully examined whether relative importance of climate and biological controls of carbon fluxes is similar among various ecosystem types along latitudinal gradients from the tropical to polar region. We hypothesize that except tropical regions, there is a consistent pattern of climate and biological controls of carbon fluxes across all the other ecosystems. We tested the hypothesis by analyzing data of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from nearly 200 eddy-flux towers distributed worldwide and simulated gross primary production (GPP) from the Australian Community Atmosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model. Specifically, we estimated yearly NEE (i.e., NEP), carbon uptake period (CUP) and seasonal maximum of NEE (NEE¬_max) from eddy-flux data. Similarly, we estimated CUP, GPP_max, seasonal maximum leaf area index (LAI_max), and Vcmax from the model across the globe. Our regression analysis indicates that NEP is very tightly correlated with the product of CUP and NEE_max cross all sites. Similarly, simulated GPP is highly correlated with the product of CUP and GPP_max over the globe in the CABLE model. CUP is related to phenology and represents climate control of carbon fluxes while NEE_max or GPP_max is determined by biological processes and thus represents biological control of carbon processes. We further analyzed relationships of GPP_max with LAI_max and Vcmax individually or in combination. GPP_max is highly correlated with them. This talk will present results of our analysis and explain our hypothesis test regarding relative importance of biological and climate controls of carbon fluxes along the latitudinal gradients.

  8. A Latitudinal Diversity Gradient in Terrestrial Bacteria of the Genus Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Doroghazi, James R.; Campbell, Ashley N.; Kelly, Peter J.; Choudoir, Mallory J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift. Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and both beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Hence, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift. PMID:27073097

  9. Southern hospitality: a latitudinal gradient in gene flow in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P; Eernisse, Douglas J

    2007-03-01

    In recent years population genetics and phylogeographic studies have become increasingly valuable tools for inferring both historical and present-day genetic patterns within marine species. Here, we take a comparative approach to population-level study, analyzing original mitochondrial DNA data from 969 individuals representing 28 chiton (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) species to uncover large-scale genetic patterns along the Pacific coast of North America. The data reveal a distinct latitudinal connectivity gradient among chitons: species that exist at lower latitudes tend to have more isolated populations. This trend appears to be a product of between-species differences; within species, no significant gradient in connectivity is observed. Lower average annual sea surface temperatures are hypothesized to contribute to longer larval duration (and by extension, greater connectivity) among lecithotrophic species, providing a mechanism for the observed positive correlation between gene flow and latitude. Because increased isolation among populations may lead to speciation, a latitudinal trend in gene flow may contribute to the increased species diversity observed at lower latitudes.

  10. A latitudinal diversity gradient in terrestrial bacteria of the genus Streptomyces

    DOE PAGES

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Doroghazi, James R.; Campbell, Ashley N.; ...

    2016-04-12

    We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift. Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and bothmore » beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Furthermore, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift.« less

  11. Latitudinal diversity gradients in Mesozoic non-marine turtles

    PubMed Central

    Holroyd, Patricia A.; Valdes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG)—the pattern of increasing taxonomic richness with decreasing latitude—is prevalent in the structure of the modern biota. However, some freshwater taxa show peak richness at mid-latitudes; for example, extant Testudines (turtles, terrapins and tortoises) exhibit their greatest diversity at 25° N, a pattern sometimes attributed to recent bursts of climatically mediated species diversification. Here, we test whether this pattern also characterizes the Mesozoic distribution of turtles, to determine whether it was established during either their initial diversification or as a more modern phenomenon. Using global occurrence data for non-marine testudinate genera, we find that subsampled richness peaks at palaeolatitudes of 15–30° N in the Jurassic, 30–45° N through the Cretaceous to the Campanian, and from 30° to 60° N in the Maastrichtian. The absence of a significant diversity peak in southern latitudes is consistent with results from climatic models and turtle niche modelling that demonstrate a dearth of suitable turtle habitat in Gondwana during the Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. Our analyses confirm that the modern testudinate LBG has a deep-time origin and further demonstrate that LBGs are not always expressed as a smooth, equator-to-pole distribution. PMID:28018649

  12. Mangrove pore water exchange across a latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Douglas R.; Maher, Damien T.; Macklin, Paul A.; Santos, Isaac R.

    2016-04-01

    We combined observations of the natural tracer radon (222Rn) with hydrodynamic models across a broad latitudinal gradient covering several climate zones to estimate pore water exchange rates in mangroves. Pore water exchange ranged from 2.1 to 35.5 cm d-1 from temperate to tropical regions and averaged 16.3 ± 5.1 cm d-1. If upscaled to the global weighted mangrove area, pore water exchange in mangroves would recirculate the entire volume of water overlying the continental shelf in less than 153 years. Although pore water exchange (recirculated seawater) and river discharge represent different pathways for water entering the coastal ocean, the estimated global mangrove pore water exchange would be equal to approximately one third of annual global river discharge to the ocean (3.84 × 1013 m3 yr-1). Because biogeochemical processes in mangroves are largely dependent on pore water exchange, these large exchange rates have major implications for coastal nutrient, carbon, and greenhouse gas cycling in tropical marine systems.

  13. Disease Ecology, Biodiversity, and the Latitudinal Gradient in Income

    PubMed Central

    Bonds, Matthew H.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Keenan, Donald C.

    2012-01-01

    While most of the world is thought to be on long-term economic growth paths, more than one-sixth of the world is roughly as poor today as their ancestors were hundreds of years ago. The majority of the extremely poor live in the tropics. The latitudinal gradient in income is highly suggestive of underlying biophysical drivers, of which disease conditions are an especially salient example. However, conclusions have been confounded by the simultaneous causality between income and disease, in addition to potentially spurious relationships. We use a simultaneous equations model to estimate the relative effects of vector-borne and parasitic diseases (VBPDs) and income on each other, controlling for other factors. Our statistical model indicates that VBPDs have systematically affected economic development, evident in contemporary levels of per capita income. The burden of VBDPs is, in turn, determined by underlying ecological conditions. In particular, the model predicts it to rise as biodiversity falls. Through these positive effects on human health, the model thus identifies measurable economic benefits of biodiversity. PMID:23300379

  14. Latitudinal diversity gradients in Mesozoic non-marine turtles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, David B.; Holroyd, Patricia A.; Valdes, Paul; Barrett, Paul M.

    2016-11-01

    The latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG)-the pattern of increasing taxonomic richness with decreasing latitude-is prevalent in the structure of the modern biota. However, some freshwater taxa show peak richness at mid-latitudes; for example, extant Testudines (turtles, terrapins and tortoises) exhibit their greatest diversity at 25° N, a pattern sometimes attributed to recent bursts of climatically mediated species diversification. Here, we test whether this pattern also characterizes the Mesozoic distribution of turtles, to determine whether it was established during either their initial diversification or as a more modern phenomenon. Using global occurrence data for non-marine testudinate genera, we find that subsampled richness peaks at palaeolatitudes of 15-30° N in the Jurassic, 30-45° N through the Cretaceous to the Campanian, and from 30° to 60° N in the Maastrichtian. The absence of a significant diversity peak in southern latitudes is consistent with results from climatic models and turtle niche modelling that demonstrate a dearth of suitable turtle habitat in Gondwana during the Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. Our analyses confirm that the modern testudinate LBG has a deep-time origin and further demonstrate that LBGs are not always expressed as a smooth, equator-to-pole distribution.

  15. Latitudinal diversity gradients in Mesozoic non-marine turtles.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, David B; Holroyd, Patricia A; Valdes, Paul; Barrett, Paul M

    2016-11-01

    The latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG)-the pattern of increasing taxonomic richness with decreasing latitude-is prevalent in the structure of the modern biota. However, some freshwater taxa show peak richness at mid-latitudes; for example, extant Testudines (turtles, terrapins and tortoises) exhibit their greatest diversity at 25° N, a pattern sometimes attributed to recent bursts of climatically mediated species diversification. Here, we test whether this pattern also characterizes the Mesozoic distribution of turtles, to determine whether it was established during either their initial diversification or as a more modern phenomenon. Using global occurrence data for non-marine testudinate genera, we find that subsampled richness peaks at palaeolatitudes of 15-30° N in the Jurassic, 30-45° N through the Cretaceous to the Campanian, and from 30° to 60° N in the Maastrichtian. The absence of a significant diversity peak in southern latitudes is consistent with results from climatic models and turtle niche modelling that demonstrate a dearth of suitable turtle habitat in Gondwana during the Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. Our analyses confirm that the modern testudinate LBG has a deep-time origin and further demonstrate that LBGs are not always expressed as a smooth, equator-to-pole distribution.

  16. A latitudinal diversity gradient in terrestrial bacteria of the genus Streptomyces

    SciTech Connect

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Doroghazi, James R.; Campbell, Ashley N.; Kelly, Peter J.; Choudoir, Mallory J.; Buckley, Daniel H.

    2016-04-12

    We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift. Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and both beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Furthermore, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift.

  17. Influence of the Latitudinal Temperature Gradient on Soil Dust Concentration and Deposition in Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegen, Ina; Rind, David

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the effects of changes in the latitudinal temperature gradient and the global mean temperature on dust concentration in the Northern Hemisphere, experiments with the GISS GCM (Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model) are performed. The dust concentration over Greenland is calculated from sources in central and eastern Asia, which are integrated on-line in the model. The results show that an increase in the latitudinal temperature gradient increases both the Asian dust source strength and the concentration over Greenland. The source increase is the result of increased surface winds, and to a minor extent, the increase in Greenland dust is also associated with increased northward transport. Cooling the climate in addition to this increased gradient leads to a decrease in precipitation scavenging, which helps produce a further (slight) increase in Greenland dust in this experiment. Reducing the latitudinal gradient reduces the surface wind and hence the dust source, with a subsequent reduction in Greenland dust concentrations. Warming the climate in addition to this reduced gradient leads to a further reduction in Greenland dust due to enhanced precipitation scavenging. These results can be used to evaluate the relationship of Greenland ice core temperature changes to changes in the latitudinal and global temperatures.

  18. Influence of the Latitudinal Temperature Gradient on Soil Dust Concentration and Deposition in Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegen, Ina; Rind, David

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the effects of changes in the latitudinal temperature gradient and the global mean temperature on dust concentration in the Northern Hemisphere, experiments with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model (GISS GCM) are performed. The dust concentration over Greenland is calculated from sources in central and eastern Asia, which are integrated on-line in the model. The results show that an increase in the latitudinal temperature gradient increases both the Asian dust source strength and the concentration over Greenland. The source increase is the result of increased surface winds, and to a minor extent, the increase in Greenland dust is also associated with increased northward transport. Cooling the climate in addition to this increased gradient leads to a decrease in precipitation scavenging, which helps produce a further (slight) increase in Greenland dust in this experiment. Reducing the latitudinal gradient reduces the surface wind and hence the dust source, with a subsequent reduction in Greenland dust concentrations. Warming the climate in addition to this reduced gradient leads to a further reduction in Greenland dust due to enhanced precipitation scavenging. These results can be used to evaluate the relationship of Greenland ice core temperature changes to changes in the latitudinal and global temperatures.

  19. Origination and Immigration Drive Latitudinal Gradients in Marine Functional Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Berke, Sarah K.; Jablonski, David; Krug, Andrew Z.; Valentine, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Global patterns in the functional attributes of organisms are critical to understanding biodiversity trends and predicting biotic responses to environmental change. In the first global marine analysis, we find a strong decrease in functional richness, but a strong increase in functional evenness, with increasing latitude using intertidal-to-outer-shelf bivalves as a model system (N = 5571 species). These patterns appear to be driven by the interplay between variation in origination rates among functional groups, and latitudinal patterns in origination and range expansion, as documented by the rich fossil record of the group. The data suggest that (i) accumulation of taxa in spatial bins and functional categories has not impeded continued diversification in the tropics, and (ii) extinctions will influence ecosystem function differentially across latitudes. PMID:25036112

  20. Unifying latitudinal gradients in range size and richness across marine and terrestrial systems

    PubMed Central

    Tomašových, Adam; Kennedy, Jonathan D.; Betzner, Tristan J.; Kuehnle, Nicole Bitler; Edie, Stewart; Kim, Sora; Supriya, K.; White, Alexander E.; Rahbek, Carsten; Huang, Shan; Price, Trevor D.; Jablonski, David

    2016-01-01

    Many marine and terrestrial clades show similar latitudinal gradients in species richness, but opposite gradients in range size—on land, ranges are the smallest in the tropics, whereas in the sea, ranges are the largest in the tropics. Therefore, richness gradients in marine and terrestrial systems do not arise from a shared latitudinal arrangement of species range sizes. Comparing terrestrial birds and marine bivalves, we find that gradients in range size are concordant at the level of genera. Here, both groups show a nested pattern in which narrow-ranging genera are confined to the tropics and broad-ranging genera extend across much of the gradient. We find that (i) genus range size and its variation with latitude is closely associated with per-genus species richness and (ii) broad-ranging genera contain more species both within and outside of the tropics when compared with tropical- or temperate-only genera. Within-genus species diversification thus promotes genus expansion to novel latitudes. Despite underlying differences in the species range-size gradients, species-rich genera are more likely to produce a descendant that extends its range relative to the ancestor's range. These results unify species richness gradients with those of genera, implying that birds and bivalves share similar latitudinal dynamics in net species diversification. PMID:27147094

  1. A Latitudinal Diversity Gradient in Terrestrial Bacteria of the Genus Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Andam, Cheryl P; Doroghazi, James R; Campbell, Ashley N; Kelly, Peter J; Choudoir, Mallory J; Buckley, Daniel H

    2016-04-12

    We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift.Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and both beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Hence, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift. Biogeographic patterns provide insight into the evolutionary and ecological processes that govern biodiversity. However, the evolutionary and ecological processes that govern terrestrial microbial

  2. A latitudinal gradient in tree growth response to climate warming in the Siberian taiga

    Treesearch

    Andrea H. Lloyd; Andrew G. Bunn; Logan. Berner

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the climate response of three Siberian taiga species, Larix cajanderi, Picea obovata, and Pinus sylvestris, across a latitudinal gradient in central Siberia. We hypothesized that warming is more frequently associated with increased growth for evergreen conifers (P. obovata and P....

  3. ESTIMATING THE EFFECTS OF SCALE ON LATITUDINAL DIVERSITY GRADIENTS IN COASTAL ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Garza, Corey. 2003. Estimating the Effects of Scale on Latitudinal Diversity Gradients in Coastal Estuaries (Abstract). Presented at the 84th Annual Meeting of the Western Society of Naturalists, 7-10 November 2003, Long Beach, CA. 1 p. (ERL,GB R967).

    In this study the ef...

  4. Plant species invasions along the latitudinal gradient in the United States: Reply

    Treesearch

    Curtis H. Flather; Thomas J. Stohlgren; Catherine Jarnevich; David Barnett; John Kartesz

    2006-01-01

    We welcome the opportunity to respond to the comments of our colleagues, Fridley et al. (2006), on our recent paper (Stohlgren et al. 2005) regarding plant species invasions along latitudinal gradients. We agree on many aspects of this important line of research. In fact, the two major findings that they report from their analysis of floras are consistent with our main...

  5. Soil organic nitrogen mineralization across a global latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. L.; Kielland, K.; Sinclair, F. L.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Newsham, K. K.; Farrar, J. F.; Murphy, D. V.

    2009-03-01

    Understanding and accurately predicting the fate of carbon and nitrogen in the terrestrial biosphere remains a central goal in ecosystem science. Amino acids represent a key pool of C and N in soil, and their availability to plants and microorganisms has been implicated as a major driver in regulating ecosystem functioning. Because of potential differences in biological diversity and litter quality, it has been thought that soils from different latitudes and plant communities may possess intrinsically different capacities to perform key functions such as the turnover of amino acids. In this study we measured the soil solution concentration and microbial mineralization of amino acids in soils collected from 40 latitudinal points from the Arctic through to Antarctica. Our results showed that soil solution amino acid concentrations were relatively similar between sites and not strongly related to latitude. In addition, when constraints of temperature and moisture were removed, we demonstrate that soils worldwide possess a similar innate capacity to rapidly mineralize amino acids. Similarly, we show that the internal partitioning of amino acid-C into catabolic and anabolic processes is conservative in microbial communities and independent of global position. This supports the view that the conversion of high molecular weight (MW) organic matter to low MW compounds is the rate limiting step in organic matter breakdown in most ecosystems.

  6. Latitudinal gradients of cosmic rays and the polarity reversal of the heliospheric magnetic field: A preliminary evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newkirk, G., Jr.; Lockwood, J. A.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Simpson, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Within the statistical limits imposed by the currently available data and the noise inherent in the determination of the latitudinal gradient, no evidence for the expected change in the latitudinal gradient from pre-1980 to post-1980 epochs can be found. In addition, the rigidity dependence of the gradient appears to be the same in the two epochs. Thus, no evidence is found for a sensitivity of the latitudinal gradient to the polarity of the largescale heliospheric magnetic field such as has been predicted by models incorporating particle drifts.

  7. Species richness and the analytic geometry of latitudinal and altitudinal gradients.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, Root

    2008-09-01

    Extensive empirical work has shown that species richness decreases roughly exponentially or quadratically with latitude. What appears to be a latitudinal gradient in fact may simply be a negative correlation of latitude with area at that latitude, due to convergence of lines of meridian at the poles. There is simply less area at high latitudes, which means fewer niches and fewer opportunities for speciation, hence diminished biodiversity at high latitudes. Similarly, analytic geometry of a cone shows that species number should decrease linearly with altitude on a conical mountain. Here, I provide an explicit mathematical model of the area hypothesis of species richness along latitude and altitude gradients. I re-analyze a previously published latitudinal gradient dataset and show that species number is a linear function of the predicted area and that species number is more fully explained by predicted area than by a quadratic function of latitude. However, analytic geometry is not needed if precise measures of area are known.

  8. Inferred calcification rate of a temperate azooxanthellate caryophylliid coral along a wide latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroselli, E.; Brambilla, V.; Ricci, F.; Mattioli, G.; Levy, O.; Falini, G.; Dubinsky, Z.; Goffredo, S.

    2016-09-01

    Correlations between environmental parameters (depth temperature and solar radiation) and growth parameters (bulk skeletal density, linear extension rate and net calcification rate) of the solitary azooxanthellate coral, Caryophyllia inornata, were investigated along an 8° latitudinal gradient on the western Italian coasts. Net calcification rate correlated positively with both bulk skeletal density and linear extension rate, showing that C. inornata allocates calcification resources evenly to thickening the skeleton and increasing linear growth. Overall, the three growth parameters did not follow gradients in the two environmental parameters, showing a different trend compared to most studies on zooxanthellate corals. However, the results are in agreement with the only previous analysis of an azooxanthellate coral, Leptopsammia pruvoti, studied along the same latitudinal gradient. In a comparison of the response to temperature of all Mediterranean species whose growth has been investigated to date, azooxanthellate corals were more tolerant to temperature increases than zooxanthellate corals.

  9. Neotropical birds show a humped distribution of within-population genetic diversity along a latitudinal transect.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew J; Bermingham, Eldredge; Klicka, John; Escalante, Patricia; Winker, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    The latitudinal gradient in species richness is a nearly universal ecological phenomenon. Similarly, conspecific genetic diversity often increases towards the equator - usually explained as the consequence of post-glacial range expansion or due to the shared response of genetic diversity to processes that promote species richness. However, no study has yet examined the relationship between latitude and within-population genetic diversity in exclusively tropical species. We surveyed genetic variation in nine resident bird species co-occurring in tropical lowlands between southern Mexico and western Ecuador, where avian species richness increases with decreasing latitude. Within-population genetic variation was always highest at mid-range latitudes, and not in the most equatorial populations. Differences in demography and gene flow across species' ranges may explain some of our observations; however, much of the pattern may be due simply to geometric constraints. Our findings have implications for conservation planning and for understanding how biodiversity scales from genes to communities.

  10. Latitudinal gradients in biotic niche breadth vary across ecosystem types.

    PubMed

    Cirtwill, Alyssa R; Stouffer, Daniel B; Romanuk, Tamara N

    2015-11-22

    Several properties of food webs-the networks of feeding links between species-are known to vary systematically with the species richness of the underlying community. Under the 'latitude-niche breadth hypothesis', which predicts that species in the tropics will tend to evolve narrower niches, one might expect that these scaling relationships could also be affected by latitude. To test this hypothesis, we analysed the scaling relationships between species richness and average generality, vulnerability and links per species across a set of 196 empirical food webs. In estuarine, marine and terrestrial food webs there was no effect of latitude on any scaling relationship, suggesting constant niche breadth in these habitats. In freshwater communities, on the other hand, there were strong effects of latitude on scaling relationships, supporting the latitude-niche breadth hypothesis. These contrasting findings indicate that it may be more important to account for habitat than latitude when exploring gradients in food-web structure.

  11. Loss of epiphytic diversity along a latitudinal gradient in southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Gregorio; Martínez, Isabel; García, Aroa

    2012-06-01

    Latitudinal gradients that involve macroclimatic changes can affect the diversity of several groups of plants and animals. Here we examined the effect of a latitudinal gradient on epiphytic communities on a single host species (Fagus sylvatica) to test the core-periphery theory. The latitudinal span considered, covering two biogeographic regions, is associated with major changes in rainfall during the dry season. Because bryophytes and lichens are poikilohydric, we hypothesized that their species richness and composition might vary at different latitudes. We also speculated how epiphytic communities may respond to future climate change. The present study was carried out in Spain, and three latitudes that cover the distributional range of F. sylvatica were selected. The presence/absence and coverage of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes were identified on 540 trees (180 in each zone). We found consistent south to north change in the total richness and in the richness of bryophytes and of lichens separately, all of which tend to increase at higher latitudes due to the presence of several hygrophytic species. Epiphytic composition also differed significantly among the three latitudes, and the similarity decreased when the latitudinal span was greater. In addition, high species turnover was driven by the increased rainfall at higher latitudes. We conclude that epiphytic communities have a similar pattern to the predictors of the core-periphery theory from populations, and they suffer a great impoverishment in species richness at lower latitudes, coincident with the southern boundary of the F. sylvatica distribution.

  12. Latitudinal Gradient in Otolith Shape among Local Populations of Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus L.) in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Libungan, Lísa Anne; Slotte, Aril; Husebø, Åse; Godiksen, Jane A.; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Otolith shape analysis of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in Norwegian waters shows significant differentiation among fjords and a latitudinal gradient along the coast where neighbouring populations are more similar to each other than to those sampled at larger distances. The otolith shape was obtained using quantitative shape analysis, the outlines were transformed with Wavelet and analysed with multivariate methods. The observed morphological differences are likely to reflect environmental differences but indicate low dispersal among the local herring populations. Otolith shape variation suggests also limited exchange between the local populations and their oceanic counterparts, which could be due to differences in spawning behaviour. Herring from the most northerly location (69°N) in Balsfjord, which is genetically more similar to Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), differed in otolith shape from all the other populations. Our results suggest that the semi-enclosed systems, where the local populations live and breed, are efficient barriers for dispersal. Otolith shape can thus serve as a marker to identify the origin of herring along the coast of Norway. PMID:26101885

  13. Latitudinal Gradient in Otolith Shape among Local Populations of Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus L.) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Libungan, Lísa Anne; Slotte, Aril; Husebø, Åse; Godiksen, Jane A; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Otolith shape analysis of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in Norwegian waters shows significant differentiation among fjords and a latitudinal gradient along the coast where neighbouring populations are more similar to each other than to those sampled at larger distances. The otolith shape was obtained using quantitative shape analysis, the outlines were transformed with Wavelet and analysed with multivariate methods. The observed morphological differences are likely to reflect environmental differences but indicate low dispersal among the local herring populations. Otolith shape variation suggests also limited exchange between the local populations and their oceanic counterparts, which could be due to differences in spawning behaviour. Herring from the most northerly location (69°N) in Balsfjord, which is genetically more similar to Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), differed in otolith shape from all the other populations. Our results suggest that the semi-enclosed systems, where the local populations live and breed, are efficient barriers for dispersal. Otolith shape can thus serve as a marker to identify the origin of herring along the coast of Norway.

  14. Range-wide latitudinal and elevational temperature gradients for the world's terrestrial birds: implications under global climate change.

    PubMed

    La Sorte, Frank A; Butchart, Stuart H M; Jetz, Walter; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface temperature gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding ranges of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in temperature along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these temperature gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (range size, shape, and orientation) and projected changes in temperature under climate change. Elevational temperature gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal temperature gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in temperature. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational temperature gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' ranges, how and why these gradients vary among species, and the capacity

  15. Range-Wide Latitudinal and Elevational Temperature Gradients for the World's Terrestrial Birds: Implications under Global Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    La Sorte, Frank A.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Jetz, Walter; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface temperature gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding ranges of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in temperature along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these temperature gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (range size, shape, and orientation) and projected changes in temperature under climate change. Elevational temperature gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal temperature gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in temperature. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational temperature gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' ranges, how and why these gradients vary among species, and the capacity

  16. Phylogenetic niche conservatism explains an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in freshwater arthropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morinière, Jérôme; van Dam, Matthew H.; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Bergsten, Johannes; Michat, Mariano C.; Hendrich, Lars; Ribera, Ignacio; Toussaint, Emmanuel F. A.; Balke, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the general increase in species richness from temperate regions to the tropics remain equivocal. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this astonishing pattern but additional empirical studies are needed to shed light on the drivers at work. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the cosmopolitan diving beetle subfamily Colymbetinae, the majority of which are found in the Northern hemisphere, hence exhibiting an inversed latitudinal diversity gradient. We reconstructed a dated phylogeny using 12 genes, to investigate the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics in the Colymbetinae. We aimed to identify the role that phylogenetic niche conservatism plays in the inversed diversification pattern seen in this group. Our results suggest that Colymbetinae originated in temperate climates, which supports the hypothesis that their distribution is the result of an ancestral adaptation to temperate environmental conditions rather than tropical origins, and that temperate niche conservatism can generate and/or maintain inverse latitudinal diversity gradients.

  17. Phylogenetic niche conservatism explains an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in freshwater arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Morinière, Jérôme; Van Dam, Matthew H.; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Bergsten, Johannes; Michat, Mariano C.; Hendrich, Lars; Ribera, Ignacio; Toussaint, Emmanuel F.A.; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the general increase in species richness from temperate regions to the tropics remain equivocal. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this astonishing pattern but additional empirical studies are needed to shed light on the drivers at work. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the cosmopolitan diving beetle subfamily Colymbetinae, the majority of which are found in the Northern hemisphere, hence exhibiting an inversed latitudinal diversity gradient. We reconstructed a dated phylogeny using 12 genes, to investigate the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics in the Colymbetinae. We aimed to identify the role that phylogenetic niche conservatism plays in the inversed diversification pattern seen in this group. Our results suggest that Colymbetinae originated in temperate climates, which supports the hypothesis that their distribution is the result of an ancestral adaptation to temperate environmental conditions rather than tropical origins, and that temperate niche conservatism can generate and/or maintain inverse latitudinal diversity gradients. PMID:27215956

  18. Determination of galactic cosmic ray latitudinal gradient using Earth based detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    BADRUDDIN; Yadav, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Using cosmic ray intensity data from the Deep River Neutron monitor and the relation between solar wind velocity and heliomagnetic latitude, an attempt is made to evaluate quantitatively the latitudinal gradient of cosmic ray intensity during the periods dominated by a two sector pattern. Assuming a constant orientation of the heliospheric current sheet on a time scale of the order of a year, a relationship is determined between cosmic ray intensity and heliomagnetic latitude.

  19. Distribution of dominant zooplankton species along a latitudinal gradient in China sea during spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiayi; Xu, Zhaoli; Gao, Qian

    2016-06-01

    Dominant species of zooplankton community vary with latitude. Though China possesses a vast coastal area in northwestern Pacific, studies on the latitudinal dominant species gradient are rare. We collected zooplankton samples from Haizhou Bay (34.56°-35.19°N, 119.51°-120.30°E), Yueqing Bay (28.14°-28.38°N, 121.10°-121.21°E) and Dongshan Bay (23.65°-23.90°N, 117.45°-117.60°E) in May 2012 and May 2013 to preliminarily characterize the latitudinal dominant species distribution. All the samples were collected vertically using a 0.505 mm mesh plankton net with 0.8 m in mouth diameter from bottom to surface. Calanus sinicus, Aidanosagitta crassa, Labidocera euchaeta, Zonosagitta nagae, Acartia pacifica and Paracalanus parvus were found to be dominant. C. sinicus was the most dominant species and the unique one occurred in all three bays. With latitude decreasing, both the abundance and proportion of C. sinicus declined sharply. Cluster analysis showed that the 6 dominant species could be divided into 3 groups, based on their occurrences in the three bays. Our results suggested that the distribution of dominant species along the coast of China has a significant latitudinal gradient. C. sinicus which widely distributes in the coastal water of the northwestern Pacific can well adapt to the temperature at different latitudes. The high abundance in Haizhou Bay indicated that C. sinicus was an exemplary warm-temperate species, and more commonly occurs in the north of China seas. The ecological characteristics of dominant species change from warm-temperate type in high-latitudinal bays to warm water type in low-latitudinal bays.

  20. Can Rapoport's rule be rescued? Modeling causes of the latitudinal gradient in species richness

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.H.; Gaines, S.D.

    1999-12-01

    The latitudinal gradient in species richness, wherein species richness peaks near the equator and declines toward the poles, is a widely recognized phenomenon that holds true for many taxa in all habitat types. Understanding the causative mechanism of mechanisms that generate the latitudinal gradient in species richness (LGSR) has been a major challenge, and the gradient remains unexplained. A different latitudinal trend (named Rapoport's rule), in which the mean size of species geographical ranges tends to decline toward the equator, has been hypothesized by G.C. Stevens to play a key role in generating the LGSR when coupled with a version of the rescue effect, in which local populations toward the fringes of geographical ranges are sustained by immigration. The Stevens hypothesis is now commonly cited as a potential explanation for the LGSR and has provoked numerous empirical studies in macroecology and biogeography. However, important aspects of the hypothesis are not obvious in Steven's verbal model and may go unrecognized, despite their major implications for empirical work related to large-scale ecological and evolutionary processes. Here the authors present mathematical simulation models that test the logical structure of the Stevens hypothesis, examine effects on global patterns of species richness produced by the mechanisms (Rapoport's rule and the rescue effect) explicitly identified by Stevens, and investigate the additional effect of competition.

  1. BVOC emissions from English oak (Quercus robur) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) along a latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    intensities and the potential stability in relative compound contribution across a latitudinal gradient.

  2. Environmental plasticity of Pinot noir grapevine leaves; a trans-European study of morphological and biochemical changes along a 1500 km latitudinal climatic gradient.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Antonella; Csepregi, Kristóf; Neugart, Susanne; Zipoli, Gaetano; Večeřová, Kristýna; Jakab, Gábor; Jug, Tjaša; Llorens, Laura; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Martínez-Lüscher, Johann; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación; Ranieri, Annamaria; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Schreiner, Monika; Teszlák, Péter; Tittmann, Susanne; Urban, Otmar; Verdaguer, Dolors; Jansen, Marcel A K; Hideg, Éva

    2017-08-09

    A two-year study explored metabolic and phenotypic plasticity of sun acclimated Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir leaves collected from twelve locations across a 36.69(o) N - 49.98(o) N latitudinal gradient. Leaf morphological and biochemical parameters were analysed in the context of meteorological parameters and the latitudinal gradient. We found that leaf fresh weight and area were negatively correlated with both global and UV radiation; cumulated global radiation being a stronger correlator. Cumulative UV radiation (sumUVR) was the strongest correlator with most leaf metabolites and pigments. Leaf UV absorbing pigments, total antioxidant capacities and phenolic compounds increased with increasing sumUVR, while total carotenoids and xanthophylls decreased. Despite of this re-allocation of metabolic resources from carotenoids to phenolics, an increase in xanthophyll cycle pigments (VAZ) with increasing sumUVR indicates active, dynamic protection for the photosynthetic apparatus. In addition, increased amounts of flavonoids (quercetin-glycosides) and constitutive β-carotene and α-tocopherol pools provide antioxidant protection against ROS. However, rather than a continuum of plant acclimation responses, principal component analysis indicates clusters of metabolic states across the explored 1500 km long latitudinal gradient. This study emphasises the physiological component of plant responses to latitudinal gradients, and reveals the physiological plasticity that may act to complement genetic adaptations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecosystem-Wide Morphological Structure of Leaf-Litter Ant Communities along a Tropical Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rogério R.; Brandão, Carlos Roberto F.

    2014-01-01

    General principles that shape community structure can be described based on a functional trait approach grounded on predictive models; increased attention has been paid to factors accounting for the functional diversity of species assemblages and its association with species richness along environmental gradients. We analyze here the interaction between leaf-litter ant species richness, the local communities' morphological structure and fundamental niche within the context of a northeast-southeast latitudinal gradient in one of the world's most species-rich ecosystems, the Atlantic Forest, representing 2,700 km of tropical rainforest along almost 20o of latitude in eastern Brazil. Our results are consistent with an ecosystem-wide pattern in communities' structure, with relatively high species turnover but functionally analogous leaf-litter ant communities' organization. Our results suggest directional shifts in the morphological space along the environmental gradient from overdispersed to aggregated (from North to South), suggesting that primary productivity and environmental heterogeneity (altitude, temperature and precipitation in the case) determine the distribution of traits and regulate the assembly rules, shaping local leaf-litter ant communities. Contrary to the expected and most common pattern along latitudinal gradients, the Atlantic Forest leaf litter ant communities show an inverse pattern in richness, that is, richer communities in higher than in lower latitudes. The morphological specialization of communities showed more morphologically distinct communities at low latitudes and species redundancy at high latitudes. We claim that an inverse latitudinal gradient in primary productivity and environmental heterogeneity across the Atlantic forest may affect morphological diversity and species richness, enhancing species coexistence mechanisms, and producing thus the observed patterns. We suggest that a functional framework based on flexible enough traits

  4. Defense pattern of Chinese cork oak across latitudinal gradients: influences of ontogeny, herbivory, climate and soil nutrients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Jian-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qiang; Deng, Yun-Peng; Ni, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Kang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Qi; Lei, Jing-Pin; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of latitudinal patterns in plant defense and herbivory is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. Using a widely distributed species in East Asia, Quercus variabilis, we aim to reveal defense patterns of trees with respect to ontogeny along latitudinal gradients. Six leaf chemical (total phenolics and total condensed tannin concentrations) and physical (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and dry mass concentration) defensive traits as well as leaf herbivory (% leaf area loss) were investigated in natural Chinese cork oak (Q. variabilis) forests across two ontogenetic stages (juvenile and mature trees) along a ~14°-latitudinal gradient. Our results showed that juveniles had higher herbivory values and a higher concentration of leaf chemical defense substances compared with mature trees across the latitudinal gradient. In addition, chemical defense and herbivory in both ontogenetic stages decreased with increasing latitude, which supports the latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis and optimal defense theory. The identified trade-offs between chemical and physical defense were primarily determined by environmental variation associated with the latitudinal gradient, with the climatic factors (annual precipitation, minimum temperature of the coldest month) largely contributing to the latitudinal defense pattern in both juvenile and mature oak trees. PMID:27252112

  5. Defense pattern of Chinese cork oak across latitudinal gradients: influences of ontogeny, herbivory, climate and soil nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Jian-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qiang; Deng, Yun-Peng; Ni, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Kang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Qi; Lei, Jing-Pin; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of latitudinal patterns in plant defense and herbivory is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. Using a widely distributed species in East Asia, Quercus variabilis, we aim to reveal defense patterns of trees with respect to ontogeny along latitudinal gradients. Six leaf chemical (total phenolics and total condensed tannin concentrations) and physical (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and dry mass concentration) defensive traits as well as leaf herbivory (% leaf area loss) were investigated in natural Chinese cork oak (Q. variabilis) forests across two ontogenetic stages (juvenile and mature trees) along a ~14°-latitudinal gradient. Our results showed that juveniles had higher herbivory values and a higher concentration of leaf chemical defense substances compared with mature trees across the latitudinal gradient. In addition, chemical defense and herbivory in both ontogenetic stages decreased with increasing latitude, which supports the latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis and optimal defense theory. The identified trade-offs between chemical and physical defense were primarily determined by environmental variation associated with the latitudinal gradient, with the climatic factors (annual precipitation, minimum temperature of the coldest month) largely contributing to the latitudinal defense pattern in both juvenile and mature oak trees.

  6. Defense pattern of Chinese cork oak across latitudinal gradients: influences of ontogeny, herbivory, climate and soil nutrients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Jian-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qiang; Deng, Yun-Peng; Ni, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Kang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Qi; Lei, Jing-Pin; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-06-02

    Knowledge of latitudinal patterns in plant defense and herbivory is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. Using a widely distributed species in East Asia, Quercus variabilis, we aim to reveal defense patterns of trees with respect to ontogeny along latitudinal gradients. Six leaf chemical (total phenolics and total condensed tannin concentrations) and physical (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and dry mass concentration) defensive traits as well as leaf herbivory (% leaf area loss) were investigated in natural Chinese cork oak (Q. variabilis) forests across two ontogenetic stages (juvenile and mature trees) along a ~14°-latitudinal gradient. Our results showed that juveniles had higher herbivory values and a higher concentration of leaf chemical defense substances compared with mature trees across the latitudinal gradient. In addition, chemical defense and herbivory in both ontogenetic stages decreased with increasing latitude, which supports the latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis and optimal defense theory. The identified trade-offs between chemical and physical defense were primarily determined by environmental variation associated with the latitudinal gradient, with the climatic factors (annual precipitation, minimum temperature of the coldest month) largely contributing to the latitudinal defense pattern in both juvenile and mature oak trees.

  7. Latitudinal and field-aligned cosmic ray gradients 2 to 5 AU Voyagers 1 and 2 and IMP 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelof, E. C.; Decker, R. B.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented showing that the contemporary picture of a relatively small heliocentric radial gradient is generally correct. They emphasize that such a gradient should really be thought of in terms of field-aligned structures since the cosmic ray populations tend to 'corotate' locally with the interplanetary field structure. Nonuniform latitudinal gradients of approximately 2 to 5 percent/deg in structures lasting 10 to 30 days are identified unambiguously. Additional evidence is seen for somewhat smaller latitudinal gradients often north to south and probably mixed with small field-aligned gradients of less than 1 percent/AU that persist for several solar rotations. It is suggested that these smallest ephemeral latitudinal gradients manifest themselves by affecting the degree of irregularity in diurnal variations of high latitude neutron monitors.

  8. An evaluation of the latitudinal gradient of chlorophyll in the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W.; Broughton, J.; Kudela, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Tracking of spatial and temporal trends in phytoplankton abundance and distribution is an important step toward understanding large-scale macroecological processes in the ocean. Measurements of ocean radiance from satellite-borne sensors, such as SeaWiFS and MODIS, can be used to estimate surface chlorophyll concentration, which is a good indicator of phytoplankton biomass. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the latitudinal gradient in chlorophyll concentration within the California Current first reported by Ware and Thomson (2005). They found that average chlorophyll concentration tended to increase steadily from 32-48°N latitude. This concentration gradient was reevaluated using a longer dataset and an algorithm refined for the region. Radiance data from the MODIS-Aqua instrument were obtained for every year from 2002 through 2013. Data included annual averages of remote sensing radiance as well as monthly averages for February, April, and August. These months were chosen to represent each of the three oceanographic seasons present in the California Current. Estimates of chlorophyll concentration were derived from these data using the CALFIT algorithm developed by Kahru et al. (2012). The resulting maps of chlorophyll concentration were processed in MATLAB and linear regressions were performed using SYSTAT 13 software. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) latitudinal trend in chlorophyll was observed in the annual averaged data as well as in the averaged seasonal data from February and August. No significant trend was observed in the averaged April data. Chlorophyll concentration was positively correlated with latitude in every instance, except in April 2003 and April 2005, where a negative correlation was observed. The positive latitudinal trend was strongest during August and weakest during April. Strong peaks in chlorophyll were observed near San Francisco Bay and the mouth of the Columbia River, suggesting that river-borne nutrient input may be

  9. UV responses of Lolium perenne raised along a latitudinal gradient across Europe: a filtration study.

    PubMed

    Comont, David; Martinez Abaigar, Javier; Albert, Andreas; Aphalo, Pedro; Causton, David R; Figueroa, Félix López; Gaberscik, Alenka; Llorens, Laura; Hauser, Marie-Theres; Jansen, Marcel A K; Kardefelt, Majlis; de la Coba Luque, Paqui; Neubert, Susanne; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación; Olsen, Jorunn; Robson, Matthew; Schreiner, Monika; Sommaruga, Ruben; Strid, Ake; Torre, Sissel; Turunen, Minna; Veljovic-Jovanovic, Sonja; Verdaguer, Dolors; Vidovic, Marija; Wagner, Johanna; Winkler, Jana Barbro; Zipoli, Gaetano; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan

    2012-08-01

    Lolium perenne (cv. AberDart) was grown at 14 locations along a latitudinal gradient across Europe (37-68°N) to study the impact of ultraviolet radiation (UV) and climate on aboveground growth and foliar UV-B absorbing compounds. At each location, plants were grown outdoors for 5 weeks in a replicated UV-B filtration experiment consisting of open, UV-B transparent (cellulose diacetate) and UV-B opaque (polyester) environments. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy was used to compare plant metabolite profiles in relation to treatment and location. UV radiation and climatic parameters were determined for each location from online sources and the data were assessed using a combination of anova and multiple regression analyses. Most of the variation in growth between the locations was attributable to the combination of climatic parameters, with minimum temperature identified as an important growth constraint. However, no single environmental parameter could consistently account for the variability in plant growth. Concentrations of foliar UV-B absorbing compounds showed a positive trend with solar UV across the latitudinal gradient; however, this relationship was not consistent in all treatments. The most striking experimental outcome from this study was the effect of presence or absence of filtration frames on UV-absorbing compounds. Overall, the study demonstrates the value of an European approach in studying the impacts of natural UV across a large latitudinal gradient. We have shown the feasibility of coordinated UV filtration at multiple sites but have also highlighted the need for open controls and careful interpretation of plant responses. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  10. On the processes generating latitudinal richness gradients: identifying diagnostic patterns and predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbert, Allen H.; Stegen, James C.

    2014-12-02

    Many processes have been put forward to explain the latitudinal gradient in species richness. Here, we use a simulation model to examine four of the most common hypotheses and identify patterns that might be diagnostic of those four hypotheses. The hypotheses examined include (1) tropical niche conservatism, or the idea that the tropics are more diverse because a tropical clade origin has allowed more time for diversification in the tropics and has resulted in few species adapted to extra-tropical climates. (2) The productivity, or energetic constraints, hypothesis suggests that species richness is limited by the amount of biologically available energy in a region. (3) The tropical stability hypothesis argues that major climatic fluctuations and glacial cycles in extratropical regions have led to greater extinction rates and less opportunity for specialization relative to the tropics. (4) Finally, the speciation rates hypothesis suggests that the latitudinal richness gradient arises from a parallel gradient in rates of speciation. We found that tropical niche conservatism can be distinguished from the other three scenarios by phylogenies which are more balanced than expected, no relationship between mean root distance and richness across regions, and a homogeneous rate of speciation across clades and through time. The energy gradient, speciation gradient, and disturbance gradient scenarios all exhibited phylogenies which were more imbalanced than expected, showed a negative relationship between mean root distance and richness, and diversity-dependence of speciation rate estimates through time. Using Bayesian Analysis of Macroevolutionary Mixtures on the simulated phylogenies, we found that the relationship between speciation rates and latitude could distinguish among these three scenarios. We emphasize the importance of considering multiple hypotheses and focusing on diagnostic predictions instead of predictions that are consistent with more than one hypothesis.

  11. Soil bacterial endemism and potential functional redundancy in natural broadleaf forest along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Deng, Ye; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycling, however, the relationship between soil microbial taxa diversity and their function in natural ecosystems is largely unknown. To determine how soil bacteria community and function are linked from the local to regional scale, we studied soil bacteria community composition, potential function and environmental conditions in natural and mature broadleaf forests along a latitudinal gradient in China, using the Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and GeoChip technologies. The results showed strong biogeographic endemism pattern in soil bacteria were existed, and the spatial distance and climatic variables were the key controlling factors for this pattern. Therefore, dispersal limitation and environmental selection may represent two key processes in generating and maintaining the soil bacterial biogeographic pattern. By contrast, the soil bacterial potential function is highly convergent along the latitudinal gradient and there were highly differing bacterial community compositions, and the soil chemistry may include the main factors active in shaping the soil bacterial potential function. Therefore, the soil bacterial potential function may be affected by local gradients in resource availability, and predicting soil bacterial potential function requires knowledge of abiotic and biotic environmental factors. PMID:27357005

  12. Clonality-climate relationships along latitudinal gradient across China: adaptation of clonality to environments.

    PubMed

    Ye, Duo; Hu, Yukun; Song, Minghua; Pan, Xu; Xie, Xiufang; Liu, Guofang; Ye, Xuehua; Dong, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Plant clonality, the ability of a plant species to reproduce itself vegetatively through ramets (shoot-root units), occurs in many plant species and is considered to be more frequent in cold or wet environments. However, a deeper understanding on the clonality-climate relationships along large geographic gradients is still scarce. In this study we revealed the clonality-climate relationships along latitudinal gradient of entire China spanning from tropics to temperate zones using clonality data for 4015 vascular plant species in 545 terrestrial communities. Structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that, in general, the preponderance of clonality increased along the latitudinal gradient towards cold, dry or very wet environments. However, the distribution of clonality in China was significantly but only weakly correlated with latitude and four climatic factors (mean annual temperature, temperature seasonality, mean annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality). Clonality of woody and herbaceous species had opposite responses to climatic variables. More precisely, woody clonality showed higher frequency in wet or climatically stable environments, while herbaceous clonality preferred cold, dry or climatically instable environments. Unexplained variation in clonality may be owed to the influences of other environmental conditions and to different clonal strategies and underlying traits adopted by different growth forms and phylogenetic lineages. Therefore, in-depth research in terms of more detailed clonal growth form, phylogeny and additional environmental variables are encouraged to further understand plant clonality response to climatic and/or edaphic conditions.

  13. Soil bacterial endemism and potential functional redundancy in natural broadleaf forest along a latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Deng, Ye; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycling, however, the relationship between soil microbial taxa diversity and their function in natural ecosystems is largely unknown. To determine how soil bacteria community and function are linked from the local to regional scale, we studied soil bacteria community composition, potential function and environmental conditions in natural and mature broadleaf forests along a latitudinal gradient in China, using the Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and GeoChip technologies. The results showed strong biogeographic endemism pattern in soil bacteria were existed, and the spatial distance and climatic variables were the key controlling factors for this pattern. Therefore, dispersal limitation and environmental selection may represent two key processes in generating and maintaining the soil bacterial biogeographic pattern. By contrast, the soil bacterial potential function is highly convergent along the latitudinal gradient and there were highly differing bacterial community compositions, and the soil chemistry may include the main factors active in shaping the soil bacterial potential function. Therefore, the soil bacterial potential function may be affected by local gradients in resource availability, and predicting soil bacterial potential function requires knowledge of abiotic and biotic environmental factors.

  14. Assessment of tannin variation in Tamarisk foliage across a latitudinal gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hussey, A.M.; Kimball, B.A.; Friedman, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Certain phenotypic traits of plants vary with latitude of origin. To understand if tannin concentration varies among populations of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) according to a latitudinal gradient, an analytical method was adapted from an enological tannin assay. The tannin content (wet basis) of tamarisk foliage collected from 160 plants grown in a common garden ranged from 8.26 to 62.36 mg/g and was not correlated with the latitude of the original North American plant collection site. Tannins do not contribute to observed differences in herbivory observed among these tamarisk populations.

  15. Temporal coexistence mechanisms contribute to the latitudinal gradient in forest diversity.

    PubMed

    Usinowicz, Jacob; Chang-Yang, Chia-Hao; Chen, Yu-Yun; Clark, James S; Fletcher, Christine; Garwood, Nancy C; Hao, Zhanqing; Johnstone, Jill; Lin, Yiching; Metz, Margaret R; Masaki, Takashi; Nakashizuka, Tohru; Sun, I-Fang; Valencia, Renato; Wang, Yunyun; Zimmerman, Jess K; Ives, Anthony R; Wright, S Joseph

    2017-10-05

    The tropical forests of Borneo and Amazonia may each contain more tree species diversity in half a square kilometre than do all the temperate forests of Europe, North America, and Asia combined. Biologists have long been fascinated by this disparity, using it to investigate potential drivers of biodiversity. Latitudinal variation in many of these drivers is expected to create geographic differences in ecological and evolutionary processes, and evidence increasingly shows that tropical ecosystems have higher rates of diversification, clade origination, and clade dispersal. However, there is currently no evidence to link gradients in ecological processes within communities at a local scale directly to the geographic gradient in biodiversity. Here, we show geographic variation in the storage effect, an ecological mechanism that reduces the potential for competitive exclusion more strongly in the tropics than it does in temperate and boreal zones, decreasing the ratio of interspecific-to-intraspecific competition by 0.25% for each degree of latitude that an ecosystem is located closer to the Equator. Additionally, we find evidence that latitudinal variation in climate underpins these differences; longer growing seasons in the tropics reduce constraints on the seasonal timing of reproduction, permitting lower recruitment synchrony between species and thereby enhancing niche partitioning through the storage effect. Our results demonstrate that the strength of the storage effect, and therefore its impact on diversity within communities, varies latitudinally in association with climate. This finding highlights the importance of biotic interactions in shaping geographic diversity patterns, and emphasizes the need to understand the mechanisms underpinning ecological processes in greater detail than has previously been appreciated.

  16. Faster Speciation and Reduced Extinction in the Tropics Contribute to the Mammalian Latitudinal Diversity Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Jonathan; Condamine, Fabien L.; Jiguet, Frederic; Morlon, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The increase in species richness from the poles to the tropics, referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient, is one of the most ubiquitous biodiversity patterns in the natural world. Although understanding how rates of speciation and extinction vary with latitude is central to explaining this pattern, such analyses have been impeded by the difficulty of estimating diversification rates associated with specific geographic locations. Here, we use a powerful phylogenetic approach and a nearly complete phylogeny of mammals to estimate speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates associated with the tropical and temperate biomes. Overall, speciation rates are higher, and extinction rates lower, in the tropics than in temperate regions. The diversity of the eight most species-rich mammalian orders (covering 92% of all mammals) peaks in the tropics, except that of the Lagomorpha (hares, rabbits, and pikas) reaching a maxima in northern-temperate regions. Latitudinal patterns in diversification rates are strikingly consistent with these diversity patterns, with peaks in species richness associated with low extinction rates (Primates and Lagomorpha), high speciation rates (Diprotodontia, Artiodactyla, and Soricomorpha), or both (Chiroptera and Rodentia). Rates of range expansion were typically higher from the tropics to the temperate regions than in the other direction, supporting the “out of the tropics” hypothesis whereby species originate in the tropics and disperse into higher latitudes. Overall, these results suggest that differences in diversification rates have played a major role in shaping the modern latitudinal diversity gradient in mammals, and illustrate the usefulness of recently developed phylogenetic approaches for understanding this famous yet mysterious pattern. PMID:24492316

  17. Faster speciation and reduced extinction in the tropics contribute to the Mammalian latitudinal diversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Jonathan; Condamine, Fabien L; Jiguet, Frederic; Morlon, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The increase in species richness from the poles to the tropics, referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient, is one of the most ubiquitous biodiversity patterns in the natural world. Although understanding how rates of speciation and extinction vary with latitude is central to explaining this pattern, such analyses have been impeded by the difficulty of estimating diversification rates associated with specific geographic locations. Here, we use a powerful phylogenetic approach and a nearly complete phylogeny of mammals to estimate speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates associated with the tropical and temperate biomes. Overall, speciation rates are higher, and extinction rates lower, in the tropics than in temperate regions. The diversity of the eight most species-rich mammalian orders (covering 92% of all mammals) peaks in the tropics, except that of the Lagomorpha (hares, rabbits, and pikas) reaching a maxima in northern-temperate regions. Latitudinal patterns in diversification rates are strikingly consistent with these diversity patterns, with peaks in species richness associated with low extinction rates (Primates and Lagomorpha), high speciation rates (Diprotodontia, Artiodactyla, and Soricomorpha), or both (Chiroptera and Rodentia). Rates of range expansion were typically higher from the tropics to the temperate regions than in the other direction, supporting the "out of the tropics" hypothesis whereby species originate in the tropics and disperse into higher latitudes. Overall, these results suggest that differences in diversification rates have played a major role in shaping the modern latitudinal diversity gradient in mammals, and illustrate the usefulness of recently developed phylogenetic approaches for understanding this famous yet mysterious pattern.

  18. Mississippian coral latitudinal diversity gradients (western interior United States): Testing the limits of high resolution diversity data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, G.E.; Sando, W.J.; Raymond, A.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of high resolution diversity data for Mississippian corals in the western interior United States yielded mild latitudinal diversity gradients despite the small geographic area covered by samples and a large influence on diversity patterns by geographic sampling intensity (sample bias). Three competing plate tectonic reconstructions were tested using the diversity patterns. Although none could be forcefully rejected, one reconstruction proved less consistent with diversity patterns than the other two and additional coral diversity data from farther north in Canada would better discriminate the two equivalent reconstructions. Despite the relatively high sampling intensity represented by the analyzed database, diversity patterns were greatly affected by sample abundance and distribution. Hence, some effort at recognizing and accounting for sample bias should be undertaken in any study of latitudinal diversity gradients. Small-scale geographic lumping of sample localities had only small effects on geographic diversity patterns. However, large-scale (e.g., regional) geographic lumping of diversity data may not yield latitudinally sensitive diversity patterns. Temporal changes in coral diversity in this region reflect changes in eustacy, local tectonism, and terrigenous sediment flux, far more than they do shifting latitude. Highest regional diversity occurred during the interval when the studied region occupied the highest latitude. Therefore, diversity data from different regions may not be comparable, in terms of latitudinal inference. Small-scale stratigraphic lumping of the data caused a nearly complete loss of the latitudinal diversity patterns apparent prior to lumping. Hence, the narrowest possible stratigraphic resolution should be maintained in analyzing latitudinal diversity gradients.

  19. Diversity and Distribution of Freshwater Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria across a Wide Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Ferrera, Isabel; Sarmento, Hugo; Priscu, John C.; Chiuchiolo, Amy; González, José M.; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) have been shown to exist in numerous marine and brackish environments where they are hypothesized to play important ecological roles. Despite their potential significance, the study of freshwater AAPs is in its infancy and limited to local investigations. Here, we explore the occurrence, diversity and distribution of AAPs in lakes covering a wide latitudinal gradient: Mongolian and German lakes located in temperate regions of Eurasia, tropical Great East African lakes, and polar permanently ice-covered Antarctic lakes. Our results show a widespread distribution of AAPs in lakes with contrasting environmental conditions and confirm that this group is composed of different members of the Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. While latitude does not seem to strongly influence AAP abundance, clear patterns of community structure and composition along geographic regions were observed as indicated by a strong macro-geographical signal in the taxonomical composition of AAPs. Overall, our results suggest that the distribution patterns of freshwater AAPs are likely driven by a combination of small-scale environmental conditions (specific of each lake and region) and large-scale geographic factors (climatic regions across a latitudinal gradient). PMID:28275369

  20. Olson's Extinction and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient of tetrapods in the Permian.

    PubMed

    Brocklehurst, Neil; Day, Michael O; Rubidge, Bruce S; Fröbisch, Jörg

    2017-04-12

    The terrestrial vertebrate fauna underwent a substantial change in composition between the lower and middle Permian. The lower Permian fauna was characterized by diverse and abundant amphibians and pelycosaurian-grade synapsids. During the middle Permian, a therapsid-dominated fauna, containing a diverse array of parareptiles and a considerably reduced richness of amphibians, replaced this. However, it is debated whether the transition is a genuine event, accompanied by a mass extinction, or whether it is merely an artefact of the shift in sampling from the palaeoequatorial latitudes to the palaeotemperate latitudes. Here we use an up-to-date biostratigraphy and incorporate recent discoveries to thoroughly review the Permian tetrapod fossil record. We suggest that the faunal transition represents a genuine event; the lower Permian temperate faunas are more similar to lower Permian equatorial faunas than middle Permian temperate faunas. The transition was not consistent across latitudes; the turnover occurred more rapidly in Russia, but was delayed in North America. The argument that the mass extinction is an artefact of a latitudinal biodiversity gradient and a shift in sampling localities is rejected: sampling correction demonstrates an inverse latitudinal biodiversity gradient was prevalent during the Permian, with peak diversity in the temperate latitudes.

  1. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper.

  2. Diversity and Distribution of Freshwater Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria across a Wide Latitudinal Gradient.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Isabel; Sarmento, Hugo; Priscu, John C; Chiuchiolo, Amy; González, José M; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) have been shown to exist in numerous marine and brackish environments where they are hypothesized to play important ecological roles. Despite their potential significance, the study of freshwater AAPs is in its infancy and limited to local investigations. Here, we explore the occurrence, diversity and distribution of AAPs in lakes covering a wide latitudinal gradient: Mongolian and German lakes located in temperate regions of Eurasia, tropical Great East African lakes, and polar permanently ice-covered Antarctic lakes. Our results show a widespread distribution of AAPs in lakes with contrasting environmental conditions and confirm that this group is composed of different members of the Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. While latitude does not seem to strongly influence AAP abundance, clear patterns of community structure and composition along geographic regions were observed as indicated by a strong macro-geographical signal in the taxonomical composition of AAPs. Overall, our results suggest that the distribution patterns of freshwater AAPs are likely driven by a combination of small-scale environmental conditions (specific of each lake and region) and large-scale geographic factors (climatic regions across a latitudinal gradient).

  3. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ECKLONIA RADIATA (LAMINARIALES) TO A LATITUDINAL GRADIENT IN OCEAN TEMPERATURE(1).

    PubMed

    Staehr, Peter A; Wernberg, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    We tested the ability of sporophytes of a small kelp, Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, to adjust their photosynthesis, respiration, and cellular processes to increasingly warm ocean climates along a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature (∼4°C). Tissue concentrations of pigment and nutrients decreased with increasing ocean temperature. Concurrently, a number of gradual changes in the metabolic balance of E. radiata took place along the latitudinal gradient. Warm-acclimatized kelps had 50% lower photosynthetic rates and 90% lower respiration rates at the optimum temperature than did cool-acclimatized kelps. A reduction in temperature sensitivity was also observed as a reduction in Q10 -values from cool- to warm-acclimatized kelps for gross photosynthesis (Q10 : 3.35 to 1.45) and respiration (Q10 : 3.82 to 1.65). Respiration rates were more sensitive to increasing experimental temperatures (10% higher Q10 -values) than photosynthesis and had a higher optimum temperature, irrespective of sampling location. To maintain a positive carbon balance, E. radiata increased the critical light demand (Ec ) exponentially with increasing experimental temperature. The temperature dependency of Ec was, however, weakened with increasing ocean temperature, such that the critical light demand was relaxed in kelp acclimated to higher ocean temperatures. Nevertheless, calculations of critical depth limits suggested that direct effects of future temperature increases are unlikely to be as strong as effects of reduced water clarity, another globally increasing problem in coastal areas. © 2009 Phycological Society of America.

  4. Climate-driven habitat size determines the latitudinal diversity gradient in temporary ponds.

    PubMed

    Kneitel, Jamie M

    2016-04-01

    The latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) has been one of the most documented patterns in ecology, typically showing decreasing species diversity with increasing latitude. Studies of these patterns also used different spatial scales and dispersal traits to better understand the underpinning ecological factors. Seasonal freshwater ecosystems are less studied and may exhibit different patterns because they are more sensitive to climatic variation, which result in an inundation-desiccation cycle. In California, precipitation increases and temperature decreases with increasing latitude and thus the LDG pattern may be associated with this climatic gradient. Using collected data and United States Fish and Wildlife Service reports across seven degrees of latitude, analysis of California vernal pool invertebrate community (total richness and richness of passive and active dispersers) was conducted using correlations (Spearman rank and partial). Alpha diversity (total and passive dispersers) increased and beta diversity (passive dispersers) decreased with increasing latitude. Vernal pool surface area was correlated with active disperser alpha and passive disperser beta diversity. This suggests that climate-driven habitat size influences alpha and beta diversity patterns depending on dispersal ability. Active dispersers and predators exhibited higher beta diversity than passive dispersers and prey, respectively. Species composition differed among counties and some of these differences were correlated with pool depth and temperature. These results suggest that seasonal habitats will have diversity patterns strongly associated with local scale characteristics (habitat size and hydroperiod) determined by climate variation along the latitudinal gradient. Understanding these diversity patterns along the gradient will also contribute to management and restoration of these ecosystems with high endemism and diversity.

  5. Plant species invasions along the latitudinal gradient in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Barnett, D.; Flather, C.; Kartesz, J.; Peterjohn, B.

    2005-01-01

    It has been long established that the richness of vascular plant species and many animal taxa decreases with increasing latitude, a pattern that very generally follows declines in actual and potential evapotranspiration, solar radiation, temperature, and thus, total productivity. Using county-level data on vascular plants from the United States (3000 counties in the conterminous 48 states), we used the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to evaluate competing models predicting native and nonnative plant species density (number of species per square kilometer in a county) from various combinations of biotic variables (e.g., native bird species density, vegetation carbon, normalized difference vegetation index), environmental/topographic variables (elevation, variation in elevation, the number of land cover classes in the county; radiation, mean precipitation, actual evapotranspiration, and potential evapotranspiration), and human variables (human population density, crop-land, and percentage of disturbed lands in a county). We found no evidence of a latitudinal gradient for the density of native plant species and a significant, slightly positive latitudinal gradient for the density of nonnative plant species. We found stronger evidence of a significant, positive productivity gradient (vegetation carbon) for the density of native plant species and nonnative plant species. We found much stronger significant relationships when biotic, environmental/topographic, and human variables were used to predict native plant species density and nonnative plant species density. Biotic variables generally had far greater influence in multivariate models than human or environmental/topographic variables. Later, we found that the best, single, positive predictor of the density of nonnative plant species in a county was the density of native plant species in a county. While further study is needed, it may be that, while humans facilitate the initial establishment invasions of nonnative

  6. Speciation and the Latitudinal Diversity Gradient: Insights from the Global Distribution of Endemic Fish.

    PubMed

    Hanly, Patrick J; Mittelbach, Gary G; Schemske, Douglas W

    2017-06-01

    The nearly universal pattern that species richness increases from the poles to the equator (the latitudinal diversity gradient [LDG]) has been of intense interest since its discovery by early natural-history explorers. Among the many hypotheses proposed to explain the LDG, latitudinal variation in (1) productivity, (2) time and area available for diversification, and (3) speciation and/or extinction rates have recently received the most attention. Because tropical regions are older and were formerly more widespread, these factors are often intertwined, hampering efforts to distinguish their relative contributions to the LDG. Here we examine the global distribution of endemic lake fishes to determine how lake age, area, and latitude each affect the probability of speciation and the extent of diversification occurring within a lake. We analyzed the distribution of endemic fishes worldwide (1,933 species and subspecies from 47 families in 2,746 lakes) and find that the probability of a lake containing an endemic species and the total number of endemics per lake increase with lake age and area and decrease with latitude. Moreover, the geographic locations of endemics in 34 of 41 families are found at lower latitudes than those of nonendemics. We propose that the greater diversification of fish at low latitudes may be driven in part by ecological opportunities promoted by tropical climates and by the coevolution of species interactions.

  7. Plasticity versus environmental canalization: population differences in thermal responses along a latitudinal gradient in Drosophila serrata.

    PubMed

    Liefting, Maartje; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ellers, Jacintha

    2009-08-01

    The phenotypic plasticity of traits, defined as the ability of a genotype to express different phenotypic values of the trait across a range of environments, can vary between habitats depending on levels of temporal and spatial heterogeneity. Other traits can be insensitive to environmental perturbations and show environmental canalization. We tested levels of phenotypic plasticity in diverse Drosophila serrata populations along a latitudinal cline ranging from a temperate, variable climate to a tropical, stable climate by measuring developmental rate and size-related traits at three temperatures (16 degrees C, 22 degrees C, and 28 degrees C). We then compared the slopes of the thermal reaction norms among populations. The 16-22 degrees C part of the reaction norms for developmental rate was flatter (more canalized) for the temperate populations than for the tropical populations. However, slopes for the reaction norms of the two morphological traits (wing size, wing:thorax ratio), were steeper (more plastic) in the temperate versus the tropical populations over the entire thermal range. The different latitudinal patterns in plasticity for developmental rate and the morphological traits may reflect contrasting selection pressures along the tropical-temperate thermal gradient.

  8. Clock polymorphism in Pacific salmon: evidence for variable selection along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kathleen G.; Ford, Michael J.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal timing of life-history events is often under strong natural selection. The Clock gene is a central component of an endogenous circadian clock that senses changes in photoperiod (day length) and mediates seasonal behaviours. Among Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), seasonal timing of migration and breeding is influenced by photoperiod. To expand a study of 42 North American Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations, we tested whether duplicated Clock genes contribute to population differences in reproductive timing. Specifically, we examined geographical variation along a similar latitudinal gradient in the polyglutamine domain (PolyQ) of OtsClock1a and OtsClock1b among 53 populations of three species: chum (Oncorhynchus keta), coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). We found evidence for variable selection on OtsClock1b that corresponds to latitudinal variation in reproductive timing among these species. We evaluated the contribution of day length and a freshwater migration index to OtsClock1b PolyQ domain variation using regression trees and found that day length at spawning explains much of the variation in OtsClock1b allele frequency among chum and Chinook, but not coho and pink salmon populations. Our findings suggest that OtsClock1b mediates seasonal adaptation and influences geographical variation in reproductive timing in some of these highly migratory species. PMID:20610428

  9. Clock polymorphism in Pacific salmon: evidence for variable selection along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Kathleen G; Ford, Michael J; Hard, Jeffrey J

    2010-12-22

    Seasonal timing of life-history events is often under strong natural selection. The Clock gene is a central component of an endogenous circadian clock that senses changes in photoperiod (day length) and mediates seasonal behaviours. Among Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), seasonal timing of migration and breeding is influenced by photoperiod. To expand a study of 42 North American Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations, we tested whether duplicated Clock genes contribute to population differences in reproductive timing. Specifically, we examined geographical variation along a similar latitudinal gradient in the polyglutamine domain (PolyQ) of OtsClock1a and OtsClock1b among 53 populations of three species: chum (Oncorhynchus keta), coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). We found evidence for variable selection on OtsClock1b that corresponds to latitudinal variation in reproductive timing among these species. We evaluated the contribution of day length and a freshwater migration index to OtsClock1b PolyQ domain variation using regression trees and found that day length at spawning explains much of the variation in OtsClock1b allele frequency among chum and Chinook, but not coho and pink salmon populations. Our findings suggest that OtsClock1b mediates seasonal adaptation and influences geographical variation in reproductive timing in some of these highly migratory species.

  10. Modeling the effects of latitudinal gradients in stellar winds, with application to the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerney, S.; Suess, S. T.

    1985-01-01

    A steady, axisymmetric, quasi-radial, global model previously developed for stellar winds with embedded magnetic fields has been extended to include latitudinal gradient effects on the azimuthal velocity and magnetic field. The linear results at large radii are presented for large-amplitude latitudinal variations in the radial magnetic field, mass loss rate, and radial velocity of the wind. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations predict meridional flows that develop naturally from internal magnetic stresses. The flows open flux tubes in the star's equatorial plane, redistributing mass and magnetic flux as a function of stellar latitude. The plasma spins up to conserve angular momentum in fields and plasma. The results are generally applicable to stellar winds (including radiatively driven winds), provided that the internal structure is not dominated by rotation. The asymptotic solutions do not explicitly depend on the form of the energy equation, although the assumed O(1) state which drives these solutions depends on the deposition of energy and momentum throughout the wind.

  11. Temporal latitudinal-gradient dynamics and tropical instability of deep-sea species diversity.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Hunt, Gene; Cronin, Thomas M; Okahashi, Hisayo

    2009-12-22

    A benthic microfaunal record from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean over the past four glacial-interglacial cycles was investigated to understand temporal dynamics of deep-sea latitudinal species diversity gradients (LSDGs). The results demonstrate unexpected instability and high amplitude fluctuations of species diversity in the tropical deep ocean that are correlated with orbital-scale oscillations in global climate: Species diversity is low during glacial and high during interglacial periods. This implies that climate severely influences deep-sea diversity, even at tropical latitudes, and that deep-sea LSDGs, while generally present for the last 36 million years, were weakened or absent during glacial periods. Temporally dynamic LSDGs and unstable tropical diversity require reconsideration of current ecological hypotheses about the generation and maintenance of biodiversity as they apply to the deep sea, and underscore the potential vulnerability and conservation importance of tropical deep-sea ecosystems.

  12. Highly consistent effects of plant litter identity and functional traits on decomposition across a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Makkonen, Marika; Berg, Matty P; Handa, I Tanya; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; van Ruijven, Jasper; van Bodegom, Peter M; Aerts, Rien

    2012-09-01

    Plant litter decomposition is a key process in terrestrial carbon cycling, yet the relative importance of various control factors remains ambiguous at a global scale. A full reciprocal litter transplant study with 16 litter species that varied widely in traits and originated from four forest sites covering a large latitudinal gradient (subarctic to tropics) showed a consistent interspecific ranking of decomposition rates. At a global scale, variation in decomposition was driven by a small subset of litter traits (water saturation capacity and concentrations of magnesium and condensed tannins). These consistent findings, that were largely independent of the varying local decomposer communities, suggest that decomposer communities show little specialisation and high metabolic flexibility in processing plant litter, irrespective of litter origin. Our results provide strong support for using trait-based approaches in modelling the global decomposition component of biosphere-atmosphere carbon fluxes.

  13. Selective Pressure along a Latitudinal Gradient Affects Subindividual Variation in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Mar; Guitián, José; Guitián, Pablo; Larrinaga, Asier R.

    2013-01-01

    Individual plants produce repeated structures such as leaves, flowers or fruits, which, although belonging to the same genotype, are not phenotypically identical. Such subindividual variation reflects the potential of individual genotypes to vary with micro-environmental conditions. Furthermore, variation in organ traits imposes costs to foraging animals such as time, energy and increased predation risk. Therefore, animals that interact with plants may respond to this variation and affect plant fitness. Thus, phenotypic variation within an individual plant could be, in part, an adaptive trait. Here we investigated this idea and we found that subindividual variation of fruit size of Crataegus monogyna, in different populations throughout the latitudinal gradient in Europe, was explained at some extent by the selective pressures exerted by seed-dispersing birds. These findings support the hypothesis that within-individual variation in plants is an adaptive trait selected by interacting animals which may have important implications for plant evolution. PMID:24069297

  14. Late Cenozoic onset of the latitudinal diversity gradient of North American mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcot, Jonathan D.; Fox, David L.; Niebuhr, Spencer R.

    2016-06-01

    The decline of species richness from equator to pole, or latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is nearly universal among clades of living organisms, yet whether it was such a pervasive pattern in the geologic past remains uncertain. Here, we calculate the strength of the LDG for terrestrial mammals in North America over the past 65 My, using 27,903 fossil occurrences of Cenozoic terrestrial mammals from western North America downloaded from the Paleobiology Database. Accounting for temporal and spatial variation in sampling, the LDG was substantially weaker than it is today for most of the Cenozoic and the robust modern LDG of North American mammals evolved only over the last 4 My. The strength of the LDG correlates negatively with global temperature, suggesting a role of global climate patterns in the establishment and maintenance of the LDG for North American mammals.

  15. The latitudinal gradient in dispersal constraints: ecological specialisation drives diversification in tropical birds.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Claire L; Seddon, Nathalie; Cooney, Christopher R; Tobias, Joseph A

    2012-08-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints arising from ecological specialisation are proposed to limit gene flow and promote diversification in tropical lineages. In this study, we use phylogenetic analyses to test this idea in 739 Amazonian bird species. We show that patterns of species and subspecies richness are best predicted by a suite of avian specialisms common in tropical avifaunas but rare in the temperate zone. However, this only applied to niche traits associated with dispersal limitation rather than vagility. These findings are consistent with the view that diversity is promoted by more finely partitioned niches, although not simply by coevolutionary adaptation and niche packing as is often assumed. Instead, they suggest that diversification is driven by dispersal constraints, and that niches characterised by these constraints are biased towards tropical systems. We conclude that specialised tropical niches reduce the likelihood of dispersal across barriers, thereby increasing allopatric diversification and contributing to the latitudinal diversity gradient. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Latitudinal species diversity gradient of marine zooplankton for the last three million years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Hunt, Gene; Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Stoll, Danielle K.

    2012-01-01

    High tropical and low polar biodiversity is one of the most fundamental patterns characterising marine ecosystems, and the influence of temperature on such marine latitudinal diversity gradients is increasingly well documented. However, the temporal stability of quantitative relationships among diversity, latitude and temperature is largely unknown. Herein we document marine zooplankton species diversity patterns at four time slices [modern, Last Glacial Maximum (18 000 years ago), last interglacial (120 000 years ago), and Pliocene (~3.3–3.0 million years ago)] and show that, although the diversity-latitude relationship has been dynamic, diversity-temperature relationships are remarkably constant over the past three million years. These results suggest that species diversity is rapidly reorganised as species' ranges respond to temperature change on ecological time scales, and that the ecological impact of future human-induced temperature change may be partly predictable from fossil and paleoclimatological records.

  17. Temporal latitudinal-gradient dynamics and tropical instability of deep-sea species diversity

    PubMed Central

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Hunt, Gene; Cronin, Thomas M.; Okahashi, Hisayo

    2009-01-01

    A benthic microfaunal record from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean over the past four glacial-interglacial cycles was investigated to understand temporal dynamics of deep-sea latitudinal species diversity gradients (LSDGs). The results demonstrate unexpected instability and high amplitude fluctuations of species diversity in the tropical deep ocean that are correlated with orbital-scale oscillations in global climate: Species diversity is low during glacial and high during interglacial periods. This implies that climate severely influences deep-sea diversity, even at tropical latitudes, and that deep-sea LSDGs, while generally present for the last 36 million years, were weakened or absent during glacial periods. Temporally dynamic LSDGs and unstable tropical diversity require reconsideration of current ecological hypotheses about the generation and maintenance of biodiversity as they apply to the deep sea, and underscore the potential vulnerability and conservation importance of tropical deep-sea ecosystems. PMID:20018702

  18. Temporal latitudinal-gradient dynamics and tropical instability of deep-sea species diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Hunt, G.; Cronin, T. M.; Okahashi, H.

    2009-01-01

    A benthic microfaunal record from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean over the past four glacial-interglacial cycles was investigated to understand temporal dynamics of deep-sea latitudinal species diversity gradients (LSDGs). The results demonstrate unexpected instability and high amplitude fluctuations of species diversity in the tropical deep ocean that are correlated with orbital-scale oscillations in global climate: Species diversity is low during glacial and high during interglacial periods. This implies that climate severely influences deep-sea diversity, even at tropical latitudes, and that deep-sea LSDGs, while generally present for the last 36 million years, were weakened or absent during glacial periods. Temporally dynamic LSDGs and unstable tropical diversity require reconsideration of current ecological hypotheses about the generation and maintenance of biodiversity as they apply to the deep sea, and underscore the potential vulnerability and conservation importance of tropical deep-sea ecosystems.

  19. Late Cenozoic onset of the latitudinal diversity gradient of North American mammals.

    PubMed

    Marcot, Jonathan D; Fox, David L; Niebuhr, Spencer R

    2016-06-28

    The decline of species richness from equator to pole, or latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is nearly universal among clades of living organisms, yet whether it was such a pervasive pattern in the geologic past remains uncertain. Here, we calculate the strength of the LDG for terrestrial mammals in North America over the past 65 My, using 27,903 fossil occurrences of Cenozoic terrestrial mammals from western North America downloaded from the Paleobiology Database. Accounting for temporal and spatial variation in sampling, the LDG was substantially weaker than it is today for most of the Cenozoic and the robust modern LDG of North American mammals evolved only over the last 4 My. The strength of the LDG correlates negatively with global temperature, suggesting a role of global climate patterns in the establishment and maintenance of the LDG for North American mammals.

  20. Late Cenozoic onset of the latitudinal diversity gradient of North American mammals

    PubMed Central

    Marcot, Jonathan D.; Fox, David L.; Niebuhr, Spencer R.

    2016-01-01

    The decline of species richness from equator to pole, or latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is nearly universal among clades of living organisms, yet whether it was such a pervasive pattern in the geologic past remains uncertain. Here, we calculate the strength of the LDG for terrestrial mammals in North America over the past 65 My, using 27,903 fossil occurrences of Cenozoic terrestrial mammals from western North America downloaded from the Paleobiology Database. Accounting for temporal and spatial variation in sampling, the LDG was substantially weaker than it is today for most of the Cenozoic and the robust modern LDG of North American mammals evolved only over the last 4 My. The strength of the LDG correlates negatively with global temperature, suggesting a role of global climate patterns in the establishment and maintenance of the LDG for North American mammals. PMID:27298355

  1. Climate Effects on Methylmercury Bioaccumulation Along a Latitudinal Gradient in the Eastern Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetelat, J.; Richardson, M.; MacMillan, G. A.; Amyot, M.; Hintelmann, H.; Crump, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates that inorganic mercury (Hg) loadings to Arctic lakes decline with latitude. However, monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in fish and their prey do not decline in a similar fashion, suggesting that higher latitude lakes are more vulnerable to Hg inputs. Preliminary results will be presented from a three-year study (2012-2015) of climate effects on MMHg bioaccumulation in lakes of the eastern Canadian Arctic. We have investigated mercury transport and accumulation processes in lakes and ponds from three study regions along a latitudinal gradient in climate-controlled ecosystem types in the Canadian Arctic, specifically sub-Arctic taiga, Arctic tundra and polar desert. In each water body, we measured key aspects of MMHg bioaccumulation—MMHg bioavailability to benthic food webs and organism growth rates—as well as how watershed characteristics affect the transport of Hg and organic carbon to lakes. Novel approaches were incorporated including the use of passive samplers (Diffusive Gradient in Thin Film samplers or DGTs) to estimate sediment bioavailable MMHg concentrations and tissue RNA content to compare organism short-term growth rates. A comparison of Arctic tundra and sub-Arctic taiga lakes showed that surface water concentrations of MMHg were strongly and positively correlated to total Hg concentrations both within and among study regions, implying strong control of inorganic Hg supply. Sediment concentrations of bioavailable MMHg were highly variable among lakes, although average concentrations were similar between study regions. Local environmental conditions appear to have a strong influence on sediment potential for MMHg supply. Lake-dwelling Arctic char from tundra lakes had similar or higher total Hg concentrations compared with brook trout from sub-Arctic lakes that were exposed to higher water MMHg concentrations. Potential environmental drivers of these patterns will be discussed. This latitudinal study will provide new

  2. Inversion of plant dominance-diversity relationships along a latitudinal stress gradient.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Paul J; MacDougall, Andrew S; Stanley, Amanda G; Kaye, Thomas N; Dunwiddie, Peter W

    2012-06-01

    Species interactions affect plant diversity through the net effects of competition and facilitation, with the latter more prevalent in physically stressful environments when plant cover ameliorates abiotic stress. One explanation for species loss in invader-dominated systems is a shift in the competition-facilitation balance, with competition intensifying in areas formerly structured by facilitation. We test this possibility with a 10-site prairie meta-experiment along a 500-km latitudinal stress gradient, quantifying the relationships among abiotic stress, exotic dominance, and native plant recruitment over five years. The latitudinal gradient is inversely correlated with abiotic stress, with lower latitudes more moisture- and nutrient-limited. We observed strong negative effects by invasive dominant grasses on plant establishment, but only in northern sites with lower-stress environments. At these locations, disturbance was critical for recruitment by reducing the suppressive dominant (invasive) canopy. In more stressful environments to the south, the impacts of the dominant invaders on plant establishment became facilitative, and diversity was more limited by seed availability. Disturbance prevented recruitment because seedling survival depended on a protective plant canopy, presumably because the canopy reduced temperature or moisture stress. Seed limitation was similarly prevalent in all sites. Our work confirms the importance of facilitation as an organizing process for plants in higher-stress environments, even with transformations of species composition and dominance. It also demonstrates that the mechanisms regulating diversity, including invader impacts, can vary within the same plant community depending on environmental context. Because limits on native plant recruitment are environmentally contingent, management strategies that seek to increase diversity, including invader eradication, must account for site-level variations in the balance between biotic

  3. Leaf ultraviolet optical properties along a latitudinal gradient in the Arctic-Alpine life zone

    SciTech Connect

    Robberecht, R.; Caldwell, M.M.; Billings, W.D.

    1980-06-01

    Leaf epidermal transmittance of terrestrial solar ultraviolet-B radiation (295 to 320 nm) was examined along a latitudinal gradient of solar uv-B radiation. In high uv-B radiation zones, e.g., equatorial and tropical regions, mean epidermal transmittance for the species examined was less than 2%. At higher latitudes, mean epidermal transmittance exceeded 5%. Although this latitudinal solar uv-B gradient represents more than a seven-fold difference in daily integrated uv-B irradiance, the calculated mean effective uv-B irradiance at the mesophyll of low-latitude species is not substantially different from that of species at higher latitudes. Species in high uv-B radiation environments appear to attenuate this radiation more effectively than those in lower irradiance environments. In most cases, absorption of uv-B in the epidermis is the major parameter effecting low transmittance. Reflectance from glabrous leaves is generally less than 10%. In some species, pubescent or glaucous leaf surfaces can reflect more than 40% of the uv-B radiation incident on a horizontal leaf, although such surface characteristics do not necessarily indicate high uv-B reflectance. Under controlled conditions, epidermal transmittance in Pisum sativum L. decreased in response to uv-B irradiation. The modification of epidermal transmittance, resulting in lower uv-B irradiance at the mesophyll, may represent a mechanism of plant acclimation to uv-B radiation. Such acclimation may have occurred in several wildland species of temperate-latitude origin that have invaded high uv-B irradiance equatorial and tropical regions.

  4. Planktonic equatorial diversity troughs: fact or artifact? Latitudinal diversity gradients in Radiolaria.

    PubMed

    Boltovskoy, Demetrio; Correa, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to the classical notion of an increasing biodiversity from the poles to the equator, a number of studies concluded that the diversity of marine species is highest at the middle latitudes, and decreases at the equator. Using a worldwide database critically compiled from 72 surveys (307 species, 4,807 water column and surface sediment samples), we analyzed the latitudinal gradients in species richness (LGSR) of a highly diversified group of marine holoplanktonic protists, the polycystine Radiolaria. Species richness values were corrected for uneven sample coverage and sample size, and contrasted with gradients in 11 environmental variables. Radiolarian species richness decreases from the equator to the poles both in the water column and in the surface sediments and is tightly coupled with temperature throughout the entire thermal range of marine waters. In the tropical Pacific Ocean, a conspicuous east-west gradient in diversity is also associated with temperature. Globally, diversity is negatively correlated with mean annual concentrations of nutrients (N, P, Si) and chlorophyll a. Disagreements with results reported for many other oceanic plankton may stem from the reduction of 3D distributional patterns onto 2D or 1D spaces, to the intermittent mixing of Subtropical and Subpolar species at the middle latitudes, and to a Mid-Domain Effect. The fact that radiolarian LGSR do not show this drop at the equator is partly due to methodological and database-related differences, and probably also in part a reflection of taxon-specific traits.

  5. Latitudinal gradients in species richness in assemblages of sessile animals in rocky intertidal zone: mechanisms determining scale-dependent variability.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Takehiro; Noda, Takashi; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Hori, Masakazu; Nakaoka, Masahiro

    2009-03-01

    1. Although latitudinal gradients in species richness within a region are observed in a range of taxa and habitats, little is known about variability in its scale dependence or causal processes. The scale-dependent variability of latitudinal gradients in species richness can be affected by latitudinal differences in (i) the regional relative abundance distribution, and (ii) the degree of aggregated distribution (i.e., intraspecific aggregation and interspecific segregation; henceforth, the degree of aggregation) reflecting differences in ecological processes among regions, which are not mutually exclusive. 2. In rocky intertidal sessile animal assemblages along Japan's Pacific coast (between 31 degrees N and 43 degrees N), scale-dependent variability of the latitudinal gradient in species richness and its causal mechanisms were examined by explicitly incorporating three hierarchical spatial scales into the monitoring design: plots (50 x 100 cm), shores (78 to 235 m), and regions (16.7 to 42.5 km). 3. To evaluate latitudinal differences in the degree of aggregation, the degree of intraspecific aggregation at each spatial scale in each region was examined using the standardized Morishita index. Furthermore, the observed species richness was compared with the species richness expected by random sampling from the regional species pool using randomization tests. 4. Latitudinal gradients in species richness were observed at all spatial scales, but the gradients became steadily more moderate with decreasing spatial scale. The slope of the relative abundance distribution decreased with decreasing latitude. 5. Tests of an index of intraspecific aggregation and randomization tests indicated that although species richness at smaller scales differed significantly from species richness expected based on a random distribution, the degree of aggregation did not vary with latitude. Although some ecological processes (possibly species sorting) may have played a role in determining

  6. Phenotypic plasticity of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along a broad latitudinal gradient on the Pacific Coast of North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined morphological and physiological leaf traits of Spartina densiflora plants in populations from invaded estuarine sites across broad latitudinal and climate gradients along the Pacific west coast of North America, and in favourable conditions in a common garden experiment. We hypothesized ...

  7. Size-Frequency Distributions along a Latitudinal Gradient in Middle Permian Fusulinoideans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yichun; Payne, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic gradients in body size within and among living species are commonly used to identify controls on the long-term evolution of organism size. However, the persistence of these gradients over evolutionary time remains largely unknown because ancient biogeographic variation in organism size is poorly documented. Middle Permian fusulinoidean foraminifera are ideal for investigating the temporal persistence of geographic gradients in organism size because they were diverse and abundant along a broad range of paleo-latitudes during this interval (∼275–260 million years ago). In this study, we determined the sizes of Middle Permian fusulinoidean fossils from three different paleo-latitudinal zones in order to examine the relationship between the size of foraminifers and regional environment. We recovered the following results: keriothecal fusulinoideans are substantially larger than nonkeriothecal fusulinoideans; fusulinoideans from the equatorial zone are typically larger than those from the north and south transitional zones; neoschwagerinid specimens within a single species are generally larger in the equatorial zone than those in both transitional zones; and the nonkeriothecal fusulinoideans Staffellidae and Schubertellidae have smaller size in the north transitional zone. Fusulinoidean foraminifers differ from most other marine taxa in exhibiting larger sizes closer to the equator, contrary to Bergmann's rule. Meridional variation in seasonality, water temperature, nutrient availability, and carbonate saturation level are all likely to have favored or enabled larger sizes in equatorial regions. Temporal variation in atmospheric oxygen concentrations have been shown to account for temporal variation in fusulinoidean size during Carboniferous and Permian time, but oxygen availability appears unlikely to explain biogeographic variation in fusulinoidean sizes, because dissolved oxygen concentrations in seawater typically increase away from the equator due to

  8. Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in East Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. Location: East Asia from the Arctic to tropical regions, an area crossing over 50?? of latitudes and covering the eastern part of China, Korea, Japan and the eastern part of Russia. Methods: East Asia is divided into forty-five geographical regions. Based on the similarity of their world-wide distributional patterns, a total of 2808 indigenous genera of seed plants found in East Asia were grouped into fourteen geographical elements, belonging to three major categories (cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate). The 50??-long latitudinal gradient of East Asia was divided into five latitudinal zones, each of c. 10??. Phytogeographical relationships of East Asia to latitude and climatic variables were examined based on the forty-five regional floras. Results: Among all geographical and climatic variables considered, latitude showed the strongest relationship to phytogeographical composition. Tropical genera (with pantropical, amphi-Pacific tropical, palaeotropical, tropical Asia-tropical Australia, tropical Asia-tropical Africa and tropical Asia geographical elements combined) accounted for c. 80% of the total genera at latitude 20??N and for c. 0% at latitude 55-60??N. In contrast, temperate genera (including holarctic, eastern Asia-North America, temperate Eurasia, temperate Asia, Mediterranean, western Asia to central Asia, central Asia and eastern Asia geographical elements) accounted for 15.5% in the southernmost latitude and for 80% at 55-60??N, from where northward the percentage tended to level off. The proportion of cosmopolitan genera increased gradually with latitude from 5% at the southernmost latitude to 21% at 55-60??N, where it levelled off northward. In general, the genera present in a more

  9. Organic carbon fluxes in fjords across a high-to-mid latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, X.; Bianchi, T. S.; Jaeger, J. M.; Savage, C.; Smith, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    Over geological timescales, the net burial of biospheric OC (OCbio) and oxidation of petrogenic OC (OCpetro) are important processes influencing atmospheric CO2 levels. Coastal sediments are major depo-centers that account for as much as 90% of Holocene OC burial in the global ocean. Fjords, as a major component of coastal systems, are deep, glacially-carved estuaries located in high latitudes and are key in connecting rivers and the ocean. These systems have recently been identified as sites of enhanced organic carbon burial with surface area-normalized OC burial rates at least five times greater than other marine systems. Recent studies proposed that fjords also have an impact on atmospheric CO2 levels over glacial-interglacial time. Understanding sediment processes, sources and respective burial of different types of OC are necessary to better constrain OC burial in fjords, particularly fjords across glaciated versus non-glaciated systems across latitudinal gradients. Here, we use surface sediment samples from multiple fjords to quantify the sources and burial of OC and conduct a latitudinal comparison across a suite of fjords. A multi-proxy approach (stable isotopes, radiocarbon, lignin-phenols and lipids) allow for separation of marine and terrestrial OCbio, and OCpetro in surface sediments. Our results for SE Alaska show that surface sediments in northern fjords (north of Icy Strait) with headwater glaciers are dominated by OCpetro, in contrast to marine and terrestrially-derived fresh OC in non-glaciated southern fjords. These findings make SE Alaska potentially the largest sink of OCpetro in North America and a hotspot in burying marine OC (OCbio-mari). In contrast, sedimentary OC in fjords along Fiordland, New Zealand is dominated by vascular plants sources, with increasing OCbio-mari inputs along the inner-to-outer fjord transects. Interestingly, there is minimal OCpetro contribution to fjords in this region. We conclude that there may be a general

  10. Asymmetric responses to simulated global warming by populations of Colobanthus quitensis along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Acuña-Rodríguez, Ian S.; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Hereme, Rasme

    2017-01-01

    The increase in temperature as consequence of the recent global warming has been reported to generate new ice-free areas in the Antarctic continent, facilitating the colonization and spread of plant populations. Consequently, Antarctic vascular plants have been observed extending their southern distribution. But as the environmental conditions toward southern localities become progressively more departed from the species’ physiological optimum, the ecophysiological responses and survival to the expected global warming could be reduced. However, if processes of local adaptation are the main cause of the observed southern expansion, those populations could appear constrained to respond positively to the expected global warming. Using individuals from the southern tip of South America, the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, we assess with a long term experiment (three years) under controlled conditions if the responsiveness of Colobanthus quitensis populations to the expected global warming, is related with their different foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms along the latitudinal gradient. In addition, we tested if the release of the stress condition by the global warming in these cold environments increases the ecophysiological performance. For this, we describe the latitudinal pattern of net photosynthetic capacity, biomass accumulation, and number of flowers under current and future temperatures respective to each site of origin after three growing seasons. Overall, was found a clinal trend was found in the foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms in the evaluated C. quitensis populations. On the other hand, an asymmetric response to warming was observed for southern populations in all ecophysiological traits evaluated, suggesting that low temperature is limiting the performance of C. quitensis populations. Our results suggest that under a global warming scenario, plant populations that inhabiting cold zones at high latitudes could

  11. Asymmetric responses to simulated global warming by populations of Colobanthus quitensis along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Rodríguez, Ian S; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Hereme, Rasme; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A

    2017-01-01

    The increase in temperature as consequence of the recent global warming has been reported to generate new ice-free areas in the Antarctic continent, facilitating the colonization and spread of plant populations. Consequently, Antarctic vascular plants have been observed extending their southern distribution. But as the environmental conditions toward southern localities become progressively more departed from the species' physiological optimum, the ecophysiological responses and survival to the expected global warming could be reduced. However, if processes of local adaptation are the main cause of the observed southern expansion, those populations could appear constrained to respond positively to the expected global warming. Using individuals from the southern tip of South America, the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, we assess with a long term experiment (three years) under controlled conditions if the responsiveness of Colobanthus quitensis populations to the expected global warming, is related with their different foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms along the latitudinal gradient. In addition, we tested if the release of the stress condition by the global warming in these cold environments increases the ecophysiological performance. For this, we describe the latitudinal pattern of net photosynthetic capacity, biomass accumulation, and number of flowers under current and future temperatures respective to each site of origin after three growing seasons. Overall, was found a clinal trend was found in the foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms in the evaluated C. quitensis populations. On the other hand, an asymmetric response to warming was observed for southern populations in all ecophysiological traits evaluated, suggesting that low temperature is limiting the performance of C. quitensis populations. Our results suggest that under a global warming scenario, plant populations that inhabiting cold zones at high latitudes could

  12. The mossy north: an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in European bryophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, Rubén G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe; Petitpierre, Blaise; Araújo, Miguel B.; Svenning, Jens-C.; Baselga, Andrés; Fernández-González, Federico; Gómez-Rubio, Virgilio; Muñoz, Jesús; Suarez, Guillermo M.; Luoto, Miska; Guisan, Antoine; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-05-01

    It remains hotly debated whether latitudinal diversity gradients are common across taxonomic groups and whether a single mechanism can explain such gradients. Investigating species richness (SR) patterns of European land plants, we determine whether SR increases with decreasing latitude, as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness and turnover in the north and in the south, respectively, indicating species exclusion towards the north and increased opportunities for speciation in the south. Liverworts exhibit the highest levels of nestedness, suggesting that they represent the most sensitive group to the impact of past climate change. Nevertheless, although the extent of liverwort species turnover in the south is substantially and significantly lower than in spermatophytes, liverworts share with the latter a higher nestedness in the north and a higher turn-over in the south, in contrast to mosses and ferns. The extent to which the similarity in the patterns displayed by spermatophytes and liverworts reflects a similar assembly mechanism remains, however, to be demonstrated.

  13. Geographic variation in thermal physiological performance of the intertidal crab Petrolisthes violaceus along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D; Opitz, Tania; Lagos, Nelson A; Timmermann, Tania; Lardies, Marco A

    2014-12-15

    Environmental temperature has profound effects on the biological performance and biogeographical distribution of ectothermic species. Variation of this abiotic factor across geographic gradients is expected to produce physiological differentiation and local adaptation of natural populations depending on their thermal tolerances and physiological sensitivities. Here, we studied geographic variation in whole-organism thermal physiology of seven populations of the porcelain crab Petrolisthes violaceus across a latitudinal gradient of 3000 km, characterized by a cline of thermal conditions. Our study found that populations of P. violaceus show no differences in the limits of their thermal performance curves and demonstrate a negative correlation of their optimal temperatures with latitude. Additionally, our findings show that high-latitude populations of P. violaceus exhibit broader thermal tolerances, which is consistent with the climatic variability hypothesis. Interestingly, under a future scenario of warming oceans, the thermal safety margins of P. violaceus indicate that lower latitude populations can physiologically tolerate the ocean-warming scenarios projected by the IPCC for the end of the twenty-first century. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Local selection across a latitudinal gradient shapes nucleotide diversity in balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera L.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stephen R; Levsen, Nicholas; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Olson, Matthew S; Tiffin, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Molecular studies of adaptive evolution often focus on detecting selective sweeps driven by positive selection on a species-wide scale; however, much adaptation is local, particularly of ecologically important traits. Here, we look for evidence of range-wide and local adaptation at candidate genes for adaptive phenology in balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera, a widespread forest tree whose range extends across environmental gradients of photoperiod and growing season length. We examined nucleotide diversity of 27 poplar homologs of the flowering-time network-a group of genes that control plant developmental phenology through interactions with environmental cues such as photoperiod and temperature. Only one gene, ZTL2, showed evidence of reduced diversity and an excess of fixed replacement sites, consistent with a species-wide selective sweep. Two other genes, LFY and FRI, harbored high levels of nucleotide diversity and exhibited elevated differentiation between northern and southern accessions, suggesting local adaptation along a latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, FRI has also been identified as a target of local selection between northern and southern accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that this gene may be commonly involved in ecological adaptation in distantly related species. Our findings suggest an important role for local selection shaping molecular diversity and reveal limitations of inferring molecular adaptation from analyses designed only to detect species-wide selective sweeps.

  15. Variation in Size and Growth of the Great Scallop Pecten maximus along a Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Chauvaud, Laurent; Patry, Yann; Jolivet, Aurélie; Cam, Emmanuelle; Le Goff, Clement; Strand, Øivind; Charrier, Grégory; Thébault, Julien; Lazure, Pascal; Gotthard, Karl; Clavier, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between growth and temperature will aid in the evaluation of thermal stress and threats to ectotherms in the context of anticipated climate changes. Most Pecten maximus scallops living at high latitudes in the northern hemisphere have a larger maximum body size than individuals further south, a common pattern among many ectotherms. We investigated differences in daily shell growth among scallop populations along the Northeast Atlantic coast from Spain to Norway. This study design allowed us to address precisely whether the asymptotic size observed along a latitudinal gradient, mainly defined by a temperature gradient, results from differences in annual or daily growth rates, or a difference in the length of the growing season. We found that low annual growth rates in northern populations are not due to low daily growth values, but to the smaller number of days available each year to achieve growth compared to the south. We documented a decrease in the annual number of growth days with age regardless of latitude. However, despite initially lower annual growth performances in terms of growing season length and growth rate, differences in asymptotic size as a function of latitude resulted from persistent annual growth performances in the north and sharp declines in the south. Our measurements of daily growth rates throughout life in a long-lived ectothermic species provide new insight into spatio-temporal variations in growth dynamics and growing season length that cannot be accounted for by classical growth models that only address asymptotic size and annual growth rate. PMID:22649553

  16. Temporal dynamics of deep-sea latitudinal species diversity gradient based on paleoceanographic/micropaleontologic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, M.; Hunt, G.; Okahashi, H.

    2009-12-01

    Macroecology investigates large-scale ecological phenomena, such as regional-global trends in ecosystem properties and biodiversity, and is used to better understand recent human-induced ecosystem degradation. Paleoceanography investigates physical/chemical parameters, biogeochemical cycles, ocean circulation, and ocean-atmosphere interaction, but rarely includes ecosystem-scale biological processes. Here we adopt a macroecological approach to paleoceanography and present sediment core records of the temporal dynamics of deep-sea species diversity gradients using ostracodes from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean for the past four glacial-interglacial cycles. Results show unexpected instability and high amplitude fluctuations in species diversity in the tropical deep ocean. The results imply that the modern deep-sea latitudinal species diversity gradient is unexpectedly dynamic over short time intervals and collapsed during glacial periods. Unstable tropical diversity requires reconsideration of current ecological hypotheses about the generation and maintenance of biodiversity as they apply to the deep sea, and underscores the potential vulnerability and conservation importance of tropical deep-sea ecosystems.

  17. The mossy north: an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in European bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rubén G; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe; Petitpierre, Blaise; Araújo, Miguel B; Svenning, Jens-C; Baselga, Andrés; Fernández-González, Federico; Gómez-Rubio, Virgilio; Muñoz, Jesús; Suarez, Guillermo M; Luoto, Miska; Guisan, Antoine; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-05-06

    It remains hotly debated whether latitudinal diversity gradients are common across taxonomic groups and whether a single mechanism can explain such gradients. Investigating species richness (SR) patterns of European land plants, we determine whether SR increases with decreasing latitude, as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness and turnover in the north and in the south, respectively, indicating species exclusion towards the north and increased opportunities for speciation in the south. Liverworts exhibit the highest levels of nestedness, suggesting that they represent the most sensitive group to the impact of past climate change. Nevertheless, although the extent of liverwort species turnover in the south is substantially and significantly lower than in spermatophytes, liverworts share with the latter a higher nestedness in the north and a higher turn-over in the south, in contrast to mosses and ferns. The extent to which the similarity in the patterns displayed by spermatophytes and liverworts reflects a similar assembly mechanism remains, however, to be demonstrated.

  18. Scots pine fine roots adjust along a 2000-km latitudinal climatic gradient.

    PubMed

    Zadworny, Marcin; McCormack, M Luke; Mucha, Joanna; Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    Patterns of plant biomass allocation and functional adjustments along climatic gradients are poorly understood, particularly belowground. Generally, low temperatures suppress nutrient release and uptake, and forests under such conditions have a greater proportion of their biomass in roots. However, it is not clear whether 'more roots' means better capacity to acquire soil resources. Herein we quantified patterns of fine-root anatomy and their biomass distribution across Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) populations both along a 2000-km latitudinal gradient and within a common garden experiment with a similar range of populations. We found that with decreasing mean temperature, a greater percentage of Scots pine root biomass was allocated to roots with higher potential absorptive capacity. Similar results were seen in the common experimental site, where cold-adapted populations produced roots with greater absorptive capacity than populations originating from warmer climates. These results demonstrate that plants growing in or originated from colder climates have more acquisitive roots, a trait that is likely adaptive in the face of the low resource availability typical of cold soils.

  19. The mossy north: an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in European bryophytes

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Rubén G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe; Petitpierre, Blaise; Araújo, Miguel B.; Svenning, Jens-C.; Baselga, Andrés; Fernández-González, Federico; Gómez-Rubio, Virgilio; Muñoz, Jesús; Suarez, Guillermo M.; Luoto, Miska; Guisan, Antoine; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-01-01

    It remains hotly debated whether latitudinal diversity gradients are common across taxonomic groups and whether a single mechanism can explain such gradients. Investigating species richness (SR) patterns of European land plants, we determine whether SR increases with decreasing latitude, as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness and turnover in the north and in the south, respectively, indicating species exclusion towards the north and increased opportunities for speciation in the south. Liverworts exhibit the highest levels of nestedness, suggesting that they represent the most sensitive group to the impact of past climate change. Nevertheless, although the extent of liverwort species turnover in the south is substantially and significantly lower than in spermatophytes, liverworts share with the latter a higher nestedness in the north and a higher turn-over in the south, in contrast to mosses and ferns. The extent to which the similarity in the patterns displayed by spermatophytes and liverworts reflects a similar assembly mechanism remains, however, to be demonstrated. PMID:27151094

  20. Comparison of Forest Soil Carbon Dynamics at Five Sites Along a Latitudinal Gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    2011-01-01

    Carbon stocks, and C:N ratios, were measured in the forest floor, mineral soil, and two mineral soil fractions (particulate and mineral-associated organic matter, POM and MOM, respectively) at five forest sites, ranging from 60 to 100 years old, along a latitudinal gradient in the eastern United States. Sampling at four sites was replicated over two consecutive years. For many measurements (like forest floor carbon stocks, cumulative soil organic carbon stocks to 20 cm, and the fraction of whole soil carbon in POM), there was no significant difference between years at each site despite the use of somewhat different sampling methods. With one exception, forest floor and mineral soil carbon stocks increased from warm, southern, sites (with fine-textured soils) to northern, cool, sites (with more coarse-textured soils). The exception was a northern site, with less than 10% silt-clay content, that had a soil organic carbon stock similar to those measured at southern sites. Soil carbon at each site was partitioned into two pools (labile and stable) on the basis of carbon measured in the forest floor and POM and MOM fractions from the mineral soil. A two-compartment steady-state model, with randomly varying parameter values, was used in probabilistic calculations to estimate the turnover time of labile soil organic carbon (MRTU) and the annual transfer of labile carbon to stable carbon (k2) at each site in two different years. Based on empirical data, the turnover time of stable soil carbon (MRTS) was determined by mean annual temperature and increased from 30 to 100 years from south to north. Moving from south to north, MRTU increased from approximately 5 to 14 years. Consistent with prior studies, 13C enrichment factors ( ) from the Rayleigh equation, that describe the rate of change in 13C through the soil profile, were an indicator of soil carbon turnover times along the latitudinal gradient. Consistent with its role in stabilization of soil organic carbon, silt

  1. Galactic cosmic ray gradients, field-aligned and latitudinal, among Voyagers 1/2 and IMP-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelof, E. C.; Decker, R. B.; Krimigis, S. M.; Venkatesan, D.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation represents a summary of a comprehensive analysis of the same subject conducted by Roelof et al. (1981). It is pointed out that the tandem earth-Jupiter trajectories of the Voyager 1/2 spacecraft, combined with baseline measurements from the earth-orbiting IMP 7/8 spacecraft, provide the first opportunity for unambiguously separating latitude from radial or field-aligned effects in galactic cosmic ray gradients. Attention is given to the method of data analysis, and the separation of field-aligned and latitudinal gradients. It is found that latitudinal gradients approximately equal to or greater than 1 percent per deg in the cosmic ray intensity were a common feature of the interplanetary medium between 1 and 5 AU in 1977-78. Except in the most disturbed periods, cosmic ray intensities are well-ordered in field-aligned structures.

  2. Genetically based latitudinal clines in Artemisia californica drive parallel clines in arthropod communities.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Jessica D; Datu, Andrew; Tran, Thi; Sheng, Daniel C; Mooney, Kailen A

    2017-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in plant traits has been clearly shown to drive the structure of associated arthropod communities at the spatial scale of individual plant populations. Nevertheless, it is largely unknown whether plant trait variation among populations drives landscape-scale variation in arthropod communities, and how the strength of such plant genetic effects compares to, and interacts with, those of environmental variation. We documented the structure of arthropod communities on Artemisia californica for two consecutive years in a common garden of plants sourced from five populations along a 5° latitudinal gradient and grown under precipitation treatments approximating the four-fold difference between the north and south range margins for this species. Previous study of plant traits from this garden documented clinal genetic variation, suggesting local adaptation to this environmental gradient, as well as effects of precipitation manipulation that were consistent among populations (i.e., no genotype-by-environment interaction). Within the common garden, arthropod density, evenness, and diversity increased clinally with population source latitude, and arthropod community composition (i.e., species relative abundance) showed a north-south divide. The 2.6-fold cline of northward increase in arthropod density in the common garden was mirrored by a 6.4-fold increase in arthropod density on wild plants sampled along the species range. In contrast to the strong influence of plant genotype, the precipitation manipulation only influenced arthropod community composition, and plant genetic effects on arthropods operated independently of precipitation regime (no genotype-by-environment interaction). Accordingly, we conclude that the strongest driver of landscape-level variation in arthropod communities in this foundational plant species is not variation in the abiotic environment itself, but rather variation in plant traits underlain by the evolutionary process of

  3. Latitudinal gradients in growth and spawning of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and their relationship with temperature and photoperiod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Ferreira, T.; Matos, L.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2009-02-01

    0-group Sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, were captured in four estuarine nursery areas along the Portuguese coast, during the spring and summer of 2005. This coast has a North-South orientation which means that it is particularly suited for the investigation of latitudinal trends. Growth and hatch dates were estimated through otolith daily increment analysis. A clear latitudinal gradient in growth rates was detected. D. labrax mean growth rates were 0.48 mm d -1, 0.51 mm d -1, 0.56 mm d -1 and 0.61 mm d -1, from the Ria de Aveiro, the Mondego estuary, the Tagus estuary and the Mira estuary, respectively. A latitudinal gradient also existed in the spawning season of this species, particularly concerning its onset, which occurred earlier in the South. Analysis of sea surface temperature data from the adjacent coastal waters showed that spawning is not triggered by an increase in temperature, as has been argued in other coastal areas at higher latitudes. Photoperiod played a crucial role in the determination of spawning season at the Portuguese coast latitudinal range. The impact of future climate change on the observed patterns is also discussed.

  4. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

  5. Latitudinal gradients of species richness in the deep-sea benthos of the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Rex, M A; Stuart, C T; Coyne, G

    2000-04-11

    Latitudinal species diversity gradients (LSDGs) in the Northern Hemisphere are the most well established biogeographic patterns on Earth. Despite long-standing interest in LSDGs as a central problem in ecology, their explanation remains uncertain. In terrestrial as well as coastal and pelagic marine ecosystems, these poleward declines in diversity typically have been represented and interpreted in terms of species richness, the number of coexisting species. Newly discovered LSDGs in the bathyal (500-4,000 m) benthos of the North Atlantic may help to resolve the underlying causes of these large-scale trends because the deep sea is such a physically distinct environment. However, a major problem in comparing surface and deep-sea LSDGs is that the latter have been measured differently, by using species diversity indices that are affected by both species richness and the evenness of relative abundance. Here, we demonstrate that deep-sea isopods, gastropods, and bivalves in the North Atlantic do exhibit poleward decreases in species richness, just as those found in other environments. A comprehensive systematic revision of the largest deep-sea gastropod family (Turridae) has provided a unique database on geographic distributions that is directly comparable to those used to document LSDGs in surface biotas. This taxon also shows a poleward decline in the number of species. Seasonal organic enrichment from sinking phytodetritus is the most plausible ecological explanation for deep-sea LSDGs and is the environmental factor most consistently associated with depressed diversity in a variety of bathyal habitats.

  6. Spatial community structure of mountain pine beetle fungal symbionts across a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Roe, Amanda D; James, Patrick M A; Rice, Adrianne V; Cooke, Janice E K; Sperling, Felix A H

    2011-08-01

    Symbiont redundancy in obligate insect-fungal systems is thought to buffer the insect host against symbiont loss and to extend the environmental conditions under which the insect can persist. The mountain pine beetle is associated with at least three well-known and putatively obligate ophiostomatoid fungal symbionts that vary in their environmental tolerances. To better understand the spatial variation in beetle-fungal symbiotic associations, we examined the community composition of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the mountain pine beetle as a function of latitude and elevation. The region investigated represents the leading edge of a recent outbreak of mountain pine beetle in western Canada. Using regression and principal components analysis, we identified significant spatial patterns in fungal species abundances that indicate symmetrical replacement between two of the three fungi along a latitudinal gradient and little variation in response to elevation. We also identified significant variation in the prevalence of pair-wise species combinations that occur within beetle galleries. Frequencies of pair-wise combinations were significantly different from what was expected given overall species abundances. These results suggest that complex processes of competitive exclusion and coexistence help determine fungal community composition and that the consequences of these processes vary spatially. The presence of three fungal symbionts in different proportions and combinations across a wide range of environmental conditions may help explain the success of mountain pine beetle attacks across a broad geographic range.

  7. Cyanobacterial diversity of western European biological soil crusts along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Laura; Loewen-Schneider, Katharina; Maier, Stefanie; Büdel, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria associated with biological soil crusts (BSCs) have important attributes, such as nitrogen fixation and soil stabilisation. However, research on these organisms has been minimal, and their diversity and distribution throughout temperate Europe is currently unknown. The SCIN (Soil Crust International) project is a multidisciplinary research initiative that aims to achieve improved understanding of the BSCs of Europe, one facet being an investigation into the cyanobacterial communities of BSCs across a latitudinal gradient. Cyanobacteria assemblages were analysed by both morphological and molecular analysis. Two treatments were applied prior to DNA extraction, continued sample wetting and a dry sample process, and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicons were processed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results reveal high and variable cyanobacterial diversity with each site showing a unique assemblage. Many common cyanobacterial genera, for example Nostoc and Microcoleus, were found in all sites but the abundances of different genera varied considerably. The polyphasic approach was found to be essential in recording the presence of important cyanobacteria that a single method itself did not highlight. The wet and dry treatments showed some differences in diversity, but mainly in abundance, this may suggest how cyanobacterial composition of BSCs changes with seasonal variability. PMID:27411981

  8. Declines in both redundant and trace species characterize the latitudinal diversity gradient in tintinnid ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, John R; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Rhee, Tae Siek

    2016-01-01

    The latitudinal diversity gradient is a well-known biogeographic pattern. However, rarely considered is how a cline in species richness may be reflected in the characteristics of species assemblages. Fewer species may equal fewer distinct ecological types, or declines in redundancy (species functionally similar to one another) or fewer trace species, those occurring in very low concentrations. We focused on tintinnid ciliates of the microzooplankton in which the ciliate cell is housed inside a species-specific lorica or shell. The size of lorica oral aperture, the lorica oral diameter (LOD), is correlated with a preferred prey size and maximum growth rate. Consequently, species of a distinct LOD are distinct in key ecologic characteristics, whereas those of a similar LOD are functionally similar or redundant species. We sampled from East Sea/Sea of Japan to the High Arctic Sea. We determined abundance distributions of biological species and also ecological types by grouping species in LOD size-classes, sets of ecologically similar species. In lower latitudes there are more trace species, more size-classes and the dominant species are accompanied by many apparently ecologically similar species, presumably able to replace the dominant species, at least with regard to the size of prey exploited. Such redundancy appears to decline markedly with latitude in assemblages of tintinnid ciliates. Furthermore, the relatively small species pools of the northern high latitude assemblages suggest a low capacity to adapt to changing conditions. PMID:26990873

  9. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples.

    PubMed

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V "Italica" in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project "BAMBi" (PNRA 2010/A1.10).

  10. Susceptibility to a metal under global warming is shaped by thermal adaptation along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Dinh Van, Khuong; Janssens, Lizanne; Debecker, Sara; De Jonge, Maarten; Lambret, Philippe; Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor; Bervoets, Lieven; Stoks, Robby

    2013-09-01

    Global warming and contamination represent two major threats to biodiversity that have the potential to interact synergistically. There is the potential for gradual local thermal adaptation and dispersal to higher latitudes to mitigate the susceptibility of organisms to contaminants and global warming at high latitudes. Here, we applied a space-for-time substitution approach to study the thermal dependence of the susceptibility of Ischnura elegans damselfly larvae to zinc in a common garden warming experiment (20 and 24 °C) with replicated populations from three latitudes spanning >1500 km in Europe. We observed a striking latitude-specific effect of temperature on the zinc-induced mortality pattern; local thermal adaptation along the latitudinal gradient made Swedish, but not French, damselfly larvae more susceptible to zinc at 24 °C. Latitude- and temperature-specific differences in zinc susceptibility may be related to the amount of energy available to defend against and repair damage since Swedish larvae showed a much stronger zinc-induced reduction of food intake at 24 °C. The pattern of local thermal adaptation indicates that the predicted temperature increase of 4 °C by 2100 will strongly magnify the impact of a contaminant such as zinc at higher latitudes unless there is thermal evolution and/or migration of lower latitude genotypes. Our results underscore the critical importance of studying the susceptibility to contaminants under realistic warming scenarios taking into account local thermal adaptation across natural temperature gradients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mean Annual Precipitation Explains Spatiotemporal Patterns of Cenozoic Mammal Beta Diversity and Latitudinal Diversity Gradients in North America

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Danielle; Hassall, Christopher; Gorelick, Root; Rybczynski, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Spatial diversity patterns are thought to be driven by climate-mediated processes. However, temporal patterns of community composition remain poorly studied. We provide two complementary analyses of North American mammal diversity, using (i) a paleontological dataset (2077 localities with 2493 taxon occurrences) spanning 21 discrete subdivisions of the Cenozoic based on North American Land Mammal Ages (36 Ma – present), and (ii) climate space model predictions for 744 extant mammals under eight scenarios of future climate change. Spatial variation in fossil mammal community structure (β diversity) is highest at intermediate values of continental mean annual precipitation (MAP) estimated from paleosols (∼450 mm/year) and declines under both wetter and drier conditions, reflecting diversity patterns of modern mammals. Latitudinal gradients in community change (latitudinal turnover gradients, aka LTGs) increase in strength through the Cenozoic, but also show a cyclical pattern that is significantly explained by MAP. In general, LTGs are weakest when continental MAP is highest, similar to modern tropical ecosystems in which latitudinal diversity gradients are weak or undetectable. Projections under modeled climate change show no substantial change in β diversity or LTG strength for North American mammals. Our results suggest that similar climate-mediated mechanisms might drive spatial and temporal patterns of community composition in both fossil and extant mammals. We also provide empirical evidence that the ecological processes on which climate space models are based are insufficient for accurately forecasting long-term mammalian response to anthropogenic climate change and inclusion of historical parameters may be essential. PMID:25203658

  12. Mean annual precipitation explains spatiotemporal patterns of Cenozoic mammal beta diversity and latitudinal diversity gradients in North America.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Danielle; Hassall, Christopher; Gorelick, Root; Rybczynski, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Spatial diversity patterns are thought to be driven by climate-mediated processes. However, temporal patterns of community composition remain poorly studied. We provide two complementary analyses of North American mammal diversity, using (i) a paleontological dataset (2077 localities with 2493 taxon occurrences) spanning 21 discrete subdivisions of the Cenozoic based on North American Land Mammal Ages (36 Ma--present), and (ii) climate space model predictions for 744 extant mammals under eight scenarios of future climate change. Spatial variation in fossil mammal community structure (β diversity) is highest at intermediate values of continental mean annual precipitation (MAP) estimated from paleosols (∼ 450 mm/year) and declines under both wetter and drier conditions, reflecting diversity patterns of modern mammals. Latitudinal gradients in community change (latitudinal turnover gradients, aka LTGs) increase in strength through the Cenozoic, but also show a cyclical pattern that is significantly explained by MAP. In general, LTGs are weakest when continental MAP is highest, similar to modern tropical ecosystems in which latitudinal diversity gradients are weak or undetectable. Projections under modeled climate change show no substantial change in β diversity or LTG strength for North American mammals. Our results suggest that similar climate-mediated mechanisms might drive spatial and temporal patterns of community composition in both fossil and extant mammals. We also provide empirical evidence that the ecological processes on which climate space models are based are insufficient for accurately forecasting long-term mammalian response to anthropogenic climate change and inclusion of historical parameters may be essential.

  13. Photosynthetic performance in Sphagnum transplanted along a latitudinal nitrogen deposition gradient.

    PubMed

    Granath, Gustaf; Strengbom, Joachim; Breeuwer, Angela; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank; Rydin, Håkan

    2009-04-01

    Increased N deposition in Europe has affected mire ecosystems. However, knowledge on the physiological responses is poor. We measured photosynthetic responses to increasing N deposition in two peatmoss species (Sphagnum balticum and Sphagnum fuscum) from a 3-year, north-south transplant experiment in northern Europe, covering a latitudinal N deposition gradient ranging from 0.28 g N m(-2) year(-1) in the north, to 1.49 g N m(-2) year(-1) in the south. The maximum photosynthetic rate (NP(max)) increased southwards, and was mainly explained by tissue N concentration, secondly by allocation of N to the photosynthesis, and to a lesser degree by modified photosystem II activity (variable fluorescence/maximum fluorescence yield). Although climatic factors may have contributed, these results were most likely attributable to an increase in N deposition southwards. For S. fuscum, photosynthetic rate continued to increase up to a deposition level of 1.49 g N m(-2) year(-1), but for S. balticum it seemed to level out at 1.14 g N m(-2) year(-1). The results for S. balticum suggested that transplants from different origin (with low or intermediate N deposition) respond differently to high N deposition. This indicates that Sphagnum species may be able to adapt or physiologically adjust to high N deposition. Our results also suggest that S. balticum might be more sensitive to N deposition than S. fuscum. Surprisingly, NP(max) was not (S. balticum), or only weakly (S. fuscum) correlated with biomass production, indicating that production is to a great extent is governed by factors other than the photosynthetic capacity.

  14. Latitudinal Diversity Gradients in New World Bats: Are They a Consequence of Niche Conservatism?

    PubMed Central

    Ramos Pereira, Maria João; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    The increase in species diversity from the Poles to the Equator is a major biogeographic pattern, but the mechanisms underlying it remain obscure. Our aim is to contribute to their clarification by describing the latitudinal gradients in species richness and in evolutionary age of species of New World bats, and testing if those patterns may be explained by the niche conservatism hypothesis. Maps of species ranges were used to estimate species richness in a 100 x 100 km grid. Root distances in a molecular phylogeny were used as a proxy for the age of species, and the mean root distance of the species in each cell of the grid was estimated. Generalised additive models were used to relate latitude with both species richness and mean root distance. This was done for each of the three most specious bat families and for all Chiroptera combined. Species richness increases towards the Equator in the whole of the Chiroptera and in the Phyllostomidae and Molossidae, families that radiated in the tropics, but the opposite trend is observed in the Vespertilionidae, which has a presumed temperate origin. In the whole of the Chiroptera, and in the three main families, there were more basal species in the higher latitudes, and more derived species in tropical areas. In general, our results were not consistent with the predictions of niche conservatism. Tropical niche conservatism seems to keep bat clades of tropical origin from colonizing temperate zones, as they lack adaptations to survive cold winters, such as the capacity to hibernate. However, the lower diversity of Vespertilionidae in the Neotropics is better explained by competition with a diverse pre-existing community of bats than by niche conservatism. PMID:23935963

  15. Life history attributes of fishes along the latitudinal gradient of the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of two short-lived species (emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides and sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki) and three long-lived species (freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens, river carpsucker Carpiodes carpio, and sauger Stizostedion canadense) were studied in the Missouri River to examine spatial variations in life history characteristics across a latitudinal and thermal gradient (38??47???N to 48??03???N). The life history characteristics included longevity (maximum age), the rate at which asymptotic length was approached (K from the von Bertalanffy growth equation), the mean back-calculated length at age, and growth rates during the first year of life (mm/degree-day and mm/d). The mean water temperature and number of days in the growing season averaged 1.3 times greater in the southern than in the northern latitudes, while degree-days averaged twice as great. The longevity of all species except freshwater drum increased significantly from south to north, but the relationships between maximum age and latitude were curvilinear for short-lived species and linear for long-lived species. The von Bertalanffy growth coefficient for river carpsuckers and saugers increased from north to south, as indicated by significant negative relationships between K and latitude. Mean back-calculated length at age was negatively related to latitude for freshwater drums (???age 4) and saugers (ages 1-5) but positively related to latitude for river carpsuckers (???age 6). One of the growth rates examined (mm/degree-day) increased significantly from low to high latitudes for emerald shiners, sicklefin chubs, freshwater drums, and river carpsuckers during the first growing season. The other growth rate (mm/d) increased significantly from low to high latitudes for emerald shiners but was inversely related to latitude for saugers. These results suggest that the thermal regime related to latitude influences the life history characteristics of fishes in the Missouri River.

  16. Human birth seasonality: latitudinal gradient and interplay with childhood disease dynamics.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Bakker, Micaela; Bakker, Kevin M; King, Aaron A; Rohani, Pejman

    2014-05-22

    More than a century of ecological studies have demonstrated the importance of demography in shaping spatial and temporal variation in population dynamics. Surprisingly, the impact of seasonal recruitment on infectious disease systems has received much less attention. Here, we present data encompassing 78 years of monthly natality in the USA, and reveal pronounced seasonality in birth rates, with geographical and temporal variation in both the peak birth timing and amplitude. The timing of annual birth pulses followed a latitudinal gradient, with northern states exhibiting spring/summer peaks and southern states exhibiting autumn peaks, a pattern we also observed throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Additionally, the amplitude of United States birth seasonality was more than twofold greater in southern states versus those in the north. Next, we examined the dynamical impact of birth seasonality on childhood disease incidence, using a mechanistic model of measles. Birth seasonality was found to have the potential to alter the magnitude and periodicity of epidemics, with the effect dependent on both birth peak timing and amplitude. In a simulation study, we fitted an susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered model to simulated data, and demonstrated that ignoring birth seasonality can bias the estimation of critical epidemiological parameters. Finally, we carried out statistical inference using historical measles incidence data from New York City. Our analyses did not identify the predicted systematic biases in parameter estimates. This may be owing to the well-known frequency-locking between measles epidemics and seasonal transmission rates, or may arise from substantial uncertainty in multiple model parameters and estimation stochasticity.

  17. Human birth seasonality: latitudinal gradient and interplay with childhood disease dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Bakker, Micaela; Bakker, Kevin M.; King, Aaron A.; Rohani, Pejman

    2014-01-01

    More than a century of ecological studies have demonstrated the importance of demography in shaping spatial and temporal variation in population dynamics. Surprisingly, the impact of seasonal recruitment on infectious disease systems has received much less attention. Here, we present data encompassing 78 years of monthly natality in the USA, and reveal pronounced seasonality in birth rates, with geographical and temporal variation in both the peak birth timing and amplitude. The timing of annual birth pulses followed a latitudinal gradient, with northern states exhibiting spring/summer peaks and southern states exhibiting autumn peaks, a pattern we also observed throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Additionally, the amplitude of United States birth seasonality was more than twofold greater in southern states versus those in the north. Next, we examined the dynamical impact of birth seasonality on childhood disease incidence, using a mechanistic model of measles. Birth seasonality was found to have the potential to alter the magnitude and periodicity of epidemics, with the effect dependent on both birth peak timing and amplitude. In a simulation study, we fitted an susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered model to simulated data, and demonstrated that ignoring birth seasonality can bias the estimation of critical epidemiological parameters. Finally, we carried out statistical inference using historical measles incidence data from New York City. Our analyses did not identify the predicted systematic biases in parameter estimates. This may be owing to the well-known frequency-locking between measles epidemics and seasonal transmission rates, or may arise from substantial uncertainty in multiple model parameters and estimation stochasticity. PMID:24695423

  18. Global Patterns in Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction: A Latitudinal Gradient in Nitrogen Retention and Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, W. L.; Thompson, A. W.; Bradbury, D.; Chapin, F. S.; Ewel, J. J.; Firestone, M. K.

    2003-12-01

    Increased nitrogen (N) deposition in humid environments has the potential to significantly increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions via nitrification and denitrification. This potential N loss may be significantly offset by N retention from dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). In this study, we report on rates of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to N2O and ammonium along a latitudinal gradient from the tropics to the boreal forest. We conducted laboratory experiments with forest soils from Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, California, and Alaska to determine maximum potential rates of DNRA and N2O production. We also conducted field experiments in Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, and Alaska to estimate in situ rates. Maximum potential rates of DNRA ranged from 10 ug/g/d in fertilized poplar forests in Alaska to 0.3 ug/g/d in unfertilized polyculture plantations in Costa Rica. At all sites, rates of DNRA appeared to be nitrate limited. On average, temperate and boreal forests had greater potential rates of DNRA (5 +/- 1 ug/g/d) than tropical forests (3 +/- 1 ug/g/d). Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased rates of DNRA in Alaska. Rates of maximum potential N2O flux were generally lower than DNRA rates (0.16 to 4 ug/g/d). In field experiments, rates of DNRA were greatest in tropical rain forests in Puerto Rico, followed by wet forests in Costa Rica, and black spruce forests in Alaska. Although field DNRA rates were low in Alaska, they accounted for up to 13 % of gross mineralization and 24 % of gross nitrification. At all sites, rates of N2O flux via denitrification and nitrification were significantly lower than N retention via DNRA. Our results suggest that this previously unmeasured N cycling pathway effectively competes with processes resulting in N-trace gas loss from a range of forested ecosystems.

  19. Shaping the Latitudinal Diversity Gradient: New Perspectives from a Synthesis of Paleobiology and Biogeography.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, David; Huang, Shan; Roy, Kaustuv; Valentine, James W

    2017-01-01

    An impediment to understanding the origin and dynamics of the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG)-the most pervasive large-scale biotic pattern on Earth-has been the tendency to focus narrowly on a single causal factor when a more synthetic, integrative approach is needed. Using marine bivalves as a model system and drawing on other systems where possible, we review paleobiologic and biogeographic support for two supposedly opposing views, that the LDG is shaped primarily by (a) local environmental factors that determine the number of species and higher taxa at a given latitude (in situ hypotheses) or (b) the entry of lineages arising elsewhere into a focal region (spatial dynamics hypotheses). Support for in situ hypotheses includes the fit of present-day diversity trends in many clades to such environmental factors as temperature and the correlation of extinction intensities in Pliocene bivalve faunas with net regional temperature changes. Support for spatial dynamics hypotheses includes the age-frequency distribution of bivalve genera across latitudes, which is consistent with an out-of-the-tropics dynamic, as are the higher species diversities in temperate southeastern Australia and southeastern Japan than in the tropical Caribbean. Thus, both in situ and spatial dynamics processes must shape the bivalve LDG and are likely to operate in other groups as well. The relative strengths of the two processes may differ among groups showing similar LDGs, but dissecting their effects will require improved methods of integrating fossil data with molecular phylogenies. We highlight several potential research directions and argue that many of the most dramatic biotic patterns, past and present, are likely to have been generated by diverse, mutually reinforcing drivers.

  20. The latitudinal species richness gradient in New World woody angiosperms is consistent with the tropical conservatism hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoff, Andrew J.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Weiser, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Plant diversity, like that of most other taxonomic groups, peaks in the tropics, where climatic conditions are warm and wet, and it declines toward the temperate and polar zones as conditions become colder and drier, with more seasonally variable temperatures. Climate and evolutionary history are often considered competing explanations for the latitudinal gradient, but they are linked by the evolutionarily conserved environmental adaptations of species and the history of Earth’s climate system. The tropical conservatism hypothesis (TCH) invokes niche conservatism, climatic limitations on establishment and survival, and paleoclimatic history to explain the latitudinal diversity gradient. Here, we use latitudinal distributions for over 12,500 woody angiosperm species, a fossil-calibrated supertree, and null modeling to test predictions of the TCH. Regional assemblages in the northern and southern temperate zones are less phylogenetically diverse than expected based on their species richness, because temperate taxa are clustered into relatively few clades. Moreover, lineages with temperate affinities are generally younger and nested within older, more tropical lineages. As predicted by the TCH, the vast majority of temperate lineages have arisen since global cooling began at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (34 Mya). By linking physiological tolerances of species to evolutionary and biogeographic processes, phylogenetic niche conservatism may provide a theoretical framework for a generalized explanation for Earth’s predominant pattern of biodiversity. PMID:24847062

  1. The latitudinal species richness gradient in New World woody angiosperms is consistent with the tropical conservatism hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kerkhoff, Andrew J; Moriarty, Pamela E; Weiser, Michael D

    2014-06-03

    Plant diversity, like that of most other taxonomic groups, peaks in the tropics, where climatic conditions are warm and wet, and it declines toward the temperate and polar zones as conditions become colder and drier, with more seasonally variable temperatures. Climate and evolutionary history are often considered competing explanations for the latitudinal gradient, but they are linked by the evolutionarily conserved environmental adaptations of species and the history of Earth's climate system. The tropical conservatism hypothesis (TCH) invokes niche conservatism, climatic limitations on establishment and survival, and paleoclimatic history to explain the latitudinal diversity gradient. Here, we use latitudinal distributions for over 12,500 woody angiosperm species, a fossil-calibrated supertree, and null modeling to test predictions of the TCH. Regional assemblages in the northern and southern temperate zones are less phylogenetically diverse than expected based on their species richness, because temperate taxa are clustered into relatively few clades. Moreover, lineages with temperate affinities are generally younger and nested within older, more tropical lineages. As predicted by the TCH, the vast majority of temperate lineages have arisen since global cooling began at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (34 Mya). By linking physiological tolerances of species to evolutionary and biogeographic processes, phylogenetic niche conservatism may provide a theoretical framework for a generalized explanation for Earth's predominant pattern of biodiversity.

  2. Cannibalism and activity rate in larval damselflies increase along a latitudinal gradient as a consequence of time constraints.

    PubMed

    Sniegula, Szymon; Golab, Maria J; Johansson, Frank

    2017-07-14

    Predation is ubiquitous in nature. One form of predation is cannibalism, which is affected by many factors such as size structure and resource density. However, cannibalism may also be influenced by abiotic factors such as seasonal time constraints. Since time constraints are greater at high latitudes, cannibalism could be stronger at such latitudes, but we know next to nothing about latitudinal variation in cannibalism. In this study, we examined cannibalism and activity in larvae of the damselfly Lestes sponsa along a latitudinal gradient across Europe. We did this by raising larvae from the egg stage at different temperatures and photoperiods corresponding to different latitudes. We found that the more seasonally time-constrained populations in northern latitudes and individuals subjected to greater seasonal time constraints exhibited a higher level of cannibalism. We also found that activity was higher at north latitude conditions, and thus correlated with cannibalism, suggesting that this behaviour mediates higher levels of cannibalism in time-constrained animals. Our results go counter to the classical latitude-predation pattern which predicts higher predation at lower latitudes, since we found that predation was stronger at higher latitudes. The differences in cannibalism might have implications for population dynamics along the latitudinal gradients, but further experiments are needed to explore this.

  3. Tree growth and its climate signal along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients: comparison of tree rings between Finland and the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Lixin; Suvanto, Susanne; Nöjd, Pekka; Henttonen, Helena M.; Mäkinen, Harri; Zhang, Qi-Bin

    2017-06-01

    Latitudinal and altitudinal gradients can be utilized to forecast the impact of climate change on forests. To improve the understanding of how these gradients impact forest dynamics, we tested two hypotheses: (1) the change of the tree growth-climate relationship is similar along both latitudinal and altitudinal gradients, and (2) the time periods during which climate affects growth the most occur later towards higher latitudes and altitudes. To address this, we utilized tree-ring data from a latitudinal gradient in Finland and from two altitudinal gradients on the Tibetan Plateau. We analysed the latitudinal and altitudinal growth patterns in tree rings and investigated the growth-climate relationship of trees by correlating ring-width index chronologies with climate variables, calculating with flexible time windows, and using daily-resolution climate data. High latitude and altitude plots showed higher correlations between tree-ring chronologies and growing season temperature. However, the effects of winter temperature showed contrasting patterns for the gradients. The timing of the highest correlation with temperatures during the growing season at southern sites was approximately 1 month ahead of that at northern sites in the latitudinal gradient. In one out of two altitudinal gradients, the timing for the strongest negative correlation with temperature at low-altitude sites was ahead of treeline sites during the growing season, possibly due to differences in moisture limitation. Mean values and the standard deviation of tree-ring width increased with increasing mean July temperatures on both types of gradients. Our results showed similarities of tree growth responses to increasing seasonal temperature between latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. However, differences in climate-growth relationships were also found between gradients due to differences in other factors such as moisture conditions. Changes in the timing of the most critical climate variables

  4. Dynamics of absorption properties along a latitudinal gradient: sources of absorption in Australian inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestir, E. L.; Campbell, G.; Malthus, T. J.; Dekker, A.; Botha, E.

    2013-12-01

    Australian inland waters are optically complex and vary spatially and temporally. Inversion of optical remote sensing data for the retrieval of optically active water quality constituents (chlorophyll, colored dissolved organic matter and total suspended solids) is impeded by the scarcity of inherent optical property (IOP) data sets. In 2012 a major measurement program commenced to improve understanding of IOPs in Australia. Seven large lakes were sampled along a latitudinal gradient in Eastern Australia; in situ observations were made of the absorption properties of the water quality during two epochs (wet and dry season). This study documents the seasonal, inter & intra lake variability of the absorption budget of Australian lakes. These data reveal the sources of biogeochemical constituents determining the light climate of lakes. Optically active water quality constituents (total suspended solids, chlorophyll-a, and colored dissolved organic matter) varied significantly between wet and dry season and between lakes. The primary contribution to the absorption budget was from non-algal particulate matter (NAP; 10-60%), followed by colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM; 20-80%). Absorption from phytoplankton contributed only 0-30% of the total budget. This indicates that these lakes are primarily light limited, though the limitation comes from multiple sources. The contribution of NAP to the total absorption budget showed the greatest amount of variance between wet and dry seasons. Examination of the organic matter and estimated phytoplankton biomass contributions to TSS reveal that chlorophyll is not the primary source of organic matter in Australian lakes: allochthonous inputs are the primary trophic driver. Finally, there is strong regional and seasonal variation in the IOPs of the lakes, with the exception of the slope of CDOM. The slope of CDOM was not significantly different between seasons (p=0.94). Non-parametric stepwise multiple comparisons showed the

  5. Latitudinal TEC gradients over polar ionosphere using high latitude GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagimuratov, Irk; Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina; Tepenitsyna, Nadezhda; Yakimova, Galina; Ephishov, I. I.

    The GPS observations of Greenland network were used to analyze the latitudinal variations of TEC at the high-latitudes ionosphere. This network provides unique opportunity to monitor TEC variability in polar ionosphere on a regular base. GPS stations are arranged along the latitude over the range 60-83°N (65°-87° Corrected Geomagnetic Latitude) near of 30°-40° longitudes. More than 20 GPS stations are located closely with one another along latitude. The distance between stations is about 1°-2°.Such spatial resolution provides the possibility to analyze the detailed structure of latitudinal TEC profiles. The standard procedure of processing GPS observations was used for TEC estimation. On this base it was obtained the diurnal TEC variations over all Greenland stations. The TEC data is used to form latitudinal profiles (TEC section) covered subauroral, auroral and polar ionosphere. In the report the observations of TEC for quiet and disturbed ionosphere during several geomagnetic storms occurred in September 2011 are presented. During quiet conditions in the night-time TEC profiles demonstrated invariable values about of 4-6 TECU in latitudinal region of 60°-75°N; then it presented THE increase towards the higher latitude and reached the value of 10 TECU near 80°N. The daytime profiles revealed TEC decrease toward high latitude in keeping with 0.8 TECU/degree. During storm the structure of latitudinal TEC profiles was essentially changed with agreement to the development of geomagnetic storm. The positive effect was observed at subauroral and auroral latitudes, negative effect was prevailed at the polar region. During the night time the ionospheric trough can be observed. In the report features of the behavior of latitudinal profiles at high-latitude ionosphere for September 2011 events were discussed.

  6. Latitudinal variation in genetic divergence of populations and the potential for future speciation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R; McKay, John K

    2004-05-01

    The increase in biological diversity with decreasing latitude is widely appreciated but the cause of the pattern is unknown. This pattern reflects latitudinal variation in both the origin of new species (cladogenesis) and the number of species that coexist. Here we address latitudinal variation in species origination, by examining population genetic processes that influence speciation. Previous data suggest a greater number of speciation events at lower latitudes. If speciation events occur more frequently at lower latitudes, we predicted that genetic divergence among populations within species, an important component of cladogenesis, should be greater among lower latitude populations. We tested this prediction using within-species patterns of mtDNA variation across 60 vertebrate species that collectively spanned six continents, two oceans, and 119 degrees latitude. We found greater genetic divergence of populations, controlling for geographic distance, at lower latitudes within species. This pattern remained statistically significant after removing populations that occur in localities previously covered by continental glaciers during the last glaciation. Results suggest that lower latitude populations within species exhibit greater evolutionary independence, increasing the likelihood that mutation, recombination, selection, and/or drift will lead to divergence of traits important for reproductive isolation and speciation. Results are consistent with a greater influence of seasonality, reduced energy, and/or glacial (Milankovitch) cycles acting on higher latitude populations, and represent one of the few tests of predictions of latitudinal variation in speciation rates using population genetic data.

  7. Temperature and diet effects on omnivorous fish performance: Implications for the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrens, M.D.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2007-01-01

    Herbivorous fishes show a clear latitudinal diversity gradient, making up a larger proportion of the fish species in a community in tropical waters than in temperate waters. One proposed mechanism that could drive this gradient is a physiological constraint due to temperature. One prediction based on this mechanism is that if herbivorous fishes could shift their diet to animal material, they would be better able to grow, survive, and reproduce in cold waters. We tested this prediction on the omnivore Girella nigricans under different temperature and diet regimes using RNA-DNA ratios as an indicator of performance. Fish had increased performance (100%) at low temperatures (12??C) when their diet was supplemented with animal material. In contrast, at higher temperatures (17, 22, and 27??C) fish showed no differences between diets. This indicates that omnivorous fishes could increase their performance at low temperatures by consuming more animal matter. This study supports the hypothesis that a relative increase in the nutritional value of plant material at warmer temperatures could drive the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes. ?? 2007 NRC.

  8. Shell properties of commercial clam Chamelea gallina are influenced by temperature and solar radiation along a wide latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Gizzi, Francesca; Caccia, Maria Giulia; Simoncini, Ginevra Allegra; Mancuso, Arianna; Reggi, Michela; Fermani, Simona; Brizi, Leonardo; Fantazzini, Paola; Stagioni, Marco; Falini, Giuseppe; Piccinetti, Corrado; Goffredo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Phenotype can express different morphologies in response to biotic or abiotic environmental influences. Mollusks are particularly sensitive to different environmental parameters, showing macroscale shell morphology variations in response to environmental parameters. Few studies concern shell variations at the different scale levels along environmental gradients. Here, we investigate shell features at the macro, micro and nanoscale, in populations of the commercially important clam Chamelea gallina along a latitudinal gradient (~400 km) of temperature and solar radiation in the Adriatic Sea (Italian cost). Six populations of clams with shells of the same length were analyzed. Shells from the warmest and the most irradiated population were thinner, with more oval shape, more porous and lighter, showing lower load fracture. However, no variation was observed in shell CaCO3 polymorphism (100% aragonite) or in compositional and textural shell parameters, indicating no effect of the environmental parameters on the basic processes of biomineralization. Because of the importance of this species as commercial resource in the Adriatic Sea, the experimentally quantified and significant variations of mass and fracture load in C. gallina shells along the latitudinal gradient may have economic implications for fisheries producing different economical yield for fishermen and consumers along the Adriatic coastline. PMID:27805037

  9. Woody plant encroachment effect on soil organic carbon dynamics: results from a latitudinal gradient in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellis, Guido; Chiti, Tommaso; Moscatelli, Maria Cristina; Marinari, Sara; Papale, Dario

    2016-04-01

    Woody plant encroachment into pastures and grasslands represents a significant land cover change phenomenon, with a considerable impact on carbon dynamics at an ecosystem level. It was estimated that 7.64% of the Southern Europe land was subject to that process between 1950 to 2010. As a result of woody encroachment, changes in vegetation composition can produce substantial changes to the soil organic carbon (SOC) cycle. Despite the numerous papers published on land-use change, an evaluation of the IPCC terrestrial carbon pools changes occurring during woody encroachment on abandoned pastures and grasslands is still lacking, particularly for the Italian territory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of woody encroachment on carbon sequestration over abandoned pastures and grasslands in Alpine and Apennine ecosystems, with a particular focus on the SOC. We applied a chronosequence approach to seven selected sites located along a latitudinal gradient in Italy. Each chronosequence consisted of a pasture currently managed, three sites abandoned at different times in the past and, finally, a mature forest stand representing the last phase of the succession. The European Commission sampling protocols to certify SOC changes was adopted to estimate the variations following woody encroachment. Soil samples were collected at different depths in the topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (30-70 cm), despite the original protocol formulation being limited to the topsoil only. In addition, aboveground living biomass (AGB), dead wood and litter were also measured following international protocols. Considering all C pools together, woody plant encroachment leads to a progressive C stock accumulation in all the chronosequences. The total C stock of mature forest stands ranges from 1.78±0.11 times (Eastern Alps) to 2.48±0.31 times (central Apennine) the initial value on pastures. Unsurprisingly, the C stocks of AGB, dead wood and litter all increase during the

  10. Post-fire changes in net shortwave radiation along a latitudinal gradient in boreal North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.; Goulden, Michael L.; Goetz, Scott J.

    2012-07-01

    Understanding how a changing boreal fire regime is likely to influence regional climate requires detailed information about fire effects on the surface radiation budget. We used time series of satellite observations of surface albedo from 2000-2011 and fire perimeters since 1970 to study post-fire changes in surface net shortwave radiation along a latitudinal transect in central Canada. Fire-induced surface shortwave forcing (SSF) integrated over an annual cycle for the first 30 years after fire was similar (-4.1 W m-2 with a 95% confidence interval of -4.5 to -3.7 W m-2) between southern and northern boreal regions. The lack of a latitudinal difference in SSF was caused by counteracting latitudinal trends in seasonal contributions. Spring (March, April, and May) SSF increased with latitude, from -7.2 W m-2 in the south to -10.1 W m-2 in the north, primarily because of delayed snow melt, which amplified albedo differences between unburned forests and recovering stands. In contrast, winter incoming solar radiation and summer albedo change decreased from south to north, resulting in a decreasing latitudinal trend in winter and summer SSF. Vegetation recovery was slower in the north, leading to smaller increases in summer albedo during the first decade after fire, and a prolonged phase of elevated spring albedo during the second decade. Our results indicate that fires reduce surface net shortwave radiation considerably for many boreal forest ecosystems in North America, providing further evidence that disturbance-mediated shifts in surface energy exchange need to be considered in efforts to manage these forests for climate change mitigation.

  11. Do turtles follow the rules? Latitudinal gradients in species richness, body size, and geographic range area of the world's turtles.

    PubMed

    Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Burroughs, Robert W; Feldman, Chris R

    2015-05-01

    Understanding how and why biodiversity is structured across the globe has been central to ecology, evolution, and biogeography even before those disciplines took their modern forms. Three global-scale patterns in particular have been the focus of research and debate for decades: latitudinal gradients in species richness (richness decreases with increasing latitude), body size (body size increases with increasing latitude in endotherms; Bergmann's rule), and geographic range size (range size increases with increasing latitude; Rapoport's rule). Despite decades of study, the generality and robustness of these trends have been debated, as have their underlying causes. Here we investigate latitudinal gradients in species richness, body size, and range size in the world's turtles (Testudines), and add more evidence that these rules do not seem to apply across all taxa. We show that turtle diversity actually peaks at 25° north, a highly unusual global pattern. Turtles also fail to follow Bergmann's Rule, and may show the converse (larger at lower latitudes), though trends are weak. Turtles also show a complex relationship between latitude and range size that does not directly follow Rapoport's rule. Body size and geographic range size are significantly correlated, and multiple abiotic and biotic variables help explain the relationships between latitude and species diversity, body size, and range size. Although we show that turtles do not strictly follow some classic biogeographical rules, we also call for further in-depth research to investigate potential causal mechanisms for these atypical patterns.

  12. Latitudinal species diversity gradient of mushroom corals off eastern Australia: a baseline from the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2015-11-01

    Based on a study of mushroom coral species of eastern Australia, a decrease in species richness can be discerned from north to south. Eastern Australia, including the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), is one of only few coral reef areas suitable for studies on large-scale latitudinal biodiversity patterns. Such patterns may help to recognize biogeographic boundaries and factors regulating biodiversity. Owing to the eastern Australian long coastline, such studies are a logistic challenge unless reliable distribution data are already available, as in museum collections. A large coral collection predominantly sampled from this area in the 1970s is present in the Museum of Tropical Queensland (MTQ). The scleractinian family Fungiidae (mushroom corals), representing about 10% of Indo-Pacific reef coral species, was selected as proxy. It was represented by 1289 specimens belonging to 34 species with latitudinal ranges between 09°09‧S and 31°28‧S. The fauna of the northernmost reefs in the Gulf of Papua and the Torres Strait, and north of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), was represented by a maximum of 30 fungiids. From here a southward decline in species number was observed, down to Lord Howe Island with only one species. Together with previous records, the mushroom coral fauna of eastern Australia consists of 37 species, which is more diverse than hitherto known and similar to numbers found in the Coral Triangle. Future field surveys in the GBR should specifically target rarely known species, which are mainly small and found at depths >25 m. In the light of global climate change, they may also show whether previously recorded species are still present and whether their latitudinal ranges have shifted, using the 1970s records as a baseline.

  13. Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in eastern Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. The large-scale patterns of phytogeography in East Asia are strongly related to latitude, which covaries with several climatic variables such as temperature. Evolutionary processes such as the adaptation of plants to cold climates and current and past land connections are likely responsible for the observed latitudinal patterns.

  14. What can multiple phylogenies say about the latitudinal diversity gradient? A new look at the tropical conservatism, out of the tropics, and diversification rate hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Roland; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Harding, Larisa E

    2013-06-01

    We reviewed published phylogenies and selected 111 phylogenetic studies representing mammals, birds, insects, and flowering plants. We then mapped the latitudinal range of all taxa to test the relative importance of the tropical conservatism, out of the tropics, and diversification rate hypotheses in generating latitudinal diversity gradients. Most clades originated in the tropics, with diversity peaking in the zone of origin. Transitions of lineages between latitudinal zones occurred at 16-22% of the tree nodes. The most common type of transition was range expansions of tropical lineages to encompass also temperate latitudes. Thus, adaptation to new climatic conditions may not represent a major obstacle for many clades. These results contradict predictions of the tropical conservatism hypothesis (i.e., few clades colonizing extratropical latitudes), but support the out-of-the-tropics model (i.e., tropical originations and subsequent latitudinal range expansions). Our results suggest no difference in diversification between tropical and temperate sister lineages; thus, diversity of tropical clades was not explained by higher diversification rates in this zone. Moreover, lineages with latitudinal stasis diversified more compared to sister lineages entering a new latitudinal zone. This preserved preexisting diversity differences between latitudinal zones and can be considered a new mechanism for why diversity tends to peak in the zone of origin.

  15. Latitudinal gradients in tree ring stable carbon and oxygen isotopes reveal differential climate influences of the North American Monsoon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szejner, Paul; Wright, William E.; Babst, Flurin; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Trouet, Valerie; Leavitt, Steven W.; Ehleringer, James R.; Monson, Russell K.

    2016-07-01

    The arrival of the North American Monsoon System (NAMS) terminates a presummer hyperarid period in the southwestern United States (U.S.), providing summer moisture that is favorable for forest growth. Montane forests in this region rely on winter snowpack to drive much of their growth; the extent to which they use NAMS moisture is uncertain. We addressed this by studying stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in earlywood and latewood from 11 sites along a latitudinal gradient extending from Arizona and New Mexico to Utah. This study provides the first regional perspective on the relative roles of winter versus summer precipitation as an ecophysiological resource. Here we present evidence that Ponderosa pine uses NAMS moisture differentially across this gradient. 13C/12C ratios suggest that photosynthetic water use efficiency during latewood formation is more sensitive to summer precipitation at the northern than at the southern sites. This is likely due to the fact that NAMS moisture provides sufficiently favorable conditions for tree photosynthesis and growth during most years in the southern sites, whereas the northern sites experience larger summer moisture variability, which in some years is limiting growth. Cellulose δ18O and δ13C values revealed that photoassimilates in the southern sites were produced under higher vapor pressure deficit conditions during spring compared to summer, demonstrating a previously underappreciated effect of seasonal differences in atmospheric humidity on tree ring isotope ratios. Our findings suggest that future changes in NAMS will potentially alter productivity and photosynthetic water use dynamics differentially along latitudinal gradients in southwestern U.S. montane forests.

  16. The geography of fear: a latitudinal gradient in anti-predator escape distances of birds across Europe.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Mario; Møller, Anders Pape; Flensted-Jensen, Einar; Grim, Tomáš; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Jokimäki, Jukka; Markó, Gábor; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    All animals flee from potential predators, and the distance at which this happens is optimized so the benefits from staying are balanced against the costs of flight. Because predator diversity and abundance decreases with increasing latitude, and differs between rural and urban areas, we should expect escape distance when a predator approached the individual to decrease with latitude and depend on urbanization. We measured the distance at which individual birds fled (flight initiation distance, FID, which represents a reliable and previously validated surrogate measure of response to predation risk) following a standardized protocol in nine pairs of rural and urban sites along a ca. 3000 km gradient from Southern Spain to Northern Finland during the breeding seasons 2009-2010. Raptor abundance was estimated by means of standard point counts at the same sites where FID information was recorded. Data on body mass and phylogenetic relationships among bird species sampled were extracted from the literature. An analysis of 12,495 flight distances of 714 populations of 159 species showed that mean FID decreased with increasing latitude after accounting for body size and phylogenetic effects. This decrease was paralleled by a similar cline in an index of the abundance of raptors. Urban populations had consistently shorter FIDs, supporting previous findings. The difference between rural and urban habitats decreased with increasing latitude, also paralleling raptor abundance trends. Overall, the latitudinal gradient in bird fear was explained by raptor abundance gradients, with additional small effects of latitude and intermediate effects of habitat. This study provides the first empirical documentation of a latitudinal trend in anti-predator behavior, which correlated positively with a similar trend in the abundance of predators.

  17. The Geography of Fear: A Latitudinal Gradient in Anti-Predator Escape Distances of Birds across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Mario; Møller, Anders Pape; Flensted-Jensen, Einar; Grim, Tomáš; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Jokimäki, Jukka; Markó, Gábor; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    All animals flee from potential predators, and the distance at which this happens is optimized so the benefits from staying are balanced against the costs of flight. Because predator diversity and abundance decreases with increasing latitude, and differs between rural and urban areas, we should expect escape distance when a predator approached the individual to decrease with latitude and depend on urbanization. We measured the distance at which individual birds fled (flight initiation distance, FID, which represents a reliable and previously validated surrogate measure of response to predation risk) following a standardized protocol in nine pairs of rural and urban sites along a ca. 3000 km gradient from Southern Spain to Northern Finland during the breeding seasons 2009–2010. Raptor abundance was estimated by means of standard point counts at the same sites where FID information was recorded. Data on body mass and phylogenetic relationships among bird species sampled were extracted from the literature. An analysis of 12,495 flight distances of 714 populations of 159 species showed that mean FID decreased with increasing latitude after accounting for body size and phylogenetic effects. This decrease was paralleled by a similar cline in an index of the abundance of raptors. Urban populations had consistently shorter FIDs, supporting previous findings. The difference between rural and urban habitats decreased with increasing latitude, also paralleling raptor abundance trends. Overall, the latitudinal gradient in bird fear was explained by raptor abundance gradients, with additional small effects of latitude and intermediate effects of habitat. This study provides the first empirical documentation of a latitudinal trend in anti-predator behavior, which correlated positively with a similar trend in the abundance of predators. PMID:23724070

  18. A genetically-based latitudinal cline in the emission of herbivore-induced plant volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Wason, Elizabeth L; Agrawal, Anurag A; Hunter, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    The existence of predictable latitudinal variation in plant defense against herbivores remains controversial. A prevailing view holds that higher levels of plant defense evolve at low latitudes compared to high latitudes as an adaptive plant response to higher herbivore pressure on low-latitude plants. To date, this prediction has not been examined with respect to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that many plants emit, often thus attracting the natural enemies of herbivores. Here, we compared genetically-based constitutive and herbivore-induced aboveground vegetative VOC emissions from plants originating across a gradient of more than 10° of latitude (>1,500 km). We collected headspace VOCs from Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) originating from 20 populations across its natural range and grown in a common garden near the range center. Feeding by specialist Danaus plexippus (monarch) larvae induced VOCs, and field environmental conditions (temperature, light, and humidity) also influenced emissions. Monarch damage increased plant VOC concentrations and altered VOC blends. We found that genetically-based induced VOC emissions varied with the latitude of plant population origin, although the pattern followed the reverse of that predicted-induced VOC concentration increased with increasing latitude. This pattern appeared to be driven by a greater induction of sesquiterpenoids at higher latitudes. In contrast, constitutive VOC emission did not vary systematically with latitude, and the induction of green leafy volatiles declined with latitude. Our results do not support the prevailing view that plant defense is greater at lower than at higher latitudes. That the pattern holds only for herbivore-induced VOC emission, and not constitutive emission, suggests that latitudinal variation in VOCs is not a simple adaptive response to climatic factors.

  19. Sap-feeding insects on forest trees along latitudinal gradients in northern Europe: a climate-driven patterns.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Mikhail V; Stekolshchikov, Andrey V; Söderman, Guy; Labina, Eugenia S; Zverev, Vitali; Zvereva, Elena L

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the latitudinal patterns in biotic interactions, and especially in herbivory, is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. We used sap-feeding insects as a model group to test the hypotheses that the strength of plant-herbivore interactions in boreal forests decreases with latitude and that this latitudinal pattern is driven primarily by midsummer temperatures. We used a replicated sampling design and quantitatively collected and identified all sap-feeding insects from four species of forest trees along five latitudinal gradients (750-1300 km in length, ten sites in each gradient) in northern Europe (59 to 70°N and 10 to 60°E) during 2008-2011. Similar decreases in diversity of sap-feeding insects with latitude were observed in all gradients during all study years. The sap-feeder load (i.e. insect biomass per unit of foliar biomass) decreased with latitude in typical summers, but increased in an exceptionally hot summer and was independent of latitude during a warm summer. Analysis of combined data from all sites and years revealed dome-shaped relationships between the loads of sap-feeders and midsummer temperatures, peaking at 17 °C in Picea abies, at 19.5 °C in Pinus sylvestris and Betula pubescens and at 22 °C in B. pendula. From these relationships, we predict that the losses of forest trees to sap-feeders will increase by 0-45% of the current level in southern boreal forests and by 65-210% in subarctic forests with a 1 °C increase in summer temperatures. The observed relationships between temperatures and the loads of sap-feeders differ between the coniferous and deciduous tree species. We conclude that climate warming will not only increase plant losses to sap-feeding insects, especially in subarctic forests, but can also alter plant-plant interactions, thereby affecting both the productivity and the structure of future forest ecosystems.

  20. Diversity of planktonic fish larvae along a latitudinal gradient in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean estimated through DNA barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Morote, Elvira; Kochzius, Marc; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Mid-trophic pelagic fish are essential components of marine ecosystems because they represent the link between plankton and higher predators. Moreover, they are the basis of the most important fisheries resources; for example, in African waters. In this study, we have sampled pelagic fish larvae in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean along a latitudinal gradient between 37°N and 2°S. We have employed Bongo nets for plankton sampling and sorted visually fish and fish larvae. Using the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) as a DNA barcode, we have identified 44 OTUs down to species level that correspond to 14 families, with Myctophidae being the most abundant. A few species were cosmopolitan and others latitude-specific, as was expected. The latitudinal pattern of diversity did not exhibit a temperate-tropical cline; instead, it was likely correlated with environmental conditions with a decline in low-oxygen zones. Importantly, gaps and inconsistencies in reference DNA databases impeded accurate identification to the species level of 49% of the individuals. Fish sampled from tropical latitudes and some orders, such as Perciformes, Myctophiformes and Stomiiformes, were largely unidentified due to incomplete references. Some larvae were identified based on morphology and COI analysis for comparing time and costs employed from each methodology. These results suggest the need of reinforcing DNA barcoding reference datasets of Atlantic bathypelagic tropical fish that, as main prey of top predators, are crucial for ecosystem-based management of fisheries resources. PMID:27761307

  1. Diversity of planktonic fish larvae along a latitudinal gradient in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean estimated through DNA barcodes.

    PubMed

    Ardura, Alba; Morote, Elvira; Kochzius, Marc; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Mid-trophic pelagic fish are essential components of marine ecosystems because they represent the link between plankton and higher predators. Moreover, they are the basis of the most important fisheries resources; for example, in African waters. In this study, we have sampled pelagic fish larvae in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean along a latitudinal gradient between 37°N and 2°S. We have employed Bongo nets for plankton sampling and sorted visually fish and fish larvae. Using the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) as a DNA barcode, we have identified 44 OTUs down to species level that correspond to 14 families, with Myctophidae being the most abundant. A few species were cosmopolitan and others latitude-specific, as was expected. The latitudinal pattern of diversity did not exhibit a temperate-tropical cline; instead, it was likely correlated with environmental conditions with a decline in low-oxygen zones. Importantly, gaps and inconsistencies in reference DNA databases impeded accurate identification to the species level of 49% of the individuals. Fish sampled from tropical latitudes and some orders, such as Perciformes, Myctophiformes and Stomiiformes, were largely unidentified due to incomplete references. Some larvae were identified based on morphology and COI analysis for comparing time and costs employed from each methodology. These results suggest the need of reinforcing DNA barcoding reference datasets of Atlantic bathypelagic tropical fish that, as main prey of top predators, are crucial for ecosystem-based management of fisheries resources.

  2. Growth rate responses of Missouri and lower Yellowstone river fishes to a latitudinal gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pegg, M.A.; Pierce, C.L.

    2001-01-01

    Growth rate coefficients estimated for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, emerald shiners Notropis atherinoides, freshwater drums Aplodinotus grunniens, river carpsuckers Carpiodes carpio and saugers Stizostedion canadense collected in 1996-1998 from nine river sections of the Missouri and lower Yellowstone rivers at two life-stages (young-of-the-year and age 1 + years) were significantly different among sections. However, they showed no river-wide latitudinal trend except for age 1 + years emerald shiners that did show a weak negative relation between growth and both latitude and length of growing season. The results suggest growth rates of fishes along the Missouri River system are complex and could be of significance in the management and conservation of fish communities in this altered system. ?? 2001 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Reproductive output of a non-zooxanthellate temperate coral is unaffected by temperature along an extended latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Airi, Valentina; Prantoni, Selena; Calegari, Marco; Lisini Baldi, Veronica; Gizzi, Francesca; Marchini, Chiara; Levy, Oren; Falini, Giuseppe; Dubinsky, Zvy; Goffredo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Global environmental change, in marine ecosystems, is associated with concurrent shifts in water temperature, circulation, stratification, and nutrient input, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Variations in seawater temperature might alter physiological functioning, reproductive efficiency, and demographic traits of marine organisms, leading to shifts in population size and abundance. Differences in temperature tolerances between organisms can identify individual and ecological characteristics, which make corals able to persist and adapt in a climate change context. Here we investigated the possible effect of temperature on the reproductive output of the solitary non-zooxanthellate temperate coral Leptopsammia pruvoti, along an 8° latitudinal gradient. Samples have been collected in six populations along the gradient and each polyp was examined using histological and cyto-histometric analyses. We coupled our results with previous studies on the growth, demography, and calcification of L. pruvoti along the same temperature gradient, and compared them with those of another sympatric zooxanthellate coral Balanophyllia europaea to understand which trophic strategy makes the coral more tolerant to increasing temperature. The non-zooxanthellate species seemed to be quite tolerant to temperature increases, probably due to the lack of the symbiosis with zooxanthellae. To our knowledge, this is the first field investigation of the relationship between reproductive output and temperature increase of a temperate asymbiotic coral, providing novel insights into the poorly studied non-zooxanthellate scleractinians.

  4. Reproductive output of a non-zooxanthellate temperate coral is unaffected by temperature along an extended latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Airi, Valentina; Prantoni, Selena; Calegari, Marco; Lisini Baldi, Veronica; Gizzi, Francesca; Marchini, Chiara; Levy, Oren; Falini, Giuseppe; Dubinsky, Zvy; Goffredo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Global environmental change, in marine ecosystems, is associated with concurrent shifts in water temperature, circulation, stratification, and nutrient input, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Variations in seawater temperature might alter physiological functioning, reproductive efficiency, and demographic traits of marine organisms, leading to shifts in population size and abundance. Differences in temperature tolerances between organisms can identify individual and ecological characteristics, which make corals able to persist and adapt in a climate change context. Here we investigated the possible effect of temperature on the reproductive output of the solitary non-zooxanthellate temperate coral Leptopsammia pruvoti, along an 8° latitudinal gradient. Samples have been collected in six populations along the gradient and each polyp was examined using histological and cyto-histometric analyses. We coupled our results with previous studies on the growth, demography, and calcification of L. pruvoti along the same temperature gradient, and compared them with those of another sympatric zooxanthellate coral Balanophyllia europaea to understand which trophic strategy makes the coral more tolerant to increasing temperature. The non-zooxanthellate species seemed to be quite tolerant to temperature increases, probably due to the lack of the symbiosis with zooxanthellae. To our knowledge, this is the first field investigation of the relationship between reproductive output and temperature increase of a temperate asymbiotic coral, providing novel insights into the poorly studied non-zooxanthellate scleractinians. PMID:28158213

  5. Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biancucci, L.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    1. Latitudinal variation in clutch sizes of birds is a well described, but poorly understood pattern. Many hypotheses have been proposed, but few have been experimentally tested, and none have been universally accepted by researchers. 2. The nest size hypothesis posits that higher nest predation in the tropics favours selection for smaller nests and thereby constrains clutch size by shrinking available space for eggs and/or nestlings in the nest. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in a tropical forest and a comparative study between temperate and tropical field sites. 3. Specifically, we tested if: (i) predation increased with nest size; (ii) tropical birds had smaller nests controlled for body size; and (iii) clutch size was explained by nest size controlled for body size. 4. Experimental swapping of nests of different sizes showed that nest predation increased with nest size in the tropical site. Moreover, nest predation rates were higher in species with larger nests in both sites. However, nest size, corrected for body mass and phylogeny, did not differ between sites and was not related to clutch size between sites. 5. Hence, nest predation can exert selection on nest size as predicted by the hypothesis. Nest size increased with adult body mass, such that adult size might indirectly influence reproductive success through effects on nest size and nest predation risk. Ultimately, however, selection from nest predation on nest size does not explain the smaller clutch sizes typical of the tropics.

  6. Latitudinal gradients in abundance, and the causes of rarity in the tropics: a test using Australian honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae).

    PubMed

    Symonds, Matthew R E; Christidis, Les; Johnson, Christopher N

    2006-09-01

    Several studies have uncovered interspecific latitudinal gradients in abundance (population density) such that tropical species tend to be, on average, less abundant than species at higher latitudes. The causes of this relationship remain poorly studied, in contrast to the relative wealth of literature examining the relationship to latitude of other variables such as range size and body mass. We used a cross-species phylogenetic comparative approach and a spatial approach to examine three potential determining factors (distribution, reproductive output and climate) that might explain why abundance correlates with latitude, using data from 54 species of honeyeaters (Meliphagidae) in woodland environments in eastern Australia. There is a strong positive correlation between mean abundance and latitude in these birds. Reproductive output (clutch size) was positively linked to both abundance and latitude, but partial correlation analysis revealed that clutch size is not related to abundance once the effects of latitude are removed. A subsequent multiple regression model that also considered range size, clutch size and body mass showed that latitude is the only strong predictor of abundance in honeyeaters. In the separate spatial analysis, the climatic variables that we considered (temperature, rainfall and seasonality) were all strongly linked to latitude, but none served as a better predictor of abundance than latitude per se, either individually or collectively. The most intriguing result of our analyses was that the cross-species latitudinal pattern in abundance was not evident within species. This suggests an intrinsic cause of the pattern of 'rarity in the tropics' in Australian honeyeaters. We suggest that evolutionary age may provide a key to understanding patterns of abundance in these birds.

  7. Herbivory Differentially Affects Plant Fitness in Three Populations of the Perennial Herb Lythrum salicaria along a Latitudinal Gradient.

    PubMed

    Lehndal, Lina; Ågren, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Herbivory can negatively and selectively affect plant fitness by reducing growth, survival and reproductive output, thereby influencing plant population dynamics and evolution. Latitudinal variation in intensity of herbivory is common, but the extent to which it translates into corresponding variation in effects on plant performance is still poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that variation in the fitness-consequences of herbivory mirror differences in intensity of herbivory among three natural populations of the perennial herb Lythrum salicaria along a latitudinal gradient from southern to northernmost Sweden. We documented intensity of herbivory and examined its effect on survival, growth and reproductive output over two years by experimentally removing herbivores with insecticide. The intensity of herbivory and the effects of herbivory on plant fitness were strongest in the southern population, intermediate in the central population and weakest in the northern population. The mean proportion of the leaf area removed ranged from 11% in the southern to 3% in the northern population. Herbivore removal increased plant height 1.5-fold in the southern and 1.2-fold in the central population, the proportion plants flowering 4-fold in the southern and 2-fold in the central population, and seed production per flower 1.6-fold in the southern and 1.2-fold in the central population, but did not affect plant fitness in the northern population. Herbivore removal thus affected the relative fecundity of plants in the three populations: In the control, seed output per plant was 8.6 times higher in the northern population compared to the southern population, whereas after herbivore removal it was 2.5 times higher in the southern population. The results demonstrate that native herbivores may strongly affect the demographic structure of L. salicaria populations and thereby shape geographic patterns of seed production. They further suggest that the strength of herbivore

  8. Thermal tolerance in the Andean toad Rhinella spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae) at three sites located along a latitudinal gradient in Chile.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Nicza Alveal; Díaz-Páez, Helen; Ortiz, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Rhinella spinulosa is one of the anuran species with the greatest presence in Chile. This species mainly inhabits mountain habitats and is distributed latitudinally along the western slope of the Andes Range. These habitats undergo great temperature fluctuations, exerting pressure on the amphibian. To identify the physiological strategies and thermal behavior of this species, we analyzed the temperature variables CTmin, CTmax, TTR, τheat, and τcool in individuals of three sites from a latitudinal gradient (22°S to 37°S). The amphibians were acclimated to 10°C and 20°C and fed ad libitum. The results indicate that the species has a high thermal tolerance range, with a mean of 38.14±1.34°C, a critical thermal maxima of 34.6-41.4°C, and a critical thermal minima of 2.6-0.8°C, classifying the species as eurythermic. Furthermore, there were significant differences in CTmáx and TTR only in the northern site. The differences in thermal time constants between sites are due to the effects of size and body mass. For example, those from the central site had larger size and greater thermal inertia; therefore, they warmed and cooled in a slower manner. The wide thermal limits determined in R. spinulosa confirm that it is a thermo-generalist species, a characteristic that allows the species to survive in adverse microclimatic conditions. The level of plasticity in critical temperatures seems ecologically relevant and supports the acclimatization of thermal limits as an important factor for ectothermic animals to adapt to climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aridity promotes bet hedging via delayed hatching: a case study with two temporary pond crustaceans along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Pinceel, Tom; Vanschoenwinkel, Bram; Hawinkel, Wouter; Tuytens, Karen; Brendonck, Luc

    2017-05-01

    Climate change does affect not only average rainfall and temperature but also their variation, which can reduce the predictability of suitable conditions for growth and reproduction. This situation is problematic for inhabitants of temporary waters whose reproductive success depends on rainfall and evaporation that determine the length of the aquatic phase. For organisms with long-lived dormant life stages, bet hedging models suggest that a fraction of these should stay dormant during each growing season to buffer against the probability of total reproductive failure in variable environments. Thus far, however, little empirical evidence supports this prediction in aquatic organisms. We study geographic variation in delayed hatching of dormant eggs in natural populations of two crustaceans, Branchinella longirostris and Paralimnadia badia, that occur in temporary rock pools along a 725 km latitudinal aridity gradient in Western Australia. Consistent with bet hedging theory, populations of both species were characterised by delayed hatching under common garden conditions and hatching fractions decreased towards the drier end of the gradient where the probability of reproductive success was shown to be lower. This decrease was most pronounced in the species with the longer maturation time, presumably because it is more sensitive to the higher prevalence of short inundations. Overall, these findings illustrate that regional variation in climate can be reflected in differential investment in bet hedging and hints at a higher importance of delayed hatching to persist when the climate becomes harsher. Such strategies could become exceedingly relevant as determinants of vulnerability under climate change.

  10. Ionospheric data assimilation: recovery of strong mid-latitudinal density gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, Jan J.; Thompson, Donald C.; Schunk, Robert W.; Eccles, J. Vincent; Makela, Jonathan J.; Kelley, Michael C.; González, Sixto A.; Aponte, Nestor; Bullett, Terence W.

    2003-07-01

    The September 1999 Caribbean Ionospheric Campaign (CIC99), spanning the period 15-17 September 1999, was a period of repeated moderate geomagnetic storms. Both incoherent scatter radar (ISR) and digisonde F-layer measurements were made in the vicinity of Arecibo, Puerto Rico by the Arecibo ISR and Ramey Digisonde, which is one of the Digital Ionospheric Sounding System instruments. These data sets showed significant day-to-day F-layer variability, especially in the evening sectors. Local ionospheric data assimilation with the Assimilation Ionospheric Model (AIM1.06L) was able to reproduce this ionospheric day-to-day weather. However, during this time the Arecibo ISR was able to determine that strong latitude density gradients existed in the evening sector. These latitude gradients ranged from 5% to over 10% per degree of latitude, increasing equatorward. The climatological ionospheric forecast model (IFM) predicts gradients of the correct sign but significantly less than 5% per degree. Using the observed fact that the strong local vertical plasma drift was produced by an eastward electric field, an enhanced equatorial electric field model was created. This model was used to drive the IFM-E model. The effect of the enhanced electric field is to drive plasma flux tubes to higher latitudes and effectively move the poleward shoulder of the equatorial anomalies to higher latitudes. In this simulation, the simulated Arecibo density gradients range from 10% to 20% per degree. In addition, the local densities at Arecibo are now higher than the observed ones in the evening sector. The irony of this study is that the local AIM1.06L assimilation provides the correct local densities in the F region but is based upon the assumption of corotating field lines. When the plasma flux tubes are free to be E×B/B2 convected, as in the IFM equator model simulations, the local densities are too high. However, gradients in latitude are more realistic although somewhat larger than

  11. Global vegetation dynamics and latitudinal temperature gradients during the Mid to Late Miocene (15.97-5.33 Ma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pound, Matthew J.; Haywood, Alan M.; Salzmann, Ulrich; Riding, James B.

    2012-04-01

    A 617 site palaeobotanical dataset for the Mid to Late Miocene is presented. This dataset is internally consistent and provides a comprehensive overview of vegetational change from 15.97 to 5.33 Ma. The palaeobotanical dataset has been translated into the BIOME4 classification scheme to enable direct comparison with climate model outputs. The vegetation change throughout the Langhian, Seravallian, Tortonian and Messinian is discussed. The data shows that the Langhian, which includes the end of the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, represents a world significantly warmer than today. The high northern latitudes were characterised by cool-temperate forests, the mid-latitudes by warm-temperate mixed forests, the tropics by tropical evergreen broadleaf forests and Antarctica by tundra shrub vegetation. Cool-temperate mixed forest existed during the Seravallian in the high northern latitudes, a reduction in warm-temperate mixed forests in the mid latitudes and a loss of tundra on Antarctica was noted. Tortonian vegetation distribution indicates that further cooling had occurred since the Seravallian. The major changes in vegetation include the first evidence for cold taiga forest in the high northern latitudes and a further reduction of warm-temperate mixed forests. By the Messinian, this cooling trend had eliminated warm-temperate mixed forests from the western USA and Australia and had formed mid-latitude deserts. Despite the cooling trend throughout the Mid to Late Miocene, the vegetation distribution of all four reconstructed stages reflect the vegetation of a world warmer than the pre-industrial conditions. The latitudinal distribution of bioclimatic zones suggests that the latitudinal temperature gradient for the Langhian would have been significantly shallower than at present and has gradually, but asymmetrically, become more modern towards the end of the Miocene. First the southern hemisphere distribution of bioclimatic zones became more modern, probably due to the

  12. The metabolic theory of ecology convincingly explains the latitudinal diversity gradient of neotropical freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Dayani; Cassemiro, Fernanda A S; Agostinho, Carlos S; Marques, Elineide E; Agostinho, Angelo A

    2014-02-01

    In the context of diversity gradients, the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) posits that the logarithm of species richness should decrease linearly with the inverse of temperature, resulting in a specific slope. However, the empirical validity of this model depends on whether the data do not violate certain assumptions. Here, we test the predictions of MTE evaluating all of its assumptions simultaneously. We used Neotropical freshwater fish and tested whether the logarithm of species richness varied negatively and linearly with temperature, resulting in the slope value specified by the MTE. As we observed that the assumption of the energetic equivalence of populations was not achieved, we also analyzed whether the energetic nonequivalence of populations could be responsible for the possible lack of fit to the MTE predictions. Our results showed that the relationship between richness and the inverse of temperature was linear, negative and significant and included the slope value predicted by the MTE. With respect to the assumptions, we observed that there was no spatial variation in the average energy flux of populations or in the body size and abundance of species. However, the energetic equivalence of populations was not achieved and the violation of this assumption did not affect the predictive power of the model. We conclude that the validity of the assumptions (spatial invariance in the average flux energy of populations and spatial invariance in the body size and abundance, especially) is required for the correct interpretation of richness patterns. Furthermore, we conclude that MTE is robust in its explanation of diversity gradients for freshwater fish, proving to be a valuable tool in describing ecological complexity from individuals to ecosystems.

  13. Reproductive Efficiency of a Mediterranean Endemic Zooxanthellate Coral Decreases with Increasing Temperature along a Wide Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Airi, Valentina; Gizzi, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Levy, Oren; Dubinsky, Zvy; Goffredo, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Investments at the organismal level towards reproduction and growth are often used as indicators of health. Understanding how such energy allocation varies with environmental conditions may, therefore, aid in predicting possible responses to global climatic change in the near future. For example, variations in seawater temperature may alter the physiological functioning, behavior, reproductive output and demographic traits (e.g., productivity) of marine organisms, leading to shifts in the structure, spatial range, and abundance of populations. This study investigated variations in reproductive output associated with local seawater temperature along a wide latitudinal gradient on the western Italian coast, in the zooxanthellate Mediterranean coral, Balanophyllia europaea. Reproductive potential varied significantly among sites, where B. europaea individuals from the warmest site experienced loss of oocytes during gametogenesis. Most of the early oocytes from warmest sites did not reach maturity, possibly due to inhibition of metabolic processes at high temperatures, causing B. europaea to reabsorb the oocytes and utilize them as energy for other vital functions. In a progressively warming Mediterranean, the efficiency of the energy invested in reproduction could be considerably reduced in this species, thereby affecting vital processes. Given the projected increase in seawater temperature as a consequence of global climate change, the present study adds evidence to the threats posed by high temperatures to the survival of B. europaea in the next decades. PMID:24618568

  14. Germination responses to current and future temperatures of four seeder shrubs across a latitudinal gradient in western Iberia.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Daniel; Luna, Belén; Moreno, José M

    2017-01-01

    Species differ in their temperature germination niche. Populations of a species may similarly differ across the distribution range of the species. Anticipating the impacts of climate variability and change requires understanding the differential sensitivity to germination temperature among and within species. Here we studied the germination responses of four hard-seeded Cistaceae seeders to a range of current and future temperatures. Seeds were collected at sites across the Iberian Peninsula and exposed or not exposed to a heat shock to break dormancy, then set to germinate under four temperature regimes. Temperatures were varied daily and seasonally, simulating the temperature range across the gradient, plus an increased temperature simulating future climate. Time to germination onset and cumulative germination at the end of each season were analyzed for the effects of temperature treatments, seasons, and local climate (temperature of the germination period, Tgp) at each site. Tgp was a significant covariate of germination in all species but Cistus populifolius. Temperature treatments significantly affected Cistus ladanifer, C. salviifolius, and Halimium ocymoides. Germination occurred in simulated autumn conditions, with little germination occurring at later seasons, except in unheated seeds of H. ocymoides. Exposure to a heat shock changed the sensitivity to temperature treatments and the relationships with Tgp. Germination responses to temperature differ not only among species but also within species across their latitudinal range. The responses were idiosyncratic and related to the local climate of the population. This germination variability complicates generalizing the impacts of climate variability and climate change. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  15. Inferred calcification rate of a Mediterranean azooxanthellate coral is uncoupled with sea surface temperature along an 8° latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Correlations between sea surface temperature (SST) and growth parameters of the solitary azooxanthellate Dendrophylliid Leptopsammia pruvoti were assessed along an 8° latitudinal gradient on western Italian coasts (Mediterranean Sea), to check for possible negative effects of increasing temperature as the ones reported for a closely related, sympatric but zooxanthellate species. Results Calcification rate was correlated with skeletal density but not with linear extension rate, indicating that calcium carbonate deposition was preferentially allocated to keep a constant skeletal density. Unlike most studies on both temperate and tropical zooxanthellate corals, where calcification rate is strongly related to environmental parameters such as SST, in the present study calcification rate was not correlated with SST. Conclusions The lower sensitivity of L. pruvoti to SST with respect to other sympatric zooxanthellate corals, such as Balanophyllia europaea, may rely on the absence of a temperature induced inhibition of photosynthesis, and thus the absence of an inhibition of the calcification process. This study is the first field investigation of the relationship between SST and the three growth parameters of an azooxanthellate coral. Increasing research effort on determining the effects of temperature on biological traits of the poorly studied azooxanthellate scleractinians may help to predict the possible species assemblage shifts that are likely to occur in the immediate future as a consequence of global climatic change. PMID:23163981

  16. Environmental Factors Correlated with the Metabolite Profile of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir Berry Skins along a European Latitudinal Gradient.

    PubMed

    Del-Castillo-Alonso, María Ángeles; Castagna, Antonella; Csepregi, Kristóf; Hideg, Éva; Jakab, Gabor; Jansen, Marcel A K; Jug, Tjaša; Llorens, Laura; Mátai, Anikó; Martínez-Lüscher, Johann; Monforte, Laura; Neugart, Susanne; Olejnickova, Julie; Ranieri, Annamaria; Schödl-Hummel, Katharina; Schreiner, Monika; Soriano, Gonzalo; Teszlák, Péter; Tittmann, Susanne; Urban, Otmar; Verdaguer, Dolors; Zipoli, Gaetano; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2016-11-23

    Mature berries of Pinot Noir grapevines were sampled across a latitudinal gradient in Europe, from southern Spain to central Germany. Our aim was to study the influence of latitude-dependent environmental factors on the metabolite composition (mainly phenolic compounds) of berry skins. Solar radiation variables were positively correlated with flavonols and flavanonols and, to a lesser extent, with stilbenes and cinnamic acids. The daily means of global and erythematic UV solar radiation over long periods (bud break-veraison, bud break-harvest, and veraison-harvest), and the doses and daily means in shorter development periods (5-10 days before veraison and harvest) were the variables best correlated with the phenolic profile. The ratio between trihydroxylated and monohydroxylated flavonols, which was positively correlated with antioxidant capacity, was the berry skin variable best correlated with those radiation variables. Total flavanols and total anthocyanins did not show any correlation with radiation variables. Air temperature, degree days, rainfall, and aridity indices showed fewer correlations with metabolite contents than radiation. Moreover, the latter correlations were restricted to the period veraison-harvest, where radiation, temperature, and water availability variables were correlated, making it difficult to separate the possible individual effects of each type of variable. The data show that managing environmental factors, in particular global and UV radiation, through cultural practices during specific development periods, can be useful to promote the synthesis of valuable nutraceuticals and metabolites that influence wine quality.

  17. The Latitudinal Gradient of Rainfall, Mineralogy, Albedo and Magnetic Susceptibility in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E. R.; Balsam, W.; Schaaf, C.; Yang, X.; Zhang, Q.; Ji, J.; Rossman, G.; Garimella, S.; Oldfield, F.; Lyons, J. R.; Ellwood, B.; Hartman, H.; Hicks, E.; Mansot, J. L.; Cesaire, T.; Thomas, P.

    2008-12-01

    In order to investigate the effect of climate on soil and surface sediment properties we examined four transects around the Sahara Desert. The transects were located in Mali, Niger, Benin, Togo, Egypt and Morocco and, with the exception of Egypt, each crossed a significant climatological rainfall gradient. The Egyptian transect was designed to characterize one of the driest portions of the Sahara Desert. Our study included laboratory measurements of mineralogy (XRD), elemental composition (XRF), grain size, optical reflectance (lab), magnetic susceptibility (MS)and remanences. In addition, albedo was determined from the MODIS satellite imagery from space. Many of our laboratory measurements exhibited variations with the rainfall gradient. Iron oxides (hematite and goethite), kaolinite, Al2O3, and TiO2 increased with increasing rainfall whereas SiO2, illite, and grain size decreased with increasing rainfall. Both laboratory-determined reflectivity and satellite-determine albedo decreased as rainfall increased. In part, this decrease in reflectivity/albedo with increasing rainfall appears to be the result of hematite, the dominant coloring agent for the soil in this region and the origin of the 'red' Sahel. The physical interpretation of these results centers on rainfall as a long-term leaching agent of surface material, and the control of physical properties by specific mineralogy. SiO2 is highly reflective and iron oxides are strongly absorptive in the visible range. The solubility of SiO2 in rainwater is orders of magnitude larger than all the iron oxides, with hematite the least soluble. It has long been recognized that leaching by rainfall produces dark red laterite in the near-surface oxidizing environment, a prominent geological feature throughout the high rainfall belt of West Africa. Laterite beds represent simultaneous enrichments of all iron oxides and a reduction in SiO2 by leaching. In the Sahara desert where rainfall is minimal (<10 mm/yr), SiO2 is

  18. Relationships between growth, population dynamics, and environmental parameters in the solitary non-zooxanthellate scleractinian coral Caryophyllia inornata along a latitudinal gradient in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroselli, E.; Ricci, F.; Brambilla, V.; Mattioli, G.; Levy, O.; Falini, G.; Dubinsky, Z.; Goffredo, S.

    2016-06-01

    The ecology of scleractinian corals may be understood through comparisons between population demographic data and environmental parameters. Growth (growth constant and maximum size) and demographic parameters (population structure stability, instantaneous mortality rate, average age of individuals, percentage of immature individuals, age at maximum biomass, and average age of biomass) of the solitary, non-zooxanthellate, and temperate coral Caryophyllia inornata were investigated at six sites along an 8° latitudinal gradient of temperature and solar radiation (SR) on the western Italian coasts. Growth parameters were homogeneous among populations across the investigated latitudinal range. While demographic parameters were not correlated with depth temperature, populations were progressively less stable and showed a deficiency of young individuals with increasing SR, likely as a result of the lowered energetic resources due to reduced zooplankton availability. These results contrast with data from another Mediterranean non-zooxanthellate solitary coral, Leptopsammia pruvoti, investigated along the same gradient, which shows no correlation between population demography and temperature or SR.

  19. Climate dependence of feldspar weathering in shale soils along a latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dere, Ashlee L.; White, Timothy S.; April, Richard H.; Reynolds, Brian; Miller, Thomas E.; Knapp, Elizabeth P.; McKay, Larry D.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2013-12-01

    Although regolith, the mantle of physically, chemically, and biologically altered material overlying bedrock, covers much of Earth’s continents, the rates and mechanisms of regolith formation are not well quantified. Without this knowledge, predictions of the availability of soil to sustain Earth’s growing population are problematic. To quantify the influence of climate on regolith formation, a transect of study sites has been established on the same lithology - Silurian shale - along a climatic gradient in the northern hemisphere as part of the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, Pennsylvania, USA. The climate gradient is bounded by a cold/wet end member in Wales and a warm/wet end member in Puerto Rico; in between, mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) increase to the south through New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Tennessee and Alabama. The site in Puerto Rico does not lie on the same shale formation as the Appalachian sites but is similar in composition. Soils and rocks were sampled at geomorphologically similar ridgetop sites to compare and model shale weathering along the transect. Focusing on the low-concentration, non-nutrient element Na, we observe that the extent and depth of Na depletion is greater where mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP) are higher. Na depletion, a proxy for feldspar weathering, is the deepest reaction documented in the augerable soil profiles. This may therefore be the reaction that initiates the transformation of high bulk-density bedrock to regolith of low bulk density. Based on the shale chemistry along the transect, the time-integrated Na release rate (QNa) increases exponentially as a function of MAT and linearly with MAP. NY, the only site with shale-till parent material, is characterized by a QNa that is 18 times faster than PA, an observation which is attributed to the increased surface area of minerals due to grinding of the glacier and kinetically limited

  20. Bacterial Community Responses to Soils along a Latitudinal and Vegetation Gradient on the Loess Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Quanchao; Dong, Yanghong; An, Shaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacterial communities play an important role in nutrient recycling and storage in terrestrial ecosystems. Loess soils are one of the most important soil resources for maintaining the stability of vegetation ecosystems and are mainly distributed in northwest China. Estimating the distributions and affecting factors of soil bacterial communities associated with various types of vegetation will inform our understanding of the effect of vegetation restoration and climate change on these processes. In this study, we collected soil samples from 15 sites from north to south on the Loess Plateau of China that represent different ecosystem types and analyzed the distributions of soil bacterial communities by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. The results showed that the 142444 sequences were grouped into 36816 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. The results of the analysis showed that the dominant taxonomic phyla observed in all samples were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the two most abundant groups in all samples. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased from 14.73% to 40.22% as the ecosystem changed from forest to sandy, while the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased from 35.35% to 21.40%. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria had significant correlations with mean annual precipitation (MAP), pH, and soil moisture and nutrients. MAP was significantly correlated with soil chemical and physical properties. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes correlated significantly with MAP, suggesting that MAP was a key factor that affected the soil bacterial community composition. However, along with the MAP gradient, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria had narrow ranges that did not significantly vary with the soil and environmental factors. Overall, we conclude that the edaphic properties and/or vegetation

  1. Bacterial Community Responses to Soils along a Latitudinal and Vegetation Gradient on the Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Quanchao; Dong, Yanghong; An, Shaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacterial communities play an important role in nutrient recycling and storage in terrestrial ecosystems. Loess soils are one of the most important soil resources for maintaining the stability of vegetation ecosystems and are mainly distributed in northwest China. Estimating the distributions and affecting factors of soil bacterial communities associated with various types of vegetation will inform our understanding of the effect of vegetation restoration and climate change on these processes. In this study, we collected soil samples from 15 sites from north to south on the Loess Plateau of China that represent different ecosystem types and analyzed the distributions of soil bacterial communities by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. The results showed that the 142444 sequences were grouped into 36816 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. The results of the analysis showed that the dominant taxonomic phyla observed in all samples were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the two most abundant groups in all samples. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased from 14.73% to 40.22% as the ecosystem changed from forest to sandy, while the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased from 35.35% to 21.40%. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria had significant correlations with mean annual precipitation (MAP), pH, and soil moisture and nutrients. MAP was significantly correlated with soil chemical and physical properties. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes correlated significantly with MAP, suggesting that MAP was a key factor that affected the soil bacterial community composition. However, along with the MAP gradient, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria had narrow ranges that did not significantly vary with the soil and environmental factors. Overall, we conclude that the edaphic properties and/or vegetation

  2. Abundance, diversity, and latitudinal gradients of southeastern Atlantic and Antarctic abyssal gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrödl, M.; Bohn, J. M.; Brenke, N.; Rolán, E.; Schwabe, E.

    2011-03-01

    Mollusca are widely used for deriving concepts on deep-sea biology and biodiversity, yet abyssal collections are limited to only a few regions of the world ocean and biased toward the northern Atlantic. The present study compares gastropod molluscs sampled along a transect through the southern Atlantic from the equator to Antarctica. The DIVA I and II expeditions concentrated on the hardly explored Guinea, Angola, and Cape Basins. Of the 145 deep-sea deployments (5025-5656 m depth) analyzed to date, 20 have yielded 68 specimens of benthic gastropods, representing 27 species. Only five abyssal species were previously known, four of them from the northern Atlantic deep sea; the remainder appear to be undescribed. Interestingly, there is no faunal overlap with the nearby Antarctic deep-sea. Most of these DIVA species (63%) are represented by single individuals, or limited to one or two stations. The rarity (i.e. 0.55 specimens m -2 calculated from quantitative corers) and still undetectable patchiness of southeastern Atlantic abyssal gastropods may indicate "source-sink" dynamics, but comparison is needed with thus far hardly explored regional bathyal faunas. The BRENKE-epibenthic sledge (EBS) may be efficient at surveying the abyssal gastropod species richness, but is shown to drastically underestimate true abundances. Low diversity values throughout the three southern Atlantic ocean basins do further challenge earlier estimates of a hyperdiverse global abyssal macrofauna. Comparative EBS data available from the southern hemisphere indicate a gradient from the equatorial Guinea Basin towards higher gastropod abundances and diversity in Antarctica. This is in clear contrast to the paradigm of a globally strongly decreasing marine diversity from lower to higher latitudes, highlighting the importance of further exploring the southern fauna from the tropics to Antarctica.

  3. Red mangrove life history variables along latitudinal and anthropogenic stress gradients.

    PubMed

    Proffitt, C Edward; Travis, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Mangroves migrate northward in Florida and colonize marshes historically dominated by salt marsh species. In theory, this migration should be facilitated by greater numbers of propagules stemming from increased reproductive activity and greater genetic variability caused by outcrossing. We aimed to determine if stand reproduction and % outcrossing were affected by cold stress (stress increases with latitude), anthropogenic stress (human population density as a proxy), and years since a major hurricane. Further, we wished to determine if mutation rate varied with the stressors and if that affected stand reproduction. Both coasts of Florida from the southern Florida Keys to Tampa Bay on the Gulf of Mexico coast, and Merritt Island on the Atlantic coast. We conducted field surveys of frequency of reproducing trees (104,211 trees surveyed in 102 forested stands), incidence of trees showing albinism in propagules, and% outcrossing estimated from the ratio of albino:normal propagules. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test a conceptual model that served as a multivariate hypothesis. Reproductive frequencies varied by site and increased with latitude although more strongly on the Gulf coast. Our SEM results indicate that outcrossing increases in this predominately selfing species under conditions of cold and anthropogenic stress, and that this increases reproductive output in the population. Further, we find that increased mutation rates suppress stand reproductive output but there is no significant relationship between outcrossing and mutation rate. Tree size responded to stressors but did not affect stand reproduction. Reproduction increased with years since major hurricane. Potential for colonization of northern Florida salt marshes by mangroves is enhanced by increased reproductive rates that provides more propagules and outcrossing that should enhance genetic variation thereby promoting adaptation to novel environmental conditions. Natural (cold) stress

  4. Development time and body size in Eupolyphaga sinensis along a latitudinal gradient from China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuwei; Zhu, Fen; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang

    2011-02-01

    The responses of organisms to temperature variations may be via short term responses of the phenotype (phenotypic plasticity), or they could involve long-term evolutionary change and adaptation (via selection) to the genotype. These could involve changes to the mean size of the animal or to the thermal reaction norm. We examined the effects of various temperatures (of 22, 25, 28, and 31 °C) on development time, adult body size and preadult survivorship in three populations of the cockroach, Eupolyphaga sinensis (Walker), collected at different latitudes. We found substantial temperature-induced plasticity in development time, body size, and preadult survivorship, indicating that developmental temperatures have strong impacts on growth and life history traits of E. sinensis. Genetic differences for development time, body size, and preadult survivorship were detected among populations, and the three traits exhibited highly significant variations in the responses of different populations to various temperature conditions, indicating genetic differences among populations in terms of thermal reaction norms. We also found that two populations seem to support the beneficial acclimation hypothesis whereas the third mid-latitude population does not. The results are likely because of differences in season length and voltinism, indicating that not only temperature regime but also its interactions with generation time (and development time), voltinism, and season length are likely to have considerable effects on insect development time and body size. Overall, changes in development time, body size, and preadult survivorship in E. sinensis can all be regarded as adaptations to changing thermal regimes. © 2011 Entomological Society of America

  5. Red mangrove life history variables along latitudinal and anthropogenic stress gradients

    PubMed Central

    Proffitt, C Edward; Travis, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves migrate northward in Florida and colonize marshes historically dominated by salt marsh species. In theory, this migration should be facilitated by greater numbers of propagules stemming from increased reproductive activity and greater genetic variability caused by outcrossing. We aimed to determine if stand reproduction and % outcrossing were affected by cold stress (stress increases with latitude), anthropogenic stress (human population density as a proxy), and years since a major hurricane. Further, we wished to determine if mutation rate varied with the stressors and if that affected stand reproduction. Both coasts of Florida from the southern Florida Keys to Tampa Bay on the Gulf of Mexico coast, and Merritt Island on the Atlantic coast. We conducted field surveys of frequency of reproducing trees (104,211 trees surveyed in 102 forested stands), incidence of trees showing albinism in propagules, and% outcrossing estimated from the ratio of albino:normal propagules. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test a conceptual model that served as a multivariate hypothesis. Reproductive frequencies varied by site and increased with latitude although more strongly on the Gulf coast. Our SEM results indicate that outcrossing increases in this predominately selfing species under conditions of cold and anthropogenic stress, and that this increases reproductive output in the population. Further, we find that increased mutation rates suppress stand reproductive output but there is no significant relationship between outcrossing and mutation rate. Tree size responded to stressors but did not affect stand reproduction. Reproduction increased with years since major hurricane. Potential for colonization of northern Florida salt marshes by mangroves is enhanced by increased reproductive rates that provides more propagules and outcrossing that should enhance genetic variation thereby promoting adaptation to novel environmental conditions. Natural (cold) stress

  6. Spatial Analyses of Benthic Habitats to Define Coral Reef Ecosystem Regions and Potential Biogeographic Boundaries along a Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Marine organism diversity typically attenuates latitudinally from tropical to colder climate regimes. Since the distribution of many marine species relates to certain habitats and depth regimes, mapping data provide valuable information in the absence of detailed ecological data that can be used to identify and spatially quantify smaller scale (10 s km) coral reef ecosystem regions and potential physical biogeographic barriers. This study focused on the southeast Florida coast due to a recognized, but understudied, tropical to subtropical biogeographic gradient. GIS spatial analyses were conducted on recent, accurate, shallow-water (0–30 m) benthic habitat maps to identify and quantify specific regions along the coast that were statistically distinct in the number and amount of major benthic habitat types. Habitat type and width were measured for 209 evenly-spaced cross-shelf transects. Evaluation of groupings from a cluster analysis at 75% similarity yielded five distinct regions. The number of benthic habitats and their area, width, distance from shore, distance from each other, and LIDAR depths were calculated in GIS and examined to determine regional statistical differences. The number of benthic habitats decreased with increasing latitude from 9 in the south to 4 in the north and many of the habitat metrics statistically differed between regions. Three potential biogeographic barriers were found at the Boca, Hillsboro, and Biscayne boundaries, where specific shallow-water habitats were absent further north; Middle Reef, Inner Reef, and oceanic seagrass beds respectively. The Bahamas Fault Zone boundary was also noted where changes in coastal morphologies occurred that could relate to subtle ecological changes. The analyses defined regions on a smaller scale more appropriate to regional management decisions, hence strengthening marine conservation planning with an objective, scientific foundation for decision making. They provide a framework for similar

  7. Spatial analyses of benthic habitats to define coral reef ecosystem regions and potential biogeographic boundaries along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Walker, Brian K

    2012-01-01

    Marine organism diversity typically attenuates latitudinally from tropical to colder climate regimes. Since the distribution of many marine species relates to certain habitats and depth regimes, mapping data provide valuable information in the absence of detailed ecological data that can be used to identify and spatially quantify smaller scale (10 s km) coral reef ecosystem regions and potential physical biogeographic barriers. This study focused on the southeast Florida coast due to a recognized, but understudied, tropical to subtropical biogeographic gradient. GIS spatial analyses were conducted on recent, accurate, shallow-water (0-30 m) benthic habitat maps to identify and quantify specific regions along the coast that were statistically distinct in the number and amount of major benthic habitat types. Habitat type and width were measured for 209 evenly-spaced cross-shelf transects. Evaluation of groupings from a cluster analysis at 75% similarity yielded five distinct regions. The number of benthic habitats and their area, width, distance from shore, distance from each other, and LIDAR depths were calculated in GIS and examined to determine regional statistical differences. The number of benthic habitats decreased with increasing latitude from 9 in the south to 4 in the north and many of the habitat metrics statistically differed between regions. Three potential biogeographic barriers were found at the Boca, Hillsboro, and Biscayne boundaries, where specific shallow-water habitats were absent further north; Middle Reef, Inner Reef, and oceanic seagrass beds respectively. The Bahamas Fault Zone boundary was also noted where changes in coastal morphologies occurred that could relate to subtle ecological changes. The analyses defined regions on a smaller scale more appropriate to regional management decisions, hence strengthening marine conservation planning with an objective, scientific foundation for decision making. They provide a framework for similar

  8. Effect of temperature and host tree on cold hardiness of hemlock looper eggs along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Rochefort, Sophie; Berthiaume, Richard; Hébert, Christian; Charest, Martin; Bauce, Eric

    2011-06-01

    The hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria, is an economically important insect pest of Canadian forests which overwinters as eggs. Although the hemlock looper causes extensive damages, no information on the mechanisms related to its cold tolerance is known. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of temperature and exposure duration on hemlock looper winter survival but also to identify seasonal supercooling capacity and cryoprotectant levels of three populations along a latitudinal gradient. As host plant may contribute to offspring overwintering success, cold tolerance of hemlock looper eggs from parents whose larvae were fed on three different tree species was also measured. Mean supercooling point (SCP) of hemlock looper eggs was lower than -30 °C from October through the following spring with values being as low as -47 °C in February. Trehalose was the most abundant sugar found in hemlock looper eggs with a peak concentration of 0.3 μg mg⁻¹ DW⁻¹. Glycerol, a polyol, was more often absent in eggs of the different populations and tree species tested in the study. When exposed to different temperature regimes for various periods of time, significant mortality of hemlock looper eggs occurred at higher temperatures than the mean SCP. Thus, hemlock looper could be considered as a chill tolerant species. No clear pattern of population and host plant effects on SCP and cryoprotectants was detected in this study. However, when exposed to different winter temperatures and exposure duration, hemlock looper from higher latitudes survived better (survival rates ranging between 0 and 89% at -20 °C) than those from lower latitudes (survival rates ranging between 0 and 56% at -20 °C). Our results may contribute to a better understanding of hemlock looper winter biology and thus facilitate predictions of outbreaks and range expansion.

  9. A compilation of Western European terrestrial records 60-8 ka BP: towards an understanding of latitudinal climatic gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ana; Svensson, Anders; Brooks, Stephen J.; Connor, Simon; Engels, Stefan; Fletcher, William; Genty, Dominique; Heiri, Oliver; Labuhn, Inga; Perşoiu, Aurel; Peyron, Odile; Sadori, Laura; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Wulf, Sabine; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial records of past climatic conditions, such as lake sediments and speleothems, provide data of great importance for understanding environmental changes. However, unlike marine and ice core records, terrestrial palaeodata are often not available in databases or in a format that is easily accessible to the non-specialist. As a consequence, many excellent terrestrial records are unknown to the broader palaeoclimate community and are not included in compilations, comparisons, or modelling exercises. Here we present a compilation of Western European terrestrial palaeo-records covering, entirely or partially, the 60-8-ka INTIMATE time period. The compilation contains 56 natural archives, including lake records, speleothems, ice cores, and terrestrial proxies in marine records. The compilation is limited to include records of high temporal resolution and/or records that provide climate proxies or quantitative reconstructions of environmental parameters, such as temperature or precipitation, and that are of relevance and interest to a broader community. We briefly review the different types of terrestrial archives, their respective proxies, their interpretation and their application for palaeoclimatic reconstructions. We also discuss the importance of independent chronologies and the issue of record synchronization. The aim of this exercise is to provide the wider palaeo-community with a consistent compilation of high-quality terrestrial records, to facilitate model-data comparisons, and to identify key areas of interest for future investigations. We use the compilation to investigate Western European latitudinal climate gradients during the deglacial period and, despite of poorly constrained chronologies for the older records, we summarize the main results obtained from NW and SW European terrestrial records before the LGM.

  10. Bud phenology and growth are subject to divergent selection across a latitudinal gradient in Populus angustifolia and impact adaptation across the distributional range and associated arthropods.

    PubMed

    Evans, Luke M; Kaluthota, Sobadini; Pearce, David W; Allan, Gerard J; Floate, Kevin; Rood, Stewart B; Whitham, Thomas G

    2016-07-01

    Temperate forest tree species that span large geographical areas and climatic gradients often have high levels of genetic variation. Such species are ideal for testing how neutral demographic factors and climate-driven selection structure genetic variation within species, and how this genetic variation can affect ecological communities. Here, we quantified genetic variation in vegetative phenology and growth traits in narrowleaf cottonwood, Populus angustifolia, using three common gardens planted with genotypes originating from source populations spanning the species' range along the Rocky Mountains of North America (ca. 1700 km). We present three main findings. First, we found strong evidence of divergent selection (Q ST > F ST) on fall phenology (bud set) with adaptive consequences for frost avoidance. We also found evidence for selection on bud flush duration, tree height, and basal diameter, resulting in population differentiation. Second, we found strong associations with climate variables that were strongly correlated with latitude of origin. More strongly differentiated traits also showed stronger climate correlations, which emphasizes the role that climate has played in divergent selection throughout the range. We found population × garden interaction effects; for some traits, this accounted for more of the variance than either factor alone. Tree height was influenced by the difference in climate of the source and garden locations and declined with increasing transfer distance. Third, growth traits were correlated with dependent arthropod community diversity metrics. Synthesis. Overall, we conclude that climate has influenced genetic variation and structure in phenology and growth traits and leads to local adaptation in P. angustifolia, which can then impact dependent arthropod species. Importantly, relocation of genotypes far northward or southward often resulted in poor growth, likely due to a phenological mismatch with photoperiod, the proximate

  11. Phylogenetic support for the Tropical Niche Conservatism Hypothesis despite the absence of a clear latitudinal species richness gradient in Yunnan's woody flora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, G.; Zhang, M. G.; Liu, C.; Zhou, Z.; Chen, W.; Slik, J. W. F.

    2014-05-01

    The Tropical Niche Conservatism Hypothesis (TCH) tries to explain the generally observed latitudinal gradient of increasing species diversity towards the tropics. To date, few studies have used phylogenetic approaches to assess its validity, even though such methods are especially suited to detect changes in niche structure. We test the TCH using modeled distributions of 1898 woody species in Yunnan Province (southwest China) in combination with a family level phylogeny. Unlike predicted, species richness and phylogenetic diversity did not show a latitudinal gradient, but identified two high diversity zones, one in Northwest and one in South Yunnan. Despite this, the underlying residual phylogenetic diversity showed a clear decline away from the tropics, while the species composition became progressingly more phylogenetically clustered towards the North. These latitudinal changes were strongly associated with more extreme temperature variability and declining precipitation and soil water availability, especially during the dry season. Our results suggests that the climatically more extreme conditions outside the tropics require adaptations for successful colonization, most likely related to the plant hydraulic system, that have been acquired by only a limited number of phylogenetically closely related plant lineages. We emphasize the importance of phylogenetic approaches for testing the TCH.

  12. Chill coma temperatures appear similar along a latitudinal gradient, in contrast to divergent chill coma recovery times, in two widespread ant species.

    PubMed

    Maysov, Andrey

    2014-08-01

    Populations of widely distributed ectotherms demonstrate different cold resistance corresponding to the local climate. However, efficiently thermoregulating ectotherms could avoid divergence in cold resistance. Two species of ants, previously shown to even out latitudinal differences of mean summer temperatures in their nests, were used to test this hypothesis by comparing the temperature dependence of cold resistance in three distant populations (from 50°, 60° and 67°N). The species differ in habitat preferences, one (Myrmica rubra) being less stenotopic than the other (M. ruginodis). Therefore, three different predictions were made about their cold resistance: along the latitudinal gradient, it might be similar within the two species (because of thermoregulation within nests/habitats) or similar only in M. rubra (as a result of thermoregulation among habitats), or divergent at least in M. rubra (no effect of thermoregulation). Among populations of both species, neither differences nor latitudinal trends in chill coma temperature were statistically significant after 11 months of standard conditions, with or without cold hardening. In contrast, recovery time significantly differed among populations in both species, although its latitudinal trends were strongly curvilinear: in M. rubra, the intermediate population tended towards the slowest recovery, and in M. ruginodis, it tended towards the fastest. After 22 months, the patterns remained the same, except that M. ruginodis showed a significant linear latitudinal trend in chill coma temperature (with no significant populational differences). Hence, thermoregulation, both within and among habitats, apparently does keep chill coma temperatures similar. Recovery rate demonstrates divergence, but its curvilinear trends suggest a connection with climates experienced by ancestral populations.

  13. Equatorial seawater temperatures and latitudinal temperature gradients during the Middle to Late Jurassic: the stable isotope record of brachiopods and oysters from Gebel Maghara, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Matthias; Fürsich, Franz T.; Abdelhady, Ahmed A.; Andersen, Nils

    2017-04-01

    The Jurassic climate has traditionally been described as equable, warmer than today, with weak latitudinal temperature gradients, and no polar glaciations. This view changed over the last decades with studies pointing to distinct climate fluctuations and the occasional presence of polar ice caps. Most of these temperature reconstructions are based on stable isotope analyses of fossil shells from Europe. Additional data from other parts of the world is slowly completing the picture. Gebel Maghara in the northern Sinai Peninsula of Egypt exposes a thick Jurassic succession. After a phase of terrestrial sedimentation in the Early Jurassic, marine conditions dominated since the end of the Aalenian. The stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) composition of brachiopod and oyster shells was used to reconstruct seawater temperatures from the Bajocian to the Kimmeridgian at a palaeolatitude of ca. 3°N. Throughout this time interval, temperatures were comparatively constant aorund an average of 25.7°C. Slightly warmer conditions existed in the Early Bathonian ( 27.0°C), while the Kimmeridgian shows the lowest temperatures ( 24.3°C). The seasonality has been reconstructed with the help of high-resolution sampling of two oyster shells and was found to be very low (<2°C) as can be expected for a tropical palaeolatitude. A comparison of the results from Egypt with literature data enabled the reconstruction of latitudinal temperature gradients. During the Middle Jurassic, this gradient was much steeper than previously expected and comparable to today. During the Kimmeridgian, temperatures in Europe were generally warmer leading to weaker latitudinal gradients. Based on currently used estimates for the δ18O value of seawater during the Jurassic, reconstructed water temperatures for localities above the thermocline in Egypt and Europe were mostly lower than Recent sea-surface temperatures. These results improve our understanding of the Jurassic climate and its influence on marine

  14. Comparison of genetic algorithms with conjugate gradient methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, J. L.; Foo, N. Y.; Zeigler, B. P.

    1972-01-01

    Genetic algorithms for mathematical function optimization are modeled on search strategies employed in natural adaptation. Comparisons of genetic algorithms with conjugate gradient methods, which were made on an IBM 1800 digital computer, show that genetic algorithms display superior performance over gradient methods for functions which are poorly behaved mathematically, for multimodal functions, and for functions obscured by additive random noise. Genetic methods offer performance comparable to gradient methods for many of the standard functions.

  15. Relationships between climate, soil moisture and phenology of the woody cover in two sites located along the West African latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghieri, Josiane; Vescovo, Aude; Padel, Karine; Soubie, Remy; Arjounin, Marc; Boulain, Nicolas; de Rosnay, Patricia; Galle, Sylvie; Gosset, Marielle; Mouctar, Abakar H.; Peugeot, Christophe; Timouk, Franck

    2009-08-01

    SummaryThe study quantifies the relationships at local scale between phenology and determinants of climate and soil water resources at two sites located along the latitudinal gradient of West Africa, one in the central Sahel (Mali), the other in the Sudanian bioclimatic zone (Benin). The aim is to improve our knowledge on possible vegetation response to possible climate change. Within the Sudanian site, average annual rainfall is 1200 mm, extending from April to October, while, in the Sahelian site, it is 370 mm, occurring from June to September. Physical data were collected from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis research programme. The phenology of the dominant species was monitored in four types of vegetation cover at the wetter site, and in three types of vegetation cover at the drier site. For each sampled plant, leafing, flowering and fruiting were recorded as binary variables in terms of the presence/absence of phenophases. A small proportion of the variability of each phenophase occurrence is explained by the logit models. However, rainfall rise is significantly linked to leafing probability increase in the Sahelian site but not in the Sudanian site. Day length extension and temperature decrease are significantly correlated with an increase in leafing in the Sudanian site, but not in the Sahelian. On both sites, the increase in cumulative rainfall is not found to be linked to an increased probability of reproductive phenophases (negative or non-significant relationships). Air temperature is positively correlated with flowering rate in the Sudanian site, but, all other factors being constant, no climate factors are found to be highly significant of flowering occurrence in the Sahel. Fruiting probability is positively correlated mainly with temperature within the Sahelian site. Leafing occurrence is positively correlated with soil moisture in the 0-1 m layer for the Sudanian site, but not for the Sahelian site. Significant relationships between

  16. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmoshin; Hohn, Sönke; Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wahl, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.

  17. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming.

    PubMed

    Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmoshin; Hohn, Sönke; Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Voolstra, Christian R; Wahl, Martin

    2015-03-10

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.

  18. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    PubMed Central

    Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmoshin; Hohn, Sönke; Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wahl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21–27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28–33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28–29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals. PMID:25754672

  19. Broad-scale latitudinal patterns of genetic diversity among native European and introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations.

    PubMed

    Schrey, A W; Grispo, M; Awad, M; Cook, M B; McCoy, E D; Mushinsky, H R; Albayrak, T; Bensch, S; Burke, T; Butler, L K; Dor, R; Fokidis, H B; Jensen, H; Imboma, T; Kessler-Rios, M M; Marzal, A; Stewart, I R K; Westerdahl, H; Westneat, D F; Zehtindjiev, P; Martin, L B

    2011-03-01

    Introduced species offer unique opportunities to study evolution in new environments, and some provide opportunities for understanding the mechanisms underlying macroecological patterns. We sought to determine how introduction history impacted genetic diversity and differentiation of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), one of the most broadly distributed bird species. We screened eight microsatellite loci in 316 individuals from 16 locations in the native and introduced ranges. Significant population structure occurred between native than introduced house sparrows. Introduced house sparrows were distinguished into one North American group and a highly differentiated Kenyan group. Genetic differentiation estimates identified a high magnitude of differentiation between Kenya and all other populations, but demonstrated that European and North American samples were differentiated too. Our results support previous claims that introduced North American populations likely had few source populations, and indicate house sparrows established populations after introduction. Genetic diversity also differed among native, introduced North American, and Kenyan populations with Kenyan birds being least diverse. In some cases, house sparrow populations appeared to maintain or recover genetic diversity relatively rapidly after range expansion (<50 years; Mexico and Panama), but in others (Kenya) the effect of introduction persisted over the same period. In both native and introduced populations, genetic diversity exhibited large-scale geographic patterns, increasing towards the equator. Such patterns of genetic diversity are concordant with two previously described models of genetic diversity, the latitudinal model and the species diversity model.

  20. Out of the tropics, but how? Fossils, bridge species, and thermal ranges in the dynamics of the marine latitudinal diversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, David; Belanger, Christina L; Berke, Sarah K; Huang, Shan; Krug, Andrew Z; Roy, Kaustuv; Tomasovych, Adam; Valentine, James W

    2013-06-25

    Latitudinal diversity gradients are underlain by complex combinations of origination, extinction, and shifts in geographic distribution and therefore are best analyzed by integrating paleontological and neontological data. The fossil record of marine bivalves shows, in three successive late Cenozoic time slices, that most clades (operationally here, genera) tend to originate in the tropics and then expand out of the tropics (OTT) to higher latitudes while retaining their tropical presence. This OTT pattern is robust both to assumptions on the preservation potential of taxa and to taxonomic revisions of extant and fossil species. Range expansion of clades may occur via "bridge species," which violate climate-niche conservatism to bridge the tropical-temperate boundary in most OTT genera. Substantial time lags (∼5 Myr) between the origins of tropical clades and their entry into the temperate zone suggest that OTT events are rare on a per-clade basis. Clades with higher diversification rates within the tropics are the most likely to expand OTT and the most likely to produce multiple bridge species, suggesting that high speciation rates promote the OTT dynamic. Although expansion of thermal tolerances is key to the OTT dynamic, most latitudinally widespread species instead achieve their broad ranges by tracking widespread, spatially-uniform temperatures within the tropics (yielding, via the nonlinear relation between temperature and latitude, a pattern opposite to Rapoport's rule). This decoupling of range size and temperature tolerance may also explain the differing roles of species and clade ranges in buffering species from background and mass extinctions.

  1. Large latitudinal gradients and temporal heterogeneity in aerosol black carbon and its mass mixing ratio over southern and northern oceans observed during a trans-continental cruise experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, K. Krishna; Satheesh, S. K.; Babu, S. Suresh; Saha, Auromeet

    2005-07-01

    Extensive, and collocated measurements of the mass concentrations (MB) of aerosol black carbon (BC) and (MT) of composite aerosols were made over the Arabian Sea, tropical Indian Ocean and the Southern Ocean during a trans-continental cruise experiment. Our investigations show that MB remains extremely low (<50 ng m-3) and remarkably steady (in space and time) in the Southern Ocean (20°S to 56°S). In contrast, large latitudinal gradients exist north of ~20°S MB increasing exponentially to reach as high as 2000 ng m-3 in the Arabian Sea (~8°N). Interestingly, the share of BC showed a distinctly different latitudinal variation, with a peak close to the equator and decreasing on either side. Large fluctuations were seen in MT over Southern Ocean associated with enhanced production of sea-salt aerosols in response to sea-surface wind speed. These spatio-temporal changes in MB and its mixing ratio have important implications to regional and global climate.

  2. [Distribution of the genetic diversity of the Siberian stone pine, Pinus sibirica Du Tour, along the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles].

    PubMed

    Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N; Belokon', M M; Belokon', Iu S; Politov, D V

    2014-05-01

    The Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) is one of the main forest-forming coniferous species of the boreal ecosystems of Western Siberia. We used the isozyme method to analyze 11 ecotypes representing the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles within the species range, including samples from the geographic boundaries of the distribution. The genetic structure of the ecotypes is described on the basis of the variability for 26 isozyme loci encoding for 16 enzyme systems. The greatest genetic diversity was observed in the taiga ecotypes in the central part of the studied area, while the ecotypes along the species range boundaries were shown to be genetically depauperized. Approximately 8.1% of the observed genetic diversity is attributed to differences between the studied ecotypes. We detected high levels of genetic diversity for the Fest_2, Pgm_1, Sod_4, and a few otherloci, as well as a correlation between allele frequencies and geographical locations of the populations. The results of multivariate analysis of allelic frequencies as well as cluster analysis allowed us to discriminate three major groups of ecotypes: north-eastern, central and south-western. In view of our results, we compare two hypotheses: one which attributes the spatial distribution of genetic variations to the selectivity for some of the polymorphic allozyme loci, and the other based in the history of the formation of the range of the Siberian stone pine.

  3. The latitudinal diversity gradient in South American mammals revisited using a regional analysis approach: The importance of climate at extra-tropical latitudes and history towards the tropics.

    PubMed

    Fergnani, Paula Nilda; Ruggiero, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    The latitudinal diversity gradient has been considered a consequence of a shift in the impact of abiotic and biotic factors that limit species distributions from the poles to the equator, thus influencing species richness variation. It has also been considered the outcome of evolutionary processes that vary over geographical space. We used six South American mammal groups to test the association of environmental and evolutionary factors and the ecological structuring of mammal assemblages with spatial variation in taxonomic richness (TR), at a spatial resolution of 110 km x 110 km, at tropical and extra-tropical latitudes. Based on attributes that represent what mammal species do in ecosystems, we estimated ecological diversity (ED) as a mean pairwise ecological distance between all co-occurring taxa. The mean pairwise phylogenetic distance between all co-occurring taxa (AvPD) was used as an estimation of phylogenetic diversity. Geographically Weighted Regression analyses performed separately for each mammal group identified tropical and extra-tropical high R2 areas where environmental and evolutionary factors strongly accounted for richness variation. Temperature was the most important predictor of TR in high R2 areas outside the tropics, as was AvPD within the tropics. The proportion of TR variation accounted for by environment (either independently or combined with AvPD) was higher in tropical areas of high richness and low ecological diversity than in tropical areas of high richness and high ecological diversity. In conclusion, we confirmed a shift in the impact of environmental factors, mainly temperature, that best account for mammal richness variation in extra-tropical regions, whereas phylogenetic diversity best accounts for richness variation within the tropics. Environment in combination with evolutionary history explained the coexistence of a high number of ecologically similar species within the tropics. Consideration of the influence of contemporary

  4. The latitudinal diversity gradient in South American mammals revisited using a regional analysis approach: The importance of climate at extra-tropical latitudes and history towards the tropics

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    The latitudinal diversity gradient has been considered a consequence of a shift in the impact of abiotic and biotic factors that limit species distributions from the poles to the equator, thus influencing species richness variation. It has also been considered the outcome of evolutionary processes that vary over geographical space. We used six South American mammal groups to test the association of environmental and evolutionary factors and the ecological structuring of mammal assemblages with spatial variation in taxonomic richness (TR), at a spatial resolution of 110 km x 110 km, at tropical and extra-tropical latitudes. Based on attributes that represent what mammal species do in ecosystems, we estimated ecological diversity (ED) as a mean pairwise ecological distance between all co-occurring taxa. The mean pairwise phylogenetic distance between all co-occurring taxa (AvPD) was used as an estimation of phylogenetic diversity. Geographically Weighted Regression analyses performed separately for each mammal group identified tropical and extra-tropical high R2 areas where environmental and evolutionary factors strongly accounted for richness variation. Temperature was the most important predictor of TR in high R2 areas outside the tropics, as was AvPD within the tropics. The proportion of TR variation accounted for by environment (either independently or combined with AvPD) was higher in tropical areas of high richness and low ecological diversity than in tropical areas of high richness and high ecological diversity. In conclusion, we confirmed a shift in the impact of environmental factors, mainly temperature, that best account for mammal richness variation in extra-tropical regions, whereas phylogenetic diversity best accounts for richness variation within the tropics. Environment in combination with evolutionary history explained the coexistence of a high number of ecologically similar species within the tropics. Consideration of the influence of contemporary

  5. Inter- and intrapopulation variation in thermal reaction norms for growth rate: evolution of latitudinal compensation in ectotherms with a genetic constraint.

    PubMed

    Yamahira, Kazunori; Kawajiri, Maiko; Takeshi, Kenichi; Irie, Takahiro

    2007-07-01

    In ectotherms, lower temperatures in high-latitude environments would theoretically reduce the annual growth rates of individuals. If slower growth and resultant smaller body size reduce fitness, individuals in higher latitudes may evolve compensatory responses. Two alternative models of such latitudinal compensation are possible: Model I: thermal reaction norms for growth rates of high-latitude individuals may be horizontally shifted to a lower range of temperatures, or Model II: reaction norms may be vertically shifted so that high-latitude individuals can grow faster across all temperatures. Model I is expected when annual growth rates in the wild are only a function of environmental temperatures, whereas Model II is expected when individuals in higher latitudes can only grow during a shorter period of a year. A variety of mixed strategies of these two models are also possible, and the magnitude of horizontal versus vertical variation in reaction norms among latitudinal populations will be indicative of the importance of "temperature" versus "seasonality" in the evolution of latitudinal compensation. However, the form of latitudinal compensation may be affected by possible genetic constraints due to the genetic architecture of reaction norms. In this study, we examine the inter- and intrapopulation variations in thermal reaction norms for growth rate of the medaka fish Oryzias latipes. Common-environment experiments revealed that average reaction norms differed primarily in elevation among latitudinal populations in a manner consistent with Model II (adaptation to "seasonality"), suggesting that natural selection in high latitudes prefers individuals that grow faster even within a shorter growing season to individuals that have longer growing seasons by growing at lower temperatures. However, intrapopulation variation in reaction norms was also vertical: some full-sibling families grew faster than others across all temperatures examined. This tendency in

  6. Out of the tropics, but how? Fossils, bridge species, and thermal ranges in the dynamics of the marine latitudinal diversity gradient

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, David; Belanger, Christina L.; Berke, Sarah K.; Huang, Shan; Krug, Andrew Z.; Roy, Kaustuv; Tomasovych, Adam; Valentine, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Latitudinal diversity gradients are underlain by complex combinations of origination, extinction, and shifts in geographic distribution and therefore are best analyzed by integrating paleontological and neontological data. The fossil record of marine bivalves shows, in three successive late Cenozoic time slices, that most clades (operationally here, genera) tend to originate in the tropics and then expand out of the tropics (OTT) to higher latitudes while retaining their tropical presence. This OTT pattern is robust both to assumptions on the preservation potential of taxa and to taxonomic revisions of extant and fossil species. Range expansion of clades may occur via “bridge species,” which violate climate-niche conservatism to bridge the tropical-temperate boundary in most OTT genera. Substantial time lags (∼5 Myr) between the origins of tropical clades and their entry into the temperate zone suggest that OTT events are rare on a per-clade basis. Clades with higher diversification rates within the tropics are the most likely to expand OTT and the most likely to produce multiple bridge species, suggesting that high speciation rates promote the OTT dynamic. Although expansion of thermal tolerances is key to the OTT dynamic, most latitudinally widespread species instead achieve their broad ranges by tracking widespread, spatially-uniform temperatures within the tropics (yielding, via the nonlinear relation between temperature and latitude, a pattern opposite to Rapoport’s rule). This decoupling of range size and temperature tolerance may also explain the differing roles of species and clade ranges in buffering species from background and mass extinctions. PMID:23759748

  7. An ensemble average method to estimate absolute TEC using radio beacon-based differential phase measurements: Applicability to regions of large latitudinal gradients in plasma density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampi, Smitha V.; Bagiya, Mala S.; Chakrabarty, D.; Acharya, Y. B.; Yamamoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    A GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) system for total electron content (TEC) measurements using 150 and 400 MHz transmissions from Low-Earth Orbiting Satellites (LEOS) is fabricated in house and made operational at Ahmedabad (23.04°N, 72.54°E geographic, dip latitude 17°N) since May 2013. This system receives the 150 and 400 MHz transmissions from high-inclination LEOS. The first few days of observations are presented in this work to bring out the efficacy of an ensemble average method to convert the relative TECs to absolute TECs. This method is a modified version of the differential Doppler-based method proposed by de Mendonca (1962) and suitable even for ionospheric regions with large spatial gradients. Comparison of TECs derived from a collocated GPS receiver shows that the absolute TECs estimated by this method are reliable estimates over regions with large spatial gradient. This method is useful even when only one receiving station is available. The differences between these observations are discussed to bring out the importance of the spatial differences between the ionospheric pierce points of these satellites. A few examples of the latitudinal variation of TEC during different local times using GRBR measurements are also presented, which demonstrates the potential of radio beacon measurements in capturing the large-scale plasma transport processes in the low-latitude ionosphere.

  8. Analysis of seasonal ozone budget and spring ozone latitudinal gradient variation in the boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xuewei; Zhu, Bin; Kang, Hanqing; Gao, Jinhui

    2014-09-01

    The ozone (O3) budget in the boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region (AP) was studied from 2001 to 2007 using the output of Model of Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). The model-simulated O3 data agree well with observed values. O3 budget analysis using the model output confirms that the dominant factor controlling seasonal variation of O3 differs by region. Photochemistry was found to play a critical role over Japan, the Korean Peninsula and Eastern China. Over the northwestern Pacific Ocean, advective flux was found to drive the seasonal variation of O3 concentrations. The large latitudinal gradient in O3 with a maximum of 52 ppbv over the marine boundary layer around 35°N during the spring was mainly due to chemistry; meanwhile, advection was found to weaken the gradient. The contribution of stratospheric O3 was ranked second (20%) to the local contribution (25%) in Japan and the Korean Peninsula near 35°N. The rate of O3 export from China's boundary layer was the highest (approximately 30%) in low latitudes and decreased with increasing latitude, while the contribution of North America and Europe increased with increasing latitude, from 10% in lower latitudes to 24% in higher latitudes.

  9. The origin of soil organic matter controls its composition and bioreactivity across a mesic boreal forest latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Lukas; Philben, Michael; Edwards, Kate A; Podrebarac, Frances A; Warren, Jamie; Ziegler, Susan E

    2017-09-04

    Warmer climates have been associated with reduced bioreactivity of soil organic matter (SOM) typically attributed to increased diagenesis; the combined biological and physiochemical transformation of SOM. In addition, cross-site studies have indicated that ecosystem regime shifts, associated with long-term climate warming, can affect SOM properties through changes in vegetation and plant litter production thereby altering the composition of soil inputs. The relative importance of these two controls, diagenesis and inputs, on SOM properties as ecosystems experience climate warming, however, remains poorly understood. To address this issue we characterized the elemental, chemical (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and total hydrolysable amino acids analysis), and isotopic composition of plant litter and SOM across a well-constrained mesic boreal forest latitudinal transect in Atlantic Canada. Results across forest sites within each of three climate regions indicated that (1) climate history and diagenesis affect distinct parameters of SOM chemistry, (2) increases in SOM bioreactivity with latitude were associated with elevated proportions of carbohydrates relative to plant waxes and lignin, and (3) despite the common forest type across regions, differences in SOM chemistry by climate region were associated with chemically distinct litter inputs and not different degrees of diagenesis. The observed climate effects on vascular plant litter chemistry, however, explained only part of the regional differences in SOM chemistry, most notably the higher protein content of SOM from warmer regions. Greater proportions of lignin and aliphatic compounds and smaller proportions of carbohydrates in warmer sites' soils were explained by the higher proportion of vascular plant relative to moss litter in the warmer relative to cooler forests. These results indicate that climate change induced decreases in the proportion of moss inputs not only impacts SOM chemistry but also

  10. Osmolality and Non-Structural Carbohydrate Composition in the Secondary Phloem of Trees across a Latitudinal Gradient in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; von Arx, Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C.; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L.; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L.; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter

  11. Incorporating latitudinal and central–marginal trends in assessing genetic variation across species ranges

    Treesearch

    Qinfeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    The genetic variation across a species’ range is an important factor in speciation and conservation, yet searching for general patterns and underlying causes remains challenging. While the majority of comparisons between central and marginal populations have revealed a general central–marginal (C-M) decline in genetic diversity, others show no clear pattern. Similarly...

  12. Mountain pine beetle voltinism and life history characteristics across latitudinal and elevational gradients in the western United States

    Treesearch

    Barbara Bentz; James Vandygriff; Camille Jensen; Tom Coleman; Patricia Maloney; Sheri Smith; Amanda Grady; Greta Schen-Langenheim

    2014-01-01

    Substantial genetic variation in development time is known to exist among mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) populations across the western United States. The effect of this variation on geographic patterns in voltinism (generation time) and thermal requirements to produce specific voltinism pathways have not been investigated. The influence of...

  13. Differential measurement and model calculations of cosmic ray latitudinal gradient with respect to the heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christon, S. P.; Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; Behannon, K. W.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous magnetic field and charged particle measurements from the Voyager spacecraft with heliographic latitude separations of more than 10 deg are used to investigate the distribution of about 1-GeV galactic cosmic ray protons with respect to the heliospheric current sheet in the outer solar system. By comparing the ratio of cosmic ray flux at Voyager 1 to that at Voyager 2 during periods of relatively quiet interplanetary conditions when the spacecraft are either both north or both south of the heliospheric current sheet, an average latitude component of the gradient of the cosmic ray flux on opposite sides of the current sheet is derived under restricted interplanetary conditions of -0.22 + or - 0.03 pct/deg, equivalent to a decrease of about 1 percent/AU away from the current sheet at about 12 AU. The results for these limited periods are in qualitative agreement with propagation models incorporating particle drifts.

  14. Progenesis in Proctoeces lintoni (Fellodistomidae), a parasite of Fissurella crassa (Archaeogastropoda) in a latitudinal gradient in the Pacific Coast of South America.

    PubMed

    Oliva, M E; Huaquin, L G

    2000-08-01

    The fellodistomid Proctoeces lintoni is a common parasite of the gonads of key-hole limpets Fissurella spp. (Archaeogastropoda). It has also been found in the mantle of Octopus vulgaris and as an intestinal parasite of haemulid and gobiesocid fishes. Fissurella crassa, a host for progenetic P. lintoni, can be found from Huarmey, Peni (10 degrees S) to Chiloé, Chile (42 degrees S). Proctoeces lintoni has been found parasitizing fishes and molluscs from Callao, Peni (12 degrees S) to Valdivia, Chile (39 degrees S). Progenesis is thought to be a latitude-dependent phenomenon, and high progenesis is expected at higher latitude. In the present article, the association between latitude and progenesis was examined over a latitudinal gradient of about 3,000 km. Data suggest that progenesis of P. lintoni infecting F. crassa was not associated with latitude. Low levels of progenesis found in the Peruvian population could be a consequence of parasite-induced mortality rather than of low latitude, as would be predicted by the latitude dependence hypothesis.

  15. Latitudinal Gradients in the Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes of Tree-Ring Cellulose Reveal Differential Climate Influences of the North American Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szejner, P.; Wright, W. E.; Babst, F.; Belmecheri, S.; Trouet, V.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Leavitt, S. W.; Monson, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Summer rainfall plays an important role sustaining different types of ecosystems in the Southwestern US. The arrival of the monsoon breaks the early summer hyper-arid period in the region providing unique seasonal conditions for these ecosystems to thrive. It is unknown to what extent monsoon rainfall is used by Ponderosa pine forests, which occupy many mountain ecosystems in the Western US. While these forests clearly rely on winter snowpack to drive much of their annual net primary productivity, the extent to which they supplement winter moisture, with summer monsoon moisture needs to be clarified. It is likely that there are north-south gradients in the degree to which forests rely on monsoon moisture, as the summer monsoon system tends to become diminished as it moves progressively northward. We addressed these gaps in our knowledge about the monsoon by studying stable Carbon and Oxygen isotopes in earlywood and latewood α-cellulose from cores taken from trees in eleven sites along a latitudinal gradient extending from Southern Arizona and New Mexico toward Utah. Here we show evidence that Ponderosa pine trees from most of these sites use monsoon water to support growth during the late summer, and the fractional use of monsoon precipitation is strongest in the southernmost sites. This study provides new physiological evidence on the influence of the North American monsoon and winter precipitation on tree growth in montane ecosystems of the Western US. Using these results, we predict differences in the susceptibility of southern and northern montane forests to future climate change. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This work was funded by an NSF Macrosystems Grant #1065790

  16. Ecological Diversity in South American Mammals: Their Geographical Distribution Shows Variable Associations with Phylogenetic Diversity and Does Not Follow the Latitudinal Richness Gradient.

    PubMed

    Fergnani, Paula Nilda; Ruggiero, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which the latitudinal gradient in species richness may be paralleled by a similar gradient of increasing functional or phylogenetic diversity is a matter of controversy. We evaluated whether taxonomic richness (TR) is informative in terms of ecological diversity (ED, an approximation to functional diversity) and phylogenetic diversity (AvPD) using data on 531 mammal species representing South American old autochthonous (marsupials, xenarthrans), mid-Cenozoic immigrants (hystricognaths, primates) and newcomers (carnivorans, artiodactyls). If closely related species are ecologically more similar than distantly related species, AvPD will be a strong predictor of ED; however, lower ED than predicted from AvPD may be due to species retaining most of their ancestral characters, suggesting niche conservatism. This pattern could occur in tropical rainforests for taxa of tropical affinity (old autochthonous and mid-Cenozoic immigrants) and in open and arid habitats for newcomers. In contrast, higher ED than expected from AvPD could occur, possibly in association with niche evolution, in arid and open habitats for taxa of tropical affinity and in forested habitats for newcomers. We found that TR was a poor predictor of ED and AvPD. After controlling for TR, there was considerable variability in the extent to which AvPD accounted for ED. Taxa of tropical affinity did not support the prediction of ED deficit within tropical rainforests, rather, they showed a mosaic of regions with an excess of ED interspersed with zones of ED deficit within the tropics; newcomers showed ED deficit in arid and open regions. Some taxa of tropical affinity showed excess of ED in tropical desert areas (hystricognaths) or temperate semideserts (xenarthrans); newcomers showed excess of ED at cold-temperate latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. This result suggests that extreme climatic conditions at both temperate and tropical latitudes may have promoted niche evolution in mammals.

  17. Ecological Diversity in South American Mammals: Their Geographical Distribution Shows Variable Associations with Phylogenetic Diversity and Does Not Follow the Latitudinal Richness Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Fergnani, Paula Nilda; Ruggiero, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which the latitudinal gradient in species richness may be paralleled by a similar gradient of increasing functional or phylogenetic diversity is a matter of controversy. We evaluated whether taxonomic richness (TR) is informative in terms of ecological diversity (ED, an approximation to functional diversity) and phylogenetic diversity (AvPD) using data on 531 mammal species representing South American old autochthonous (marsupials, xenarthrans), mid-Cenozoic immigrants (hystricognaths, primates) and newcomers (carnivorans, artiodactyls). If closely related species are ecologically more similar than distantly related species, AvPD will be a strong predictor of ED; however, lower ED than predicted from AvPD may be due to species retaining most of their ancestral characters, suggesting niche conservatism. This pattern could occur in tropical rainforests for taxa of tropical affinity (old autochthonous and mid-Cenozoic immigrants) and in open and arid habitats for newcomers. In contrast, higher ED than expected from AvPD could occur, possibly in association with niche evolution, in arid and open habitats for taxa of tropical affinity and in forested habitats for newcomers. We found that TR was a poor predictor of ED and AvPD. After controlling for TR, there was considerable variability in the extent to which AvPD accounted for ED. Taxa of tropical affinity did not support the prediction of ED deficit within tropical rainforests, rather, they showed a mosaic of regions with an excess of ED interspersed with zones of ED deficit within the tropics; newcomers showed ED deficit in arid and open regions. Some taxa of tropical affinity showed excess of ED in tropical desert areas (hystricognaths) or temperate semideserts (xenarthrans); newcomers showed excess of ED at cold-temperate latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. This result suggests that extreme climatic conditions at both temperate and tropical latitudes may have promoted niche evolution in mammals

  18. Prescribed-burning vs. wildfire: management implications for annual carbon emissions along a latitudinal gradient of Calluna vulgaris-dominated vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, V. M.; Alday, J. G.; Lee, H.; Allen, K. A.; Marrs, R. H.

    2015-11-01

    A~present challenge in fire ecology is to optimize management techniques so that ecological services are maximized and C emissions minimized. Here, we model the effects of different prescribed-burning rotation intervals and wildfires on carbon emissions (present and future) in British moorlands. Biomass-accumulation curves from four Calluna-dominated ecosystems along a north-south, climatic gradient in Great Britain were calculated and used within a matrix-model based on Markov Chains to calculate above-ground biomass-loads, and annual C losses under different prescribed-burning rotation intervals. Additionally, we assessed the interaction of these parameters with an increasing wildfire return interval. We observed that litter accumulation patterns varied along the latitudinal gradient, with differences between northern (colder and wetter) and southern sites (hotter and drier). The accumulation patterns of the living vegetation dominated by Calluna were determined by site-specific conditions. The optimal prescribed-burning rotation interval for minimizing annual carbon losses also differed between sites: the rotation interval for northern sites was between 30 and 50 years, whereas for southern sites a hump-backed relationship was found with the optimal interval either between 8 to 10 years or between 30 to 50 years. Increasing wildfire frequency interacted with prescribed-burning rotation intervals by both increasing C emissions and modifying the optimum prescribed-burning interval for C minimum emission. This highlights the importance of studying site-specific biomass accumulation patterns with respect to environmental conditions for identifying suitable fire-rotation intervals to minimize C losses.

  19. Use of a latitudinal gradient in bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) production to examine physiological controls of biotic boundaries and potential responses to environment change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.A.; McKee, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: Predictions of vegetation change with global warming require models that accurately reflect physiological processes underlying growth limitations and species distributions. However, information about environmental controls on physiology and consequent effects on species boundaries and ecosystem functions such as production is limited, especially for forested wetlands that are potentially important carbon sinks. Location: The bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) region of the south-eastern United States was studied to examine how production of an important forested wetland varies with latitude and temperature as well as local hydrology. Methods: We used published data to analyse litter production across a latitudinal gradient from 26.2 to 37.8?? N to determine how bald cypress swamps might respond to alternate climate conditions and what changes might occur throughout the distributional range. Results: Litterfall rates followed a bell shaped curve, indicating that production was more limited at the distributional boundaries (c. 225 g/m2 year-1) compared to the mid-range (795-1126 g/m2 year-1). This pattern suggests that conditions are sub-optimal near both boundaries and that the absence of populations outside this latitudinal range may be largely due to physiological constraints on the carbon balance of dominant species. While dispersal limitations cannot be totally discounted, competition with other wetland types at the extremes of the range does not seem likely to be important because the relative basal area of bald cypress does not decrease near the edges of the range. Impaired hydrology depressed production across the entire range, but more in the south than the north. Main conclusions: Our findings suggest that (1) physiological limitations constrain biotic boundaries of bald cypress swamps; (2) future changes in global temperature would affect litter production in a nonlinear manner across the distributional range; (3) local changes in hydrology may

  20. Baseline corticosterone and stress response in the Thorn-tailed Rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda) along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Quirici, Verónica; Venegas, Cristóbal I; González-Gómez, Paulina L; Castaño-Villa, Gabriel J; Wingfield, John C; Vásquez, Rodrigo A

    2014-03-01

    Glucocorticoids are essential for life and their secretion is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). The HPA axis is often divided into two components: baseline glucocorticoids levels and stress response glucocorticoids levels, which are affected by changes in ambient temperature and productivity among others factors. An approximation to evaluate how a species copes with these changes is to evaluate differences of this hormone amongst populations of the same species that inhabit places ideally presenting all the possible combinations of temperature and productivity. We aimed to evaluate whether environmental temperature or productivity, represent challenges in terms of stress in the Thorn-tailed Rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda). We examined circulating baseline levels of CORT and stress responses from three populations, covering the whole geographic distribution of the species across large gradients in weather conditions. If low temperature influences baseline CORT levels, we expect higher levels of this hormone in the southernmost population (higher latitude). However, if productivity is the factor that influences baseline CORT levels, we expect the contrary pattern, that is, lower values of this hormone in the southernmost population (more productive environment). We observed that baseline CORT levels presented lower values in the southernmost population, supporting the environmental productivity hypothesis. Secondly, we tested the hypothesis that individuals breeding at higher latitudes should have a lower stress response than individuals breeding at lower latitudes. Contrary to our expectations, we found that stress response did not vary among populations in any of the three years. We concluded that low environmental temperatures did not represent a stress situation for the Thorn-tailed Rayadito if food abundance was sufficient to support energetic demands.

  1. Seasonality, weather and climate affect home range size in roe deer across a wide latitudinal gradient within Europe.

    PubMed

    Morellet, Nicolas; Bonenfant, Christophe; Börger, Luca; Ossi, Federico; Cagnacci, Francesca; Heurich, Marco; Kjellander, Petter; Linnell, John D C; Nicoloso, Sandro; Sustr, Pavel; Urbano, Ferdinando; Mysterud, Atle

    2013-11-01

    1. Because many large mammal species have wide geographical ranges, spatially distant populations may be confronted with different sets of environmental conditions. Investigating how home range (HR) size varies across environmental gradients should yield a better understanding of the factors affecting large mammal ecology. 2. We evaluated how HR size of a large herbivore, the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), varies in relation to seasonality, latitude (climate), weather, plant productivity and landscape features across its geographical range in Western Europe. As roe deer are income breeders, expected to adjust HR size continuously to temporal variation in food resources and energetic requirements, our baseline prediction was for HR size to decrease with proxies of resource availability. 3. We used GPS locations of roe deer collected from seven study sites (EURODEER collaborative project) to estimate fixed-kernel HR size at weekly and monthly temporal scales. We performed an unusually comprehensive analysis of variation in HR size among and within populations over time across the geographical range of a single species using generalized additive mixed models and linear mixed models, respectively. 4. Among populations, HR size decreased with increasing values for proxies of forage abundance, but increased with increases in seasonality, stochastic variation of temperature, latitude and snow cover. Within populations, roe deer HR size varied over time in relation to seasonality and proxies of forage abundance in a consistent way across the seven populations. Thus, our findings were broadly consistent across the distributional range of this species, demonstrating a strong and ubiquitous link between the amplitude and timing of environmental seasonality and HR size at the continental scale. 5. Overall, the variability in average HR size of roe deer across Europe reflects the interaction among local weather, climate and seasonality, providing valuable insight into the

  2. Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive ( Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research.

  3. Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive (Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; Del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research.

  4. High density of tree-cavities and snags in tropical dry forest of western Mexico raises questions for a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Leopoldo; Renton, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that a latitudinal gradient exists of a low density of snags and high density of naturally-formed tree-cavities in tropical vs. temperate forests, though few cavities may have characteristics suitable for nesting by birds. We determined snag and cavity density, characteristics, and suitability for birds in a tropical dry forest biome of western Mexico, and evaluated whether our data fits the trend of snag and cavity density typically found in tropical moist and wet forests. We established five 0.25-ha transects to survey and measure tree-cavities and snags in each of three vegetation types of deciduous, semi-deciduous, and mono-dominant Piranhea mexicana forest, comprising a total of 3.75 ha. We found a high density of 77 cavities/ha, with 37 cavities suitable for birds/ha, where density, and characteristics of cavities varied significantly among vegetation types. Lowest abundance of cavities occurred in deciduous forest, and these were in smaller trees, at a lower height, and with a narrower entrance diameter. Only 8.6% of cavities were excavated by woodpeckers, and only 11% of cavities were occupied, mainly by arthropods, though 52% of all cavities were unsuitable for birds. We also found a high density of 56 snags/ha, with greatest density in deciduous forest (70 snags/ha), though these were of significantly smaller diameter, and snags of larger diameter were more likely to contain cavities. The Chamela-Cuixmala tropical dry forest had the highest density of snags recorded for any tropical or temperate forest, and while snag density was significantly correlated with mean snag dbh, neither latitude nor mean dbh predicted snag density in ten forest sites. The high spatial aggregation of snag and cavity resources in tropical dry forest may limit their availability, particularly for large-bodied cavity adopters, and highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in providing resources for primary and secondary cavity-nesters.

  5. High Density of Tree-Cavities and Snags in Tropical Dry Forest of Western Mexico Raises Questions for a Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Leopoldo; Renton, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that a latitudinal gradient exists of a low density of snags and high density of naturally-formed tree-cavities in tropical vs. temperate forests, though few cavities may have characteristics suitable for nesting by birds. We determined snag and cavity density, characteristics, and suitability for birds in a tropical dry forest biome of western Mexico, and evaluated whether our data fits the trend of snag and cavity density typically found in tropical moist and wet forests. We established five 0.25-ha transects to survey and measure tree-cavities and snags in each of three vegetation types of deciduous, semi-deciduous, and mono-dominant Piranhea mexicana forest, comprising a total of 3.75 ha. We found a high density of 77 cavities/ha, with 37 cavities suitable for birds/ha, where density, and characteristics of cavities varied significantly among vegetation types. Lowest abundance of cavities occurred in deciduous forest, and these were in smaller trees, at a lower height, and with a narrower entrance diameter. Only 8.6% of cavities were excavated by woodpeckers, and only 11% of cavities were occupied, mainly by arthropods, though 52% of all cavities were unsuitable for birds. We also found a high density of 56 snags/ha, with greatest density in deciduous forest (70 snags/ha), though these were of significantly smaller diameter, and snags of larger diameter were more likely to contain cavities. The Chamela-Cuixmala tropical dry forest had the highest density of snags recorded for any tropical or temperate forest, and while snag density was significantly correlated with mean snag dbh, neither latitude nor mean dbh predicted snag density in ten forest sites. The high spatial aggregation of snag and cavity resources in tropical dry forest may limit their availability, particularly for large-bodied cavity adopters, and highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in providing resources for primary and secondary cavity-nesters. PMID:25615612

  6. Phenotypic differentiation of the Solidago virgaurea complex along an elevational gradient: Insights from a common garden experiment and population genetics.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Masaaki; Sakaguchi, Shota; Takahashi, Koichi

    2017-09-01

    Plant species distributed along wide elevational or latitudinal gradients show phenotypic variation due to their heterogeneous habitats. This study investigated whether phenotypic variation in populations of the Solidago virgaurea complex along an elevational gradient is caused by genetic differentiation. A common garden experiment was based on seeds collected from nine populations of the S. virgaurea complex growing at elevations from 1,597 m to 2,779 m a.s.l. on Mt. Norikura in central Japan. Population genetic analyses with microsatellite markers were used to infer the genetic structure and levels of gene flow between populations. Leaf mass per area was lower, while leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations were greater for higher elevations at which seeds were originally collected. For reproductive traits, plants derived from higher elevations had larger flower heads on shorter stems and flowering started earlier. These elevational changes in morphology were consistent with the clines in the field, indicating that phenotypic variation along the elevational gradient would have been caused by genetic differentiation. However, population genetic analysis using 16 microsatellite loci suggested an extremely low level of genetic differentiation of neutral genes among the nine populations. Analysis of molecular variance also indicated that most genetic variation was partitioned into individuals within a population, and the genetic differentiation among the populations was not significant. This study suggests that genome regions responsible for adaptive traits may differ among the populations despite the existence of gene flow and that phenotypic variation of the S. virgaurea complex along the elevational gradient is maintained by strong selection pressure.

  7. Genetic variation in Echinacea angustifolia along a climatic gradient.

    PubMed

    Still, D W; Kim, D-H; Aoyama, N

    2005-09-01

    Echinacea angustifolia is a widespread species distributed throughout the Great Plains region of North America. Genetic differentiation among populations was investigated along a 1500 km north-south climatic gradient in North America, a region with no major geographical barriers. The objective of the study was to determine if genetic differentiation of populations could be explained by an isolation-by-distance model or by associations with climatic parameters known to affect plant growth and survival. Historical climatic data were used to define the nature of the climatic gradient and AFLP markers were used to establish patterns of population genetic differentiation among ten Echinacea populations collected from North Dakota to Oklahoma. A total of 1290 fragments were scored using six EcoRI/MseI and three PstI/MseI primer combinations. Assessment of the correlation between climatic, genetic and geographic distances was assessed by Mantel and partial Mantel tests. PstI/MseI combinations produced significantly fewer fragments, but a larger percentage was unique compared with EcoRI/MseI markers. Using estimates of F(ST), populations in Oklahoma and southern Kansas were identified as the most divergent from the other populations. Both the neighbour-joining tree and principal co-ordinate analysis clustered the populations in a north-south spatial orientation. About 60% of the genetic variation was found within populations, 20% among populations and the remaining 20% was partitioned among groups that were defined by the topology of the neighbour-joining tree. Significant support was found for the isolation-by-distance model independent of the effects of annual mean precipitation, but not from annual mean temperature and freeze-free days. Echinacea angustifolia populations exhibit genetic divergence along a north-south climatic gradient. The data support an isolation-by-distance restriction in gene flow that is independent of annual mean precipitation.

  8. Scope of Gradient and Genetic Algorithms in Multivariable Function Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali; Sen, S. K.

    2007-01-01

    Global optimization of a multivariable function - constrained by bounds specified on each variable and also unconstrained - is an important problem with several real world applications. Deterministic methods such as the gradient algorithms as well as the randomized methods such as the genetic algorithms may be employed to solve these problems. In fact, there are optimization problems where a genetic algorithm/an evolutionary approach is preferable at least from the quality (accuracy) of the results point of view. From cost (complexity) point of view, both gradient and genetic approaches are usually polynomial-time; there are no serious differences in this regard, i.e., the computational complexity point of view. However, for certain types of problems, such as those with unacceptably erroneous numerical partial derivatives and those with physically amplified analytical partial derivatives whose numerical evaluation involves undesirable errors and/or is messy, a genetic (stochastic) approach should be a better choice. We have presented here the pros and cons of both the approaches so that the concerned reader/user can decide which approach is most suited for the problem at hand. Also for the function which is known in a tabular form, instead of an analytical form, as is often the case in an experimental environment, we attempt to provide an insight into the approaches focusing our attention toward accuracy. Such an insight will help one to decide which method, out of several available methods, should be employed to obtain the best (least error) output. *

  9. GRAMA: genetic mapping analysis of temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis data.

    PubMed

    Maher, Philip M; Chou, Hui-Hsien; Hahn, Elizabeth; Wen, Tsui-Jung; Schnable, Patrick S

    2006-06-01

    Temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis (TGCE) is a high-throughput method to detect segregating single nucleotide polymorphisms and InDel polymorphisms in genetic mapping populations. Existing software that analyzes TGCE data was, however, designed for mutation analysis rather than genetic mapping. Genetic recombinant analysis and mapping assistant (GRAMA) is a new tool that automates TGCE data analysis for the purpose of genetic mapping. Data from multiple TGCE runs are analyzed, integrated, and displayed in an intuitive visual format. GRAMA includes an algorithm to detect peaks in electropherograms and can automatically compare its peak calls with those produced by another software package. Consequently, GRAMA provides highly accurate results with a low false positive rate of 5.9% and an even lower false negative rate of 1.3%. Because of its accuracy and intuitive interface, GRAMA boosts user productivity more than twofold relative to previous manual methods of scoring TGCE data. GRAMA is written in Java and is freely available at http://www.complex.iastate.edu .

  10. Sunlight-induced DNA damage in marine micro-organisms collected along a latitudinal gradient from 70 degrees N to 68 degrees S.

    PubMed

    Meador, Jarah A; Baldwin, Amy J; Catala, Phillipe; Jeffrey, Wade H; Joux, Fabien; Moss, Joseph A; Dean Pakulski, J; Stevens, Richard; Mitchell, David L

    2009-01-01

    We examined ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA damage in marine micro-organisms collected from surface seawater along a latitudinal transect in the Central Pacific Ocean from 70 degrees N to 68 degrees S. Samples were collected predawn and incubated under ambient UVR in transparent incubators at in situ temperatures until late afternoon at which time they were filtered into primarily bacterioplankton and eukaryotic fractions. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4) photoproducts [(6-4)PDs] were quantified in DNA extracts using radioimmunoassays. UVB was lowest in the polar regions and highest near the equator and correlations between UVB and DNA damage were observed. The eukaryotic fraction showed significant CPDs across the entire transect; (6-4)PDs were detected only in the tropics. The bacterial fraction showed no accumulation of (6-4)PDs at any latitude, although residual (6-4)PDs were observed. Bacterial cell volumes were greatest in the sub-Arctic and northern temperate latitudes and lower in the tropics and southern hemisphere, a unique observation that parallels Bergmann's rule. A strong negative correlation was observed between cell volume and CPDs. The environmental impact of solar UVR on marine micro-organisms in the open ocean is complex and our results suggest that several factors such as DNA repair, cell size, temperature, salinity, nutrients and species composition are important in determining relative sensitivity.

  11. The role of latitudinal, genetic and temperature variation in the induction of diapause of Papilio glaucus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A key adaptation in insects to deal with variable environmental (i.e., climatic) conditions is the ability to diapause. Papilio glaucus and P. canadensis are ideal species to explore the genetic causes and population genetic consequences of diapause because divergence in this trait is believed to be...

  12. Increasing minimum daily temperatures are associated with enhanced pesticide use in cultivated soybean along a latitudinal gradient in the mid-western United States.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum daily temperature (lowest 24 h recorded temperature in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum daily temperature (1999-2013) from -28.6°C (Minnesota) to -5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this temperature range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum daily temperatures and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum daily temperature could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term temperature data (1977-2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum daily temperatures for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising minimum daily

  13. Increasing Minimum Daily Temperatures Are Associated with Enhanced Pesticide Use in Cultivated Soybean along a Latitudinal Gradient in the Mid-Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Ziska, Lewis H.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum daily temperature (lowest 24 h recorded temperature in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum daily temperature (1999–2013) from −28.6°C (Minnesota) to −5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this temperature range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum daily temperatures and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum daily temperature could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term temperature data (1977–2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum daily temperatures for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising

  14. Genetic and environmental influences on cold hardiness of native and introduced riparian trees

    Treesearch

    Jonathan M. Friedman; James E. Roelle; Brian S. Cade

    2012-01-01

    To explore latitudinal genetic variation in cold hardiness and leaf phenology, we planted a common garden of paired collections of native and introduced riparian trees sampled along a latitudinal gradient. The garden in Fort Collins, Colorado (latitude 40.6°N), included 681 native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) and introduced saltcedar (Tamarix...

  15. Limited Genetic Connectivity between Gorgonian Morphotypes along a Depth Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Andrea; Lopez-González, Pablo; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Rossi, Sergio; Gili, Josep-Maria; Abbiati, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Gorgonian species show a high morphological variability in relation to the environment in which they live. In coastal areas, parameters such as temperature, light, currents, and food availability vary significantly with depth, potentially affecting morphology of the colonies and the structure of the populations, as well as their connectivity patterns. In tropical seas, the existence of connectivity between shallow and deep populations supported the hypothesis that the deep coral reefs could potentially act as (reproductive) refugia fostering re-colonization of shallow areas after mortality events. Moreover, this hypothesis is not so clear accepted in temperate seas. Eunicella singularis is one of the most common gorgonian species in Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, playing an important role as ecosystem engineer by providing biomass and complexity to the coralligenous habitats. It has a wide bathymetric distribution ranging from about 10 m to 100 m. Two depth-related morphotypes have been identified, differing in colony morphology, sclerite size and shape, and occurrence of symbiotic algae, but not in mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. In the present study the genetic structure of E. singularis populations along a horizontal and bathymetric gradient was assessed using microsatellites and ITS1 sequences. Restricted gene flow was found at 30–40 m depth between the two Eunicella morphotypes. Conversely, no genetic structuring has been found among shallow water populations within a spatial scale of ten kilometers. The break in gene flow between shallow and deep populations contributes to explain the morphological variability observed at different depths. Moreover, the limited vertical connectivity hinted that the refugia hypothesis does not apply to E. singularis. Re-colonization of shallow water populations, occasionally affected by mass mortality events, should then be mainly fueled by larvae from other shallow water populations. PMID:27490900

  16. Limited Genetic Connectivity between Gorgonian Morphotypes along a Depth Gradient.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Federica; Gori, Andrea; Lopez-González, Pablo; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Rossi, Sergio; Gili, Josep-Maria; Abbiati, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Gorgonian species show a high morphological variability in relation to the environment in which they live. In coastal areas, parameters such as temperature, light, currents, and food availability vary significantly with depth, potentially affecting morphology of the colonies and the structure of the populations, as well as their connectivity patterns. In tropical seas, the existence of connectivity between shallow and deep populations supported the hypothesis that the deep coral reefs could potentially act as (reproductive) refugia fostering re-colonization of shallow areas after mortality events. Moreover, this hypothesis is not so clear accepted in temperate seas. Eunicella singularis is one of the most common gorgonian species in Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, playing an important role as ecosystem engineer by providing biomass and complexity to the coralligenous habitats. It has a wide bathymetric distribution ranging from about 10 m to 100 m. Two depth-related morphotypes have been identified, differing in colony morphology, sclerite size and shape, and occurrence of symbiotic algae, but not in mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. In the present study the genetic structure of E. singularis populations along a horizontal and bathymetric gradient was assessed using microsatellites and ITS1 sequences. Restricted gene flow was found at 30-40 m depth between the two Eunicella morphotypes. Conversely, no genetic structuring has been found among shallow water populations within a spatial scale of ten kilometers. The break in gene flow between shallow and deep populations contributes to explain the morphological variability observed at different depths. Moreover, the limited vertical connectivity hinted that the refugia hypothesis does not apply to E. singularis. Re-colonization of shallow water populations, occasionally affected by mass mortality events, should then be mainly fueled by larvae from other shallow water populations.

  17. No divergence in Cassiope tetragona: persistence of growth response along a latitudinal temperature gradient and under multi-year experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Weijers, Stef; Greve Alsos, Inger; Bronken Eidesen, Pernille; Broekman, Rob; Loonen, Maarten J J E; Rozema, Jelte

    2012-08-01

    The dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona (Arctic bell-heather) is increasingly used for arctic climate reconstructions, the reliability of which depends on the existence of a linear climate-growth relationship. This relationship was examined over a high-arctic to sub-arctic temperature gradient and under multi-year artificial warming at a high-arctic site. Growth chronologies of annual shoot length, as well as total leaf length, number of leaves and average leaf length per year, were constructed for three sites. Cassiope tetragona was sampled near its cold tolerance limit at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, at its assumed climatic optimum in Endalen, Svalbard, and near its European southern limit at Abisko, Sweden. Together these sites represent the entire temperature gradient of this species. Leaf life span was also determined. Each growing season from 2004 to 2010, 17 open top chambers (OTCs) were placed near Ny-Ålesund, thus increasing the daily mean temperatures by 1·23°C. At the end of the 2010 growing season, shoots were harvested from OTCs and control plots, and growth parameters were measured. All growth parameters, except average leaf length, exhibited a linear positive response (R(2) between 0·63 and 0·91) to mean July temperature over the temperature gradient. Average leaf life span was 1·4 years shorter in sub-arctic Sweden compared with arctic Svalbard. All growth parameters increased in response to the experimental warming; the leaf life span was, however, not significantly affected by OTC warming. The linear July temperature-growth relationships, as well as the 7 year effect of experimental warming, confirm that the growth parameters annual shoot length, total leaf length and number of leaves per year can reliably be used for monitoring and reconstructing temperature changes. Furthermore, reconstructing July temperature from these parameters is not hampered by divergence.

  18. No divergence in Cassiope tetragona: persistence of growth response along a latitudinal temperature gradient and under multi-year experimental warming

    PubMed Central

    Weijers, Stef; Greve Alsos, Inger; Bronken Eidesen, Pernille; Broekman, Rob; Loonen, Maarten J.J.E.; Rozema, Jelte

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona (Arctic bell-heather) is increasingly used for arctic climate reconstructions, the reliability of which depends on the existence of a linear climate–growth relationship. This relationship was examined over a high-arctic to sub-arctic temperature gradient and under multi-year artificial warming at a high-arctic site. Methods Growth chronologies of annual shoot length, as well as total leaf length, number of leaves and average leaf length per year, were constructed for three sites. Cassiope tetragona was sampled near its cold tolerance limit at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, at its assumed climatic optimum in Endalen, Svalbard, and near its European southern limit at Abisko, Sweden. Together these sites represent the entire temperature gradient of this species. Leaf life span was also determined. Each growing season from 2004 to 2010, 17 open top chambers (OTCs) were placed near Ny-Ålesund, thus increasing the daily mean temperatures by 1·23°C. At the end of the 2010 growing season, shoots were harvested from OTCs and control plots, and growth parameters were measured. Key Results All growth parameters, except average leaf length, exhibited a linear positive response (R2 between 0·63 and 0·91) to mean July temperature over the temperature gradient. Average leaf life span was 1·4 years shorter in sub-arctic Sweden compared with arctic Svalbard. All growth parameters increased in response to the experimental warming; the leaf life span was, however, not significantly affected by OTC warming. Conclusions The linear July temperature–growth relationships, as well as the 7 year effect of experimental warming, confirm that the growth parameters annual shoot length, total leaf length and number of leaves per year can reliably be used for monitoring and reconstructing temperature changes. Furthermore, reconstructing July temperature from these parameters is not hampered by divergence. PMID:22700943

  19. The Genetic Contribution to Phenological Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, J. M.; Roelle, J. E.; Cade, B. S.

    2009-12-01

    Variation in phenology is often attributed to a changing climate. However, in wild populations some of the variation in phenology over space and time is a consequence of genetic variation. We used a common garden consisting of paired collections of native and introduced riparian trees sampled along a latitudinal gradient to explore the genetic component of latitudinal phenological variation. The garden in Fort Collins, Colorado (latitude 40.6°N), included 681 native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) and introduced saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis and hybrids) collected from 15 sites at 29.2-47.6°N in the central United States. In the common garden both species showed latitudinal variation in fall, but not spring, leaf phenology, demonstrating that the latitudinal gradient in fall phenology observed in the field reflects both genetic and climatic variation, while the latitudinal gradient in spring phenology observed in the field reflects climatic variation alone. In contrast, cold hardiness showed strong genetic variation in both fall and spring for both species. The latitudinal variation in fall phenology and cold hardiness of saltcedar appears to have evolved through hybridization and natural selection in the 150 years since introduction. We suggest that phenological networks observing wild populations include marked trees replicated in common gardens to distinguish genetic and environmental influences on phenology.

  20. Climatic controls of aboveground net primary production in semi-arid grasslands along a latitudinal gradient portend low sensitivity to warming.

    PubMed

    Mowll, Whitney; Blumenthal, Dana M; Cherwin, Karie; Smith, Anine; Symstad, Amy J; Vermeire, Lance T; Collins, Scott L; Smith, Melinda D; Knapp, Alan K

    2015-04-01

    Although climate models forecast warmer temperatures with a high degree of certainty, precipitation is the primary driver of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in most grasslands. Conversely, variations in temperature seldom are related to patterns of ANPP. Thus forecasting responses to warming is a challenge, and raises the question: how sensitive will grassland ANPP be to warming? We evaluated climate and multi-year ANPP data (67 years) from eight western US grasslands arrayed along mean annual temperature (MAT; ~7-14 °C) and mean annual precipitation (MAP; ~250-500 mm) gradients. We used regression and analysis of covariance to assess relationships between ANPP and temperature, as well as precipitation (annual and growing season) to evaluate temperature sensitivity of ANPP. We also related ANPP to the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI), which combines precipitation and evapotranspiration to better represent moisture available for plant growth. Regression models indicated that variation in growing season temperature was negatively related to total and graminoid ANPP, but precipitation was a stronger predictor than temperature. Growing season temperature was also a significant parameter in more complex models, but again precipitation was consistently a stronger predictor of ANPP. Surprisingly, neither annual nor growing season SPEI were as strongly related to ANPP as precipitation. We conclude that forecasted warming likely will affect ANPP in these grasslands, but that predicting temperature effects from natural climatic gradients is difficult. This is because, unlike precipitation, warming effects can be positive or negative and moderated by shifts in the C3/C4 ratios of plant communities.

  1. Climatic controls of aboveground net primary production in semi-arid grasslands along a latitudinal gradient portend low sensitivity to warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mowll, Whitney; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Cherwin, Karie; Smith, Anine; Symstad, Amy J.; Vermeire, Lance; Collins, Scott L.; Smith, Melinda D.; Knapp, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    Although climate models forecast warmer temperatures with a high degree of certainty, precipitation is the primary driver of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in most grasslands. Conversely, variations in temperature seldom are related to patterns of ANPP. Thus forecasting responses to warming is a challenge, and raises the question: how sensitive will grassland ANPP be to warming? We evaluated climate and multi-year ANPP data (67 years) from eight western US grasslands arrayed along mean annual temperature (MAT; ~7-14 °C) and mean annual precipitation (MAP; ~250-500 mm) gradients. Weused regression and analysis of covariance to assess relationships between ANPP and temperature, as well as precipitation (annual and growing season) to evaluate temperature sensitivity of ANPP. We also related ANPP to the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI), which combines precipitation and evapotranspiration to better represent moisture available for plant growth. Regression models indicated that variation in growing season temperature was negatively related to total and graminoid ANPP, but precipitation was a stronger predictor than temperature. Growing season temperature was also a significant parameter in more complex models, but again precipitation was consistently a stronger predictor of ANPP. Surprisingly, neither annual nor growing season SPEI were as strongly related to ANPP as precipitation. We conclude that forecasted warming likely will affect ANPP in these grasslands, but that predicting temperature effects from natural climatic gradients is difficult. This is because, unlike precipitation, warming effects can be positive or negative and moderated by shifts in the C3/C4 ratios of plant communities.

  2. Latitudinal gradient of airborne polyfluorinated alkyl substances in the marine atmosphere between Germany and South Africa (53 degrees N-33 degrees S).

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Annika; Berger, Urs; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Temme, Christian

    2007-05-01

    Neutral, volatile polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) were determined in high-volume air samples collected onboard the German research vessel Polarstern during cruise ANTXXIII-1 between Bremerhaven, Germany (53 degrees N) and Capetown, Republic of South Africa (33 degrees S) in fall 2005. An optimized and validated analytical protocol was used for the determination of several fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) as well as N-alkylated fluorooctane sulfonamides and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSAs/FOSEs). Quantitative analyses were done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study provides the first concentration data of airborne PFAS from the Southern Hemisphere. Results indicate a strongly decreasing concentration gradient from the European continent toward less industrialized regions. The study confirms that airborne PFAS are mainly restricted to the Northern Hemisphere with a maximum concentration of 190 pg/m3 (8:2 FTOH) in the first sample collected in the channel between the European mainland and the UK. However, south of the equator, trace amounts of several FTOHs and FOSAs with a maximum of 14 pg/m3 (8:2 FTOH) could still be detected. Furthermore, a selection of ionic PFAS including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were determined in the particulate phase of high-volume air samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Levels of ionic PFAS were almost 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of neutral PFAS, with maximum concentrations in the first sample of 2.5 pg/m3 (PFOS) and 2.0 pg/m3 (PFOA).

  3. Patterns of structural and defense investments in fine roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) across a strong temperature and latitudinal gradient in Europe.

    PubMed

    Zadworny, Marcin; McCormack, M Luke; Żytkowiak, Roma; Karolewski, Piotr; Mucha, Joanna; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2017-03-01

    Plant functional traits may be altered as plants adapt to various environmental constraints. Cold, low fertility growing conditions are often associated with root adjustments to increase acquisition of limiting nutrient resources, but they may also result in construction of roots with reduced uptake potential but higher tissue persistence. It is ultimately unclear whether plants produce fine roots of different structure in response to decreasing temperatures and whether these changes represent a trade-off between root function or potential root persistence. We assessed patterns of root construction based on various root morphological, biochemical and defense traits including root diameter, specific root length (SRL), root tissue density (RTD), C:N ratio, phenolic compounds, and number of phellem layers across up to 10 root orders in diverse populations of Scots pine along a 2000-km climatic gradient in Europe. Our results showed that different root traits are related to mean annual temperature (MAT) and expressed a pattern of higher root diameter and lower SRL and RTD in northern sites with lower MAT. Among absorptive roots, we observed a gradual decline in chemical defenses (phenolic compounds) with decreasing MAT. In contrast, decreasing MAT resulted in an increase of structural protection (number of phellem layers) in transport fine roots. This indicated that absorptive roots with high capacity for nutrient uptake, and transport roots with low uptake capacity, were characterized by distinct and contrasting trade-offs. Our observations suggest that diminishing structural and chemical investments into the more distal, absorptive roots in colder climates is consistent with building roots of higher absorptive capacity. At the same time, roots that play a more prominent role in transport of nutrients and water within the root system saw an increase in structural investment, which can increase persistence and reduce long-term costs associated with their frequent

  4. MILLIMETER-SCALE GENETIC GRADIENTS AND COMMUNITY-LEVEL MOLECULAR CONVERGENCE IN A HYPERSALINE MICROBIAL MAT

    SciTech Connect

    Fenner, Marsha W; Kunin, Victor; Raes, Jeroen; Harris, J. Kirk; Spear, John R.; Walker, Jeffrey J.; Ivanova, Natalia; Mering, Christian von; Bebout, Brad M.; Pace, Norman R.; Bork, Peer; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-04-30

    To investigate the extent of genetic stratification in structured microbial communities, we compared the metagenomes of 10 successive layers of a phylogenetically complex hypersaline mat from Guerrero Negro, Mexico. We found pronounced millimeter-scale genetic gradients that are consistent with the physicochemical profile of the mat. Despite these gradients, all layers displayed near identical and acid-shifted isoelectric point profiles due to a molecular convergence of amino acid usage indicating that hypersalinity enforces an overriding selective pressure on the mat community.

  5. Speciation gradients and the distribution of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Schluter, Dolph; Pennell, Matthew W

    2017-05-31

    Global patterns of biodiversity are influenced by spatial and environmental variations in the rate at which new species form. We relate variations in speciation rates to six key patterns of biodiversity worldwide, including the species-area relationship, latitudinal gradients in species and genetic diversity, and between-habitat differences in species richness. Although they sometimes mirror biodiversity patterns, recent rates of speciation, at the tip of the tree of life, are often highest where species richness is low. Speciation gradients therefore shape, but are also shaped by, biodiversity gradients and are often more useful for predicting future patterns of biodiversity than for interpreting the past.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure in contemporary house sparrow populations along an urbanization gradient

    PubMed Central

    Vangestel, C; Mergeay, J; Dawson, D A; Callens, T; Vandomme, V; Lens, L

    2012-01-01

    House sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have suffered major declines in urban as well as rural areas, while remaining relatively stable in suburban ones. Yet, to date no exhaustive attempt has been made to examine how, and to what extent, spatial variation in population demography is reflected in genetic population structuring along contemporary urbanization gradients. Here we use putatively neutral microsatellite loci to study if and how genetic variation can be partitioned in a hierarchical way among different urbanization classes. Principal coordinate analyses did not support the hypothesis that urban/suburban and rural populations comprise two distinct genetic clusters. Comparison of FST values at different hierarchical scales revealed drift as an important force of population differentiation. Redundancy analyses revealed that genetic structure was strongly affected by both spatial variation and level of urbanization. The results shown here can be used as baseline information for future genetic monitoring programmes and provide additional insights into contemporary house sparrow dynamics along urbanization gradients. PMID:22588131

  7. Temperature-stress resistance and tolerance along a latitudinal cline in North American Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed

    Wos, Guillaume; Willi, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    The study of latitudinal gradients can yield important insights into adaptation to temperature stress. Two strategies are available: resistance by limiting damage, or tolerance by reducing the fitness consequences of damage. Here we studied latitudinal variation in resistance and tolerance to frost and heat and tested the prediction of a trade-off between the two strategies and their costliness. We raised plants of replicate maternal seed families from eight populations of North American Arabidopsis lyrata collected along a latitudinal gradient in climate chambers and exposed them repeatedly to either frost or heat stress, while a set of control plants grew under standard conditions. When control plants reached maximum rosette size, leaf samples were exposed to frost and heat stress, and electrolyte leakage (PEL) was measured and treated as an estimate of resistance. Difference in maximum rosette size between stressed and control plants was used as an estimate of tolerance. Northern populations were more frost resistant, and less heat resistant and less heat tolerant, but-unexpectedly-they were also less frost tolerant. Negative genetic correlations between resistance and tolerance to the same and different thermal stress were generally not significant, indicating only weak trade-offs. However, tolerance to frost was consistently accompanied by small size under control conditions, which may explain the non-adaptive latitudinal pattern for frost tolerance. Our results suggest that adaptation to frost and heat is not constrained by trade-offs between them. But the cost of frost tolerance in terms of plant size reduction may be important for the limits of species distributions and climate niches.

  8. Temperature-Stress Resistance and Tolerance along a Latitudinal Cline in North American Arabidopsis lyrata

    PubMed Central

    Wos, Guillaume; Willi, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    The study of latitudinal gradients can yield important insights into adaptation to temperature stress. Two strategies are available: resistance by limiting damage, or tolerance by reducing the fitness consequences of damage. Here we studied latitudinal variation in resistance and tolerance to frost and heat and tested the prediction of a trade-off between the two strategies and their costliness. We raised plants of replicate maternal seed families from eight populations of North American Arabidopsis lyrata collected along a latitudinal gradient in climate chambers and exposed them repeatedly to either frost or heat stress, while a set of control plants grew under standard conditions. When control plants reached maximum rosette size, leaf samples were exposed to frost and heat stress, and electrolyte leakage (PEL) was measured and treated as an estimate of resistance. Difference in maximum rosette size between stressed and control plants was used as an estimate of tolerance. Northern populations were more frost resistant, and less heat resistant and less heat tolerant, but—unexpectedly—they were also less frost tolerant. Negative genetic correlations between resistance and tolerance to the same and different thermal stress were generally not significant, indicating only weak trade-offs. However, tolerance to frost was consistently accompanied by small size under control conditions, which may explain the non-adaptive latitudinal pattern for frost tolerance. Our results suggest that adaptation to frost and heat is not constrained by trade-offs between them. But the cost of frost tolerance in terms of plant size reduction may be important for the limits of species distributions and climate niches. PMID:26110428

  9. Genetic and epigenetic differences associated with environmental gradients in replicate populations of two salt marsh perennials.

    PubMed

    Foust, C M; Preite, V; Schrey, A W; Alvarez, M; Robertson, M H; Verhoeven, K J F; Richards, C L

    2016-04-01

    While traits and trait plasticity are partly genetically based, investigating epigenetic mechanisms may provide more nuanced understanding of the mechanisms underlying response to environment. Using AFLP and methylation-sensitive AFLP, we tested the hypothesis that differentiation to habitats along natural salt marsh environmental gradients occurs at epigenetic, but not genetic loci in two salt marsh perennials. We detected significant genetic and epigenetic structure among populations and among subpopulations, but we found multilocus patterns of differentiation to habitat type only in epigenetic variation for both species. In addition, more epigenetic than genetic loci were correlated with habitat in both species. When we analysed genetic and epigenetic variation simultaneously with partial Mantel, we found no correlation between genetic variation and habitat and a significant correlation between epigenetic variation and habitat in Spartina alterniflora. In Borrichia frutescens, we found significant correlations between epigenetic and/or genetic variation and habitat in four of five populations when populations were analysed individually, but there was no significant correlation between genetic or epigenetic variation and habitat when analysed jointly across the five populations. These analyses suggest that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the response to salt marsh habitats, but also that the relationships among genetic and epigenetic variation and habitat vary by species. Site-specific conditions may also cloud our ability to detect response in replicate populations with similar environmental gradients. Future studies analysing sequence data and the correlation between genetic variation and DNA methylation will be powerful to identify the contributions of genetic and epigenetic response to environmental gradients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Variation and Genetic Structure in Platanus mexicana (Platanaceae) along Riparian Altitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Hernández, Dulce M.; Lozada-García, J. Armando; Flores-Estévez, Norma; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vázquez-Torres, S. Mario

    2015-01-01

    Platanus mexicana is a dominant arboreal species of riparian ecosystems. These ecosystems are associated with altitudinal gradients that can generate genetic differences in the species, especially in the extremes of the distribution. However, studies on the altitudinal effect on genetic variation to riparian species are scarce. In Mexico, the population of P. mexicana along the Colipa River (Veracruz State) grows below its reported minimum altitude range, possibly the lowest where this tree grows. This suggests that altitude might be an important factor in population genetics differentiation. We examined the genetic variation and population structuring at four sites with different altitudes (70, 200, 600 and 1700 m a.s.l.) using ten inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. The highest value for Shannon index and Nei’s gene diversity was obtained at 1700 m a.s.l. (He = 0.27, Ne = 1.47, I = 0.42) and polymorphism reached the top value at the middle altitude (% p = 88.57). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and STRUCTURE analysis indicated intrapopulation genetic differentiation. The arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram identified 70 m a.s.l. as the most genetically distant site. The genetic structuring resulted from limited gene flow and genetic drift. This is the first report of genetic variation in populations of P. mexicana in Mexico. This research highlights its importance as a dominant species, and its ecological and evolutionary implications in altitudinal gradients of riparian ecosystems. PMID:25607732

  11. Variation and genetic structure in Platanus mexicana (Platanaceae) along riparian altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Galván-Hernández, Dulce M; Lozada-García, J Armando; Flores-Estévez, Norma; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vázquez-Torres, S Mario

    2015-01-19

    Platanus mexicana is a dominant arboreal species of riparian ecosystems. These ecosystems are associated with altitudinal gradients that can generate genetic differences in the species, especially in the extremes of the distribution. However, studies on the altitudinal effect on genetic variation to riparian species are scarce. In Mexico, the population of P. mexicana along the Colipa River (Veracruz State) grows below its reported minimum altitude range, possibly the lowest where this tree grows. This suggests that altitude might be an important factor in population genetics differentiation. We examined the genetic variation and population structuring at four sites with different altitudes (70, 200, 600 and 1700 m a.s.l.) using ten inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. The highest value for Shannon index and Nei's gene diversity was obtained at 1700 m a.s.l. (He = 0.27, Ne = 1.47, I = 0.42) and polymorphism reached the top value at the middle altitude (% p = 88.57). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and STRUCTURE analysis indicated intrapopulation genetic differentiation. The arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram identified 70 m a.s.l. as the most genetically distant site. The genetic structuring resulted from limited gene flow and genetic drift. This is the first report of genetic variation in populations of P. mexicana in Mexico. This research highlights its importance as a dominant species, and its ecological and evolutionary implications in altitudinal gradients of riparian ecosystems.

  12. Genetic signatures of ecological diversity along an urbanization gradient

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, James L.; Lowell, Natalie C.; Shelton, Andrew O.; Samhouri, Jameal F.; Hennessey, Shannon M.; Feist, Blake E.; Williams, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of work in environmental science and ecology, estimating human influences on ecosystems remains challenging. This is partly due to complex chains of causation among ecosystem elements, exacerbated by the difficulty of collecting biological data at sufficient spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales. Here, we demonstrate the utility of environmental DNA (eDNA) for quantifying associations between human land use and changes in an adjacent ecosystem. We analyze metazoan eDNA sequences from water sampled in nearshore marine eelgrass communities and assess the relationship between these ecological communities and the degree of urbanization in the surrounding watershed. Counter to conventional wisdom, we find strongly increasing richness and decreasing beta diversity with greater urbanization, and similar trends in the diversity of life histories with urbanization. We also find evidence that urbanization influences nearshore communities at local (hundreds of meters) rather than regional (tens of km) scales. Given that different survey methods sample different components of an ecosystem, we then discuss the advantages of eDNA—which we use here to detect hundreds of taxa simultaneously—as a complement to traditional ecological sampling, particularly in the context of broad ecological assessments where exhaustive manual sampling is impractical. Genetic data are a powerful means of uncovering human-ecosystem interactions that might otherwise remain hidden; nevertheless, no sampling method reveals the whole of a biological community. PMID:27672503

  13. Effects of climatic gradients on genetic differentiation of Caragana on the Ordos Plateau, China

    Treesearch

    Jiuyan Yang; Samuel A. Cushman; Jie Yang; Mingbo Yang; Tiejun Bao

    2013-01-01

    The genus Caragana (Fabr.) in the Ordos Plateau of Inner Mongolia, China, provides a strong opportunity to investigate patterns of genetic differentiation along steep climatic gradients, and to identify the environmental factors most likely to be responsible for driving the radiation. This study used a factorial, multi-model approach to evaluate alternative hypotheses...

  14. Latitudinal cline of chronotype.

    PubMed

    Leocadio-Miguel, Mario André; Louzada, Fernando Mazzili; Duarte, Leandro Lourenção; Areas, Roberta Peixoto; Alam, Marilene; Freire, Marcelo Ventura; Fontenele-Araujo, John; Menna-Barreto, Luiz; Pedrazzoli, Mario

    2017-07-14

    The rotation of the Earth around its own axis and around the sun determines the characteristics of the light/dark cycle, the most stable and ancient 24 h temporal cue for all organisms. Due to the tilt in the earth's axis in relation to the plane of the earth's orbit around the sun, sunlight reaches the Earth differentially depending on the latitude. The timing of circadian rhythms varies among individuals of a given population and biological and environmental factors underlie this variability. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that latitude is associated to the regulation of circadian rhythm in humans. We have studied chronotype profiles across latitudinal cline from around 0° to 32° South in Brazil in a sample of 12,884 volunteers living in the same time zone. The analysis of the results revealed that humans are sensitive to the different sunlight signals tied to differences in latitude, resulting in a morning to evening latitudinal cline of chronotypes towards higher latitudes.

  15. Genetic and phenotypic variation along an ecological gradient in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baillie, Shauna M.; Muir, Andrew M.; Hansen, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles Conrad; Bentzen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAdaptive radiation involving a colonizing phenotype that rapidly evolves into at least one other ecological variant, or ecotype, has been observed in a variety of freshwater fishes in post-glacial environments. However, few studies consider how phenotypic traits vary with regard to neutral genetic partitioning along ecological gradients. Here, we present the first detailed investigation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycushthat considers variation as a cline rather than discriminatory among ecotypes. Genetic and phenotypic traits organized along common ecological gradients of water depth and geographic distance provide important insights into diversification processes in a lake with high levels of human disturbance from over-fishing.ResultsFour putative lake trout ecotypes could not be distinguished using population genetic methods, despite morphological differences. Neutral genetic partitioning in lake trout was stronger along a gradient of water depth, than by locality or ecotype. Contemporary genetic migration patterns were consistent with isolation-by-depth. Historical gene flow patterns indicated colonization from shallow to deep water. Comparison of phenotypic (Pst) and neutral genetic variation (Fst) revealed that morphological traits related to swimming performance (e.g., buoyancy, pelvic fin length) departed more strongly from neutral expectations along a depth gradient than craniofacial feeding traits. Elevated phenotypic variance with increasing water depth in pelvic fin length indicated possible ongoing character release and diversification. Finally, differences in early growth rate and asymptotic fish length across depth strata may be associated with limiting factors attributable to cold deep-water environments.ConclusionWe provide evidence of reductions in gene flow and divergent natural selection associated with water depth in Lake Superior. Such information is relevant for documenting intraspecific biodiversity in the largest freshwater lake

  16. Genetic and phenotypic variation along an ecological gradient in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Shauna M; Muir, Andrew M; Hansen, Michael J; Krueger, Charles C; Bentzen, Paul

    2016-10-19

    Adaptive radiation involving a colonizing phenotype that rapidly evolves into at least one other ecological variant, or ecotype, has been observed in a variety of freshwater fishes in post-glacial environments. However, few studies consider how phenotypic traits vary with regard to neutral genetic partitioning along ecological gradients. Here, we present the first detailed investigation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that considers variation as a cline rather than discriminatory among ecotypes. Genetic and phenotypic traits organized along common ecological gradients of water depth and geographic distance provide important insights into diversification processes in a lake with high levels of human disturbance from over-fishing. Four putative lake trout ecotypes could not be distinguished using population genetic methods, despite morphological differences. Neutral genetic partitioning in lake trout was stronger along a gradient of water depth, than by locality or ecotype. Contemporary genetic migration patterns were consistent with isolation-by-depth. Historical gene flow patterns indicated colonization from shallow to deep water. Comparison of phenotypic (Pst) and neutral genetic variation (Fst) revealed that morphological traits related to swimming performance (e.g., buoyancy, pelvic fin length) departed more strongly from neutral expectations along a depth gradient than craniofacial feeding traits. Elevated phenotypic variance with increasing water depth in pelvic fin length indicated possible ongoing character release and diversification. Finally, differences in early growth rate and asymptotic fish length across depth strata may be associated with limiting factors attributable to cold deep-water environments. We provide evidence of reductions in gene flow and divergent natural selection associated with water depth in Lake Superior. Such information is relevant for documenting intraspecific biodiversity in the largest freshwater lake in the world for a

  17. Environmental gradients shape the genetic structure of two medicinal Salvia species in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Gharaibeh, M M; Hamasha, H R; Rosche, C; Lachmuth, S; Wesche, K; Hensen, I

    2017-03-01

    Environmental gradients, and particularly climatic variables, exert a strong influence on plant distribution and, potentially, population genetic diversity and differentiation. Differences in water availability can cause among-population variation in ecological processes and can thus interrupt populations' connectivity and isolate them environmentally. The present study examines the effect of environmental heterogeneity on plant populations due to environmental isolation unrelated to geographic distance. Using AFLP markers, we analyzed genetic diversity and differentiation among 12 Salvia spinosa populations and 13 Salvia syriaca populations from three phytogeographical regions (Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Arabian) representing the extent of the species' geographic range in Jordan. Differences in geographic location and climate were considered in the analyses. For both species, flowering phenology varied among populations and regions. Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Arabian populations had higher genetic diversity than Mediterranean populations, and genetic diversity increased significantly with increasing temperature. Genetic diversity in Salvia syriaca was affected by population size, while genetic diversity responded to drought in S. spinosa. For both species, high levels of genetic differentiation were found as well as two well-supported phytogeographical groups of populations, with Mediterranean populations clustering in one group and the Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Arabian populations in another. Genetic distance was significantly correlated to environmental distance, but not to geographic distance. Our data indicate that populations from moist vs. arid environments are environmentally isolated, where environmental gradients affect their flowering phenology, limit gene flow and shape their genetic structure. We conclude that environmental heterogeneity may act as driver for the observed variation in genetic diversity.

  18. Correlating genetic variation in carbon isotopic composition with complex climatic gradients.

    PubMed Central

    Comstock, J P; Ehleringer, J R

    1992-01-01

    Genetic variation in both carbon isotope discrimination and the proportions of leaf and photosynthetic twig tissues were observed in ecotypes of Hymenoclea salsola T.G., a common shrub in the deserts of the western United States, when grown under common garden conditions. These variations were correlated with climatic conditions in the habitats of origin through a model that described the leaf-to-air water vapor gradients experienced by plants during the growing season. Both carbon isotope discrimination and the proportion of leaves in the canopy were lower in plants derived from habitats with higher leaf-to-air vapor gradients, despite the fact that some of these sites received relatively high amounts of annual precipitation. These patterns were consistent with the notion that plants are able to maintain substantial control of water-use efficiency over large environmental gradients of temperature and moisture availability. PMID:1502194

  19. Genetic and environmental influences on leaf phenology and cold hardiness of native and introduced riparian trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.M.; Roelle, J.E.; Cade, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    To explore the roles of plasticity and genetic variation in the response to spatial and temporal climate variation, we established a common garden consisting of paired collections of native and introduced riparian trees sampled along a latitudinal gradient. The garden in Fort Collins, Colorado (latitude 40.6??N), included 681 native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) and introduced saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis and hybrids) collected from 15 sites at 29.2-47.6??N in the central United States. In the common garden both species showed latitudinal variation in fall, but not spring, leaf phenology, suggesting that the latitudinal gradient in fall phenology observed in the field results at least in part from inherited variation in the critical photoperiod, while the latitudinal gradient in spring phenology observed in the field is largely a plastic response to the temperature gradient. Populations from higher latitudes exhibited earlier bud set and leaf senescence. Cold hardiness varied latitudinally in both fall and spring for both species. For cottonwood, cold hardiness began earlier and ended later in northern than in southern populations. For saltcedar northern populations were hardier throughout the cold season than southern populations. Although cottonwood was hardier than saltcedar in midwinter, the reverse was true in late fall and early spring. The latitudinal variation in fall phenology and cold hardiness of saltcedar appears to have developed as a result of multiple introductions of genetically distinct populations, hybridization and natural selection in the 150 years since introduction. ?? 2011 US Government.

  20. Genetic and environmental influences on leaf phenology and cold hardiness of native and introduced riparian trees.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jonathan M; Roelle, James E; Cade, Brian S

    2011-11-01

    To explore the roles of plasticity and genetic variation in the response to spatial and temporal climate variation, we established a common garden consisting of paired collections of native and introduced riparian trees sampled along a latitudinal gradient. The garden in Fort Collins, Colorado (latitude 40.6°N), included 681 native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) and introduced saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis and hybrids) collected from 15 sites at 29.2-47.6°N in the central United States. In the common garden both species showed latitudinal variation in fall, but not spring, leaf phenology, suggesting that the latitudinal gradient in fall phenology observed in the field results at least in part from inherited variation in the critical photoperiod, while the latitudinal gradient in spring phenology observed in the field is largely a plastic response to the temperature gradient. Populations from higher latitudes exhibited earlier bud set and leaf senescence. Cold hardiness varied latitudinally in both fall and spring for both species. For cottonwood, cold hardiness began earlier and ended later in northern than in southern populations. For saltcedar northern populations were hardier throughout the cold season than southern populations. Although cottonwood was hardier than saltcedar in midwinter, the reverse was true in late fall and early spring. The latitudinal variation in fall phenology and cold hardiness of saltcedar appears to have developed as a result of multiple introductions of genetically distinct populations, hybridization and natural selection in the 150 years since introduction.

  1. Latitudinal variation in sensitivity of flower bud formation to high temperature in Japanese Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    Control of flowering time plays a key role in the successful range expansion of plants. Taraxacum officinale has expanded throughout Japan during the 110 years after it was introduced into a cool temperate region. The present study tested a hypothesis that there is a genetic difference in the bud formation time in relation to temperature along latitudinal gradient of T. officinale populations. In Experiment 1, plants from three populations at different latitudes (26, 36, and 43°N) were grown at three temperatures. Time to flower bud appearance did not significantly differ among the three populations when plants were grown at 14 °C, whereas it increased with increasing latitude when grown at 19 and 24 °C. Rosette diameter was not different among the populations, indicating that the variation in bud formation time reflected a difference in genetic control rather than size variation. The latitudinal variation in bud appearance time was confirmed by Experiment 2 in which plants from 17 population were used. In Experiment 3, the size of plants that exhibited late-flowering was studied to test a hypothesis that the variation in flowering time reflects dormancy of vegetative growth, but the late-flowering plants were found to continue growth, indicating that vegetative dormancy was not the cause of the variation. The results clearly indicate that the degree of suppression of flower bud formation at high temperature decreases with latitude from north to south, which is under genetic control.

  2. Adaptive genetic divergence along narrow environmental gradients in four stream insects.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kozo; Kazama, So; Omura, Tatsuo; Monaghan, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    A central question linking ecology with evolutionary biology is how environmental heterogeneity can drive adaptive genetic divergence among populations. We examined adaptive divergence of four stream insects from six adjacent catchments in Japan by combining field measures of habitat and resource components with genome scans of non-neutral Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) loci. Neutral genetic variation was used to measure gene flow and non-neutral genetic variation was used to test for adaptive divergence. We identified the environmental characteristics contributing to divergence by comparing genetic distances at non-neutral loci between sites with Euclidean distances for each of 15 environmental variables. Comparisons were made using partial Mantel tests to control for geographic distance. In all four species, we found strong evidence for non-neutral divergence along environmental gradients at between 6 and 21 loci per species. The relative contribution of these environmental variables to each species' ecological niche was quantified as the specialization index, S, based on ecological data. In each species, the variable most significantly correlated with genetic distance at non-neutral loci was the same variable along which each species was most narrowly distributed (i.e., highest S). These were gradients of elevation (two species), chlorophyll-a, and ammonia-nitrogen. This adaptive divergence occurred in the face of ongoing gene flow (Fst = 0.01-0.04), indicating that selection was strong enough to overcome homogenization at the landscape scale. Our results suggest that adaptive divergence is pronounced, occurs along different environmental gradients for different species, and may consistently occur along the narrowest components of species' niche.

  3. Adaptive Genetic Divergence along Narrow Environmental Gradients in Four Stream Insects

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kozo; Kazama, So; Omura, Tatsuo; Monaghan, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    A central question linking ecology with evolutionary biology is how environmental heterogeneity can drive adaptive genetic divergence among populations. We examined adaptive divergence of four stream insects from six adjacent catchments in Japan by combining field measures of habitat and resource components with genome scans of non-neutral Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) loci. Neutral genetic variation was used to measure gene flow and non-neutral genetic variation was used to test for adaptive divergence. We identified the environmental characteristics contributing to divergence by comparing genetic distances at non-neutral loci between sites with Euclidean distances for each of 15 environmental variables. Comparisons were made using partial Mantel tests to control for geographic distance. In all four species, we found strong evidence for non-neutral divergence along environmental gradients at between 6 and 21 loci per species. The relative contribution of these environmental variables to each species' ecological niche was quantified as the specialization index, S, based on ecological data. In each species, the variable most significantly correlated with genetic distance at non-neutral loci was the same variable along which each species was most narrowly distributed (i.e., highest S). These were gradients of elevation (two species), chlorophyll-a, and ammonia-nitrogen. This adaptive divergence occurred in the face of ongoing gene flow (Fst = 0.01–0.04), indicating that selection was strong enough to overcome homogenization at the landscape scale. Our results suggest that adaptive divergence is pronounced, occurs along different environmental gradients for different species, and may consistently occur along the narrowest components of species' niche. PMID:24681871

  4. Genetic diversity and species diversity of stream fishes covary across a land-use gradient.

    PubMed

    Blum, Michael J; Bagley, Mark J; Walters, David M; Jackson, Suzanne A; Daniel, F Bernard; Chaloud, Deborah J; Cade, Brian S

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity and species diversity are expected to covary according to area and isolation, but may not always covary with environmental heterogeneity. In this study, we examined how patterns of genetic and species diversity in stream fishes correspond to local and regional environmental conditions. To do so, we compared population size, genetic diversity and divergence in central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) to measures of species diversity and turnover in stream fish assemblages among similarly sized watersheds across an agriculture-forest land-use gradient in the Little Miami River basin (Ohio, USA). Significant correlations were found in many, but not all, pair-wise comparisons. Allelic richness and species richness were strongly correlated, for example, but diversity measures based on allele frequencies and assemblage structure were not. In-stream conditions related to agricultural land use were identified as significant predictors of genetic diversity and species diversity. Comparisons to population size indicate, however, that genetic diversity and species diversity are not necessarily independent and that variation also corresponds to watershed location and glaciation history in the drainage basin. Our findings demonstrate that genetic diversity and species diversity can covary in stream fish assemblages, and illustrate the potential importance of scaling observations to capture responses to hierarchical environmental variation. More comparisons according to life history variation could further improve understanding of conditions that give rise to parallel variation in genetic diversity and species diversity, which in turn could improve diagnosis of anthropogenic influences on aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Genetic diversity and species diversity of stream fishes covary across a land-use gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blum, M.J.; Bagley, M.J.; Walters, D.M.; Jackson, S.A.; Daniel, F.B.; Chaloud, D.J.; Cade, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity and species diversity are expected to covary according to area and isolation, but may not always covary with environmental heterogeneity. In this study, we examined how patterns of genetic and species diversity in stream fishes correspond to local and regional environmental conditions. To do so, we compared population size, genetic diversity and divergence in central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) to measures of species diversity and turnover in stream fish assemblages among similarly sized watersheds across an agriculture-forest land-use gradient in the Little Miami River basin (Ohio, USA). Significant correlations were found in many, but not all, pair-wise comparisons. Allelic richness and species richness were strongly correlated, for example, but diversity measures based on allele frequencies and assemblage structure were not. In-stream conditions related to agricultural land use were identified as significant predictors of genetic diversity and species diversity. Comparisons to population size indicate, however, that genetic diversity and species diversity are not necessarily independent and that variation also corresponds to watershed location and glaciation history in the drainage basin. Our findings demonstrate that genetic diversity and species diversity can covary in stream fish assemblages, and illustrate the potential importance of scaling observations to capture responses to hierarchical environmental variation. More comparisons according to life history variation could further improve understanding of conditions that give rise to parallel variation in genetic diversity and species diversity, which in turn could improve diagnosis of anthropogenic influences on aquatic ecosystems. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Coral reefs. Limited scope for latitudinal extension of reef corals.

    PubMed

    Muir, Paul R; Wallace, Carden C; Done, Terence; Aguirre, J David

    2015-06-05

    An analysis of present-day global depth distributions of reef-building corals and underlying environmental drivers contradicts a commonly held belief that ocean warming will promote tropical coral expansion into temperate latitudes. Using a global data set of a major group of reef corals, we found that corals were confined to shallower depths at higher latitudes (up to 0.6 meters of predicted shallowing per additional degree of latitude). Latitudinal attenuation of the most important driver of this phenomenon-the dose of photosynthetically available radiation over winter-would severely constrain latitudinal coral range extension in response to ocean warming. Latitudinal gradients in species richness for the group also suggest that higher winter irradiance at depth in low latitudes allowed a deep-water fauna that was not viable at higher latitudes.

  7. Geographical gradients in selection can reveal genetic constraints for evolutionary responses to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Marshall, Dustin; Dupont, Sam; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D; Bodrossy, Levente; Hobday, Alistair J

    2017-02-01

    Geographical gradients in selection can shape different genetic architectures in natural populations, reflecting potential genetic constraints for adaptive evolution under climate change. Investigation of natural pH/pCO2 variation in upwelling regions reveals different spatio-temporal patterns of natural selection, generating genetic and phenotypic clines in populations, and potentially leading to local adaptation, relevant to understanding effects of ocean acidification (OA). Strong directional selection, associated with intense and continuous upwellings, may have depleted genetic variation in populations within these upwelling regions, favouring increased tolerances to low pH but with an associated cost in other traits. In contrast, diversifying or weak directional selection in populations with seasonal upwellings or outside major upwelling regions may have resulted in higher genetic variances and the lack of genetic correlations among traits. Testing this hypothesis in geographical regions with similar environmental conditions to those predicted under climate change will build insights into how selection may act in the future and how populations may respond to stressors such as OA.

  8. Concordance between genetic and species diversity in coral reef fishes across the Pacific Ocean biodiversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Messmer, Vanessa; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L; Planes, Serge

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between genetic diversity and species diversity provides insights into biogeography and historic patterns of evolution and is critical for developing contemporary strategies for biodiversity conservation. Although concordant large-scale clines in genetic and species diversity have been described for terrestrial organisms, whether these parameters co-vary in marine species remains largely unknown. We examined patterns of genetic diversity for 11 coral reef fish species sampled at three locations across the Pacific Ocean species diversity gradient (Australia: ∼1600 species; New Caledonia: ∼1400 species; French Polynesia: ∼800 species). Combined genetic diversity for all 11 species paralleled the decline in species diversity from West to East, with French Polynesia exhibiting lowest total haplotype and nucleotide diversities. Haplotype diversity consistently declined toward French Polynesia in all and nucleotide diversity in the majority of species. The French Polynesian population of most species also exhibited significant genetic differentiation from populations in the West Pacific. A number of factors may have contributed to the general positive correlation between genetic and species diversity, including location and time of species origin, vicariance events, reduced gene flow with increasing isolation, and decreasing habitat area from West to East. However, isolation and habitat area, resulting in reduced population size, are likely to be the most influential.

  9. Genetic delineation of local provenance defines seed collection zones along a climate gradient

    PubMed Central

    Hufford, Kristina M.; Veneklaas, Erik J.; Lambers, Hans; Krauss, Siegfried L.

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to re-establish native plant species should consider intraspecific variation if we are to restore genetic diversity and evolutionary potential. Data describing spatial genetic structure and the scale of adaptive differentiation are needed for restoration seed sourcing. Genetically defined provenance zones provide species-specific guidelines for the distance within which seed transfer likely maintains levels of genetic diversity and conserves locally adapted traits. While a growing number of studies incorporate genetic marker data in delineation of local provenance, they often fail to distinguish the impacts of neutral and non-neutral variation. We analysed population genetic structure for 134 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in Stylidium hispidum (Stylidiaceae) along a north–south transect of the species' range with the goal to estimate the distance at which significant genetic differences occur among source and recipient populations in restoration. In addition, we tested AFLP markers for signatures of selection, and examined the relationship of neutral and putatively selected markers with climate variables. Estimates of population genetic structure revealed significant levels of differentiation (ΦPT = 0.23) and suggested a global provenance distance of 45 km for pairwise comparisons of 16 populations. Of the 134 markers, 13 exhibited evidence of diversifying selection (ΦPT = 0.52). Using data for precipitation and thermal gradients, we compared genetic, geographic and environmental distance for subsets of neutral and selected markers. Strong isolation by distance was detected in all cases, but positive correlations with climate variables were present only for markers with signatures of selection. We address findings in light of defining local provenance in ecological restoration. PMID:26755503

  10. Adaptive latitudinal cline of photoperiodic diapause induction in the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Paolucci, S; van de Zande, L; Beukeboom, L W

    2013-04-01

    Living in seasonally changing environments requires adaptation to seasonal cycles. Many insects use the change in day length as a reliable cue for upcoming winter and respond to shortened photoperiod through diapause. In this study, we report the clinal variation in photoperiodic diapause induction in populations of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis collected along a latitudinal gradient in Europe. In this species, diapause occurs in the larval stage and is maternally induced. Adult Nasonia females were exposed to different photoperiodic cycles and lifetime production of diapausing offspring was scored. Females switched to the production of diapausing offspring after exposure to a threshold number of photoperiodic cycles. A latitudinal cline was found in the proportion of diapausing offspring, the switch point for diapause induction measured as the maternal age at which the female starts to produce diapausing larvae, and the critical photoperiod for diapause induction. Populations at northern latitudes show an earlier switch point, higher proportions of diapausing individuals and longer critical photoperiods. Since the photoperiodic response was measured under the same laboratory conditions, the observed differences between populations most likely reflect genetic differences in sensitivity to photoperiodic cues, resulting from local adaptation to environmental cycles. The observed variability in diapause response combined with the availability of genomic tools for N. vitripennis represent a good opportunity to further investigate the genetic basis of this adaptive trait.

  11. Genome-wide genetic diversity of rove beetle populations along a metal pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Giska, Iwona; Babik, Wiesław; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; van Straalen, Nico M; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2015-09-01

    To what extent chemical contamination affects genetic diversity of wild populations remains an open question in ecotoxicology. Here we used a genome-wide approach (615 nuclear RADseq loci containing 3017 SNPs) and a mtDNA fragment (ATP6) to analyze the effect of long-term exposure to elevated concentrations of metals (Cd, Pb, Zn) on genetic diversity in rove beetle (Staphylinus erythropterus) populations living along a pollution gradient in Poland. In total, 96 individuals collected from six sites at increasing distance from the source of pollution were analyzed. We found weak differentiation between populations suggesting extensive gene flow. The highest genetic diversity was observed in a population inhabiting the polluted site with the highest metal availability. This may suggest increased mutation rates, possibly in relation to elevated oxidative stress levels. The polluted site could also act as an ecological sink receiving numerous migrants from neighboring populations. Despite higher genetic diversity at the most polluted site, there was no correlation between the genetic diversity and metal pollution or other soil properties. We did not find a clear genomic signature of local adaptation to metal pollution. Like in some other cases of metal tolerance in soil invertebrates, high mobility may counteract possible effects of local selective forces associated with soil pollution.

  12. Genetic variation and selfing rate in Lychnis flos-cuculi along an industrial pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Dulya, Olesya V; Mikryukov, Vladimir S

    2016-02-01

    We studied nine populations of a meadow mixed-mating plant Lychnis flos-cuculi growing in a gradient of copper smelter emissions. We hypothesize that metal tolerant populations in the polluted areas have experienced a loss of genetic variation and are more selfing than the populations from the unpolluted areas. One hundred and thirty-five parental plants and 1059 offspring were genotyped with six microsatellite markers. Selfing rates were assessed manually, with Rmes, Mltr and Colony2. Soil toxicity, population density and pollinators' activity were estimated in the studied areas. Populations from the heavily polluted area have experienced a strong founder effect. However, at present, they are characterized by high densities. A recent genetic explosion was registered for the population from the most polluted site, probably due to forest thinning under pollution effects. Selfing rates estimated with different approaches agreed well only for populations with high genetic variation; they comprised 0-0.23 and were similar between polluted and clean areas. Self-fertilization in L. flos-cuculi hardly represents a mechanism for the fixation of advantageous alleles and a barrier for gene flow from non-tolerant populations. The employment of different methods of selfing rate estimation in populations with low genetic variation appears to be necessary, though not a guarantee of reliable conclusions. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Genetic variability in geographic populations of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita)

    PubMed Central

    Oromi, N; Richter-Boix, A; Sanuy, D; Fibla, J

    2012-01-01

    Across altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, the proportion of suitable habitats varies, influencing the individual dispersal that ultimately can produce differentiation among populations. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is distributed across a wide geographic range that qualifies the species as interesting for a geographic analysis of its genetic variability. Five populations of B. calamita in the Sierra de Gredos (Spain) were studied in an altitudinal gradient ranging from 750 to 2270 m using microsatellite markers. In addition, we analyzed the latitudinal genetic variation in B. calamita within a global European distribution using genetic diversity parameters (mean number of alleles per locus [Ma] and expected heterozygosity [HE]) obtained from our results and those published in the literature. The low level of genetic differentiation found between populations of B. calamita (Fst ranging from 0.0115 to 0.1018) and the decreases in genetic diversity with altitude (Ma from 13.6 to 8.3, HE from 0.82 to 0.74) can be interpreted by the combined effects of discontinuous habitat, produced mainly by the high slopes barriers and geographic distance. In the latitudinal gradient, genetic diversity decreases from south to north as a consequence of the colonization of the species from the Pleistocene refugium. We conclude that the genetic variability in B. calamita along its wide altitudinal and latitudinal geographic distribution mainly reflects the colonization history of the species after the last glacial period. PMID:22957202

  14. Genetic variability in geographic populations of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita).

    PubMed

    Oromi, N; Richter-Boix, A; Sanuy, D; Fibla, J

    2012-08-01

    Across altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, the proportion of suitable habitats varies, influencing the individual dispersal that ultimately can produce differentiation among populations. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is distributed across a wide geographic range that qualifies the species as interesting for a geographic analysis of its genetic variability. Five populations of B. calamita in the Sierra de Gredos (Spain) were studied in an altitudinal gradient ranging from 750 to 2270 m using microsatellite markers. In addition, we analyzed the latitudinal genetic variation in B. calamita within a global European distribution using genetic diversity parameters (mean number of alleles per locus [M(a)] and expected heterozygosity [H(E)]) obtained from our results and those published in the literature. The low level of genetic differentiation found between populations of B. calamita (F(st) ranging from 0.0115 to 0.1018) and the decreases in genetic diversity with altitude (M(a) from 13.6 to 8.3, H(E) from 0.82 to 0.74) can be interpreted by the combined effects of discontinuous habitat, produced mainly by the high slopes barriers and geographic distance. In the latitudinal gradient, genetic diversity decreases from south to north as a consequence of the colonization of the species from the Pleistocene refugium. We conclude that the genetic variability in B. calamita along its wide altitudinal and latitudinal geographic distribution mainly reflects the colonization history of the species after the last glacial period.

  15. Genetic structure along an elevational gradient in Hawaiian honeycreepers reveals contrasting evolutionary responses to avian malaria

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) are one of the best-known examples of an adaptive radiation, but their persistence today is threatened by the introduction of exotic pathogens and their vector, the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Historically, species such as the amakihi (Hemignathus virens), the apapane (Himatione sanguinea), and the iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) were found from the coastal lowlands to the high elevation forests, but by the late 1800's they had become extremely rare in habitats below 900 m. Recently, however, populations of amakihi and apapane have been observed in low elevation habitats. We used twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate patterns of genetic structure, and to infer responses of these species to introduced avian malaria along an elevational gradient on the eastern flanks of Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. Results Our results indicate that amakihi have genetically distinct, spatially structured populations that correspond with altitude. We detected very few apapane and no iiwi in low-elevation habitats, and genetic results reveal only minimal differentiation between populations at different altitudes in either of these species. Conclusion Our results suggest that amakihi populations in low elevation habitats have not been recolonized by individuals from mid or high elevation refuges. After generations of strong selection for pathogen resistance, these populations have rebounded and amakihi have become common in regions in which they were previously rare or absent. PMID:19014596

  16. Genetic structure along an elevational gradient in Hawaiian honeycreepers reveals contrasting evolutionary responses to avian malaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggert, L.S.; Terwilliger, L.A.; Woodworth, B.L.; Hart, P.J.; Palmer, D.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background. The Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) are one of the best-known examples of an adaptive radiation, but their persistence today is threatened by the introduction of exotic pathogens and their vector, the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Historically, species such as the amakihi (Hemignathus virens), the apapane (Himatione sanguinea), and the iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) were found from the coastal lowlands to the high elevation forests, but by the late 1800's they had become extremely rare in habitats below 900 m. Recently, however, populations of amakihi and apapane have been observed in low elevation habitats. We used twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate patterns of genetic structure, and to infer responses of these species to introduced avian malaria along an elevational gradient on the eastern flanks of Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. Results. Our results indicate that amakihi have genetically distinct, spatially structured populations that correspond with altitude. We detected very few apapane and no iiwi in low-elevation habitats, and genetic results reveal only minimal differentiation between populations at different altitudes in either of these species. Conclusion. Our results suggest that amakihi populations in low elevation habitats have not been recolonized by individuals from mid or high elevation refuges. After generations of strong selection for pathogen resistance, these populations have rebounded and amakihi have become common in regions in which they were previously rare or absent. ?? 2008 Eggert et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  17. Latitudinal variation in cold hardiness in introduced Tamarix and native Populus

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jonathan M; Roelle, James E; Gaskin, John F; Pepper, Alan E; Manhart, James R

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the evolution of clinal variation in an invasive plant, we compared cold hardiness in the introduced saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, Tamarix chinensis, and hybrids) and the native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera). In a shadehouse in Colorado (41°N), we grew plants collected along a latitudinal gradient in the central United States (29–48°N). On 17 occasions between September 2005 and June 2006, we determined killing temperatures using freeze-induced electrolyte leakage and direct observation. In midwinter, cottonwood survived cooling to −70°C, while saltcedar was killed at −33 to −47°C. Frost sensitivity, therefore, may limit northward expansion of saltcedar in North America. Both species demonstrated inherited latitudinal variation in cold hardiness. For example, from September through January killing temperatures for saltcedar from 29.18°N were 5–21°C higher than those for saltcedar from 47.60°N, and on September 26 and October 11, killing temperatures for cottonwood from 33.06°N were >43°C higher than those for cottonwood from 47.60°N. Analysis of nine microsatellite loci showed that southern saltcedars are more closely related to T. chinensis while northern plants are more closely related to T. ramosissima. Hybridization may have introduced the genetic variability necessary for rapid evolution of the cline in saltcedar cold hardiness. PMID:25567800

  18. Latitudinal variation in cold hardiness in introduced Tamarix and native Populus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Roelle, James E.; Gaskin, John F.; Pepper, Alan E.; Manhart, James R.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the evolution of clinal variation in an invasive plant, we compared cold hardiness in the introduced saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, Tamarix chinensis, and hybrids) and the native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoidessubsp. monilifera). In a shadehouse in Colorado (41°N), we grew plants collected along a latitudinal gradient in the central United States (29–48°N). On 17 occasions between September 2005 and June 2006, we determined killing temperatures using freeze-induced electrolyte leakage and direct observation. In midwinter, cottonwood survived cooling to −70°C, while saltcedar was killed at −33 to −47°C. Frost sensitivity, therefore, may limit northward expansion of saltcedar in North America. Both species demonstrated inherited latitudinal variation in cold hardiness. For example, from September through January killing temperatures for saltcedar from 29.18°N were 5–21°C higher than those for saltcedar from 47.60°N, and on September 26 and October 11, killing temperatures for cottonwood from 33.06°N were >43°C higher than those for cottonwood from 47.60°N. Analysis of nine microsatellite loci showed that southern saltcedars are more closely related to T. chinensis while northern plants are more closely related to T. ramosissima. Hybridization may have introduced the genetic variability necessary for rapid evolution of the cline in saltcedar cold hardiness.

  19. Latitudinal concordance between biogeographic regionalization, community structure, and richness patterns: a study on the reptiles of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Youhua; Srivastava, Diane S.

    2015-02-01

    Latitudinal patterns in species richness may be affected by both continuous variations in macroecological factors as well as discrete change between biogeographic regions. We examined whether latitudinal reptilian richness and community structure in China were best explained by three macroecological patterns (mid-domain effects, Rapoport's rule effects, or environmental correlates) within or across the ranges of biogeographic realms. The results showed that (1) there was a weak mid-domain effect within the Oriental Realm. However, the mid-domain effect was detected neither at the overall regional scale nor in the Palaearctic Realm. (2) Rapoport's rule was only weakly supported for reptilian fauna in China at lower latitudinal areas. (3) Environmental variables were more strongly correlated with species' latitudinal community structure and richness patterns at the scale of biogeographic realms. Based on the faunal similarity of reptilian community across latitudinal bands, we proposed a latitudinal delineation scheme at 34° N for dividing East Asia into Oriental and Palaearctic biogeographic realms. At last, at the functional group level, we also evaluated the relevant ecological patterns for lizard and snake species across different latitudinal bins, showing that the distributions of lizards presented strong mid-domain effects at the latitudinal ranges within the Oriental Realm and over the whole range but did not support Rapoport's rule. In comparison, snake species supported Rapoport's rule at low latitudinal zones but did not present any remarkable mid-domain effects at any spatial extents. In conclusion, biogeographic realms are an appropriate scale for studying macroecological patterns. Reptilian latitudinal richness patterns of China were explained by a combination of environmental factors and geometric constraints, while the latitudinal community structure patterns were greatly affected by environmental gradients. Functional guilds present differentiated

  20. A Single-Lap Joint Adhesive Bonding Optimization Method Using Gradient and Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Finckenor, Jeffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    A natural process for any engineer, scientist, educator, etc. is to seek the most efficient method for accomplishing a given task. In the case of structural design, an area that has a significant impact on the structural efficiency is joint design. Unless the structure is machined from a solid block of material, the individual components which compose the overall structure must be joined together. The method for joining a structure varies depending on the applied loads, material, assembly and disassembly requirements, service life, environment, etc. Using both metallic and fiber reinforced plastic materials limits the user to two methods or a combination of these methods for joining the components into one structure. The first is mechanical fastening and the second is adhesive bonding. Mechanical fastening is by far the most popular joining technique; however, in terms of structural efficiency, adhesive bonding provides a superior joint since the load is distributed uniformly across the joint. The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for optimizing single-lap joint adhesive bonded structures using both gradient and genetic algorithms and comparing the solution process for each method. The goal of the single-lap joint optimization is to find the most efficient structure that meets the imposed requirements while still remaining as lightweight, economical, and reliable as possible. For the single-lap joint, an optimum joint is determined by minimizing the weight of the overall joint based on constraints from adhesive strengths as well as empirically derived rules. The analytical solution of the sin-le-lap joint is determined using the classical Goland-Reissner technique for case 2 type adhesive joints. Joint weight minimization is achieved using a commercially available routine, Design Optimization Tool (DOT), for the gradient solution while an author developed method is used for the genetic algorithm solution. Results illustrate the critical design variables

  1. A Single-Lap Joint Adhesive Bonding Optimization Method Using Gradient and Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Finckenor, Jeffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    A natural process for any engineer, scientist, educator, etc. is to seek the most efficient method for accomplishing a given task. In the case of structural design, an area that has a significant impact on the structural efficiency is joint design. Unless the structure is machined from a solid block of material, the individual components which compose the overall structure must be joined together. The method for joining a structure varies depending on the applied loads, material, assembly and disassembly requirements, service life, environment, etc. Using both metallic and fiber reinforced plastic materials limits the user to two methods or a combination of these methods for joining the components into one structure. The first is mechanical fastening and the second is adhesive bonding. Mechanical fastening is by far the most popular joining technique; however, in terms of structural efficiency, adhesive bonding provides a superior joint since the load is distributed uniformly across the joint. The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for optimizing single-lap joint adhesive bonded structures using both gradient and genetic algorithms and comparing the solution process for each method. The goal of the single-lap joint optimization is to find the most efficient structure that meets the imposed requirements while still remaining as lightweight, economical, and reliable as possible. For the single-lap joint, an optimum joint is determined by minimizing the weight of the overall joint based on constraints from adhesive strengths as well as empirically derived rules. The analytical solution of the sin-le-lap joint is determined using the classical Goland-Reissner technique for case 2 type adhesive joints. Joint weight minimization is achieved using a commercially available routine, Design Optimization Tool (DOT), for the gradient solution while an author developed method is used for the genetic algorithm solution. Results illustrate the critical design variables

  2. Minimisation of the wall shear stress gradients in bypass grafts anastomoses using meshless CFD and genetic algorithms optimisation.

    PubMed

    El Zahab, Zaher; Divo, Eduardo; Kassab, Alain

    2010-02-01

    The wall shear stress (WSS) spatial and temporal gradients are two hemodynamics parameters correlated with endothelial damage. Those two gradients become well pronounced in a bypass graft anastomosis geometry where the blood flow patterns are quite disturbed. The WSS gradient minimisation on the host artery floor can be achieved by optimising the anastomosis shape and hence may lead to an improved long-term post-surgical performance of the graft. The anastomosis shape optimisation can be executed via an integrated computational tool comprised of a meshless computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and a genetic algorithm (GA) shape optimiser. The meshless CFD solver serves to evaluate the WSS gradients and the GA optimiser serves to search for the end-to-side distal anastomosis (ETSDA) optimal shape that best minimises those gradients. We utilise a meshless CFD method to resolve hemodynamics and a GA for the purpose of optimisation. We consider three different anastomotic models: the conventional ETSDA, the Miller Cuff ETSDA and the hood ETSDA. The results reported herein demonstrate that the graft calibre should always be maximised whether a conventional or Miller Cuff ETSDA model is utilised. Also, it was noted that the Miller Cuff height should be minimised. The choice of an optimal anastomotic angle should be optimised to achieve a compromise between the concurrent minimisations of both the spatial WSS gradient and the temporal WSS gradient.

  3. Exploring physiological plasticity and local thermal adaptation in an intertidal crab along a latitudinal cline.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D; Opitz, Tania; Lagos, Nelson A; Osores, Sebastián; Lardies, Marco A

    2017-08-01

    Intertidal organisms have evolved physiological mechanisms that enable them to maintain performance and survive during periods of severe environmental stress with temperatures close to their tolerance limits. The level of these adaptive responses in thermal physiology can vary among populations of broadly distributed species depending on their particular environmental context and genetic backgrounds. Here we examined thermal performances and reaction norms for metabolic rate (MR) and heart rate (HR) of seven populations of the porcelanid crab Petrolisthes violaceus from markedly different thermal environments across the latitudinal gradient of ~3000km. Physiological responses of this intertidal crab under common-garden conditions suggest the absence of local thermal adaptation along the geographic gradient (i.e., lack of latitudinal compensation). Moreover, thermal physiological sensitivities and performances in response to increased temperatures evidenced the existence of some level of: i) metabolic rate control or depression during warm temperature exposures; and ii) homeostasis/canalization (i.e., absence or low levels of plasticity) in physiological traits that may reflect some sort of buffering mechanism in most of the populations. Nevertheless, our results indicate that elevated temperatures can reduce cardiac function but not metabolic rate in high latitude crabs. The lack of congruence between HR and MR supports the idea that energy metabolism in marine invertebrates cannot be inferred from HR and different conclusions regarding geographic differentiation in energy metabolism can be obtained from both physiological traits. Integrating thermal physiology and species range extent can contribute to a better understanding of the likely effects of climate change on natural populations of marine ectotherms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. HLA-DQ genetic risk gradient for type 1 diabetes and celiac disease in northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mejía-León, M E; Ruiz-Dyck, K M; Calderón de la Barca, A M

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD) are the 2 most common autoimmune childhood diseases that share their HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 genetic origin. There has currently been an increase in both diseases worldwide. In children from the low-population State of Sonora (15 inhabitants/km(2)) in north-western Mexico, there is no information on their genetic risk or the distribution of the related alleles in the general population. To compare the HLA-DQ allele frequency in a representative sample of newborns from Sonora with that of T1D and CD patients to determine the risk gradient, and to identify the presence of celiac autoimmunity in the T1D group. The study included 397 Sonoran newborns, with 44 cases of T1D, and 25 CD cases. The CD and T1D cases were clinically diagnosed by specialists at the Hospital Infantil del Estado de Sonora, and the autoantibodies were determined by ELISA. Whole blood was collected, gDNA was extracted, and HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 were typed by PCR-SSP. The risk gradient was calculated by comparing the allele frequencies of the cases with those of the newborns. The Sonoran HLA-DQ risk heterodimer proportion was 16.1% for HLA-DQ2 and 13.6% for HLA-DQ8, with an HLA-DQ2:HLA-DQ8 ratio of 1.2:1. The DQ8/DQ2 genotype represented a 1:14 risk for T1D, whereas the DQ8/DQB1*0201 combination showed a 1:6 risk for CD. The prevalence of CD autoimmunity in T1D children was 7%. The Sonoran population has a distinctive HLA-DQ allele distribution due to its ancestry. The HLA-DQ8 combinations with DQ2 or one of its alleles conferred the highest risk for both diseases, and T1D and CD frequently appear together. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. What drivers phenotypic divergence in Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) on large-scale gradient, climate or genetic differentiation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shan; Ma, Linna; Guo, Chengyuan; Wang, Renzhong

    2016-05-01

    Elucidating the driving factors among-population divergence is an important task in evolutionary biology, however the relative contribution from natural selection and neutral genetic differentiation has been less debated. A manipulation experiment was conducted to examine whether the phenotypic divergence of Leymus chinensis depended on climate variations or genetic differentiations at 18 wild sites along a longitudinal gradient from 114 to 124°E in northeast China and at common garden condition of transplantation. Demographical, morphological and physiological phenotypes of 18 L. chinensis populations exhibited significant divergence along the gradient, but these divergent variations narrowed significantly at the transplantation. Moreover, most of the phenotypes were significantly correlated with mean annual precipitation and temperature in wild sites, suggesting that climatic variables played vital roles in phenotypic divergence of the species. Relative greater heterozygosity (HE), genotype evenness (E) and Shannon-Wiener diversity (I) in western group of populations suggested that genetic differentiation also drove phenotypic divergence of the species. However, neutral genetic differentiation (FST = 0.041) was greatly lower than quantitative differentiation (QST = 0.199), indicating that divergent selection/climate variable was the main factor in determining the phenotypic divergence of the species along the large-scale gradient.

  6. What drivers phenotypic divergence in Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) on large-scale gradient, climate or genetic differentiation?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shan; Ma, Linna; Guo, Chengyuan; Wang, Renzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the driving factors among-population divergence is an important task in evolutionary biology, however the relative contribution from natural selection and neutral genetic differentiation has been less debated. A manipulation experiment was conducted to examine whether the phenotypic divergence of Leymus chinensis depended on climate variations or genetic differentiations at 18 wild sites along a longitudinal gradient from 114 to 124°E in northeast China and at common garden condition of transplantation. Demographical, morphological and physiological phenotypes of 18 L. chinensis populations exhibited significant divergence along the gradient, but these divergent variations narrowed significantly at the transplantation. Moreover, most of the phenotypes were significantly correlated with mean annual precipitation and temperature in wild sites, suggesting that climatic variables played vital roles in phenotypic divergence of the species. Relative greater heterozygosity (HE), genotype evenness (E) and Shannon-Wiener diversity (I) in western group of populations suggested that genetic differentiation also drove phenotypic divergence of the species. However, neutral genetic differentiation (FST = 0.041) was greatly lower than quantitative differentiation (QST = 0.199), indicating that divergent selection/climate variable was the main factor in determining the phenotypic divergence of the species along the large-scale gradient. PMID:27195668

  7. Latitudinal patterns of organochlorine contamination in plankton

    SciTech Connect

    Koening, B.G.; Lean, D.R.S.

    1994-12-31

    It has been suggested that the high Arctic will be the final sink for organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Through evaporation and deposition processes, OCs may move from warm to cool climates with air mass movements. Fundamental questions that remain unanswered are how far north do OCs travel and do the relative proportions of OCs in biota change along a latitudinal gradient? To answer these questions, zooplankton were sampled from a series of lakes along a transect from the Great Lakes (43{degree}N) to Ellesmere Island (85{degree}N). Zooplankton are useful indicators of environmental levels of OCs because they are ubiquitous, easy to sample, and form an integral part of the food chain leading to fish. Moreover, deposition patterns of OCs are more realistically reflected by zooplankton than by higher trophic level organisms because less trophic modification can occur and zooplankton do not, like fish, selectively exclude or metabolize specific OCs. Zooplankton were analyzed for a suite of OC contaminants that encompass a wide range in their respective water solubilities, vapor pressures and k{sub ow} values. Results indicate that the proportions of specific compounds, relative to the total OCs, do change with latitude. In samples from high latitudes, highly volatile compounds are found in higher proportions than compounds with low vapor pressures.

  8. Latitudinal Dependence of the Radial IMF Component: Coronal Imprint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Smith, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements by Ulysses have confirmed that there is no significant gradient with respect to heliomagnetic latitude in the radial component, B(sub r,) of the interplanetary magnetic field. In the corona, the plasma, beta is much less than 1, except directly above streamers, so longitudinal and latitudinal gradients in field strength will relax due to the transverse magnetic pressure gradient force as the solar wind carries magnetic flux away from the Sun. This happens quickly enough so that the field is essentially uniform by 5 - 10 solar radius, apparently remaining so as it is carried to beyond 1 AU. Here, we illustrate the coronal relaxation with a qualitative physical argument and by reference to a detailed Magneto HydroDynamics (MHD) simulation.

  9. A latitudinal study of oxygen isotopes within horsehair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, E.; Bronk Ramsey, C.; McConnell, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to explore the hypothesis that 'if oxygen isotope ratios deplete with decreasing temperature then a study of oxygen isotope ratios within horsehair from Oxfordshire to Iceland will show a latitudinal depletion gradient'. By looking at oxygen isotope values at different geographical positions, we can track the relationship with latitude and with different regional climate features. This will provide a firmer understanding of how to compare climate records from different locations. Additionally, a comparison of the horse breeds from this study to those analysed within previous studies will create an even better understanding of the intra-species variation within the δ18O values of horsehair. A total of 24 horses were sampled on the 7th March from Thordale Stud in Shetland, the Icelandic Food And Veterinary Authority in Iceland, the Exmoor Pony Centre in Exmoor and the Pigeon House Equestrian Centre in Oxfordshire. By starting the sampling process from the most recent growth at the follicle, the sampling date becomes a chronological marker, temporally fixing the first sample within a sequential set of data points extending for one year or longer, depending on the length of each individual hair. The samples were analysed for oxygen isotope values using an IRMS coupled within a Sercon HTEA. Preliminary results show a latitudinal gradient is evident on comparison between the locations, consistent with the findings of Darling and Talbot's study of fresh water isotopes in the British Isles (2003). These results support the hypothesis, showing that a study of oxygen isotope ratios within horse hair from Oxfordshire to Iceland showing a latitudinal depletion gradient, consistent with a depletion of oxygen isotope ratios due to decreasing temperatures. Darling, W. and Talbot, J. (2003). The O and H stable isotope composition of freshwaters in the British Isles. 1. Rainfall. Hydrol. Earth System Science, 7(2), pp.163-181.

  10. Latitudinal variation in population structure of wintering Pacific Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, J.L.; Sedinger, J.S.; Ward, D.H.; Hagmeier, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    Latitudinal variation in population structure during the winter has been reported in many migratory birds, but has been documented in few species of waterfowl. Variation in environmental and social conditions at wintering sites can potentially influence the population dynamics of differential migrants. We examined latitudinal variation in sex and age classes of wintering Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). Brant are distributed along a wide latitudinal gradient from Alaska to Mexico during the winter. Accordingly, migration distances for brant using different wintering locations are highly variable and winter settlement patterns are likely associated with a spatially variable food resource. We used resightings of brant banded in southwestern Alaska to examine sex and age ratios of birds wintering at Boundary Bay in British Columbia, and at San Quintin Bay, Ojo de Liebre Lagoon, and San Ignacio Lagoon in Baja California from 1998 to 2000. Sex ratios were similar among wintering locations for adults and were consistent with the mating strategy of geese. The distribution of juveniles varied among wintering areas, with greater proportions of juveniles observed at northern (San Quintin Bay and Ojo de Liebre Lagoon) than at southern (San Ignacio Lagoon) locations in Baja California. We suggest that age-related variation in the winter distribution of Pacific Black Brant is mediated by variation in productivity among individuals at different wintering locations and by social interactions among wintering family groups.

  11. Connecting thermal physiology and latitudinal niche partitioning in marine Synechococcus.

    PubMed

    Pittera, Justine; Humily, Florian; Thorel, Maxine; Grulois, Daphné; Garczarek, Laurence; Six, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Marine Synechococcus cyanobacteria constitute a monophyletic group that displays a wide latitudinal distribution, ranging from the equator to the polar fronts. Whether these organisms are all physiologically adapted to stand a large temperature gradient or stenotherms with narrow growth temperature ranges has so far remained unexplored. We submitted a panel of six strains, isolated along a gradient of latitude in the North Atlantic Ocean, to long- and short-term variations of temperature. Upon a downward shift of temperature, the strains showed strikingly distinct resistance, seemingly related to their latitude of isolation, with tropical strains collapsing while northern strains were capable of growing. This behaviour was associated to differential photosynthetic performances. In the tropical strains, the rapid photosystem II inactivation and the decrease of the antioxydant β-carotene relative to chl a suggested a strong induction of oxidative stress. These different responses were related to the thermal preferenda of the strains. The northern strains could grow at 10 °C while the other strains preferred higher temperatures. In addition, we pointed out a correspondence between strain isolation temperature and phylogeny. In particular, clades I and IV laboratory strains were all collected in the coldest waters of the distribution area of marine Synechococus. We, however, show that clade I Synechococcus exhibit different levels of adaptation, which apparently reflect their location on the latitudinal temperature gradient. This study reveals the existence of lineages of marine Synechococcus physiologically specialised in different thermal niches, therefore suggesting the existence of temperature ecotypes within the marine Synechococcus radiation.

  12. Environmental and genetic control of insect abundance and herbivory along a forest elevational gradient.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, Lucas A; Kitzberger, Thomas; Chaneton, Enrique J

    2011-09-01

    Environmental conditions and plant genotype may influence insect herbivory along elevational gradients. Plant damage would decrease with elevation as temperature declines to suboptimal levels for insects. However, host plants at higher elevations may exhibit traits that either reduce or enhance leaf quality to insects, with uncertain net effects on herbivory. We examined folivory, insect abundance and leaf traits along six replicated elevational ranges in Nothofagus pumilio forests of the northern Patagonian Andes, Argentina. We also conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment between low- and high-elevation sites to test the extent of environmental and plant genetic control on insect abundance and folivory. We found that insect abundance, leaf size and specific leaf area decreased, whereas foliar phosphorous content increased, from low-, through mid- to high-elevation sites. Path analysis indicated that changes in both insect abundance and leaf traits were important in reducing folivory with increasing elevation and decreasing mean temperature. At both planting sites, plants from a low-elevation origin experienced higher damage and supported greater insect loads than plants from a high-elevation origin. The differences in leaf damage between sites were twofold larger than those between plant origins, suggesting that local environment was more important than host genotype in explaining folivory patterns. Different folivore guilds exhibited qualitatively similar responses to elevation. Our results suggest an increase in insect folivory on high-elevation N. pumilio forests under future climate warming scenarios. However, in the short-term, folivory increases might be smaller than expected from insect abundance only because at high elevations herbivores would encounter more resistant tree genotypes.

  13. A latitudinal cline in disease resistance of a host tree

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, M G; Williams, D R; Tilyard, P A; Pinkard, E A; Wardlaw, T J; Glen, M; Vaillancourt, R E; Potts, B M

    2013-01-01

    The possible drivers and implications of an observed latitudinal cline in disease resistance of a host tree were examined. Mycosphaerella leaf disease (MLD) damage, caused by Teratosphaeria species, was assessed in five Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum) common garden trials containing open-pollinated progeny from 13 native-forest populations. Significant population and family within population variation in MLD resistance was detected, which was relatively stable across different combinations of trial sites, ages, seasons and epidemics. A distinct genetic-based latitudinal cline in MLD damage among host populations was evident. Two lines of evidence argue that the observed genetic-based latitudinal trend was the result of direct pathogen-imposed selection for MLD resistance. First, MLD damage was positively associated with temperature and negatively associated with a prediction of disease risk in the native environment of these populations; and, second, the quantitative inbreeding coefficient (QST) significantly exceeded neutral marker FST at the trial that exhibited the greatest MLD damage, suggesting that diversifying selection contributed to differentiation in MLD resistance among populations. This study highlights the potential for spatial variation in pathogen risk to drive adaptive differentiation across the geographic range of a foundation host tree species. PMID:23211794

  14. A latitudinal cline in disease resistance of a host tree.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, M G; Williams, D R; Tilyard, P A; Pinkard, E A; Wardlaw, T J; Glen, M; Vaillancourt, R E; Potts, B M

    2013-04-01

    The possible drivers and implications of an observed latitudinal cline in disease resistance of a host tree were examined. Mycosphaerella leaf disease (MLD) damage, caused by Teratosphaeria species, was assessed in five Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum) common garden trials containing open-pollinated progeny from 13 native-forest populations. Significant population and family within population variation in MLD resistance was detected, which was relatively stable across different combinations of trial sites, ages, seasons and epidemics. A distinct genetic-based latitudinal cline in MLD damage among host populations was evident. Two lines of evidence argue that the observed genetic-based latitudinal trend was the result of direct pathogen-imposed selection for MLD resistance. First, MLD damage was positively associated with temperature and negatively associated with a prediction of disease risk in the native environment of these populations; and, second, the quantitative inbreeding coefficient (QST) significantly exceeded neutral marker FST at the trial that exhibited the greatest MLD damage, suggesting that diversifying selection contributed to differentiation in MLD resistance among populations. This study highlights the potential for spatial variation in pathogen risk to drive adaptive differentiation across the geographic range of a foundation host tree species.

  15. Preliminary Structural Design Using Topology Optimization with a Comparison of Results from Gradient and Genetic Algorithm Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Adam O.; Tinker, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, genetic algorithm based and gradient-based topology optimization is presented in application to a real hardware design problem. Preliminary design of a planetary lander mockup structure is accomplished using these methods that prove to provide major weight savings by addressing the structural efficiency during the design cycle. This paper presents two alternative formulations of the topology optimization problem. The first is the widely-used gradient-based implementation using commercially available algorithms. The second is formulated using genetic algorithms and internally developed capabilities. These two approaches are applied to a practical design problem for hardware that has been built, tested and proven to be functional. Both formulations converged on similar solutions and therefore were proven to be equally valid implementations of the process. This paper discusses both of these formulations at a high level.

  16. Investigation of equinoctial asymmetry in the latitudinal variation of zonal scintillation drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadi, P.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Shinagawa, H.; Liu, H.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate latitudinal variation of zonal scintillation drift for Mar and Sep equinox by using three single-frequency GPS receivers spaced closely with mutual distances 100 m, in Kototabang (0.2°S, 100.3°E; Mag. Lat.: 9.9°S), Indonesia. The zonal drift is estimated from cross-correlation analysis of time series of GPS signal intensity among the three receivers. We have collected the zonal drift data for Mar and Sep during 20-24 LT in 2003-2015. Fig. 1 shows the latitudinal profile of zonal drift velocity both for Mar and Sep which are classified also into high and moderate solar activity levels (F10.7). As shown in Fig. 1, the latitudinal gradient of zonal shear is negative for both Mar and Sept and at both moderate and high F107. The negative gradient indicates that the zonal drift velocity is larger at magnetic equator and that it decreases as increasing the latitude. Our interesting finding is that the latitudinal gradient of the zonal drift velocity in Mar equinox is more negative than that in Sep equinox at both moderate and high F10.7. Because the zonal scintillation drift velocity can be assumed to represent the zonal background plasma drift in the nighttime F-region, we can consider that latitudinal shear of zonal background plasma drift in Mar equinox is more negative than that in Sep equinox. Furthermore, the zonal background plasma drift is caused by zonal neutral wind through the F-region dynamo. We then investigate the latitudinal shear of zonal neutral wind velocity for Mar and Sep equinoxes, obtained by in-situ measurement from CHAMP satellite (altitude of 400 km). Fig. 2 shows the latitudinal variation of the zonal wind velocity. Interestingly, we also find that the latitudinal gradient of the zonal wind is more negative in Mar equinox than that in Sep equinox at both moderate and high F10.7. We find also the equinoctial asymmetry in the latitudinal variation of the zonal wind. We, thus, conclude that the equinoctial asymmetry of zonal drift

  17. Landscape genetic connectivity in a riparian foundation tree is jointly driven by climatic gradients and river networks.

    PubMed

    Cushman, Samuel A; Max, Tamara; Meneses, Nashelly; Evans, Luke M; Ferrier, Sharon; Honchak, Barbara; Whitham, Thomas G; Allan, Gerard J

    2014-07-01

    Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremonti) is a foundation riparian tree species that drives community structure and ecosystem processes in southwestern U.S. ecosystems. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the ecological and environmental processes that shape its genetic diversity, structure, and landscape connectivity. Here, we combined molecular analyses of 82 populations including 1312 individual trees dispersed over the species' geographical distribution. We reduced the data set to 40 populations and 743 individuals to eliminate admixture with a sibling species, and used multivariate restricted optimization and reciprocal causal modeling to evaluate the effects of river network connectivity and climatic gradients on gene flow. Our results confirmed the following: First, gene flow of Fremont cottonwood is jointly controlled by the connectivity of the river network and gradients of seasonal precipitation. Second, gene flow is facilitated by mid-sized to large rivers, and is resisted by small streams and terrestrial uplands, with resistance to gene flow decreasing with river size. Third, genetic differentiation increases with cumulative differences in winter and spring precipitation. Our results suggest that ongoing fragmentation of riparian habitats will lead to a loss of landscape-level genetic connectivity, leading to increased inbreeding and the concomitant loss of genetic diversity in a foundation species. These genetic effects will cascade to a much larger community of organisms, some of which are threatened and endangered.

  18. Great influence of geographic isolation on the genetic differentiation of Myriophyllum spicatum under a steep environmental gradient.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhigang; Yu, Dan; Wang, Zhong; Li, Xing; Xu, Xinwei

    2015-10-23

    Understanding how natural processes affect population genetic structures is an important issue in evolutionary biology. One effective method is to assess the relative importance of environmental and geographical factors in the genetic structure of populations. In this study, we examined the spatial genetic variation of thirteen Myriophyllum spicatum populations from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjacent highlands (Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, YGP) by using microsatellite loci and environmental and geographical factors. Bioclim layers, hydrological properties and elevation were considered as environmental variables and reduced by principal component analysis. The genetic isolation by geographic distance (IBD) was tested by Mantel tests and the relative importance of environmental variables on population genetic differentiation was determined by a partial Mantel test and multiple matrix regression with randomization (MMRR). Two genetic clusters corresponding to the QTP and YGP were identified. Both tests and MMRR revealed a significant and strong correlation between genetic divergence and geographic isolation under the influence of environmental heterogeneity at the overall and finer spatial scales. Our findings suggested the dominant role of geography on the evolution of M. spicatum under a steep environmental gradient in the alpine landscape as a result of dispersal limitation and genetic drift.

  19. Great influence of geographic isolation on the genetic differentiation of Myriophyllum spicatum under a steep environmental gradient

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhigang; Yu, Dan; Wang, Zhong; Li, Xing; Xu, Xinwei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how natural processes affect population genetic structures is an important issue in evolutionary biology. One effective method is to assess the relative importance of environmental and geographical factors in the genetic structure of populations. In this study, we examined the spatial genetic variation of thirteen Myriophyllum spicatum populations from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjacent highlands (Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, YGP) by using microsatellite loci and environmental and geographical factors. Bioclim layers, hydrological properties and elevation were considered as environmental variables and reduced by principal component analysis. The genetic isolation by geographic distance (IBD) was tested by Mantel tests and the relative importance of environmental variables on population genetic differentiation was determined by a partial Mantel test and multiple matrix regression with randomization (MMRR). Two genetic clusters corresponding to the QTP and YGP were identified. Both tests and MMRR revealed a significant and strong correlation between genetic divergence and geographic isolation under the influence of environmental heterogeneity at the overall and finer spatial scales. Our findings suggested the dominant role of geography on the evolution of M. spicatum under a steep environmental gradient in the alpine landscape as a result of dispersal limitation and genetic drift. PMID:26494202

  20. Soil organic nitrogen mineralization across a global latitudinal gradient

    Treesearch

    D.L. Jones; K. Kielland; F.L. Sinclair; R.A. Dahlgren; K.K. Newsham; J.F. Farrar; D.V. Murphy

    2009-01-01

    Understanding and accurately predicting the fate of carbon and nitrogen in the terrestrial biosphere remains a central goal in ecosystem science. Amino acids represent a key pool of C and N in soil, and their availability to plants and microorganisms has been implicated as a major driver in regulating ecosystem functioning. Because of potential differences in...

  1. LATITUDINAL GRADIENTS IN BENTHIC COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN ATLANTIC ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates from estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North America from Cape Cod, MA, to Biscayne Bay, FL, were compared. Benthic data were collected over a 5 year period (1990 to 1995) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Envi...

  2. LATITUDINAL GRADIENTS IN BENTHIC COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN ATLANTIC ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates from estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North America from Cape Cod, MA, to Biscayne Bay, FL, were compared. Benthic data were collected over a 5 year period (1990 to 1995) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Envi...

  3. Mitochondrial DNA Markers Reveal High Genetic Diversity but Low Genetic Differentiation in the Black Fly Simulium tani Takaoka & Davies along an Elevational Gradient in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Low, Van Lun; Adler, Peter H.; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Ya’cob, Zubaidah; Lim, Phaik Eem; Tan, Tiong Kai; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Chen, Chee Dhang; Norma-Rashid, Yusoff; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The population genetic structure of Simulium tani was inferred from mitochondria-encoded sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI) and II (COII) along an elevational gradient in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. A statistical parsimony network of 71 individuals revealed 71 haplotypes in the COI gene and 43 haplotypes in the COII gene; the concatenated sequences of the COI and COII genes revealed 71 haplotypes. High levels of genetic diversity but low levels of genetic differentiation were observed among populations of S. tani at five elevations. The degree of genetic diversity, however, was not in accordance with an altitudinal gradient, and a Mantel test indicated that elevation did not have a limiting effect on gene flow. No ancestral haplotype of S. tani was found among the populations. Pupae with unique structural characters at the highest elevation showed a tendency to form their own haplotype cluster, as revealed by the COII gene. Tajima’s D, Fu’s Fs, and mismatch distribution tests revealed population expansion of S. tani in Cameron Highlands. A strong correlation was found between nucleotide diversity and the levels of dissolved oxygen in the streams where S. tani was collected. PMID:24941043

  4. Mitochondrial DNA markers reveal high genetic diversity but low genetic differentiation in the black fly Simulium tani Takaoka & Davies along an elevational gradient in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Low, Van Lun; Adler, Peter H; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Lim, Phaik Eem; Tan, Tiong Kai; Lim, Yvonne A L; Chen, Chee Dhang; Norma-Rashid, Yusoff; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The population genetic structure of Simulium tani was inferred from mitochondria-encoded sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI) and II (COII) along an elevational gradient in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. A statistical parsimony network of 71 individuals revealed 71 haplotypes in the COI gene and 43 haplotypes in the COII gene; the concatenated sequences of the COI and COII genes revealed 71 haplotypes. High levels of genetic diversity but low levels of genetic differentiation were observed among populations of S. tani at five elevations. The degree of genetic diversity, however, was not in accordance with an altitudinal gradient, and a Mantel test indicated that elevation did not have a limiting effect on gene flow. No ancestral haplotype of S. tani was found among the populations. Pupae with unique structural characters at the highest elevation showed a tendency to form their own haplotype cluster, as revealed by the COII gene. Tajima's D, Fu's Fs, and mismatch distribution tests revealed population expansion of S. tani in Cameron Highlands. A strong correlation was found between nucleotide diversity and the levels of dissolved oxygen in the streams where S. tani was collected.

  5. Latitudinal Trends in Stable Isotope Signatures of Northeast Atlantic Rhodoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Laurie

    2017-04-01

    Rhodoliths are free-living calcifying red algae that form extensive beds in shallow marine benthic environments (< 200 m) that provide important habitats and nurseries for marine organisms and contribute to carbonate sediment accumulation. There is growing concern that these organisms are sensitive to global climate change, which will have important consequences for coastal productivity and stability. Despite their significance and sensitivity, their basic photosynthetic and calcification mechanisms are not well understood. The goal of this study was to determine the plasticity of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) uptake mechanisms of rhodoliths along a latitudinal gradient in the Northeast (NE) Atlantic using natural stable isotope signatures. The delta 13C signature of macroalgae can be used to provide an indication of the preferred inorganic carbon source (CO2 vs. HCO3-). Here we present the total and organic delta 13C signatures of NE Atlantic rhodoliths with respect to changing temperature and light along the latitudinal gradient from the Canary Islands to Spitsbergen. A decreasing trend in delta 13C signatures with increasing latitude suggests that rhodoliths rely solely on CO2 as an inorganic carbon source at mid latitudes, while those at low latitudes may be able to utilize HCO3-. Polar rhodoliths deviate from this trend, suggesting they may have unique physiological mechanisms related to inorganic carbon acquisition and assimilation, which may have important implications for calcification in an environment undergoing rapid changing ocean chemistry.

  6. Inherited variability in multiple traits determines fitness in populations of an annual legume from contrasting latitudinal origins.

    PubMed

    Milla, Rubén; Escudero, Adrián; Iriondo, Jose María

    2009-06-01

    Variation in fitness depends on corresponding variation in multiple traits which have both genetically controlled and plastic components. These traits are subjected to varying degrees of local adaptation in specific populations and, consequently, are genetically controlled to different extents. In this study it is hypothesized that modulation of different traits would have contrasting relevance for the fitness of populations of diverse origins. Specifically, assuming that environmental pressures vary across a latitudinal gradient, it is suggested that inherited variation in traits differentially determines fitness in annual Lupinus angustifolius populations from contrasting latitudinal origins in western Spain. Seeds of L. angustifolius from three contrasting origins were grown in a common garden. Traits related to more plastic vegetative growth and more genetically conserved phenology were measured, together with estimates of reproductive success. Fitness was estimated by the number of viable seeds per plant. Structural Equation Models were used to infer causal relationships among multiple traits and fitness, separating the direct and indirect effects of morphological, phenological and reproductive traits. Phenological, vegetative and reproductive traits accounted for most of the fitness variation. Fitness was highest in plants of southernmost origin, mainly due to earlier flowering. Fitness within each seed origin was controlled by variation in different traits. Southern origin plants that grew to a larger size achieved higher fitness. However, plant size in plants of northernmost origin was irrelevant, but early flowering promoted higher fitness. Variation in fruit and seed set had a greater effect on the fitness of plants of central origin than phenological and size variation. It is concluded that modulation of a functional trait can be relevant to fitness in a given population (i.e. affecting intensity and direction), but irrelevant in other populations. This

  7. Inherited variability in multiple traits determines fitness in populations of an annual legume from contrasting latitudinal origins

    PubMed Central

    Milla, Rubén; Escudero, Adrián; Iriondo, Jose María

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Variation in fitness depends on corresponding variation in multiple traits which have both genetically controlled and plastic components. These traits are subjected to varying degrees of local adaptation in specific populations and, consequently, are genetically controlled to different extents. In this study it is hypothesized that modulation of different traits would have contrasting relevance for the fitness of populations of diverse origins. Specifically, assuming that environmental pressures vary across a latitudinal gradient, it is suggested that inherited variation in traits differentially determines fitness in annual Lupinus angustifolius populations from contrasting latitudinal origins in western Spain. Methods Seeds of L. angustifolius from three contrasting origins were grown in a common garden. Traits related to more plastic vegetative growth and more genetically conserved phenology were measured, together with estimates of reproductive success. Fitness was estimated by the number of viable seeds per plant. Structural Equation Models were used to infer causal relationships among multiple traits and fitness, separating the direct and indirect effects of morphological, phenological and reproductive traits. Key Results Phenological, vegetative and reproductive traits accounted for most of the fitness variation. Fitness was highest in plants of southernmost origin, mainly due to earlier flowering. Fitness within each seed origin was controlled by variation in different traits. Southern origin plants that grew to a larger size achieved higher fitness. However, plant size in plants of northernmost origin was irrelevant, but early flowering promoted higher fitness. Variation in fruit and seed set had a greater effect on the fitness of plants of central origin than phenological and size variation. Conclusions It is concluded that modulation of a functional trait can be relevant to fitness in a given population (i.e. affecting intensity and

  8. Latitudinal Dependence of the Radial IMF Component - Interplanetary Imprint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Smith, E. J.; Phillips, J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Nerney, S.

    1996-01-01

    Ulysses measurements have confirmed that there is no significant gradient with respect to heliomagnetic latitude in the radial component, B(sub r,), of the interplanetary magnetic field. There are two processes responsible for this observation. In the corona, the plasma beta is much less than 1, except directly above streamers, so both longitudinal and latitudinal (meridional) gradients in field strength will relax, due to the transverse magnetic pressure gradient force, as the solar wind carries magnetic flux away from the Sun. This happens so quickly that the field is essentially uniform by 5 solar radius. Beyond 10 solar radius, beta is greater than 1 and it is possible for a meridional thermal pressure gradient to redistribute magnetic flux - an effect apparently absent in Ulysses and earlier ICE and Interplanetary Magnetic Physics (IMP) data. We discuss this second effect here, showing that its absence is mainly due to the perpendicular part of the anisotropic thermal pressure gradient in the interplanetary medium being too small to drive significant meridional transport between the Sun and approx. 4 AU. This is done using a linear analytic estimate of meridional transport. The first effect was discussed in an earlier paper.

  9. Is there metabolic cold adaptation in terrestrial ectotherms? Exploring latitudinal compensation in the invasive snail Cornu aspersum.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Nespolo, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    Lower temperatures, extreme seasonality and shorter growing seasons at higher latitudes are expected to cause a decline in metabolic rates and annual growth rates of ectotherms. If a reduction in the rates of these biological processes involves a reduction in fitness, then organisms may evolve compensatory responses for the constraints imposed by high-latitude habitats. To test the existence of a latitudinal compensation in ectotherms, we used a common-garden experiment to investigate the extent to which the level of energy turnover (measured as standard metabolic rate, SMR) and the energy budget (energy allocation to growth) are affected by climatic constraints in three populations of the land snail Cornu aspersum, distributed across a latitudinal gradient of 1300 km in Chile. Our results did not support the existence of a latitudinal compensation in metabolic rates (metabolic cold adaptation). However, there was a countergradient variation (CnGV) for growth rate in which the highest latitudinal population exhibited greater growth rates than their counterparts from lower latitudes. Surprisingly, this CnGV pattern was accompanied by a lower apparent dry-matter digestibility, which could highlight a differential assimilation of ingested nutrients into somatic tissue, revealing enhanced growth efficiency in snails from the highest latitudinal habitat. Our evidence highlights that adjustments in energy allocation to the digestive machinery and to protein storage could act as a latitudinal compensation for enhanced growth efficiency in snails from the highest latitudinal population. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Genetic and cytological evidence that heterocyst patterning is regulated by inhibitor gradients that promote activator decay.

    PubMed

    Risser, Douglas D; Callahan, Sean M

    2009-11-24

    The formation of a pattern of differentiated cells from a group of seemingly equivalent, undifferentiated cells is a central paradigm of developmental biology. Several species of filamentous cyanobacteria differentiate nitrogen-fixing heterocysts at regular intervals along unbranched filaments to form a periodic pattern of two distinct cell types. This patterning has been used to exemplify application of the activator-inhibitor model to periodic patterns in biology. The activator-inhibitor model proposes that activators and inhibitors of differentiation diffuse from source cells to form concentration gradients that in turn mediate patterning, but direct visualization of concentration gradients of activators and inhibitors has been difficult. Here we show that the periodic pattern of heterocysts produced by cyanobacteria relies on two inhibitors of heterocyst differentiation, PatS and HetN, in a manner consistent with the predictions of the activator-inhibitor model. Concentration gradients of the activator, HetR, were observed adjacent to heterocysts, the natural source of PatS and HetN, as well as adjacent to vegetative cells that were manipulated to overexpress a gene encoding either of the inhibitors. Gradients of HetR relied on posttranslational decay of HetR. Deletion of both patS and hetN genes prevented the formation of gradients of HetR, and a derivative of the inhibitors was shown to promote decay of HetR in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results provide strong support for application of the activator-inhibitor model to heterocyst patterning and, more generally, the formation of periodic patterns in biological systems.

  11. The natural latitudinal distribution of atmospheric CO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John A.; Orr, James C.

    2000-12-01

    Although poorly understood, the north-south distribution of the natural component of atmospheric CO 2 offers information essential to improving our understanding of the exchange of CO 2 between the atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere. The natural or unperturbed component is equivalent to that part of the atmospheric CO 2 distribution which is controlled by non-anthropogenic CO 2 fluxes from the ocean and terrestrial biosphere. Models should be able to reproduce the true north-south gradient in CO 2 due to the natural component before they can reliably estimate present-day CO 2 sources and sinks and predict future atmospheric CO 2. We have estimated the natural latitudinal distribution of atmospheric CO 2, relative to the South Pole, using measurements of atmospheric CO 2 during 1959-1991 and corresponding estimates of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. Key features of the natural latitudinal distribution include: (1) CO 2 concentrations in the northern hemisphere that are lower than those in the southern hemisphere; (2) CO 2 concentration differences that are higher in the tropics (associated with outgassing of the oceans) than those currently measured; and (3) CO 2 concentrations over the southern ocean that are relatively uniform. This natural latitudinal distribution and its sensitivity to increasing fossil fuel emissions both indicate that near-surface concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 in the northern hemisphere are naturally lower than those in the southern hemisphere. Models that find the contrary will also mismatch present-day CO 2 in the northern hemisphere and incorrectly ascribe that region as a large sink of anthropogenic CO 2.

  12. Connecting thermal physiology and latitudinal niche partitioning in marine Synechococcus

    PubMed Central

    Pittera, Justine; Humily, Florian; Thorel, Maxine; Grulois, Daphné; Garczarek, Laurence; Six, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Marine Synechococcus cyanobacteria constitute a monophyletic group that displays a wide latitudinal distribution, ranging from the equator to the polar fronts. Whether these organisms are all physiologically adapted to stand a large temperature gradient or stenotherms with narrow growth temperature ranges has so far remained unexplored. We submitted a panel of six strains, isolated along a gradient of latitude in the North Atlantic Ocean, to long- and short-term variations of temperature. Upon a downward shift of temperature, the strains showed strikingly distinct resistance, seemingly related to their latitude of isolation, with tropical strains collapsing while northern strains were capable of growing. This behaviour was associated to differential photosynthetic performances. In the tropical strains, the rapid photosystem II inactivation and the decrease of the antioxydant β-carotene relative to chl a suggested a strong induction of oxidative stress. These different responses were related to the thermal preferenda of the strains. The northern strains could grow at 10 °C while the other strains preferred higher temperatures. In addition, we pointed out a correspondence between strain isolation temperature and phylogeny. In particular, clades I and IV laboratory strains were all collected in the coldest waters of the distribution area of marine Synechococus. We, however, show that clade I Synechococcus exhibit different levels of adaptation, which apparently reflect their location on the latitudinal temperature gradient. This study reveals the existence of lineages of marine Synechococcus physiologically specialised in different thermal niches, therefore suggesting the existence of temperature ecotypes within the marine Synechococcus radiation. PMID:24401861

  13. Genetic Adaptation vs. Ecophysiological Plasticity of Photosynthetic-Related Traits in Young Picea glauca Trees along a Regional Climatic Gradient.

    PubMed

    Benomar, Lahcen; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Rainville, André; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; Margolis, Hank A

    2016-01-01

    Assisted population migration (APM) is the intentional movement of populations within a species range to sites where future environmental conditions are projected to be more conducive to growth. APM has been proposed as a proactive adaptation strategy to maintain forest productivity and to reduce the vulnerability of forest ecosystems to projected climate change. The validity of such a strategy will depend on the adaptation capacity of populations, which can partially be evaluated by the ecophysiological response of different genetic sources along a climatic gradient. This adaptation capacity results from the compromise between (i) the degree of genetic adaptation of seed sources to their environment of origin and (ii) the phenotypic plasticity of functional trait which can make it possible for transferred seed sources to positively respond to new growing conditions. We examined phenotypic variation in morphophysiological traits of six seed sources of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) along a regional climatic gradient in Québec, Canada. Seedlings from the seed sources were planted at three forest sites representing a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient of 2.2°C. During the second growing season, we measured height growth (H2014) and traits related to resources use efficiency and photosynthetic rate (A max). All functional traits showed an adaptive response to the climatic gradient. Traits such as H2014, A max, stomatal conductance (g s ), the ratio of mesophyll to stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency showed significant variation in both physiological plasticity due to the planting site and seed source variation related to local genetic adaptation. However, the amplitude of seed source variation was much less than that related to plantation sites in the area investigated. The six seed sources showed a similar level of physiological plasticity. H2014, A max and g s , but not carboxylation capacity (V

  14. Genetic Adaptation vs. Ecophysiological Plasticity of Photosynthetic-Related Traits in Young Picea glauca Trees along a Regional Climatic Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Benomar, Lahcen; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S.; Rainville, André; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; Margolis, Hank A.

    2016-01-01

    Assisted population migration (APM) is the intentional movement of populations within a species range to sites where future environmental conditions are projected to be more conducive to growth. APM has been proposed as a proactive adaptation strategy to maintain forest productivity and to reduce the vulnerability of forest ecosystems to projected climate change. The validity of such a strategy will depend on the adaptation capacity of populations, which can partially be evaluated by the ecophysiological response of different genetic sources along a climatic gradient. This adaptation capacity results from the compromise between (i) the degree of genetic adaptation of seed sources to their environment of origin and (ii) the phenotypic plasticity of functional trait which can make it possible for transferred seed sources to positively respond to new growing conditions. We examined phenotypic variation in morphophysiological traits of six seed sources of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) along a regional climatic gradient in Québec, Canada. Seedlings from the seed sources were planted at three forest sites representing a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient of 2.2°C. During the second growing season, we measured height growth (H2014) and traits related to resources use efficiency and photosynthetic rate (Amax). All functional traits showed an adaptive response to the climatic gradient. Traits such as H2014, Amax, stomatal conductance (gs), the ratio of mesophyll to stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency showed significant variation in both physiological plasticity due to the planting site and seed source variation related to local genetic adaptation. However, the amplitude of seed source variation was much less than that related to plantation sites in the area investigated. The six seed sources showed a similar level of physiological plasticity. H2014, Amax and gs, but not carboxylation capacity (Vcmax), were

  15. Model-based Layer Estimation using a Hybrid Genetic/Gradient Search Optimization Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D; Lehman, S; Dowla, F

    2007-05-17

    A particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is combined with a gradient search method in a model-based approach for extracting interface positions in a one-dimensional multilayer structure from acoustic or radar reflections. The basic approach is to predict the reflection measurement using a simulation of one-dimensional wave propagation in a multi-layer, evaluate the error between prediction and measurement, and then update the simulation parameters to minimize the error. Gradient search methods alone fail due to the number of local minima in the error surface close to the desired global minimum. The PSO approach avoids this problem by randomly sampling the region of the error surface around the global minimum, but at the cost of a large number of evaluations of the simulator. The hybrid approach uses the PSO at the beginning to locate the general area around the global minimum then switches to the gradient search method to zero in on it. Examples of the algorithm applied to the detection of interior walls of a building from reflected ultra-wideband radar signals are shown. Other possible applications are optical inspection of coatings and ultrasonic measurement of multilayer structures.

  16. Environmental and genetic variation in leaf anatomy among populations of Andropogon gerardii (Poaceae) along a precipitation gradient.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jacob T; Caudle, Keri L; Johnson, Loretta C; Baer, Sara G; Maricle, Brian R

    2013-10-01

    Phenotypes of two Andropogon gerardii subspecies, big bluestem and sand bluestem, vary throughout the prairie ecosystem of North America. This study sought to determine the role of genetics and environment in driving adaptive variation of leaf structure in big bluestem and sand bluestem. • Four populations of big bluestem and one population of sand bluestem were planted in common gardens at four sites across a precipitation gradient from western Kansas to southern Illinois. Internal leaf structure and trichome density of A. gerardii were examined by light microscopy to separate genetic and environmentally controlled traits. Leaf thickness, midrib thickness, bulliform cells, interveinal distance, vein size, and trichome density were quantified. • At all planting sites, sand bluestem and the xeric population of A. gerardii had thicker leaves and fewer bulliform cells compared with mesic populations. Environment and genetic source population were both influential for leaf anatomy. Leaves from plants grown in mesic sites (Carbondale, Illinois and Manhattan, Kansas) had thicker midribs, larger veins, fewer trichomes, and a greater proportion of bulliform cells compared to plants grown in drier sites (Colby and Hays, Kansas). • Water availability has driven adaptive variation in leaf structure in populations of A. gerardii, particularly between sand bluestem and big bluestem. Genetically based differences in leaves of A. gerardii indicate adaptive variation and evolutionary forces differentiating sand bluestem from big bluestem. Environmental responses of A. gerardii leaves suggest an ability to adjust to drought, even in populations adapted to mesic home environments.

  17. Latitudinal differences in the hibernation characteristics of woodchucks (Marmota monax).

    PubMed

    Zervanos, Stam M; Maher, Christine R; Waldvogel, Jerry A; Florant, Gregory L

    2010-01-01

    There is little information on the phenotypic flexibility of hibernation characteristics within species. To address this issue, we observed differences in hibernation characteristics of three free-ranging populations of woodchucks (Marmota monax) distributed along a latitudinal gradient from Maine to South Carolina. Data from free-ranging animals exhibited a direct relationship between latitude and length of the hibernation season. As expected, woodchucks in the northern latitudes hibernated longer than those in the southern latitudes. Also, the length of interbout arousals decreased with increase in latitude, whereas the length of torpor bouts and the number of arousals increased. Thus, we observed phenotypic plasticity in hibernation characteristics based primarily on latitudinal temperature differences in each population. Further analysis revealed a direct relationship between latitude and total time spent in torpor. Maine animals spent 68% more time in torpor than South Carolina animals. However, total time spent euthermic did not differ among the three populations. The "cost-benefit" hypothesis of hibernation may help to explain these results. It assumes that hibernators avoid the physiological stress of torpor by staying euthermic as much as possible. Woodchucks in each population maximized time spent euthermic, utilizing torpor only at the level needed to survive winter hibernation and to commence reproduction in the spring.

  18. Seascape genetics along environmental gradients in the Arabian Peninsula: insights from ddRAD sequencing of anemonefishes.

    PubMed

    Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Dibattista, Joseph D; Piatek, Marek J; Gaither, Michelle R; Harrison, Hugo B; Nanninga, Gerrit B; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the processes that shape patterns of genetic structure across space is a central aim of landscape genetics. However, it remains unclear how geographical features and environmental variables shape gene flow, particularly for marine species in large complex seascapes. Here, we evaluated the genomic composition of the two-band anemonefish Amphiprion bicinctus across its entire geographical range in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, as well as its close relative, Amphiprion omanensis endemic to the southern coast of Oman. Both the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea are complex and environmentally heterogeneous marine systems that provide an ideal scenario to address these questions. Our findings confirm the presence of two genetic clusters previously reported for A. bicinctus in the Red Sea. Genetic structure analyses suggest a complex seascape configuration, with evidence of both isolation by distance (IBD) and isolation by environment (IBE). In addition to IBD and IBE, genetic structure among sites was best explained when two barriers to gene flow were also accounted for. One of these coincides with a strong oligotrophic-eutrophic gradient at around 16-20˚N in the Red Sea. The other agrees with a historical bathymetric barrier at the straight of Bab al Mandab. Finally, these data support the presence of interspecific hybrids at an intermediate suture zone at Socotra and indicate complex patterns of genomic admixture in the Gulf of Aden with evidence of introgression between species. Our findings highlight the power of recent genomic approaches to resolve subtle patterns of gene flow in marine seascapes.

  19. Genetic Evidence for Restricted Dispersal along Continuous Altitudinal Gradients in a Climate Change-Sensitive Mammal: The American Pika

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Philippe; Sim, Zijian; Russello, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    When faced with rapidly changing environments, wildlife species are left to adapt, disperse or disappear. Consequently, there is value in investigating the connectivity of populations of species inhabiting different environments in order to evaluate dispersal as a potential strategy for persistence in the face of climate change. Here, we begin to investigate the processes that shape genetic variation within American pika populations from the northern periphery of their range, the central Coast Mountains of British Columbia, Canada. At these latitudes, pikas inhabit sharp elevation gradients ranging from sea level to 1500 m, providing an excellent system for studying the effects of local environmental conditions on pika population genetic structure and gene flow. We found low levels of neutral genetic variation compared to previous studies from more southerly latitudes, consistent with the relatively recent post-glacial colonization of the study location. Moreover, significant levels of inbreeding and marked genetic structure were detected within and among sites. Although low levels of recent gene flow were revealed among elevations within a transect, potentially admixed individuals and first generation migrants were identified using discriminant analysis of principal components between populations separated by less than five kilometers at the same elevations. There was no evidence for historical population decline, yet there was signal for recent demographic contractions, possibly resulting from environmental stochasticity. Correlative analyses revealed an association between patterns of genetic variation and annual heat-to-moisture ratio, mean annual precipitation, precipitation as snow and mean maximum summer temperature. Changes in climatic regimes forecasted for the region may thus potentially increase the rate of population extirpation by further reducing dispersal between sites. Consequently, American pika may have to rely on local adaptations or phenotypic

  20. Genetic evidence for restricted dispersal along continuous altitudinal gradients in a climate change-sensitive mammal: the American Pika.

    PubMed

    Henry, Philippe; Sim, Zijian; Russello, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    When faced with rapidly changing environments, wildlife species are left to adapt, disperse or disappear. Consequently, there is value in investigating the connectivity of populations of species inhabiting different environments in order to evaluate dispersal as a potential strategy for persistence in the face of climate change. Here, we begin to investigate the processes that shape genetic variation within American pika populations from the northern periphery of their range, the central Coast Mountains of British Columbia, Canada. At these latitudes, pikas inhabit sharp elevation gradients ranging from sea level to 1500 m, providing an excellent system for studying the effects of local environmental conditions on pika population genetic structure and gene flow. We found low levels of neutral genetic variation compared to previous studies from more southerly latitudes, consistent with the relatively recent post-glacial colonization of the study location. Moreover, significant levels of inbreeding and marked genetic structure were detected within and among sites. Although low levels of recent gene flow were revealed among elevations within a transect, potentially admixed individuals and first generation migrants were identified using discriminant analysis of principal components between populations separated by less than five kilometers at the same elevations. There was no evidence for historical population decline, yet there was signal for recent demographic contractions, possibly resulting from environmental stochasticity. Correlative analyses revealed an association between patterns of genetic variation and annual heat-to-moisture ratio, mean annual precipitation, precipitation as snow and mean maximum summer temperature. Changes in climatic regimes forecasted for the region may thus potentially increase the rate of population extirpation by further reducing dispersal between sites. Consequently, American pika may have to rely on local adaptations or phenotypic

  1. Fine-scale genetic structure of Nothofagus pumilio (lenga) at contrasting elevations of the altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Mathiasen, Paula; Premoli, Andrea C

    2013-03-01

    Montane forests provide the natural framework to test for various ecological settings at distinct elevations as they may affect population demography, which in turn will affect the spatial genetic structure (SGS). We analyzed the fine-scale SGS of Nothofagus pumilio, which dominates mountain areas of Patagonia, in three pairs of sites at contrasting elevations (low- vs. high-elevation). Within a total area of 1 ha fresh leaf tissue from 90 individuals was collected at each of the six studied stands following a spatially explicit sampling design. Population genetic diversity parameters were analyzed for all sampled individuals using five polymorphic isozyme loci, and a subset of 50 individuals per stand were also screened for five microsatellite loci. The SGS was assessed on 50 individuals/stand, using the combined datasets of isozymes and microsatellites. Most low-elevation stands consisted of older individuals with complex age structures and genetically diverse plots. In contrast, high-elevation stands and one post-fire low-elevation population yielded even-aged structures with evidence of growth suppression, and were genetically homogeneous. All stands yielded significant SGS. Similarly to mature stands of the non-sprouter congener Nothofagus dombeyi, multi-age low-altitude N. pumilio yielded significant SGS weakened by competing species of the understory and the formation of seedling banks. Alike the sprouter Nothofagus antarctica, high-altitude stands produced significant SGS as a consequence of occasional seedling establishment reinforced by vegetative spread.

  2. Homogeneous genetic structure and variation in tree architecture of Larix kaempferi along altitudinal gradients on Mt. Fuji.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Masao; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2011-03-01

    Variations in tree architecture and in the genetic structure of Larix kaempferi on Mt. Fuji were surveyed along altitudinal gradients using 11 nSSR loci. In total, 249 individuals from six populations along three trails at altitudes ranging from approximately 1,300 to 2,700 m were investigated. Gradual changes in tree architecture with increasing elevation, from erect trees to flag trees and krummholz mats, were observed in the high-altitude populations (> 2,000 m) on all trails. These findings suggest that tree architecture is correlated with the severe environmental conditions associated with increasing elevation, such as strong winds. In contrast to obvious variations in tree architecture, the genetic diversity of populations along the trails was almost uniform (H (E) = 0.717-0.762) across the altitudinal range. The results of the AMOVA and STRUCTURE analyses, and the analysis for isolation by distance pattern, suggest homogeneous genetic structuring across all populations on Mt. Fuji, while the pairwise F (ST) showed barriers to gene flow between altitudinal populations that were demarcated as high- or low-altitude populations by Abies-Tsuga forest. Although the evergreen coniferous forests on the mountainside may hinder gene flow, this may be explained by the long-distance seed dispersal of the Japanese larch and/or a short population history resulting from eruptions or slush avalanches, although evergreen coniferous forests on the mountainside may hinder gene flow.

  3. Population genetics and adaptation to climate along elevation gradients in invasive Solidago canadensis.

    PubMed

    Moran, Emily V; Reid, Andrea; Levine, Jonathan M

    2017-01-01

    Gene flow between populations may either support local adaptation by supplying genetic variation on which selection may act, or counteract it if maladapted alleles arrive faster than can be purged by selection. Although both such effects have been documented within plant species' native ranges, how the balance of these forces influences local adaptation in invasive plant populations is less clear, in part because introduced species often have lower genetic variation initially but also tend to have good dispersal abilities. To evaluate the extent of gene flow and adaptation to local climate in invasive populations of Solidago canadensis, and the implications of this for range expansion, we compared population differentiation at microsatellite and chloroplast loci for populations across Switzerland and assessed the effect of environmental transfer distance using common gardens. We found that while patterns of differentiation at neutral genetic markers suggested that populations are connected through extensive pollen and seed movement, common-garden plants nonetheless exhibited modest adaptation to local climate conditions. Growth rate and flower production declined with climatic distance from a plant's home site, with clones from colder home sites performing better at or above the range limit. Such adaptation in invasive species is likely to promote further spread, particularly under climate change, as the genotypes positioned near the range edge may be best able to take advantage of lengthening growing seasons to expand the range.

  4. Coupling of soil prokaryotic diversity and plant diversity across latitudinal forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Hu, Hang-Wei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Li-Mei; Chen, Bao-Dong; Chen, Wei-Ping; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The belowground soil prokaryotic community plays a cardinal role in sustaining the stability and functions of forest ecosystems. Yet, the nature of how soil prokaryotic diversity co-varies with aboveground plant diversity along a latitudinal gradient remains elusive. By establishing three hundred 400-m2 quadrats from tropical rainforest to boreal forest in a large-scale parallel study on both belowground soil prokaryote and aboveground tree and herb communities, we found that soil prokaryotic diversity couples with the diversity of herbs rather than trees. The diversity of prokaryotes and herbs responds similarly to environmental factors along the latitudinal gradient. These findings revealed that herbs provide a good predictor of belowground biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and provide new perspective on the aboveground and belowground interactions in forest ecosystems. PMID:26781165

  5. Coupling of soil prokaryotic diversity and plant diversity across latitudinal forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Hu, Hang-Wei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Li-Mei; Chen, Bao-Dong; Chen, Wei-Ping; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-19

    The belowground soil prokaryotic community plays a cardinal role in sustaining the stability and functions of forest ecosystems. Yet, the nature of how soil prokaryotic diversity co-varies with aboveground plant diversity along a latitudinal gradient remains elusive. By establishing three hundred 400-m(2) quadrats from tropical rainforest to boreal forest in a large-scale parallel study on both belowground soil prokaryote and aboveground tree and herb communities, we found that soil prokaryotic diversity couples with the diversity of herbs rather than trees. The diversity of prokaryotes and herbs responds similarly to environmental factors along the latitudinal gradient. These findings revealed that herbs provide a good predictor of belowground biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and provide new perspective on the aboveground and belowground interactions in forest ecosystems.

  6. Coupling of soil prokaryotic diversity and plant diversity across latitudinal forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Hu, Hang-Wei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Li-Mei; Chen, Bao-Dong; Chen, Wei-Ping; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The belowground soil prokaryotic community plays a cardinal role in sustaining the stability and functions of forest ecosystems. Yet, the nature of how soil prokaryotic diversity co-varies with aboveground plant diversity along a latitudinal gradient remains elusive. By establishing three hundred 400-m2 quadrats from tropical rainforest to boreal forest in a large-scale parallel study on both belowground soil prokaryote and aboveground tree and herb communities, we found that soil prokaryotic diversity couples with the diversity of herbs rather than trees. The diversity of prokaryotes and herbs responds similarly to environmental factors along the latitudinal gradient. These findings revealed that herbs provide a good predictor of belowground biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and provide new perspective on the aboveground and belowground interactions in forest ecosystems.

  7. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp. PMID:27158895

  8. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies.

    PubMed

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp.

  9. Role of the electrochemical proton gradient in genetic transformation of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Bremer, W; Kooistra, J; Hellingwerf, K J; Konings, W N

    1984-01-01

    The uptake of homologous DNA by Haemophilus influenzae was studied as a function of the proton motive force in completely competent cultures in the pH range of 6 to 8. The composition and magnitude of the proton motive force were varied by using the ionophores valinomycin and nigericin (in the presence of various potassium ion concentrations) and by using protonophores. No interaction of the ionophores with the DNA transformation system itself was observed. Either component of the proton motive force, the electrical potential or the pH gradient, can drive the uptake of DNA, and the extent of the uptake of DNA is ultimately determined by the total proton motive force. The transformation frequency increases with the proton motive force, which reaches a maximum value at around -130 mV. These results are consistent with an electrogenic proton-DNA symport mechanism, but direct evidence for such a system is not available. The proton motive force was followed during competence development of H. influenzae at pH 8. In the initial phase (up to 50 min), the proton motive force remained constant at about -90 mV, whereas the transformation frequency rose steeply. In the second phase, the proton motive force increased. The transformation frequency in this phase increased with the proton motive force, as in completely competent cultures. These observations and the observed inhibition by NAD of both the proton motive force and the transformation frequency indicate that structural components of the competent state are formed in the initial phase of competence development, whereas the second phase is characterized by an increase of the proton motive force. PMID:6321440

  10. The roles of genetic drift and natural selection in quantitative trait divergence along an altitudinal gradient in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Y; Widmer, A; Karrenberg, S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how natural selection and genetic drift shape biological variation is a central topic in biology, yet our understanding of the agents of natural selection and their target traits is limited. We investigated to what extent selection along an altitudinal gradient or genetic drift contributed to variation in ecologically relevant traits in Arabidopsis thaliana. We collected seeds from 8 to 14 individuals from each of 14 A. thaliana populations originating from sites between 800 and 2700 m above sea level in the Swiss Alps. Seed families were grown with and without vernalization, corresponding to winter-annual and summer-annual life histories, respectively. We analyzed putatively neutral genetic divergence between these populations using 24 simple sequence repeat markers. We measured seven traits related to growth, phenology and leaf morphology that are rarely reported in A. thaliana and performed analyses of altitudinal clines, as well as overall QST-FST comparisons and correlation analyses among pair-wise QST, FST and altitude of origin differences. Multivariate analyses suggested adaptive differentiation along altitude in the entire suite of traits, particularly when expressed in the summer-annual life history. Of the individual traits, a decrease in rosette leaf number in the vegetative state and an increase in leaf succulence with increasing altitude could be attributed to adaptive divergence. Interestingly, these patterns relate well to common within- and between-species trends of smaller plant size and thicker leaves at high altitude. Our results thus offer exciting possibilities to unravel the underlying mechanisms for these conspicuous trends using the model species A. thaliana. PMID:25293874

  11. The roles of genetic drift and natural selection in quantitative trait divergence along an altitudinal gradient in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Luo, Y; Widmer, A; Karrenberg, S

    2015-02-01

    Understanding how natural selection and genetic drift shape biological variation is a central topic in biology, yet our understanding of the agents of natural selection and their target traits is limited. We investigated to what extent selection along an altitudinal gradient or genetic drift contributed to variation in ecologically relevant traits in Arabidopsis thaliana. We collected seeds from 8 to 14 individuals from each of 14 A. thaliana populations originating from sites between 800 and 2700 m above sea level in the Swiss Alps. Seed families were grown with and without vernalization, corresponding to winter-annual and summer-annual life histories, respectively. We analyzed putatively neutral genetic divergence between these populations using 24 simple sequence repeat markers. We measured seven traits related to growth, phenology and leaf morphology that are rarely reported in A. thaliana and performed analyses of altitudinal clines, as well as overall QST-FST comparisons and correlation analyses among pair-wise QST, FST and altitude of origin differences. Multivariate analyses suggested adaptive differentiation along altitude in the entire suite of traits, particularly when expressed in the summer-annual life history. Of the individual traits, a decrease in rosette leaf number in the vegetative state and an increase in leaf succulence with increasing altitude could be attributed to adaptive divergence. Interestingly, these patterns relate well to common within- and between-species trends of smaller plant size and thicker leaves at high altitude. Our results thus offer exciting possibilities to unravel the underlying mechanisms for these conspicuous trends using the model species A. thaliana.

  12. Microgeographic patterns of genetic divergence and adaptation across environmental gradients in Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jill T.; Perera, Nadeesha; Chowdhury, Bashira; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic and biotic conditions often vary continuously across the landscape, imposing divergent selection on local populations. We used a provenance trial approach to examine microgeographic variation in local adaptation in Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae), a perennial forb native to the Rocky Mountains. In montane ecosystems, environmental conditions change considerably over short spatial scales, such that neighboring populations can be subject to different selective pressures. Using accessions from southern (Colorado) and northern (Idaho) populations, we characterized spatial variation in genetic similarity via microsatellite markers. We then transplanted genotypes from multiple local populations into common gardens in both regions. Continuous variation in local adaptation emerged for several components of fitness. In Idaho, genotypes from warmer environments (low elevation or south facing sites) were poorly adapted to the north-facing garden. In high and low elevation Colorado gardens, susceptibility to insect herbivory increased with source elevation. In the high elevation Colorado garden, germination success peaked for genotypes that evolved at similar elevations as the garden, and declined for genotypes from higher and lower elevations. We also found evidence for local maladaptation in survival and fecundity components of fitness in the low elevation Colorado garden. This approach is a necessary first step in predicting how global change could affect evolutionary dynamics. PMID:26656218

  13. Microgeographic Patterns of Genetic Divergence and Adaptation across Environmental Gradients in Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jill T; Perera, Nadeesha; Chowdhury, Bashira; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Abiotic and biotic conditions often vary continuously across the landscape, imposing divergent selection on local populations. We used a provenance trial approach to examine microgeographic variation in local adaptation in Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae), a perennial forb native to the Rocky Mountains. In montane ecosystems, environmental conditions change considerably over short spatial scales, such that neighboring populations can be subject to different selective pressures. Using accessions from southern (Colorado) and northern (Idaho) populations, we characterized spatial variation in genetic similarity via microsatellite markers. We then transplanted genotypes from multiple local populations into common gardens in both regions. Continuous variation in local adaptation emerged for several components of fitness. In Idaho, genotypes from warmer environments (low-elevation or south-facing sites) were poorly adapted to the north-facing garden. In high- and low-elevation Colorado gardens, susceptibility to insect herbivory increased with source elevation. In the high-elevation Colorado garden, germination success peaked for genotypes that evolved at elevations similar to that of the garden and decreased for genotypes from higher and lower elevations. We also found evidence for local maladaptation in survival and fecundity components of fitness in the low-elevation Colorado garden. This approach is a first step in predicting how global change could affect evolutionary dynamics.

  14. Proximate causes of adaptive growth rates: growth efficiency variation among latitudinal populations of Rana temporaria.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, B; Laurila, A

    2005-07-01

    In ectothermic organisms, declining season length and lower temperature towards higher latitudes often select for latitudinal variation in growth and development. However, the energetic mechanisms underlying this adaptive variation are largely unknown. We investigated growth, food intake and growth efficiency of Rana temporaria tadpoles from eight populations along a 1500 km latitudinal gradient across Sweden. To gain an insight into the mechanisms of adaptation at organ level, we also examined variation in tadpole gut length. The tadpoles were raised at two temperatures (16 and 20 degrees C) in a laboratory common garden experiment. We found increased growth rate towards higher latitudes, regardless of temperature treatment. This increase in growth was not because of a higher food intake rate, but populations from higher latitudes had higher growth efficiency, i.e. they were more efficient at converting ingested food into body mass. Low temperature reduced growth efficiency most strongly in southern populations. Relative gut length increased with latitude, and tadpoles at low temperature tended to have longer guts. However, variation in gut length was not the sole adaptive explanation for increased growth efficiency as latitude and body length still explained significant amounts of variation in growth efficiency. Hence, additional energetic adaptations are probably involved in growth efficiency variation along the latitudinal gradient.

  15. Local adaptation and oceanographic connectivity patterns explain genetic differentiation of a marine diatom across the North Sea–Baltic Sea salinity gradient

    PubMed Central

    Sjöqvist, C; Godhe, A; Jonsson, P R; Sundqvist, L; Kremp, A

    2015-01-01

    Drivers of population genetic structure are still poorly understood in marine micro-organisms. We exploited the North Sea–Baltic Sea transition for investigating the seascape genetics of a marine diatom, Skeletonema marinoi. Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were analysed in 354 individuals from ten locations to analyse population structure of the species along a 1500-km-long salinity gradient ranging from 3 to 30 psu. To test for salinity adaptation, salinity reaction norms were determined for sets of strains originating from three different salinity regimes of the gradient. Modelled oceanographic connectivity was compared to directional relative migration by correlation analyses to examine oceanographic drivers. Population genetic analyses showed distinct genetic divergence of a low-salinity Baltic Sea population and a high-salinity North Sea population, coinciding with the most evident physical dispersal barrier in the area, the Danish Straits. Baltic Sea populations displayed reduced genetic diversity compared to North Sea populations. Growth optima of low salinity isolates were significantly lower than those of strains from higher native salinities, indicating local salinity adaptation. Although the North Sea–Baltic Sea transition was identified as a barrier to gene flow, migration between Baltic Sea and North Sea populations occurred. However, the presence of differentiated neutral markers on each side of the transition zone suggests that migrants are maladapted. It is concluded that local salinity adaptation, supported by oceanographic connectivity patterns creating an asymmetric migration pattern between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, determines genetic differentiation patterns in the transition zone. PMID:25892181

  16. Local adaptation and oceanographic connectivity patterns explain genetic differentiation of a marine diatom across the North Sea-Baltic Sea salinity gradient.

    PubMed

    Sjöqvist, C; Godhe, A; Jonsson, P R; Sundqvist, L; Kremp, A

    2015-06-01

    Drivers of population genetic structure are still poorly understood in marine micro-organisms. We exploited the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition for investigating the seascape genetics of a marine diatom, Skeletonema marinoi. Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were analysed in 354 individuals from ten locations to analyse population structure of the species along a 1500-km-long salinity gradient ranging from 3 to 30 psu. To test for salinity adaptation, salinity reaction norms were determined for sets of strains originating from three different salinity regimes of the gradient. Modelled oceanographic connectivity was compared to directional relative migration by correlation analyses to examine oceanographic drivers. Population genetic analyses showed distinct genetic divergence of a low-salinity Baltic Sea population and a high-salinity North Sea population, coinciding with the most evident physical dispersal barrier in the area, the Danish Straits. Baltic Sea populations displayed reduced genetic diversity compared to North Sea populations. Growth optima of low salinity isolates were significantly lower than those of strains from higher native salinities, indicating local salinity adaptation. Although the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition was identified as a barrier to gene flow, migration between Baltic Sea and North Sea populations occurred. However, the presence of differentiated neutral markers on each side of the transition zone suggests that migrants are maladapted. It is concluded that local salinity adaptation, supported by oceanographic connectivity patterns creating an asymmetric migration pattern between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, determines genetic differentiation patterns in the transition zone.

  17. Local adaptations in bryophytes revisited: the genetic structure of the calcium-tolerant peatmoss Sphagnum warnstorfii along geographic and pH gradients.

    PubMed

    Mikulášková, Eva; Hájek, Michal; Veleba, Adam; Johnson, Matthew G; Hájek, Tomáš; Shaw, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    Bryophytes dominate some ecosystems despite their extraordinary sensitivity to habitat quality. Nevertheless, some species behave differently across various regions. The existence of local adaptations is questioned by a high dispersal ability, which is thought to redistribute genetic variability among populations. Although Sphagnum warnstorfii is an important ecosystem engineer in fen peatlands, the causes of its rather wide niche along the pH/calcium gradient are poorly understood. Here, we studied the genetic variability of its global populations, with a detailed focus on the wide pH/calcium gradient in Central Europe. Principal coordinates analysis of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci revealed a significant gradient coinciding with water pH, but independent of geography; even samples from the same fens were clearly separated along this gradient. However, most of the genetic variations remained unexplained, possibly because of the introgression from phylogenetically allied species. This explanation is supported by the small heterogeneous cluster of samples that appeared when populations morphologically transitional to S. subnites, S. rubellum, or S. russowii were included into the analysis. Alternatively, this unexplained variation might be attributed to a legacy of glacial refugia with recently dissolved ecological and biogeographic consequences. Isolation by distance appeared at the smallest scale only (up to 43 km). Negative spatial correlations occurred more frequently, mainly at long distances (up to 950 km), implying a genetic similarity among samples which are very distant geographically. Our results confirm the high dispersal ability of peatmosses, but simultaneously suggested that their ability to cope with a high pH/calcium level is at least partially determined genetically, perhaps via specific physiological mechanisms or a hummock-forming ability.

  18. Local adaptations in bryophytes revisited: the genetic structure of the calcium-tolerant peatmoss Sphagnum warnstorfii along geographic and pH gradients

    PubMed Central

    Mikulášková, Eva; Hájek, Michal; Veleba, Adam; Johnson, Matthew G; Hájek, Tomáš; Shaw, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    Bryophytes dominate some ecosystems despite their extraordinary sensitivity to habitat quality. Nevertheless, some species behave differently across various regions. The existence of local adaptations is questioned by a high dispersal ability, which is thought to redistribute genetic variability among populations. Although Sphagnum warnstorfii is an important ecosystem engineer in fen peatlands, the causes of its rather wide niche along the pH/calcium gradient are poorly understood. Here, we studied the genetic variability of its global populations, with a detailed focus on the wide pH/calcium gradient in Central Europe. Principal coordinates analysis of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci revealed a significant gradient coinciding with water pH, but independent of geography; even samples from the same fens were clearly separated along this gradient. However, most of the genetic variations remained unexplained, possibly because of the introgression from phylogenetically allied species. This explanation is supported by the small heterogeneous cluster of samples that appeared when populations morphologically transitional to S. subnites, S. rubellum, or S. russowii were included into the analysis. Alternatively, this unexplained variation might be attributed to a legacy of glacial refugia with recently dissolved ecological and biogeographic consequences. Isolation by distance appeared at the smallest scale only (up to 43 km). Negative spatial correlations occurred more frequently, mainly at long distances (up to 950 km), implying a genetic similarity among samples which are very distant geographically. Our results confirm the high dispersal ability of peatmosses, but simultaneously suggested that their ability to cope with a high pH/calcium level is at least partially determined genetically, perhaps via specific physiological mechanisms or a hummock-forming ability. PMID:25628880

  19. ULYSSES plasma parameters: latitudinal, radial, and temporal variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, B. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Phillips, J. L.; Bame, S.; Gosling, J. T.; McComas, D.; Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N. R.; Suess, S. T.

    1996-12-01

    Observations by the Ulysses SWOOPS plasma experiment are used to investigate spatial and temporal gradients during the mission, with emphasis on more recent high latitude observations including the recent South Pole to North Pole passage during solar minimum. Compared to lower latitudes, the high latitude solar wind had higher average speed, proton temperature, and momentum flux, and lower number flux density. As the average momentum flux observed in the high speed wind was 21% greater than at the equator, during solar minimum the distance to the heliopause will be comparatively less in the solar equatorial plane than over the poles. The long term temporal gradients of momentum flux over the life of the mission are considerably larger than the latitudinal gradient observed by Ulysses during solar minimum. A modest North-South high latitude asymmetry is observed in the plasma parameters; the velocity is on the average 13km/s to 24km/s greater at Northern latitudes than at Southern, and temperature is also higher. The North-South temperature asymmetry is greater than can be explained by the North-South velocity difference and the dependence of solar wind temperature upon speed. The power law dependence of temperature on heliocentric distance, r, at high latitudes is in range r^-0.81^ to r^-1.03^, where r^-0.81^ is the Southern latitude result and r^-1.03^ the Northern. The parameter T/n^1/2^, where T is temperature and n is proton number density, can be better predicted from speed than can temperature alone. Comparison with calculations based on source models and magnetograph data indicate that the expansion of open coronal field lines close to the Sun was greater in the Southern hemisphere than in the Northern; this anticorrelation with the expansion factor is consistent with previous observational and theoretical work.

  20. Optimal defense theory explains deviations from latitudinal herbivory defense hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kooyers, Nicholas J; Blackman, Benjamin K; Holeski, Liza M

    2017-04-01

    The latitudinal herbivory defense hypothesis (LHDH) postulates that the prevalence of species interactions, including herbivory, is greater at lower latitudes, leading to selection for increased levels of plant defense. While latitudinal defense clines may be caused by spatial variation in herbivore pressure, optimal defense theory predicts that clines could also be caused by ecogeographic variation in the cost of defense. For instance, allocation of resources to defense may not increase plant fitness when growing seasons are short and plants must reproduce quickly. Here we use a common garden experiment to survey genetic variation for constitutive and induced phenylpropanoid glycoside (PPG) concentrations across 35 Mimulus guttatus populations over a ~13° latitudinal transect. Our sampling regime is unique among studies of the LHDH in that it allows us to disentangle the effects of growing season length from those of latitude, temperature, and elevation. For five of the seven PPGs surveyed, we find associations between latitude and plant defense that are robust to population structure. However, contrary to the LHDH, only two PPGs were found at higher levels in low latitude populations, and total PPG concentrations were higher at higher latitudes. PPG levels are strongly correlated with growing season length, with higher levels of PPGs in plants from areas with longer growing seasons. Further, flowering time is positively correlated with the concentration of nearly all PPGs, suggesting that there may be a strong trade-off between development time and defense production. Our results reveal that ecogeographic patterns in plant defense may reflect variation in the cost of producing defense compounds in addition to variation in herbivore pressure. Thus, the biogeographic pattern predicted by the LHDH may not be accurate because the underlying factors driving variation in defense, in this case, growing season length, are not always associated with latitude in the same

  1. Latitudinal Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in the Agricultural Soils of Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liuqin; Deng, Ye; Wang, Shang; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    The response of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) and archaeal (AOA) communities to individual environmental variables (e.g., pH, temperature, and carbon- and nitrogen-related soil nutrients) has been extensively studied, but how these environmental conditions collectively shape AOB and AOA distributions in unmanaged agricultural soils across a large latitudinal gradient remains poorly known. In this study, the AOB and AOA community structure and diversity in 26 agricultural soils collected from eastern China were investigated by using quantitative PCR and bar-coded 454 pyrosequencing of the amoA gene that encodes the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. The sampling locations span over a 17° latitude gradient and cover a range of climatic conditions. The Nitrosospira and Nitrososphaera were the dominant clusters of AOB and AOA, respectively; but the subcluster-level composition of Nitrosospira-related AOB and Nitrososphaera-related AOA varied across the latitudinal gradient. Variance partitioning analysis showed that geography and climatic conditions (e.g., mean annual temperature and precipitation), as well as carbon-/nitrogen-related soil nutrients, contributed more to the AOB and AOA community variations (∼50% in total) than soil pH (∼10% in total). These results are important in furthering our understanding of environmental conditions influencing AOB and AOA community structure across a range of environmental gradients. PMID:25002421

  2. Long-term change of CO2 latitudinal distribution in the upper troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsueda, Hidekazu; Machida, Toshinobu; Sawa, Yousuke; Niwa, Yosuke

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed temporal variations in the annual mean latitudinal distribution of upper tropospheric CO2 using the aircraft measurements taken between Japan and Australia over the period 1993-2013, plus earlier data from 1984 and 1985. The observed CO2 latitudinal gradient between 30°N and 30°S showed large interannual variations that are clearly associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. We also found long-term increasing trends of the CO2 gradients in the most northern latitudes that are proportionally associated with increasing fossil fuel emissions, while decreasing trends were found around the tropical regions. Extrapolation of the changes in the CO2 gradient back to zero fossil fuel emissions showed a negative north-south gradient with lower CO2 in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere, as well as a regional CO2 elevation in the tropical regions. These features provide a useful constraint on model estimates of CO2 fluxes from the ocean and the land biosphere.

  3. Altitudinal variation of demographic life-history traits does not mimic latitudinal variation in natterjack toads (Bufo calamita).

    PubMed

    Oromi, Neus; Sanuy, Delfi; Sinsch, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    In anuran amphibians, age- and size-related life-history traits vary along latitudinal and altiudinal gradients. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that altitudinal and latitudinal effects cause similar responses by assessing demographic life-history traits in nine Bufo calamita populations inhabiting elevations from sea level to 2270 m. Skeletochronologically determined age at maturity and longevity increased at elevations exceeding 2000 m, but female potential reproductive lifespan (PRLS) did not increase with altitude, as it did with latitude. Integrating the available evidence, it was found that lifetime fecundity of natterjacks decreased at the upper altitudinal range because PRLS was about the same as in lowland populations but females were smaller. In contrast, small size of northern females was compensated for by increased PRLS which minimised latitudinal variation of lifetime fecundity. Thus, this study provides evidence that altitudinal effects on life-history traits do not mimic latitudinal effects. Life-history trait variation along the altitudinal gradient seems to respond directly to the shortening of the annual activity period. As there is no evidence for increasing mortality in highland populations, reduced lifetime fecundity may be the ultimate reason for the natterjacks' inability to colonise elevations exceeding 2500 m.

  4. An isotopic comparison of cross-latitudinal horse hair data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Elisabeth; Ramsey, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    This study explores whether the Rayleigh distillation process latitude effect, of depleted δ18O in precipitation toward the poles, can be observed in horse hair. This study specifically compares δ18O values in horse hair with meteorological variables, and examines whether regional changes in global climate can be observed. The sampling sites and the pony breeds used in this study will add to the increasing network of isotopic horse hair data and will create an even better understanding of the intra-species variation within the δ18O values of horse hair. By directly correlating the meteorological variables to δ18O variations, the effects of specific weather events at different latitudes can also be explored at a very high resolution. 24 horses were sampled within approximately 24 hours on the 7th March 2016 from Thordale Stud in Shetland; the Icelandic Food And Veterinary Authority in Iceland; the Exmoor Pony Centre in Exmoor; and the Pigeon House Equestrian Centre in Oxfordshire. Starting the sampling process from the most recent growth at the follicle, the sampling date becomes a chronological marker, temporally fixing the first sample within a sequential set of data points extending for one year or longer, depending on the length of each individual hair. Preliminary results confirm the hypothesis, demonstrating that a study of oxygen isotope ratios in horse hair from Oxfordshire to Iceland shows a latitudinal depletion gradient, consistent with a depletion of oxygen isotope ratios due to decreasing temperatures.

  5. No Latitudinal Trends in Body Size of Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Z.; Payne, J.; Seixas, G.

    2012-12-01

    Many organisms, such as penguins and polar bears, follow Bergmann's rule, which states that body size of animals tends to increase as temperature decreases, and thus as latitude increases toward to poles. A study of marine mollusk bivalves across a latitudinal gradient found no correlation between body size and latitude along the North American Pacific Coast, suggesting that the body size of marine bivalves might be controlled by other factors. This posed the question: Is there a lack of correlation between latitude and body size for all marine invertebrates or is it unique to marine bivalves? In this study, we examined four suborders of benthic foraminifera, Lagenina, Miliolina, Rotaliina, and Textulariina, a diverse phylum of amoeboid protists, to determine the relationship between body size and latitude within and across suborders at the global scale. We measured the shell (test) dimensions of foraminifera from a compilation of monograph images of type specimens. The mean test size as well as the maximum body size of those foraminifera suborders does not vary with increasing latitude. Our results show that foraminifera do not follow Bergmann's rule, consistent with the body size distribution pattern observed in marine bivalves. Different biological and environmental factors that vary between foraminifera suborders, such as life habitats, behaviors, and physiology, might have a greater influence on body size distributions.

  6. Global latitudinal variations in marine copepod diversity and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Isabelle; Beaugrand, Grégory; Ibanez, Frédéric; Gasparini, Stéphane; Chiba, Sanae; Legendre, Louis

    2009-09-07

    Latitudinal gradients in diversity are among the most striking features in ecology. For terrestrial species, climate (i.e. temperature and precipitation) is believed to exert a strong influence on the geographical distributions of diversity through its effects on energy availability. Here, we provide the first global description of geographical variation in the diversity of marine copepods, a key trophic link between phytoplankton and fish, in relation to environmental variables. We found a polar-tropical difference in copepod diversity in the Northern Hemisphere where diversity peaked at subtropical latitudes. In the Southern Hemisphere, diversity showed a tropical plateau into the temperate regions. This asymmetry around the Equator may be explained by climatic conditions, in particular the influence of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone, prevailing mainly in the northern tropical region. Ocean temperature was the most important explanatory factor among all environmental variables tested, accounting for 54 per cent of the variation in diversity. Given the strong positive correlation between diversity and temperature, local copepod diversity, especially in extra-tropical regions, is likely to increase with climate change as their large-scale distributions respond to climate warming.

  7. Latitudinal variation in reproductive strategies by the migratory Louisiana Waterthrush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattsson, B.J.; Latta, S.C.; Cooper, R.J.; Mulvihill, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated hypotheses that seek to explain breeding strategies of the Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia motacilla) that vary across a latitudinal gradient. On the basis of data from 418 nests of color-banded individuals in southwestern Pennsylvania and 700 km south in the Georgia Piedmont, we found that clutch size in replacement nests and probability of renesting were significantly greater in Pennsylvania (clutch size 4.4; renesting probability 0.66) than in Georgia (clutch size 3.8; renesting probability 0.54). Contrasts of the remaining measures of breeding were not statistically significant, and, in particular, mean daily nest survival in the two study areas was nearly identical (0.974 in Pennsylvania; 0.975 in Georgia). An individual-based model of fecundity (i.e., number of fledged young per adult female), predicted that approximately half of the females in both Pennsylvania and Georgia fledge at least one young, and mean values for fecundity in Pennsylvania and Georgia were 2.28 and 1.91, respectively. On the basis of greater support for the food-limitation hypothesis than for the season-length hypothesis, the trade-off between breeding in a region with more food but making a longer migration may be greater for waterthrushes breeding farther north than for those breeding farther south. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  8. Latitudinal shifts of introduced species: possible causes and implications

    Treesearch

    Qinfeng Guo; Dov F. Sax; Hong Qian; Regan Early

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to document shifts in the latitudinal distributions of non-native species relative to their own native distributions and to discuss possible causes and implications of these shifts. We used published and newly compiled data on intercontinentally introduced birds, mammals and plants. We found strong correlations between the latitudinal distributions...

  9. Latitudinal trends in shell production cost from the tropics to the poles

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Sue-Ann; Morley, Simon A.; Peck, Lloyd S.

    2017-01-01

    The proportion of body mass devoted to skeleton in marine invertebrates decreases along latitudinal gradients from large proportions in the tropics to small proportions in polar regions. A historical hypothesis—that latitudinal differences in shell production costs explain these trends—remains untested. Using field-collected specimens spanning a 79°N to 68°S latitudinal gradient (16,300 km), we conducted a taxonomically controlled evaluation of energetic costs of shell production as a proportion of the total energy budget in mollusks. Shell production cost was fairly low across latitudes at <10% of the energy budget and predominately <5% in gastropods and <4% in bivalves. Throughout life, shell cost tended to be lower in tropical species and increased slightly toward the poles. However, shell cost also varied with life stage, with the greatest costs found in young tropical gastropods. Low shell production costs on the energy budget suggest that shell cost may play only a small role in influencing proportional skeleton size gradients across latitudes relative to other ecological factors, such as predation in present-day oceans. However, any increase in the cost of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposition, including from ocean acidification, may lead to a projected ~50 to 70% increase in the proportion of the total energy budget required for shell production for a doubling of the CaCO3 deposition cost. Changes in energy budget allocation to shell cost would likely alter ecological trade-offs between calcification and other drivers, such as predation, in marine ecosystems. PMID:28948224

  10. Latitudinal trends in shell production cost from the tropics to the poles.

    PubMed

    Watson, Sue-Ann; Morley, Simon A; Peck, Lloyd S

    2017-09-01

    The proportion of body mass devoted to skeleton in marine invertebrates decreases along latitudinal gradients from large proportions in the tropics to small proportions in polar regions. A historical hypothesis-that latitudinal differences in shell production costs explain these trends-remains untested. Using field-collected specimens spanning a 79°N to 68°S latitudinal gradient (16,300 km), we conducted a taxonomically controlled evaluation of energetic costs of shell production as a proportion of the total energy budget in mollusks. Shell production cost was fairly low across latitudes at <10% of the energy budget and predominately <5% in gastropods and <4% in bivalves. Throughout life, shell cost tended to be lower in tropical species and increased slightly toward the poles. However, shell cost also varied with life stage, with the greatest costs found in young tropical gastropods. Low shell production costs on the energy budget suggest that shell cost may play only a small role in influencing proportional skeleton size gradients across latitudes relative to other ecological factors, such as predation in present-day oceans. However, any increase in the cost of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposition, including from ocean acidification, may lead to a projected ~50 to 70% increase in the proportion of the total energy budget required for shell production for a doubling of the CaCO3 deposition cost. Changes in energy budget allocation to shell cost would likely alter ecological trade-offs between calcification and other drivers, such as predation, in marine ecosystems.

  11. Global latitudinal-asymmetric vegetation growth trends and their driving mechanisms: 1982-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E; Hoffman, Forrest M; Zhu, Zaichun; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    Using a recent Leaf Area Index (LAI) dataset and the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4), we investigate percent changes and controlling factors of global vegetation growth for the period 1982 to 2009. Over that 28-year period, both the remote-sensing estimate and model simulation show a significant increasing trend in annual vegetation growth. Latitudinal asymmetry appeared in both products, with small increases in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and larger increases at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The south-to-north asymmetric land surface warming was assessed to be the principal driver of this latitudinal asymmetry of LAI trend. Heterogeneous precipitation functioned to decrease this latitudinal LAI gradient, and considerably regulated the local LAI change. CO2 fertilization during the last three decades, was simulated to be the dominant cause for the enhanced vegetation growth. Our study, though limited by observational and modeling uncertainties, adds further insight into vegetation growth trends and environmental correlations. These validation exercises also provide new quantitative and objective metrics for evaluation of land ecosystem process models at multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  12. Genetic structure along an altitudinal gradient in Lippia origanoides, a promising aromatic plant species restricted to semiarid areas in northern South America.

    PubMed

    Vega-Vela, Nelson Enrique; Sánchez, María Isabel Chacón

    2012-11-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of Lippia origanoides, a species of the Verbenaceae family that shows promise as a crop plant, was investigated along an altitudinal gradient in the basin of the Chicamocha River in northeastern Colombia. The economic importance of the species, quality of its essential oils, and the fact that it is restricted to some few semiarid areas in northern South America may put the species at risk in a scenario of uncontrolled harvest of natural populations. Lippia origanoides was sampled along an altitudinal gradient from 365 to 2595 m.a.s.l. throughout Chicamocha River Canyon, a semiarid area in northeastern Colombia. Genetic diversity was assessed by means of AFLP markers. The number of AFLP loci (355) and the number of individuals sampled (173) were sufficient to reliably identify four populations at contrasting altitudes (F(ST) = 0.18, P-value < 0.0000), two populations in the lower basin, one population in the medium basin, and one population in the upper basin, with a low level of admixture between them. In average, genetic diversity within populations was relatively high (Ht = 0.32; I = 0.48); nevertheless, diversity was significantly reduced at higher altitude, a pattern that may be consistent with a scenario of range expansion toward higher elevations in an environment with more extreme conditions. The differences in altitude among the basins in the Chicamocha River seem to be relevant in determining the genetic structure of this species.

  13. Genetic structure along an altitudinal gradient in Lippia origanoides, a promising aromatic plant species restricted to semiarid areas in northern South America

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Vela, Nelson Enrique; Sánchez, María Isabel Chacón

    2012-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of Lippia origanoides, a species of the Verbenaceae family that shows promise as a crop plant, was investigated along an altitudinal gradient in the basin of the Chicamocha River in northeastern Colombia. The economic importance of the species, quality of its essential oils, and the fact that it is restricted to some few semiarid areas in northern South America may put the species at risk in a scenario of uncontrolled harvest of natural populations. Lippia origanoides was sampled along an altitudinal gradient from 365 to 2595 m.a.s.l. throughout Chicamocha River Canyon, a semiarid area in northeastern Colombia. Genetic diversity was assessed by means of AFLP markers. The number of AFLP loci (355) and the number of individuals sampled (173) were sufficient to reliably identify four populations at contrasting altitudes (FST = 0.18, P-value < 0.0000), two populations in the lower basin, one population in the medium basin, and one population in the upper basin, with a low level of admixture between them. In average, genetic diversity within populations was relatively high (Ht = 0.32; I = 0.48); nevertheless, diversity was significantly reduced at higher altitude, a pattern that may be consistent with a scenario of range expansion toward higher elevations in an environment with more extreme conditions. The differences in altitude among the basins in the Chicamocha River seem to be relevant in determining the genetic structure of this species. PMID:23170204

  14. Latitudinal Controls on Topography: The Role of Precipitation and Fluvial Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, C.; Yanites, B.

    2014-12-01

    Observations from the North and South American Cordillera show that mean and maximum elevations decrease with increasing latitude. The trend in elevation follows the latitudinal dependence of snowline altitudes. This correlation between elevation and snowline altitude has been the impetus behind the glacial 'buzzsaw' hypothesis, which states that glaciers limit the elevation of mountain peaks. Underlying this hypothesis is an assumption that elevations prior to glaciation were either uniform, randomly distributed, or followed a pattern that is no longer present. However, there may be other factors that are responsible for these patterns, such as latitudinal trends in precipitation. Here, we address this assumption and the necessity of glacial erosion in explaining the latitudinal trend in elevation. We use the CHILD landscape evolution model parameterized by modern precipitation data along a latitudinal gradient in the Andes to predict the topography in the absence of glaciation. Using NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis precipitation data from 1981-2010, we derive storm duration, intensity, and frequency statistics for a series of locations along the Andean orogen. For each location, we run a model using a sequence of storms generated from these statistics. Erodibility and rock-uplift are held constant between the different locations and the models are run until topographic steady-state is achieved. We also present runs exploring the role of a threshold for bedrock detachment in the modeled results. For each run, we track the maximum and mean elevation as well as the time to steady-state. Preliminary results for all cases show that fluvial processes alone are sufficient to account for the latitudinal dependence of topography. For example, landscapes produced with precipitation statistics similar to the dry central Andes are more than an order of magnitude higher than landscapes from the southern, wetter, part of the orogen. Future analysis will use precipitation data from

  15. Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic warming

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Lesins, Glen K; Wang, Muyin

    2010-12-08

    Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current warming of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the warming.

  16. Ecotypes of an ecologically dominant prairie grass (Andropogon gerardii) exhibit genetic divergence across the U.S. Midwest grasslands' environmental gradient.

    PubMed

    Gray, Miranda M; St Amand, Paul; Bello, Nora M; Galliart, Matthew B; Knapp, Mary; Garrett, Karen A; Morgan, Theodore J; Baer, Sara G; Maricle, Brian R; Akhunov, Eduard D; Johnson, Loretta C

    2014-12-01

    Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is an ecologically dominant grass with wide distribution across the environmental gradient of U.S. Midwest grasslands. This system offers an ideal natural laboratory to study population divergence and adaptation in spatially varying climates. Objectives were to: (i) characterize neutral genetic diversity and structure within and among three regional ecotypes derived from 11 prairies across the U.S. Midwest environmental gradient, (ii) distinguish between the relative roles of isolation by distance (IBD) vs. isolation by environment (IBE) on ecotype divergence, (iii) identify outlier loci under selection and (iv) assess the association between outlier loci and climate. Using two primer sets, we genotyped 378 plants at 384 polymorphic AFLP loci across regional ecotypes from central and eastern Kansas and Illinois. Neighbour-joining tree and PCoA revealed strong genetic differentiation between Kansas and Illinois ecotypes, which was better explained by IBE than IBD. We found high genetic variability within prairies (80%) and even fragmented Illinois prairies, surprisingly, contained high within-prairie genetic diversity (92%). Using Bayenv2, 14 top-ranked outlier loci among ecotypes were associated with temperature and precipitation variables. Six of seven BayeScanFST outliers were in common with Bayenv2 outliers. High genetic diversity may enable big bluestem populations to better withstand changing climates; however, population divergence supports the use of local ecotypes in grassland restoration. Knowledge of genetic variation in this ecological dominant and other grassland species will be critical to understanding grassland response and restoration challenges in the face of a changing climate.

  17. Latitudinal and taxonomic patterns in the feeding ecologies of fish larvae: A literature synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llopiz, Joel K.

    2013-01-01

    , likely reflecting differences in the overall structure of planktonic food webs over large latitudinal gradients.

  18. RNA/DNA ratios in American glass eels (Anguilla rostrata): evidence for latitudinal variation in physiological status and constraints to oceanic migration?

    PubMed Central

    Laflamme, Simon; Côté, Caroline; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Castonguay, Martin; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    During their larval leptocephalus phase, newly hatched American eels undergo an extensive oceanic migration from the Sargasso Sea toward coastal and freshwater habitats. Their subsequent metamorphosis into glass eel is accompanied by drastic morphological and physiological changes preceding settlement over a wide geographic range. The main objective of this study was to compare RNA/DNA ratios and condition factor among glass eels in order to test the null hypothesis of no difference in physiological status and metabolic activity of glass eels at the outcome of their oceanic migration. This was achieved by analyzing glass eel samples collected at the mouth of 17 tributaries covering a latitudinal gradient across the species distribution range from Florida to Gaspésie (Québec). Our main observations were (i) a latitudinal increase in mean total length; (ii) a latitudinal variation in mean RNA/DNA ratios, which was best explained by a quadratic model reaching its minimum in the central range of sampling locations; and (iii) a latitudinal variation in Fulton's condition factor, which was best explained by a quadratic model reaching its maximum in the central range of sampling locations. Below we discuss the possible links between latitudinal variation in glass eel physiological status and variable energetic and environmental constraints to oceanic migration as a function of latitudinal distribution. PMID:22837833

  19. RNA/DNA ratios in American glass eels (Anguilla rostrata): evidence for latitudinal variation in physiological status and constraints to oceanic migration?

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Simon; Côté, Caroline; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Castonguay, Martin; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-05-01

    During their larval leptocephalus phase, newly hatched American eels undergo an extensive oceanic migration from the Sargasso Sea toward coastal and freshwater habitats. Their subsequent metamorphosis into glass eel is accompanied by drastic morphological and physiological changes preceding settlement over a wide geographic range. The main objective of this study was to compare RNA/DNA ratios and condition factor among glass eels in order to test the null hypothesis of no difference in physiological status and metabolic activity of glass eels at the outcome of their oceanic migration. This was achieved by analyzing glass eel samples collected at the mouth of 17 tributaries covering a latitudinal gradient across the species distribution range from Florida to Gaspésie (Québec). Our main observations were (i) a latitudinal increase in mean total length; (ii) a latitudinal variation in mean RNA/DNA ratios, which was best explained by a quadratic model reaching its minimum in the central range of sampling locations; and (iii) a latitudinal variation in Fulton's condition factor, which was best explained by a quadratic model reaching its maximum in the central range of sampling locations. Below we discuss the possible links between latitudinal variation in glass eel physiological status and variable energetic and environmental constraints to oceanic migration as a function of latitudinal distribution.

  20. Elevational gradient in the cyclicity of a forest-defoliating insect

    Treesearch

    Kyle J. Haynes; Andrew M. Liebhold; Derek M. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Observed changes in the cyclicity of herbivore populations along latitudinal gradients and the hypothesis that shifts in the importance of generalist versus specialist predators explain such gradients has long been a matter of intense interest. In contrast, elevational gradients in population cyclicity are largely unexplored. We quantified the cyclicity of gypsy moth...

  1. Revealing latitudinal patterns of mitochondrial DNA diversity in Chileans.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Moreno, Fabián; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Martinón-Torres, Federico; García-Magariños, Manuel; Pantoja-Astudillo, Jaime A; Aguirre-Morales, Eugenia; Bustos, Patricio; Salas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The territory of Chile is particularly long and narrow, which combined with its mountainous terrain, makes it a unique scenario for human genetic studies. We obtained 995 control region mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from Chileans representing populations living at different latitudes of the country from the North to the southernmost region. The majority of the mtDNA profiles are of Native American origin (∼88%). The remaining haplotypes are mostly of recent European origin (∼11%), and only a minor proportion is of recent African ancestry (∼1%). While these proportions are relatively uniform across the country, more structured patterns of diversity emerge when examining the variation from a phylogeographic perspective. For instance, haplogroup A2 reaches ∼9% in the North, and its frequency decreases gradually to ∼1% in the southernmost populations, while the frequency of haplogroup D (sub-haplogroups D1 and D4) follows the opposite pattern: 36% in the southernmost region, gradually decreasing to 21% in the North. Furthermore, there are remarkable signatures of founder effects in specific sub-clades of Native American (e.g. haplogroups D1j and D4p) and European (e.g. haplogroups T2b3 and K1a4a1a+195) ancestry. We conclude that the magnitude of the latitudinal differences observed in the patterns of mtDNA variation might be relevant in forensic casework.

  2. Altitudinal vs Latitudinal Climactic Drivers: A Comparison of a Relict Picea and Abies Forest in the Southern Appalachians versus the Hemi-Boreal Transition Zone off Southern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A.; Lafon, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Identification of biotic and abiotic determinants of tree species range limits is critical for understanding the effects of climate change on species distributions. Upward shifts of species distributions in montane areas have been widely reported but there have been few reports of latitudinal range retractions. Previous studies have indicated that southern latitudinal limits of a species range are dictated by biotic factors such as competition while others have suggested that abiotic factors, such as temperature, dictate these limits. We investigated the potential climatic gradients at the southern latitudinal limit of the Spruce (Picea) and Fir (Abies) species that dominate the Canadian boreal forest community as well as relict boreal forests containing similar species found in the high elevation areas of the Southern Appalachians. Existing research has suggested that relict ecosystems are more sensitive to climate change and can be indicative of future changes at latitudinal range limits. Expanding on this literature, we hypothesized that we would see similar gradients in climatic variables at the southern latitudinal limit of the Canadian boreal forest and those in the relict boreal forests southern Appalachians acting as controlling factors of these species distributions. We used forty years of climate data from weather stations along the southern edge of the boreal forest in the Canadian Shield provinces, species distribution data from the Canadian National Forest Inventory, (CNFI) geospatial data from the National Park Service (NPS), and historical weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to perform our analysis. Our results indicate different climate variables act as controls of warm edge range limits of the Canadian boreal forest than those of the relict boreal forest of the southern Appalachians. However, we believe range retractions of the relict forest may be indicative of a more gradual response of similar species

  3. Connectivity in grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) determined using empirical and simulated genetic data

    PubMed Central

    Momigliano, Paolo; Harcourt, Robert; Robbins, William D.; Stow, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) can be one of the numerically dominant high order predators on pristine coral reefs, yet their numbers have declined even in the highly regulated Australian Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Marine Park. Knowledge of both large scale and fine scale genetic connectivity of grey reef sharks is essential for their effective management, but no genetic data are yet available. We investigated grey reef shark genetic structure in the GBR across a 1200 km latitudinal gradient, comparing empirical data with models simulating different levels of migration. The empirical data did not reveal any genetic structuring along the entire latitudinal gradient sampled, suggesting regular widespread dispersal and gene flow of the species throughout most of the GBR. Our simulated datasets indicate that even with substantial migrations (up to 25% of individuals migrating between neighboring reefs) both large scale genetic structure and genotypic spatial autocorrelation at the reef scale were maintained. We suggest that present migration rates therefore exceed this level. These findings have important implications regarding the effectiveness of networks of spatially discontinuous Marine Protected Areas to protect reef sharks. PMID:26314287

  4. Connectivity in grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) determined using empirical and simulated genetic data.

    PubMed

    Momigliano, Paolo; Harcourt, Robert; Robbins, William D; Stow, Adam

    2015-08-28

    Grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) can be one of the numerically dominant high order predators on pristine coral reefs, yet their numbers have declined even in the highly regulated Australian Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Marine Park. Knowledge of both large scale and fine scale genetic connectivity of grey reef sharks is essential for their effective management, but no genetic data are yet available. We investigated grey reef shark genetic structure in the GBR across a 1200 km latitudinal gradient, comparing empirical data with models simulating different levels of migration. The empirical data did not reveal any genetic structuring along the entire latitudinal gradient sampled, suggesting regular widespread dispersal and gene flow of the species throughout most of the GBR. Our simulated datasets indicate that even with substantial migrations (up to 25% of individuals migrating between neighboring reefs) both large scale genetic structure and genotypic spatial autocorrelation at the reef scale were maintained. We suggest that present migration rates therefore exceed this level. These findings have important implications regarding the effectiveness of networks of spatially discontinuous Marine Protected Areas to protect reef sharks.

  5. Latitudinally dependent Trimpi effects: Modeling and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clilverd, Mark A.; Yeo, Richard F.; Nunn, David; Smith, Andy J.

    1999-09-01

    Modeling studies show that the exclusion of the propagating VLF wave from the ionospheric region results in the decline of Trimpi magnitude with patch altitude. In large models such as Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) this exclusion does not occur inherently in the code, and high-altitude precipitation modeling can produce results that are not consistent with observations from ground-based experiments. The introduction to LWPC of realistic wave attenuation of the height gain functions in the ionosphere solves these computational problems. This work presents the first modeling of (Born) Trimpi scattering at long ranges, taking into account global inhomogeneities and continuous mode conversion along all paths, by employing the full conductivity perturbation matrix. The application of the more realistic height gain functions allows the prediction of decreasing Trimpi activity with increasing latitude, primarily through the mechanism of excluding the VLF wave from regions of high conductivity and scattering efficiency. Ground-based observations from Faraday and Rothera, Antarctica, in September and October 1995 of Trimpi occurring on the NPM (Hawaii) path provide data that are consistent with these predictions. Latitudinal variations in Trimpi occurrence near L=2.5, with a significant decrease of about 70% occurrence between L=2.4 and L=2.8, have been observed at higher L shell resolution than in previous studies (i.e., 2

  6. A Latitudinal Metabolome of the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W.; Kido Soule, M. C.; Longnecker, K.; Kujawinski, E. B.

    2016-02-01

    Microbial consortia function via the exchange and transformation of small organic molecules or metabolites. These metabolites make up a pool of rapidly cycling organic matter in the ocean that is challenging to characterize due to its low concentrations. We seek to determine the distribution of these molecules and the factors that shape their abundance and flux. Through measurements of the abundance of a core set of metabolites, including nucleic acids, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, and signaling molecules, we gain a real-time snapshot of microbial activity. We used a targeted metabolomics technique to profile metabolite abundance in particulate and dissolved organic matter extracts collected from a 14,000 km transect running from 38˚S to 55˚N in the Western Atlantic Ocean. This extensive dataset is the first of its kind in the Atlantic Ocean and allows us to explore connections among metabolites as well as latitudinal trends in metabolite abundance. We found changes in the intracellular abundance of certain metabolites between low and high nutrient regions and a wide distribution of certain dissolved vitamins in the surface ocean. These measurements give us baseline data on the distribution of these metabolites and allow us to extend our understanding of microbial community activity in different regions of the ocean.

  7. Latitudinal motions of the aurora during substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.

    1987-01-01

    Sequences of auroral images obtained with Dynamics Explorer 1 are used to investigate latitudinal motions of the aurora in substorms. Average speeds of poleward motion are about 230 m/s near local midnight for two isolated, small substorms and about 1000 m/s during an intensification within a previously active auroral oval. The speed of poleward expansion measured at about 6-min temporal resolution can differ greatly from the average speed because of the episodic development of substorms. Recovery of the high-latitude boundary of the aurora to presubstorm latitudes is first observed in the postmidnight sector. In the premidnight sector the discrete aurora can become stationary for a period of time or even continue further poleward before a retreat to lower latitudes begins. During the recovery phase, a prominent decrease in luminosities is first observed at intermediate latitudes within the auroral distribution. This region is bounded at higher latitudes by the discrete aurora and at lower latitudes by bright diffuse aurora. Given that magnetic field lines threading these auroral distributions map to the plasma sheet boundary layer and to the central plasma sheet, respectively, magnetic field lines at the intermediate auroral latitudes then map to the plasma sheet at distances of more than about 22 earth radii.

  8. Latitudinal variation of thermospheric hydrogen near solstice from AE-D observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanatani, S.; Breig, E. L.

    1988-01-01

    Variations of thermospheric neutral atomic hydrogen with latitude during a solstice season near solar minimum were investigated using data acquired with the polar-orbiting AE-D satellite. Hydrogen concentrations at low latitude were found to be comparable to those found from observations with the AE-E satellite, but were slightly higher than concentrations derived from the 1983 mass spectrometer incoherent scatter atmospheric model. Results confirm the general summer-to-winter density increase, large latitudinal gradients in the summer hemisphere, and the winter enhancement of hydrogen observed in AE-C nighttime measurements. The AE-D data, however, show a small polar depression in hydrogen concentration at high winter latitudes, attributed to atmospheric dynamics following auroral heating. The density gradients observed by AE-D in the summer hemisphere were in sharp contrast to the more constant horizontal daytime profiles reported from OGO-6 and previous AE-C measurements, indicating the possibility of local time effects.

  9. Latitudinal variation in lifespan within species is explained by the metabolic theory of ecology

    PubMed Central

    Munch, Stephan B.; Salinas, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Many ectotherms exhibit striking latitudinal gradients in lifespan. However, it is unclear whether lifespan gradients in distantly related taxa share a common mechanistic explanation. We compiled data on geographic variation in lifespan in ectotherms from around the globe to determine how much of this intraspecific variation in lifespan may be explained by temperature using the simple predictions of the metabolic theory of ecology. We found that the metabolic theory accurately predicts how lifespan varies with temperature within species in a wide range of ectotherms in both controlled laboratory experiments and free-living populations. After removing the effect of temperature, only a small fraction of species showed significant trends with latitude. There was, however, considerable residual intraspecific variation indicating that other, more local factors are likely to be important in determining lifespan within species. These findings suggest that, given predicted increases in global temperature, lifespan of ectotherms may be substantially shortened in the future. PMID:19666552

  10. Latitudinal variation of phytoplankton communities in the western Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min Joo, Hyoung; Lee, Sang H.; Won Jung, Seung; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Hwan Lee, Jin

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that photosynthetic eukaryotes are an active and often dominant component of Arctic phytoplankton assemblages. In order to explore this notion at a large scale, samples were collected to investigate the community structure and biovolume of phytoplankton along a transect in the western Arctic Ocean. The transect included 37 stations at the surface and subsurface chlorophyll a maximum (SCM) depths in the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Canadian Basin from July 19 to September 5, 2008. Phytoplankton (>2 μm) were identified and counted. A cluster analysis of abundance and biovolume data revealed different assemblages over the shelf, slope, and basin regions. Phytoplankton communities were composed of 71 taxa representing Dinophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Dictyochophyceae, Prasinophyceae, and Prymnesiophyceae. The most abundant species were of pico- to nano-size at the surface and SCM depths at most stations. Nano- and pico-sized phytoplankton appeared to be dominant in the Bering Sea, whereas diatoms and nano-sized plankton provided the majority of taxon diversity in the Bering Strait and in the Chukchi Sea. From the western Bering Sea to the Bering Strait, the abundance, biovolume, and species diversity of phytoplankton provided a marked latitudinal gradient towards the central Arctic. Although pico- and nano-sized phytoplankton contributed most to cell abundance, their chlorophyll a contents and biovolumes were less than those of the larger micro-sized taxa. Micro-sized phytoplankton contributed most to the biovolume in the largely ice-free waters of the western Arctic Ocean during summer 2008.

  11. Latitudinal Libration in a Triaxial Ellipsoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebron, D.; Vantieghem, S.; Noir, J.

    2014-12-01

    As a consequence of gravitational coupling with their orbital partners, the rotational dynamics of planets and moons exhibits periodic variations in time, such as precession, libration and nutation. Moreover, most planets are subject to tidal forces, which in combination with the planet's rotation, result in a departure from a purely spherically symmetric object. In this theoretical-numerical study, we investigate the flows driven by latitudinal libration (i.e. an oscillation of the figure axis with respect to the mean rotation axis) within liquid cores of triaxial ellipsoidal shape. We first derive a uniform-vorticity solution for the equations of motion, and find that it can resonate with the spin-over inertial mode. Using a reduced model of viscosity (J. Noir and D. Cébron, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 737 (2013)), we deduce that the amplitude of the flow at resonance diverges as the inverse square-root of the Ekman number. Our results are consistent with previous studies in a spheroidal geometry (K. Zhang et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 696 (2012)). In a following step, we address the dynamical stability of this uniform-vorticity flow. We show that it is prone to inertial instabilities arising from a parametric resonance between two free inertial modes and the base flow. We also show that the vigor of the instability is governed by the frequency and two parameters that capture the dependence on the libration amplitude and geometry. The resonant nature of these phenomena suggests that libration in latitude, despite its small amplitude, may drive strong flows within planetary cores with possibly major implications for heat transport, dissipation and magnetic field generation/induction. This is discussed at planetary settings for the cores of the Moon, Io and Mercury, and the ancient lunar core.

  12. Genetic constraints for thermal coadaptation in Drosophila subobscura

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Behaviour has been traditionally viewed as a driver of subsequent evolution because behavioural adjustments expose organisms to novel environments, which may result in a correlated evolution on other traits. In Drosophila subobscura, thermal preference and heat tolerance are linked to chromosomal inversion polymorphisms that show parallel latitudinal clines worldwide, such that "cold-climate" ("warm-climate") chromosome arrangements collectively favour a coherent response to colder (warmer) settings as flies carrying them prefer colder (warmer) conditions and have lower (higher) knock out temperatures. Yet, it is not clear whether a genetic correlation between thermal preference and heat tolerance can partially underlie such response. Results We have analyzed the genetic basis of thermal preference and heat tolerance using isochromosomal lines in D. subobscura. Chromosome arrangements on the O chromosome were known to have a biometrical effect on thermal preference in a laboratory temperature gradient, and also harbour several genes involved in the heat shock response; in particular, the genes Hsp68 and Hsp70. Our results corroborate that arrangements on chromosome O affect adult thermal preference in a laboratory temperature gradient, with cold-climate Ost carriers displaying a lower thermal preference than their warm-climate O3+4 and O3+4+8 counterparts. However, these chromosome arrangements did not have any effect on adult heat tolerance and, hence, we putatively discard a genetic covariance between both traits arising from linkage disequilibrium between genes affecting thermal preference and candidate genes for heat shock resistance. Nonetheless, a possible association of juvenile thermal preference and heat resistance warrants further analysis. Conclusions Thermal preference and heat tolerance in the isochromosomal lines of D. subobscura appear to be genetically independent, which might potentially prevent a coherent response of behaviour and

  13. GenGIS 2: Geospatial Analysis of Traditional and Genetic Biodiversity, with New Gradient Algorithms and an Extensible Plugin Framework

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Donovan H.; Mankowski, Timothy; Zangooei, Somayyeh; Porter, Michael S.; Armanini, David G.; Baird, Donald J.; Langille, Morgan G. I.; Beiko, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    GenGIS is free and open source software designed to integrate biodiversity data with a digital map and information about geography and habitat. While originally developed with microbial community analyses and phylogeography in mind, GenGIS has been applied to a wide range of datasets. A key feature of GenGIS is the ability to test geographic axes that can correspond to routes of migration or gradients that influence community similarity. Here we introduce GenGIS version 2, which extends the linear gradient tests introduced in the first version to allow comprehensive testing of all possible linear geographic axes. GenGIS v2 also includes a new plugin framework that supports the development and use of graphically driven analysis packages: initial plugins include implementations of linear regression and the Mantel test, calculations of alpha-diversity (e.g., Shannon Index) for all samples, and geographic visualizations of dissimilarity matrices. We have also implemented a recently published method for biomonitoring reference condition analysis (RCA), which compares observed species richness and diversity to predicted values to determine whether a given site has been impacted. The newest version of GenGIS supports vector data in addition to raster files. We demonstrate the new features of GenGIS by performing a full gradient analysis of an Australian kangaroo apple data set, by using plugins and embedded statistical commands to analyze human microbiome sample data, and by applying RCA to a set of samples from Atlantic Canada. GenGIS release versions, tutorials and documentation are freely available at http://kiwi.cs.dal.ca/GenGIS, and source code is available at https://github.com/beiko-lab/gengis. PMID:23922841

  14. GenGIS 2: geospatial analysis of traditional and genetic biodiversity, with new gradient algorithms and an extensible plugin framework.

    PubMed

    Parks, Donovan H; Mankowski, Timothy; Zangooei, Somayyeh; Porter, Michael S; Armanini, David G; Baird, Donald J; Langille, Morgan G I; Beiko, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    GenGIS is free and open source software designed to integrate biodiversity data with a digital map and information about geography and habitat. While originally developed with microbial community analyses and phylogeography in mind, GenGIS has been applied to a wide range of datasets. A key feature of GenGIS is the ability to test geographic axes that can correspond to routes of migration or gradients that influence community similarity. Here we introduce GenGIS version 2, which extends the linear gradient tests introduced in the first version to allow comprehensive testing of all possible linear geographic axes. GenGIS v2 also includes a new plugin framework that supports the development and use of graphically driven analysis packages: initial plugins include implementations of linear regression and the Mantel test, calculations of alpha-diversity (e.g., Shannon Index) for all samples, and geographic visualizations of dissimilarity matrices. We have also implemented a recently published method for biomonitoring reference condition analysis (RCA), which compares observed species richness and diversity to predicted values to determine whether a given site has been impacted. The newest version of GenGIS supports vector data in addition to raster files. We demonstrate the new features of GenGIS by performing a full gradient analysis of an Australian kangaroo apple data set, by using plugins and embedded statistical commands to analyze human microbiome sample data, and by applying RCA to a set of samples from Atlantic Canada. GenGIS release versions, tutorials and documentation are freely available at http://kiwi.cs.dal.ca/GenGIS, and source code is available at https://github.com/beiko-lab/gengis.

  15. Large-scale longitudinal gradients of genetic diversity: a meta-analysis across six phyla in the Mediterranean basin

    PubMed Central

    Conord, Cyrille; Gurevitch, Jessica; Fady, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity is the diversity of life at all scales, from genes to ecosystems. Predicting its patterns of variation across the globe is a fundamental issue in ecology and evolution. Diversity within species, that is, genetic diversity, is of prime importance for understanding past and present evolutionary patterns, and highlighting areas where conservation might be a priority. Using published data on the genetic diversity of species whose populations occur in the Mediterranean basin, we calculated a coefficient of correlation between within-population genetic diversity indices and longitude. Using a meta-analysis framework, we estimated the role of biological, ecological, biogeographic, and marker type factors on the strength and magnitude of this correlation in six phylla. Overall, genetic diversity increases from west to east in the Mediterranean basin. This correlation is significant for both animals and plants, but is not uniformly expressed for all groups. It is stronger in the southern than in the northern Mediterranean, in true Mediterranean plants than in plants found at higher elevations, in trees than in other plants, and in bi-parentally and paternally than in maternally inherited DNA makers. Overall, this correlation between genetic diversity and longitude, and its patterns across biological and ecological traits, suggests the role of two non-mutually exclusive major processes that shaped the genetic diversity in the Mediterranean during and after the cold periods of the Pleistocene: east-west recolonization during the Holocene and population size contraction under local Last Glacial Maximum climate in resident western and low elevation Mediterranean populations. PMID:23145344

  16. Dynamics of the ITCZ-Equatorial Cold Tongue Complex and Causes of theLatitudinal Climate Asymmetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Yuqing

    1999-06-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean-coastline model driven by solar radiation is advanced to understand the essential physics determining the annual cycle of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)-equatorial cold tongue (ECT) complex and associated latitudinal climate asymmetry. With a thermocline depth similar to that of the western Pacific, the aquaplanet climate is latitudinal symmetric and stable. The presence of an oceanic eastern boundary supports an east-west asymmetric climate and an ECT due to unstable air-sea interaction and counter stabilization provided by zonal differential surface buoyancy flux. Formation of latitudinal climate asymmetry requires the presence of the ECT.The antisymmetric solar forcing due to annual variation of the solar declination angle can convert a stable latitudinal symmetric climate into a bistable-state latitudinal asymmetric climate by changing trade winds, which in turn control annual variations of the ECT. The ECT then interacts with ITCZ, providing a self-maintenance mechanism for ITCZ to linger in one hemisphere, either the northern or southern, depending on initial conditions. The establishment of the bistable-state asymmetry requires a delicate balance between counter effects of the antisymmetric solar forcing and self-maintenance. Two factors are critical for the latter: (i) The annual variation of ECT follows the SST of the ITCZ-free hemisphere and the meridional SST gradients between the ECT and ITCZ sustain moisture convergence, which prolongs residence of the ITCZ in summer hemisphere. (ii) The latent heat released in the ITCZ produces remarkable asymmetry in Hadley circulation and trades between the two hemispheres, and the stronger evaporation cooling in the ITCZ-free hemisphere delays and weakens the warming and convection development in that hemisphere.The annual cycle of insolation due to the earth-sun distance variation may convert the bistable-state asymmetry into a preferred latitudinal asymmetric climate. The

  17. Altitudinal gradients, biogeographic history and microhabitat adaptation affect fine-scale spatial genetic structure in African and Neotropical populations of an ancient tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Torroba-Balmori, Paloma; Budde, Katharina B; Heer, Katrin; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Olsson, Sanna; Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Casalis, Maxime; Sonké, Bonaventure; Dick, Christopher W; Heuertz, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS) within populations can provide insights into eco-evolutionary processes. Restricted dispersal and locally occurring genetic drift are the primary causes for FSGS at equilibrium, as described in the isolation by distance (IBD) model. Beyond IBD expectations, spatial, environmental or historical factors can affect FSGS. We examined FSGS in seven African and Neotropical populations of the late-successional rain forest tree Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae) to discriminate the influence of drift-dispersal vs. landscape/ecological features and historical processes on FSGS. We used spatial principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering to assess spatial genetic heterogeneity at SSRs and examined its association with plastid DNA and habitat features. African populations (from Cameroon and São Tomé) displayed a stronger FSGS than Neotropical populations at both marker types (mean Sp = 0.025 vs. Sp = 0.008 at SSRs) and had a stronger spatial genetic heterogeneity. All three African populations occurred in pronounced altitudinal gradients, possibly restricting animal-mediated seed dispersal. Cyto-nuclear disequilibria in Cameroonian populations also suggested a legacy of biogeographic history to explain these genetic patterns. Conversely, Neotropical populations exhibited a weaker FSGS, which may reflect more efficient wide-ranging seed dispersal by Neotropical bats and other dispersers. The population from French Guiana displayed an association of plastid haplotypes with two morphotypes characterized by differential habitat preferences. Our results highlight the importance of the microenvironment for eco-evolutionary processes within persistent tropical tree populations.

  18. Altitudinal gradients, biogeographic history and microhabitat adaptation affect fine-scale spatial genetic structure in African and Neotropical populations of an ancient tropical tree species

    PubMed Central

    Torroba-Balmori, Paloma; Budde, Katharina B.; Heer, Katrin; González-Martínez, Santiago C.; Olsson, Sanna; Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Sonké, Bonaventure; Dick, Christopher W.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS) within populations can provide insights into eco-evolutionary processes. Restricted dispersal and locally occurring genetic drift are the primary causes for FSGS at equilibrium, as described in the isolation by distance (IBD) model. Beyond IBD expectations, spatial, environmental or historical factors can affect FSGS. We examined FSGS in seven African and Neotropical populations of the late-successional rain forest tree Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae) to discriminate the influence of drift-dispersal vs. landscape/ecological features and historical processes on FSGS. We used spatial principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering to assess spatial genetic heterogeneity at SSRs and examined its association with plastid DNA and habitat features. African populations (from Cameroon and São Tomé) displayed a stronger FSGS than Neotropical populations at both marker types (mean Sp = 0.025 vs. Sp = 0.008 at SSRs) and had a stronger spatial genetic heterogeneity. All three African populations occurred in pronounced altitudinal gradients, possibly restricting animal-mediated seed dispersal. Cyto-nuclear disequilibria in Cameroonian populations also suggested a legacy of biogeographic history to explain these genetic patterns. Conversely, Neotropical populations exhibited a weaker FSGS, which may reflect more efficient wide-ranging seed dispersal by Neotropical bats and other dispersers. The population from French Guiana displayed an association of plastid haplotypes with two morphotypes characterized by differential habitat preferences. Our results highlight the importance of the microenvironment for eco-evolutionary processes within persistent tropical tree populations. PMID:28771629

  19. Landscape genetic connectivity in a riparian foundation tree is jointly driven by climatic gradients and river networks

    Treesearch

    Samuel A. Cushman; Tamara Max; Nashelly Meneses; Luke M. Evans; Sharon Ferrier; Barbara Honchak; Thomas G. Whitham; Gerard J. Allan

    2014-01-01

    Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremonti) is a foundation riparian tree species that drives community structure and ecosystem processes in southwestern U.S. ecosystems. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the ecological and environmental processes that shape its genetic diversity, structure, and landscape connectivity. Here, we combined...

  20. Latitudinal comparison of spawning season and growth of 0-group sole, Solea solea (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Amara, R.; Maia, A.; Cabral, H. N.

    2008-07-01

    0-Group sole, Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758) were sampled in four nursery grounds: two on the Northern French coast and two on the Portuguese coast. Juvenile sole were collected at the Vilaine estuary (Northern Bay of Biscay) in 1992, in the Authie estuary (Eastern English Channel) in 1997, and in the Douro and Tagus estuary (Northern and central Portugal, respectively) in 2005. Left lapilli otoliths were used to estimate age and investigate variability in growth rates and hatch dates. In the French study areas nursery colonisation ended in early June in the Vilaine estuary and in late June in the Authie estuary. In the Portuguese estuaries nursery colonisation ended in May in the Douro estuary and in late June in the Tagus estuary. Growth rates were higher in the Portuguese estuaries, 0.767 mm d -1 in the Tagus estuary and 0.903 mm d -1 in the Douro estuary. In the French nurseries, growth rates were estimated to be 0.473 mm d -1 in the Villaine estuary and 0.460 mm d -1 in the Authie estuary. Data on growth rates from other studies shows that growth rates are higher at lower latitudes, probably due to higher water temperature. Spawning took place between early January and early April in the Villaine estuary's coastal area in 1992. In 1997, in the Authie estuary spawning started in late January and ended in early April. On the Douro estuary's adjacent coast spawning started in mid-January and ended in late March, in 2005, while on the Tagus estuary's adjacent coast spawning started in mid-February and ended in mid-April, in the same year. Literature analysis of the spawning period of sole along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 38°N to 55°N in the Northeast Atlantic indicated that there is a latitudinal trend, in that spawning starts sooner at lower latitudes. Results support that local conditions, particularly hydrodynamics, may overrule general latitudinal trends.

  1. Contrasting growth forecasts across the geographical range of Scots pine due to altitudinal and latitudinal differences in climatic sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Matías, Luis; Linares, Juan C; Sánchez-Miranda, Ángela; Jump, Alistair S

    2017-10-01

    Ongoing changes in global climate are altering ecological conditions for many species. The consequences of such changes are typically most evident at the edge of a species' geographical distribution, where differences in growth or population dynamics may result in range expansions or contractions. Understanding population responses to different climatic drivers along wide latitudinal and altitudinal gradients is necessary in order to gain a better understanding of plant responses to ongoing increases in global temperature and drought severity. We selected Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a model species to explore growth responses to climatic variability (seasonal temperature and precipitation) over the last century through dendrochronological methods. We developed linear models based on age, climate and previous growth to forecast growth trends up to year 2100 using climatic predictions. Populations were located at the treeline across a latitudinal gradient covering the northern, central and southernmost populations and across an altitudinal gradient at the southern edge of the distribution (treeline, medium and lower elevations). Radial growth was maximal at medium altitude and treeline of the southernmost populations. Temperature was the main factor controlling growth variability along the gradients, although the timing and strength of climatic variables affecting growth shifted with latitude and altitude. Predictive models forecast a general increase in Scots pine growth at treeline across the latitudinal distribution, with southern populations increasing growth up to year 2050, when it stabilizes. The highest responsiveness appeared at central latitude, and moderate growth increase is projected at the northern limit. Contrastingly, the model forecasted growth declines at lowland-southern populations, suggesting an upslope range displacement over the coming decades. Our results give insight into the geographical responses of tree species to climate change

  2. Microchip capillary gel electrophoresis using programmed field strength gradients for the ultra-fast analysis of genetically modified organisms in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Jeong; Chae, Joon-Seok; Chang, Jun Keun; Kang, Seong Ho

    2005-08-12

    We have developed a novel method for the ultra-fast analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in soybeans by microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (MCGE) using programmed field strength gradients (PFSG) in a conventional glass double-T microchip. Under the programmed electric field strength and 0.3% poly(ethylene oxide) sieving matrix, the GMO in soybeans was analyzed within only 11 s of the microchip. The MCGE-PFSG method was a program that changes the electric field strength during GMO analysis, and was also applied to the ultra-fast analysis of PCR products. Compared to MCGE using a conventional and constantly applied electric field, the MCGE-PFSG analysis generated faster results without the loss of resolving power and reproducibility for specific DNA fragments (100- and 250-bp DNA) of GM-soybeans. The MCGE-PFSG technique may prove to be a new tool in the GMO analysis due to its speed, simplicity, and high efficiency.

  3. Tomato GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors reveal molecular gradients that function during fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cuong V; Vrebalov, Julia T; Gapper, Nigel E; Zheng, Yi; Zhong, Silin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James J

    2014-02-01

    Fruit ripening is the summation of changes rendering fleshy fruit tissues attractive and palatable to seed dispersing organisms. For example, sugar content is influenced by plastid numbers and photosynthetic activity in unripe fruit and later by starch and sugar catabolism during ripening. Tomato fruit are sinks of photosynthate, yet unripe green fruit contribute significantly to the sugars that ultimately accumulate in the ripe fruit. Plastid numbers and chlorophyll content are influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors and are positively correlated with photosynthesis and photosynthate accumulation. GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors regulate plastid and chlorophyll levels. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), like most plants, contains two GLKs (i.e., GLK1 and GLK2/UNIFORM). Mutant and transgene analysis demonstrated that these genes encode functionally similar peptides, though differential expression renders GLK1 more important in leaves, while GLK2 is predominant in fruit. A latitudinal gradient of GLK2 expression influences the typical uneven coloration of green and ripe wild-type fruit. Transcriptome profiling revealed a broader fruit gene expression gradient throughout development. The gradient influenced general ripening activities beyond plastid development and was consistent with the easily observed yet poorly studied ripening gradient present in tomato and many fleshy fruits.

  4. Salix transect of Europe: latitudinal patterns in willow diversity from Greece to arctic Norway.

    PubMed

    Cronk, Quentin; Ruzzier, Enrico; Belyaeva, Irina; Percy, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are ecosystem "foundation species" that are hosts to large numbers of associated insects. Determining their patterns of distribution across Europe is therefore of interest for understanding the spatial distribution of associated fauna. The aim of this study was to record species composition at multiple sites on a long latitudinal gradient (megatransect) across Europe as a baseline for the future detailed analysis of insect fauna at these sites. In this way we used willow stands as comparable mesocosms in which to study floristic and faunistic changes with latitude across Europe. To determine spatial patterning of  an ecologically important group on a latitudinal gradient across Europe, we sampled willows at the stand level in 42 sites, approximately 100 km apart, from the Aegean (38.8°N) to the Arctic Ocean (70.6°N), but at a similar longitude (21.2 to 26.1°E). The sites were predominantly lowland (elevations 1 to 556 metres amsl, median = 95 m) and wet (associated with rivers, lakes, drainage ditches or wet meadows). The median number of willow taxa (species and hybrids) per stand was four, and varied from one to nine. There is a progressive increase in willow diversity from south to north with the median number of taxa per stand in southern Europe being three, and in northern Europe six. A total of 20 willow species were recorded, along with 12 hybrids. The most widespread willow in the transect was Salix alba L. (occurring in 20 sites out of 42) followed by S. triandra L. (15 sites), S. caprea L., S. phylicifolia L. (14 sites) and S. myrsinifolia Salisb., Salix ×fragilis L. (13 sites). Voucher specimens from this study are deposited in the herbaria of the Natural History Museum (BM) and the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (K). These samples provide a "snapshot" of willow diversity along a latitudinal gradient and an indication of the geographically changing taxonomic diversity that is presented to willow-feeding herbivores

  5. Salix transect of Europe: latitudinal patterns in willow diversity from Greece to arctic Norway

    PubMed Central

    Ruzzier, Enrico; Belyaeva, Irina; Percy, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Willows (Salix spp.) are ecosystem "foundation species" that are hosts to large numbers of associated insects. Determining their patterns of distribution across Europe is therefore of interest for understanding the spatial distribution of associated fauna. The aim of this study was to record species composition at multiple sites on a long latitudinal gradient (megatransect) across Europe as a baseline for the future detailed analysis of insect fauna at these sites. In this way we used willow stands as comparable mesocosms in which to study floristic and faunistic changes with latitude across Europe. New information To determine spatial patterning of  an ecologically important group on a latitudinal gradient across Europe, we sampled willows at the stand level in 42 sites, approximately 100 km apart, from the Aegean (38.8°N) to the Arctic Ocean (70.6°N), but at a similar longitude (21.2 to 26.1°E). The sites were predominantly lowland (elevations 1 to 556 metres amsl, median = 95 m) and wet (associated with rivers, lakes, drainage ditches or wet meadows). The median number of willow taxa (species and hybrids) per stand was four, and varied from one to nine. There is a progressive increase in willow diversity from south to north with the median number of taxa per stand in southern Europe being three, and in northern Europe six. A total of 20 willow species were recorded, along with 12 hybrids. The most widespread willow in the transect was Salix alba L. (occurring in 20 sites out of 42) followed by S. triandra L. (15 sites), S. caprea L., S. phylicifolia L. (14 sites) and S. myrsinifolia Salisb., Salix ×fragilis L. (13 sites). Voucher specimens from this study are deposited in the herbaria of the Natural History Museum (BM) and the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (K). These samples provide a "snapshot" of willow diversity along a latitudinal gradient and an indication of the geographically changing taxonomic diversity that is

  6. Transcontinental latitudinal variation in song performance and complexity in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon)

    PubMed Central

    Kaluthota, Chinthaka; Brinkman, Benjamin E.; dos Santos, Ednei B.; Rendall, Drew

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in latitudinal effects on animal behaviour and life history. One recent focus is on birdsong, which is hypothesized to be more elaborated or complex in the north temperate zone compared with the tropics. Current evidence is mixed and based on cross-species comparisons, or single species with restricted distributions. We circumvent these limitations using a transcontinental sample of 358 songs from house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) at 281 locations spanning more than 100° of latitude (52° N–55° S) across the Americas. We found a significant latitudinal gradient in several basic elements of song performance and complexity between north temperate and tropical populations. Furthermore, we document convergence in song patterns between populations at higher latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Effects were strongest for the number of elements in a song, and the rate of element production, both increasing towards the poles, with similar but weaker effects for other song dimensions (e.g. number of unique elements, trills and trill rate). We consider possible causes related to variable habitats and morphology, concluding that the shorter breeding seasons at higher latitudes in both hemispheres may favour greater song elaboration to mediate territory competition and mate choice. PMID:26865297

  7. Spatial distribution patterns in macrobenthos along a latitudinal transect at the deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedenin, A.; Budaeva, N.; Mokievsky, V.; Pantke, C.; Soltwedel, T.; Gebruk, A.

    2016-08-01

    Spatial distribution patterns of benthic organisms are the focus of various faunal marine studies. However, data on horizontal and bathymetric distribution of the deep-sea macrofauna are still scattered and incomplete, and conclusions are usually based on a low number of samples. Spatial distribution of benthic macrofauna was studied based on the material collected during the RV Polarstern expedition ARK-XXVII/2 in July 2012. Eleven stations along the latitudinal transect at the LTER (Long-Term Ecological Research) observatory HAUSGARTEN in the Fram Strait were taken at depths of about 2.3-2.7 km. Macrofauna was obtained using the box corer. A half core (0.125 m2) was taken at each station and four subcores (0.03 m2) were taken from each core and used for the quantitative analysis. The results suggest that a single, highly variable community with the dominance of polychaetes Galathowenia fragilis and Myriochele heeri inhabits the studied area. No latitudinal gradient in the community was revealed. The prevalence of a spatial variability in the community structure at a scale larger than the full sample per station (0.125 m2) was detected. Several abundant taxa (e.g. the polychaetes Prionospio sp. and Galathowenia fragilis) tend to form patches within a full sample.

  8. Variation in morphological characters of two invasive leafminers, Liriomyza huidobrensis and L. sativae, across a tropical elevation gradient.

    PubMed

    Tantowijoyo, Warsito; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in morphological traits along elevation and latitudinal gradients in ectotherms are often interpreted in terms of the temperature-size rule, which states that the body size of organisms increases under low temperatures, and is therefore expected to increase with elevation and latitude. However other factors like host plant might contribute to spatial patterns in size as well, particularly for polyphagous insects. Here elevation patterns for trait size and shape in two leafminer species are examined, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and L. sativae Blanchard, along a tropical elevation gradient in Java, Indonesia. Adult leafminers were trapped from different locations in the mountainous area of Dieng in the province of Central Java. To separate environmental versus genetic effects, L. huidobrensis originating from 1378 m and 2129 m ASL were reared in the laboratory for five generations. Size variation along the elevation gradient was only found in L. huidobrensis and this followed expectations based on the temperature-size rule. There were also complex changes in wing shape along the gradient. Morphological differences were influenced by genetic and environmental effects. Findings are discussed within the context of adaptation to different elevations in the two species.

  9. Variation in Morphological Characters of Two Invasive Leafminers, Liriomyza huidobrensis and L. sativae, across a Tropical Elevation Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Tantowijoyo, Warsito; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in morphological traits along elevation and latitudinal gradients in ectotherms are often interpreted in terms of the temperature-size rule, which states that the body size of organisms increases under low temperatures, and is therefore expected to increase with elevation and latitude. However other factors like host plant might contribute to spatial patterns in size as well, particularly for polyphagous insects. Here elevation patterns for trait size and shape in two leafminer species are examined, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and L. sativae Blanchard, along a tropical elevation gradient in Java, Indonesia. Adult leafminers were trapped from different locations in the mountainous area of Dieng in the province of Central Java. To separate environmental versus genetic effects, L. huidobrensis originating from 1378 m and 2129 m ASL were reared in the laboratory for five generations. Size variation along the elevation gradient was only found in L. huidobrensis and this followed expectations based on the temperature-size rule. There were also complex changes in wing shape along the gradient. Morphological differences were influenced by genetic and environmental effects. Findings are discussed within the context of adaptation to different elevations in the two species. PMID:21867436

  10. A latitudinal cline in flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana modulated by the flowering time gene FRIGIDA.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, John R; Weinig, Cynthia; Ungerer, Mark; Olsen, Kenneth M; Mays, Charlotte; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Purugganan, Michael D; Schmitt, Johanna

    2004-03-30

    A latitudinal cline in flowering time in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana has been widely predicted because the environmental cues that promote flowering vary systematically with latitude, but evidence for such clines has been lacking. Here, we report evidence of a significant latitudinal cline in flowering time among 70 Northern European and Mediterranean ecotypes when grown under ecologically realistic conditions in a common garden environment. The detected cline, however, is found only in ecotypes with alleles of the flowering time gene FRIGIDA (FRI) that lack major deletions that would disrupt protein function, whereas there is no relationship between flowering time and latitude of origin among accessions with FRI alleles containing such deletions. Analysis of climatological data suggests that late flowering in accessions with putatively functional FRI was associated with reduced January precipitation at the site of origin, consistent with previous reports of a positive genetic correlation between water use efficiency and flowering time in Arabidopsis, and the pleiotropic effects of FRI of increasing water use efficiency. In accessions collected from Southern latitudes, we detected that putatively functional FRI alleles were associated with accelerated flowering relative to accessions with nonfunctional FRI under the winter conditions of our experiment. These results suggest that the ecological function of the vernalization requirement conferred by FRI differs across latitudes. More generally, our results indicate that by combining ecological and molecular genetic data, it is possible to understand the forces acting on life history transitions at the level of specific loci.

  11. A latitudinal cline in flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana modulated by the flowering time gene FRIGIDA

    PubMed Central

    Stinchcombe, John R.; Weinig, Cynthia; Ungerer, Mark; Olsen, Kenneth M.; Mays, Charlotte; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S.; Purugganan, Michael D.; Schmitt, Johanna

    2004-01-01

    A latitudinal cline in flowering time in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana has been widely predicted because the environmental cues that promote flowering vary systematically with latitude, but evidence for such clines has been lacking. Here, we report evidence of a significant latitudinal cline in flowering time among 70 Northern European and Mediterranean ecotypes when grown under ecologically realistic conditions in a common garden environment. The detected cline, however, is found only in ecotypes with alleles of the flowering time gene FRIGIDA (FRI) that lack major deletions that would disrupt protein function, whereas there is no relationship between flowering time and latitude of origin among accessions with FRI alleles containing such deletions. Analysis of climatological data suggests that late flowering in accessions with putatively functional FRI was associated with reduced January precipitation at the site of origin, consistent with previous reports of a positive genetic correlation between water use efficiency and flowering time in Arabidopsis, and the pleiotropic effects of FRI of increasing water use efficiency. In accessions collected from Southern latitudes, we detected that putatively functional FRI alleles were associated with accelerated flowering relative to accessions with nonfunctional FRI under the winter conditions of our experiment. These results suggest that the ecological function of the vernalization requirement conferred by FRI differs across latitudes. More generally, our results indicate that by combining ecological and molecular genetic data, it is possible to understand the forces acting on life history transitions at the level of specific loci. PMID:15070783

  12. Genetic structure of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus in Japan indicates a gradient of bidirectional but asymmetric introgression

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Lindsay V.; Stewart, J. Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya; Toma, Yo; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup; Jørgensen, Uffe; Zhao, Hua; Peng, Junhua; Yoo, Ji Hye; Heo, Kweon; Yu, Chang Yeon; Yamada, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites. Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicated a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M. sinensis DNA. Among phenotypically M. sacchariflorus tetraploids, M. sinensis ancestry averaged 7% and ranged from 1–39%, with introgression greatest in southern Japan. Unexpectedly, rare (~1%) diploid M. sinensis individuals from northern Japan were found with 6–27% M. sacchariflorus ancestry. Population structure of M. sinensis in Japan included three groups, and was driven primarily by distance, and secondarily by geographic barriers such as mountains and straits. Miscanthus speciation is a complex and dynamic process. In contrast to limited introgression between diploid M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. These results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars. PMID:25618143

  13. Genetic structure of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus in Japan indicates a gradient of bidirectional but asymmetric introgression

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, Lindsay V.; Stewart, J. Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya; ...

    2015-01-24

    Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites. Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicatedmore » a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M. sinensis DNA. Among phenotypically M. sacchariflorus tetraploids, M. sinensis ancestry averaged 7% and ranged from 1-39%, with introgression greatest in southern Japan. Unexpectedly, rare (~1%) diploid M. sinensis individuals from northern Japan were found with 6-27% M. sacchariflorus ancestry. Population structure of M. sinensis in Japan included three groups, and was driven primarily by distance, and secondarily by geographic barriers such as mountains and straits. Miscanthus speciation is a complex and dynamic process. In contrast to limited introgression between diploid M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. Ultimately, these results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars.« less

  14. Latitudinal clines: an evolutionary view on biological rhythms†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Hut, Roelof A.; Paolucci, Silvia; Dor, Roi; Kyriacou, Charalambos P.; Daan, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Properties of the circadian and annual timing systems are expected to vary systematically with latitude on the basis of different annual light and temperature patterns at higher latitudes, creating specific selection pressures. We review literature with respect to latitudinal clines in circadian phenotypes as well as in polymorphisms of circadian clock genes and their possible association with annual timing. The use of latitudinal (and altitudinal) clines in identifying selective forces acting on biological rhythms is discussed, and we evaluate how these studies can reveal novel molecular and physiological components of these rhythms. PMID:23825204

  15. Genomewide scan for adaptive differentiation along altitudinal gradient in the Andrew's toad Bufo andrewsi.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baocheng; Lu, Di; Liao, Wen Bo; Merilä, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of humans, dogs and rodents have started to discover the genetic underpinnings of high altitude adaptations, yet amphibians have received little attention in this respect. To identify possible signatures of adaptation to altitude, we performed a genome scan of 15 557 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained with restriction site-associated DNA sequencing of pooled samples from 11 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi) from the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, spanning an altitudinal gradient from 1690 to 2768 m.a.s.l. We discovered significant geographic differentiation among all sites, with an average FST   = 0.023 across all SNPs. Apart from clear patterns of isolation by distance, we discovered numerous outlier SNPs showing strong associations with variation in altitude (1394 SNPs), average annual temperature (1859 SNPs) or both (1051 SNPs). Levels and patterns of genetic differentiation in these SNPs were consistent with the hypothesis that they have been subject to directional selection and reflect adaptation to altitudinal variation among the study sites. Genes with footprints of selection were significantly enriched in binding and metabolic processes. Several genes potentially related to high altitude adaptation were identified, although the identity and functional significance of most genomic targets of selection remain unknown. In general, the results provide genomic support for results of earlier common garden and low coverage genetic studies that have uncovered substantial adaptive differentiation along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients in amphibians.

  16. Genetic diversity of Desulfovibrio spp. in environmental samples analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of [NiFe] hydrogenase gene fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Wawer, C; Muyzer, G

    1995-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Desulfovibrio species in environmental samples was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified [NiFe] hydrogenase gene fragments. Five different PCR primers were designed after comparative analysis of [NiFe] hydrogenase gene sequences from three Desulfovibrio species. These primers were tested in different combinations on the genomic DNAs of a variety of hydrogenase-containing and hydrogenase-lacking bacteria. One primer pair was found to be specific for Desulfovibrio species only, while the others gave positive results with other bacteria also. By using this specific primer pair, we were able to amplify the [NiFe] hydrogenase genes of DNAs isolated from environmental samples and to detect the presence of Desulfovibrio species in these samples. However, only after DGGE analysis of these PCR products could the number of different Desulfovibrio species within the samples be determined. DGGE analysis of PCR products from different bioreactors demonstrated up to two bands, while at least five distinguishable bands were detected in a microbial mat sample. Because these bands most likely represent as many Desulfovibrio species present in these samples, we conclude that the genetic diversity of Desulfovibrio species in the natural microbial mat is far greater than that in the experimental bioreactors. PMID:7793940

  17. Rare variant collapsing in conjunction with mean log p-value and gradient boosting approaches applied to Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data.

    PubMed

    Cherkas, Yauheniya; Raghavan, Nandini; Francke, Stephan; Defalco, Frank; Wilcox, Marsha A

    2011-11-29

    In addition to methods that can identify common variants associated with susceptibility to common diseases, there has been increasing interest in approaches that can identify rare genetic variants. We use the simulated data provided to the participants of Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 (GAW17) to identify both rare and common single-nucleotide polymorphisms and pathways associated with disease status. We apply a rare variant collapsing approach and the usual association tests for common variants to identify candidates for further analysis using pathway-based and tree-based ensemble approaches. We use the mean log p-value approach to identify a top set of pathways and compare it to those used in simulation of GAW17 dataset. We conclude that the mean log p-value approach is able to identify those pathways in the top list and also related pathways. We also use the stochastic gradient boosting approach for the selected subset of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. When compared the result of this tree-based method with the list of single-nucleotide polymorphisms used in dataset simulation, in addition to correct SNPs we observe number of false positives.

  18. Genetic structure of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus in Japan indicates a gradient of bidirectional but asymmetric introgression.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lindsay V; Stewart, J Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya; Toma, Yo; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup; Jørgensen, Uffe; Zhao, Hua; Peng, Junhua; Yoo, Ji Hye; Heo, Kweon; Yu, Chang Yeon; Yamada, Toshihiko; Sacks, Erik J

    2015-07-01

    Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites. Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicated a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M. sinensis DNA. Among phenotypically M. sacchariflorus tetraploids, M. sinensis ancestry averaged 7% and ranged from 1-39%, with introgression greatest in southern Japan. Unexpectedly, rare (~1%) diploid M. sinensis individuals from northern Japan were found with 6-27% M. sacchariflorus ancestry. Population structure of M. sinensis in Japan included three groups, and was driven primarily by distance, and secondarily by geographic barriers such as mountains and straits. Miscanthus speciation is a complex and dynamic process. In contrast to limited introgression between diploid M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. These results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Two Birch Species Demonstrate Opposite Latitudinal Patterns in Infestation by Gall-Making Mites in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Skoracka, Anna; Zverev, Vitali; Lewandowski, Mariusz; Zvereva, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    Latitudinal patterns in herbivory, i.e. variations in plant losses to animals with latitude, are generally explained by temperature gradients. However, earlier studies suggest that geographical variation in abundance and diversity of gall-makers may be driven by precipitation rather than by temperature. To test the above hypothesis, we examined communities of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on leaves of Betula pendula and B. pubescens in boreal forests in Northern Europe. We sampled ten sites for each of five latitudinal gradients from 2008–2011, counted galls of six morphological types and identified mites extracted from these galls. DNA analysis revealed cryptic species within two of six morphologically defined mite species, and these cryptic species induced different types of galls. When data from all types of galls and from two birch species were pooled, the percentage of galled leaves did not change with latitude. However, we discovered pronounced variation in latitudinal changes between birch species. Infestation by eriophyoid mites increased towards the north in B. pendula and decreased in B. pubescens, while diversity of galls decreased towards the north in B. pendula and did not change in B. pubescens. The percentage of galled leaves did not differ among geographical gradients and study years, but was 20% lower in late summer relative to early summer, indicating premature abscission of infested leaves. Our data suggest that precipitation has little effect on abundance and diversity of eriophyoid mites, and that climate warming may impose opposite effects on infestation of two birch species by galling mites, favouring B. pendula near the northern tree limit. PMID:27835702

  20. Gill's model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, revisited: The role of latitudinal variations in wind stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, David P.; Munday, David R.; Allison, Lesley C.; Hay, Russell J.; Johnson, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Gill's (1968) model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is reinterpreted for a stratified, reduced-gravity ocean, where the barotropic streamfunction is replaced by the pycnocline depth, and the bottom drag coefficient by the Gent and McWilliams eddy diffusivity. The resultant model gives a simple description of the lateral structure of the ACC that is consistent with contemporary descriptions of ACC dynamics. The model is used to investigate and interpret the sensitivity of the ACC to the latitudinal profile of the surface wind stress. A substantial ACC remains when the wind jet is shifted north of the model Drake Passage, even by several thousand kilometers. The integral of the wind stress over the circumpolar streamlines is found to be a useful predictor of the magnitude of the volume transport through the model Drake Passage, although it is necessary to correct for basin-wide zonal pressure gradients in order to obtain good quantitative agreement.

  1. Latitudinal variation in diapause duration and post-winter development in two pierid butterflies in relation to phenological specialization.

    PubMed

    Posledovich, Diana; Toftegaard, Tenna; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan; Gotthard, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Diapause plays a central role in insect life cycles by allowing survival during adverse seasonal conditions as well as synchronizing life cycles with the period of mate and food availability. Seasonal timing is expected to be particularly important for species that are dependent on resources available during a short time window-so-called phenological specialists-and latitudinal clines in seasonality are expected to favor local adaptation in phenological timing. However, to what degree latitudinal variation in diapause dynamics and post-winter development due to such local adaptation is influenced by the degree of phenological specialization is not well known. We experimentally studied two pierid butterfly species and found that the phenological specialist Anthocharis cardamines had shorter diapause duration than the phenological generalist Pieris napi along a latitudinal gradient in Sweden. Moreover, diapause duration increased with latitude in P. napi but not in A. cardamines. Sensitivity of the two species to winter thermal conditions also differed; additional cold temperature during the winter period shortened diapause duration for P. napi pupae but not for A. cardamines pupae. In both species, post-winter pupal development was faster after longer periods of cold conditions, and more southern populations developed faster than northern populations. Post-winter development was also invariably faster at higher temperatures in both species. We argue that the observed differences in diapause dynamics between the two species might be explained by the difference in phenological specialization that influences the costs of breaking diapause too early in the season.

  2. Evolution and ecology meet molecular genetics: adaptive phenotypic plasticity in two isolated Negev desert populations of Acacia raddiana at either end of a rainfall gradient

    PubMed Central

    Ward, David; Shrestha, Madan K.; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The ecological, evolutionary and genetic bases of population differentiation in a variable environment are often related to the selection pressures that plants experience. We compared differences in several growth- and defence-related traits in two isolated populations of Acacia raddiana trees from sites at either end of an extreme environmental gradient in the Negev desert. Methods We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to determine the molecular differences between populations. We grew plants under two levels of water, three levels of nutrients and three levels of herbivory to test for phenotypic plasticity and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Key Results The RAPD analyses showed that these populations are highly genetically differentiated. Phenotypic plasticity in various morphological traits in A. raddiana was related to patterns of population genetic differentiation between the two study sites. Although we did not test for maternal effects in these long-lived trees, significant genotype × environment (G × E) interactions in some of these traits indicated that such plasticity may be adaptive. Conclusions The main selection pressure in this desert environment, perhaps unsurprisingly, is water. Increased water availability resulted in greater growth in the southern population, which normally receives far less rain than the northern population. Even under the conditions that we defined as low water and/or nutrients, the performance of the seedlings from the southern population was significantly better, perhaps reflecting selection for these traits. Consistent with previous studies of this genus, there was no evidence of trade-offs between physical and chemical defences and plant growth parameters in this study. Rather, there appeared to be positive correlations between plant size and defence parameters. The great variation in several traits in both populations may result in a diverse potential for responding to selection pressures in

  3. Latitudinal patterns in the life-history traits of three isolated Atlantic populations of the deep-water shrimp Plesionika edwardsii (Decapoda, Pandalidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, José A.; Pajuelo, José G.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Ruiz-Díaz, Raquel; Delgado, João; Góis, Ana R.; Martins, Albertino

    2016-11-01

    Patterns in the life-history traits of the pandalid shrimp Plesionika edwardsii are studied for the first time in three isolated Atlantic populations (Madeira, Canaries and Cape Verde Islands) to gain an understanding of their latitudinal variations. The maximum carapace size of the populations studied, as well as the maximum weight, showed clear latitudinal patterns. The patterns observed may be a consequence of the temperature experienced by shrimps during development, 1.37 ° C higher in the Canaries and 5.96 ° C higher in the Cape Verde Islands than in Madeira. These temperature differences among populations may have induced phenotypic plasticity because the observed final body size decreased as the temperature increased. A latitudinal north-south pattern was also observed in the maximum size of ovigerous females, with larger sizes found in the Madeira area and lower sizes observed in the Cape Verde Islands. A similar pattern was observed in the brood size and maximum egg size. Females of P. edwardsii produced smaller eggs in the Cape Verde Islands than did those at the higher latitude in Madeira. P. edwardsii was larger at sexual maturity in Madeira than in the Cape Verde Islands. The relative size at sexual maturity is not affected by latitude or environmental factors and is the same in the three areas studied, varying slightly between 0.568 and 0.585. P. edwardsii had a long reproductive season with ovigerous females observed all year round, although latitudinal variations were observed. Seasonally, there were more ovigerous females in spring and summer in Madeira and from winter to summer in the Cape Verde Islands. P. edwardsii showed a latitudinal pattern in size, with asymptotic size and growth rate showing a latitudinal compensation gradient as a result of an increased growth performance in the Madeira population compared to that of the Cape Verde Islands.

  4. Latitudinal profiles of solar protons in the Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazutin, L.

    2016-02-01

    Dynamics of the latitudinal profiles penetrating into magnetosphere solar protons is studied using particle spectrometers data on board of the low latitude satellite CORONAS-F with orbit inclination ∼83o. Formations of several different types of the profiles during magnetic storms are considered.

  5. Longitudinal and latitudinal distribution of perfluoroalkyl compounds in the surface water of the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Lutz; Barber, Jonathan L; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2009-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were determined in 2 L surface water samples collected in the Atlantic Ocean onboard the research vessels Maria S. Merian along the longitudinal gradient from Las Palmas (Spain) to St. Johns (Canada) (15 degrees W to 52 degrees W) and Polarstern along the latitudinal gradient from the Bay of Biscay to the South Atlantic Ocean (46 degrees N to 26 degrees S) in spring and fall 2007, respectively. After filtration the dissolved and particulate phases were extracted separately, and PFC concentrationswere determined using high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to tandem mass spectrometry. No PFCs were detected in the particulate phase. This study provides the first concentration data of perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA), perfluorohexanoic acid, and perfluoroheptanoic acid from the Atlantic Ocean. Results indicate that trans-Atlantic Ocean currents caused the decreasing concentration gradient from the Bay of Biscay to the South Atlantic Ocean and the concentration drop-off close to the Labrador Sea. Maximum concentrations were found for FOSA, perfluorooctanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoic acid at 302, 291, and 229 pg L(-1), respectively. However, the concentration of each single compound was usually in the tens of picograms per liter range. South of the equator only FOSA and below 4 degrees S no PFCs could be detected.

  6. The latitudinal dependence of the solar radiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, Wolfgang; Shapiro, Alexander; Schmutz, Werner; Krivova, Natalie

    2013-04-01

    Active regions and sunspots occur predominantly at low to mid heliographic latitudes. Hence, it seems reasonable to assume that the radiant output of the sun is not spherically symmetrical. Due to the relatively small inclination (~7.25°) of the solar rotation axis this asphericity is difficult to detect in integrated disk data taken from an ecliptic-bound vantage point. A histogram analysis of 13 years of VIRGO TSI data revealed a slight north-south asymmetry with maximal deviations of ±4 parts in 10^5. Interestingly, the north-south asymmetry persists even after subtracting the simulated TSI data by Krivova et al. (2003) from the VIRGO TSI measurements. The Krivova time series attributes the TSI to magnetic activity patterns as observed by MDI (sunspots, faculae, and plage). The asymmetry thus seems to be of a different origin, i.e. unrelated to sunspots, faculae, or plage, although smaller magnetic structures might contribute to the asymmetry. We will also investigate a potential asymmetry in the equator-to-pole temperature gradient. At this point we can only speculate if the observed asymmetry is characteristic of solar cycle 23, which is covered by the VIRGO time series, or more fundamental. In any case it would be very interesting to extend the TSI vs. latitude curve towards higher heliographic latitudes.

  7. Tracking Chemotactic Migration of a Genetically Engineered Bacterium in the Presence of Constructed Nutrient Gradients Within a Sandy Aquifer in Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Ford, R. M.; Metge, D. W.; Wang, M.; Toepfer, A. A.; McGowan, S. B.

    2008-05-01

    Due to our increasing dependence upon groundwater resources, there is a growing need to remediate shallow aquifers contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Often, trichloroethene (TCE) travels into zones of low permeability thereby making removal difficult by traditional pump-and-treat technologies. In addition, degradation of TCE by native microbial communities can result in buildup of highly toxic intermediates such as vinyl chloride. Bioaugmentation, involving addition of specialized bacterial consortia to an aquifer, can facilitate more complete degradation into harmless byproducts. Also, it is believed that chemotaxis, the ability of bacteria to swim towards higher concentrations of a chemical perceived as beneficial to survival, may expedite movement of introduced bacteria to where they are needed. However, there is no quantitative information about chemotaxis at the field scale and the evidence for bacterial chemotaxis during bioaugmentation has been largely anecdotal. In this study, the chemotactic migration of the bacterium, Pseudomonas stutzeri in a TCE-contaminated, sand- and-gravel aquifer in Cape Cod, Massachusetts was measured. P. stutzeri is known to denitrify as well as degrade a variety of aromatic and chlorinated solvents and is often advocated as a candidate for bioaugmentation. This bacterium was genetically engineered to be resistant to ampicillin and produce blue- fluorescing protein (BFP) in order to facilitate maintaining the bacteria in pure culture and later to track them in the environment. The study involved a natural-gradient injection and recovery test in which vertical gradients of an electron donor (acetate) and acceptor (nitrate) were created within the sandy aquifer sediments above an amendment of the genetically engineered P. stutzeri. The bacteria, nitrate, and acetate were allowed to be advected with the natural flow of groundwater past close-interval, multi-level samplers that were installed downgradient from the points of

  8. Latitudinal Discontinuity in Thermal Conditions along the Nearshore of Central-Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Fabian J.; Largier, John L.; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30–32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4–10 years at 15 sites between 28–35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30–31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30–31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species

  9. Latitudinal discontinuity in thermal conditions along the nearshore of central-northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Fabian J; Largier, John L; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30-32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4-10 years at 15 sites between 28-35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30-31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30-31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species

  10. Comparative population genomics of latitudinal variation in Drosophila simulans and Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    MACHADO, HEATHER E.; BERGLAND, ALAN O.; O’BRIEN, KATHERINE R.; BEHRMAN, EMILY L.; SCHMIDT, PAUL S.; PETROV, DMITRI A.

    2016-01-01

    Examples of clinal variation in phenotypes and genotypes across latitudinal transects have served as important models for understanding how spatially varying selection and demographic forces shape variation within species. Here, we examine the selective and demographic contributions to latitudinal variation through the largest comparative genomic study to date of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila melanogaster, with genomic sequence data from 382 individual fruit flies, collected across a spatial transect of 19 degrees latitude and at multiple time points over 2 years. Consistent with phenotypic studies, we find less clinal variation in D. simulans than D. melanogaster, particularly for the autosomes. Moreover, we find that clinally varying loci in D. simulans are less stable over multiple years than comparable clines in D. melanogaster. D. simulans shows a significantly weaker pattern of isolation by distance than D. melanogaster and we find evidence for a stronger contribution of migration to D. simulans population genetic structure. While population bottlenecks and migration can plausibly explain the differences in stability of clinal variation between the two species, we also observe a significant enrichment of shared clinal genes, suggesting that the selective forces associated with climate are acting on the same genes and phenotypes in D. simulans and D. melanogaster. PMID:26523848

  11. Comparative population genomics of latitudinal variation in Drosophila simulans and Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Machado, Heather E; Bergland, Alan O; O'Brien, Katherine R; Behrman, Emily L; Schmidt, Paul S; Petrov, Dmitri A

    2016-02-01

    Examples of clinal variation in phenotypes and genotypes across latitudinal transects have served as important models for understanding how spatially varying selection and demographic forces shape variation within species. Here, we examine the selective and demographic contributions to latitudinal variation through the largest comparative genomic study to date of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila melanogaster, with genomic sequence data from 382 individual fruit flies, collected across a spatial transect of 19 degrees latitude and at multiple time points over 2 years. Consistent with phenotypic studies, we find less clinal variation in D. simulans than D. melanogaster, particularly for the autosomes. Moreover, we find that clinally varying loci in D. simulans are less stable over multiple years than comparable clines in D. melanogaster. D. simulans shows a significantly weaker pattern of isolation by distance than D. melanogaster and we find evidence for a stronger contribution of migration to D. simulans population genetic structure. While population bottlenecks and migration can plausibly explain the differences in stability of clinal variation between the two species, we also observe a significant enrichment of shared clinal genes, suggesting that the selective forces associated with climate are acting on the same genes and phenotypes in D. simulans and D. melanogaster. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Shifting latitudinal clines in avian body size correlate with global warming in Australian passerines.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Janet L; Heinsohn, Robert; Joseph, Leo

    2009-11-07

    Intraspecific latitudinal clines in the body size of terrestrial vertebrates, where members of the same species are larger at higher latitudes, are widely interpreted as evidence for natural selection and adaptation to local climate. These clines are predicted to shift in response to climate change. We used museum specimens to measure changes in the body size of eight passerine bird species from south-eastern Australia over approximately the last 100 years. Four species showed significant decreases in body size (1.8-3.6% of wing length) and a shift in latitudinal cline over that period, and a meta-analysis demonstrated a consistent trend across all eight species. Southern high-latitude populations now display the body sizes typical of more northern populations pre-1950, equivalent to a 7 degrees shift in latitude. Using ptilochronology, we found no evidence that these morphological changes were a plastic response to changes in nutrition, a likely non-genetic mechanism for the pattern observed. Our results demonstrate a generalized response by eight avian species to some major environmental change over the last 100 years or so, probably global warming.

  13. Co-Gradient Variation in Growth Rate and Development Time of a Broadly Distributed Butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Madeleine; Sunnucks, Paul; Norgate, Melanie; Murray, Neil; Kearney, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Widespread species often show geographic variation in thermally-sensitive traits, providing insight into how species respond to shifts in temperature through time. Such patterns may arise from phenotypic plasticity, genetic adaptation, or their interaction. In some cases, the effects of genotype and temperature may act together to reduce, or to exacerbate, phenotypic variation in fitness-related traits across varying thermal environments. We find evidence for such interactions in life-history traits of Heteronympha merope, a butterfly distributed across a broad latitudinal gradient in south-eastern Australia. We show that body size in this butterfly is negatively related to developmental temperature in the laboratory, in accordance with the temperature-size rule, but not in the field, despite very strong temperature gradients. A common garden experiment on larval thermal responses, spanning the environmental extremes of H. merope's distribution, revealed that butterflies from low latitude (warmer climate) populations have relatively fast intrinsic growth and development rates compared to those from cooler climates. These synergistic effects of genotype and temperature across the landscape (co-gradient variation) are likely to accentuate phenotypic variation in these traits, and this interaction must be accounted for when predicting how H. merope will respond to temperature change through time. These results highlight the importance of understanding how variation in life-history traits may arise in response to environmental change. Without this knowledge, we may fail to detect whether organisms are tracking environmental change, and if they are, whether it is by plasticity, adaptation or both. PMID:24743771

  14. Genetic consequences of fragmentation in “arbor vitae,” eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.), toward the northern limit of its distribution range

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huaitong; Tremblay, Francine; Bergeron, Yves; Paul, Véronique; Chen, Cungen

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that marginal fragmented populations of eastern white cedar (EWC) are genetically isolated due to reduced pollen and gene flow. In accordance with the central-marginal model, we predicted a decrease in population genetic diversity and an increase in differentiation along the latitudinal gradient from the boreal mixed-wood to northern coniferous forest. A total of 24 eastern white cedar populations were sampled along the north-south latitudinal gradient for microsatellite genotyping analysis. Positive Fis values and heterozygote deficiency were observed in populations from the marginal (Fis = 0.244; PHW = 0.0042) and discontinuous zones (Fis = 0.166; PHW = 0.0042). However, populations from the continuous zone were in HW equilibrium (Fis = −0.007; PHW = 0.3625). There were no significant latitudinal effects on gene diversity (Hs), allelic richness (AR), or population differentiation (Fst). Bayesian and NJT (neighbor-joining tree) analyses demonstrated the presence of a population structure that was partly consistent with the geographic origins of the populations. The impact of population fragmentation on the genetic structure of EWC is to create a positive inbreeding coefficient, which was two to three times higher on average than that of a population from the continuous zone. This result indicated a higher occurrence of selfing within fragmented EWC populations coupled with a higher degree of gene exchange among near-neighbor relatives, thereby leading to significant inbreeding. Increased population isolation was apparently not correlated with a detectable effect on genetic diversity. Overall, the fragmented populations of EWC appear well-buffered against effects of inbreeding on genetic erosion. PMID:23145335

  15. Genetic consequences of fragmentation in "arbor vitae," eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.), toward the northern limit of its distribution range.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huaitong; Tremblay, Francine; Bergeron, Yves; Paul, Véronique; Chen, Cungen

    2012-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that marginal fragmented populations of eastern white cedar (EWC) are genetically isolated due to reduced pollen and gene flow. In accordance with the central-marginal model, we predicted a decrease in population genetic diversity and an increase in differentiation along the latitudinal gradient from the boreal mixed-wood to northern coniferous forest. A total of 24 eastern white cedar populations were sampled along the north-south latitudinal gradient for microsatellite genotyping analysis. Positive F(is) values and heterozygote deficiency were observed in populations from the marginal (F(is) = 0.244; P(HW) = 0.0042) and discontinuous zones (F(is) = 0.166; P(HW) = 0.0042). However, populations from the continuous zone were in HW equilibrium (F(is) = -0.007; P(HW) = 0.3625). There were no significant latitudinal effects on gene diversity (H(s)), allelic richness (AR), or population differentiation (F(st)). Bayesian and NJT (neighbor-joining tree) analyses demonstrated the presence of a population structure that was partly consistent with the geographic origins of the populations. The impact of population fragmentation on the genetic structure of EWC is to create a positive inbreeding coefficient, which was two to three times higher on average than that of a population from the continuous zone. This result indicated a higher occurrence of selfing within fragmented EWC populations coupled with a higher degree of gene exchange among near-neighbor relatives, thereby leading to significant inbreeding. Increased population isolation was apparently not correlated with a detectable effect on genetic diversity. Overall, the fragmented populations of EWC appear well-buffered against effects of inbreeding on genetic erosion.

  16. Tomato GOLDEN2-LIKE Transcription Factors Reveal Molecular Gradients That Function during Fruit Development and Ripening[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Cuong V.; Vrebalov, Julia T.; Gapper, Nigel E.; Zheng, Yi; Zhong, Silin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Fruit ripening is the summation of changes rendering fleshy fruit tissues attractive and palatable to seed dispersing organisms. For example, sugar content is influenced by plastid numbers and photosynthetic activity in unripe fruit and later by starch and sugar catabolism during ripening. Tomato fruit are sinks of photosynthate, yet unripe green fruit contribute significantly to the sugars that ultimately accumulate in the ripe fruit. Plastid numbers and chlorophyll content are influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors and are positively correlated with photosynthesis and photosynthate accumulation. GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors regulate plastid and chlorophyll levels. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), like most plants, contains two GLKs (i.e., GLK1 and GLK2/UNIFORM). Mutant and transgene analysis demonstrated that these genes encode functionally similar peptides, though differential expression renders GLK1 more important in leaves, while GLK2 is predominant in fruit. A latitudinal gradient of GLK2 expression influences the typical uneven coloration of green and ripe wild-type fruit. Transcriptome profiling revealed a broader fruit gene expression gradient throughout development. The gradient influenced general ripening activities beyond plastid development and was consistent with the easily observed yet poorly studied ripening gradient present in tomato and many fleshy fruits. PMID:24510723

  17. Latitudinal and age-specific patterns of larval mortality in the damselfly Lestes sponsa: Senescence before maturity?

    PubMed

    Dańko, Maciej J; Dańko, Aleksandra; Golab, Maria J; Stoks, Robby; Sniegula, Szymon

    2017-09-01

    Latitudinal differences in life history traits driven by differences in seasonal time constraints have been widely documented. Yet, latitudinal patterns in (age-specific) mortality rates have been poorly studied. Here, we studied latitudinal differences in pre-adult age-specific mortality patterns in the strictly univoltine damselfly Lestes sponsa. We compared individuals from three latitudes reared from the egg stage in the laboratory at temperatures and photoperiods simulating those at the latitude of origin (main experiment) and under common-garden conditions at a fixed temperature and photoperiod (supplementary experiment). Results from the main experiment showed that the high-latitude population exhibited higher mortality rates than the central and southern populations, likely reflecting a cost of their faster development. Age-specific mortality patterns, also indicated higher ageing rates in the high-latitude compared to the low-latitude population, which likely had a genetic basis. The strong within-population variation in hatching dates in the low-latitude population caused variation in mortality rates; individuals that hatched later showed higher mortality rates presumably due to their shorter development times compared to larvae that hatched earlier. In both experiments, larvae from all three latitudes showed accelerated mortality rates with age, which is consistent with a pattern of senescence before adulthood. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Response of heterotrophic and autotrophic microbial plankton to inorganic and organic inputs along a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, S.; Fernández, E.; Calvo-Díaz, A.; Marañón, E.; Morán, X. A. G.; Teira, E.

    2010-05-01

    The effects of inorganic and/or organic nutrient inputs on phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria have never been concurrently assessed in open ocean oligotrophic communities over a wide spatial gradient. We studied the effects of potentially limiting inorganic (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, silica) and organic nutrient (glucose, aminoacids) inputs added separately as well as jointly, on microbial plankton biomass, community structure and metabolism in five microcosm experiments conducted along a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean (from 26° N to 29° S). Primary production rates increased up to 1.8-fold. Bacterial respiration and microbial community respiration increased up to 14.3 and 12.7-fold respectively. Bacterial production and bacterial growth efficiency increased up to 58.8-fold and 2.5-fold respectively. The largest increases were measured after mixed inorganic-organic nutrients additions. Changes in microbial plankton biomass were small as compared with those in metabolic rates. A north to south increase in the response of heterotrophic bacteria was observed, which could be related to a latitudinal gradient in phosphorus availability. Our results suggest that organic matter inputs will result in a predominantly heterotrophic versus autotrophic response and in increases in bacterial growth efficiency, particularly in the southern hemisphere. Subtle differences in the initial environmental and biological conditions are likely to result in differential microbial responses to inorganic and organic matter inputs.

  19. Commercial Plant Production and Consumption Still Follow the Latitudinal Gradient in Species Diversity despite Economic Globalization.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Erik J; Helmus, Matthew R; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Polasky, Stephen; Lasky, Jesse R; Zanne, Amy E; Pearse, William D; Kraft, Nathan J B; Miteva, Daniela A; Fagan, William F

    2016-01-01

    Increasing trade between countries and gains in income have given consumers around the world access to a richer and more diverse set of commercial plant products (i.e., foods and fibers produced by farmers). According to the economic theory of comparative advantage, countries open to trade will be able to consume more-in terms of volume and diversity-if they concentrate production on commodities that they can most cost-effectively produce, while importing goods that are expensive to produce, relative to other countries. Here, we perform a global analysis of traded commercial plant products and find little evidence that increasing globalization has incentivized agricultural specialization. Instead, a country's plant production and consumption patterns are still largely determined by local evolutionary legacies of plant diversification. Because tropical countries harbor a greater diversity of lineages across the tree of life than temperate countries, tropical countries produce and consume a greater diversity of plant products than do temperate countries. In contrast, the richer and more economically advanced temperate countries have the capacity to produce and consume more plant species than the generally poorer tropical countries, yet this collection of plant species is drawn from fewer branches on the tree of life. Why have countries not increasingly specialized in plant production despite the theoretical financial incentive to do so? Potential explanations include the persistence of domestic agricultural subsidies that distort production decisions, cultural preferences for diverse local food production, and that diverse food production protects rural households in developing countries from food price shocks. Less specialized production patterns will make crop systems more resilient to zonal climatic and social perturbations, but this may come at the expense of global crop production efficiency, an important step in making the transition to a hotter and more crowded world.

  20. Latitudinal gradients in sea ice and primary production determine Arctic seabird colony size in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Laidre, Kristin L; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Nyeland, Jens; Mosbech, Anders; Boertmann, David

    2008-12-07

    Sea ice loss will indirectly alter energy transfer through the pelagic food web and ultimately impact apex predators. We quantified spring-time trends in sea ice recession around each of 46 thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) colonies in west Greenland across 20 degrees of latitude and investigated the magnitude and timing of the associated spring-time primary production. A geographical information system was used to extract satellite-based observations of sea ice concentration from the Nimbus-7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR, 1979-1987) and the Defence Meteorological Satellite Programs Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSMI, 1987-2004), and satellite-based observations of chlorophyll a from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS: EOS-Terra satellite) in weekly intervals in circular buffers around each colony site (150 km in radius). Rapid recession of high Arctic seasonal ice cover created a temporally predictable primary production bloom and associated trophic cascade in water gradually exposed to solar radiation. This pattern was largely absent from lower latitudes where little to no sea ice resulted in a temporally variable primary production bloom driven by nutrient cycling and upwelling uncoupled to ice. The relationship between the rate and variability of sea ice recession and colony size of thick-billed murres shows that periodical confinement of the trophic cascade at high latitudes determines the carrying capacity for Arctic seabirds during the breeding period.