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Sample records for latvia die radiationkontrolle

  1. Latvia: Health system review.

    PubMed

    Mitenbergs, Uldis; Taube, Maris; Misins, Janis; Mikitis, Eriks; Martinsons, Atis; Rurane, Aiga; Quentin, Wilm

    2012-01-01

    This analysis of the Latvian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health-system performance. Latvia has been constantly reforming its health system for over two decades. After independence in 1991, Latvia initially moved to create a social health insurance type system. However, problems with decentralized planning and fragmented and inefficient financing led to this being gradually reversed, and ultimately the establishment in 2011 of a National Health Service type system. These constant changes have taken place against a backdrop of relatively poor health and limited funding, with a heavy burden for individuals; Latvia has one of the highest rates of out-of-pocket expenditure on health in the European Union (EU). The lack of financial resources resulting from the financial crisis has posed an enormous challenge to the government, which struggled to ensure the availability of necessary health care services for the population and to prevent deterioration of health status. Yet this also provided momentum for reforms: previous efforts to centralise the system and to shift from hospital to outpatient care were drastically accelerated, while at the same time a social safety net strategy was implemented (with financial support from the World Bank) to protect the poor from the negative consequences of user charges. However, as in any health system, a number of challenges remain. They include: reducing smoking and cardiovascular deaths; increasing coverage of prescription pharmaceuticals; reducing the excessive reliance on out-of-pocket payments for financing the health system; reducing inequities in access and health status; improving efficiency of hospitals through implementation of DRG-based financing; and monitoring and improving quality. In the face of these challenges at a time of financial crisis, one further challenge emerges: ensuring adequate funding for the health

  2. Latvia: Health system review.

    PubMed

    Mitenbergs, Uldis; Taube, Maris; Misins, Janis; Mikitis, Eriks; Martinsons, Atis; Rurane, Aiga; Quentin, Wilm

    2012-01-01

    This analysis of the Latvian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health-system performance. Latvia has been constantly reforming its health system for over two decades. After independence in 1991, Latvia initially moved to create a social health insurance type system. However, problems with decentralized planning and fragmented and inefficient financing led to this being gradually reversed, and ultimately the establishment in 2011 of a National Health Service type system. These constant changes have taken place against a backdrop of relatively poor health and limited funding, with a heavy burden for individuals; Latvia has one of the highest rates of out-of-pocket expenditure on health in the European Union (EU). The lack of financial resources resulting from the financial crisis has posed an enormous challenge to the government, which struggled to ensure the availability of necessary health care services for the population and to prevent deterioration of health status. Yet this also provided momentum for reforms: previous efforts to centralise the system and to shift from hospital to outpatient care were drastically accelerated, while at the same time a social safety net strategy was implemented (with financial support from the World Bank) to protect the poor from the negative consequences of user charges. However, as in any health system, a number of challenges remain. They include: reducing smoking and cardiovascular deaths; increasing coverage of prescription pharmaceuticals; reducing the excessive reliance on out-of-pocket payments for financing the health system; reducing inequities in access and health status; improving efficiency of hospitals through implementation of DRG-based financing; and monitoring and improving quality. In the face of these challenges at a time of financial crisis, one further challenge emerges: ensuring adequate funding for the health

  3. Parent and School Relations in Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluma, Dainuvite; Ivanova, Ilze

    2013-01-01

    Families in Latvia know what is best for their children, and they make a major contribution to their education. Consequently, it is important to build close partnerships between school and family. This article reviews extant research that provides insight into the nature of school-parent relations in Latvia as the nation stands at the crossroads…

  4. Surveying Language Attitudes and Practices in Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priedite, Aija

    2005-01-01

    As a heritage from the Soviet period (1945-1991) about 500,000-700,000 (mostly Russophone) persons (military persons, workers and others) lived in Latvia with little or no command of Latvian. During the same period, the Russian language had replaced Latvian in the public administration. Following the restitution of independence in 1991, one of the…

  5. Vocational Education and Training Reform in Latvia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) reform in Latvia is one of a series of country reports by the European Training Foundation on the reform process in partner countries. Chapter 1 provides basic data on the country. Chapter 2 describes the present situation and recent developments in VET. It covers main features of the…

  6. Educational Standards in Environmental Education: Lessons for Latvia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestergaard, Evija

    This study compares environmental education historically and in the present, as well as the environmental problems, in the Republic of Latvia with those in the United States, the United Kingdom, Austria, the Netherlands, and the Scandinavian countries. The environmental education standards and guidelines of Latvia, the United States, the United…

  7. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Education in Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    How can Latvia improve the quality and equity of its education system and realise long-term efficiency gains? This report covers the whole education system from early childhood education and care to tertiary education and provides an assessment of Latvia's policies and practices against the best approaches in education and skills across the OECD.…

  8. Education in Latvia. Reviews of National Policies for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    How can Latvia improve the quality and equity of its education system and realise long-term efficiency gains? This report covers the whole education system from early childhood education and care to tertiary education and provides an assessment of Latvia's policies and practices against the best approaches in education and skills across the OECD.…

  9. CFC concentrations in fresh groundwater in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikše, J.; DÄ`liĆa, A.; Babre, A.; RetiÄ·e, I.; Raga, B.; PÄ`rkone, E.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main issues in groundwater studies is groundwater age, also known as residence time. This is important for investigating the groundwater filtration rate and to solve variety issues of groundwater use, management and protection. Groundwater age studies in Latvia have been rare, and the latest study, which defined the new results of age of groundwater using CFC dating method, was during years 2002 - 2006 and it was carried out by Denmark and Greenland Geological Survey (GEUS) and the Latvian State Geological Survey as a joint study on the impact of agriculture on groundwater quality in Latvia. Within the project "Interdisciplinary research groups and model system for groundwater studies" (PUMA) the studies of groundwater age by CFCs and 3H methods is continued. The concentration of tritium will be determined in about 60 samples, but the CFC concentration is now analyzed in 39 samples because previous studies have shown that Latvian CFC method is appropriate for aquifers to an average depth of 30-50 m. CFCs concentrations were analyzed in the laboratory at GEUS after Busenberg and Plummer described method by gas chromatography equipped with an EDC detector. Interpretation of the results was carried out by laboratory expert Troels Laier. Samples are taken on both from the unconfined aquifer and the first confined aquifer, the sampling interval varies from 5-10 m up to 120-130 m for tritium analysis and up to 80 m depth for most CFC analysis except one sample that comes from 128 m depth. It is stated that most of determined groundwater from both - confined and unconfined aquifer - has residence time of 35-55 years. So far, the results suggest that groundwater movement is fairly rapid in places where fractured dolomite forms the aquifer as the water residence time at 60-70 m depth is only 35-55 years. On the other hand, the composition of overlying Quaternary deposits (clay, glacial till loam or sand, sand - gravel sediments) has great importance on variations

  10. Education Policy in the Republic of Latvia: Lessons from Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koke, Tatjana; Saleniece, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The idea for this article proceeds from personal, practical, and emotional experience and reflections on holding the position of the Minister for Education and Science during the period of the economic crisis in Latvia (2007-2010). The article consists of three parts. The first part outlines the potential of a position in power with a particular…

  11. The information presented on labels for bread produced in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Murniece, Irisa; Straumite, Evita

    2014-11-01

    Bakery products, particularly bread, make up a significant share of the food guide pyramid. To help consumers make more informed choices from the bread available in the market, it is essential to provide correct and appropriate information on food labels. The aim of this research was to analyse the information shown on labels for different types of bread produced in Latvia. Different types of bread were chosen from 28 bakeries located in regions throughout Latvia. For statistical analysis, the data were processed using the S-PLUS 6.1 Professional Edition. From the analysis of labels on bread in Latvian, we conclude there is an absence of information about energy; only 4.8% of labels presented energy calculated according to the Nutritional Labelling Regulation 90/496/ECC. PMID:24874366

  12. The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.; Gendelis, S.

    2016-02-01

    The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

  13. The information presented on labels for bread produced in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Murniece, Irisa; Straumite, Evita

    2014-11-01

    Bakery products, particularly bread, make up a significant share of the food guide pyramid. To help consumers make more informed choices from the bread available in the market, it is essential to provide correct and appropriate information on food labels. The aim of this research was to analyse the information shown on labels for different types of bread produced in Latvia. Different types of bread were chosen from 28 bakeries located in regions throughout Latvia. For statistical analysis, the data were processed using the S-PLUS 6.1 Professional Edition. From the analysis of labels on bread in Latvian, we conclude there is an absence of information about energy; only 4.8% of labels presented energy calculated according to the Nutritional Labelling Regulation 90/496/ECC.

  14. Changes in the variability of extreme climate events in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avotniece, Zanita; Lizuma, Lita; Briede, Agrita; Klavins, Maris

    2015-04-01

    Recent changes in the mean values of surface air temperature and precipitation have led to significant local changes in hazardous and extreme events in many parts of the world, including the Northern Europe and Latvia. The observed trends in the changes of such extreme climate events indicate that extremes associated with high temperatures and precipitation are becoming more frequent in Latvia, however not much is known about the changes in variability of these extreme events. This study investigated the long-term trends and variability of extreme temperature and precipitation events as defined by the ECA&D in 10 meteorological observation stations in Latvia over the period 1925-2012. In order to detect and study the changes in variability and anomalies of extreme events, a comparison of three different time scales was performed: 1931-1960, 1961-1990,1981-2010. The results of the analysis revealed steady changes in some extremes while others have experienced a significant change in variability in the most recent 30-year period. Due to the specifics in the spatial distribution of extreme events, the results show differences in the behaviour of extreme events over the country.

  15. SPHERICAL DIE

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, J.P.

    1959-01-27

    A die is presented for pressing powdered materials into a hemispherical shape of uniforin density and wall thickness comprising a fcmale and male die element held in a stationary spaced relation with the space being equivalent to the wall thickness and defining the hemispherical shape, a pressing ring linearly moveable along the male die element, an inlet to fill the space with powdered materials, a guiding system for moving the pressing ring along the male die element so as to press the powdered material and a heating system for heating the male element so that the powdered material is heated while being pressed.

  16. 77 FR 39254 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (66 FR 46777..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (72 FR 44830). The Commission is now conducting second... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this...

  17. Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogens in Freshwater Fish in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Terentjeva, Margarita; Eizenberga, Inga; Valciņa, Olga; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Strazdiņa, Vita; Bērziņš, Aivars

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica in freshwater fish in Latvia. In total, 235 samples, including freshly caught fish from fives lakes (n = 129) and fish from retail markets (n = 106), were collected from April 2014 to December 2014 in Latvia. Samples were tested according to International Organization for Standardization methods. No Salmonella spp. were found in fresh fish from lakes or in commercially available fish. In contrast, the overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in freshwater fish was 13% (30 of 235) and 14% (34 of 235), respectively, and no significant difference between the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica was observed (P > 0.05). All Y. enterocolitica isolates belonged to the nonpathogenic 1A biotype. Molecular serotyping of L. monocytogenes revealed that the most distributed serogroup was 1/2a-3a (65%), followed by 1/2c-3c (25%), 1/2b-3b (5%), and 4b, 4d, 4e (5%). The prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in freshwater lake fish was 2% (2 of 129) and 3% (4 of 129), respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in fish at retail markets was 26% (28 of 106) and 28% (30 of 106), respectively. In retail samples, 9 of 58 positive fish contained both L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica. In general, differences in the prevalences of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in retail samples were significantly higher than those in freshly caught fish (P < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that freshwater fish could be an important source of Y. enterocolitica and L. monocytogenes for consumers in Latvia.

  18. Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogens in Freshwater Fish in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Terentjeva, Margarita; Eizenberga, Inga; Valciņa, Olga; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Strazdiņa, Vita; Bērziņš, Aivars

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica in freshwater fish in Latvia. In total, 235 samples, including freshly caught fish from fives lakes (n = 129) and fish from retail markets (n = 106), were collected from April 2014 to December 2014 in Latvia. Samples were tested according to International Organization for Standardization methods. No Salmonella spp. were found in fresh fish from lakes or in commercially available fish. In contrast, the overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in freshwater fish was 13% (30 of 235) and 14% (34 of 235), respectively, and no significant difference between the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica was observed (P > 0.05). All Y. enterocolitica isolates belonged to the nonpathogenic 1A biotype. Molecular serotyping of L. monocytogenes revealed that the most distributed serogroup was 1/2a-3a (65%), followed by 1/2c-3c (25%), 1/2b-3b (5%), and 4b, 4d, 4e (5%). The prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in freshwater lake fish was 2% (2 of 129) and 3% (4 of 129), respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in fish at retail markets was 26% (28 of 106) and 28% (30 of 106), respectively. In retail samples, 9 of 58 positive fish contained both L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica. In general, differences in the prevalences of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in retail samples were significantly higher than those in freshly caught fish (P < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that freshwater fish could be an important source of Y. enterocolitica and L. monocytogenes for consumers in Latvia. PMID:26555535

  19. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  20. Spatial interpolation of monthly mean air temperature data for Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aniskevich, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    Temperature data with high spatial resolution are essential for appropriate and qualitative local characteristics analysis. Nowadays the surface observation station network in Latvia consists of 22 stations recording daily air temperature, thus in order to analyze very specific and local features in the spatial distribution of temperature values in the whole Latvia, a high quality spatial interpolation method is required. Until now inverse distance weighted interpolation was used for the interpolation of air temperature data at the meteorological and climatological service of the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre, and no additional topographical information was taken into account. This method made it almost impossible to reasonably assess the actual temperature gradient and distribution between the observation points. During this project a new interpolation method was applied and tested, considering auxiliary explanatory parameters. In order to spatially interpolate monthly mean temperature values, kriging with external drift was used over a grid of 1 km resolution, which contains parameters such as 5 km mean elevation, continentality, distance from the Gulf of Riga and the Baltic Sea, biggest lakes and rivers, population density. As the most appropriate of these parameters, based on a complex situation analysis, mean elevation and continentality was chosen. In order to validate interpolation results, several statistical indicators of the differences between predicted values and the values actually observed were used. Overall, the introduced model visually and statistically outperforms the previous interpolation method and provides a meteorologically reasonable result, taking into account factors that influence the spatial distribution of the monthly mean temperature.

  1. Possible Applications of Soil Remediation Technologies in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlakovs, Juris; Vircavs, Magnuss

    2011-01-01

    Increasing public concern about deleterious effects of contamination on the environment and human health has led to legislative actions aimed at controlling and regulating the emission of potential contaminants into the environment, but there is still a plethora of territories historically contaminated with different contaminants within the territory of Latvia. The purpose of the present study is to give an overview of the formerly and presently contaminated areas and give some recommendations for remediation. 242 first category contaminated territories (the contamination exceeds the acceptable normative 10 times or more) are mentioned in the National Register of Contaminated Territories, a lot of them are known as contaminated with hazardous contaminants such as heavy metals, oil products, organic compounds and other contaminants in different amounts and concentrations. An overview of soil contamination in Latvia is provided, the planned and recommended research, as well as the planned remediation in pilot case studies, are described, giving a review of the historical contamination situation and of applications of the planned remediation technologies.

  2. OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SMALL CEREALS IN LATVIA.

    PubMed

    Treikale, O; Javoisha, B; Feodorova-Fedotova, L; Grantina-Ievina, L; Volkova, J

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the infection level of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in different spring barley and oat cultivars and to specify the spectrum of Fusarium species of Latvian population found in the ear samples of spring barley and oat. Molecular analysis of single-conidium isolates of Fusarium species from the grain samples in different sites of Latvia revealed the presence of F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. boothii, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides, and F. tricinctum in Latvian population of Fusarium species associated with FHB in spring barley. F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. langsethiae, F. oxysporum, F. poae, F. redolens and F. sporotrichioides were identified in the samples of oat. Further investigations are required.

  3. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  4. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  5. The quality of pellets available on the market in Latvia: classification according en 14961 requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsanovs, Vladimirs; Timma, Lelde; Zandeckis, Aivars; Romagnoli, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of the paper are to determine the quality of pellets available on the market in Latvia and to compare results with the European standard EN 14961-2:2011. The following parameters have been determined for samples of pellets: length, diameter, moisture and ash content, mechanical durability, lower calorific value and bulk density. The results showed that all samples confirm to the B class requirements of the standard. If one considers the A1 class - only 4 out of 9 samples fit the requirements. The paper emphasizes the need for the introduction of a quality control system for the wood pellets market in Latvia.

  6. Nitrogen and phosphorus trend analysis in Latvia agricultural monitoring stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimanta, Z.; Vircavs, V.; Veinbergs, A.; Lauva, D.; Ambramenko, K.; Gailuma, A.; VÄ«tola, I.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality depends on human activity. Intensive agriculture is one of the main sources, that cause water quality pollution and eutrophication. The use of fertilizers not only improves soil fertility, crop yield and quality, but also causes water pollution. Human activities, including the use of fertilizer, promote nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations in water. Compared to the 90th agricultural production in Latvia has progressed. Vulnerable zones have been specified in the country. It is situated in the region of Zemgale's south site, within the border Lithuania. There are defined requirements for water and soil protection from agricultural activity that cause nitrate pollution. The EU Nitrates Directive aim is to protect water from nitrate pollution. In Latvia defined nitrate values are: 50 mg/l NO3 or 11.2 mg/l N/NO3 and Ptot - 0.2 mg/l. As agriculture has became intensive and the use of fertilizers has grown, results indicate that the leaching potential and values of N and P has increased. Nutrients leaching in agricultural areas have observed all year in vulnerable zones, but it's values changes depending on season. The highest nutrient concentrations observe in winter and spring periods, particularly in snow and ice melting periods. The lowest values are in summer. Nutrient leaching potencial depends on precipitation, plant vegetation, season, fertilization type and soil cultivation process. N and P leaching can decrease, taking consideration the use time of fertilizers and good agricultural practices. Research objects are monitoring stations Bērze and Mellupīte with tree research scales: drainage fields, small catchments and observation wells. The research analyses N and P concentrations in groundwater (2006-2010) and drain field and small catchment runoff (1995-2010). The aim of the research is to analyze nitrate and phosphorus concentration fluctuations in a time period. To determine nutrient concentrations, water samples were collected

  7. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C. Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation determined whether selected ion beam sputtered coatings on H-13 die steel would have the potential of improving the thermal fatigue behavior of the steel used as a die in aluminum die casting. The coatings were selected to test candidate insulators and metals capable of providing protection of the die surface. The studies indicate that 1 micrometer thick W and Pt coatings reduced the thermal fatigue more than any other coating tested and are candidates to be used on a die surface to increase die life.

  8. 77 FR 71631 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... electronic filing have been amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6... Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine AGENCY: United...

  9. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, People's Republic of China, Poland, Republic of Korea and Ukraine, 66 FR 46777... South Korea: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order, 72 FR 44830 (August 9, 2007). On July 2, 2012, the... of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 77 FR...

  10. Pioneers in Academia: Higher Education for Nurses in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalnins, Irene

    1995-01-01

    In Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, postgraduate nursing curricula were reformed, but discrepancies appeared between stated goals and actual content, due largely to inexperience with nursing education. Other difficulties included lack of literature in native languages and insufficient reading ability in English. (SK)

  11. Integration of ICT in Teacher Education and Different School Subjects in Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangro, Andris; Kangro, Ilze

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of information and communication technology (ICT) to the educational system of Latvia has implemented infrastructural planning since 1985 (Grinfelds, 1996). The initial plan envisaged equipping schools (mainly secondary schools) and institutions of higher education with computer sets, and training teachers and university faculty.…

  12. A Conceptual Approach to Learning Chemistry in Professional Secondary School in Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priede, Daina; Krumina, Aira

    2012-01-01

    After the year 1991, great structural reforms were launched in Latvia at all levels of education, including secondary education. Still, there are many reforms that must be implemented in secondary professional education. The objective of our research was to develop a contemporary didactic coverage for teaching chemistry in professional secondary…

  13. Aspects of Fiscal Federalism in Higher Education Cost Sharing in Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasa, Rita

    2008-01-01

    This case study explores devolution of low-income student subsidies, via the national student loans program, from the central to local governments in Latvia by means of decentralizing political and financial responsibility to provide public assistance to low-income students in obtaining funds for higher education. It describes municipal engagement…

  14. The Economic Consciousness and Value Orientations of Graduates of the Higher Educational Institutions of Latgalia [Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voronov, Viktor Vasil'evich

    2010-01-01

    This article is devoted to an analysis of the economic consciousness and current orientations of the graduates of higher educational institutions of the Latgalia region of Latvia, which shares borders with Pskov oblast in Russia and with Belarus and Lithuania. Latgalia, part of the Pskov and Vitebsk gubernias of the Russian state for about a…

  15. Parenting Dimensions in Relation to Pre-Schoolers' Behaviour Problems in Latvia and Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebre, Sandra B.; Jusiene, Roma; Dapkevice, Egle; Skreitule-Pikse, Inga; Bieliauskaite, Rasa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine associations between parenting and child behaviour problems in two neighbouring countries with subtle, yet apparent cultural differences. Participants were mothers and fathers of preschool-age children from Latvia and Lithuania. Parents completed a measure of child-rearing attitudes and reported on their…

  16. Alternative Civil Enculturation: Political Disenchantment and Civic Attitudes in Minority Schools in Estonia, Latvia, and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubeva, Maria; Austers, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the ways in which minority schools in Latvia, Estonia, and Slovakia resist the dominant narratives of nation and citizenship and provide an alternative model of civil enculturation for students. It provides evidence to support the hypothesis that differences between competing narratives of statehood and nationhood among…

  17. Recession curve analysis for groundwater levels: case study in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailuma, A.; VÄ«tola, I.; Abramenko, K.; Lauva, D.; Vircavs, V.; Veinbergs, A.; Dimanta, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Recession curve analysis is powerful and effective analysis technique in many research areas related with hydrogeology where observations have to be made, such as water filtration and absorption of moisture, irrigation and drainage, planning of hydroelectric power production and chemical leaching (elution of chemical substances) as well as in other areas. The analysis of the surface runoff hydrograph`s recession curves, which is performed to conceive the after-effects of interaction of precipitation and surface runoff, has approved in practice. The same method for analysis of hydrograph`s recession curves can be applied for the observations of the groundwater levels. There are manually prepared hydrograph for analysis of recession curves for observation wells (MG2, BG2 and AG1) in agricultural monitoring sites in Latvia. Within this study from the available monitoring data of groundwater levels were extracted data of declining periods, splitted by month. The drop-down curves were manually (by changing the date) moved together, until to find the best match, thereby obtaining monthly drop-down curves, representing each month separately. Monthly curves were combined and manually joined, for obtaining characterizing drop-down curves of the year for each well. Within the process of decreased recession curve analysis, from the initial curve was cut out upward areas, leaving only the drops of the curve, consequently, the curve is transformed more closely to the groundwater flow, trying to take out the impact of rain or drought periods from the curve. Respectively, the drop-down curve is part of the data, collected with hydrograph, where data with the discharge dominates, without considering impact of precipitation. Using the recession curve analysis theory, ready tool "A Visual Basic Spreadsheet Macro for Recession Curve Analysis" was used for selection of data and logarithmic functions matching (K. Posavec et.al., GROUND WATER 44, no. 5: 764-767, 2006), as well as

  18. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in Latvia using multivariate statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Bikse, Janis; Popovs, Konrads; Babre, Alise

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine geochemical processes denoting trace element levels and variations in the fresh groundwater in Latvia. The database of 1398 groundwater samples containing records about major ion chemistry, trace elements and geological conditions was made and used. Accuracy of groundwater analysis and errors were determined and excluded prior statistical analysis. Groundwater hydrogeochemical groups were distributed on the basis of major ion concentrations using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results of PCA showed that there are three main geochemical groups explaining 84% of the total variance in data set. Component 1 explains the greatest amount of variance- 51% with main positive loadings of Cl, Na, K and Mg. Component 2 explains 21% of the variance with highest loadings of HCO3, Ca and Mg. Component 3 shows the highest loadings of SO4 and Ca and explains 12% of the total variance. HCA was chosen because of its great ability to group large amount of data (groundwater samples) in several clusters based on similar characteristics. As a result three large groups comprising nine distinctive clusters was made. It was possible to characterise each cluster depending on its depth of sampling, aquifer material and geochemical processes: carbonate dissolution (weathering), groundwater mixing, gypsum dissolution, ion exchange and seawater and upward saline water intrusion. Cluster 1 is the least altered infiltration water with very low load of dissolved salts. It is concluded that the groundwater in Cluster 5 has evolved from Cluster 1 by carbonate weathering in an open system conditions. The Cluster 4 is similar to Cluster 5, yet have been affected by reduction of sulphates and iron species. Cluster 3 is characterised by highest loading of chloride salts while Cluster 9 represents groundwater with highest sulphate concentrations resulting from gypsum dissolution. However, Cluster 8 is an intermediate

  19. New finding of Trichinella britovi in a European beaver (Castor fiber) in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Segliņa, Zanda; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Deksne, Gunita; Spuņģis, Voldemārs; Kurjušina, Muza

    2015-08-01

    We report the first finding of Trichinella britovi in a European beaver. In Latvia, beaver is a common game animal and frequently used in human diet. A high prevalence of Trichinella infections in Latvia is present in the most common hosts-carnivores and omnivores. In total, 182 European beaver muscle samples were tested for Trichinella larvae accordingly to the reference method of European Communities Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2075/2005 (2005). Trichinella britovi larvae were detected in one animal (prevalence 0.5%; intensity 5.92 larvae per gram of muscle). This finding suggests that the consumption of European beaver meat can be a risk to human health. Further studies are needed in order to determine if the present observation represents an isolated individual case or low prevalence of Trichinella infection in beavers. PMID:26122989

  20. New finding of Trichinella britovi in a European beaver (Castor fiber) in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Segliņa, Zanda; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Deksne, Gunita; Spuņģis, Voldemārs; Kurjušina, Muza

    2015-08-01

    We report the first finding of Trichinella britovi in a European beaver. In Latvia, beaver is a common game animal and frequently used in human diet. A high prevalence of Trichinella infections in Latvia is present in the most common hosts-carnivores and omnivores. In total, 182 European beaver muscle samples were tested for Trichinella larvae accordingly to the reference method of European Communities Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2075/2005 (2005). Trichinella britovi larvae were detected in one animal (prevalence 0.5%; intensity 5.92 larvae per gram of muscle). This finding suggests that the consumption of European beaver meat can be a risk to human health. Further studies are needed in order to determine if the present observation represents an isolated individual case or low prevalence of Trichinella infection in beavers.

  1. Implementation of the Patients' Rights in Cross-border Healthcare directive in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Olsena, Solvita

    2014-03-01

    Latvia, being one of the EU Member States, has an obligation to implement the rules stated by the Directive 2011/24/EU on Patients' Rights in Cross-border Healthcare (hereinafter--the Directive) before 25 October 2013 in existing national legislation and practice. Implementation was carried out under pressured circumstances. A National Contact Point has been established, information is provided for patients in Latvian and to some extent in English, the Medical Treatment Risk Fund will start operations to provide compensation for harm, and the restrictions and procedure for prior authorisation have been stated. The need to secure quality of care and patient safety and well as privacy protection are the most challenging tasks for Latvia. It can be concluded that some progress in patients' rights can be achieved, but it is doubtful if patients' mobility will be stimulated. PMID:24665670

  2. Investigations of Wind Shear Distribution on the Baltic Shore of Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukovs, V.; Zacepins, A.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Komashilovs, V.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a review of wind parameter measurement complexes and investigation methods used for potential wind energy evaluation. Based on results of long-term investigations of wind shear distribution regularities are shown up to 160 m height on the Baltic Sea shore. Distribution of potential wind energy in Latvia is shown as a map and table of average and average cubic wind speed values. Database of wind parameter measurements is available at a public website.

  3. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  4. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  5. Packaged die heater

    SciTech Connect

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  6. HIGH PRESSURE DIES

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, W.B.

    1960-05-31

    A press was invented for subjecting specimens of bismuth, urania, yttria, or thoria to high pressures and temperatures. The press comprises die parts enclosing a space in which is placed an electric heater thermally insulated from the die parts so as not to damage them by heat. The die parts comprise two opposed inner frustoconical parts and an outer part having a double frustoconical recess receiving the inner parts. The die space decreases in size as the inner die parts move toward one another against the outer part and the inner parts, though very hard, do not fracture because of the mode of support provided by the outer part.

  7. [Harmony in dying].

    PubMed

    Meyer, H

    1990-02-13

    Dying and death have scarcely before our time preoccupied so many. Some even seem to thrive from thanatology. Do we physicians however consecrate patience and time to the dying of our next or our patients? Did we learn in medical school or with our patients to assist a dying person? Did we search for answers to death and dying by asking philosophers, physicians or musicians? Can we follow their reasoning in profit for our patients or for ourselves? Harmony in death can possibly be found in a harmonious life in our splendid and humane profession. Modest personal experience enriched by reflections tries imperfectly to bring harmony as hope to our dying.

  8. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P [Albuquerque, NM; Garcia, Ernest J [Albuquerque, NM; Francis, Kathryn M [Rio Rancho, NM

    2014-01-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  9. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  10. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-04-26

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

  11. The Ambiguous Dying Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2004-01-01

    More than one-half of the 2.4 million deaths that will occur in the United States in 2004 will be immediately preceded by a time in which the likelihood of dying can best be described as "ambiguous." Many people die without ever being considered "dying" or "at the end of life." These people may miss out on the opportunity to close important…

  12. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C.-Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Three experimental research designs investigating candidate materials and processes involved in protective die surface coating procedures by sputter deposition, using ion beam technologies, are discussed. Various pre-test results show that none of the coatings remained completely intact for 15,000 test cycles. The longest lifetime was observed for coatings such as tungsten, platinum, and molybdenum which reduced thermal fatigue, but exhibited oxidation and suppressed crack initiation only as long as the coating did not fracture. Final test results confirmed earlier findings and coatings with Pt and W proved to be the candidate materials to be used on a die surface to increase die life. In the W-coated specimens, which remained intact on the surface after thermal fatigue testing, no oxidation was found under the coating, although a few cracks formed on the surface where the coating broke down. Further research is planned.

  13. Evaluation of reed resources in Latvia and analysis of its use for energy production.

    PubMed

    Cubars, Edgars; Noviks, Gotfrids

    2012-04-01

    The increasing demand for energy, limited resources of fossil fuel, as well as pollution of the environment and changes in the global climate have raised more interest about the renewable resources. The use of renewable resources has become a very important partof European Union policy. The aim of the paper was to analyse reed resources in Latvia, its dynamics, volume and quality to produce clean energy. The use of reeds as a renewable energy resource contributes in minimizing fossil fuel consumption. The paper presents the results of a research of reed resources in lakes of Latgale (a region in Latvia). The investigation of reed resources showed that in the region they are scattered and rational usage of them is connected with environmental aspects. The greatest amounts of reed resources are concentrated in the biggest lake in Latvia- Lubana Lake and near to it. Studies showed thatthe reed areas in Lubana Lake and Kvapanu ponds have doubled since 1997 and as a result these water reservoirs are becoming overgrown. Using direct measurement methods and metering from distance, it was stated that the total reed resources of greatest Lake - Lubanas are about 6830 tons year(-1) in area of 734 hectares and are situated in 701 reed blocks. The aggregated reed resources of Latgale region are 18 000 tons year(-1) of dry biomass. The investigation proved that reed resources of the region are sufficient to replace up to 21 thousand tons of different fossil fuels. The physical properties of the reed were measured. Carbon quantity, ash content and structure, moisture content proved that reeds are a profitable fuel for heat energy production. Balanced harvesting of reed gives a positive influence on environment.

  14. Cervical cancer screening in Latvia: a brief history and recent improvements (2009-2011).

    PubMed

    Vīberga, Ilze; Poljak, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Screening for cervical cancer (CC) has been an important part of prevention strategies in Latvia since the early 1960s, reducing its incidence from 31.7/100,000 women in 1963 to 8.9/100,000 in 1989. Political and socioeconomic changes after 1991 greatly affected the entire healthcare system, including CC screening, which was temporarily suspended. In 2005, CC screening targeting all women 25 to 69 years old was officially reintroduced in Latvia, with revision in 2007. However, the nature of the screening program remained opportunistic. The inactivity of women, lack of availability of the required services, overloaded general practitioners, and lack of involvement of gynecologists and obstetricians resulted in low coverage of the target population (10% in 2005-2006). Organized screening was finally implemented in Latvia in 2009. Currently, the national Health Payment Center is responsible for inviting women for screening. Cytological smears, principally performed in a 3-year interval, are read by cytopathologists and cytotechnologists at 25 government-based and private laboratories. Cytological testing outside the program is still very frequent and performed on an ongoing basis in parallel with the organized screening. The results of the first round of screening (2009-2011) show encouraging trends, with a stepwise increase in positive responses to the invitation letter, an increase in coverage inside the program, and increasing detection of cervical high-grade lesions and carcinoma in situ. Unfortunately there is still no cytology quality control monitoring in place, and there are no clear recommendations for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Because HPV testing is not reimbursed, it is rarely performed. PMID:23674182

  15. Chemical elements in the muscle tissues of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from selected lakes in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Rudovica, Vita; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2015-10-01

    Fish is a significant source of essential nutrients, as well as toxic elements in the human diet. Concentration of 17 elements was determined in muscles of eels (Anguilla anguilla) collected from five fishing lakes in the territory of Latvia. The concentration of main elements determined in muscle tissues varied within the following ranges: for Pb, 0.019-0.047; Cd, 0.0051-0.011; Hg, 0.13-0.36; Cu, 0.76-0.92; Zn, 28-42; and As, 0.13-0.23 mg kg(-1) wet weight. A positive correlation was revealed between the concentration of Hg in muscles and fish length in inland lakes. Concentration of metals in muscle tissues of eels from brackish coastal and inland lakes was without statistically significant difference. This research demonstrated that the elemental content of Cd and Pb in muscles of the examined fish was lower than the maximum allowed threshold set by the European Union legislation. Mercury content was over the threshold limit for all the analyzed eels if to compare with the Water Framework Directive Environmental Quality Standards. On other side, only 7% of analyzed fish have indicated values that are over threshold limits for mercury established by the European Union food legislation. The current study contributes to the implementation of Water Framework Directive in Latvia by collection of information necessary for the further protection measures of waters. To our knowledge, this study provides the first data on multielemental bioaccumulation in muscle tissues of European eels collected from fishing lakes of Latvia.

  16. Chemical elements in the muscle tissues of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from selected lakes in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Rudovica, Vita; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2015-10-01

    Fish is a significant source of essential nutrients, as well as toxic elements in the human diet. Concentration of 17 elements was determined in muscles of eels (Anguilla anguilla) collected from five fishing lakes in the territory of Latvia. The concentration of main elements determined in muscle tissues varied within the following ranges: for Pb, 0.019-0.047; Cd, 0.0051-0.011; Hg, 0.13-0.36; Cu, 0.76-0.92; Zn, 28-42; and As, 0.13-0.23 mg kg(-1) wet weight. A positive correlation was revealed between the concentration of Hg in muscles and fish length in inland lakes. Concentration of metals in muscle tissues of eels from brackish coastal and inland lakes was without statistically significant difference. This research demonstrated that the elemental content of Cd and Pb in muscles of the examined fish was lower than the maximum allowed threshold set by the European Union legislation. Mercury content was over the threshold limit for all the analyzed eels if to compare with the Water Framework Directive Environmental Quality Standards. On other side, only 7% of analyzed fish have indicated values that are over threshold limits for mercury established by the European Union food legislation. The current study contributes to the implementation of Water Framework Directive in Latvia by collection of information necessary for the further protection measures of waters. To our knowledge, this study provides the first data on multielemental bioaccumulation in muscle tissues of European eels collected from fishing lakes of Latvia. PMID:26334326

  17. Bioethics and power: Informed consent procedures in post-socialist Latvia.

    PubMed

    Putniņa, Aivita

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores two lines of development in the donor consent procedures in post-Soviet Latvia. The paper is based on secondary analysis of interview, focus group discussion data, and media and legal text material collected throughout three previously conducted research projects on organ transplantation, population genome project and xenotransplantation focusing on the historical development of the issues of donor consent across these three fields of medical technologies. The paper argues that the quality of consent depends not as much on political and legal change per se as on the strengthening of the position of both medical specialists and donors, facilitating bonds between the two.

  18. Master's level education in biomedical optics: four-year experience at the University of Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spigulis, Janis

    2000-06-01

    Pilot program for Master's studies on Biomedical Optics has been developed and launched at University of Latvia in 1995. The Curriculum contains several basic subjects like Fundamentals of Biomedical Optics, Medical Lightguides, Anatomy and Physiology, Lasers and Non-coherent Light Sources, Optical Instrumentation for Healthcare, Optical Methods for Patient Treatment, Basic Physics, etc. Special English Terminology and Laboratory-Clinical Praxis are also involved, and the Master Theses is the final step for the degree award. Following one four-year teaching experience, some observations, conclusions and eventual future activities are discussed.

  19. Small Scale Solar Cooling Unit in Climate Conditions of Latvia: Environmental and Economical Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaunzems, Dzintars; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2010-01-01

    The paper contributes to the analyses from the environmental and economical point of view of small scale solar cooling system in climate conditions of Latvia. Cost analyses show that buildings with a higher cooling load and full load hours have lower costs. For high internal gains, cooling costs are around 1,7 €/kWh and 2,5 €/kWh for buildings with lower internal gains. Despite the fact that solar cooling systems have significant potential to reduce CO2 emissions due to a reduction of electricity consumption, the economic feasibility and attractiveness of solar cooling system is still low.

  20. Coming of age under Hitler and Stalin: the everyday life of adolescent girls in occupied Latvia.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of the continuation of everyday life in occupied Europe through a case study of the lives of twenty-five adolescent girls and young women living in Latvia between 1939 and 1944. Late adolescence is the period in which young women are struggling to establish some degree of independence, especially through leaving the parental home and entering the labour market. These transitions are the conventional markers of adulthood in modern societies. The article explores how occupation by the Soviet Union and the Third Reich affected daily life and the speed and nature of the transition to adulthood. PMID:21344735

  1. Coming of age under Hitler and Stalin: the everyday life of adolescent girls in occupied Latvia.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of the continuation of everyday life in occupied Europe through a case study of the lives of twenty-five adolescent girls and young women living in Latvia between 1939 and 1944. Late adolescence is the period in which young women are struggling to establish some degree of independence, especially through leaving the parental home and entering the labour market. These transitions are the conventional markers of adulthood in modern societies. The article explores how occupation by the Soviet Union and the Third Reich affected daily life and the speed and nature of the transition to adulthood.

  2. Is Dying Young Worse than Dying Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker, Nancy S.; Schneiderman, Lawrence J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in contemporary Western society, people feel death of small child is greater injustice than death of older adult and experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret, or bitterness when very young person dies. Contrasts these attitudes with those of ancient Greece and shows relevance that different attitudes toward death have…

  3. Micromechanical die attachment surcharge

    DOEpatents

    Filter, William F.; Hohimer, John P.

    2002-01-01

    An attachment structure is disclosed for attaching a die to a supporting substrate without the use of adhesives or solder. The attachment structure, which can be formed by micromachining, functions purely mechanically in utilizing a plurality of shaped pillars (e.g. round, square or polygonal and solid, hollow or slotted) that are formed on one of the die or supporting substrate and which can be urged into contact with various types of mating structures including other pillars, a deformable layer or a plurality of receptacles that are formed on the other of the die or supporting substrate, thereby forming a friction bond that holds the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure can further include an alignment structure for precise positioning of the die and supporting substrate to facilitate mounting the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure has applications for mounting semiconductor die containing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device, a microsensor or an integrated circuit (IC), and can be used to form a multichip module. The attachment structure is particularly useful for mounting die containing released MEM devices since these devices are fragile and can otherwise be damaged or degraded by adhesive or solder mounting.

  4. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-05-03

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity.

  5. Decadal oscillations of the aquatic chemistry of river waters in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porshnov, Dmitry; Klavins, Maris

    2016-10-01

    Water quality changes of surface waters can be used to assess human impact intensity, but of importance is to consider also impacts of climate change/variability and naturally occurring changes of environmental quality. In Latvia, during the recent decades a major reduction of anthropogenic pressure has happened due to restructuring of economy and industrial production, resulting in major decrease of loading of many groups of pollutants. However, trends and driving factors for other groups of substances have not been much studied. Long term (1980-2012) results of hydrochemical monitoring, performed in rivers of Latvia, are analysed during this study in connection with long-term sets of hydrological and heliophysical data, using standard statistical approaches. Our results indicate that variation of some hydrochemical values, for example COD and total Fe, show clearly visible decadal oscillated character, while variation of some other values, for example phosphate P and total P, show some individual characteristics of decadal oscillations. These results indicate the presence of a large scale, geochemical and geophysical significant process: multiannual pulse of catchment, driven by variation of solar irradiance through complex interactions between global atmospheric circulation, groundwater and surface waterbodies. The process described in our study is significant from a geochemical point of view and must be taken into account in prediction of water quality and quantity. Impacts of natural processes should be considered in the planning of environmental policy.

  6. Healthcare financing reform in Latvia: switching from social health insurance to NHS and back?

    PubMed

    Mitenbergs, Uldis; Brigis, Girts; Quentin, Wilm

    2014-11-01

    In the 1990s, Latvia aimed at introducing Social Health Insurance (SHI) but later changed to a National Health Service (NHS) type system. The NHS is financed from general taxation, provides coverage to the entire population, and pays for a basic service package purchased from independent public and private providers. In November 2013, the Cabinet of Ministers passed a draft Healthcare Financing Law, aiming at increasing public expenditures on health by introducing Compulsory Health Insurance (CHI) and linking entitlement to health services to the payment of income tax. Opponents of the reform argue that linking entitlement to health services to the payment of income tax does not have the potential to increase public expenditures on health but that it can contribute to compromising universal coverage and access to health services of certain population groups. In view of strong opposition, it is unlikely that the law will be adopted before parliamentary elections in October 2014. Nevertheless, the discussion around the law is interesting because of three main reasons: (1) it can illustrate why the concept of SHI remains attractive - not only for Latvia but also for other countries, (2) it shows that a change from NHS to SHI does not imply major institutional reforms, and (3) it demonstrates the potential problems of introducing SHI, i.e. of linking entitlement to health services to the payment of contributions. PMID:25445111

  7. Verification of Numerical Weather Prediction Model Results for Energy Applications in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sīle, Tija; Cepite-Frisfelde, Daiga; Sennikovs, Juris; Bethers, Uldis

    2014-05-01

    A resolution to increase the production and consumption of renewable energy has been made by EU governments. Most of the renewable energy in Latvia is produced by Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPP), followed by bio-gas, wind power and bio-mass energy production. Wind and HPP power production is sensitive to meteorological conditions. Currently the basis of weather forecasting is Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. There are numerous methodologies concerning the evaluation of quality of NWP results (Wilks 2011) and their application can be conditional on the forecast end user. The goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of Weather Research and Forecast model (Skamarock 2008) implementation over the territory of Latvia, focusing on forecasting of wind speed and quantitative precipitation forecasts. The target spatial resolution is 3 km. Observational data from Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre are used. A number of standard verification metrics are calculated. The sensitivity to the model output interpretation (output spatial interpolation versus nearest gridpoint) is investigated. For the precipitation verification the dichotomous verification metrics are used. Sensitivity to different precipitation accumulation intervals is examined. Skamarock, William C. and Klemp, Joseph B. A time-split nonhydrostatic atmospheric model for weather research and forecasting applications. Journal of Computational Physics. 227, 2008, pp. 3465-3485. Wilks, Daniel S. Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences. Third Edition. Academic Press, 2011.

  8. Healthcare financing reform in Latvia: switching from social health insurance to NHS and back?

    PubMed

    Mitenbergs, Uldis; Brigis, Girts; Quentin, Wilm

    2014-11-01

    In the 1990s, Latvia aimed at introducing Social Health Insurance (SHI) but later changed to a National Health Service (NHS) type system. The NHS is financed from general taxation, provides coverage to the entire population, and pays for a basic service package purchased from independent public and private providers. In November 2013, the Cabinet of Ministers passed a draft Healthcare Financing Law, aiming at increasing public expenditures on health by introducing Compulsory Health Insurance (CHI) and linking entitlement to health services to the payment of income tax. Opponents of the reform argue that linking entitlement to health services to the payment of income tax does not have the potential to increase public expenditures on health but that it can contribute to compromising universal coverage and access to health services of certain population groups. In view of strong opposition, it is unlikely that the law will be adopted before parliamentary elections in October 2014. Nevertheless, the discussion around the law is interesting because of three main reasons: (1) it can illustrate why the concept of SHI remains attractive - not only for Latvia but also for other countries, (2) it shows that a change from NHS to SHI does not imply major institutional reforms, and (3) it demonstrates the potential problems of introducing SHI, i.e. of linking entitlement to health services to the payment of contributions.

  9. The Unintended and Intended Academic Consequences of Educational Reforms: The Cases of Post-Soviet Estonia, Latvia and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khavenson, Tatiana; Carnoy, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we try to unravel some of the unintended and intended academic effects associated with post-Soviet educational reforms by focusing on three cases: Estonia, Latvia and Russia. We have chosen this comparison because a unique "natural experiment" in the three countries allows us to compare the changing academic performance on…

  10. The Acculturation of Russian-Speaking Adolescents in Latvia: Language Issues Three Years after the 2004 Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cara, Olga

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research findings on acculturation strategies (attitudes and behaviors) in the language domain of Russian-speaking adolescents in Latvia in the context of the education reform. Data comes from a longitudinal study of adolescents from schools with Russian as the language of instruction in Riga; the same schools were invited to…

  11. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  12. When Somebody Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... alguien muere All living things — including bugs and fish and people — die. It's difficult, even for grownups, ... kind of death for families and friends to deal with because it happens so fast. There is ...

  13. Land cover mapping in Latvia using hyperspectral airborne and simulated Sentinel-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Filipovs, Jevgenijs; Brauns, Agris; Taskovs, Juris; Erins, Gatis

    2016-08-01

    Land cover mapping in Latvia is performed as part of the Corine Land Cover (CLC) initiative every six years. The advantage of CLC is the creation of a standardized nomenclature and mapping protocol comparable across all European countries, thereby making it a valuable information source at the European level. However, low spatial resolution and accuracy, infrequent updates and expensive manual production has limited its use at the national level. As of now, there is no remote sensing based high resolution land cover and land use services designed specifically for Latvia which would account for the country's natural and land use specifics and end-user interests. The European Space Agency launched the Sentinel-2 satellite in 2015 aiming to provide continuity of free high resolution multispectral satellite data thereby presenting an opportunity to develop and adapted land cover and land use algorithm which accounts for national enduser needs. In this study, land cover mapping scheme according to national end-user needs was developed and tested in two pilot territories (Cesis and Burtnieki). Hyperspectral airborne data covering spectral range 400-2500 nm was acquired in summer 2015 using Airborne Surveillance and Environmental Monitoring System (ARSENAL). The gathered data was tested for land cover classification of seven general classes (urban/artificial, bare, forest, shrubland, agricultural/grassland, wetlands, water) and sub-classes specific for Latvia as well as simulation of Sentinel-2 satellite data. Hyperspectral data sets consist of 122 spectral bands in visible to near infrared spectral range (356-950 nm) and 100 bands in short wave infrared (950-2500 nm). Classification of land cover was tested separately for each sensor data and fused cross-sensor data. The best overall classification accuracy 84.2% and satisfactory classification accuracy (more than 80%) for 9 of 13 classes was obtained using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier with 109 band

  14. Is dying young worse than dying old?

    PubMed

    Jecker, N S; Schneiderman, L J

    1994-02-01

    In contemporary Western society, people experience the deaths of older and younger persons differently. We are disposed to feel that the death of a small child is a greater injustice than the death of an older adult, and we experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret or bitterness when a very young person dies. This article examines these responses critically to determine whether they are backed by ethical considerations that reason can discern and defend. We contrast contemporary attitudes with those of ancient Greece and show the relevance that different attitudes toward death have for health care decision making.

  15. The performance evaluation of the efficiency of the TW 600 wind power converter in Latvia

    SciTech Connect

    Shipkovs, P.; Kashkarova, G.; Purina, I.; Rekis, J.; Pugachev, V.; Rashevic, K.; Bezukov, V.

    1996-12-31

    One of the promising regions in Latvia for building wind power converters (WPC) is that of the coast of the Baltic Sea where many years the annual wind speed at the height of 10 m is 4.8 m/sec. According to the J/S/C Latvenergo state plan, it is envisaged by the German company TAKE to build two WPCs in this region with the total output of 1,200 kW. The results of measurement, as well as the statistical data of the Latvian Center of Meteorology and some technical information about the wind power converter TW 600 were used for the calculation of the expected monthly and yearly electric energy output and the utilization factor of the converter. Presented in the Appendix are the results of a series of the NRG LOGGER measurements.

  16. Geochemistry of Telichian (Silurian) K-bentonites in Estonia and Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiipli, T.; Soesoo, A.; Kallaste, T.; Kiipli, E.

    2008-03-01

    In the Telychian section of Estonia and Latvia K-bentonites from 45 volcanic eruptions were discovered. The thickness of K-bentonite interbeds varies from a few millimetres to 20 cm. The sodium component concentration in sanidine phenocrysts measured by XRD ranges from 20 to 48 mol% and was used for establishing correlations. The Ti, Zr, Nb, Th and Sr concentrations and ratios show temporal trends indicating fractional crystallization in magma chambers. The analysis of biotite phenocrysts revealed magnesium and iron rich biotites in bentonites. Synthesis of these geochemical data enabled a classification of bentonites into seven geochemical types, which probably originate from seven different volcanic sources. Isopach schemes indicate ash transport from the west and north-west directions.

  17. Neoliberal austerity and corporate crime: the collapse of the Maxima supermarket in Riga, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Woolfson, Charles; Juska, Arunas

    2014-01-01

    The roof collapse of the Maxima supermarket in Riga, Latvia on November 21, 2013 left 54 dead. This analysis identifies the disaster as a "safety crime." Neoliberal deregulatory measures, intensified by the global economic and financial crisis and a programme of radical austerity, together with corporate and state disregard of public safety and well-being, combined to produce the disaster. The wider context and underlying causes of catastrophic safety failure exemplify the inherently contradictory character of the neoliberal "Baltic model" of austerity, recently much in vogue with international policymakers in both Europe and the United States. The authors conclude that the current renewed drive by the European Commission towards reducing regulation for business, especially in the aftermath of the crisis, further justifies longstanding anti-regulatory preferences of neoliberal domestic elites, with the result that the costs of disregard for public safety are externalized onto the general populace.

  18. Neoliberal austerity and corporate crime: the collapse of the Maxima supermarket in Riga, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Woolfson, Charles; Juska, Arunas

    2014-01-01

    The roof collapse of the Maxima supermarket in Riga, Latvia on November 21, 2013 left 54 dead. This analysis identifies the disaster as a "safety crime." Neoliberal deregulatory measures, intensified by the global economic and financial crisis and a programme of radical austerity, together with corporate and state disregard of public safety and well-being, combined to produce the disaster. The wider context and underlying causes of catastrophic safety failure exemplify the inherently contradictory character of the neoliberal "Baltic model" of austerity, recently much in vogue with international policymakers in both Europe and the United States. The authors conclude that the current renewed drive by the European Commission towards reducing regulation for business, especially in the aftermath of the crisis, further justifies longstanding anti-regulatory preferences of neoliberal domestic elites, with the result that the costs of disregard for public safety are externalized onto the general populace. PMID:25085827

  19. The Interaction Between Groundwater Fluctuations and Nitrate Nitrogen Concentrations: case study in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veinbergs, A.; Vircavs, V.; Abramenko, K.; Lauva, D.; Dimanta, Z.; VÄ«tola, I.; Gailuma, A.

    2012-04-01

    Surface water hydrology and hydro-chemical conditions are deeply connected with processes in soil under natural and artificial affections. Combinations of environmental and human impact factors lead to the different effects of aquatic environment. In Latvia, soil particles and chemical substances are particularly affected by shallow groundwater fluctuations and runoff from soil to open streams because of typically humid climate conditions. Latvia is a country in Baltic Sea region where the pollution with plant nutrients is actual problem. As a negative effect of plant nutrient leaching from soil provoke eutrophication in open streams and water reservoirs and cause increased expenses for farmers to establish nutrient balance within the farm. Decrease of shallow groundwater quality endangers drinking water resources in Latvia. To identify reasons of nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching it's necessary to understand the interactions of natural hydrological processes and NO3-N mobility, as well as artificial influences as leaching with runoff formed by drainage systems and doses of used fertilisers. Most of the agricultural lands is drained because of humid climate conditions. It's significant to estimate the runoff from surface water objects and subsurface drainage, groundwater fluctuations as well as the quality of all the mentioned kind of water source. For the better understanding it's important to get knowledge's of principles of runoff formation and water quality fluctuations and interactions between both of them. For identifying interactions significant data are monitored runoff and water quality measurements in different scale: small catchment, drainage field, groundwater wells as well as trial plots. Research field is based on observed data (2006-2010 year period): measured groundwater level, NO3-N concentration and drainage runoff. Study area is monitoring object Mellupīte (monitored by Latvia University of Agriculture) small catchment with groundwater well MG-1

  20. Experiences of the dying.

    PubMed

    Schoenbeck, Susan L

    2011-01-01

    It is often a mystery to us how we have come to know and believe in certain things. Beliefs are like guests who come up to a door. They come in only if the host opens it and invites them in. Otherwise they are turned away, unable to enter. LPNs/LVNs are invited to reflect on their experiences and expand their knowledge and beliefs. There is growing recognition that bedside talks of the dying, spirit travel and near-death events are real events for the people who experience them. LPNs/ LVNs are encouraged to expand their knowledge and beliefs about dying.

  1. [Human dying has changed].

    PubMed

    Llano Escobar, A

    1990-01-01

    In the modern era, the act of dying, at least in the West, presents a series of new characteristics resulting from scientific and technological progress and social changes. More and more frequently, humans die in the strange surroundings of medical establishments without the support of their loved ones and without the opportunity of taking part in decisions related to their own deaths. In the light of the serious personal and social problems caused by this transformation of human death, bioethics emerges as an attempt to uncover options that are more humane.

  2. Die andere Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf

    2005-05-01

    War Kopernikus der größte Revolutionär des naturwissenschaftlichen Weltbildes? Seine Erkenntnisse waren der Beginn eines jahrhundertelangen Denkprozesses, welcher zur Einsicht führte, dass im Weltall die gleichen physikalischen Gesetze gelten wie auf der Erde.

  3. Die Kosmologie der Griechen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstraß, J.

    Contents: 1. Mythische Eier. 2. Thales-Welten. 3. "Alles ist voller Götter". 4. Griechische Astronomie. 5. "Rettung der Phänomene". 6. Aristotelische Kosmololgie. 7. Aristoteles-Welt und Platon-Welt. 8. Noch einmal: die Göttlichkeit der Welt. 9. Griechischer Idealismus.

  4. Navigating "Assisted Dying".

    PubMed

    Schipper, Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Carter is a bellwether decision, an adjudication on a narrow point of law whose implications are vast across society, and whose impact may not be realized for years. Coupled with Quebec's Act Respecting End-of-life Care it has sharply changed the legal landscape with respect to actively ending a person's life. "Medically assisted dying" will be permitted under circumstances, and through processes, which have yet to be operationally defined. This decision carries with it moral assumptions, which mean that it will be difficult to reach a unifying consensus. For some, the decision and Act reflect a modern acknowledgement of individual autonomy. For others, allowing such acts is morally unspeakable. Having opened the Pandora's Box, the question becomes one of navigating a tolerable societal path. I believe it is possible to achieve a workable solution based on the core principle that "medically assisted dying" should be a very rarely employed last option, subject to transparent ongoing review, specifically as to why it was deemed necessary. My analysis is based on 1. The societal conditions in which have fostered demand for "assisted dying", 2. Actions in other jurisdictions, 3. Carter and Quebec Bill 52, 4. Political considerations, 5. Current medical practice. Leading to a series of recommendations regarding. 1. Legislation and regulation, 2. The role of professional regulatory agencies, 3. Medical professions education and practice, 4. Public education, 5. Health care delivery and palliative care. Given the burden of public opinion, and the legal steps already taken, a process for assisted-dying is required. However, those legal and regulatory steps should only be considered a necessary and defensive first step in a two stage process. The larger goal, the second step, is to drive the improvement of care, and thus minimize assisted-dying. PMID:27169205

  5. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  6. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  7. Assessment of Wind Shear and Wind Energy Potential in the Baltic Sea Region of Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukovs, V.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Zacepins, A.; Komashilovs, V.

    2015-04-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation into the wind energy potential based on long-term observations of the wind speed and energy density fluctuations at heights from 10 to 160 m on the Baltic Sea coast of Latvia. During the observations (2004 - 2013), the wind speed and direction values were measured, and the statistical database was accumulated using a LOGGER 9200 Symphonie measuring systems mounted on 60 m masts - one on the western coast and another on the north-east of Latvia. From June 2011 to May 2012, these measurements were complemented with the data for the heights from 40 to 160 m obtained by means of a ZephIR lidar and with the metrological data provided by "Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre" for the same period. The graphs of seasonal fluctuations in the wind speed were obtained for the heights up to 160 m by measurements over the period of 2007 - 2013. The results of the research on the wind speed distribution up to 200 m are promising for evaluation of the wind energy potential of Latvia and will be helpful in assessment of prospective sites for construction of WPPs. Zinātniskais raksts ir veltīts pētījumam par vēja enerģijas potenciālu Latvijas teritorijā, Baltijas jūras piekrastē, balstoties uz ilgtermiņa vēja ātruma un vēja enerģijas blīvuma svārstību novērojumiem no 10 līdz 160 metriem augstumā. Vēja ātruma un vēja virziena mērījumu dati tika iegūti un apkopoti statistiskajā datubāzē laika periodā no 2004 līdz 2013. gadam, izmantojot mērīšanas sistēmu LOGGER 9200 Symphonie, kas bija ierīkotā uz 60 metru augsta masta - viena rietumu piekrastē un otra Latvijas ziemeļu-austrumos. No 2011. gada jūnija līdz 2012. gada maijam mērījumu datubāze tika papildināta ar datiem, kas tika iegūti ar lidaruZephIR augstumos no 40 līdz 160 metriem, un datiem no "Latvijas Vides, ģeoloģijas un meteoroloģijas centra" tam pašam laika periodam. Analizējot mērījumus 2007. g.-2013. g., grafiki ar

  8. Heated die facilitates tungsten forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattin, J. H.; Haystrick, J. E.; Laughlin, J. C.; Leidy, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Tungsten forming in a press brake employs a bottom die assembly with a heating manifold between two water-cooled die sections. The manifold has hydrogen-oxygen burners spaced along its length for even heat during forming.

  9. Die kalte Zunge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Sören; Müller, Rüdiger

    Gefühlte Temperaturen. Ist ein Null Grad Celsius kalter Metallstab eigentlich kälter als ein Holzstab mit der selben Temperatur? Rein physikalisch gesehen natürlich nicht, aber wenn wir beide Stäbe anfassen, kommt uns der Metallstab deutlich kälter vor. Und wer kennt nicht die Szene aus dem Film Dumm und Dümmer in der Harry mit seiner Zunge am Metallrahmen des Skilifts hängen bleibt.Würde das auch passieren, wenn man an einem eiskalten Stück Holz lecken würde? Wohl kaum, doch woran liegt das eigentlich? Unterschiedliche Materialien haben verschiedene Fähigkeiten, Wärme zu übertragen und zu leiten. So transportiert Metall die von der Zunge ausgehende Wärme sehr schnell weiter und verändert seine Temperatur kaum, während die Zunge abkühlt. Holz hingegen leitet Wärme fast gar nicht und daher wird der Teil, der von der Zunge berührt wird, aufgewärmt.

  10. Psychotherapy with Older Dying Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Carol J.

    Psychotherapy with older dying patients can lead to problems of countertransference for the clinician. Working with dying patients requires flexibility to adapt basic therapeutics to the institutional setting. Goals of psychotherapy must be reconceptualized for dying clients. The problems of countertransference arise because clinicians themselves…

  11. Psychotherapy with the dying patient.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, A M; Karasu, T B

    1977-01-01

    This paper develops and describes encounters with dying patients and their families and looks for consesus of patterns and responses of possible help in confronting this situation. It offers positive suggestions for those providing care for dying patients but also acknowledges that only an intellectual grasp of the situation is not sufficient qualification for caring for the dying.

  12. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of aminoglycoside-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Bauskenieks, Matiss; Pole, Ilva; Skenders, Girts; Jansone, Inta; Broka, Lonija; Nodieva, Anda; Ozere, Iveta; Kalvisa, Adrija; Ranka, Renate; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2015-03-01

    Mutations causing resistance to aminoglycosides, such as kanamycin (KAN), amikacin (AMK), and streptomycin, are not completely understood. In this study, polymorphisms of aminoglycoside resistance influencing genes such as rrs, eis, rpsL, and gidB in 41 drug-resistant and 17 pan-sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in Latvia were analyzed. Mutation A1400G in rrs gene was detected in 92% isolates with high resistance level to KAN and diverse MIC level to AMK. Mutations in promoter region of eis were detected in 80% isolates with low-level MIC of KAN. The association of K43R mutation in rpsL gene, a mutation in the rrs gene at position 513, and various polymorphisms in gidB gene with distinct genetic lineages of M. tuberculosis was observed. The results of this study suggest that association of different controversial mutations of M. tuberculosis genes to the drug resistance phenotype should be done in respect to genetic lineages.

  13. Fertility and culture in Eastern Europe: a case study of Riga, Latvia, 1867-1881.

    PubMed

    Wetherell, C; Plakans, A

    1997-01-01

    This case study examined the influence of cultural and economic conditions on fertility decline in Eastern Europe. Cultural influence on fertility is conceived as the agent with which individuals change behavior which is specific to different ethnic groups and contexts. This study focused on measures of nuptiality and fertility among language and religious groups in Riga, Latvia, in 1867 and 1881. Data were obtained from censuses for Coale's measures of general fertility, marital fertility, the index of illegitimate fertility, and the proportion married. Each variable is a measure of Hutterite fertility as socially unrestrained fertility. Marriage includes the singulate mean age of marriage and the median age at marriage. An average of the urban multipliers for Bavaria, Prussia, Finland, and Sweden, was used to adjust infant mortality. Fertility estimates were higher than the European Fertility Projects. Nuptiality followed the Western European marriage pattern. Nuptiality reflected Hajnal's Western European pattern of late marriage and substantial singlehood. Fertility varied by language group. Fertility was highest among Yiddish speakers and lowest among Latvians. 12.5% of marriages were interfaith marriages. Protestants were the most likely to enter interfaith unions. However, opportunity in the marriage market may have affected mixed marriages. Catholics had the lowest marital fertility. Jews were the most different on a variety of factors. Jews had higher marital fertility and proportion married, and lower female workers, illegitimacy, and proportion single. The authors conclude that the mixed results are insufficient to untangle the effects of culture due to lack of individual level data.

  14. Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for Heat and Electricity Production from Wood Biomass in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district heating supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined heat-power (CHP) production. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of heat and electricity production from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive heat production by boiler houses, while for electricity production by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small heat loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.

  15. Comparative efficiency of wind turbines with different heights of rotor hubs: performance evaluation for Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukovs, V. P.; Bezrukovs, V. V.; Zacepins, A. J.

    2014-06-01

    Performance evaluation of wind turbines (WT) for different heights of the rotor hub is made based on the wind speed and direction data obtained in 2009-2013 on-shore in the north of Latvia using a LOGGER 9200 Symphonie measurement system mounted on a 60 m mast. Based on the measurement analysis results, wind speed distribution curves have been modelled for heights of up to 200 m using power and logarithmic (log) law approximation methods. The curves for the modelled Weibull's parameters are plotted in dependence on height. The efficiency comparison is made for different WT types taking into account the distribution of the wind energy potential in height in the Latvian territory. The annual electric energy production was calculated for the WTs with different heights of rotor hubs. In the calculations the technical data on the following WT types were used: E-3120 (50 kW, hub height 20.5/30.5/36.5/42.7 m), E-33 (330 kW, hub height 37/44/49/50 m), E-48 (800 kW, hub height 50/60/75 m) and E-82 (2.3 MW, hub height of 78/85/98/108/138 m).

  16. Research review trends of food analysis in Latvia: major and trace element content.

    PubMed

    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane; Klavins, Maris; Rudovica, Vita; Viksna, Arturs

    2013-10-01

    The current paper involves overview of several studies concerning quantitative major and trace element analysis of different food samples, such as products of plant origin, e.g., locally grown vegetables (carrots, onions, potatoes) and products of animal origin derived with or without processing (cottage cheese, eggs, honey). Food samples were collected over the territory of Latvia in the time period 2009-2012. Sample pre-treatment was chosen according to the product specifics but mostly wet mineralization with concentrated nitric acid was applied. Analysis of major elements (e.g., Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na) and trace elements (e.g., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) was performed by appropriate quantitative analytical technique: atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Not only the influence of environmental factors (e.g., geographical or seasonal impact) was detected in element dissemination in food, also botanical origin (if applicable) and applied agricultural praxis, product processing and storage specifics were found to be important. Possible food contamination by potentially toxic elements can be associated mostly with the consequences of anthropogenic activities. The studies revealed the significance of food research in the context of environmental science.

  17. Atmospheric light air ion concentrations and related meteorologic factors in Rezekne city, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Skromulis, Andris; Noviks, Gotfrids

    2012-04-01

    The well-minded impact of light negative air ions on human organism is still under discussion. The measurements of air ions are not widespread in Latvia yet. The paper presents new results of air pollution evaluation in Rezekne city. Measurements of positive and negative air ion concentrations in Rezekne city were taken during the spring, summer and autumn 2009 and during the winter 2010. Measurements were taken by portative air ions counter "Sapfir-3M" in eight different points of Rezekne city thrice a day. The concentrations of positive and negative air ions with mobility factor k > or = 0.4 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) were measured. Temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, direction, etc., were also taken into account. The approximate interconnection between ionization and chemical and mechanical air pollution in relation with meteorological conditions was analyzed. The highest level of air ion concentration was observed in mornings, whereas in afternoons this concentration level decreased due to the growth of anthropogenic air pollution in the city, as light air ions, because of their charge, promoted the coagulation and the settlement of pollution particles. This regularity is typical for summer, whereas in spring, autumn and winter it is not characteristic. The unipolarity factor was usually less than 1 in mornings, but usually larger than 1 in afternoons especially in the most polluted city areas where minor concentration of air ions was detected. The ionization level is an original indicator of energetic saturation and aerosol pollution of atmospheric air.

  18. Nitriding of Aluminum Extrusion Die: Effect of Die Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, S. S.; Arif, A. F. M.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2010-04-01

    Nitriding of complex-shaped extrusion dies may result in non-uniform nitride layers and hence a required hardness may not be achieved in some regions of the bearing area. The present study is carried out to assess the effect of extrusion die profile on the characteristics and growth behavior of nitride layers so that the critical die design feature can be identified to enhance the uniformity of the nitride layer. For this purpose, AISI H13 steel samples have been manufactured with profiles similar to those of hot extrusion dies. The samples were then gas nitrided under controlled nitriding potential. The uniformity and depth of nitride layers have been investigated in terms of compound layer and total nitride case depth for selected die features. The results of this study indicated the need to include the effect of profile on the nitride layer for the optimal die design with improved service life.

  19. Accurate defect die placement and nuisance defect reduction for reticle die-to-die inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Vincent; Huang, L. R.; Lin, C. J.; Tseng, Y. N.; Huang, W. H.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Wylie, Mark; Chen, Ellison; Wang, Elvik; Glasser, Joshua; Kelkar, Amrish; Wu, David

    2015-10-01

    Die-to-die reticle inspections are among the simplest and most sensitive reticle inspections because of the use of an identical-design neighboring-die for the reference image. However, this inspection mode can have two key disadvantages: (1) The location of the defect is indeterminate because it is unclear to the inspector whether the test or reference image is defective; and (2) nuisance and false defects from mask manufacturing noise and tool optical variation can limit the usable sensitivity. The use of a new sequencing approach for a die-to-die inspection can resolve these issues without any additional scan time, without sacrifice in sensitivity requirement, and with a manageable increase in computation load. In this paper we explore another approach for die-to-die inspections using a new method of defect processing and sequencing. Utilizing die-to-die double arbitration during defect detection has been proven through extensive testing to generate accurate placement of the defect in the correct die to ensure efficient defect disposition at the AIMS step. The use of this method maintained the required inspection sensitivity for mask quality as verified with programmed-defectmask qualification and then further validated with production masks comparing the current inspection approach to the new method. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the total number of defects that need to be reviewed by essentially eliminating the nuisance and false defects that can result from a die-to-die inspection. This "double-win" will significantly reduce the effort in classifying a die-to-die inspection result and will lead to improved cycle times.

  20. Forecasting plant phenology: evaluating the degree-day method for Betula pendula and Padus racemosa spring phases in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitāne, Māra; Kalvans, Andis; Kalvāne, Gunta

    2013-04-01

    A phenological and meteorological data series for period 1960-2009 were used to evaluate the usefulness of the degree-day approach for forecasting beginning of leaf unfolding and flowering for two tree species - silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa in Latvia (Kalvane et al, 2009). The degree days - sum of the active temperatures accumulated after the winter calm period - were calculated for a range of base temperatures (0, 3, 5, 7 and 10oC). The results were compared to the timing of the phenological events observed at eight stations in order to evaluate year-to-year as well as regional variations. Different base temperatures gave surprisingly similar results. The most appropriate threshold temperatures was found to be +7° C for both the budburst and flowering of silver birch, +3oC for the budburst of bird cherry and +5oC for flowering of bird cherry. Giving the most appropriate estimated base temperatures, it is found that the budburst of the Betula pendula takes place when 70 degree-days after the winter calm is accumulated and the flowering takes place when 85 degree days are accumulated. The respective degree day values for the Padus racemosa are 117 and 164. The conclusions should be considered as indicative because the exact locations of the phenological observations originating from the network of the volunteers are not known exactly. The research is supported by the European Union through the European Social Fund Mobilitas grant No MJD309 and grant No. 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Key words: phenology, degree day, Betula pendula, Padus racemosa, Latvia References: Kalvane, G., Romanovskaja, D., Briede, A., Baksiene, E. 2009. Influence of the climate change to the phenological changes in Latvia and Lithuania. Climate Research. Vol. 39, 209-219.

  1. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part One)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geipele, I.; Geipele, S.; Staube, T.; Ciemleja, G.; Zeltins, N.

    2016-08-01

    The present scientific paper is the first part of two publications, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. The study has a focus on finding proper socioeconomic and technical indicators. It provides resume on a scope of the study. The paper contains the developed structure of engineering economic indicator system, determined groups of indicators for assessment of the development of nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in Latvia and results of the evaluation of the obtained statistics on the economic indicators.

  2. The Role of Ecotourism in the Reduction of Anthropogenic Load on Natura 2000 Territories throughout Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitis, Eriks; Leitis, Ēriks

    2011-01-01

    Ecotourism is able to contribute to biodiversity and to ensure the ecosystem function in Latvia through a complicated process of fulfilment of the established criteria for a valid ecotourism. The tourism flow in protected nature territories should be monitored, and the appropriate environmental management, education and a code of conduct need to be introduced. Ecotourism will serve for reducing the social and economic pressures on biodiversity and will promote responsible actions in support of environmentally friendly technologies and approaches. The areas selected for this study are the Natura 2000 territories that have undertaken the development of ecotourism facilities.

  3. Upper Devonian vertebrate taphonomy and sedimentology from the Klunas fossil site, Tervete Formation, Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiļkova, J.; Lukševičs, E.; Stinkulis, Ä.¢.; Zupinš, I.

    2012-04-01

    The deposits of the Tervete Formation, Famennian Stage of Latvia, comprising weakly cemented sandstone and sand intercalated with dolomitic marls, siltstone and clay, have been traditionally interpreted as having formed in a shallow, rather restricted sea with lowered salinity. During seven field seasons the excavations took place in the south-western part of Latvia, at the Klunas site, and resulted in extensive palaeontological and sedimentological data. The taphonomical analysis has been performed, having evaluated the size, sorting, orientation of the fossils, articulation and skeletal preservation as well as the degree of fragmentation and abrasion. The sedimentological analysis involved interpretation of sedimentary structures, palaeocurrent direction reconstruction, grain-size analysis and approximate water depth calculations. The vertebrate assemblage of the Klunas site represents all known taxa of the Sparnene Regional Stage of the Baltic Devonian, comprising placoderms Bothriolepis ornata Eichwald, B. jani Lukševičs, Phyllolepis tolli Vasiliauskas, Dunkleosteus sp. and Chelyophorus sp., sarcopterygians Holoptychius nobilissimus Agassiz, Platycephalichthys skuenicus Vorobyeva, Cryptolepis sp., Conchodus sp., Glyptopomus ? sp., "Strunius" ? sp., and Dipterus sp., as well as an undetermined actinopterygian. Placoderms Bothriolepis ornata and B. jani dominate the assemblage. The fossils are represented in the main by fully disarticulated placoderm plates and plate fragments, sarcopterygian scales and teeth, rarely bones of the head and shoulder girdle, and acanthodian spines and scales. The characteristic feature is the great amount of fragmentary remains several times exceeding the number of intact bones. The horizontal distribution of the bones over the studied area is not homogenous, distinct zones of increased or decreased density of fossils can be traced. Zones of the increased density usually contain many elements of various sizes, whereas zones of the

  4. Molecular epidemiology of human respiratory syncytial virus over three consecutive seasons in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Balmaks, Reinis; Ribakova, Irina; Gardovska, Dace; Kazaks, Andris

    2014-11-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections caused by the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) represent an immense burden of the disease, especially in young children. This study aimed to investigate the evolutionary history of HRSV strains isolated in the Children's Clinical University Hospital (Riga, Latvia) over three consecutive HRSV seasons. Of 207 samples from children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections, 88 (42.5%) tested positive for HRSV by RT-PCR. The seasonal activity started and peaked later than the average for the Northern hemisphere. Patients with HRSV lower respiratory tract infection were significantly younger than patients not infected with HRSV. HRSV-A viruses predominated for two consecutive seasons and were followed by an HRSV-B dominant season. Phylogenetic analysis based on glycoprotein G gene partial sequences revealed that viruses of both groups belonged to the worldwide dominant genotypes NA1 (HRSV-A) and BA-IV (HRSV-B). High diversity of this gene was driven only partially by selection pressure, as only two positively selected sites were identified in each group. Two of the HRSV-A isolates in this study contained a 72-nt duplication in the C-terminal end of the G gene (genotype ON1) that was first described in Canada in the 2010-2011 season. Initial spatial and temporal dynamics of this novel genotype were reconstructed by discrete phylogeographic analysis. Fifteen years after acquiring comparable 60-nt duplication in the G gene, genotype BA lineages have replaced all other HRSV-B strains. However, the population size of genotype ON1 plateaued soon and even decreased slightly before the beginning of the 2012-2013 season.

  5. Forecasting plant phenology: evaluating the phenological models for Betula pendula and Padus racemosa spring phases, Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Bitāne, Māra; Kalvāne, Gunta

    2015-02-01

    A historical phenological record and meteorological data of the period 1960-2009 are used to analyse the ability of seven phenological models to predict leaf unfolding and beginning of flowering for two tree species—silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa—in Latvia. Model stability is estimated performing multiple model fitting runs using half of the data for model training and the other half for evaluation. Correlation coefficient, mean absolute error and mean squared error are used to evaluate model performance. UniChill (a model using sigmoidal development rate and temperature relationship and taking into account the necessity for dormancy release) and DDcos (a simple degree-day model considering the diurnal temperature fluctuations) are found to be the best models for describing the considered spring phases. A strong collinearity between base temperature and required heat sum is found for several model fitting runs of the simple degree-day based models. Large variation of the model parameters between different model fitting runs in case of more complex models indicates similar collinearity and over-parameterization of these models. It is suggested that model performance can be improved by incorporating the resolved daily temperature fluctuations of the DDcos model into the framework of the more complex models (e.g. UniChill). The average base temperature, as found by DDcos model, for B. pendula leaf unfolding is 5.6 °C and for the start of the flowering 6.7 °C; for P. racemosa, the respective base temperatures are 3.2 °C and 3.4 °C.

  6. Forecasting plant phenology: evaluating the phenological models for Betula pendula and Padus racemosa spring phases, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Kalvāns, Andis; Bitāne, Māra; Kalvāne, Gunta

    2015-02-01

    A historical phenological record and meteorological data of the period 1960-2009 are used to analyse the ability of seven phenological models to predict leaf unfolding and beginning of flowering for two tree species-silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa-in Latvia. Model stability is estimated performing multiple model fitting runs using half of the data for model training and the other half for evaluation. Correlation coefficient, mean absolute error and mean squared error are used to evaluate model performance. UniChill (a model using sigmoidal development rate and temperature relationship and taking into account the necessity for dormancy release) and DDcos (a simple degree-day model considering the diurnal temperature fluctuations) are found to be the best models for describing the considered spring phases. A strong collinearity between base temperature and required heat sum is found for several model fitting runs of the simple degree-day based models. Large variation of the model parameters between different model fitting runs in case of more complex models indicates similar collinearity and over-parameterization of these models. It is suggested that model performance can be improved by incorporating the resolved daily temperature fluctuations of the DDcos model into the framework of the more complex models (e.g. UniChill). The average base temperature, as found by DDcos model, for B. pendula leaf unfolding is 5.6 °C and for the start of the flowering 6.7 °C; for P. racemosa, the respective base temperatures are 3.2 °C and 3.4 °C. PMID:24789346

  7. Graphite/Thermoplastic-Pultrusion Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Frye, Mark W.; Johnson, Gary S.; Stanfield, Clarence E.

    1990-01-01

    Attachment to extruder produces thermoplastic-impregnated graphite tape. Consists of profile die, fiber/resin collimator, and crosshead die body. Die designed to be attached to commercially available extrusion machine capable of extruding high-performance thermoplastics. Simple attachment to commercial extruder enables developers of composites to begin experimenting with large numbers of proprietary resins, fibers, and hybrid composite structures. With device, almost any possible fiber/resin combination fabricated.

  8. Die Milchstraße.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henbest, N.; Couper, H.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, from the English original "The guide to the Galaxy", published in 1994 (see Abstr. 61.003.065). Contents: 1. Die Entdeckung unserer Galaxis. 2. Die Lokale Gruppe. 3. Die Geographie der Galaxis. 4. Der Perseus-Arm. 5. Der Orion-Arm. 6. Unsere lokale Nachbarschaft: ein typischer Winkel der Galaxis. 7. Der Sagittarius-Arm: innerhalb der Sonnenumlaufbahn. 8. Das Zentrum der Galaxis.

  9. Where people die.

    PubMed

    Katz, B P; Zdeb, M S; Therriault, G D

    1979-01-01

    Death certificates for 1977 filed with the New York State Department of Health were studied to determine where people died. Data were examined by the location and cause of death and by the age, sex, race, and marital status of the decedent. Comparisons were made with a similar study in which U.S. data were used for 1958 events. Approximately 60 percent of all the 1977 deaths in upstate New York occurred in hospitals; only 27 percent occurred outside an institution. The location of death varied by all the factors studied. Within all age categories, males had a higher percentage of hospital deaths. In those age categories in which nursing home deaths comprised a significant proportion of total deaths, females had a higher percentage of such deaths than males. Differences in the location of death according to its cause reflect the nature of the cause of death, for example, whether it was of sudden onset or the result of chronic disease. Most people do not consider in advance where they might die. The idea that age, sex, and marital status, as well as the more obvious cause, all play a part in the location may seem surprising. Yet all these factors were found to be associated withe location of deaths in upstate New York, and there is no reason to believe that this association does not hold true for the entire nation. More research, however, needs to be done based on more years and other geographic artal stutus may be instructive as to the present state of health resources.

  10. Formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks, a case study in two cities in Finland and Latvia.

    PubMed

    Lehtola, Markku J; Juhna, Tālis; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Vartiainen, Terttu; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2004-12-01

    The formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks is a significant technical, aesthetic and hygienic problem. In this study, the effects of assimilable organic carbon, microbially available phosphorus (MAP), residual chlorine, temperature and corrosion products on the formation of biofilms were studied in two full-scale water supply systems in Finland and Latvia. Biofilm collectors consisting of polyvinyl chloride pipes were installed in several waterworks and distribution networks, which were supplied with chemically precipitated surface waters and groundwater from different sources. During a 1-year study, the biofilm density was measured by heterotrophic plate counts on R2A-agar, acridine orange direct counting and ATP-analyses. A moderate level of residual chlorine decreased biofilm density, whereas an increase of MAP in water and accumulated cast iron corrosion products significantly increased biofilm density. This work confirms, in a full-scale distribution system in Finland and Latvia, our earlier in vitro finding that biofilm formation is affected by the availability of phosphorus in drinking water.

  11. Two Piece Compaction Die Design

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Ethan N

    2010-03-01

    Compaction dies used to create europium oxide and tantalum control plates were modeled using ANSYS 11.0. Two-piece designs were considered in order to make the dies easier to assemble than the five-piece dies that were previously used. The two areas of concern were the stresses at the interior corner of the die cavity and the distortion of the cavity wall due to the interference fit between the two pieces and the pressure exerted on the die during the compaction process. A successful die design would have stresses less than the yield stress of the material and a maximum wall distortion on the order of 0.0001 in. Design factors that were investigated include the inner corner radius, the value of the interference fit, the compaction force, the size of the cavity, and the outer radius and geometry of the outer ring. The results show that for the europium oxide die, a 0.01 in. diameter wire can be used to create the cavity, leading to a 0.0055 in. radius corner, if the radial interference fit is 0.003 in. For the tantalum die, the same wire can be used with a radial interference fit of 0.001 in. Also, for the europium oxide die with a 0.003 in. interference fit, it is possible to use a wire with a diameter of 0.006 in. for the wire burning process. Adding a 10% safety factor to the compaction force tends to lead to conservative estimates of the stresses but not for the wall distortion. However, when the 10% safety factor is removed, the wall distortion is not affected enough to discard the design. Finally, regarding the europium oxide die, when the cavity walls are increased by 0.002 in. per side or the outer ring is made to the same geometry as the tantalum die, all the stresses and wall distortions are within the desired range. Thus, the recommendation is to use a 0.006 in. diameter wire and a 0.003 in. interference fit for the europium oxide die and a 0.01 in. diameter wire and a 0.001 in. interference fit for the tantalum die. The dies can also be made to have the

  12. Dying and multiplying life.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arias, David

    2014-09-01

    It was only after James P. Lovette's death, in 2006, that I discovered that the twenty-four-year-old colleague and friend with whom I had spent so many afternoons debating issues in organ transplantation had been the first successful child heart transplantee in the world and one of the longest-living survivors of a second transplant. During the years we met, he never even hinted at the fact that three different hearts had beaten in his chest. The revelation that his life had been an almost uninterrupted chain of medical challenges suddenly made me appreciate his quirkiness in a whole new light. Organ transplantation crudely exemplifies a traditional moral dilemma between means and ends: in order to save a life, someone else has to die. Bioethicists involved in this field have the role of identifying the ethical issues surrounding organ donation and helping others to argue in an intelligible and convincing way. In my view, bioethicists have the obligation to foster a discussion as open and transparent as possible on these matters. Still, I sometimes fear that I may be helping to cause unnecessary harms to potential recipients who are desperately waiting for a vital organ. Scholars would be chillingly cold if their quest for truth systematically came at the cost of lives lost. Every life can be meaningful and provide meaning to many others. This is true even with organ recipients, who often have short lives full of considerable suffering. PMID:25231665

  13. The Dying Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiles, Carl

    1993-05-01

    The 85-foot telescope's dying day was part of a week of memorably unusual weather---which, in turn, was part of a memorable winter in California (and elsewhere!). On this day, it spent several hours finishing a months-long, apparently successful observation of Zeeman splitting of the 18-cm OH lines in absorption against the Galactic center continuum source Sgr A. Later, it continued a survey of weak diffuse radio recombination lines near the Galactic plane---observations that were interrupted by strong winds, which made the telescope move to the stow position. We know the rest. Had the telescope not been destroyed, it would have been reconfigured the following day to observe the 21-cm line. It would have continued an ongoing survey of interstellar magnetic fields using Zeeman splitting of the 21-cm line. It would have begun a search for broad, weak line wings, which had been previously discovered in association with supernova remnants. It would have been involved in a number of H I mapping projects. And it would have continued its measurements of diffuse radio recombination lines. Had it not been for the inclement weather, the weekend would have seen it being used in laboratory exercises for undergraduates at UC Berkeley.

  14. A Transition from Spontaneity to Planning? Economic Values and Educational Policies in the Process of Revitalizing the Regional Language of Latgalian (Latvia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazdina, Sanita

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with current questions in revitalizing the regional language Latgalian, one of the varieties native to Latgale, a region located in the eastern part of Latvia. It first provides an overview of domains where Latgalian is used and highlights recent changes in these. Based on linguistic landscape data as well as interviews with…

  15. INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF LEAF AND FRUIT DISEASES OF PLUMS IN LATVIA.

    PubMed

    Grantina-Ievina, L; Stanke, L

    2015-01-01

    In the present study six plum orchards in Latvia were examined during 2014. One orchard was commercial with integrated pest management (IPM) practices, one was with organic management, two orchards were scientific collections and in two orchards plums were grown as a minor crop, using IPM practices. The shot-hole disease (Wilsonomyces carpophilus) and fruit rot were monitored in the field. Samples of twigs and leaves were taken for further examination if some other disease symptoms were observed. In total, 50 European plum (Prunus domestica) and six diploid plum cultivars were inspected. The fruit rot was assessed also in the laboratory to determine the latent infection with Monilinia spp. on immature fruits. Monilinia spp. isolates from all orchards were subjected to fungicide sensitivity tests. Incidence and severity of shot-hole disease was significantly different among various orchards when the same cultivar was compared, as well as between diploid and European plum cultivars. The average incidence of shot-hole disease was 41% in diploid plums and 80% in European plums, while the average severity was 9 and 15%, respectively. In the field, fruit rot caused only by Monilinia spp. was detected. The average incidence of brown rot on diploid plums was less than 1%, but on European plums it was 3.6%. The latent infection tests showed that plum fruits had higher incidence of brown rot than was observed in the field, up to 44% on particular cultivars. Additionally, from the fruits subjected to these tests, Botrytis cinerea, Diaporthe eres and Colletotrichum spp. were isolated. This means that in specific weather and management conditions the fruit rot incidence in the field could be several times higher. Examination of samples of twigs, leaves and fruits in the laboratory showed the presence of D. eres in samples from all orchards. In one of the scientific collections D. eres was isolated from twigs, leaves and fruits, and was more often found on the individuals

  16. INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF LEAF AND FRUIT DISEASES OF PLUMS IN LATVIA.

    PubMed

    Grantina-Ievina, L; Stanke, L

    2015-01-01

    In the present study six plum orchards in Latvia were examined during 2014. One orchard was commercial with integrated pest management (IPM) practices, one was with organic management, two orchards were scientific collections and in two orchards plums were grown as a minor crop, using IPM practices. The shot-hole disease (Wilsonomyces carpophilus) and fruit rot were monitored in the field. Samples of twigs and leaves were taken for further examination if some other disease symptoms were observed. In total, 50 European plum (Prunus domestica) and six diploid plum cultivars were inspected. The fruit rot was assessed also in the laboratory to determine the latent infection with Monilinia spp. on immature fruits. Monilinia spp. isolates from all orchards were subjected to fungicide sensitivity tests. Incidence and severity of shot-hole disease was significantly different among various orchards when the same cultivar was compared, as well as between diploid and European plum cultivars. The average incidence of shot-hole disease was 41% in diploid plums and 80% in European plums, while the average severity was 9 and 15%, respectively. In the field, fruit rot caused only by Monilinia spp. was detected. The average incidence of brown rot on diploid plums was less than 1%, but on European plums it was 3.6%. The latent infection tests showed that plum fruits had higher incidence of brown rot than was observed in the field, up to 44% on particular cultivars. Additionally, from the fruits subjected to these tests, Botrytis cinerea, Diaporthe eres and Colletotrichum spp. were isolated. This means that in specific weather and management conditions the fruit rot incidence in the field could be several times higher. Examination of samples of twigs, leaves and fruits in the laboratory showed the presence of D. eres in samples from all orchards. In one of the scientific collections D. eres was isolated from twigs, leaves and fruits, and was more often found on the individuals

  17. Factors affecting breeding dispersal of European ducks on Engure Marsh, Latvia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Lindberg, M.S.; Hines, J.E.; Mednis, A.

    2003-01-01

    1. We used up to 35 years of capture-recapture data from nearly 3300 individual female ducks nesting on Engure Marsh, Latvia, and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on breeding dispersal probability within the marsh. 2. Analyses based on observed dispersal distances of common pochards and tufted ducks provided no evidence that breeding success in year t influenced dispersal distance between t and t + 1. 3. Breeding dispersal distances (year t to t + 1) of pochards and tufted ducks were associated with a delay in relative nest initiation dates in year t + 1. The delay was greater for pochards (c. 4 days) than for tufted ducks (c. 2 days) when females dispersed > 0.8 km. 4. Northern shovelers and tufted ducks moved from a large island to small islands at low water levels and from small islands to the large island at high water levels before the construction of elevated small islands (1960-82). Following this habitat management (1983-94). breeding fidelity was extremely high and not influenced by water level in the marsh for either species. 5. Because pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period, nesting females moved into and out of colonies with similar probabilities. Local survival probabilities and incubation body masses were higher for both yearlings (SY) and adults (ASY) nesting within gull colonies, suggesting that these females were of better quality than females nesting outside of the colonies. 6. Tufted ducks showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. However, rates of movement for a given water level were higher during the period before management than after. 7. Both pochards and tufted ducks exhibited asymmetric movement with respect to proximity to water, with higher movement probabilities to near-water nesting locations than

  18. Thickness Reconstruction of Layers by 3D Geometrical Model to Characterize Caledonian Tectonic Complex and Data in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukass, J.; Saks, T.; Popovs, K.

    2012-04-01

    In present study we attempt to verify the 3D geological model, which has been built on a variety of heterogeneous data sources for the Baltic Basin (BB). Data describing the displacement along the faults and associated thickness changes of the syntectonic strata is sparse and reflects only regional relevance (Brangulis & Konsins 2002). Borehole logs provide most reliable and comprehensive data source for reconstructing the structural geology of the Latvia sedimentary cover as sufficient quality seismic data is available only for the local scale structures. Based on the thickness analysis of the boreholes rough resolution 3D geological tectonic block model was developed to deconstruct the geological structure of the Latvia Caledonian sedimentary sequence. MOSYS modeling system was used for the geological structure modeling, developed within the PUMA project (Sennikovs et al, 2011). Algorithmic genetic approach was applied to interpolate data of well logs as strata volume and sequentially to reconstruct the post-deformation situation. This approach allows modifying model construction in any step and all processes are fully documented and are repeatable. Geometrical model consists of 33 tectonic blocks bordered by the faults which were distributed by interpreting displacement amount of the blocks along the faults providing an opportunity to characterize common tectonic evolution. The study results indicate insignificant thickness change of the Ordovician and Silurian strata along the faults suggesting that major slip event along the faults occurred during the late Silurian and early Devonian, and some secondary fault reactivation during the middle Devonian Narva time. Uplift of the territory during this time is confirmed by the presence of the regional unconformity. Constructed rough resolution 3D geometrical model suggests shortening along the horizontal axis approximately 10 - 20% but most of the shortening has occurred in the central-west part of Latvia where it

  19. Improving care of dying children.

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, I M

    1995-01-01

    Every year about 5,000 children aged 0 to 14 years need hospice care in the United States. Children seem to know that they are dying, although this is difficult for parents to accept. Clear, empathic understanding is needed. Communication with clarity and understanding is imperative with the changes in goals from cure to palliation to comfort. The ideal place for most dying children is at home, where symptoms can be managed as effectively as in a hospital. PMID:7571589

  20. REFRACTORY DIE FOR EXTRUDING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-08-11

    A die is presented for the extrusion of metals, said die being formed of a refractory complex oxide having the composition M/sub n/O/sub m/R/sub x/O/sub y/ where M is magnesium, zinc, manganese, or iron, R is aluminum, chromic chromium, ferric iron, or manganic manganese, and m, n, x, and y are whole numbers. Specific examples are spinel, magnesium aluminate, magnetite, magnesioferrite, chromite, and franklinite.

  1. Dying at the best time.

    PubMed

    Seale, C; Addington-Hall, J

    1995-03-01

    These are the results of two surveys of relatives, and others who knew people who had died, describing events in the year before death and their views on the time of the person's death. Those surveyed were identified from death certificates in England. The main focus is on a sample of 3696 people dying in 1990 in 20 health authorities, with supporting analysis from an earlier national sample of 639 people dying in 1987. Variation in peoples' views about whether an earlier death would have been better is reported, in the context of debate about euthanasia. Spouses were less likely than others to feel that it would have been better if the person had died earlier, and this held true even when controlling for the deceaseds' levels of pain, distress, dependency and age. Spouses were more likely than others to say that a later death would have been better, though not in cases where the deceased was reported as having said they wanted to die sooner. Spouses were influenced by the loss which the death of the person represented for them, being more likely than others to say they missed the person who died a great deal, and feel loneliness was a big problem. Non spouses (children and other relatives of the deceased, friends, neighbours and a few officials) on the other hand were more likely than spouses to say an earlier death would have been better, even when levels of pain, distress, dependency and age were controlled for.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. From social pathologies to individual psyches: psychiatry navigating socio-political currents in 20th-century Latvia.

    PubMed

    Lūse, Agita

    2011-03-01

    The paper explores psychiatry's responses to the twentieth-century socio-political currents in Latvia by focusing on social objectives, clinical ideologies, and institutional contexts of Soviet mental health care. The tradition of German biological psychiatry in which Baltic psychiatrists had been trained blended well with the materialistic monism of Soviet psychoneurology. Pavlov's teaching of the second signal system was well suited to Soviet ideological needs: speech stimuli were seen as a vehicle for moulding the individual's mind. The transformation in diagnostic practices during the 1970s and 1980s reflected the demise of optimism about the capacity of the self to model itself to the needs of the society. Latvian psychiatry was prepared to embrace more individualistic and pessimistic theories of the self.

  3. The general description of major ion concentrations in groundwater of Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvāns, A.; Delina, A.

    2012-04-01

    Latvia is situated at the North central part of the Baltic sedimentary basin where the crystalline basement is found in depth between 0.6 to 2 km. Three large aquifer complexes with distinct chemical composition of groundwater are identified: the stagnant water exchange zone where Na-Ca-Cl brine is found; the slow water exchange zone where Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 brackish water is found and active water exchange zone where the freshwater resides. These are separated by distinct regional aquicludes. The composition of the Cl- dominated brines at the base of sedimentary basin is characterised by shift from Na+ towards Ca++ as dominant cation, partially associated with depth of the aquifer and the strength of the brine. The concentration of SO4-- here is inversely linked to the concentration of Ca++ and, according to geochemical modelling, often is close to the solubility limit of the gypsum. The major ion concentrations in the E and W part of the territory are rather different. Therefore two different initial sources of the formation brine were suggested. Alternatively the observations can be explained by different thermal histories of different parts of the basin, affecting the rate of albitization - exchange of the Na for Ca in the solution due to water-rock interaction. The groundwater composition in the slow exchange zone can be nicely explained by the mixing of freshwater and brine residing deeper in the presence of gypsum during some but no all stages of mixing. In some shallow parts of the zone still bound by the Narva regional aquiclude freshwater is found. The question is posted - could this be a paleogroundwater originating from the extensive continental glaciations that override the territory several times during the Pleistocene? Initial isotope studies presented elsewhere seems to give negative answer to this question. The active water exchange zone is characterised by fresh Ca-Mg-HCO3 water with exceptions in cases where gypsum are abundant in sedimentary rocks and

  4. Sail-Type Wind Turbine for Autonomous Power Supplay: Possible Use in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.

    2014-12-01

    Under the conditions of continuous increase in the energy consumption, sharply rising prices of basic energy products (gas, oil, coal), deterioration of environment, etc., it is of vital importance to develop methods and techniques for heat and power generation from renewables. The paper considers the possibility to use a sail-type wind turbine for autonomous power supply in Latvia, taking into account its climatic conditions. The authors discuss the problems of developing a turbine of the type that would operate efficiently at low winds, being primarily designed to supply power to small buildings and farms distant from centralized electricity networks. The authors consider aerodynamic characteristics of such a turbine and the dependence of the thrust moment of its pilot model on the airflow rate at different angles of attack. The pilot model with a changeable blade shape has been tested and shows a good performance. Darbs veltīts vienam no atjaunojamo enerģiju veidiem - vēja enerģijai, analizētas tās izmantošanas iespējas. Vispirms īsi raksturota vēja enerģijas izmantošana pasaulē, kā arī vērtētas izmantošanas perspektīvas no inženiertehniskā un klimatisko apstākļu viedokļa. Turpinājumā raksturota situācija Latvijā, t. sk., arī vēja potenciāla pieejamība dažādos reģionos, kā arī vēja enerģijas izmantošanas efektivitāti raksturojošie lielumi. Konstatējot problēmu, rast vēja turbīnu risinājumus Latvijas apstākļiem ar maziem vidējiem vēja ātrumiem, izveidots buras tipa turbīnas modelis. Šī modeļa raksturlielumu izpēte veikta vēja tunelī Karagandas universitātē, konstatējot relatīvi labus efektivitātes rādītājus tiešai un pretējai vēja plūsmai. Izmantojot mērījumu rezultātus, ierosināti sistēmas uzlabojumi, kurus plānots pētīt turpmāk. Šādas sistēmas potenciāli var rast lietojumu tur, kur nepieciešami autonomi enerģijas avoti.

  5. Use of RSP Tooling to Manufacture Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin McHugh

    2004-07-01

    The technology and art used to construct die casting dies has seen many improvements over the years. However, the time lag from when a design is finalized to the time a tool is in production has remained essentially the same. The two main causes for the bottleneck are the need to qualify a part design by making prototypes (usually from an alternative process), and the production tooling lead time after the prototypes are approved. Production tooling costs are high due to the labor and equipment costs associated with transforming a forged block of tool steel into a finished tool. CNC machining, sink EDM, benching, engraving and heat treatment unit operations are typically involved. As a result, there is increasing interest in rapid tooling (RT) technologies that shorten the design-to-part cycle and reduce the cost of dies. There are currently more than 20 RT methods being developed and refined around the world (1). The "rapid" in rapid tooling suggests time compression for tool delivery, but does not address robustness as nearly all RT approaches are intended for low-volume prototype work, primarily for molding plastics. Few options exist for die casting. An RT technology suitable for production-quality tooling in the time it normally takes for prototype tooling is highly desirable. In fact, there would be no need for a distinction between prototype and production tooling. True prototype parts could be made using the same processing conditions and materials intended for production. Qualification of the prototype part would allow the manufacturer to go directly into production with the same tool. A relatively new RT technology, Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) Tooling, is capable of making production-quality tooling in an RT timeframe for die casting applications. RSP Tooling, was developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and commercialized with the formation of RSP Tooling, LLC (2). This paper describes the process, and

  6. Clinical management of dying patients.

    PubMed Central

    Gavrin, J; Chapman, C R

    1995-01-01

    Dying is universal, and death should be a peaceful time. Myriad comfort measures are available in the last weeks before life ends. Discussions about end-of-life issues often suffer from lack of informed opinion. Palliative care experts have identified specific somatic and psychological sources of distress for dying patients and their loved ones. Pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, and fear of abandonment contribute substantially to both physical and psychological discomfort toward the end of life. Simple, effective methods exist for relieving those symptoms. Knowledge about the natural events associated with dying and an informed approach to medical and psychological interventions contribute to systematic and successful comfort care. We describe the origin of physical and psychological distress at the end of life and provide strategies for alleviating many of the discomforts. PMID:7571591

  7. Acting to let someone die.

    PubMed

    McGee, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    This paper examines the recent prominent view in medical ethics that withdrawing life-sustaining treatment (LST) is an act of killing. I trace this view to the rejection of the traditional claim that withdrawing LST is an omission rather than an act. Although that traditional claim is not as problematic as this recent prominent view suggests, my main claim is that even if we accepted that withdrawing LST should be classified as an act rather than as an omission, it could still be classified as letting die rather than killing. Even though omissions are contrasted with acts, letting die need not be, for one can let die by means of acts. The remainder of the paper is devoted to establishing this claim and addresses certain objections to it.

  8. On dying and human suffering.

    PubMed

    Kellehear, A

    2009-07-01

    This review compares and contrasts the major reoccurring themes in two sources of research literature - social studies of dying and human suffering. The purpose of such a comparison is to employ the major insights of each field as a useful method of critically evaluating the insights of the other. Critical exchanges and comparisons between the research area of dying studies and on human suffering have been modest to date. This article will explain that the experience of dying benefits from being situated and analysed in a broader context of cultural experience, as suggested by the theory and study of human suffering. Conversely, the theory and methods involved in studies of human suffering can gain from a mortal view of vulnerability, grief, social ambiguity and identity changes characteristic of experiences at the end of life.

  9. Clinical management of dying patients.

    PubMed

    Gavrin, J; Chapman, C R

    1995-09-01

    Dying is universal, and death should be a peaceful time. Myriad comfort measures are available in the last weeks before life ends. Discussions about end-of-life issues often suffer from lack of informed opinion. Palliative care experts have identified specific somatic and psychological sources of distress for dying patients and their loved ones. Pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, and fear of abandonment contribute substantially to both physical and psychological discomfort toward the end of life. Simple, effective methods exist for relieving those symptoms. Knowledge about the natural events associated with dying and an informed approach to medical and psychological interventions contribute to systematic and successful comfort care. We describe the origin of physical and psychological distress at the end of life and provide strategies for alleviating many of the discomforts.

  10. Care of the Dying Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Faye

    1979-01-01

    This is a description of the obstacles encountered in the management of one 17 year old patient dying with malignant melanoma. Various areas are seen to contribute to the difficulties including the “health care system” (specifically the hospital environment), the patient himself, his family, his disease and its treatment, and his physician(s). An increased awareness of the difficulties would be helpful to those of us not frequently encountering the responsibility of caring for a dying adolescent. The details have been left vague or slightly changed in this real case to respect the privacy of those involved. PMID:21297759

  11. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-12-01

    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing.

  12. Portable punch and die jig

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Edward F.; Anderson, Petrus A.

    1978-01-01

    A portable punch and die jig includes a U-shaped jig of predetermined width having a slot of predetermined width in the base thereof extending completely across the width of the jig adapted to fit over the walls of rectangular tubes and a punch and die assembly disposed in a hole extending through the base of the jig communicating with the slot in the base of the jig for punching a hole in the walls of the rectangular tubes at precisely determined locations.

  13. Die Herz-Lungen-Maschine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Markus; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Lange, Rüdiger

    Das Kapitel der modernen Herzchirurgie mit Einsatz der Herz-Lungen-Maschine am Menschen beginnt am 6. Mai 1953, als J. Gibbon bei einer 18-jährigen Patientin einen angeborenen Defekt in der Vorhofscheidewand verschließt [1]. Mit ersten experimentellen Versuchen zur extrakorporalen Zirkulation begann Gibbon bereits in den 30er Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts. Die Grundlage für die heute gebräuchliche Rollerpumpe schufen Porter und Bradley mit ihrer "rotary pump“, welche sie 1855 zum Patent anmeldeten. Diese Pumpe wurde von DeBakey und Schmidt modifiziert und entspricht im Wesentlichen noch der heute sich im Routinebetrieb befindlichen Rollerpumpe [2].

  14. A good way to die.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    2016-03-23

    An end of life care service is providing joined-up care for patients. Care co-ordinators arrange packages of care so patients can die in the place of their choice – often at home. The result is high satisfaction rates among patients, families and staff.

  15. Attitudes on Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    This paper explored attitudes toward death and dying revealed through interviews with members of the clergy, the medical profession, funeral directors, nursing home residents, and selected others. The sampling was small and results are not intended to be representative of the groups to which these people belong. Rather, the study may be used as a…

  16. Robert Merton Dies at 92

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2006-01-01

    This article features Robert Merton, who died recently at age 92. Merton came into this world as a Jewish baby named Meyer Schkolnick. He lived in South Philly where his parents wrenched a living as blue-collar workers. Merton chose an Anglicized name to move into the Yankee dominated America of the 20's and 30's. At Harvard, he studied under…

  17. Uncertainties and Solutions Related to Use of WRB (2007) in the Boreo-nemoral zone, Case of Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasparinskis, Raimonds; Nikodemus, Olgerts; Rolavs, Nauris

    2014-05-01

    Relatively high diversity of soils groups according to the WRB (2007) classification is observed in forest ecosystems in the boreo-nemoral zone in Latvia. This is due to the geological genesis of area and environmental conditions (Kasparinskis, Nikodemus, 2012), as well as historical land use and management (Nikodemus et al., 2013). Due to the relatively young soils, Albic, Spodic and Cambic horizons are relatively weakly expressed in many cases. Relatively well developed Albic horizons occur in sandy forest soils, but unusually well expressed Spodic features are observed. In some cases there is a Cambic horizon, however location of Cambisols in the WRB (2007) soil classification sequence does not provide an opportunity to classify these soils as Cambisols, but they are classified as Arenosols. This sequence does not reflect the logical sheme of soil development, and therefore raises the question about location of Podzols, Arenosols and Cambisols in the sequence of WRB (2007) soil classification. Soils with two parent materials (abrupt textural change) are relatively common in Latvia, where conceptually on the small scale mapping results in classification as the soil group Planosols, but in many cases there is occurrence of Fluvic materials, as parent material in the upper part of the soil profile is formed by Baltic Ice lake sandy sediments - this leads to question about the location of Fluvisols and Planosols in the sequence of the WRB (2007) soil classification. Soil research has found cases, where a relatively well developed Spodic horizon was established as the result of ground water table depth in areas of abrupt textural change. In this case the profile corresponds to the soil group of Podzols, however in some cases - Gleysols not Planosols due to a high ground water table. Therefore there is a need for discussion also about the location of Podzols and Planosols in the sequence of the WRB (2007) soil classification. The above mentioned questions raise

  18. The thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The effects of welding, five selected surface coatings, and stress relieving on the thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies were studied using eleven thermal fatigue specimens. Stress relieving was conducted after each 5,000 cycle interval at 1050 F for three hours. Four thermal fatigue specimens were welded with H-13 or maraging steel welding rods at ambient and elevated temperatures and subsequently, subjected to different post-weld heat treatments. Crack patterns were examined at 5,000, 10,000, and 15,000 cycles. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. The results indicate that a significant improvement in thermal fatigue resistance over the control was obtained from the stress-relieving treatment. Small improvements were obtained from the H-13 welded specimens and from a salt bath nitrogen and carbon-surface treatment. The other surface treatments and welded specimens either did not affect or had a detrimental influence on the thermal fatigue properties of the H-13 die steel.

  19. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-12-01

    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing. PMID:25080714

  20. Guide for extrusion dies eliminates straightening operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyorgak, C. A.; Hoover, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    To prevent distortion of extruded metal, a guidance assembly is aligned with the die. As the metal emerges from the extrusion dies, it passes directly into the receiver and straightening tube system, and the completed extrusion is withdrawn.

  1. The role of the legislative and regulatory branches in promoting the use of geothermal energy in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.; Cers, A.

    2016-09-01

    Latvia currently is self-sufficient in energy resources up to approximately 35 %. Annual fossil energy prices rise and risks of security of energy supply promote the development legislation in the matter of renewable resources. One of the Latvian Ministry of Economics' recent products is a new draft law called the "Renewable Energy Law", which has been created due to one of the European Union and Latvian national energy policy objectives: to increase the share of renewable energy up to 40 % by 2020 (Moore and Vanags, 2012). Currently, geothermal energy potential is assessed at 1 × 1013 kWh; nevertheless, it is difficult for geothermal energy to compete with other renewable energy resources in the Latvian energy market. A great job has been done in recent years at the legislative branch to choose the right methods for supporting the use of renewable energy resources. This paper aims is analysis of current situation and assessment of Latvian legislation possibilities to promote the use of geothermal energy.

  2. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Fernandez, Pablo; Dymerska, Dagmara; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Róża; Sobieszczańska, Tatiana; Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Roomere, Hanno; Oitmaa, Eneli; Metspalu, Andres; Janavičius, Ramūnas; Elsakov, Pavel; Razumas, Mindaugas; Petrulis, Kestutis; Irmejs, Arvīds; Miklaševičs, Edvīns; Scott, Rodney J.; Lubiński, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC) raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668), already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls), Latvia (81 cases and controls), Lithuania (123 cases and controls), and Poland (795 cases and controls). Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample). Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers. PMID:26101521

  3. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Husak, D N

    1979-12-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible.

  4. Jewish tradition in death and dying.

    PubMed

    Ross, H M

    1998-10-01

    Death is often a spiritually difficult time for the dying and their families. Judaism approaches dying with some unique views that can differ from other religious traditions. Through an understanding of Jewish tradition, nurses can ease the dying process for Jewish patients and their families.

  5. Contoured Orifice for Silicon-Ribbon Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackintosh, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    Die configuration encourages purity and stable growth. Contour of die orifice changes near ribbon edges. As result, silicon ribbon has nearly constant width and little carbon contamination. Die part of furnace being developed to produce high-quality, low-cost material for solar cells.

  6. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions--Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia.

    PubMed

    Dace, Elina; Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra; Kaczala, Fabio

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to "neutralize" the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. PMID:25958357

  7. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions--Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia.

    PubMed

    Dace, Elina; Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra; Kaczala, Fabio

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to "neutralize" the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries.

  8. Modelling soil erosion and associated sediment yield for small headwater catchments of the Daugava spillway valley, Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soms, Juris

    2015-04-01

    The accelerated soil erosion by water and associated fine sediment transfer in river catchments has various negative environmental as well as economic implications in many EU countries. Hence, the scientific community had recognized and ranked soil erosion among other environmental problems. Moreover, these matters might worsen in the near future in the countries of the Baltic Region, e.g. Latvia considering the predicted climate changes - more precisely, the increase in precipitation and shortening of return periods of extreme rainfall events, which in their turn will enable formation of surface runoff, erosion and increase of sediment delivery to receiving streams. Thereby it is essential to carry out studies focused on these issues in order to obtain reliable data in terms of both scientific and applied aims, e.g. environmental protection and sustainable management of soils as well as water resources. During the past decades, many of such studies of soil erosion had focused on the application of modelling techniques implemented in a GIS environment, allowing indirectly to estimate the potential soil losses and to quantify related sediment yield. According to research results published in the scientific literature, this approach currently is widely used all over the world, and most of these studies are based on the USLE model and its revised and modified versions. Considering that, the aim of this research was to estimate soil erosion rates and sediment transport under different hydro-climatic conditions in south-eastern Latvia by application of GIS-based modelling. For research purposes, empirical RUSLE model and ArcGIS software were applied, and five headwater catchments were chosen as model territories. The selected catchments with different land use are located in the Daugava spillway valley, which belongs to the upper Daugava River drainage basin. Considering lithological diversity of Quaternary deposits, a variety of soils can be identified, i.e., Stagnic

  9. Clinical aspects of the health disturbances in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident clean-up workers (liquidators) from Latvia.

    PubMed

    Eglite, M E; Zvagule, T J; Rainsford, K D; Reste, J D; Curbakova, E V; Kurjane, N N

    2009-06-01

    The health status of some 6,000 workers from Latvia who went to clean-up the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) site following the explosion on 26 April 1986 has been analyzed. The data on these workers have been recorded in the Latvian State Register of Occupational disease patients and people exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl NPP accident (Latvian State Register) that was established in 1994. From these data, estimates have been made of external ionizing radiation to which these workers were exposed together with observations on the impact of exposure to heavy metals (especially lead and zinc) and radioactive isotopes released during the reactor 'meltdown'. These factors along with psycho-emotional and social-economic stresses account for a marked excess of mortality and morbidity in the group of CNPP accident clean-up workers compared with that of the non-exposed normal Latvian population adjusted for age and sex. The number of diseases or conditions in the CNPP accident clean-up workers has progressively risen from an average of 1.3 in 1986 to 10.9 in 2007. This exceeds for the Latvian population when adjusted for age and sex. The most serious conditions affect the nervous, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine (especially thyroid) and immunological systems. While the morbidity associated with diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems has decreased in recent years that in the other systems is increasing. In recent years, there has been an increased occurrence of cancers affecting the thyroid, prostate and stomach. Clinical and laboratory investigations suggest that surviving CNPP accident clean-up workers exhibit signs of immuno-inflammatory reactions causing premature aging with evidence of autoimmune diseases and immunological deficiencies or abnormalities. It is suggested that the CNPP accident clean-up workers may have a specific syndrome, the 'Chernobyl post-radiation neurosomatic polypathy', due to sustained oxidant

  10. Using satellite data to monitor land-use land-cover change in North-eastern Latvia.

    PubMed

    Fonji, Simon Foteck; Taff, Gregory N

    2014-01-01

    Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC), especially those caused by human activities, is one of the most important components of global environmental change (Jessen 3(rd) edition: 1-526 2005). In this study the effects of geographic and demographic factors on LULCC are analyzed in northeastern Latvia using official estimates from census and vital statistics data, and using remotely sensed satellite imagery (Landsat Thematic Mapper) acquired from 1992 and 2007. The remote sensing images, elevation data, in-situ ground truth and ground control data (using GPS), census and vital statistics data were processed, integrated, and analyzed in a geographic information system (GIS). Changes in six categories of land-use and land-cover (wetland, water, agriculture, forest, bare field and urban/suburban) were studied to determine their relationship to demographic and geographic factors between 1992 and 2007. Supervised classifications were performed on the Landsat images. Analysis of land cover change based on "change-to" categories between the 1992 and 2007 images revealed that changes to forest were the most common type of change (17.1% of pixels), followed by changes to agriculture (8.6%) and the fewest were changes to urban/suburban (0.8%). Integration of population data and land-cover change data revealed key findings: areas near to roads underwent more LULCC and areas far away from Riga underwent less LULCC. Range in elevation was positively correlated with all LULCC categories. Population density was found to be associated with most LULCC categories but the direction of effect was scale dependent. This paper shows how socio-demographic data can be integrated with satellite image data and cartographic data to analyze drivers of LULCC at multiple spatial scales. PMID:24567875

  11. Using satellite data to monitor land-use land-cover change in North-eastern Latvia.

    PubMed

    Fonji, Simon Foteck; Taff, Gregory N

    2014-01-01

    Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC), especially those caused by human activities, is one of the most important components of global environmental change (Jessen 3(rd) edition: 1-526 2005). In this study the effects of geographic and demographic factors on LULCC are analyzed in northeastern Latvia using official estimates from census and vital statistics data, and using remotely sensed satellite imagery (Landsat Thematic Mapper) acquired from 1992 and 2007. The remote sensing images, elevation data, in-situ ground truth and ground control data (using GPS), census and vital statistics data were processed, integrated, and analyzed in a geographic information system (GIS). Changes in six categories of land-use and land-cover (wetland, water, agriculture, forest, bare field and urban/suburban) were studied to determine their relationship to demographic and geographic factors between 1992 and 2007. Supervised classifications were performed on the Landsat images. Analysis of land cover change based on "change-to" categories between the 1992 and 2007 images revealed that changes to forest were the most common type of change (17.1% of pixels), followed by changes to agriculture (8.6%) and the fewest were changes to urban/suburban (0.8%). Integration of population data and land-cover change data revealed key findings: areas near to roads underwent more LULCC and areas far away from Riga underwent less LULCC. Range in elevation was positively correlated with all LULCC categories. Population density was found to be associated with most LULCC categories but the direction of effect was scale dependent. This paper shows how socio-demographic data can be integrated with satellite image data and cartographic data to analyze drivers of LULCC at multiple spatial scales.

  12. Rotary press utilizing a flexible die wall.

    PubMed

    Amidon, G E; Smith, D P; Hiestand, E N

    1981-06-01

    A die with a flexible wall was constructed and evaluated on a specially modified instrumented rotary tablet press. The design permits an inward deflection of the die wall by a side punch, which rolls past a side compression roll during compression-decompression. The side compression roll is instrumented to monitor the applied side compression roll forces. On decompression, return of the die wall to its original position permits release of residual die wall pressure. The decreased residual die wall pressure can decrease fracture and capping of tablets for problem formulations. The performance was tested on three experimental formulations. For these formulations, tablets made in a conventional die exhibited severe capping problems. However, most tablets compressed in the special die were superior. With proper adjustment of punch and die wall compression forces, excellent tablets could be manufactured. The merits of the special die and modified tablet machine are substantiated, although this initial design did not provide adequate die wall pressure for all formulations. Further engineering efforts could result in practical production equipment.

  13. Evaluation of permanent die coatings to improve the wear resistance of die casting dies. Final project report, January 1, 1995--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Shivpuri, R.

    1997-09-18

    Die Casting dies are subject to severe service conditions during the die casting operation. While these severe conditions are necessary to achieve high production rates, they cause the dies which are commonly made of H13 die steel, to suffer frequent failures. The major die failure mechanisms are erosion or washout, Heat checking, soldering and corrosion. Due to their geometrical complexity, die casting dies are very expensive (some dies cost over a million dollars), and thus a large number of parts have to be produced by a die, to justify this cost and leverage the advantages of the die casting process (high production rates, low manpower costs). A potential increase in the die service life, thus has a significant impact on the economics of the die; casting operation. There are many ways to extend die life: developing new wear resistant die materials, developing new surface treatments including coatings, improving heat treatment of existing H13 dies, using better lubricants that can protect the die material, or modifying the die geometry and process parameters to reduce the intensity of wear. Of these the use of coatings to improve the wear resistance of the die surface has shown a lot of promise. Consequently, use of coatings in the die casting industry and their wide use to decrease die wear can improve significantly the productivity of shop operations resulting in large savings in material and energy usage.

  14. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, E.H.; Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-09-10

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required. 1 figure.

  15. Die singulation method and package formed thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert C.; Shul, Randy J.; Clews, Peggy J.; Baker, Michael S.; De Boer, Maarten P.

    2012-08-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a substrate having a sacrificial layer and one or more device layers, with a retainer being formed in the device layer(s) and anchored to the substrate. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) etching of a trench through the substrate from the bottom side defines a shape for each die. A handle wafer is then attached to the bottom side of the substrate, and the sacrificial layer is etched to singulate the die and to form a frame from the retainer and the substrate. The frame and handle wafer, which retain the singulated die in place, can be attached together with a clamp or a clip and to form a package for the singulated die. One or more stops can be formed from the device layer(s) to limit a sliding motion of the singulated die.

  16. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Edward H.; Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required.

  17. Reinraumtechnik für die Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petek, Max; Jungbluth, Martin; Krampe, Erhard

    Die Reinraumtechnik ist heute ein unverzichtbarer Bestandteil bei der Fertigung von Produkten der Life Sciences, den Bereichen Pharma, Lebensmittel, Kosmetik und Medizintechnik. In Anbetracht der langen Historie der Medizintechnik ist sie jedoch eine sehr junge Disziplin. Die Bedeutung von Keimen und die richtige Einschätzung ihrer Größe wurden zwar sehr früh bereits durch Paracelsus erkannt, jedoch wurden daraus noch keine speziellen oder kontinuierlich umgesetzten Hygienevorschriften abgeleitet. Die erste bekannte technische Umsetzung von Hygieneempfehlungen geht auf den Franzosen François Nicolas Appert zurück, der eine aseptische Abfüllmethode für Lebensmittel entwickelte und diese 1810 veröffentlichte [1]. Die erste dokumentierte medizinische Umsetzung stellten Hygienevorschriften für Ärzte dar, die Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis nach 1847 in der Wiener Klinik für Geburtshilfe einführte [2].

  18. Should assisted dying be legalised?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion “This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying”. This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework. PMID:24423249

  19. Estimation of groundwater age in the central part of the Baltic Artesian Basin based on new isotope data from Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babre, Alise; Kalvans, Andis; Popovs, Konrads; Retike, Inga; Delina, Aija

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogeological conditions of the Baltic Artesian basin (BAB) have changed rapidly during the Quaternary period. Therefore this work aims to give better overview of the complexity of the groundwater recharge and discharge dynamics beyond country borders, taking into account only shared geological framework, common climate conditions and geological development. To maintain better understanding of the processes that took part in the formation of groundwater that can be observed nowadays several methods were applied placing major emphasis on the new oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratio results. Earlier investigations in the northern part of the basin indicated glacial melt water intrusion in the Cambrian-Vendian. Several radiocarbon and stable isotope studies in groundwater have been done at the southern part of the basin as well reporting extensive groundwater recharge during the Late Pleistocene suggesting that recharge took place under different recharge mechanisms compared with the northern part. In 2010 to 2012 an extensive field campaign was undertaken, collecting more than 300 groundwater samples for deuterium and stable oxygen, 30 for stable carbon and 10 for radiocarbon analysis mostly from central part (Latvia) of the BAB covering all the major aquifer systems where previously collected data was sparse or absent. A specific motivation for the research was to identify relict glacial meltwater in the groundwater system. The broader aim was to estimate the baseline isotopic composition of groundwater in the region. Here a new data set is presented. Na-Ca-Cl brine found at the deepest - stagnation zone and is characterized by δ18O values above -5 o and δD values approaching -40 o in respect to VSMOW. The slow exchange zone is characterized by δ18O values around -11.7 o and δD values around -84.8 o . Mean δ18O and δD value of the groundwater in the active water exchange zone is -11.0 o and 79.2 o respectively. Characteristically the groundwater in the

  20. Student Nurses' Perception of Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederriter, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Student nurses are involved in caring for patients who are actively dying or who have been told they have a terminal illness and are faced with the process of dying. Students encounter these patients in hospitals, nursing homes, at home or in hospice care settings. According to Robinson (2004), "nurses are the healthcare providers that are most…

  1. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  2. Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies

    DOEpatents

    Allison, James W.; LaBarre, Timothy L.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies in punch press operations is provided. A floatation platen for supporting a die on the platen's upper surface has a plurality of recessed gas exhaust ports on the platen's lower surface. A source of pressurized gas delivers gas to a platen manifold, for delivery to orifices located in the gas exhaust ports. The flow of gas is controlled by a first valve adjacent the gas source and a second valve adjacent the manifold, with the second valve being used to control the gas flow during movement of the die. In this fashion, a die may be moved on a cushion of air from one workstation to a selected second workstation. A moveable hydraulically operated restraining fixture is also provided, for clamping the die in position during the compacting phase, and for releasing the die after completion of the compacting phase by releasing the hydraulic pressure on the restraining fixture. When pressure in the hydraulic cylinders on the restraining fixture is reversed, the restraining fixture will retract so that there is no contact between the die and the restraining fixture, thereby allowing the die to be removed from a first workstation and moved to a second selected workstation.

  3. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  4. Assisted dying: a review of international legislation.

    PubMed

    Field, Charlotte; Curtice, Martin

    2009-05-01

    The issue of assisted dying in the UK is increasingly receiving media and academic journal attention. Such reporting often cites, but in little depth, existing legislation in other countries. Such international legislation may also shape future UK assisted dying legislation. PMID:19451872

  5. The Right To Die. Public Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquerella, Lynn

    This program guide on the right to die provides policy issue information where ethical concerns have a prominent place. Three positions about the right to die are presented: (1) mercy killing and assisted suicide should be legally permitted in certain cases; (2) legal status should be given to living wills and other advance directives that would…

  6. Goethe almost died of urosepsis.

    PubMed

    Gross, A J; Hummel, G

    1999-12-01

    In the year of 1805, Goethe almost died of urosepsis. His urological problems were not diseases arising from full health but a new variation in a life accompanied by illnesses. Some sources date the first colics he experienced to the year 1795 and others say 1805. The most dramatic period in the course of his illness was in February, when he suffered from fever of such an extent that one could speak of urosepsis. Recovery took place slowly and was accompanied by minor relapses. Nothing about this is written down in his work. On the advice of his doctors, Goethe undertook a cure in Lauchstädt in July and August. The report of his consultant, Professor Johann Christian Reil, on his problems in the field of urology remained undiscovered until 1937. Professor Reil recommended treatment with thermae carolinae, aqua calcis, soap soda crystallisata, herbae subastringentes, and uva ursi, among other measures. With increasing age, Goethe's colics disappeared. The passing of a stone has never been described. Whereas Goethe hinted about medical problem other than those reported herein, the urological problems discussed in this article were left unmentioned. Nonetheless, literature that deals with Goethe's diseases is interesting from the aspect of both the history of medicine and the history of culture.

  7. Dying to go to school.

    PubMed

    Shearar, A

    1997-01-01

    In southern Sudan, the recent war sparked a mass migration of boys aged 5-18 who traveled through perilous terrain to the borders of Ethiopia in search of promised security and schooling. Thousands of these children died from hardships suffered in the wild, from the inadvertent or deliberate attacks of warriors, from hunger, from thirst, or from disease. Those who endured the hardships and arrived at their destination were shocked to find only military training centers or rudimentary schooling for those who were too weak or too young to be trained for battle. Eventually, the refugees were forced back into Sudan, and today about 20,000 of these unaccompanied children are displaced. Several nongovernmental organizations are running family reunification projects, and follow-up activities carried out among the reunified children reveal that they carry the scars of their trauma. The drawings the children produce as art therapy usually include the image of a young child holding a school book. While these children have a constant struggle with their memories, those who have not returned home or who have lost their families to war or disease are even more forlorn. As food rations have been halved in the refugee camps, many children are pursuing any possible alternative living arrangement. Some attempt to travel to South Africa or Egypt and some join an army in an effort to overcome the desperation of their present situation. PMID:12294200

  8. Influence of climate changes on the blooms and toxin production of cyanobacteria in the lakes of Latvia (north-eastern Baltic Sea region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briede, Linda; Barda, Ieva; Purina, Ingrida

    2016-04-01

    Global climate changes have influenced lakes ecosystems resulting in prolonged vegetation season. Long term data shows the earlier warming of water in spring and later cooling in autumn. These modifications are promoting the changes of phytoplankton community from diatom and chrysophytes dominated communities towards cyanobacteria dominated communities. Cyanobacteria are well known as procariotic ancient organisms involved in the production of oxygen, however nowadays they are better known as producers of potent toxins. Long term dynamic of cyanobacterial communities were investigated in lakes Burtnieku and Aluksnes (northern Latvia). Most common cyanobacterial genus were Aphanizomenon, Anabaena, Microcystis, Planktothrix as well as Gloeotrichia known to produce hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. Seasonal toxin production of cyanobacteria was screened using ELISA kits in year 2015. Implications of prolonged cyanobacterial blooms and toxin production on lakes ecosystem are discussed.

  9. Psychological variables underlying political orientations in an old and a new democracy: A comparative study between Sweden and Latvia.

    PubMed

    Dimdins, Girts; Sandgren, Maria; Montgomery, Henry

    2016-10-01

    This study examines in detail the psychological variables underlying ideological political orientation, and structure and contents of this orientation, in Sweden and Latvia. Individual political orientation is conceptualized on two dimensions: acceptance vs. rejection of social change and acceptance vs. rejection of inequality. Swedish (N = 320) and Latvian (N = 264) participants completed measures of political orientation, Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA), self vs. other orientation, tolerance for ambiguity, humanism and normativism, core political values, system justification, as well as moral foundations questionnaire and portrait values questionnaire. The results showed that the relation among the measured variables was similar in both samples. Swedish participants showed stronger endorsement of egalitarian attitudes and social values, whereas we found more self-enhancing and socially conservative values and attitudes among the Latvian participants. PMID:27481632

  10. Psychological variables underlying political orientations in an old and a new democracy: A comparative study between Sweden and Latvia.

    PubMed

    Dimdins, Girts; Sandgren, Maria; Montgomery, Henry

    2016-10-01

    This study examines in detail the psychological variables underlying ideological political orientation, and structure and contents of this orientation, in Sweden and Latvia. Individual political orientation is conceptualized on two dimensions: acceptance vs. rejection of social change and acceptance vs. rejection of inequality. Swedish (N = 320) and Latvian (N = 264) participants completed measures of political orientation, Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA), self vs. other orientation, tolerance for ambiguity, humanism and normativism, core political values, system justification, as well as moral foundations questionnaire and portrait values questionnaire. The results showed that the relation among the measured variables was similar in both samples. Swedish participants showed stronger endorsement of egalitarian attitudes and social values, whereas we found more self-enhancing and socially conservative values and attitudes among the Latvian participants.

  11. Die Evolution des Universums. Eine Geschichte der Kosmologie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, H.

    This volume covers in an elementary course a historical overview on cosmology ranging from the ancient aspects up to big bang theory and the concepts of inflationary universe and grand unified theories. Contents: 1. Auf dem Wege zur Wissenschaft. 2. Die neue Kosmologie. 3. Die Struktur des Weltalls. 4. Dramatik im Weltall. 5. Die endliche Welt. 6. Die Evolution des frühen Universums. 7. Die Zukunft. 8. Die neue Teleologie. 9. Das Leben.

  12. MIRU-VNTR genotype diversity and indications of homoplasy in M. avium strains isolated from humans and slaughter pigs in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Kalvisa, Adrija; Tsirogiannis, Constantinos; Silamikelis, Ivars; Skenders, Girts; Broka, Lonija; Zirnitis, Agris; Jansone, Inta; Ranka, Renate

    2016-09-01

    Diseases which are caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an increasing problem in the developed countries. In Latvia, one of the most clinically important members of NTM is Mycobacterium avium (M. avium), an opportunistic pathogen which has been isolated from several lung disease patients and tissue samples of slaughter pigs. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of the M. avium isolates in Latvia and to compare the distribution of genotypic patterns among humans and pigs. Eleven (Hall and Salipante, 2010) clinical M. avium samples, isolated from patients of Center of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (years 2003-2010), and 32 isolates from pig necrotic mesenterial lymph nodes in different regions (years 2003-2007) were analyzed. The majority (42 of 43) of samples were identified as M. avium subsp. hominissuis; one porcine isolate belonged to M. avium subsp. avium. MIRU-VNTR genotyping revealed 13 distinct genotypes, among which nine genotype patterns, including M. avium subsp. avium isolate, were newly identified. IS1245 RFLP fingerprinting of 25 M. avium subsp. hominissuis samples yielded 17 different IS1245 RFLP patterns, allowing an efficient discrimination of isolates. Clusters of identical RFLP profiles were observed within host species, geographical locations and time frame of several years. Additional in silico analysis on simulated MIRU-VNTR genotype population datasets showed that the MIRU-VNTR pattern similarity could partly arise due to probabilistic increase of acquiring homoplasy among subpopulations, thus the similar MIRU-VNTR profiles of M. avium strains even in close geographical proximity should be interpreted with caution. PMID:27178993

  13. CEU your jewish patient is dying....

    PubMed

    Schwartz, E A

    1989-01-01

    This article offers the nurse information needed for planning the care of Jewish patients and their families during the dying and mourning process - whether that patient is Orthodox, Conservative, or Reform.

  14. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  15. Supporting dignified dying in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Abaquin, Carmencita; Perrin, Margot E; Eaton, Linda; Balabagno, Araceli O; Rue, Tessa; Ramos, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the appropriateness of the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) Palliative Care for Dignified Dying catalogue for palliative nursing in the Philippines. Methods The study recruited 230 nurses to complete the ICNP Dignified Dying survey. Participants rated ICNP nursing intervention items and identified additional interventions for promoting dignified dying. Results All of the intervention items were scored on average as being at least ‘slightly important’. The three top-ranked nursing intervention categories were providing social support, maintaining privacy boundaries, and relieving psychological distress. Conclusions The ICNP Palliative Care for Dignified Dying catalogue lists nursing interventions that are appropriate to promoting dignity at the end of life in the Philippines. PMID:21471908

  16. Is there a moral duty to die?

    PubMed

    Corlett, J A

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of philosophical discussion about the alleged moral right to die. If there is such a moral right, then it would seem to imply a moral duty of others to not interfere with the exercise of the right. And this might have important implications for public policy insofar as public policy ought to track what is morally right. But is there a moral duty to die? If so, under what conditions, if any, ought one to have such a duty, and why? In this paper, I distinguish between different moral grounds for the putative moral duty to die: deontological, intuitionist, and contractarian. Subsequently, I argue in support of Paul Menzel's theory of health care distribution. More precisely, I concur with his claim that there is a moral duty to die inexpensively in health care contexts. Then I provide and defend a philosophical analysis of the conditions in which such a duty could exist.

  17. Understanding Dying Patients and Their Families

    PubMed Central

    Librach, S.L.; Talbot, Yves

    1991-01-01

    Caring for dying patients and their families presents unique opportunities and challenges for the family physician. The family FIRO model provides a simple way of assessing families and providing appropriate, individualized care. This article outlines the model, discusses the care of dying patients and their families from the FIRO perspective, and provides a guideline for the family physician. A framework is suggested for teaching residents to support families. PMID:21228989

  18. Machining of Silicon-Ribbon-Forming Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon extension for dies used in forming silicon ribbon crystals machined precisely with help of special tool. Die extension has edges beveled toward narrow flats at top, with slot precisely oriented and centered between flats and bevels. Cutting tool assembled from standard angle cutter and circular saw or saws. Angle cutters cuts bevels while slot saw cuts slot between them. In alternative version, custom-ground edges or additional circular saws also cut flats simultaneously.

  19. Thick film silicon growth techniques. [die materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, H. E.; Mlavsky, A. I.; Jewett, D. N.; White, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    The research which was directed toward finding an improved die material is reported. Wetting experiments were conducted with various materials to determine their compatibility with silicon. Work has also continued toward the development of quartz as a die material as new techniques have provided more optimistic results than observed in the past. As a result of the thermal modification previously described, improvements in growth stability have contributed to an increase in ribbon quality.

  20. Investing in Youth: Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  1. Manufacture of die casting dies by hot isostatic pressing. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S.; Ren, W.; Luk, K.; Brucher, H.G.

    1998-09-01

    The reason for this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Doehler-Jarvis was to investigate the manufacture die-casting dies with internal water-cooling lines by hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing) of H13 tool steel powder. The use of HIPing will allow the near-net-shape manufacture of dies and the strategic placement of water-cooling lines during manufacture. The production of near-net-shape dies by HIPing involves the generation of HIPing diagrams, the design of the can that can be used for HIPing a die with complex details, strategic placement of water-cooling lines in the die, computer modeling to predict movement of the water lines during HIPing, and the development of strategies for placing water lines in the appropriate locations. The results presented include a literature review, particle analysis and characterization of H13 tool steel powder, and modeling of the HIPing process.

  2. Celestial Fireworks from Dying Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    This image of the nebula NGC 3582, which was captured by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, shows giant loops of gas bearing a striking resemblance to solar prominences. These loops are thought to have been ejected by dying stars, but new stars are also being born within this stellar nursery. These energetic youngsters emit intense ultraviolet radiation that makes the gas in the nebula glow, producing the fiery display shown here. NGC 3582 is part of a large star-forming region in the Milky Way, called RCW 57. It lies close to the central plane of the Milky Way in the southern constellation of Carina (The Keel of Jason's ship, the Argo). John Herschel first saw this complex region of glowing gas and dark dust clouds in 1834, during his stay in South Africa. Some of the stars forming in regions like NGC 3582 are much heavier than the Sun. These monster stars emit energy at prodigious rates and have very short lives that end in explosions as supernovae. The material ejected from these dramatic events creates bubbles in the surrounding gas and dust. This is the probable cause of the loops visible in this picture. This image was taken through multiple filters. From the Wide Field Imager, data taken through a red filter are shown in green and red, and data taken through a filter that isolates the red glow characteristic of hydrogen are also shown in red. Additional infrared data from the Digitized Sky Survey are shown in blue. The image was processed by ESO using the observational data identified by Joe DePasquale, from the United States [1], who participated in ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition [2]. The competition was organised by ESO in October-November 2010, for everyone who enjoys making beautiful images of the night sky using astronomical data obtained using professional telescopes. Notes [1] Joe searched through ESO's archive and identified datasets that he used to compose his

  3. A comparison of the accuracy of three removable die systems and two die materials.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, I; Mohan, J; Arunachalam, K S; Zankari, V

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dimensional shift of three commonly used die systems (Conventional system, Pindex system, Di-Lok tray system) with two commercially available type IV die stones (Ultra rock and Pearl stone). Under controlled conditions, ten casts, each with two removable dies, were constructed for each system for a total of 30 casts and 60 removable dies. Before and after sectioning measurements to within 0.01 mm in horizontal and vertical planes were recorded and differences calculated. Data were analyzed with 't' tests, one way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test. The results demonstrated that among the die systems compared, no single system was superior to the others in all respects. But among the die materials, dies poured in Pearl stone exhibited more dimensional changes than Ultra rock (p<0.05). Selection of die material is as critical as selection of any particular die system for successful fabrication of fixed partial denture and implant prosthesis.

  4. Exploring the case for assisted dying in the UK.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Carol

    This article discusses the concepts of euthanasia, assisted suicide and physician-assisted suicide, under the umbrella term of assisted dying, from a pro-assisted dying perspective. It outlines the key principles underpinning the debate around assisted dying and refutes the main arguments put forward by those opposing legalisation of assisted dying in the UK.

  5. Killing, letting die and moral perception.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant

    1994-10-01

    There are a number of arguments that purport to show, in general terms, that there is no difference between killing and letting die. These are used to justify active euthanasia on the basis of the reasons given for allowing patients to die. I argue that the general and abstract arguments fail to take account of the complex and particular situations which are found in the care of those with terminal illness. When in such situations, there are perceptions and intuitions available that do not easily find propositional form but lead most of those whose practice is in the care of the dying to resist active euthanasia. I make a plea for their intuitions to be heeded above the sterile voice of abstract premises and arguments by examining the completeness of the outline form of the pro-euthanasia argument. In doing so, I make use of Nussbaum's discussion of moral perception and general claims to be found in the literature of moral particularism.

  6. CAE Based Die Face Engineering Development to Contribute to the Revitalization of the Tool & Die Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Arthur; Lee, Wing C.; St. Pierre, Shawn; He, Jeanne; Liu, Kesu; Chen, Chin C.

    2005-08-01

    Over the past two decades, the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools have emerged as one of the most important engineering tools in various industries, due to its flexibility and accuracy in prediction. Nowadays, CAE tools are widely used in the sheet metal forming industry to predict the forming feasibility of a wide variety of complex components, ranging from aerospace and automotive components to household products. As the demand of CAE based formability accelerates, the need for a robust and streamlined die face engineering tool becomes more crucial, especially in the early stage when the tooling layout is not available, but a product design decision must be made. Ability to generate blank, binder and addendum surfaces with an appropriate layout of Drawbead, Punch Opening Line, Trim Line are the primary features and functions of a CAE based die face engineering tool. Once the die face layout is ready, a formability study should be followed to verify the die face layout is adequate to produce a formable part. If successful, the established die face surface should be exported back to the CAD/CAM environment to speed up the tooling and manufacturing design process with confidence that this particular part is formable with this given die face. With a CAE tool as described above, the tool & die industry will be greatly impacted as the processes will enable the bypass of hardware try-out and shorten the overall vehicle production timing. The trend has shown that OEMs and first tiers will source to low cost producers in the world which will have a negative impact to the traditional tool & die makers in the developed countries. CAE based tool as described should be adopted, along with many other solutions, in order to maintain efficiency of producing high quality product and meeting time-to-market requirements. This paper will describe how a CAE based die face engineering (DFE) tool could be further developed to enable the traditional tool & die makers to meet the

  7. Die Europäische Union, die Europäische Gemeinschaft und ihre Rechtsordnung, die Europäische Lebensmittelkontrolle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallhoff, Gudrun; Rimkus, Gerhard G.

    Die Europäische Union (EU) ist ein Zusammenschluss von siebenundzwanzig unabhängigen Staaten, um deren wirtschaftliche, politische und soziale Zusammenarbeit zu verstärken. Seit 1. Mai 2007 hat sie die folgenden Mitglieder: Österreich, Belgien, Bulgarien, Dänemark, Finnland, Frankreich, Deutschland, Griechenland, Irland, Italien, Luxemburg, die Niederlande, Portugal, Spanien, Schweden, das Vereinigte Königreich von Großbritannien und Nordirland, Zypern, die Tschechische Republik, Estland, Ungarn, Lettland, Litauen, Malta, Polen, Rumänien, die Slowakei und Slowenien [1]. (Hinweis: Die Republik Zypern hat juristisch Souveränität über die ganze Insel, da die Türkische Republik Nordzypern international nicht anerkannt wird.)

  8. Die casting die deflections: Prediction and attenuation. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.A.; Ahuett-Garza, H.; Choudhury, A.K.; Dedhia, S.

    1998-05-01

    This report summarizes two years of research intended to develop methods to model and predict the deflection patterns in die casting dies. No comprehensive analysis of this type had previously been completed. The die casting process is complex and involves numerous mechanical and thermal phenomena that effect the mechanical behavior of the die. A critical activity in this work was sorting out and evaluating the relative contributions of the various mechanisms to die deflections. This evaluation was accomplished through a series of simple engineering analyses based primarily on the order of magnitude of the influence of each load considered on die deflections. A modeling approach incorporating commercially available finite element analysis software was developed and tested. The model evolved by testing simple models against more comprehensive models and against the limited experimental data that is available. The development of the modeling approach lead to consideration of the die casting machine in more detail than was originally anticipated. The machine is critical and cannot be ignored. A simplified model described as a spring/platen model was developed to account for the machine platens, tie bars, and toggles. The characteristics of this model are described and predictions based on this model are compared against full machine models and measured deflections of machine platens. Details of the modeling approach and the various case studies are provided in the report and in several publications that have resulted from the work.

  9. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  10. Effect of Die Strength and Work Piece Strength on the Wear of Hot Forging Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, B. S.; Van Tyne, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the strength ratio extracted from an Archard model for wear is used to describe the wear rates expected in hot forging dies. In the current study, the strength ratio is the strength of the hot forging die to the strength of the work piece. Three hot forging die steels are evaluated. The three die steels are FX, 2714, and WF. To determine the strength of the forging die, a continuous function has been developed that describes the yield strength of three die steels for temperatures from 600 to 700 °C and for times up to 20 h (i.e., tempering times of up to 20 h). The work piece material is assumed to be AISI 1045. Based on the analysis, the wear resistance of WF should be superior and FX should be slightly better than 2714. Decreasing the forging temperature increases the strength ratio, because the strength of the die surface increases faster than the flow strength of AISI 1045. The increase in the strength ratio indicates a decrease in the expected wear rate.

  11. Investigation of Die Stress Profiles during Powder Compaction using Instrumented Die

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sung-tae; Hovanski, Yuri; Lavender, Curt A.; Weil, K. Scott

    2008-06-01

    The radial stress profile in a cylindrical die during compaction of titanium (Ti) powder was investigated by experiments. The concept of an instrumented die was extended to design an enhanced instrumented die. Custom-made strain gage pins were used to measure the radial stress during powder compaction. The test fixture was designed to simulate double-action pressing. The measured die stress profile for Ti powder was compared with that for a commercially available iron (Fe) powder. The stress history shows that an appreciable residual stress remains in the die in the radial direction after the axial compaction stress is removed from the powder. Furthermore, the radial stress profile in the die, while under maximum axial compaction stress, is more uniform across the height of the Fe compact than that of the Ti compact. In addition, the residual stress profile in the die in the radial direction reduces symmetrically in both directions beyond the height of the compact for both powders. Finally, the Ti powder shows a significantly higher frictional coefficient at the maximum axial compaction stress, and consequently a higher maximum axial ejection stress than the Fe powder.

  12. Deformation properties of pharmaceutical excipients determined using an in-die and out-die method.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Ilija; Govedarica, Biljana; Šibanc, Rok; Dreu, Rok; Srčič, Stane

    2013-03-25

    This study investigated deformation mechanisms of some commonly used pharmaceutical fillers, such as microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, dicalcium phosphate, isomalt and cornstarch, using a combination of the in-die and out-die method with the Heckel and Walker models. The tableting mixtures contained of 98.5% (w/w) filler, the rest consisted of dry binder and an antiadhesive agent. Our results showed that plasticity and elasticity may be considered independent deformation properties as highly plastic materials (microcrystalline cellulose, cornstarch) also exhibited high elasticity. Particular emphasis was placed on explaining the differences observed between the in-die and out-die method-comparison revealed that the differences are a consequence of the material's elastic properties. Larger error of in-die results can be expected for more elastic materials, and thus in-die Heckel should be used with some considerations. In contrast, the Walker model was found to be more robust and smaller differences were observed between the two methods. We consider the most correct results to have been obtained by the out-die approach, which excludes the elastic properties of the material evaluated. An excellent correlation between elastic determination at the single-particle level and multiple-particle scale was demonstrated, suggesting a great potential of nanoscale determination of a material's mechanical properties for better elucidation of deformation mechanisms.

  13. A profile of silicosis cases who died.

    PubMed

    Phoon, W H

    1982-01-01

    Silicosis cases which had been notified by doctors and confirmed after investigations were followed up by the Industrial Health Division. Up to August 1981, a total of 313 persons were confirmed as having the disease. Of these, 59 had died. The majority of these 59 persons had had their silica exposure in the granite quarries. 13 had been exposed to "rubber powder" which contained a high percentage of free silica. 52 of those who died were male, and their average age at death was 60.87 years. This did not appear to be significantly shorter than their life expectancy of 65.1 years. But the average age of death for the 7 women was 58.86 years, which was much shorter than their life expectancy of 70 years. Many of the men died from causes unrelated to silicosis. But 6 of the 7 women had progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) and they apparently died of the disease or complications arising from it.

  14. The Onion and "When Legends Die."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loren C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the eight layers in Thomas Black Bull's ("When the Legends Die") journey to spiritual rebirth and stresses that students can easily identify these layers and can thereby achieve a clearer understanding of the relationship between structure and meaning in fiction. (CRH)

  15. Weltall im Wandel. Die neue Astronomie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsässer, H.

    Contents: Alte und neue Astronomie. Die Sterne des Milchstraßensystems. Sternentstehung und interstellare Materie. Unser Sonnensystem und seine Geschichte. Interplanetarer Staub. Vom Sterben der Sterne. Arbeitsmittel der optischen Astronomie. Ein neues Zentrum astronomischer Forschung. Galaxien. Ursprung und Entwicklung des Weltalls.

  16. Expectation and Variation with a Virtual Die

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane; English, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    By the time students reach the middle years they have experienced many chance activities based on dice. Common among these are rolling one die to explore the relationship of frequency and theoretical probability, and rolling two dice and summing the outcomes to consider their probabilities. Although dice may be considered overused by some, the…

  17. The Academic Study of Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amend, Edward W.

    The current study of death and dying is an example of constant change and development in academic disciplines. While the discussion of death in time of crisis is hard, if not impossible, youthful undergraduates find this topic to be of considerable interest. For them, a course can be organized effectively as a small and intimate seminar, which…

  18. Mold Die Making. 439-322/324.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on mold die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 10 units in this guide: (1) introduction to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM); (2) EDM principles; (3) the single pulse; (4) EDM safety; (5) electrode material; (6) electrode…

  19. Continuing Education on Dying and Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodil, Judith J.; Dulaney, Peggy E.

    1984-01-01

    "Dying and Death in Critical Care Practice" was a one-day continuing education offering designed for registered nurses who practiced in settings such as emergency rooms, intensive care units, coronary care units, and operating rooms. The workshop was part of a continuing education curriculum in critical care nursing. (SSH)

  20. Care of the Dying: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenberg, Loma; Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    This article illustrates various aspects of terminal care, and shows that rules and norms for such care do not exist today. The authors advocate the formulation of an aim for humane treatment of dying patients, and its application in a manner appropriate to Swedish medical concepts and Swedish conditions. (Author)

  1. Asymmetric Die Grows Purer Silicon Ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalejs, J. P.; Chalmers, B.; Surek, T.

    1983-01-01

    Concentration of carbide impurities in silicon ribbon is reduced by growing crystalline ribbon with die one wall higher than other. Height difference controls shape of meniscus at liquid/crystal interface and concentrates silicon carbide impurity near one of broad faces. Opposite face is left with above-average purity. Significantly improves efficiency of solar cells made from ribbon.

  2. Ceramic for Silicon-Shaping Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekercioglu, I.; Wills, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Silicon beryllium oxynitride (SiBON) is a promising candidate material for manufacture of shaping dies used in fabricating ribbons or sheets of silicon. It is extremely stable, resists thermal shock, and has excellent resistance to molten silicon. SiBON is a solid solution of beryllium silicate in beta-silicon nitride.

  3. Flexible, Ultra-Thin, Embedded Die Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, Ryan J.

    As thin, flexible electronics solutions become more robust, their integration into everyday life becomes more likely. With possible applications in wearable electronics, biomedical sensors, or 'peel and stick' sensors, the reliability of these ultra-thin packages becomes paramount. Likewise, the density achievable with stacked packages benefits greatly from thinner die stacks. To this end, techniques previously developed have demonstrated packages with die thinned to approximately 20mum. Covered in this work are methods for thinning and packaging silicon die, as well as information on common materials used in these processes. The author's contribution is a fabrication process for embedding ultra-thin (approximately 10mum) silicon die in polyimide substrates. This method is fully illustrated in Chapter 3 and enumerated in the Appendix as a quick reference. Additionally, thermal cycle testing of passive daisy chain assemblies has shown promising reliability data. Packages were mounted in three alignments: flat, concave, and convex, and placed into thermal shock testing. Finally, the author discusses possible applications for this fabrication process, including the fabrication of multi-chip-modules.

  4. Stamping Die Making. 439-318/320.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on stamping die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 29 units in this guide, dealing with the following topics: EZ-MILL programming; EZ-MILL BATT; print of punch and EZ-MILL part programming; download to Computer Numerical…

  5. Die neue Kosmologie. Von Dunkelmaterie, GUTs und Superhaufen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, J.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, of the American original "Bubbles, voids, and bumps in time: the new cosmology", published 1989 (see 49.003.045). Contents: 1. Die Entdeckung des Weltalls: Eine Einleitung (A. P. Lightman). 2. Die Vermessung des Weltalls: Rotverschiebungen und Standardkerzen (R. P. Kirshner). 3. Die Kartierung des Weltalls: Scheiben und Blasen (M. J. Geller). 4. Die Bestimmung der Masse im Weltall: Dunkelmaterie und fehlende Masse (V. C. Rubin). 5. Der Beginn des Weltalls: Urknall und kosmische Inflation (A. H. Guth). 6. Die Ausweitung des Weltalls: Das Weltraumteleskop und Perspektiven für die nächsten 20 Jahre (J. E. Gunn).

  6. Major histocompatibility complex class I chain related (MIC) A gene, TNFa microsatellite alleles and TNFB alleles in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients from Latvia.

    PubMed

    Nikitina Zake, Liene; Cimdina, Ija; Rumba, Ingrida; Dabadghao, Preethi; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2002-05-01

    In order to analyze involvement of major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) and tumor necrosis factor a (TNFa) microsatellite polymorphisms as well as TNFB gene in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), we studied 128 patients divided into groups according to clinical features [monoarthritis (n = 14), oligoarthritis (n = 58), polyarthritis (n = 50), and systemic (n = 6)], and 114 age- and sex-matched healthy controls from Latvia. DNA samples were amplified with specific primers and used for genotyping of MICA and TNFa microsatellite. Typing for a biallelic NcoI polymerase chain reaction RFLP polymorphism located at the first intron of TNFB gene was done as follows: restriction digests generated fragments of 555bp and 185bp for TNFB*1 allele, and 740bp for TNFB*2 allele. The results were compared between cases and controls. We found significant increase of MICA allele A4 (p = 0.009; odds ratio [OR] = 2.3) and allele TNFa2 (p = 0.0001; OR = 4.4) in patients compared with controls. The frequency of allele TNFa9 was significantly decreased (p = 0.0001; OR = 0.1) in patients with JIA. No significant differences of TNFB allele frequency were found. Our data suggest that MICA and TNFa microsatellite polymorphisms may be used as markers for determination of susceptibility and protection from JIA.

  7. [Anguish about death and fear of dying, supportive care for the dying].

    PubMed

    Bouregba, A; Lebret, T

    2008-11-01

    During metastatic patient follow up, anguish about death is different from the fear of dying. In fact anguish is unconscious and associated with anxiety, on the other hand the fear of dying is a reaction to the threat of imminent death. Physical pain and isolation are factors that increase the pangs of death. The support of friends and family constitutes a real benefit for the treatment of patients during this period.

  8. Spiritual aspects of death and dying.

    PubMed Central

    Mermann, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dying is an event beyond our comprehension, an experience that can only be imagined. Patients with cancer have a gift denied many others: some time to prepare for the approaching end of life. This time can be used to bring old conflicts to a close, to say goodbye and seek forgiveness from others, to express love and gratitude for the gifts of a life. Physicians can help patients by being aware of the spiritual dimensions to life that many patients have. In major religious traditions, death is accepted as the natural end of the gift of life and as a point of transition to another, yet unknown, existence. For many patients, it is not death that is feared, but abandonment. The physician's awareness of the spiritual needs of patients can make care of the dying more rewarding and fulfilling for all concerned. PMID:1519377

  9. Architecture for on-die interconnect

    DOEpatents

    Khare, Surhud; More, Ankit; Somasekhar, Dinesh; Dunning, David S.

    2016-03-15

    In an embodiment, an apparatus includes: a plurality of islands configured on a semiconductor die, each of the plurality of islands having a plurality of cores; and a plurality of network switches configured on the semiconductor die and each associated with one of the plurality of islands, where each network switch includes a plurality of output ports, a first set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switch of an island via a point-to-point interconnect and a second set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switches of a plurality of islands via a point-to-multipoint interconnect. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  10. Fatigue of die cast zinc alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schrems, K.K.; Dogan, O.N.; Goodwin, F.E.

    2006-04-01

    The rotating bending fatigue limit of die cast zinc alloy 2, alloy 3, alloy 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined as a part of an on-going program by ILZRO into the mechanical properties of die cast zinc. The stress-life (S-N) curves of alloys 3, 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined previously. This presentation reports the results of the S-N curve for Alloy 2 and the calculated fatigue limits for all five alloys. During the previous stress-life testing, the samples were stopped at 10 million cycles and the fatigue limit for alloy 3, alloy 5, and AcuZinc 5 appeared to be higher and the fatigue limit for ZA-8 appeared to be lower than the values reported in the literature. This was further investigated in alloy 5 and ZA-8 by testing continuous cast bulk alloy 5 and ZA-8.

  11. Spiritual aspects of death and dying.

    PubMed

    Mermann, A C

    1992-01-01

    Dying is an event beyond our comprehension, an experience that can only be imagined. Patients with cancer have a gift denied many others: some time to prepare for the approaching end of life. This time can be used to bring old conflicts to a close, to say goodbye and seek forgiveness from others, to express love and gratitude for the gifts of a life. Physicians can help patients by being aware of the spiritual dimensions to life that many patients have. In major religious traditions, death is accepted as the natural end of the gift of life and as a point of transition to another, yet unknown, existence. For many patients, it is not death that is feared, but abandonment. The physician's awareness of the spiritual needs of patients can make care of the dying more rewarding and fulfilling for all concerned.

  12. Dying in hospital: the residents' viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Ahmedzai, S

    1982-01-01

    A survey of residents' (junior house officers') experiences and attitudes to the terminal care part of their work in four Glasgow teaching hospitals showed that even a month after starting work one-fifth of the respondents had not actively managed a dying patient. Sixty-four per cent thought that they had received inadequate teaching in terminal care. Depression and anxiety had been the most difficult symptoms encountered. The residents thought that the ward nursing staff contributed much more than their senior medical colleagues to both the medical and psychological aspects of terminal care. The results indicate a need for more undergraduate education in the most relevant areas, such as coping with the psychological problems of dying patients and their relatives. Newly qualified residents require more support from senior medical staff in looking after the terminally ill. PMID:6809204

  13. Historical review of die drool phenomenon during plastics extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, Jan; Zatloukal, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Die drool phenomenon is defined as unwanted spontaneous accumulation of extruded polymer melt on open faces of extrusion die during extrusion process. Such accumulated material builds up on the die exit and frequently or continually sticks onto the extruded product and thus damages it. Since die drool appears, extrusion process must be shut down and die exit must be manually cleaned which is time and money consuming. Although die drool is complex phenomenon and its formation mechanism is not fully understood yet, variety of proposed explanations of its formation mechanism and also many ways to its elimination can be found in open literature. Our review presents in historical order breakthrough works in the field of die drool research, shows many ways to suppress it, introduces methods for its quantitative evaluation and composition analysis and summarizes theories of die drool formation mechanism which can be helpful for extrusion experts.

  14. Einführung in die Astronomie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnenburg, W.

    Contents: 1. Forschungbereich Astronomie. 2. Astronomische Beobachtungstechnik. 3. Bewegungen am Sternenhimmel. 4. Dynamik im Planetensystem. 5. Aufbau des Planetensystems. 6. Die Sonne. 7. Meßbare Eigenschaften der Sterne. 8. Aufbau von Sternen. 9. Veränderliche Sterne und Sonderfälle. 10. Der interstellare Raum. 11. Ko-Evolution von Sternen und Materie. 12. Astronomische Entfernungsbestimmung. 13. Milchstraßensystem. 14. Extragalaktische Systeme. 15. Das Weltall. 16. Grenzfragen.

  15. Euthanasia: why people want to die earlier.

    PubMed

    Seale, C; Addington-Hall, J

    1994-09-01

    The results from two surveys in England of relatives and others who knew people in samples drawn from death certificates are reported. The main focus is on a sample of 3696 people dying in 1990 in 20 health authorities, with supporting analysis from an earlier national sample of 639 people dying in 1987. The incidence of people saying they wanted to die sooner, and of requests for euthanasia are reported. Excluding a proportion who did not wish to express a view, or did not know the answer, about a quarter of both respondents and the people who died expressed the view that an earlier death would be, or would have been, preferable. 3.6% of people in the 1990 study were said to have asked for euthanasia at some point in the last year of life. The extent to which such views were determined by the experience of pain, other distressing symptoms, dependency and social and cultural factors such as religious belief and social class is explored. The finding that dependency was important in causing the feeling that an earlier death would have been better, as well as requests for euthanasia, is related to the public debate about euthanasia, which often contains the assertion that fear of pain is a dominant factor. Pain was found to be a significant factor in death from cancer, but not as important for other causes of death. Social class, place of residence of the deceased, and strength and type of religious faith were found to be largely insignificant in influencing feelings about an earlier death and requests for euthanasia.

  16. Diagnosing dying: an integrative literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Catriona; Brooks-Young, Patricia; Brunton Gray, Carol; Larkin, Phil; Connolly, Michael; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Larsson, Maria; Smith, Tracy; Chater, Susie

    2014-01-01

    Background To ensure patients and families receive appropriate end-of-life care pathways and guidelines aim to inform clinical decision making. Ensuring appropriate outcomes through the use of these decision aids is dependent on timely use. Diagnosing dying is a complex clinical decision, and most of the available practice checklists relate to cancer. There is a need to review evidence to establish diagnostic indicators that death is imminent on the basis of need rather than a cancer diagnosis. Aim To examine the evidence as to how patients are judged by clinicians as being in the final hours or days of life. Design Integrative literature review. Data sources Five electronic databases (2001–2011): Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL. The search yielded a total of 576 hits, 331 titles and abstracts were screened, 42 papers were retrieved and reviewed and 23 articles were included. Results Analysis reveals an overarching theme of uncertainty in diagnosing dying and two subthemes: (1) ‘characteristics of dying’ involve dying trajectories that incorporate physical, social, spiritual and psychological decline towards death; (2) ‘treatment orientation’ where decision making related to diagnosing dying may remain focused towards biomedical interventions rather than systematic planning for end-of-life care. Conclusions The findings of this review support the explicit recognition of ‘uncertainty in diagnosing dying’ and the need to work with and within this concept. Clinical decision making needs to allow for recovery where that potential exists, but equally there is the need to avoid futile interventions. PMID:24780536

  17. On dying more than one death.

    PubMed

    Shrader, D

    1986-02-01

    Death (with a capital D) can best be understood as a series of distinct but related deaths. For example, a pregnant woman was found to be brain-dead but her vital functions were artificially sustained for nine weeks until her fetus could be delivered, after which the machines were removed and she died a second, conceptually distinct death. This procedure is probably justifiable, but any legislation or policy regarding such cases should be flexible and should require consent.

  18. Medical futility and care of dying patients.

    PubMed Central

    Jecker, N S

    1995-01-01

    In this article, I address ethical concerns related to forgoing futile medical treatment in terminally ill and dying patients. Any discussion of medical futility should emphasize that health professionals and health care institutions have ethical responsibilities regarding medical futility. Among the topics I address are communicating with patients and families, resolving possible conflicts, and developing professional standards. Finally, I explore why acknowledging the futility of life-prolonging medical interventions can be so difficult for patients, families, and health professionals. PMID:7571593

  19. [Sudden die-off of honeybee colonies].

    PubMed

    Muz, Mustafa N

    2008-01-01

    Apis mellifera is used for honeybee keeping all over Turkey. Recently, honeybees have been suddenly disappearing for no apparent reason. It is presumed that some viral and parasitic honeybee pathogens are responsible for this. No medical research has been conducted to determine the pathologic causes of the sudden die-off of the honeybee colonies in Turkey as yet. This is of urgent importance for future of the honeybee industry.

  20. Dying, sudden cardiac death and resuscitation technology.

    PubMed

    Walker, Wendy M

    2008-04-01

    Many nurses will be familiar with the demanding role of caring for a patient who requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation following a sudden, life-threatening illness or event. This paper examines the phenomenon of sudden cardiac death and in particular, focuses on the medical-technical discourse of dying and death in the context of resuscitation for the victims of sudden cardiac arrest. The process of dying is distinguished from the end point of death by drawing upon biomedical determinants and definitions of death. Comparison is made between the use of resuscitation techniques in an attempt to reverse 'clinical death' and the notion of a 'natural death' that is proffered as a means to a 'good' or 'ideal' death. The humanistic versus technological imperative is further deliberated by examining the role of the emergency team in end of life care and includes consideration of the effects that medical dominance may have on the dying process. The practice of family witnessed resuscitation is recognised as one way in which a holistic approach to emergency resuscitative care may be achieved.

  1. Assisted dying - should the UK change its stance?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Daniel; Raphael, Claire E; Vassiliou, Vassilios

    2015-04-01

    Along with an increasing interest in assisted dying by many European and North American countries, some of which have already modified their existing laws to accommodate this, the interest in assisted dying in the UK has increased once again following Lord Falconer's Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill. Drawing on examples from countries where similar assisted dying laws are already in place, this article analyses and contextualises the proposed bill and discusses its potential pitfalls and benefits for the UK. PMID:25628340

  2. Impact of Temperature on Cooling Structural Variation of Forging Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piesova, Marianna; Czan, Andrej

    2014-12-01

    The article is focused on the issue of die forging in the automotive industry. The cooling effect of temperature on the structure of forged die are under review. In the article, there is elaborated the analysis of theoretical knowledge in the field, focusing on die forging and experimentally proven effect of the cooling rate on the final structure of forged dies made of hypoeutectic carbon steel C56E2.

  3. Die and telescoping punch form convolutions in thin diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Die and punch set forms convolutions in thin dished metal diaphragm without stretching the metal too thin at sharp curvatures. The die corresponds to the metal shape to be formed, and the punch consists of elements that progressively slide against one another under the restraint of a compressed-air cushion to mate with the die.

  4. A Contextualist Thanatology: A Pragmatic Approach to Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Andrew J.

    1977-01-01

    Denying the value of death but accepting its reality, the author points to dying, not death, as the problematic phenomenon with which a pragmatist thanatology must deal. It is suggested that dying contains opportunities for growth--for the dying as well as for their surviving friends and relatives. (Author)

  5. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  6. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  7. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  8. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  9. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  10. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  11. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  12. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  13. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  14. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  15. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  16. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  17. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  18. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  19. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  20. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  1. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  2. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  3. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  4. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  5. Darwin als Sehhilfe für die Psychologie - Evolutionspsychologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Frank

    Im Folgenden geht es um Einäugige, stereoskopisches Sehen, weite und enge Horizonte, Monokel und Sonnenbrillen. Der Beitrag versucht die Metapher des Sehens und der Sehhilfen anzuwenden, um so zu verdeutlichen, welchen Gewinn die herkömmliche Psychologie durch die Verwendung einer Darwin'schen Brille erlangen kann.

  6. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Towards a 'Smart' Die Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John J. Moore; Dr. Jianliang Lin,

    2012-07-31

    The main objective of this research program was to design and develop an optimal coating system that extends die life by minimizing premature die failure. In high-pressure aluminum die-casting, the die, core pins and inserts must withstand severe processing conditions. Many of the dies and tools in the industry are being coated to improve wear-resistance and decrease down-time for maintenance. However, thermal fatigue in metal itself can still be a major problem, especially since it often leads to catastrophic failure (i.e. die breakage) as opposed to a wear-based failure (parts begin to go out of tolerance). Tooling costs remain the largest portion of production costs for many of these parts, so the ability prevent catastrophic failures would be transformative for the manufacturing industry.The technology offers energy savings through reduced energy use in the die casting process from several factors, including increased life of the tools and dies, reuse of the dies and die components, reduction/elimination of lubricants, and reduced machine down time, and reduction of Al solder sticking on the die. The use of the optimized die coating system will also reduce environmental wastes and scrap parts. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2010 and market penetration of 80% by 2020, is 3.1 trillion BTU's/year. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.63 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  7. Accurate Die Design for Automotive Panel Stamping Considering the Compensation Related with Die Deflection and Blank Thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Dongkai; Xia, Guodong; Li, Xifeng; Chen, Jieshi; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Wei; Li, Yue

    2011-08-01

    In order to improve assembly accuracy, automotive body panels have to be fabricated with higher dimensional and surface quality requirements, therefore the die faces should be designed more accurately to consider more relevant factors. In the presented study, we proposed algorithms to realize the following functions: through forming process simulation, the thinning distribution on the deformed blank was extracted as first kind of compensation; through die structural CAE analysis which automatically mapped the boundary contact forces onto the die surfaces from process simulation results, the die deflection was calculated as second kind of compensation. These two quantitative contributions were added together to compensate the die face. The proposed methodologies were programmed and integrated with LS-Dyna and HyperWorks, and also integrated with Autoform and CATIA linear CAE functionalities separately. In addition, a software toolkit to calculate the contacting ratio was also developed to evaluate the effectiveness of die face compensation. The second toolkit developed was verified by an automotive structural part forming die design, through die compensation and geometric optimization, the predicted contact ratio between the die face and formed blank was improved a lot, and the first toolkit was testified by a fender drawing die design. It shows that the die face compensation can be realized and integrated seamlessly between CAD model, process simulation model and die structural CAE model with the help of data I/O tools developed by the authors.

  8. Sheet metal stamping die design for warm forming

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Amit K.

    2003-04-22

    In metal stamping dies, by taking advantage of improved material flow by selectively warming the die, flat sections of the die can contribute to the flow of material throughout the workpiece. Local surface heating can be accomplished by placing a heating block in the die. Distribution of heating at the flat lower train central regions outside of the bend region allows a softer flow at a lower stress to enable material flow into the thinner, higher strain areas at the bend/s. The heating block is inserted into the die and is powered by a power supply.

  9. ["Good dying"--definition and current state of research].

    PubMed

    Hutter, Nico; Stößel, Ulrich; Meffert, Cornelia; Körner, Mirjam; Bozzaro, Claudia; Becker, Gerhild; Baumeister, Harald

    2015-08-01

    The advances of modern medicine did not only result in prolongation of life expectancy, but also led to a shift from dying at home to dying in public institutions. In western countries most people die at advanced age in medical facilities. Hence, the question regarding the conditions, which should be provided by society and especially medicine, to allow terminally ill people to experience "good dying" is substantial. For this purpose, an examination of patients', family members' and health care providers' understanding of the term " good dying" is required. The present paper aims at shedding light on the term "good dying" and to summarize the current state of research. Therefore, the attributes of "good dying" will be described from the perspectives of patients, family members and health care providers, which are discussed and examined in current medical-sociological research. These attributes can be illustrated on three dimensions: Quality of life at the end of life (e. g. pain relief, mental well-being), quality of dying (e. g. avoiding prolonged dying, autonomy, presence of relatives) and quality of health care at the end of life (e. g. patient-oriented health care, positive communication between health care providers and patients, availability of guidelines). Although the attributes of "good dying" are described in detail in the existing literature, further studies have to clarify the relevance and impact of these attributes as predictors of "good dying". PMID:26306020

  10. Euthanasia, assisted dying and the right to die in Ghana: a socio-legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2013-12-01

    There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people.

  11. Living in Latvia after stroke: the association between functional, social and personal factors and the level of self-perceived disability—a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bērziņa, Guna; Smilškalne, Baiba; Vētra, Anita; Stibrant Sunnerhagen, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate how functional, social and personal factors are associated with self-perceived level of disability in the chronic phase of stroke in a Latvian stroke population. The consequences of stroke can vary greatly and often leads to long-term disability that, according to the WHO definitions, depends on the interaction between the person and his/her context. Design Cross-sectional study with retrospective data gathering. Setting Community-dwelling persons who received specialised in-patient rehabilitation after stroke in Latvia. Participants Of 600 persons after stroke who were identified through hospital register and selected for the study, 255 were included in the analysis. Primary and secondary outcome measures The medical information and discharge data of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) was extracted from medical records. Participants filled out a questionnaire on sociodemographic information and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), either in Latvian or Russian, depending on their wish when contacted for their oral agreement to participate. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to find a model that best explains the variance in WHODAS 2.0 scores. Results The models explained 23–43.5% of variance in outcomes. The best explained WHODAS 2.0 domains were ‘mobility’ and ‘self-care’. The significant factors were level of independence in ‘self-care’, ‘locomotion’ and ‘communication’ according to FIM, as well as working status, time since rehabilitation, age, gender, living alone or in family and preferred language. Conclusions Functional, social and personal factors are of similar importance when explaining self-perceived disability in the chronic phase of stroke. Some, but not all, of the factors are modifiable by the healthcare system. Therefore, a complex approach and involvement of medical, social and political systems is needed. PMID:27342238

  12. Simulation of Stamping Process of Automotive Panel Considering Die Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Keum, Y.T.; Ahn, I.H.; Lee, I.K.; Song, M.H.; Kwon, S.O.; Park, J.S.

    2005-08-05

    In order to see the effect of die deformation on the forming of sheet metals, the draw-ins, strains, and spring-backs of an automotive fender panels are numerically simulated considering the die deformation, which is found by the simultaneous structural analysis of press and dies. By coupling the forming analysis and the structural analysis, the die deformation is simultaneously taken into account in the forming process. Furthermore, for the consideration of load difference transferred among the upper die, punch, and blank holder due to the changes in sheet thickness, the gap elements are employed instead of the blank sheet in the structural analysis. The numerical simulation results of an automotive fender draw panel are compared with the measurements. The comparison of the forming and spring-back analysis results between the rigid die and the deformed die shows that the deformed tool provides more accurate forming and spring-back prediction.

  13. DIE Deflection Modeling: Empirical Validation and Tech Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2003-05-28

    This report summarizes computer modeling work that was designed to help understand how the die casting die and machine contribute to parting plane separation during operation. Techniques developed in earlier research (8) were applied to complete a large computational experiment that systematically explored the relationship between the stiffness of the machine platens and key dimensional and structural variables (platen area covered, die thickness, platen thickness, thickness of insert and the location of the die with respect to the platen) describing the die/machine system. The results consistently show that there are many significant interactions among the variables and it is the interactions, more than the individual variables themselves, which determine the performance of the machine/die system. That said, the results consistently show that it is the stiffness of the machine platens that has the largest single impact on die separation.

  14. Simulation of Stamping Process of Automotive Panel Considering Die Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, Y. T.; Ahn, I. H.; Lee, I. K.; Song, M. H.; Kwon, S. O.; Park, J. S.

    2005-08-01

    In order to see the effect of die deformation on the forming of sheet metals, the draw-ins, strains, and spring-backs of an automotive fender panels are numerically simulated considering the die deformation, which is found by the simultaneous structural analysis of press and dies. By coupling the forming analysis and the structural analysis, the die deformation is simultaneously taken into account in the forming process. Furthermore, for the consideration of load difference transferred among the upper die, punch, and blank holder due to the changes in sheet thickness, the gap elements are employed instead of the blank sheet in the structural analysis. The numerical simulation results of an automotive fender draw panel are compared with the measurements. The comparison of the forming and spring-back analysis results between the rigid die and the deformed die shows that the deformed tool provides more accurate forming and spring-back prediction.

  15. Dying cancer patients talk about euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Eliott, Jaklin A; Olver, Ian N

    2008-08-01

    Within developed nations, there is increasing public debate about and apparent endorsement of the appropriateness of euthanasia as an autonomous choice to die in the face of intolerable suffering. Surveys report socio-demographic differences in rates of acceptance of euthanasia, but there is little in-depth analysis of how euthanasia is understood and positioned within the social and moral lives of individuals, particularly those who might be considered suitable candidates-for example, terminally-ill cancer patients. During discussions with 28 such patients in Australia regarding medical decisions at the end of life, euthanasia was raised by 13 patients, with the others specifically asked about it. Twenty-four patients spoke positively of euthanasia, 19 of these voicing some concerns. None identified euthanasia as a currently favoured option. Four were completely against it. Endorsement for euthanasia was in the context of a hypothetical future or for a hypothetical other person, or temporally associated with acute pain. Arguments supporting euthanasia framed the issue as a matter of freedom of choice, as preserving dignity in death, and as curbing intolerable pain and suffering, both of the patient and of those around them. A common analogy featured was that of euthanising a dog. These arguments were typically presented as self-evident justification for euthanasia, construed as an appropriate choice to die, with opposers positioned as morally inferior or ignorant. The difficulties of ensuring 'choice' and the moral connotations of 'choosing to die,' however, worked to problematise the appropriateness of euthanising specific individuals. We recommend further empirical investigation of the moral and social meanings associated with euthanasia.

  16. When a partner dies: lesbian widows.

    PubMed

    Bent, Katherine N; Magilvy, J Kathy

    2006-06-01

    Death of a life partner and the subsequent bereavement are profound experiences for an individual. By far, the majority of bereavement research reported is focused on heterosexual couples, primarily married and often in the later years of life. The purpose of this study was to describe the bereavement experiences of lesbians whose life partners have died. The study used a descriptive, qualitative design informed by feminist scholarship and phenomenology to access the depth of personal experiences, as well as internally interpreted meanings of those experiences, among lesbian widows. PMID:16613798

  17. Palliative Care and legislation around dying.

    PubMed

    Baroness Finlay of Llandaff; Lancaster, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Around the world forty million people a year need palliative care yet more than four in five of these have no access to basic analgesia with morphine. 6% of those dying with no pain relief are children. Those left behind carry with them the memory of the death and it can colour their future lives, making good palliative care an urgent public health issue around the world. Everyone providing healthcare needs core training in palliative care, including the fundamentals of pain and symptom relief. Governments must urgently address barriers to morphine availability and educators of health care professionals must eliminate myths and phobias, and teach good end of life care. PMID:26867342

  18. [The issue of death and dying].

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Paula Vanêssa Rodrigues; Vieira, Maria Jésia

    2004-01-01

    This study brings about a reflection on death and dying, commented as if they had the same meaning. Nowadays, one talks about death as seldom as possible and, by its negation, there appeared the negation of diseases, thus causing the diseased people to become totally dependant on health teams. Technological and scientific advances led to postponing death, and it is possible to temporarily extend what humans decided to call life. This has become the great piece of criticism by scholars that seek to lead death again to its place by trying to bring it again into the center of reflections, analyses and discussions within the most diverse areas.

  19. Models of physician-assisted dying.

    PubMed

    Girsh, F

    1996-12-01

    Repeated surveys have shown that more than 70% of Americans support physician aid in dying for terminally ill mentally competent adults. Recent polls of physicians in Oregon and Michigan demonstrate majority support of those doctors for such a law while 25% of physicians surveyed in Washington admitted to already providing help. Models of how that would work have been spelled out in proposed legislation in the United States since 1988, other models come from the Northern Territory in Australia, from Holland, and from Jack Kevorkian's writing and actions as well as from other writers such as Dr Timothy Quill. PMID:9009461

  20. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.

    1985-06-27

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block. 4 figs.

  1. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, John E.; Korth, Gary E.

    1986-01-01

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block.

  2. Dying, mourning, and spirituality: a psychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Marrone, R

    1999-09-01

    Based in an unfortunate tradition that stretches back in time to Watson's behaviorism and Freud's psychoanalysis, psychology has tended to reject and to pathologize matters of the spirit. In the past 30 years, however, with the advent of what has been termed the cognitive revolution, psychology has greatly expanded the scope of its subject matter. Psychologists and thanatologists have begun to unravel the cognitive underpinnings of our assumptive world and the transformation of those underpinnings in times of crisis and stress. This article examines the cognitive basis of the spiritual experience and the use of cognitive assimilation, accommodation strategies during the process of mourning the death of a loved one, as well as during the process of living our own dying. Of special importance to mental health professionals and clergy, new research on dying, mourning, and spirituality suggests that the specific ways in which people rediscover meaning--such as belief in traditional religious doctrine, the afterlife, reincarnation, philanthropy, or a spiritual order to the universe--may be less important than the process itself. In other words, in the midst of dealing with profound loss in our lives, the ability to reascribe meaning to a changed world through spiritual transformation, religious conversion, or existential change may be more significant than the specific content by which that need is filled.

  3. Die casting die deflections: Prediction and attenuation. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.Allen; Ahuett-Garza, Horacio; Choudhury, Aswin K.; Dedhia, Sanjay

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects or problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information from the voxel model for display to the user.

  4. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 2, Die casting research

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, D.

    1994-06-01

    Four subprojects were completed: development and evaluation of die coatings, accelerated die life characterization of die materials, evaluation of fluid flow and solidification modeling programs, selection and characterization of Al-based die casting alloys, and influence of die materials and coatings on die casting quality.

  5. Thermal Hotspots in CPU Die and It's Future Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Hu, Fu-Yuan

    Owing to the increasing core frequency and chip integration and the limited die dimension, the power densities in CPU chip have been increasing fastly. The high temperature on chip resulted by power densities threats the processor's performance and chip's reliability. This paper analyzed the thermal hotspots in die and their properties. A new architecture of function units in die - - hot units distributed architecture is suggested to cope with the problems of high power densities for future processor chip.

  6. HIV transcription is induced in dying cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Schreck, S. |; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-02-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires functional p53, which is not present in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Doses which caused over 99% cell killing induced HIV-LTR transcription maximally, demonstrating that cells that will go on to die by 14 days are the cells expressing HIV-LTR-CAT.

  7. Der Weltraum. Die Originalfotografien der NASA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, H.

    This book is based on an exhibition in 1985 of many of the spectacular images obtainedby NASA's planetary missions and Earth reconnaissance satellites during the past two decades. The exhibition was organized by the Baxter Art Gallery, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. The photographs have been prepared by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.Contents: Das Sonnensystem - eine geowissenschaftliche Betrachtung (W. Ziegler). Der beharrliche Beobachter (C. Knight).Der Weltraum. Ranger - Der Mond. Surveyor - Der Mond. Lunar-Orbiter -Der Mond. Mariner 4, 6, 7 - Mars. Mariner 10 - Venus, Merkur. Viking - Mars. Voyager - Jupiter. Voyager - Saturn. Voyager - Uranus. Voyager - Neptun. Seasat. IRAS. SIR-A und SIR-B. Galileo. Beta Pictoris. Laufende Weltraumprojekte. Zukünftige Weltraumprojekte. Ein Blick zurück... und nach vorn (M. Maegraith). Anhang - Die Probleme der Bildübertragung. Chronologie der Weltraumflüge.

  8. Clinical Criteria for Physician Aid in Dying.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David; Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Rich, Ben A

    2016-03-01

    More than 20 years ago, even before voters in Oregon had enacted the first aid in dying (AID) statute in the United States, Timothy Quill and colleagues proposed clinical criteria AID. Their proposal was carefully considered and temperate, but there were little data on the practice of AID at the time. (With AID, a physician writes a prescription for life-ending medication for a terminally ill, mentally capacitated adult.) With the passage of time, a substantial body of data on AID has developed from the states of Oregon and Washington. For more than 17 years, physicians in Oregon have been authorized to provide a prescription for AID. Accordingly, we have updated the clinical criteria of Quill, et al., based on the many years of experience with AID. With more jurisdictions authorizing AID, it is critical that physicians can turn to reliable clinical criteria. As with any medical practice, AID must be provided in a safe and effective manner. Physicians need to know (1) how to respond to a patient's inquiry about AID, (2) how to assess patient decision making capacity, and (3) how to address a range of other issues that may arise. To ensure that physicians have the guidance they need, Compassion & Choices convened the Physician Aid-in-Dying Clinical Criteria Committee, in July 2012, to create clinical criteria for physicians who are willing to provide AID to patients who request it. The committee includes experts in medicine, law, bioethics, hospice, nursing, social work, and pharmacy. Using an iterative consensus process, the Committee drafted the criteria over a one-year period.

  9. Hubble's View of a Dying Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A recent image of a dying star containing strange, complex structures may help explain the death throes of stars and defy our current understanding of physics. The image of protoplanetary nebula IRAS22036+5306 (in the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Point Source Catalog) was taken on Dec. 15, 2001, by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, onboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. It is one of the best images yet to capture a fleeting period at the end of a Sun-like star's life, called the protoplanetary nebula phase.

    This phase, which looks like a beautiful cloud of glowing gas lit up by ultraviolet light from the star's core, results when a star evolves into a bloated red giant and sheds its outer layers. 'Protoplanetary nebulas are rare objects with short lifetimes,' said JPL astrophysicist Dr. Raghvendra Sahai. 'It has generally been very difficult to obtain images of such objects in which their structure can be resolved in detail.'

    This image is particularly important because it contains a series of what Sahai and his colleagues call 'knotty jets,' blob-like objects emerging along roughly straight lines from the center of the cigar-shaped, bipolar nebula (See insets). There are various theories about what may produce such jets, though it is hard to prove their existence due to their short-lived, episodic nature. Detailed multi-wavelength studies of these nebulas with NASA's Great Observatories are being carried out to understand the nature and origin of these enigmatic jets, and how they may be sculpting shrouds of dying stars into exotic shapes. The Hubble Space Telescope is one of NASA's Great Observatories.

  10. MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), DETAIL SHOWING INSCRIPTION ON FRONT ELEVATION. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  11. HUBBLE SURVEYS DYING STARS IN NEARBY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    From ground-based telescopes, the glowing gaseous debris surrounding dying, sun-like stars in a nearby galaxy, called the Large Magellanic Cloud, appear as small, shapeless dots of light. But through the 'eyes' of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, these bright dots take on a variety of shapes, from round- to pinwheel-shaped clouds of gas. Using Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, scientists probed the glowing gas surrounding 27 dying stars, called planetary nebulae, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations represent the most detailed study of planetary nebulae outside the Milky Way. The six objects in the picture illustrate the assortment of planetary nebulae identified in the galaxy. SMP 16, 30, and 93 are examples of a bipolar nebula, twin lobes of gas projecting away from a dying star. SMP 10 has a pinwheel shape and is known as a 'point-symmetric' nebula. SMP 4 has an elliptical appearance, and SMP 27, consisting of four lobes of gas, is called a 'quadrupolar' nebula. The lines point to the objects' locations in the Large Magellanic Cloud. A ground-based observatory snapped the picture of this galaxy. In the pictures of the planetary nebulae, color corresponds to temperature. Blue represents hotter regions of the nebulae and red, cooler. Scientists are probing these illuminated stellar relics in our neighboring galaxy because they are at relatively the same distance - about 168,000 light-years -- from Earth. Knowing the distance to these objects allows scientists to compare their shapes and sizes, and precisely determine the brightness of their central stars. For this reason, even though these glowing remains of dying stars are about 50 times farther away than the stunning planetary nebulae photographed in the Milky Way, they are of invaluable importance. By sampling this population, scientists noticed that the bipolar nebulae are richer in some heavier elements, such as neon, than those with a more spherical shape. At the dawn of the universe

  12. HUBBLE SURVEYS DYING STARS IN NEARBY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    From ground-based telescopes, the glowing gaseous debris surrounding dying, sun-like stars in a nearby galaxy, called the Large Magellanic Cloud, appear as small, shapeless dots of light. But through the 'eyes' of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, these bright dots take on a variety of shapes, from round- to pinwheel-shaped clouds of gas. Using Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, scientists probed the glowing gas surrounding 27 dying stars, called planetary nebulae, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations represent the most detailed study of planetary nebulae outside the Milky Way. The six objects in the picture illustrate the assortment of planetary nebulae identified in the galaxy. SMP 16, 30, and 93 are examples of a bipolar nebula, twin lobes of gas projecting away from a dying star. SMP 10 has a pinwheel shape and is known as a 'point-symmetric' nebula. SMP 4 has an elliptical appearance, and SMP 27, consisting of four lobes of gas, is called a 'quadrupolar' nebula. The lines point to the objects' locations in the Large Magellanic Cloud. A ground-based observatory snapped the picture of this galaxy. In the pictures of the planetary nebulae, color corresponds to temperature. Blue represents hotter regions of the nebulae and red, cooler. Scientists are probing these illuminated stellar relics in our neighboring galaxy because they are at relatively the same distance - about 168,000 light-years -- from Earth. Knowing the distance to these objects allows scientists to compare their shapes and sizes, and precisely determine the brightness of their central stars. For this reason, even though these glowing remains of dying stars are about 50 times farther away than the stunning planetary nebulae photographed in the Milky Way, they are of invaluable importance. By sampling this population, scientists noticed that the bipolar nebulae are richer in some heavier elements, such as neon, than those with a more spherical shape. At the dawn of the universe

  13. Multi-strata subsurface laser die singulation to enable defect-free ultra-thin stacked memory dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, W. H.; Boning, D.; Welsch, R.

    2015-05-01

    We report the extension of multi-strata subsurface infrared (1.342 μm) pulsed laser die singulation to the fabrication of defect-free ultra-thin stacked memory dies. We exploit the multi-strata interactions between generated thermal shockwaves and the preceding high dislocation density layers formed to initiate crack fractures that separate the individual dies from within the interior of the die. We show that optimized inter-strata distances between the high dislocation density layers together with effective laser energy dose can be used to compensate for the high backside reflectance (up to ˜ 82%) wafers. This work has successfully demonstrated defect-free eight die stacks of 25 μm thick mechanically functional and 46 μm thick electrically functional memory dies.

  14. L-connect routing of die surface pads to the die edge for stacking in a 3D array

    DOEpatents

    Petersen, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    Integrated circuit chips and method of routing the interface pads from the face of the chip or die to one or more sidewall surfaces of the die. The interconnection is routed from the face of the die to one or more edges of the die, then routed over the edge of the die and onto the side surface. A new pad is then formed on the sidewall surface, which allows multiple die or chips to be stacked in a three-dimensional array, while enabling follow-on signal routing from the sidewall pads. The routing of the interconnects and formation of the sidewall pads can be carried out in an L-connect or L-shaped routing configuration, using a metalization process such as laser pantography.

  15. Regional ontogeny of New England salt marsh die-off.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, Tyler C; Bertness, Mark D; Altieri, Andrew H

    2013-10-01

    Coastal areas are among the world's most productive and highly affected ecosystems. Centuries of human activity on coastlines have led to overexploitation of marine predators, which in turn has led to cascading ecosystem-level effects. Human effects and approaches to mediating them, however, differ regionally due to gradients in biotic and abiotic factors. Salt marsh die-off on Cape Cod, Massachusetts (U.S.A.), triggered by a recreational-fishing-induced trophic cascade that has released herbivorous crabs from predator control, has been ongoing since 1976. Similar salt marsh die-offs have been reported in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay (U.S.A.), but the driving mechanism of these die-offs has not been examined. We used field experiments to assess trophic interactions and historical reconstructions of 24 New England marshes to test the hypotheses that recreational fishing and predator depletion are a regional trigger of salt marsh die-off in New England and that die-offs in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay are more recent than those on Cape Cod. Predator depletion was the general trigger of marsh die-off and explained differences in herbivorous crab abundance and the severity of die-off across regions. Die-offs in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay are following a trajectory similar to die-off on Cape Cod, but are approximately 20 years behind those on Cape Cod. As a result, die-off currently affects 31.2% (SE 2.2) of low-marsh areas in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay, less than half the severity of die-off on Cape Cod. Our results contribute to the growing evidence that recreational fishing is an increasing threat to coastal ecosystems and that studying the effects of human activity at regional scales can provide insight into local effects and aid in early detection and potential remediation.

  16. Patients' perspectives on dying and on the care of dying patients.

    PubMed

    McCormick, T R; Conley, B J

    1995-09-01

    Dying patients have much to teach us about their preferences for care. Although caring for dying patients is a major responsibility of physicians, the current curriculum in medical education emphasizes the pathophysiology and treatment of disease, with scarce time and emphasis for developing attitudes and skills essential to caring for persons in the final stage of life. Barriers to satisfactory communication may arise from either the physician or the patient, or both. Patients and physicians sometimes attach different meanings to words that are commonly used in discussing treatment. Barriers can be diminished or resolved by applying good communication skills, including attending to both verbal and nonverbal signals, exploring incongruent affect, and empathically eliciting patients' perspectives about illness, treatment plans, and end-of-life issues. The competent care of dying patients must extent beyond the management of physical symptoms because patients may experience their gravest suffering from fears and anxieties that go unaddressed in conversations with their physician. Conflicts arise when the disease progresses and the end of life approaches if the physician and patient have not reached agreement on their expectations. Physicians may initiate life-prolonging mechanisms when patients actually prefer palliative care. Patients experience a reduction in both physical and psychological aspects of suffering when physicians use good communication skills, are sensitive to patients' perspectives, and actively work to reduce barriers to mutual understanding.

  17. Die Materials for Critical Applications and Increased Production Rates

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John Wallace; Sebastian Birceanu

    2002-11-30

    Die materials for aluminum die-casting need to be resistant to heat checking, and have good resistance to washout and to soldering in a fast flow of molten aluminum. To resist heat checking, die materials should have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, high hot yield strength, good temper softening resistance, high creep strength, and adequate ductility. To resist the washout and soldering, die materials should have high hot hardness, good temper resistance, low solubility in molten aluminum and good oxidation resistance. It is difficult for one material to satisfy with all above requirements. In practice, H13 steel is the most popular material for aluminum die casting dies. While it is not an ideal choice, it is substantially less expensive to use than alternative materials. However, in very demanding applications, it is sometimes necessary to use alternative materials to ensure a reasonable die life. Copper-base, nickel-base alloys and superalloys, titanium-,molybdenum-, tungsten-base alloys, and to some extent yttrium and niobium alloys, have all been considered as potential materials for demanding die casting applications. Most of these alloys exhibit superior thermal fatigue resistance, but suffer from other shortcomings.

  18. Einführung in die Relativitätstheorie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Inverno, R.

    This book is a German translation, by O. Richter, of the English original "Introducing Einstein's relativity", published in 1992 (see Abstr. 55.003.063). Contents: Überblick. A. Die Spezielle Relativitätstheorie. B. Der Tensorformalismus. C. Die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie. D. Schwarze Löcher. E. Gravitationswellen. F. Kosmologie.

  19. A Study of the Training of Tool and Die Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Morris A.; Herrnstadt, Irwin L.

    To develop and test a methodology which would help determine the combination of education, training, and experience that is most likely to yield highly qualified workers in specific occupations, the tool and die maker trade was selected for examination in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Tool and die making was chosen because it is a clearly…

  20. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  1. 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuts? 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies KidsHealth > For Teens > 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies Print A A A Text Size en ... presence of other people who knew your loved one can be comforting. Let your emotions be expressed ...

  2. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  3. Marathon in All. Die einzigartige Reise des Raumschiffes Voyager 2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingholz, R.

    Contents: 1. Die sieben Milliarden Kilometer Tour. 2. Aufbruch ins Unendliche. 3. Wirbelstürme und Vulkane. 4. Der Herr der Ringe. 5. Helden, die keiner braucht. 6. Der Planet der Neuzeit. 7. Von Parkfield zum Pluto. 8. Der blaue Gott der Meere. 9. Ist da wer? 10. Who ist who im Weltall?

  4. Can We Humanize Dying in the General Hospital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Stephen

    This paper reviews the literature on the behavior and attitudes of medical-nursing personnel toward the dying person and illustrates the frequent conflict between hospital staff and the needs of dying. Inner perturbation stemming from feelings of vicarious suffering, vicarious disintegration, or personal anxiety about death, education deficiencies…

  5. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  6. The design of a die with a vacuum thermal insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baginski, A. G.; Utyev, O. M.; Kondratyeva, Y. M.

    2016-04-01

    A new design of a die for the polymer underwater granulation plants has been developed. It differs from similar plants in the design of heat-insulating elements. Vacuum hollows are used as a heat insulator. A vacuumization process does not require a separate operation, and it is conducted simultaneously with connection of all the elements of the die by a brazing method.

  7. Thoughts about Death and Dying in an African Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijana, E. W. M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward death and dying among 163 Xhosa-speaking children and adults in South Africa. Found age, gender, belief in life after death, educational level, and exposure to death and dying were critical factors in formation of attitudes. Findings were similar to those from previous studies in African and western societies. (Author/NB)

  8. The Myriad Strategies for Seeking Control in the Dying Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Noh, Hyunjin; Kavanaugh, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the role control plays in the dying process of terminally ill elders by investigating the aspects of the dying process over which they seek to exercise control, the strategies they use, and whether they desire to exercise more control. Design and Methods: In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 84…

  9. Personality Correlates of the Fear of Death and Dying Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Examined personality dimensions of the Fear of Death and Dying Scale compared to the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire in a study of 88 students. Findings supported the validity of the Fear of Death and Dying Scale and its independence of social desirability. (JAC)

  10. Living and Dying: A Window on (Christian) Children's Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Faith and beliefs about living and dying are fundamental constituents of spiritual development. However, children are seldom asked to talk about their experiences of life and death. This article has a twofold purpose. It first describes children's expressions on living and dying, as heard during a newly developed programme which encourages…

  11. Including die and press deformations in sheet metal forming simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilthammar, Johan; Sigvant, Mats; Kao-Walter, Sharon

    2016-08-01

    Structural analysis, in Abaqus, of a stamping die and subsequent morphing of the tool surfaces in AutoForm were performed to improve a sheet metal forming simulation. First, the tool surfaces of the XC90 rear door inner were scanned. They were not matching when the die was unloaded and could therefore not give any satisfying results in sheet metal forming simulations. Scanned surface geometries were then added to a structural FE-model of the complete stamping die and some influential parts of the production press. The structural FE- model was analysed with Abaqus to obtain the structural deformations of the die. The calculated surface shapes were then transferred to AutoForm where a forming simulation was performed. Results from the different sheet metal forming simulations were compared to measured draw in curves and showed a substantial increase in accuracy and ability to analyse dies in running production when the morphed surfaces were used.

  12. Will the UK Supreme Court allow assisted dying?

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    MPs overwhelmingly voted against passing the Assisted Dying Bill into law in September 2015. The Bill was defeated by a majority of 212, despite the heartfelt pleas of many MPs to pass it into law. The size of the defeat means that it is unlikely that Parliament will consider a similar law for many years. Yet many considered the Bill their last opportunity to make assisted dying lawful. There is, however, one further possible way assisted dying could become lawful in the UK--and that would be where the Supreme Court allowed it. In this article, the author reviews the Supreme Court's decision in R (on the application of Nicklinson v Ministry of Justice [2014] and considers how likely it is that the Supreme Court will now sanction assisted dying following Parliament's refusal to enact an assisted dying law. PMID:26500128

  13. Will the UK Supreme Court allow assisted dying?

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    MPs overwhelmingly voted against passing the Assisted Dying Bill into law in September 2015. The Bill was defeated by a majority of 212, despite the heartfelt pleas of many MPs to pass it into law. The size of the defeat means that it is unlikely that Parliament will consider a similar law for many years. Yet many considered the Bill their last opportunity to make assisted dying lawful. There is, however, one further possible way assisted dying could become lawful in the UK--and that would be where the Supreme Court allowed it. In this article, the author reviews the Supreme Court's decision in R (on the application of Nicklinson v Ministry of Justice [2014] and considers how likely it is that the Supreme Court will now sanction assisted dying following Parliament's refusal to enact an assisted dying law.

  14. [Death and dying in the nurse formation process].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Wilker Invenção Azevedo; Amorim, Rita de Cruz

    2008-06-01

    Death is one of the great mysteries of life. We live in a death denying-society. This aim of the present qualitative study was to see if undergraduate Nursing students are prepared to face death and dying during training. Seven students enrolled in the discipline "Supervised Training II", the last discipline of the course were interviewed using a semi-structured script, and the collected data were submitted to content analysis. The following categories were discussed: facing death in daily life, reaction to death, and dying in training. It was observed that the process of death and dying is not approached in a manner that supplies the students' needs in routine situations that require them to provide dying patients humane conditions to die.

  15. Einführung in die Technische Chemie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Arno; Agar, David W.; Jörissen, Jakob

    Die "Technische Chemie" ist ein Lehrfach an Universitäten und Hochschulen. Nach dem die Studierenden der Chemie in den ersten Semestern ihres Studiums ausrei chen de theoretische Kenntnisse in Allgemeiner, Anorganischer, Organischer und Physikalischer Chemie erlangt haben, soll die Technische Chemie einen Blick auf die praktische Anwendung dieser Naturwissenschaft in unserer Wirtschaft lenken. Es gibt keine "biologische Industrie", "physikalische Industrie" oder "mathematische Industrie", wohl aber seit über 150 Jahren eine "chemische Industrie", die in dieser lan gen Zeit zahlreiche chemische Prozesse entwickelt und dazu vielfältige Methoden erarbeitet hat. Das Lehrfach Technische Chemie gibt einen Überblick über diese Pro zesse und Methoden und erleichtert dadurch den Schritt von der Universität zur be ruflichen Praxis.

  16. When does a human being die?

    PubMed

    Schofield, G M; Urch, C E; Stebbing, J; Giamas, G

    2015-08-01

    For most of human history there has been no particular importance of establishing the exact time of a person's death, only whether the person is alive or dead. With modern medical advances, however, more precise answers are looked for. For a definition of death to succeed is important that it is a universal definition and that under it, all human beings are correctly identified as alive or dead. This article initially examines the most commonly proposed positions on when a human being dies those of cardiopulmonary death, whole brain death, brainstem death and higher brain death and for each describes scenarios that provide counter-intuitive results. Intuition is used as a benchmark as this is what our patients most commonly use. The second part of the article seeks to establish a more robust definition of death. We argue that death is an event that takes place at a set point in time, when the collection of bodily processes that maintains homoeostasis finally cease. Based upon defining 'human being' as being in possession of human DNA and Olsen's Animalism, the model is applicable to a full lifespan and maintains personal identity throughout the course of life. That this conclusion will interfere with clinical practice concerning organ transplantation is considered, but countered with the argument that there has been a conflation of the normative question of timing of organ retrieval for transplantation with the metaphysical question of what is death.

  17. NICMOS PEERS INTO HEART OF DYING STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Egg Nebula, also known as CRL 2688, is shown on the left as it appears in visible light with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and on the right as it appears in infrared light with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Since infrared light is invisible to humans, the NICMOS image has been assigned colors to distinguish different wavelengths: blue corresponds to starlight reflected by dust particles, and red corresponds to heat radiation emitted by hot molecular hydrogen. Objects like the Egg Nebula are helping astronomers understand how stars like our Sun expel carbon and nitrogen -- elements crucial for life -- into space. Studies on the Egg Nebula show that these dying stars eject matter at high speeds along a preferred axis and may even have multiple jet-like outflows. The signature of the collision between this fast-moving material and the slower outflowing shells is the glow of hydrogen molecules captured in the NICMOS image. The distance between the tip of each jet is approximately 200 times the diameter of our solar system (out to Pluto's orbit). Credits: Rodger Thompson, Marcia Rieke, Glenn Schneider, Dean Hines (University of Arizona); Raghvendra Sahai (Jet Propulsion Laboratory); NICMOS Instrument Definition Team; and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on the Internet via anonymous ftp from ftp.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  18. The right to die: beyond academia.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Carole

    2016-03-01

    The world's first legal euthanasia death occurred in the Australian City of Darwin on Sunday 22 September 1996 when Bob Dent ended his life under the Northern Territory's short-lived Rights of the Terminally Ill Act 1995. Dent's death intensified argument about euthanasia in Australia, transforming the debate from a textbook discussion in social ethics into a vigorous and divisive social dispute. The day before he ended his life, Dent dictated a letter, written down by his wife. This description of his experience with terminal illness is graphic-the letter, his last effort to bring the plight of those living with terminal illness to public consciousness. In this paper I outline issues from the perspective of those, who like Bob Dent, the choice to die with dignity is personal and urgent. Rather than approach the issue purely from the theoretical, academic debate therefore, I present aspects that are largely unknown unless the experience of life-denying symptoms becomes real. From these aspects, dilemmas and consequences emerge that are not framed through the academic debate and in this way, I argue for the possibility of a framework that could change the law.

  19. Home care for the dying child.

    PubMed

    Gyulay, J E

    1989-01-01

    The death of a child suffering from a terminal illness or congenital anomalies incompatible with life is the most painful life experience a family has to face. We, as health-care providers, cannot always prevent the death or cure the disease process. However, we can allow the family appropriate decision-making processes, such as allowing the child to die at home. We cannot take the death away, but we can walk the child's and family's journey toward his transition. Few persons in life are as privileged to share such a depth of intimacy in life as we in health care do when living the life experience of death. Death can be likened to shedding or releasing of our physical earth coats toward physical death and individual family beliefs of transition. This journey is a sacred, private, individual, and painful experience. Fear and anxiety can be decreased with appropriate education, and providing an environment of excellent clinical expertise, support, compassion, trust, and love.

  20. Compassion in Dying v. State of Washington.

    PubMed

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, sitting en banc, affirmed a district court judgment that ruled unconstitutional a Washington statute banning assisted suicide, as applied to competent, terminally ill adults who wish to obtain prescription medication to hasten their deaths. The statute, which was challenged by a group of patients, physicians, and the nonprofit organization Compassion in Dying, was held to be unconstitutional because it violated the due process clause of the U.S. Constitution. The court took into consideration the interests of the state in protecting life, preventing suicides, preventing undue, arbitrary, or unfair influences on an individual's decision to end his life, and ensuring the integrity of the medical profession. These interests were balanced against an individual's strong liberty interest in determining how and when one's life should end. The court recognized this interest after assessing the growing public support for assisted suicide, changes in the causes of death and medical advances, and Supreme Court cases addressing due process liberty interests. The court then determined that the state's interest, which could be protected by adopting sufficient safeguards, did not outweigh the severe burden placed on the terminally ill, and thus the statute as applied was unconstitutional. PMID:11648417

  1. Optimization of Composition and Heat Treating of Die Steels for Extended Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Quanyou Zhou

    2002-01-30

    An ''average'' die casting die costs fifty thousand dollars. A die used in making die cast aluminum engine blocks can cost well over one million dollars. These costs provide a strong incentive for extension of die life. While vacuum quenched Premium Grade H13 dies have become the most widely used in the United States, tool makers and die casters are constantly searching for new steels and heat treating procedures to extend die life. This project was undertaken to investigate the effects of composition and heat treating on die life and optimize these parameters.

  2. Determination of the metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient of high pressure die cast B390 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yongyou; Guo, Zhipeng; Xiong, Shoumei

    2012-07-01

    High-pressure die cast B390 alloy was prepared on a 350 ton cold chamber die casting machine. The metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient of the alloy was investigated. Considering the filling process, a "finger"-shaped casting was designed for the experiments. This casting consisted of five plates with different thicknesses (0.05 inch or 1.27 mm to 0.25 inch or 6.35 mm) as well as individual ingates and overflows. Experiments under various operation conditions were conducted, and temperatures were measured at various specific locations inside the die. Based on the results, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient and heat flux were determined by solving the inverse heat transfer problem. The influence of the mold-filling sequence, sensor locations, as well as processing parameters including the casting pressure, die temperature, and fast/slow shot speeds on the heat transfer coefficient were discussed.

  3. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  4. GEO 600 spitzt die Ohren. Der deutsche Gravitationswellendetektor erreicht seine geplante Empfindlichkeit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgeest, Ulf

    2005-04-01

    Die Physiker und Astronomen betreiben weltweit fünf große Laserinterferometer zur Messung von Gravitationswellen, darunter GEO 600 bei Hannover. Die hochempfindlichen Detektoren sollen helfen, die energiereichsten Vorgänge im Weltall aufzuklären und fundamentale physikalische Probleme zu lösen. Zur Zeit beginnen die ersten Messungen mit einer Empfindlichkeit, die astronomische Beobachtungen erlaubt.

  5. Compaction die for forming a solid annulus on a right circular cylinder. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Harlow, J.L.

    1981-09-14

    A compacting die is disclosed wherein the improvement comprises providing a screen in the die cavity, the screen being positioned parallel to the side walls of said die and dividing the die cavity into center and annular compartments. In addition, the use of this die in a method for producing an annular clad ceramic fuel material is disclosed.

  6. Who died in the Holocaust? Recovering names from official records.

    PubMed

    Anders, Edward; Dubrovskis, Juris

    2003-01-01

    The names of most Holocaust victims from Central and East Europe have remained unknown, but can be retrieved from official records, as illustrated here for the town of Liepāja, Latvia. Drawing on thirteen different sources, the authors have recovered the names and fates of about 7,000 of the 7,140 Jews once living there. The main source (5,700 names) is a census conducted during August 1941, the second month of the German occupation. Other sources are victims' lists compiled by Yad Vashem and by the Soviet Extraordinary Commission, house books, police and camp records, telephone and business directories, lists of deportees to the USSR, survivor reports, etc. All sources are incomplete and many are error-ridden, but they usually can be reconciled. Coverage of victims from Liepāja thus has increased from 20% to over 95%. For most victims, accurate data are now available on birth dates and places, prewar and wartime addresses, occupations, etc., permitting analysis of demography, survival patterns, and other trends.

  7. You can only die thrice: death and dying of a human body in psychoanalytical perspective.

    PubMed

    Sterk, Karmen

    2010-12-01

    This paper compares the (cultural) necessity of death/dying, perceived as a sequence of Imaginary--Real--Symbolic, to Van Gennep's three-staged rite of passage. If this logic is disrupted, the subject responsible necessitates attribution of special social status and can come to embody the imagery of a life worth living. This philosophical framework, which includes epistemologies borrowed from medical anthropology, demonstrates there is more for humans to lose than biological (Real) life; a far greater loss is to exist without (Symbolic) reason to live. A critique of prevalent quantitative methodology in assessing links between spirituality and the human body is added.

  8. Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Srinath Viswanathan; Shafik Iskander

    2000-06-30

    % in AM50 to over 9% in AZ91, more of the intermetallic Mg17Al12 is formed in the microstructure. For instance, for 15 increase in the aluminum content from AM50 to AM60, the volume fraction of eutectic present in the microstructure increases by 35%! Eventually, the brittle Mg17Al12 compound forms an interconnected network that reduces ductility and impact resistance. The lower aluminum in AM50 and AM60 are therefore a desirable feature in applications that call for higher impact resistance. Further improvement in impact resistance depends on the processing condition of the casting. Sound castings without porosity and impurities will have better mechanical properties. Since magnesium oxidizes readily, good melting and metal transfer practices are essential. The liquid metal has to be protected from oxidation at all times and entrainment of oxide films in the casting needs to be prevented. In this regard, there is evidence that us of vacuum to evacuate air from the die casting cavity can improve the quality of the castings. Fast cooling rates, leading to smaller grain size are beneficial and promote superior mechanical properties. Micro-segregation and banding are two additional defect types often encountered in magnesium alloys, in particular in AZ91D. While difficult to eliminate, segregation can be minimized by careful thermal management of the dies and the shot sleeve. A major source of segregation is the premature solidification in the shot sleeve. The primary solid dendrites are carried into the casting and form a heterogeneous structure. Furthermore, during the shot, segregation banding can occur. The remedies for this kind of defects include a hotter shot sleeve, use of insulating coatings on the shot sleeve and a short lag time between pouring into the shot sleeve and the shot.

  9. 41 CFR 303-70.3 - Must we pay death-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a non-workday, while on temporary... MEMBERS General Policies § 303-70.3 Must we pay death-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a non-workday, while on temporary duty (TDY) or stationed OCONUS? Yes,...

  10. Cometary Knots Around A Dying Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These gigantic, tadpole-shaped objects are probably the result of a dying star's last gasps. Dubbed 'cometary knots' because their glowing heads and gossamer tails resemble comets, the gaseous objects probably were formed during a star's final stages of life. Hubble astronomer C. Robert O'Dell and graduate student Kerry P. Handron of Rice University in Houston, Texas discovered thousands of these knots with the Hubble Space Telescope while exploring the Helix nebula, the closest planetary nebula to Earth at 450 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius. Although ground-based telescopes have revealed such objects, astronomers have never seen so many of them. The most visible knots all lie along the inner edge of the doomed star's ring, trillions of miles away from the star's nucleus. Although these gaseous knots appear small, they're actually huge. Each gaseous head is at least twice the size of our solar system; each tail stretches for 100 billion miles, about 1,000 times the distance between the Earth and the Sun. Astronomers theorize that the doomed star spews hot, lower-density gas from its surface, which collides with cooler, higher-density gas that had been ejected 10,000 years before. The crash fragments the smooth cloud surrounding the star into smaller, denser finger-like droplets, like dripping paint. This image was taken in August, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The red light depicts nitrogen emission ([NII] 6584A); green, hydrogen (H-alpha, 6563A); and blue, oxygen (5007A).

  11. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  12. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  13. "The high cost of dying": what do the data show?

    PubMed

    Scitovsky, A A

    1984-01-01

    Assertions that we now spend too much of our medical dollar on the dying often imply a ready target for cost-containment efforts: frequency and intensity of expenditures at the end of life, especially for the aged. But available, although meager data suggest there has been neither a dramatic rise in the last 20 years in the use of the hospital as a place to die, nor of widespread use of "heroic" interventions on behalf of those who die. Rather, very sick patients receive intensive and expensive care; our ability to project rates of survival vs. terminal patient status warrants caution in approaches to medical economy.

  14. Disappearance of extrusion instabilities in brass capillary dies

    SciTech Connect

    Ghanta, V.G.; Riise, B.L.; Denn, M.M. |

    1999-03-01

    We have extruded a linear low-density polyethylene through capillary dies fabricated from stainless steel and brass. We confirm a result first reported by Ramamurthy [Ramamurthy, A. V., {open_quotes}Wall Slip in Viscous Fluids and Influence of Materials of Construction,{close_quotes} J. Rheol. {bold 30}, 337{endash}357 (1986)]: sharkskin can be eliminated by the use of a brass die. We also find a substantially enhanced throughput from the brass die relative to the stainless-steel die at stresses in the range where sharkskin is observed with the latter. Finally, the large pressure oscillations and periodic extrudate distortions observed in the {open_quotes}slip{endash}stick{close_quotes} region with stainless steel are absent with brass, where the transition to the {open_quotes}upper branch{close_quotes} of the flow curve is more gradual. {copyright} {ital 1999 Society of Rheology.}

  15. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in...

  16. Characterization of Spray Lubricants for the Die Casting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2008-01-01

    During the die casting process, lubricants are sprayed in order to cool the dies and facilitate the ejection of the casting. The cooling effects of the die lubricant were investigated using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), heat flux sensors (HFS), and infrared imaging. The evolution of the heat flux and pictures taken using a high speed infrared camera revealed that lubricant application was a transient process. The short time response of the HFS allows the monitoring and data acquisition of the surface temperature and heat flux without additional data processing. A similar set of experiments was performed with deionized water in order to assess the lubricant effect. The high heat flux obtained at 300 C was attributed to the wetting and absorbant properties of the lubricant. Pictures of the spray cone and lubricant flow on the die were also used to explain the heat flux evolution.

  17. Laser and focused ion beam combined machining for micro dies.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Y; Okazaki, W; Uchida, T

    2012-02-01

    We have developed a laser and focused ion beam (FIB) compound process for press mold dies of a micro lens array (MLA) and a micro needle array (MNA) in a glassy carbon (GC). The press mold die of the MLA was roughly fabricated by UV-YAG laser. After this process, we finished this surface by scanning FIB. As a result, higher accuracy and good roughness of surface profile can be realized. An optical glass is used to confirm the shape of lens. Moreover, we fabricated 6 × 6 through-holes in the GC by the spiral drilling in addition to the focus position movement of the UV laser for press mold die of the MNA. After the FIB process, we were able to make the needle die of surface and hole wall roughness less than 0.9 μm. A silicon rubber is used to confirm the shape of the holes.

  18. Child Dies in Hot Car Almost Once a Week

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160479.html Child Dies in Hot Car Almost Once a Week Safe Kids Worldwide ... being left in a car that got too hot, according to Safe Kids Worldwide. Sometimes parents forget ...

  19. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in ...

  20. REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG EAST OBELISK ROAD. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  1. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  2. FRONT ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, WITH HEADSTONES IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  3. Coping with Grief: When a Loved One Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... remarkably well after their loved one died. “Their level of depression, which was very high during the caregiving phase before the death, returned to almost normal levels within 6 months after the death,” Schulz says. ...

  4. Einführung in die Renaturierungsökologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbe, Stefan; Wiegleb, Gerhard; Rosenthal, Gert

    Durch die übernutzung der Naturressourcen sind heute weltweit viele natürliche wie auch durch Kultur entstandene ökosysteme und Landschaften in ihren Funktionen und Leistungen stark beeinträchtigt oder sogar völlig zerstört. Bereits vor mehr als einem Jahrzehnt konstatierte (1995), dass ca. 45 % der terrestrischen Landoberfläche nur eine reduzierte Kapazität für die zukünftige Landnutzung haben. Als Grund hob er eine in der Vergangenheit nicht nachhaltige Landbewirtschaftung hervor. Mit einer gezielten Renaturierung der betroffenen ökosysteme soll dieser Trend umgekehrt werden (Harris und van Diggelen 2006). Vor diesem Hintergrund ist die ökosystemrenaturierung (ecological restoration) wichtiger Bestandteil der Planungs- und Naturschutzpraxis in Mitteleuropa und die Renaturierungsökologie (restoration ecology) zu einer eigenen wissenschaftlichen Arbeitsrichtung geworden.

  5. Chemical strategies for die/wafer submicron alignment and bonding.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James Ellis; Baca, Alicia I.; Chu, Dahwey; Rohwer, Lauren Elizabeth Shea

    2010-09-01

    This late-start LDRD explores chemical strategies that will enable sub-micron alignment accuracy of dies and wafers by exploiting the interfacial energies of chemical ligands. We have micropatterned commensurate features, such as 2-d arrays of micron-sized gold lines on the die to be bonded. Each gold line is functionalized with alkanethiol ligands before the die are brought into contact. The ligand interfacial energy is minimized when the lines on the die are brought into registration, due to favorable interactions between the complementary ligand tails. After registration is achieved, standard bonding techniques are used to create precision permanent bonds. We have computed the alignment forces and torque between two surfaces patterned with arrays of lines or square pads to illustrate how best to maximize the tendency to align. We also discuss complex, aperiodic patterns such as rectilinear pad assemblies, concentric circles, and spirals that point the way towards extremely precise alignment.

  6. 8. INTERIOR BEADED WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR BEADED WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES MADE IN CARPENTER'S SHOP Ph: Jack E, Boucher - March 1961 - Joseph Carpenter Silversmith Shop, 71 East Town Street, Norwichtown, New London County, CT

  7. A discussion on the proposed assisted dying law.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Having failed in their attempt to persuade the United Kingdom Supreme Court to allow health professionals to participate in assisting patients to end their lives, the hopes of campaigners now lie with Parliament passing Lord Falconer's private members' Assisted Dying Bill. This article reviews the Supreme Court's decision in R (on the application of Nicklinson) v Ministry of Justice [2014] and considers how likely it is that Parliament will enact an assisted dying law. PMID:25089754

  8. Talking with patients. Is it different when they are dying?

    PubMed Central

    Coulombe, L.

    1995-01-01

    Talking with dying patients is different in some ways from talking with patients who do not have life-threatening illness; it can be frightening for physicians who have little experience. It is important to realize that, ultimately, the principles remain the same, and that the differences arise in the context and goals of the intervention. This article draws upon bedside experience to define several principles useful in talking with dying patients. Case examples illustrate each principle. PMID:7539652

  9. Moral dilemma: to kill or allow to die?

    PubMed

    Cole, J J

    1989-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that while allowing a person to die with care can be morally justified in particular cases, the option of mercy killing can never be morally defended. There is a significant moral difference between these two concepts. Furthermore, the wedge argument, the medical fallibility argument, and the medical care and trust argument provide cogent and convincing reasons for maintaining a legal distinction between mercy killing and letting a person die.

  10. Microstructures and properties of aluminum die casting alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M. M. Makhlouf; D. Apelian; L. Wang

    1998-10-01

    This document provides descriptions of the microstructure of different aluminum die casting alloys and to relate the various microstructures to the alloy chemistry. It relates the microstructures of the alloys to their main engineering properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, fatigue life, impact resistance, wear resistance, hardness, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Finally, it serves as a reference source for aluminum die casting alloys.

  11. Death and help expected from nurses when dying.

    PubMed

    Shih, Fu-Jin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Lin, Yaw-Sheng; Pong, Suang-Jing; Lin, Hung-Ru

    2006-07-01

    This project was undertaken to ascertain the perceptions of a group of Taiwan's fourth-year bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) students regarding death and help expected from nurses during the dying process. Within the Chinese culture, death is one of the most important life issues. However, in many Chinese societies it is difficult for people to reveal their deepest feelings to their significant others or loved ones. It was in this context that this project was developed because little is known about how Taiwan's nursing students perceive death and the dying process. Using an open-ended, self-report questionnaire, 110 senior BSN students recorded their thoughts on: (1) their fears before physical death; (2) afterlife destinations; and (3) the help they would expect from nurses when dying. The data were analyzed using a three-layer qualitative thematic analysis. The students' reported needs during the dying process were directed towards three main goals: (1) help in reaching the 'triple targets of individual life'; (2) help in facilitating in-depth support so that both the dying person and significant others can experience a blessed farewell; and (3) help in reaching a destination in the afterlife. The results support the belief of dying as a transition occurring when life weans itself from the mortal world and prepares for an afterlife.

  12. Die Face Engineering based Springback Compensation Strategy and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Arthur; Lee, Wing; He, Jeanne; Xu, Jinbo; Liu, Kesu; Chen, Chin Chun

    2005-08-01

    Springback or shape change has been one of the major challenges in sheet metal fabrication, particularly with increase application of high strength steel (HSS) and aluminum alloys in automotive stamping. Springback, an elastic material recovery after the unloading of stamping tools, causes variations and inconsistencies of final part dimensions. Minor or mild springback usually can be corrected in the re-strike process. Excessive springback must be corrected so the part will be produced within the given design tolerance and dimension. The commonly used Spring Forward approaches and shape compensations such as over-crown and over-bending are proven effective to alleviate excessive springback. To enhance these approaches, a new strategy of Die Face Engineering (DFE) based processing is proposed to quickly and easily to achieve the maximum allowable compensation using the under cut (or die lock) as the primary criteria. The implementation of the die face compensation through iterative FEA calculation, automatic surface mapping, projection and manual morphing are crucial to meet production environment requirements in terms of generating NC quality CAD surfaces of the compensated or morphed die face. In this paper, the strategy of the die face compensation with the consideration of the under cut criteria is presented. The implementation of various processes to enable user to perform the die face compensation task in a production environment is also discussed. Finally, two examples are shown to demonstrate the implementation of the proposed springback compensation scheme based on the combined CAE/CAD methodology.

  13. SiC Die Attach for High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevin-Bazin, A.; Lacroix, F.; Barbot, J.-F.

    2013-11-01

    Eutectic solders AuIn19 and AuGe12 and nanosilver paste were investigated for SiC die attach in high-temperature (300°C) applications. The soldering or sintering conditions were optimized through die shear tests performed at room temperature. In particular, application of static pressure (3.5 MPa) during sintering resulted in greatly improved mechanical behavior of the nanosilver-based joint. Microstructural study of the eutectic solders showed formation of Au-rich grains in AuGe die attach and significant diffusion of Au and In through the Ni layer in AuIn19 die attach, which could lead to formation of intermetallic compounds. Die shear tests versus temperature showed that the behaviors of the studied die attaches are different; nevertheless they present suitable shear strengths required for high-temperature applications. The mechanical behavior of joints under various levels of thermal and mechanical stress was also studied. Creep experiments were carried out on the eutectic solders to describe the thermomechanical behavior of the complete module; only one creep mechanism was observed in the working range.

  14. Herbivory Drives the Spread of Salt Marsh Die-Off

    PubMed Central

    Bertness, Mark D.; Brisson, Caitlin P.; Bevil, Matthew C.; Crotty, Sinead M.

    2014-01-01

    Salt marsh die-off is a Western Atlantic conservation problem that has recently spread into Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA. It has been hypothesized to be driven by: 1) eutrophication decreasing plant investment into belowground biomass causing plant collapse, 2) boat wakes eroding creek banks, 3) pollution or disease affecting plant health, 4) substrate hardness controlling herbivorous crab distributions and 5) trophic dysfunction releasing herbivorous crabs from predator control. To distinguish between these hypotheses we quantified these variables at 14 Narragansett Bay salt marshes where die-off intensity ranged from <5% to nearly 98%. Nitrogen availability, wave intensity and plant growth did not explain any variation in die-off. Herbivory explained 73% of inter-site variation in die-off and predator control of herbivores and substrate hardness also varied significantly with die-off. This suggests that salt marsh die-off is being largely driven by intense herbivory via the release of herbivorous crabs from predator control. Our results and those from other marsh systems suggest that consumer control may not simply be a factor to consider in marsh conservation, but with widespread predator depletion impacting near shore habitats globally, trophic dysfunction and runaway consumption may be the largest and most urgent management challenge for salt marsh conservation. PMID:24651837

  15. Herbivory drives the spread of salt marsh die-off.

    PubMed

    Bertness, Mark D; Brisson, Caitlin P; Bevil, Matthew C; Crotty, Sinead M

    2014-01-01

    Salt marsh die-off is a Western Atlantic conservation problem that has recently spread into Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA. It has been hypothesized to be driven by: 1) eutrophication decreasing plant investment into belowground biomass causing plant collapse, 2) boat wakes eroding creek banks, 3) pollution or disease affecting plant health, 4) substrate hardness controlling herbivorous crab distributions and 5) trophic dysfunction releasing herbivorous crabs from predator control. To distinguish between these hypotheses we quantified these variables at 14 Narragansett Bay salt marshes where die-off intensity ranged from <5% to nearly 98%. Nitrogen availability, wave intensity and plant growth did not explain any variation in die-off. Herbivory explained 73% of inter-site variation in die-off and predator control of herbivores and substrate hardness also varied significantly with die-off. This suggests that salt marsh die-off is being largely driven by intense herbivory via the release of herbivorous crabs from predator control. Our results and those from other marsh systems suggest that consumer control may not simply be a factor to consider in marsh conservation, but with widespread predator depletion impacting near shore habitats globally, trophic dysfunction and runaway consumption may be the largest and most urgent management challenge for salt marsh conservation.

  16. [The traditional and the technological way to die].

    PubMed

    Mendez Baiges, Victor

    2003-12-01

    The process of dying is that which takes a living organism from a state of life to one of death. This process can be adequately described as part of the process and transformation of organic material. But the act of dying for a human being, just as a human being's process of life, is not something merely biological; it also has an element essential in humans: a social aspect. When a human being meets death, various people are involved: the person who dies who is said to leave, who goes somewhere, and those who remain, who perhaps have to help this first person at a moment when that person might require collaboration. Both the person who dies and those who remain must come to terms, must assimilate, the act of dying. All participants in the process of death have to come to grasp with the reality that by this event one of them abandons his/her place in their social relation network. Associated with this radical abandonment, one comes face to face with a tradition which relates this parting with the ideas of a soul, God and immortality. One also faces how to socially organize the process of death, the direct meeting of man with death, which we call the way of dying, as part of this final event in one's life.

  17. Die Face Engineering based Springback Compensation Strategy and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Arthur; Lee Wing; He, Jeanne; Xu Jinbo; Liu Kesu; Chen Chinchun

    2005-08-05

    Springback or shape change has been one of the major challenges in sheet metal fabrication, particularly with increase application of high strength steel (HSS) and aluminum alloys in automotive stamping. Springback, an elastic material recovery after the unloading of stamping tools, causes variations and inconsistencies of final part dimensions. Minor or mild springback usually can be corrected in the re-strike process. Excessive springback must be corrected so the part will be produced within the given design tolerance and dimension. The commonly used Spring Forward approaches and shape compensations such as over-crown and over-bending are proven effective to alleviate excessive springback. To enhance these approaches, a new strategy of Die Face Engineering (DFE) based processing is proposed to quickly and easily to achieve the maximum allowable compensation using the under cut (or die lock) as the primary criteria. The implementation of the die face compensation through iterative FEA calculation, automatic surface mapping, projection and manual morphing are crucial to meet production environment requirements in terms of generating NC quality CAD surfaces of the compensated or morphed die face. In this paper, the strategy of the die face compensation with the consideration of the under cut criteria is presented. The implementation of various processes to enable user to perform the die face compensation task in a production environment is also discussed. Finally, two examples are shown to demonstrate the implementation of the proposed springback compensation scheme based on the combined CAE/CAD methodology.

  18. Implementation of reflected light die-to-die inspection and ReviewSmart to improve 65nm DRAM mask fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Young; Cho, Won Il; Park, Jin Hyung; Chung, Dong Hoon; Cha, Byung Chul; Choi, Seong Woon; Han, Woo Sung; Park, Ki Hun; Kim, Nam Wook; Hess, Carl; Ma, Weimin; Kim, David

    2005-11-01

    As the design rule continues to shrink towards 65nm size and beyond the defect criteria are becoming ever more challenging. Pattern fidelity and reticle defects that were once considered as insignificant or nuisance are now becoming significant yield impacting defects. The intent of this study is to utilize the new generation DUV system to compare Die-to-Die Reflected Light inspection and Die-to-Die Transmitted Light Inspection to increase defect detection for optimization of the 65nm node process. In addition, the ReviewSmart will be implemented to help categorically identify systematic tool and process variations and thus allowing user to expedite the learning process to develop a production worthy 65nm node mask process. The learning will be applied to Samsung's pattern inspection strategy, complementing Transmitted Light Inspection, on critical layers of 65 nm node to gain ability to find defects that adversely affect process window.

  19. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  20. Celestial paleontology: The legacy of dying stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Alexa H.

    2013-03-01

    In their death throes, stars dole out their atmospheric material to the interstellar medium in dramatic stellar winds and spectacular explosions. The details of this profound metamorphosis, from star to remnant, play a key role in the next generation of star formation as well as the energetic and chemical evolution of galaxies and the universe as a whole. Dying stars are thought to be the source of all of the nuclei heavier than iron in the universe, as well as more complex molecules, such as carbon chains, which form the backbone of life as we know it. High mass Wolf-Rayet stars are likely progenitors of many types of Supernova, yet due to observational constraints we lack the most basic information about most of them: rather they are part of binary systems. This information is key to the determination of rather or not these stars will go supernova, since depending on its nature the companion can either draw mass off the Wolf-Rayet star, effectively quenching the march to explosion, or feed material onto the Wolf-Rayet star, speeding its demise as a supernova. Models of galactic evolution depend sensitively on the frequency of supernova for several reasons: they inject a great deal of energy into the Interstellar medium, they are the only known producers of nuclei heavier than nickel, and the shock waves that they create can stimulate star formation. In turn, the energy generated by supernova explosions drives the galactic wind, the heavier elements now present in the Interstellar Medium increase the efficiency of star formation, and the groups of new stars formed in the wake of a shock are thought to lead to the development of spiral arms in galaxies. In addition, because high mass stars are so short-lived, they can cycle through hundreds of generations in the time it takes one solar-type star's to evolve. Though intermediate mass stars merely fizzle out in comparison, they are pivotal to the evolution of the universe because they make up over 97% of the stars

  1. Exciting Message from a Dying Monster Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-03-01

    this is radiation from a SiO maser in the atmosphere of the star. If it would not have been a maser, it would have been far too weak to have been detected. Although we know several hundred masers of this type in the Milky Way, this is the first discovery of a SiO maser in another galaxy than our own . Since then, the observations have been continued in collaboration with Australian astronomers, using radio telescopes at Parkes and Mopra on that continent. A most unusual star When Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund and his colleagues first observed this LMC maser star in 1981 with optical telescopes, they thought that it was a rather normal, cool and not particularly bright star. However, a few years later, the Dutch-British-USA InfraRed Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) revealed its true nature. The IRAS measurements showed that the star radiates most of its light in the form of infrared radiation [4], making it one of the most powerful stars in the LMC; in fact, it emits about half a million times more energy than the Sun. On this occasion, it was given the designation IRAS 04553-6825 , the number indicating its position in the sky. IRAS 04553-6825 is unusual in other ways. It is some fifty times as heavy as our Sun, and it is the biggest known star in the LMC: if it were to take the place of our Sun, it would fill the solar system out to the planet Neptune, thirty times the distance from the Earth to the Sun. It is rather cool when compared to other stars - although it still has a temperature of about 2,000 C - and it therefore has a very red colour [5]. This Press Release is accompanied by ESO Press Photo 15/96 which demonstrates that while the star is hardly visible in blue light, it shines brightly in red and infrared light. Stars like IRAS 04553-6825 are known as red supergiants. It has been unofficially dubbed `The Monster', and having reached the end of a short and hectic life, it is now dying. The nuclear reactions deep inside are undergoing important changes at

  2. Modern dying: from securing rights to meeting needs.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Mildred Z

    2014-11-01

    Modern medicine has transformed the dying experience. In the developed world, most of us no longer die from infectious diseases and sudden accidents, but from chronic illnesses that progressively worsen. Yet the U.S. healthcare system is not designed to meet the needs of people with chronic illness or of frail elders. In addition, our system incentivizes the use of technologies that are often helpful when an underlying condition is reversible but, when used very near the end of life, may only postpone the dying process and increase burdens on the patient. This state of affairs renders many people near the end of life without adequate symptom control, little or no social and psychological support, and inadequate involvement in decisions about when and how best to use modern technologies. This paper traces efforts over the last three decades to address problems related to modern dying. The author sees three phases: early work focused on securing patients' rights to refuse unwanted treatments, the next phase focused on building the specialty of palliative medicine, and the third and future phase must redesign our healthcare system to better align with how we die in the 21st century.

  3. Moribund ants leave their nests to die in social isolation.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Jürgen; Walter, Bartosz

    2010-02-01

    Animal societies provide perfect conditions for the spread of infections and are therefore expected to employ mechanisms that reduce the probability of transmitting pathogens to group members [1-4]. Death in nature rarely results from old age but commonly results from diseases. Leaving one's group to die in seclusion might be an efficient way of minimizing the risk of infecting kin. Anecdotal observations of moribund individuals deserting from their groups exist for several species, including humans (e.g., [5]), but have rarely been substantiated by quantitative analysis. Furthermore, to confirm that dying in solitude has evolved because of its altruistic benefits requires refuting the alternative explanation of pathogen manipulation of host behavior. Here we show that workers of the ant Temnothorax unifasciatus dying from fungal infection, uninfected workers whose life expectancy was reduced by exposure to 95% CO(2)[6, 7], and workers dying spontaneously in observation colonies exhibited the same suite of behavior of isolating themselves from their nestmates days or hours before death. Actively leaving the nest and breaking off all social interactions thus occurred regardless of whether individuals were infected or not. Social withdrawal might be a commonly overlooked altruistic trait serving the inclusive fitness interests of dying individuals in social animals.

  4. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die. PMID:22513246

  5. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the carcasses... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses...

  6. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling,...

  7. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling,...

  8. Advanced Line Die Forming Simulation Technology and Its Impact on Stamping Automotive Body Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jimmy; Wang, Chuantao; Xu, Siguang; Joshi, Ramesh; Goan, Norman

    2005-08-01

    Line die forming simulation and validation create tremendous business values for automotive die developments and production stamping while they pose a great technological challenge to stamping CAE community. GM Manufacturing Engineering Die Center has developed an integrated line die analysis technology to validate die lines as a productionized business process. In this process, a finished stamping body panel can be streamline analyzed with required time, accuracy, and quality. This paper presents critical issues in line die analysis, discusses technical challenges in production applications and software development, and finally demonstrates the impact of line die forming simulation and validations on automotive body styling and tooling developments.

  9. Improved die castings through plasma surface modification, improved sensors and die soldering prevention. Quarterly progress report 1, July 1--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mobley, C.; Brevick, J.

    1994-10-17

    This quarterly report covers activities of the Die Casting Research project during the period July 1, 1994 through September 30, 1994, at The Ohio State University. The objective of the Die Casting Research project is to enhance the competitiveness of the US die casting industry. To accomplish this objective, the Center for Die Casting at The Ohio State University shall perform tasks that focus on three general areas: the application of plasma surface modifications to aluminum and zinc casting dies; the development and evaluation of systems to monitor temperature, pressure, and gas content of die casting cavities; and the determination of causes of die soldering in zinc die castings. This quarterly report covers work on Task 2 -- Commercial Sensor Evaluation.

  10. Hospice nurses’ emotional challenges in their encounters with the dying

    PubMed Central

    Ingebretsen, Lina Paola; Sagbakken, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses’ emotional challenges when caring for the dying in hospices. The study has a qualitative design, and knowledge was developed through a dialectical exchange between theory and data. Ten individual in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses recruited from two hospices in Denmark. Although all of the nurses said that they experienced emotional challenges or felt emotionally touched during their work, the study found a variety of opinions related to the extent to which their emotional reactions should be revealed in their role as a hospice professional. The participants described their emotional challenges as being simultaneously draining and enriching experiences leading to personal and professional growth and development. The study may contribute to increased awareness of emotional challenges for hospice nurses, which involve continuous reflection and balancing between meeting the dying as a human being and meeting the dying as a hospice professional. PMID:27258584

  11. Is "healthy dying" a paradox? revisiting an early Kastenbaum challenge.

    PubMed

    Kellehear, Allan

    This article is a review of Robert Kastenbaum's 1979 essay entitled "Healthy dying: A paradoxical quest continues." It begins with a summary of the arguments and challenges in the original essay. This is followed by an evaluation of his original claims in the light of contemporary insights in modern public health history and empirical studies of near-death experiences and death bed visions. The recent development of health promotion in palliative care is described in relation to these developments and Kastenbaum's early question about the paradoxical quest for health while dying is again posed against this background. Given our modern understanding of "health" in current global health policy and debates, it is argued that "healthy dying" is no paradox. Instead, the pursuit of health at the end of life represents a realistic modern desire to compress morbidity, minimize unnecessary suffering, and enhance quality of life at this time.

  12. Is "healthy dying" a paradox? revisiting an early Kastenbaum challenge.

    PubMed

    Kellehear, Allan

    This article is a review of Robert Kastenbaum's 1979 essay entitled "Healthy dying: A paradoxical quest continues." It begins with a summary of the arguments and challenges in the original essay. This is followed by an evaluation of his original claims in the light of contemporary insights in modern public health history and empirical studies of near-death experiences and death bed visions. The recent development of health promotion in palliative care is described in relation to these developments and Kastenbaum's early question about the paradoxical quest for health while dying is again posed against this background. Given our modern understanding of "health" in current global health policy and debates, it is argued that "healthy dying" is no paradox. Instead, the pursuit of health at the end of life represents a realistic modern desire to compress morbidity, minimize unnecessary suffering, and enhance quality of life at this time. PMID:25351589

  13. Hospice nurses' emotional challenges in their encounters with the dying.

    PubMed

    Ingebretsen, Lina Paola; Sagbakken, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' emotional challenges when caring for the dying in hospices. The study has a qualitative design, and knowledge was developed through a dialectical exchange between theory and data. Ten individual in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses recruited from two hospices in Denmark. Although all of the nurses said that they experienced emotional challenges or felt emotionally touched during their work, the study found a variety of opinions related to the extent to which their emotional reactions should be revealed in their role as a hospice professional. The participants described their emotional challenges as being simultaneously draining and enriching experiences leading to personal and professional growth and development. The study may contribute to increased awareness of emotional challenges for hospice nurses, which involve continuous reflection and balancing between meeting the dying as a human being and meeting the dying as a hospice professional. PMID:27258584

  14. Effect of measurement site on the dimensional accuracy of die-forming materials and techniques.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Cynthia S; Walker, Mary P; Theodotou, Nicholas; Glaros, Alan G; Williams, Karen

    2004-01-01

    To date, the comparisons of dimensional accuracy of various die materials has been investigated primarily by using a one-dimensional measurement on one die. However, a single measurement may not adequately represent the complex preparations that are encountered frequently in clinical dentistry. This investigation utilized a standardized model with two identical dies to measure die accuracy at four sites, using five different die-forming materials/techniques.

  15. Innovative Die Material and Lubrication Strategies for Clean and Energy Conserving Forging Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Rajiv Shivpuri; Sailesh Babu; Lin Yang; Yijun Zhu

    2007-01-08

    The objective of this project was to develop and implement innovative die material and surface coating strategies such as composite dies and lubricated coatings to increase die lives and to reduce environmental pollution. In this project approaches and software were developed for die life optimization and optimal design of lubrication systems for hot forging. In addition, LENS applied nickel-aluminide coatings were developed and validated in the industrial environment for significant improvements in die life.

  16. Effect of measurement site on the dimensional accuracy of die-forming materials and techniques.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Cynthia S; Walker, Mary P; Theodotou, Nicholas; Glaros, Alan G; Williams, Karen

    2004-01-01

    To date, the comparisons of dimensional accuracy of various die materials has been investigated primarily by using a one-dimensional measurement on one die. However, a single measurement may not adequately represent the complex preparations that are encountered frequently in clinical dentistry. This investigation utilized a standardized model with two identical dies to measure die accuracy at four sites, using five different die-forming materials/techniques. PMID:15206253

  17. Einblicke in die Dynamik von Quantensystemen: Elektrostatische Speicherringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, Carsten P.

    2005-03-01

    Elektrostatische Speicherringe kombinieren die Vorteile elektrostatischer Fallen und klassischer magnetischer Speicherringe. Kompaktheit, gute Zugänglichkeit sämtlicher Elemente, hohe Flexibilität in der Wahl möglicher Experimente und die Eigenschaft, alle Teilchen unabhängig von ihrer Masse über einen weiten Geschwindigkeitsbereich zu speichern, bieten Zugang zu einem weiten experimentellen Spektrum. Insbesondere das Potenzial, das in neuartigen, energievariablen Maschinen in Kombination mit Elektronenkühlung, internen Targets und hochauflösenden Reaktionsmikroskopen steckt, verspricht hochinteressante Ergebnisse mit den unterschiedlichsten Teilchen - von exotischen Antiprotonen oder schweren radioaktiven Ionen bis hin zu einfachen und komplexen Molekülen oder Biosystemen.

  18. Do people whose names begin with "D" really die young?

    PubMed

    Smith, Gary

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that professional baseball players whose first names begin with the letter "D" tend to die relatively young (E. L. Abel & M. L. Kruger, 2010). However, the statistical evidence for this claim is based on selective data and a statistical test that ignores important confounding influences. A valid test applied to more comprehensive data from the same source does not show a statistically significant relationship between initials and longevity. In addition, data for the years 1960 through 2004 for 6.7 million White, non-Hispanic California decedents do not replicate the claim that D's die young. PMID:24567987

  19. The case for a sociology of dying, death, and bereavement.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Neil; Allan, June; Carverhill, Philip A; Cox, Gerry R; Davies, Betty; Doka, Kenneth; Granek, Leeat; Harris, Darcy; Ho, Andy; Klass, Dennis; Small, Neil; Wittkowski, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Dying, death, and bereavement do not occur in a social vacuum. How individuals and groups experience these phenomena will be largely influenced by the social context in which they occur. To develop an adequate understanding of dying, death, and bereavement we therefore need to incorporate a sociological perspective into our analysis. This article examines why a sociological perspective is necessary and explores various ways in which sociology can be of practical value in both intellectual and professional contexts. A case study comparing psychological and sociological perspectives is offered by way of illustration.

  20. Do people whose names begin with "D" really die young?

    PubMed

    Smith, Gary

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that professional baseball players whose first names begin with the letter "D" tend to die relatively young (E. L. Abel & M. L. Kruger, 2010). However, the statistical evidence for this claim is based on selective data and a statistical test that ignores important confounding influences. A valid test applied to more comprehensive data from the same source does not show a statistically significant relationship between initials and longevity. In addition, data for the years 1960 through 2004 for 6.7 million White, non-Hispanic California decedents do not replicate the claim that D's die young.

  1. Care giving as an occupational role in the dying process.

    PubMed

    Reid, C L; Reid, J K

    2000-01-01

    Being involved in the death and dying process as a professional, family member, friend, or patient means taking on an occupational role that will impact one's life. Types of occupational roles associated with death and dying, and how these roles influence the participants, are explored in relation to concepts presented in the Model of Human Occupation. Also addressed is the potential for a care-giving role to bring on distress in the form of role imbalance or role changes, or because of inability to adequately fulfill the role. Suggestions for seeking relative balance within and among roles are presented. PMID:23951991

  2. [Nurses' speeches on death and to die: truth or will].

    PubMed

    Silva, Karen Schein da; Ribeiro, Rubia Guimarães; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2009-01-01

    We consider looking at the death and dying as a social, historical and cultural construction. Thus, in we approach them to the Cultural Studies to know nurses speeches on the subject. The research is periodic articles of two national ones of nursing. In the analyses we use tools proposals for Michel Foucault that they make possible to constitute four categories: the silenced and occulted death; stopping one it fights against the death; the death in scene: multiplicity of faces and the palliative death and cares: paradigm change. The study detaches the way as the publications operate in the production of knowing on the death and dying to them and subjectiving the nurses.

  3. Physical And Technical Energy Problems. Factors of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction in the Road Transport of Latvia / Siltumnīcefekta Gāzu Emisiju Samazināšanas Faktori Autotransportā Latvijā

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grackova, L.; Klavs, G.

    2013-02-01

    The admissible scenarios are considered as related to reduction in the greenhouse gas emissions from the road transport in Latvia by 2020. All of the scenarios are analysed, and the proofs are presented for the possibility to reduce such emissions as well as the energy consumption through a more extensive use of efficient cars and biofuel. Izmantojot scenāriju modelēšanas pieeju un COPERT IV modeli, novērtēts siltumnīcefekta gāzu emisiju samazināšanas potenciāls autotransportā Latvijā līdz 2020. gadam. Modelēšanas rezultāti un analīze ļauj secināt, ka neskatoties uz sagaidāmo automašīnu skaita palielināšanos, jaunu energoefektīvu automašīnu ar augstākiem izmešu standartiem izmantošana un biodegvielas piemaisījuma palielināšana autotransportā izmantojamā degvielā ļauj ierobežot siltumnīcefekta gāzu emisiju pieaugumu.

  4. Preventive Therapy with Siblings of a Dying Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Daniel

    A case study of psychiatric intervention for two sisters whose brother is dying of leukemia is presented. The therapeutic technique attempted to deal with the threatened loss by a forthright approach to the reality situation, encouraging "immunizing" discussions, allowance for catharsis without severe regression, emphasis on reality orientation,…

  5. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, E. S.; Trudeau, J.; Cleary, B.; Hackett, M.; Greene, W. A.

    2003-04-30

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20-25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  6. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Eric S. Peterson; Jessica Trudeau; Bill Cleary; Michael Hackett; William A. Greene

    2003-04-01

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20–25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  7. Dorfentwicklung und Dorferneuerung . Die neuen Bundesländer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Oliver; Richter, Horst P.

    1997-03-01

    Das 1975 in Kraft getretene Bundesraumordnungsprogramm forderte, in allen Landesteilen angemessene und gleichwertige Lebensbedingungen herzustellen. Mit der Novellierung des Flurbereinigungsgesetzes 1976 bzw. dem Zukunftsinvestitionsprogramm 1977 bis 1980 startete die Dorfentwicklung/Dorferneuerung nicht zuletzt als Initiative zur Konjunkturbelebung im ländlichen Raum. Seit 1984 ist sie Bestandteil der von Bund und Ländern getragenen Gemeinschaftsaufgabe "Verbesserung der Agrarstruktur und des Küstenschutzes" (GAK) und liegt im Zuständigkeitsbereich der Landwirtschaftsministerien. Die Dorferneuerungsprogramme der Länder werden aus Mitteln der GAK, der EU und des Landes finanziert. Neben Ortssanierungen nach dem Städtebauförderungsgesetz bzw. Baugesetzbuch stellen sie das wichtigste Instrument zur Förderung von ländlichen Orten und Gemeinden dar. Nach der Vereinigung wurde das Dorferneuerungsrecht auf die neuen Bundesländer übertragen, indem man sich zunächst an den Regelungen der jeweiligen Partnerländer im Westen orientierte. Doch hatten sich die Dörfer in Ost- und Westdeutschland nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg völlig unterschiedlich entwickelt, so dass sich im Osten ein erweiterter Handlungsbedarf zeigte. Für Fachleute aus Politik, Verwaltung, Wissenschaft und freien Planungsberufen, nicht zuletzt für angewandt arbeitende Geographen, stellten sich neue Herausforderungen.

  8. Do People Whose Names Begin with "D" Really Die Young?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that professional baseball players whose first names begin with the letter "D" tend to die relatively young (E. L. Abel & M. L. Kruger, 2010). However, the statistical evidence for this claim is based on selective data and a statistical test that ignores important confounding influences. A valid test applied to more…

  9. Understandings of Death and Dying for People of Chinese Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chiung-Yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period,…

  10. Dreams of the Dying Patient: An Exploration of Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Pamela N.; Hoffmann, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Examined 25 dream reports of individuals in Palliative Care Unit. Content analysis of dream reports supports hypothesis that continuity exists between dreaming and waking experience. Results did not indicate that themes of death and aggression, negative emotion, or infant and child characters were more prevalent among the dying. (Author/NB)

  11. Learning To Say Goodbye: Dealing with Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Rosalie; Stefanics, Charlotte

    This book is intended to help the counselor learn to work with terminal patients. The first part presents historical and cultural attitudes toward death and dying. Fear of death, the role of religion, and common myths about terminal cancer patients are discussed. The second part deals with care and treatment of terminal patients. The significance…

  12. Right to life, right to die and assisted suicide.

    PubMed

    Chetwynd, S B

    2004-01-01

    In 2002 Diane Pretty went to the European Court of Human Rights to gain a ruling about assisted suicide. In the course of this she argued that the right to life implied a right to die. This paper will consider, from an ethical rather than a legal point of view, how the right to life might imply (or not) a right to die, and whether this includes either a right that others shall help us die, or a right against non-interference if others are willing to help us. It does this by comparing the right to life to conceptions of property rights. This is not because I think human life is property, but because some of our ways of talking and thinking about our control over our own lives seem to be similar to our thoughts about our control over our own property. The right to life has traditionally been taken as a negative right, that is a right that others not deprive us of life. Pretty's argument, however, seems to be moving towards a positive right, not just to remain alive, but to be enabled in doing what we want to with our lives, and thus disposing of them if we so choose. The comparison with property rights suggests that the right to die only applies if our lives are ours absolutely, and may itself be modified by the suggestion that suicide harms all of us by devaluing human life in general.

  13. A Simulation Based on Goldratt's Matchstick/Die Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Clarence H.

    2007-01-01

    This teaching brief presents a Microsoft® Excel simulation designed to complement and expand upon the well-known matchstick/die game introduced by Goldratt in "The Goal." This simulation performs 100 replications of a 40-period processing run for low, medium, and high levels of process variation and displays the comparative results…

  14. Barriers to Quality Care for Dying Patients in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vorst, Rebecca F.; Crane, Lori A.; Barton, Phoebe Lindsey; Kutner, Jean S.; Kallail, K. James; Westfall, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Barriers to providing optimal palliative care in rural communities are not well understood. Purpose: To identify health care personnel's perceptions of the care provided to dying patients in rural Kansas and Colorado and to identify barriers to providing optimal care. Methods: An anonymous self-administered survey was sent to health care…

  15. Accompaniment needs of nursing students related to the dying patient.

    PubMed

    Van Rooyen, D; Laing, R; Kotzé, W J

    2005-11-01

    Nurse educators are responsible for accompanying students towards becoming capable, competent professional nurses who are a credit to themselves, their patients, colleagues and profession. Student nurses need, therefore, to be taught to render comprehensive nursing care to patients in all stages of their lives, including when they are dying. Being confronted with human suffering and death is challenging and traumatic. Those exposed to such events on a daily basis need to have a solid foundation of self preservation to see past the pain of suffering and to bring light and hope to those in need. A young student nurse will only experience positive growth and development in these circumstances if she is also cared for and guided with understanding. The researcher utilized a qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design based on the phenomenological approach to enquiry. The following question was asked at the beginning of each unstructured phenomenological interview: "How was if for you to care for a dying or deceased patient?" The central theme identified that student nurses experience turmoil in their different relationships in their accompaniment of the dying patient. Guidelines based on the central theme and sub-themes that emerged from raw data, as well as literature, are offered as strategies to promote/enhance optimal accompaniment of student nurses caring for the dying patient.

  16. Consumer Aspects of Death and Dying. The Forgotten Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, James M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The consumer aspects of death and dying are discussed as part of a comprehensive death education program. Suggested areas to be covered include traditional funeral procedures and costs; alternatives including cremation, body donation, and funeral and memorial societies; and drawing up a will. Some suggested teaching strategies are outlined. (JMF)

  17. Learning from Clients: Counseling the Frail and Dying Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, James T.

    1984-01-01

    Contends that experience with a frail or dying client is a learning opportunity for the counselor. Presents several examples illustrating the reactions of the elderly to approaching death and suggests that successful counselors accept their own mortality and acknowledge the decision of the failing elderly that death is near. (JAC)

  18. Technological Change in Michigan's Tool and Die Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald N.

    This study was conducted to answer four questions about the tool and die industry in Michigan. These were: (1) What are the current production techniques? (2) To what extent are these industrialists aware of new technologies? (3) What technical and economic factors affect technological change? and (4) To what extent will new technologies replace…

  19. A Framework for Ethical Decision-Making with Dying Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafer, Barbara H.; Lee, Sandra S.

    The field of death and dying has become an important area for the development of both research and clinical technique. Psychologists in increasing numbers work in hospital and hospice settings, and therapists treat terminally ill patients and/or their families. Greater attention is being paid to the needs and rights of these patients and families,…

  20. Construction of a test bench for closed die forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batit, G.; Kaczmarek, B.; Ravassard, P.

    1984-03-01

    A swan neck press was equipped with hydraulic jacks to enable it to press and forge complex shapes in closed dies in one operation without wasting metal. Maximum closing stress is 250 kN, maximum pressing stress is 250 kN, maximum forging stress is 70 kN.

  1. An indicator for fitting castings to a die.

    PubMed

    Troendle, G R; Troendle, K B

    1992-10-01

    This article describes a procedure for making an indicator to be used in fitting a casting to a die. It also describes how to use the indicator in the laboratory. The materials for making the indicator are inexpensive, present no health hazard, and are readily available at any arts and crafts store. PMID:1403953

  2. Dying with Dementia in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Williams, Christianna S.; Hanson, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand the experiences and potential unmet need of persons who die in long-term care. Design and Methods: We conducted after-death interviews with staff who had cared for 422 decedents with dementia and 159 who were cognitively intact and received terminal care in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) or residential care-assisted living…

  3. View west of small tooling and forging dies in Blacksmith ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of small tooling and forging dies in Blacksmith Shop, Boilermakers Department, east side of building 57; during World War II approximately forty women were employed as blacksmith's forging a variety of small tools; these may be the tools they used. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Death and Dying Education in a Medical School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Steven C.

    1979-01-01

    A student-initiated course on death and dying, offered at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, features a small group format, multidisciplinary representation, and student leadership. Course objectives, course content, teaching methods, course design, and student and faculty assessment of the course are discussed. (JMD)

  5. Dying and death in some Roma communities: ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Roman, Gabriel; Gramma, Rodica; Enache, Angela; Pârvu, Andrada; Ioan, Beatrice; Moisa, Ştefana Maria; Dumitraş, Silvia; Chirita, Radu

    2014-04-01

    The Roma people have specific values, therefore their views and beliefs about illness, dying and death are important to be known for health care providers caring for members of this community. The aim of this qualitative study based on 48 semi-structured interviews with Roma patients and caregivers in communities in two regions of Romania was to examine their selfdescribed behaviors and practices, their experiences and perceptions of illness, dying and death. Five more important themes about the Roma people facing dying and death have been identified: (1) The perception of illness in the community as reason for shame and the isolation that results from this, as well as the tendency for Roma people to take this on in their self image; (2) The importance of the family as the major support for the ill/dying individual, including the social requirement that family gather when someone is ill/dying; (3) The belief that the patient should not be told his/her diagnosis for fear it will harm him/her and that the family should be informed of the diagnosis as the main decision maker regarding medical treatment; (4) The reluctance of the Roma to decide on stopping life prolonging treatment; (5) The view of death as 'impure'. These results can be useful for health care providers working with members of the Roma community. By paying attention to and respecting the Roma patients' values, spirituality, and relationship dynamics, the medical staff can provide the most suitable healthcare by respecting the patients' wishes and expectations.

  6. Folklore associated with dying in the west of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, S

    1999-01-01

    The warm welcome for modern advances in the care of the dying should not exclude the past in which there is much to be learned from the skills of our ancestors. A bilingual two-year qualitative research project into traditions associated with dying and death was undertaken. Research began in the archives available in the internationally recognized university folklore departments of Ireland and Scotland. This was augmented by 40 indepth personal interviews with Gaelic- and English-speaking residents in rural communities of both countries, recalling local customs and practices in the care of the dying. This paper reports the Irish experience; the collection of data in Scotland continues. From this study, several main themes emerged. Death was seen and accepted as a natural continuation of life, simply a step into the spirit world. In view of people's oneness with nature and the spiritual world, death was not to be feared. Traditions were unique to each area even down to the precise number of candles used at the sickbed. People understood the signs and symptoms of dying and were skilled in alleviating the distress of both relatives and the dying; and, in this, language was important in capturing and expressing the philosophy of these people. The acceptance of death as the one truism of life was facilitated by the strong faith and prayer of people for whom, in the celebration of death, humour was never far away. In their grief, the community was supported by the loose formality of the wake (torramh), funeral procession, keening (caoineadh) and music. In all these, the men and women of the community and its leaders had distinct and respected roles to play.

  7. Simple visualization techniques for die casting part and die design. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.A.; Lu, S.C.; Rebello, A.B.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects of problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information from the voxel model for display to the user.

  8. Simple visualization techniques for die casting part and die design. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.A.; Lu, S.C.; Rebello, A.B.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects of problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information form the voxel model for display to the user.

  9. Bereits nach Ablauf der Halbwertszeit droht der vollständige Zerfall Die britische Atomic Scientists’ Association, die Ideologie der „objektiven” Wissenschaft und die H-Bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laucht, Christoph

    Präsident Harry Trumans Verlautbarung vom 31.1.1950, seine Regierung wolle die Entwicklung der Wasserstoffbombe vorantreiben, fand große Beachtung in den britischen Medien. Die illustrierte Zeitschrift Picture Post widmete der HBombe einen Artikel, der unter anderem kurze Stellungnahmen der britischen Atomwissenschaftler Eric Burhop, Kathleen Lonsdale, Harrie Massey, Rudolf Peierls und Maurice Pryce enthielt, die alle Mitglieder der Atomic Scientists' Association (ASA) waren.

  10. Research on the Effects of the Movable Die and its Counter Force on Sheet Hydroforming

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Li X.; Zhang, Shi H.; Wang, Ben X.

    2007-05-17

    An improved Sheet Hydro-forming process was proposed, which was investigated in Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences. ASAME system and FEM are used to analyze the forming process to explain some results that were found in the experiment. In the simulation, the effect of the movable die on the maximum principal stress is investigated in detail by using the FEM code LS-DYNA. For this case, the movable die changes the distribution of the maximum principal stress. For the sheet hydroforming without the movable die, the principal stress near the shoulder of the movable die arrives to the maximum value when t=0.0033s suddenly. But for the sheet hydroforming with the movable die, the maximum principal stress still lies in the die radius. The principal stress near the shoulder of the movable die is smaller. At the last stage contacting with the die, for the case without the movable die, the maximum principal stress near the shoulder of movable die is larger than that of the sheet hydroforming with the movable die. Moreover, the stress distribution near the shoulder of movable die for the case without the movable die is complicated. It is instable and very easy to occur wrinkling. The movable die delays the maximum thickness strain to the contacting die stage. So the formability of sheet metal can be remarkably improved by adopting the movable die. On a certain extent, the uniform distribution of thickness can be realized by increasing the counterforce of movable die. The minimum thickness reduction moves outside which is very helpful for the uniform thickness distribution. In this paper, two kinds of materials, soft steel and stainless steel, were investigated.

  11. Task 7: Die soldering during host site testing. Final report, January1--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, F.E.; Walkington, W.G.

    1998-01-31

    To provide industrial confirmation of laboratory results produced in Task 6 of this project, five industrial trials were organized with cooperative die casters in the USA. Components cast during these trials ranged from functional electronic heat sinks to decorative household plumbing components. Whereas laboratory work indicated that die temperature and draft angle were the most important process factors influencing solder accumulation, it was not possible to vary draft angle on the established production dies used for these trials. Substantial variations in die temperature were realized however and also die surface conditions were varied, confirming the influence of a secondary variable in the laboratory investigation. Substantial evidence from the trials indicated that die surface temperature is the most important factor for controlling solder build up. The surface roughness of the die casting die greatly influenced the number of castings that could be run before solder initially appeared. Development of careful thermal management techniques, now judged to be beyond the capabilities of most US die casters, will be necessary to control incidences of die soldering found in typical production. Thermal control will involve both control of the bulk die temperature through use of thermally controlled cooling lines, and also regulation of surface temperature by well controlled cooling lines, and also regulation of surface temperature by well controlled die spraying (lubrication) techniques. Further research, development and technology transfer to enhance thermal control capabilities of US die casters is recommended.

  12. Walk and die: an unusual presentation of head injury.

    PubMed

    Veevers, Abigail E; Lawler, William; Rutty, Guy N

    2009-11-01

    We report three deaths in young adult males following closed blunt trauma to the head and face where the affected individuals were able to walk away from the incident, before subsequently collapsing and dying a short distance from the site of the assault. In each case, due to the rapidity of the posttrauma collapse, the pathologist was faced with a diagnostic difficulty at autopsy; the external examination revealed multiple injuries to the head and face, but internal examinations showed limited findings with no structural explanation for the death. We discuss possible mechanisms that could account for this scenario, the implications of alcohol consumption with a concussive head injury, and parallels that can be drawn with the so-called "talk and die,"talk and deteriorate," and "second impact syndrome." Finally, the possible role of so-called "postexercise peril" is discussed in relation to these deaths. PMID:19840206

  13. Nurses' fear of death and comfort level with dying patients.

    PubMed

    Hare, J; Pratt, C C

    1989-01-01

    This study examined differences in nurses' fear of death and level of comfort with patients having a poor prognosis for survival, as a function of the nurses' occupational level, work setting, and level of exposure to such patients. In addition, the relationship among the multidimensional aspects of fear of death and level of comfort with patients' poor prognosis was assessed. The sample included 312 professional and paraprofessional nurses who worked in hospitals and nursing homes. Level of comfort with working with dying patients was found to differ significantly by exposure to such patients and by occupational role. Fear of death for significant others was found to differ significantly by work setting. Finally, a significant inverse relationship was found between comfort working with dying patients and overall fear of death. Suggestions for future research are presented.

  14. Babies born dying: just bad karma? A discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Kain, Victoria J

    2014-12-01

    The paper examines the notion of being born dying and karma. Karma is a belief upheld by Buddhists and non-Buddhists: That is, karma follows people from their previous lives into their current lives. This raises a difficult question: Does karma mean that a baby's death is its own fault? While great peace can be found from a belief in karma, the notion of a baby's karma returning in some sort of retributive, universal justice can be de-emphasized and is considered "un-Buddhist." Having an understanding of karma is intrinsic to the spiritual care for the dying baby, not only from the perspective of parents and families who have these beliefs, but also for reconciling one's own beliefs as a healthcare practitioner.

  15. Playing God: Mary must die so Jodie may live longer.

    PubMed

    Lugosi, C I

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, conjoined twins were born in England. What made this case unique was the fact that if the twins remained unseparated, medical opinion held they would die; if they were separated one twin would live, and one twin would die; the parents refused to consent to separation; and the hospital charged with their care brought the matter to court. The trial court and court of appeal approved of the surgery, which was promptly performed, resulting in the immediate death of the weaker twin. The author argues that there is no justification in law or morality for the courts' decisions, and that, in fact, the courts' decisions over-rule prior precedent and effectively divorced law from morality.

  16. The Assisted Dying Bill and the role of the physician.

    PubMed

    Mullock, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    This article explores the role of the physician in the Assisted Dying Bill, which is currently progressing through the House of Lords. The Supreme Court decision in Nicklinson and Others has alerted Parliament to the possibility that the current prohibition against assisted suicide may breach Article 8 of the European Convention in relation to the right to choose how to end one's life. In this article, the role of healthcare professionals in the proposed legalisation of physician-assisted suicide is examined, together with consideration of key ethical concerns over who might be permitted to access assisted dying. Whether the proposed law presents an ethically sound alternative to the current prohibition against assisting in suicide is not clear, but Parliament must now respond in order to address human rights issues and the call to legalise medically assisted suicide. PMID:25575506

  17. Relative Lifetime Prediction for CPV Die-Attach Layers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, T. J.; Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-03-01

    In concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) cell assemblies, a large-area die-attach layer is subjected to thermal cycles, leading to thermomechanical fatigue. This causes cracking and the eventual failure of the CPV cell by thermal runaway. We define a damage metric representing lumped progress toward failure and present a numerical model for computing the accumulation of damage for arbitrary transient temperature conditions. The model is applied to a particular design with a solder die-attach layer. We show that accelerated-test thermal cycles with higher ramp rates cause more damage, both per cycle and per unit time. Outdoor exposure to one entire year in two geographic locations is also simulated, revealing that a year of exposure in Golden, Colorado is equivalent to 1.4 years of exposure in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  18. Modeling of Closed-Die Forging for Estimating Forging Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Debashish; Das, Santanu; Chatterjee, Avik; Bhattacharya, Anirban

    2016-05-01

    Closed die forging is one common metal forming process used for making a range of products. Enough load is to exert on the billet for deforming the material. This forging load is dependent on work material property and frictional characteristics of the work material with the punch and die. Several researchers worked on estimation of forging load for specific products under different process variables. Experimental data on deformation resistance and friction were used to calculate the load. In this work, theoretical estimation of forging load is made to compare this value with that obtained through LS-DYNA model facilitating the finite element analysis. Theoretical work uses slab method to assess forging load for an axi-symmetric upsetting job made of lead. Theoretical forging load estimate shows slightly higher value than the experimental one; however, simulation shows quite close matching with experimental forging load, indicating possibility of wide use of this simulation software.

  19. How dying cells alert the immune system to danger

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Hajime; Rock, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    When a cell dies in vivo the event does not go unnoticed. The host has evolved mechanisms to detect the death of cells and rapidly investigate the nature of their demise. If cell death is a result of natural causes, that is, it is part of normal physiological processes, then there is little threat to the organism. In this situation, little else is done other than removing the corpse. However, if cells have died as the consequence of some violence or disease, then both defence and repair mechanisms are mobilized. The importance of this process to host defence and disease pathogenesis has only been appreciated relatively recently. This article will review our current knowledge of these processes. PMID:18340345

  20. Experimental predator removal causes rapid salt marsh die-off.

    PubMed

    Bertness, Mark D; Brisson, Caitlin P; Coverdale, Tyler C; Bevil, Matt C; Crotty, Sinead M; Suglia, Elena R

    2014-07-01

    Salt marsh habitat loss to vegetation die-offs has accelerated throughout the western Atlantic in the last four decades. Recent studies have suggested that eutrophication, pollution and/or disease may contribute to the loss of marsh habitat. In light of recent evidence that predators are important determinants of marsh health in New England, we performed a total predator exclusion experiment. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that predator depletion can cause salt marsh die-off by releasing the herbivorous crab Sesarma reticulatum from predator control. Excluding predators from a marsh ecosystem for a single growing season resulted in a >100% increase in herbivory and a >150% increase in unvegetated bare space compared to plots with predators. Our results confirm that marshes in this region face multiple, potentially synergistic threats.

  1. Development and evaluation of die and container materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wills, R. R.; Niesz, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    X = 0.75 Beta prime Sialon (a silicon aluminum oxynitride) and Sibeon (silicon beryllium oxynitride) are promising die materials. In sessile drop tests in contact with molten silicon, beryllium contamination was less than ppm and aluminum contamination 50 ppm. A shaping die of the Sialon material was successfully fabricated. Dry milling studies for the preparation of Si3N4-Al2O3-ALN mixtures were performed with butanol, acetic anhydride, oleic acid, and triethanolamine milling aids. Optimum mixing was achieved with 0.15 percent triethanolamine using a milling time of 8 hours. Preliminary evaluation of Sibeon materials indicates that they are more resistent to molten silicon attack than Sialon. Silicon contamination from the beryllium was less than aluminum contamination even though the aluminum impurity level in the Sibeon was only 450 to 1300 ppm. Work designed to produce an aluminum-free Sibeon is described.

  2. The Assisted Dying Bill and the role of the physician.

    PubMed

    Mullock, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    This article explores the role of the physician in the Assisted Dying Bill, which is currently progressing through the House of Lords. The Supreme Court decision in Nicklinson and Others has alerted Parliament to the possibility that the current prohibition against assisted suicide may breach Article 8 of the European Convention in relation to the right to choose how to end one's life. In this article, the role of healthcare professionals in the proposed legalisation of physician-assisted suicide is examined, together with consideration of key ethical concerns over who might be permitted to access assisted dying. Whether the proposed law presents an ethically sound alternative to the current prohibition against assisting in suicide is not clear, but Parliament must now respond in order to address human rights issues and the call to legalise medically assisted suicide.

  3. Nurses' Involvement in Patients' Dying and Death: Scale development and validation.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Makiko; Nagata, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the development of a measurement scale, The Nurses' Involvement in Patients' Dying and Death Scale (NIPDYDS), which fully captures the experiences of nurses caring for patients' dying and death. Potential items were extracted from narrative data gathered systematically and comprehensively from in-depth interviews with nurses engaged in caring for patients' dying and death. Factor analyses revealed four factors, consisting of 40 total items, with two factors related to the positive aspects of the experience (Deep involvement in facing dying and death and Increased competence in facing dying and death) and two factors related to the negative aspects of the experience (Uncertainty and difficulty dealing with dying and death and Accustomed to dying and death). Validity and reliability of the scale were found to be acceptable. The factorial structure of the NIPDYDS was contrasted to Frommelt's (1991) FATCOD (The Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale), and the usefulness and limitations of the NIPDYDS were discussed.

  4. Der Physik-Nobelpreis vor 100 Jahren Die Entdeckung des trägen Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2004-11-01

    Im Jahr 1904 erhielt der britische Physiker Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt, 1842 bis 1919) den Nobelpreis für seine Untersuchungen über die Dichte von Gasen und die Entdeckung des Edelgases Argon.

  5. Deburring die-castings by wet vibratory plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeschbart, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A wet vibratory procedure for the removal of burrs from die castings is described. In this process synthetic abrasive chips and detergent solutions are agitated with the work in such a way as to produce a spiral circulatory movement. Details of various forms of vibrator basin and shapes of abrasive are illustrated. The automation of deburring is illustrated through the application of vibrators of spiral design in combination with transport and drying devices.

  6. Deburring die-castings by wet vibratory plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeschbart, H. M.

    1980-02-01

    A wet vibratory procedure for the removal of burrs from die castings is described. In this process synthetic abrasive chips and detergent solutions are agitated with the work in such a way as to produce a spiral circulatory movement. Details of various forms of vibrator basin and shapes of abrasive are illustrated. The automation of deburring is illustrated through the application of vibrators of spiral design in combination with transport and drying devices.

  7. Years after Inventors Die, Royalties Are Pennies from Heaven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2009-01-01

    Sarah L. Kieweg had her own nice surprise when the University of Central Florida contacted her. She understood quite a bit about her father's pioneering work on artificial intelligence in the 1990s. Still, in 2006, eight years after he died of a heart attack, at age 50, the call from the university came out of the blue: some of James R. Driscoll's…

  8. Vom Urknall zum Zerfall. Die Welt zwischen Anfang und Ende.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsch, H.

    Contents: Der Tanz mit dem Ozean. Galaktische Landkarte. Das Maß der Dinge. Der würfelnde Gott der Quantenphysik. Geheimnisvolle Felder. Materie und Antimaterie. Quarks - Urstoff unserer Welt. Zerfallende Protonen und die Einheit der Physik. Der Zauberofen. Das überschaubare Universum. Das explodierende Universum. Nachhall der Schöpfung. Der achtfache Weg der kosmischen Entwicklung. Das Ende der Welt. Einheit in der Vielfalt. Das geistige Universum. Gott und das absurde Universum.

  9. Should the patient be allowed to die? 1

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Richard

    1975-01-01

    In considering the patient's right to a certain quality of dying, this essay outlines how the legal and ethical justifications for passive euthanasia depend on the doctrine of acts and omissions. It is suggested that this doctrine is untenable and that alternative justifications are needed. The development of the modern mechanistic approach to death is traced, showing that a possible basis for an humane way of death lies in a reacceptance of a metaphysical concept of life. PMID:1100831

  10. Spray forming process for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Key, James F.

    1998-01-01

    A method for spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as whiskers or fibers.

  11. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  12. Killing, letting die and the bare difference argument.

    PubMed

    Perrett, Roy W

    1996-04-01

    I believe that there is no intrinsic moral difference between killing and letting die. That is, there is no difference that depends solely on the distinction between an act and an omission. I also believe that we can reasonably establish this thesis by appeal to the Bare Difference Argument. The form of this argument involves considering two imaginary cases in which there are no morally relevant differences present, save the bare difference that one is a case of killing and one a case of letting die. But in the pair of cases under consideration this bare difference makes no moral difference. Hence it cannot be that the bare difference between killing and letting die is in itself a morally important difference. Winston Nesbitt has recently argued that the Bare Difference Argument fails because "the examples produced typically possess a feature which makes their use in this context illegitimate, and that when modified to remove this feature, they provide support for the view which they were designed to undermine". I argue that Nesbitt misunderstands the logic of the Bare Difference Argument and that accordingly his objections are mistaken.

  13. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-01-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications. PMID:27725780

  14. Milling strategies evaluation when simulating the forming dies' functional surfaces production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ižol, Peter; Tomáš, Miroslav; Beňo, Jozef

    2016-05-01

    The paper deals with selection and evaluation of milling strategies, available in CAM systems and applicable when complicated shape parts are produced, such as forming dies. A method to obtain samples is proposed and this stems from real forming die surface machined by proper strategies. The strategy applicability for the whole part - forming die - is reviewed by the particular specimen evaluation. The presented methodology has been verified by machining model die and comparing it to the production procedure proposed in other CAM systems.

  15. Identity of Innovative Multifunctional Material Manufacturing Business in Latvia / Inovatīvu Daudzfunkcionālo Materiālu Ražotāju Identitāte Latvijā

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geipele, I.; Staube, T.; Ciemleja, G.; Zeltins, N.; Ekmanis, Yu.

    2015-08-01

    The publication comprises the results from the practical scientific investigation to define the profile and distinctions of the Latvian innovative multifunctional material manufacturing industry. The research is carried out by a holistic approach, including expert interviews, qualitative analysis of the official register data, practical survey, and financial data analysis. The paper seeks to give the detailed data on a technological profile of the mentioned representative companies, if there is a synergy or tough competition in the Latvian market. The current research is topical, because it is unique and does not have analogues in Latvia, and the research is timely due to correspondence with recently stated Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation in Latvia. The main findings are associated with recognition of the factors that make impact on commercialisation of the finished goods, obtained financial results and planned directions of development of the respondent companies. Publikācija sniedz veiktā zinātniski praktiskā pētījuma rezultātus, kura ietvaros tika noteikts Latvijas inovatīvu daudzfunkcionālo materiālu ražotāju darbības profils un identitāte. Pētījumā tika izmantota kompleksās analīzes metode, kas ietvēra ekspertu intervijas, uzņēmumu oficiāli reģistrēto datu kvalitatīvo analīzi, zinātniski praktisko aptauju, kā arī pētāmo uzņēmumu finanšu darbības rezultātu analīzi. Zinātniskais darbs sniedz izsmeļošu informāciju par mērķa uzņēmumu tehnoloģisko profilu un pēta, vai Latvijas mērķa ražošanas nozarē ir sinerģijas vai sīvās konkurences pazīmes. Šim zinātniskajam pētījumam ir noteikta aktualitāte saskaņā ar tā unikalitāti Latvijas valsts mērogā un atbilstība Viedās specializācijas stratēģijai. Pētījuma galvenie secinājumi ir saistīti ar uzņēmumu produkcijas komercializācijas ietekmējošo faktoru apzināšanu, sasniegtajiem finansiālajiem rezultātiem un pl

  16. Cascaded die mountings with spring-loaded contact-bond options

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2005-08-16

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  17. 78 FR 38682 - Information Collection; Application for Payment of Amounts Due Persons Who Have Died, Disappeared...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ...; Application for Payment of Amounts Due Persons Who Have Died, Disappeared, or Have Been Declared Incompetent... Amounts Due Persons Who Have Died, Disappeared, or Have Been Declared Incompetent. OMB Control Number... to claim payments earned, but not yet paid to a person who has died, disappeared, or has...

  18. 26 CFR 20.2201-1 - Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Members of the Armed Forces dying during an... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Miscellaneous § 20.2201-1 Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period. (a) The...

  19. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.3 Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises...

  20. 19 CFR 148.54 - Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad... § 148.54 Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad. (a) Exemption. Articles claimed to be personal... United States who died abroad may be allowed entry free of duty and tax under subheading 9804.00.85,...

  1. 19 CFR 148.54 - Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad... § 148.54 Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad. (a) Exemption. Articles claimed to be personal... United States who died abroad may be allowed entry free of duty and tax under subheading 9804.00.85,...

  2. 43 CFR 2883.14 - What happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die? 2883.14 Section 2883.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die? (a) If an applicant or grant or TUP holder dies,...

  3. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.3 Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises...

  4. 26 CFR 20.2201-1 - Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Members of the Armed Forces dying during an... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Miscellaneous § 20.2201-1 Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period. (a) The...

  5. 26 CFR 20.2201-1 - Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Members of the Armed Forces dying during an... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Miscellaneous § 20.2201-1 Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period. (a) The...

  6. 43 CFR 2883.14 - What happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die? 2883.14 Section 2883.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die? (a) If an applicant or grant or TUP holder dies,...

  7. 19 CFR 148.54 - Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad... § 148.54 Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad. (a) Exemption. Articles claimed to be personal... United States who died abroad may be allowed entry free of duty and tax under subheading 9804.00.85,...

  8. 43 CFR 2803.12 - What happens to my application or grant if I die?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens to my application or grant if I die? 2803.12 Section 2803.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... What happens to my application or grant if I die? (a) If an applicant or grant holder dies,...

  9. 43 CFR 2883.14 - What happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die? 2883.14 Section 2883.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die? (a) If an applicant or grant or TUP holder dies,...

  10. 43 CFR 2803.12 - What happens to my application or grant if I die?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens to my application or grant if I die? 2803.12 Section 2803.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... What happens to my application or grant if I die? (a) If an applicant or grant holder dies,...

  11. 19 CFR 148.54 - Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad... § 148.54 Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad. (a) Exemption. Articles claimed to be personal... United States who died abroad may be allowed entry free of duty and tax under subheading 9804.00.85,...

  12. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.3 Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises...

  13. 26 CFR 20.2201-1 - Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Members of the Armed Forces dying during an... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Miscellaneous § 20.2201-1 Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period. (a) The...

  14. 43 CFR 2883.14 - What happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die? 2883.14 Section 2883.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die? (a) If an applicant or grant or TUP holder dies,...

  15. 43 CFR 2803.12 - What happens to my application or grant if I die?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens to my application or grant if I die? 2803.12 Section 2803.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... What happens to my application or grant if I die? (a) If an applicant or grant holder dies,...

  16. 19 CFR 148.54 - Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad... § 148.54 Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad. (a) Exemption. Articles claimed to be personal... United States who died abroad may be allowed entry free of duty and tax under subheading 9804.00.85,...

  17. 43 CFR 2803.12 - What happens to my application or grant if I die?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens to my application or grant if I die? 2803.12 Section 2803.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... What happens to my application or grant if I die? (a) If an applicant or grant holder dies,...

  18. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.3 Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises...

  19. Palliative and Curative Care Nurses' Attitudes Toward Dying and Death in the Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Edward H.

    1986-01-01

    Examined sociodemographic background, nursing unit, amount of experience caring for dying patients, death anxiety, and attitudes toward working with dying patients among 56 nurses in palliative, surgical, and pediatric services. Work setting was found to be a more significant force in shaping attitudes toward caring for the dying than was…

  20. Method of making cascaded die mountings with springs-loaded contact-bond options

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2007-06-19

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  1. 38 CFR 11.128 - Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Veteran dies without... Amended (pub. L. 120, 68th Cong.) § 11.128 Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement. If the veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement under the...

  2. 38 CFR 11.128 - Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Veteran dies without... Amended (pub. L. 120, 68th Cong.) § 11.128 Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement. If the veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement under the...

  3. 43 CFR 3202.13 - What happens if the applicant dies before the lease is issued?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens if the applicant dies before...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lessee Qualifications § 3202.13 What happens if the applicant dies before the lease is issued? If the applicant dies before the lease is issued, BLM will issue the lease to...

  4. 38 CFR 11.128 - Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Veteran dies without... Amended (pub. L. 120, 68th Cong.) § 11.128 Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement. If the veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement under the...

  5. 38 CFR 11.128 - Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Veteran dies without... Amended (pub. L. 120, 68th Cong.) § 11.128 Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement. If the veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement under the...

  6. 43 CFR 3202.13 - What happens if the applicant dies before the lease is issued?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if the applicant dies before...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lessee Qualifications § 3202.13 What happens if the applicant dies before the lease is issued? If the applicant dies before the lease is issued, BLM will issue the lease to...

  7. 38 CFR 11.128 - Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Veteran dies without... Amended (pub. L. 120, 68th Cong.) § 11.128 Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement. If the veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement under the...

  8. 43 CFR 3202.13 - What happens if the applicant dies before the lease is issued?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if the applicant dies before...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lessee Qualifications § 3202.13 What happens if the applicant dies before the lease is issued? If the applicant dies before the lease is issued, BLM will issue the lease to...

  9. Strippable grid facilitates removal of grid-surfaced conical workpiece from die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruppe, E. P.

    1966-01-01

    Female die facilitates the removal of a sheet metal structure from a die used for explosive forming of the metal. The female die consists of a smooth conical frustum made of fiber glass with a cured epoxy-resin surface on which a molded grid pattern made of a polyurethane resin is overlaid.

  10. Chandra Observations of Dying Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims. We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods. We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results. The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions. We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  11. Impact of Simulation Technology on Die and Stamping Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Mark W.

    2005-08-01

    Over the last ten years, we have seen an explosion in the use of simulation-based techniques to improve the engineering, construction, and operation of GM production tools. The impact has been as profound as the overall switch to CAD/CAM from the old manual design and construction methods. The changeover to N/C machining from duplicating milling machines brought advances in accuracy and speed to our construction activity. It also brought significant reductions in fitting sculptured surfaces. Changing over to CAD design brought similar advances in accuracy, and today's use of solid modeling has enhanced that accuracy gain while finally leading to the reduction in lead time and cost through the development of parametric techniques. Elimination of paper drawings for die design, along with the process of blueprinting and distribution, provided the savings required to install high capacity computer servers, high-speed data transmission lines and integrated networks. These historic changes in the application of CAE technology in manufacturing engineering paved the way for the implementation of simulation to all aspects of our business. The benefits are being realized now, and the future holds even greater promise as the simulation techniques mature and expand. Every new line of dies is verified prior to casting for interference free operation. Sheet metal forming simulation validates the material flow, eliminating the high costs of physical experimentation dependent on trial and error methods of the past. Integrated forming simulation and die structural analysis and optimization has led to a reduction in die size and weight on the order of 30% or more. The latest techniques in factory simulation enable analysis of automated press lines, including all stamping operations with corresponding automation. This leads to manufacturing lines capable of running at higher levels of throughput, with actual results providing the capability of two or more additional strokes per

  12. Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography as a Method for Finding Die Attach Voids in Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brahm, E. N.; Rolin, T. D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA analyzes electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts used in space vehicles to understand failure modes of these components. The diode is an EEE part critical to NASA missions that can fail due to excessive voiding in the die attach. Metallography, one established method for studying the die attach, is a time-intensive, destructive, and equivocal process whereby mechanical grinding of the diodes is performed to reveal voiding in the die attach. Problems such as die attach pull-out tend to complicate results and can lead to erroneous conclusions. The objective of this study is to determine if three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT), a nondestructive technique, is a viable alternative to metallography for detecting die attach voiding. The die attach voiding in two- dimensional planes created from 3DCT scans was compared to several physical cross sections of the same diode to determine if the 3DCT scan accurately recreates die attach volumetric variability

  13. Die Starter: A New System to Manage Early Feasibility in Sheet Metal Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narainen, Rodrigue; Porzner, Harald

    2016-08-01

    Die Starter, a new system developed by ESI Group, allows the user to drastically reduce the number of iterations during the early tool process feasibility. This innovative system automatically designs the first quick die face, generating binder and addendum surfaces (NURBS surfaces) by taking account the full die process. Die Starter also improves the initial die face based on feasibility criteria (avoiding splits, wrinkles) by automatically generating the geometrical modifications of the binder and addendum and the bead restraining forces with minimal material usage. This paper presents a description of the new system and the methodology of Die Starter. Some industrial examples are presented from the part geometry to final die face including automatic developed flanges, part on binder and inner binder.

  14. Sex Change Towards Female in Dying Acer rufinerve Trees

    PubMed Central

    NANAMI, SATOSHI; KAWAGUCHI, HIDEYUKI; YAMAKURA, TAKUO

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Sex changes within the genus Acer (Aceraceae) may occur because of associations of sex expression and plant health. In this study, a natural population of Acer rufinerve was monitored to clarify the sex change patterns, the relationship between sex expression and plant health, and the causal environmental conditions that precede sex changes. • Methods Sex expression, growth rate and mortality of A. rufinerve trees in a natural population were monitored from 1992 to 1997. • Key Results Three types of sex expression were observed among A. rufinerve: male, female and bisexual. Among the three types of sex expression, sex changes occurred in all directions. In the growing season of 1994, precipitation was reduced. Stem growth rate decreased and mortality was high in 1994. In the spring of 1995, a drastic sex change from male to female or to bisexual occurred. As a result, the sex ratio became female‐biased in 1995, although it had been male‐biased from 1992 to 1994. In 1996 and 1997, the proportion of males in the population increased, partly as a result of female mortality and partly as a result of female‐to‐male sex changes. Sex expression of A. rufinerve was associated with their growth rate and mortality. The growth rate decreased for trees whose sex changed from male to female or to bisexual, and increased for trees whose sex changed from female to male or to bisexual. Dead trees reproduced as females before they died, except for those that died as males in 1994. • Conclusions One explanation for the sex change towards increasing femaleness for this A. rufinerve population in 1995 was the deterioration of plant health in the previous growing season, because of reduced precipitation. Sex changes of unhealthy and dying A. rufinerve towards femaleness may facilitate re‐occupancy by offspring in gaps created by the death of A. rufinerve trees. PMID:15102611

  15. New OPC verification method using die-to-database inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyunjo; Choi, Jaeseung; Cho, Byungug; Hong, Jongkyun; Song, Jookyoung; Yim, Donggyu; Kim, Jinwoong; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2006-03-01

    The minimum feature size of new generation memory devices is approaching down to 50 nm era. And a very precise CD control is demanded not only for cell layouts but also for core and peripheral layouts of DRAM devices. However, as NA of lens system grows higher and higher and Resolution Enhancement Techniques (RETs) becomes more and more aggressive, isolated-dense bias increases and process window for the core and peripheral layouts decreases dramatically. So, the burden of OPC increases in proportion and it is requisite to verify as many features as possible on wafer. If possible, it would be desirable to verify all the features in a die. Recently, a novel inspection tool has been developed which can verify all kinds of patterns on wafer based on Die to Database copmarison method. It can identify all the serious systematic defects of nm order size error from the original layout target and feed back the systematic error points to OPC for more accurate model tuning. In addition we can obtain the full field CD distribution diagram of some specific transistors with hundreds of thousands of measurement data. So, we can analyze the root cause of the CD distribution in a field, such as mask CDU or lens aberrations and so on. And we can also perform Process Window Qualification of all the features in a die. In this paper, OPC verification methodology using the new inspection tool will be introduced and the application to the analysis of full field CD distribution and Process Window Qualification will be presented in detail.

  16. A merganser die-off associated with larval eustrongylides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; DeWitt, J.B.; Menzie, C.M.; Kerwin, J.A.

    1964-01-01

    A die-off of red-breasted mergansers on Lake Holly, Virginia Beach, Virginia, was found to be due to a larval Eustrongylides. Massive tissue destruction and hemorrhage was produced by the migration of the larval Eustrongylides. Earlier stages of the same Eustrongylides were found in eastern mosquitofish and silversides upon which the mergansers had been feeding. In addition, residues of DDT were found in mosquitofish, gizzard shad, and five mergansers collected from Lake Holly, and in the tissues of two mergansers from Back Bay, Virginia. However, the information available was insufficient to establish the significance of these residue levels.

  17. Die-off and survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in freshwater.

    PubMed

    de Vicente, A; Aviles, M; Borrego, J J; Romero, P

    1988-03-01

    Studies of the survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in freshwater, in situ and in the laboratory, were carried out. A die-off of P. aeruginosa very similar to those of the microbial indicators of fecal pollution, especially to the coliforms, was observed from the results obtained by in situ experiments. The laboratory studies show that the factors tested which exert the greatest effect on the survival of P. aeruginosa in freshwater are the luminous radiations and non-filtrable biotic factors. Furthermore, a negative effect on the viability of this microorganism in freshwater is observed when sewage is added. PMID:3131996

  18. Dying slowly with compassion and dignity: A commentary

    PubMed Central

    Rakos, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    Fraley offers a provocative behavior-analytic perspective on the process of slow death. I argue that the value of his insightful analysis is severely compromised by his insistence on equating behavioral competence with personal worth. Fraley errs by proclaiming that his philosophy is science, that existing social practices are essential human attributes, and that idiosyncratic reinforcing stimuli are universally functional. Further, his philosophical tenet is fundamentally inconsistent with his genuinely humane goal of understanding and promoting protracted dying as a behavioral rather than metaphysical phenomenon. PMID:22478294

  19. [The rescue of the human in the patient who dies].

    PubMed

    García Sánchez, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    In this article I discuss briefly a proposal for the recovery of the essential content of the concept of human nature through the careful attention to ethics which must be received by a terminal ill person in the last phase of life. I propose palliative medicine as a way to rescue the human mind in the life of dying patients to whom the fullness of nature and human dignity belongs. It's about recovering the original medical ethos through the exercise of the virtues through which staff can be trained to recognize the weak, the sick, miserable, the dispossessed are important, are worthy of medicine, used for science: are human and quite valid.

  20. Developing a Blended Course on Dying, Loss, and Grief

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, Karen; Andreoni, V. Ann; Wilkie, Diana J.; Burgener, Sandra; Buschmann, MaryBeth Tank; Henderson, Gloria; Hsiung, Yi-Fang Yvonne; Zhao, Zhongsheng

    2010-01-01

    An important component of end-of-life education is to provide health professionals with content related to dying, loss, and grief. The authors describe the strategies used to develop and offer a blended course (integration of classroom face-to-face learning with online learning) that addressed the sensitive and often emotional content associated with grieving and bereavement. Using Kolb’s experiential learning theory, a set of 4 online learning modules, with engaging, interactive elements, was created. Course evaluations demonstrated the success of the blended course in comparison to the traditional, exclusive face-to-face approach. PMID:19412055

  1. Reliability Testing the Die-Attach of CPV Cell Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.; Sweet, C.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-02-01

    Results and progress are reported for a course of work to establish an efficient reliability test for the die-attach of CPV cell assemblies. Test vehicle design consists of a ~1 cm2 multijunction cell attached to a substrate via several processes. A thermal cycling sequence is developed in a test-to-failure protocol. Methods of detecting a failed or failing joint are prerequisite for this work; therefore both in-situ and non-destructive methods, including infrared imaging techniques, are being explored as a method to quickly detect non-ideal or failing bonds.

  2. [Recent case law about the right to die].

    PubMed

    Bascuñán R, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    This paper reviews the sentences dictated between 1993 and 2002 by the Supreme Courts of Canada and the Unites States, the House of Lords and Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and the European Human Rights Court, about the validity of the legal prohibition of assistance for suicide. These sentences constituted a judicial consensus about the right to die. This consensus recognized the legal right of patients to reject medical treatments but did not recognize the right to be assisted by a physician to commit suicide. This exclusion is changing in the recent case law of Canada and the United Kingdom, which accepts the fundamental right of terminal patients to medically assisted suicide.

  3. Spray forming system for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    A system for the spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as powders, whiskers or fibers.

  4. Spray forming process for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1998-02-17

    A method is disclosed for spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as whiskers or fibers. 17 figs.

  5. Developing a blended course on dying, loss, and grief.

    PubMed

    Kavanaugh, Karen; Andreoni, V Ann; Wilkie, Diana J; Burgener, Sandra; Buschmann, Mary Beth Tank; Henderson, Gloria; Hsiung, Yi-Fang Yvonne; Zhao, Zhongsheng

    2009-01-01

    An important component of end-of-life education is to provide health professionals with content related to dying, loss, and grief. The authors describe the strategies used to develop and offer a blended course (integration of classroom face-to-face learning with online learning) that addressed the sensitive and often emotional content associated with grieving and bereavement. Using Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory, a set of 4 online learning modules, with engaging, interactive elements, was created. Course evaluations demonstrated the success of the blended course in comparison to the traditional, exclusive face-to-face approach.

  6. Extensive intraalveolar pulmonary hemorrhage in infants dying after surfactant therapy.

    PubMed

    Pappin, A; Shenker, N; Hack, M; Redline, R W

    1994-04-01

    To assess the possible relationship between exogenous surfactant therapy and pulmonary hemorrhage in premature infants, we compared autopsy findings in 15 infants treated with exogenous surfactant and in 29 who died before the introduction of surfactant therapy. Infants who met the following criteria were included: birth weight 501 to 1500 gm, survival 4 hours to 7 days, and no congenital anomalies. Average birth weight, gestational age, and age at death were equivalent for the two groups. High rates of pulmonary hemorrhage were present in both groups (treated 80% vs untreated 83%). The untreated group had higher incidences of interstitial hemorrhage and lung hematomas and significantly more large interstitial hemorrhages: 31% untreated versus 0% treated (p < 0.05). The overall rate of intraalveolar hemorrhage was similar in the two groups, but surfactant-treated infants were more likely to have extensive intraalveolar hemorrhage: 53% versus 14% (p < 0.05). Most surfactant-treated infants who survived more than 24 hours had extensive intraalveolar hemorrhage (8/9). Patients who had extensive intraalveolar hemorrhage, with or without prior surfactant therapy, frequently had clinically significant pulmonary hemorrhage (7/12). These findings indicate that infants who die after surfactant therapy have higher rates of a specific type of pulmonary hemorrhage--extensive intraalveolar hemorrhage.

  7. LECRETIA SEALES AND AID IN DYING IN NEW ZEALAND.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant

    2015-12-01

    The application by Lecretia Seales, in relation to the lawfulness of physician aid in dying in New Zealand, was heard by Collins J, an experienced medical jurisprudentialist. It raised issues re-ignited by the recent Supreme Court of Canada ruling in Carter v Canada and the legislative change in California. Is a continued prohibition in Australasia and the United Kingdom against physician aid in dying causing patients to be subjected to cruel, inhumane and undignified deaths or, in fact, is a legislative change unnecessary given the level of care that patients can receive and the peaceful and harmonious deaths that we often hear about in hospice and other settings. A range of arguments, some traditional and some very contemporary, were canvassed in the case of Lecretia Seales and Collins J considered each of them, commenting in detail both on points of law and matters of ethical substance. A study of his judgment therefore makes fascinating reading for those interested in end-of-life decisions and the way they are dealt with in different developed world jurisdictions, and in particular, how such ethical matters may be considered from the point of view of indigenous and marginalised cultures. PMID:26939497

  8. Theoretical and numerical studies of die swell flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Muslimawi, Alaa H.

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the theoretical and numerical predictions of die-swell flow for viscoelastic and viscoelastoplastic fluids. The theoretical results on die swell have been obtained by Tanner for a wide class of constitutive equations, including Phan-Thien Tanner (PTT), pom-pom, and general network type models. These results are compared with numerical solutions across swelling ratio, pressure drop, state of stress, and dissipation-rate for two fluid models, exponential Phan-Thien Tanner (EPTT) and Papanastasiou-Exponential Phan-Thien Tanner (Pap-EPTT). Numerically, the momentum and continuity flow equations are solved by a semi-implicit time-stepping Taylor-Galerkin/pressure-correction finite element method, whilst the constitutive equation is dealt with by a cell-vertex finite volume ( cv/fv) algorithm. This hybrid scheme is performed in a coupled fashion on the nonlinear differential equation system using discrete subcell technology on a triangular tessellation. The hyperbolic aspects of the constitutive equation are addressed discretely through upwind fluctuation distribution techniques.

  9. 'Aid-in-dying' and the taking of human life.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C S

    1992-09-01

    In several US states, the legalisation of euthanasia has become a question for voters to decide in public referenda. This democratic approach in politics is consistent with notions of personal autonomy in medicine, but the right of choice does not mean all choices are morally equal. A presumption against the taking of human life is embedded in the formative moral traditions of society; human life does not have absolute value, but we do and should impose a strict burden of justification for exceptions to the presumption, as exemplified by the moral criteria invoked to justify self-defence, capital punishment, or just war. These criteria can illuminate whether another exception should be carved out for doctor-assisted suicide or active euthanasia. It does not seem, in the United States at any rate, that all possible alternatives to affirm the control and dignity of the dying patient and to relieve pain and suffering, short of taking life, have been exhausted. Moreover, the procedural safeguards built into many proposals for legalised euthanasia would likely be undone by the sorry state of the US health care system, with its lack of universal access to care, chronic cost-containment ills, a litigious climate, and socioeconomic barriers to care. There remains, however, common ground in the quest for humane care of the dying.

  10. Loneliness: a concept relevant to the care of dying persons.

    PubMed

    Zack, M V

    1985-06-01

    Loneliness, whether conceptualized as a basic "fact" of human existence or as a painful, subjective experience in response to changes or deficiencies in the quality or quantity of a person's social relationships, has been recognized as an experience feared or felt by human beings since antiquity. As health care professionals, nurses have observed and responded to loneliness as an actual or potential problem amenable to nursing intervention. Being a subjective experience and one which may or may not be connected to the more objective condition of social isolation or aloneness, loneliness has puzzled scholars and researchers across disciplines. Although the nature of loneliness as a relational deficit is beginning to be explicated, particularly through the efforts of social psychologists, there are still major questions to be answered with regard to antecedents, manifestations, and interventions. Dying persons may represent a particularly vulnerable group, especially those dying in an acute care/cure-oriented setting. Since the limited knowledge about the nature of loneliness has been acquired primarily through studying college students or young adults, the question of whether or not their experience is comparable to that of other groups remains to be answered. Nurses continue to make clinical judgments about the loneliness of their patients. They basically are guided by a knowledge of affiliative functioning, and their interventions reflect a goal of optimal, social functioning for individuals experiencing or at-risk for loneliness. PMID:3846982

  11. Die Parting welt marks' measurement using structured laser analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarr, Dennis P.; Mullen, Joey H.

    1997-01-01

    Heating and cooling air for an aircraft interior is transported using metal ducts. These ducts vary in size from a few centimeters to twelve centimeters in diameter. In the assembly of aircraft air ducts, coupling is swaged onto the ducts. In assuring the mechanical dies are operating properly the die parting welt mark is inspected. The current method of visual inspection and checking with calipers does not allow implementation of statistical process control methods. In an effort to improve this process check, a new measurement method is being developed. A feasibility study indicated that a structured light laser system would be a good approach. A few requirements are: it must be portable to be used at different locations within the fabrication area, it must be fast, it should be easy to use by the mechanic, the reading must be accurate, a hard copy print out is required, and it must be non-destructive. Due to the mechanical configuration of the duct and coupling, a camera with magnification optics is used. The measurement of the bump has a maximum height of 50.8 microns. The prototype systems uses computer vision and custom software written in the C language. This paper discusses different measurement methods tested and the benefits of each technology. The development of a specialized system is justified for production use. This paper describes the prototype system and some of its configuration for factory testing.

  12. Machine Tool User Cylindrical Die Rolling Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.; Grothe, V.D.

    1998-08-06

    This project was initiated to provide the machine tool industry and the DOE a method for evaluating educating potential users about various aspects of the cylindrical die rolling process including: characteristics of the cylindrical die rolling processes, major productivity and material savings benefits, advantages for use in the fastener industry, production capabilities based on part parameters, and production capabilities based on machine specifications. AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) utilized data provided by Kinefac Corporation to develop an interactive performance support system. AlliedSignal developed one complete branch of the program and Kinefac will develop the remaining two branches. Macromedia Authorware version 3.5 and Microsoft Access version 7.0 were selected for development tools. These software tools maximize continued program development ease and program management with future machine technology advancements. Using this authoring tool and the external database resulted in development of a product that has many potential uses within the manufacturing industry. Source code for the product can be used as a template for other applications is reusable and can provide potential solutions to non-manufacturing needs. The final product will be released on CD-ROM.

  13. [Beweggründe von Krebspatienten für und gegen die Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie].

    PubMed

    Gschwendtner, Kathrin M; Holmberg, Christine; Weis, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Die Misteltherapie ist im deutschsprachigen Raum ein häufig angewandtes komplementärmedizinisches Verfahren (KM) in der Onkologie. Diese Studie hatte das Ziel, die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu untersuchen und Themenfeldern zuzuordnen. Patienten und Methoden: Es wurden qualitative leitfadengestützte Interviews mit Krebspatienten geführt. Der Interviewleitfaden fragte nach der Inanspruchnahme von KM, der Motivation zur Inanspruchnahme, Informationsverhalten und -bedürfnissen zu KM sowie nach der Krebserkrankung. Um die Beweggründe für die Inanspruchnahme oder Nichtinanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu verstehen, wurden die Interviews inhaltsanalytisch ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden Interviews mit 88 Krebspatienten geführt, davon nutzen 18 (20,5%) die Misteltherapie. Die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie ließen sich den 2 Themenfeldern «Wahrgenommene Indikation» und «Abwägungen bei der Entscheidungsfindung» zuordnen. Diskussion und Schlussfolgerungen: Mit der Misteltherapie wird sowohl ein Einfluss auf das Tumorwachstum als auch eine supportive Wirkung assoziiert. Anwender sehen die Misteltherapie als sicheres Verfahren; Nichtnutzer befürchten eher Neben- oder Wechselwirkungen. Die Empfehlung von Fachpersonal spielt eine wichtige Rolle bei der Inanspruchnahme. Zum Teil waren die Nichtnutzer interessiert an der Anwendung der Misteltherapie, befanden sich jedoch noch im Klärungsprozess.

  14. [Beweggründe von Krebspatienten für und gegen die Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie].

    PubMed

    Gschwendtner, Kathrin M; Holmberg, Christine; Weis, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Die Misteltherapie ist im deutschsprachigen Raum ein häufig angewandtes komplementärmedizinisches Verfahren (KM) in der Onkologie. Diese Studie hatte das Ziel, die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu untersuchen und Themenfeldern zuzuordnen. Patienten und Methoden: Es wurden qualitative leitfadengestützte Interviews mit Krebspatienten geführt. Der Interviewleitfaden fragte nach der Inanspruchnahme von KM, der Motivation zur Inanspruchnahme, Informationsverhalten und -bedürfnissen zu KM sowie nach der Krebserkrankung. Um die Beweggründe für die Inanspruchnahme oder Nichtinanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu verstehen, wurden die Interviews inhaltsanalytisch ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden Interviews mit 88 Krebspatienten geführt, davon nutzen 18 (20,5%) die Misteltherapie. Die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie ließen sich den 2 Themenfeldern «Wahrgenommene Indikation» und «Abwägungen bei der Entscheidungsfindung» zuordnen. Diskussion und Schlussfolgerungen: Mit der Misteltherapie wird sowohl ein Einfluss auf das Tumorwachstum als auch eine supportive Wirkung assoziiert. Anwender sehen die Misteltherapie als sicheres Verfahren; Nichtnutzer befürchten eher Neben- oder Wechselwirkungen. Die Empfehlung von Fachpersonal spielt eine wichtige Rolle bei der Inanspruchnahme. Zum Teil waren die Nichtnutzer interessiert an der Anwendung der Misteltherapie, befanden sich jedoch noch im Klärungsprozess. PMID:27606463

  15. Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie. Eine Einführung in die Theorie des Gravitationsfeldes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephani, H.

    Contents:Einführung:1. Die kräftefreie Bewegung von Massenpunkten in der Newtonschen Mechanik.Grundlagen der Riemannschen Geometrie:2. Warum überhaupt Riemannsche Geometrie? 3. Der Riemannsche Raum. 4. Tensoralgebra. 5. Kovariante Ableitung und Parallelverschiebung. 6. Der Krümmungstensor. 7. Differentialoperatoren, Integrale und Integralsätze. 8. Grundgesetze der Physik in Riemannschen Räumen.Grundlagen der Einsteinschen Gravitationstheorie:9. Die Grundgleichungen der Einsteinschen Gravitationstheorie. 10. DieSchwarzschild-Lösung. 11. Die innere Schwarzschild-Lösung. 12. Die Reissner-Weyl-Lösung.Linearisierte Gravitationstheorie,Fernfelder und Gravitationswellen:13. Die linearisierte Einsteinsche Gravitationstheorie. 14. Fernfelder beliebiger Materieverteilungen und Bilanzgleichungen für Impuls und Drehimpuls. 15. Gravitationswellen. 16. Das Cauchy-Problem der Einsteinschen Feldgleichungen.Invariante Charakterisierung strenger Lösungen:17. Ausgezeichnete Vektorfelder und ihre Eigenschaften. 18. Die Petrow-Klassifizierung. 19. Killing-Vektoren und Bewegungsgruppen. 20. Die Einbettung Riemannscher Räume in flache Räume höherer Dimension. 21. Übersicht über einige ausgewählte Lösungsklassen.Gravitationskollaps und schwarze Löcher:22. Die Schwarzschild-Singularität. 23. Gravitationskollaps - die mögliche Lebensgeschichte eines kugelsymmetrischen Sterns. 24. Rotierende schwarze Löcher.Kosmologie:25. Die Robertson-Walker-Metriken und ihre Eigenschaften. 26. Die Dynamik der Robertson-Walker-Metriken und die Friedmannschen Weltmodelle. 27. Unsere Welt als Friedmann-Kosmos. 28. Allgemeinere kosmologische Modelle.Nichteinsteinsche Gravitationstheorien:29. Klassische Feldtheorien. 30. Relativitätstheorie und Quantentheorie.

  16. Role of crab herbivory in die-off of New England salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Holdredge, Christine; Bertness, Mark D; Altieri, Andrew H

    2009-06-01

    Die-offs of cordgrass are pervasive throughout western Atlantic salt marshes, yet understanding of the mechanisms precipitating these events is limited. We tested whether herbivory by the native crab, Sesarma reticulatum, is generating die-offs of cordgrass that are currently occurring on Cape Cod, Massachusetts (U.S.A.), by manipulating crab access to cordgrass transplanted into die-off areas and healthy vegetation. We surveyed 12 Cape Cod marshes to investigate whether the extent of cordgrass die-off on creek banks, where die-offs are concentrated, was related to local Sesarma grazing intensity and crab density. We then used archived aerial images to examine whether creek bank die-off areas have expanded over the past 2 decades and tested the hypothesis that release from predation, leading to elevated Sesarma densities, is triggering cordgrass die-offs by tethering crabs where die-offs are pervasive and where die-offs have not yet been reported. Intensity of crab grazing on transplanted cordgrass was an order of magnitude higher in die-off areas than in adjacent vegetation. Surveys revealed that Sesarma herbivory has denuded nearly half the creek banks in Cape Cod marshes, and differences in crab-grazing intensity among marshes explained >80% of variation in the extent of the die-offs. Moreover, the rate of die-off expansion and area of marsh affected have more than doubled since 2000. Crab-tethering experiments suggest that release from predation has triggered elevated crab densities that are driving these die-offs, indicating that disruption of predator-prey interactions may be generating the collapse of marsh ecosystems previously thought to be exclusively under bottom-up control.

  17. 26 CFR 20.6036-1 - Notice of qualification as executor of estate of decedent dying before 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of decedent dying before 1971. 20.6036-1 Section 20.6036-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER... decedent dying before 1971. (a) Preliminary notice for estates of decedents dying before January 1,...

  18. 26 CFR 20.6036-1 - Notice of qualification as executor of estate of decedent dying before 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of decedent dying before 1971. 20.6036-1 Section 20.6036-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER... decedent dying before 1971. (a) Preliminary notice for estates of decedents dying before January 1,...

  19. 26 CFR 20.6036-2 - Notice of qualification as executor of estate of decedent dying after 1970.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of decedent dying after 1970. 20.6036-2 Section 20.6036-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER... decedent dying after 1970. In the case of the estate of a decedent dying after December 31, 1970,...

  20. 26 CFR 20.6036-2 - Notice of qualification as executor of estate of decedent dying after 1970.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... decedent dying after 1970. 20.6036-2 Section 20.6036-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER... decedent dying after 1970. In the case of the estate of a decedent dying after December 31, 1970,...

  1. 26 CFR 20.6036-1 - Notice of qualification as executor of estate of decedent dying before 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... decedent dying before 1971. 20.6036-1 Section 20.6036-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER... decedent dying before 1971. (a) Preliminary notice for estates of decedents dying before January 1,...

  2. 26 CFR 20.6036-2 - Notice of qualification as executor of estate of decedent dying after 1970.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... decedent dying after 1970. 20.6036-2 Section 20.6036-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER... decedent dying after 1970. In the case of the estate of a decedent dying after December 31, 1970,...

  3. 26 CFR 20.6036-1 - Notice of qualification as executor of estate of decedent dying before 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... decedent dying before 1971. 20.6036-1 Section 20.6036-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER... decedent dying before 1971. (a) Preliminary notice for estates of decedents dying before January 1,...

  4. 26 CFR 20.6036-2 - Notice of qualification as executor of estate of decedent dying after 1970.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of decedent dying after 1970. 20.6036-2 Section 20.6036-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER... decedent dying after 1970. In the case of the estate of a decedent dying after December 31, 1970,...

  5. 26 CFR 20.6036-2 - Notice of qualification as executor of estate of decedent dying after 1970.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of decedent dying after 1970. 20.6036-2 Section 20.6036-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER... decedent dying after 1970. In the case of the estate of a decedent dying after December 31, 1970,...

  6. 26 CFR 20.6036-1 - Notice of qualification as executor of estate of decedent dying before 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of decedent dying before 1971. 20.6036-1 Section 20.6036-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER... decedent dying before 1971. (a) Preliminary notice for estates of decedents dying before January 1,...

  7. Laser tabbed die: A repairable, high-speed die-interconnection technology. 1994 LDRD final report 93-SR-089

    SciTech Connect

    Malba, V.; Bernhardt, A.F.

    1995-09-01

    A unique technology for multichip module production is presented. The technology, called Laser Tabbed Die (L-TAB), consists of a method for forming surface-mount-type {open_quotes}gull wing{close_quotes} interconnects on bare dice. The dice are temporarily bonded to a sacrificial substrate which has a polymer thin film coated onto it. The gull wings are formed on the side of the die with a direct-write laser patterning process which allows vertical as well as horizontal image formation. Using the laser patterning system, trenches are formed in a positive electrodeposited photoresist (EDPR) which is plated onto a metal seed layer, allowing copper to be electroplated through the resultant mask. After stripping the resist and the metal seed layer, the polymer film on the substrate is dissolved, releasing the chip with the {open_quotes}gull wings{close_quotes} intact. The chips are then bonded onto a circuit board or permanent substrate with solder or conductive adhesive.

  8. Comparative study of the influence of friction forces on cold forming processes in conventional ECAP die and ECAP die with low friction, by numerical simulation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragnea, D.; Lixandru, P.; Chereches, T.; Velicu, S.

    2016-08-01

    In the process of severe plastic deformation in the ECAP dies, the frictional forces between the blank and the walls of the dies play a determinant role on forming technologies. Due to the great length of the workpiece subjected to forming (in die), high frictional forces are developing, which can lead to blocking the forming process or even to the cracking of the dies. Two sets of numerical simulations were carried out for two coefficients of friction µ = 0.08 and µ = 0.10. There were analysed the following elements comparatively: the structure of the deformed mesh of the finished piece; the effective plastic strain fields; the Von Misses effective stress fields; the actuation forces on the die punch. The results of the numerical simulations showed: uniform structure of slipped layers in central areas of the finished parts, obtained by the two processes; the effective plastic strain field is uniformly at the process with low friction Von Misses effective stresses were significantly lower at the numerical simulation for the process with low friction; the application forces occurring in the processes carried out in the ECAP die with low friction are significantly lower than those obtained in conventional ECAP die.

  9. Sensitivity comparison of fast integrated die-to-die T+R pattern inspection, standard database inspection, and STARlight2 contamination mode for application in mask production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalfuss, Heiko; Schulmeyer, Thomas; Heumann, Jan; Lang, Michael; Sier, Jean-Paul

    2007-10-01

    'Fast Integrated Die-to-Die T+R' pattern inspection (DDTR), reflected tritone database inspection (DBRt) and STARlight2 TM (SL2) contamination inspection are employed by mask makers in order to detect pattern defects and contamination defects on photomasks for in process inspection steps. In this paper we compare the detection capabilities of these modes on real production masks with a representative set of contamination and pattern defects. Currently, SL2 inspection is used to find contamination defects and die-to-die and die-to-database are used for pattern defects. In this paper we will show that the new introduced 'Fast Integrated Die-to-Die T+R' pattern inspection (DDTR)1 in combination with the DBRt can be used in production environment, instead of SL2 without any loss in the sensitivity. During the study, we collected and analyzed inspection data on critical layers such as lines & spaces and contact holes. Besides, performance of the modes on product plates characterization was done using a test mask with programmed defects.

  10. Signale ohne Antwort? Die Suche nach außerirdischem Leben.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoust, E.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, of the English version "The cosmic water hole", published in 1991 (see 53.003.080). The original French edition "Silence au point d'eau" was published in 1988 (see 45.003.059). Contents: I. Leben auf der Erde. 1. Kometen und der Ursprung des Lebens. 2. Die zeitliche Dimension des Lebens. 3. Evolution und Katastrophen. 4. Liegt unsere Zukunft im Weltall? II. Leben im Universum. 5. Die Suche nach Leben in der Sonnenumgebung. 6. Die Suche nach Planetensystemen. III. Intelligentes Leben im Universum. 7. Demographie außerirdischer Zivilisationen. 8. Soziologie außerirdischer Zivilisationen. 9. UFO's und Besuche in der Vergangenheit. 10. Strategien bei der Suche nach außerirdischen Zivilisationen. 11. Die Suche nach künstlichen Signalen. 12. Die Diskussion innerhalb der Gesellschaft. 13. Die Stellung des Menschen im Universum.

  11. Die nuklearen Anlagen von Hanford (1943-1987) Eine Fallstudie über die Schnittstellen von Physik, Biologie und die US-amerikanische Gesellschaft zur Zeit des Kalten Krieges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macuglia, Daniele

    Die Geschichte des Kalten Krieges eröffnet viele Möglichkeiten, sich näher mit den Schnittstellen von Physik und Biologie während des 20. Jahrhunderts zu befassen. Nicht nur das Unglück in Tschernobyl aus dem Jahr 1986, auch das Beispiel der nuklearen Anlagen in Hanford in den Vereinigten Staaten zeigt die biologischen Folgen von nuklearer Physik.

  12. Laser micromachining of through via interconnects in active die for 3-D multichip module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, D.; Miller, W. D.

    One method to increase density in integrated circuits (IC) is to stack die to create a 3-D multichip module (MCM). In the past, special post wafer processing was done to bring interconnects out to the edge of the die. The die were sawed, glued, and stacked. Special processing was done to create interconnects on the edge to provide for interconnects to each of the die. These processes require an IC type fabrication facility (fab) and special processing equipment. In contrast, we have developed packaging assembly methods to create vertical through vias in bond pads of active silicon die, isolate these vias, and metal fill these vias without the use of a special IC fab. These die with through vias can then be joined and stacked to create a 3-D MCM. Vertical through vias in active die are created by laser micromachining using a Nd:YAG laser. Besides the fundamental 1064 nm (infrared) laser wavelength of a Nd:YAG laser, modifications to our Nd:YAG laser allowed us to generate the second harmonic 532 nm (green) laser wavelength and fourth harmonic 266 nm (ultraviolet) laser wavelength in laser micromachining for these vias. Experiments were conducted to determine the best laser wavelengths to use for laser micromachining of vertical through vias in order to minimize damage to the active die. Via isolation experiments were done in order to determine the best method in isolating the bond pads of the die. Die thinning techniques were developed to allow for die thickness as thin as 50 microns. This would allow for high 3-D density when the die are stacked. A method was developed to metal fill the vias with solder using a wire bonder with solder wire.

  13. Dies1/VISTA expression loss is a recurrent event in gastric cancer due to epigenetic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Patrícia; Carvalho, Joana; Rocha, Sara; Azevedo, Mafalda; Reis, Inês; Camilo, Vânia; Sousa, Bárbara; Valente, Sofia; Paredes, Joana; Almeida, Raquel; Huntsman, David; Oliveira, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Dies1/VISTA induces embryonic stem-cell differentiation, via BMP-pathway, but also acts as inflammation regulator and immune-response modulator. Dies1 inhibition in a melanoma-mouse model led to increased tumour-infiltrating T-cells and decreased tumour growth, emphasizing Dies1 relevance in tumour-microenvironment. Dies1 is involved in cell de/differentiation, inflammation and cancer processes, which mimic those associated with Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT). Despite this axis linking Dies1 with EMT and cancer, its expression, modulation and relevance in these contexts is unknown. To address this, we analysed Dies1 expression, its regulation by promoter-methylation and miR-125a-5p overexpression, and its association with BMP-pathway downstream-effectors, in a TGFβ1-induced EMT-model, cancer cell-lines and primary samples. We detected promoter-methylation as a mechanism controlling Dies1 expression in our EMT-model and in several cancer cell-lines. We showed that the relationship between Dies1 expression and BMP-pathway effectors observed in the EMT-model, was not present in all cell-lines, suggesting that Dies1 has other cell-specific effectors, beyond the BMP-pathway. We further demonstrated that: Dies1 expression loss is a recurrent event in GC, caused by promoter methylation and/or miR-125a-5p overexpression and; GC-microenvironment myofibroblasts overexpress Dies1. Our findings highlight Dies1 as a novel player in GC, with distinct roles within tumour cells and in the tumour-microenvironment. PMID:27721458

  14. Laser micromachining of through via interconnects in active die for 3-D multichip module

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Miller, W.D.

    1995-09-01

    One method to increase density in integrated circuits (IC) is to stack die to create a 3-D multichip module (MCM). In the past, special post wafer processing was done to bring interconnects out to the edge of the die. The die were sawed, glued, and stacked. Special processing was done to create interconnects on the edge to provide for interconnects to each of the die. These processes require an IC type fabrication facility (fab) and special processing equipment. In contrast, we have developed packaging assembly methods to created vertical through vias in bond pads of active silicon die, isolate these vias, and metal fill these vias without the use of a special IC fab. These die with through vias can then be joined and stacked to create a 3-D MCM. Vertical through vias in active die are created by laser micromachining using a Nd:YAG laser. Besides the fundamental 1064 nm (infra-red) laser wavelength of a Nd:YAG laser, modifications to our Nd:YAG laser allowed us to generate the second harmonic 532 nm (green) laser wavelength and fourth harmonic 266nm (ultra violet) laser wavelength in laser micromachining for these vias. Experiments were conducted to determine the best laser wavelengths to use for laser micromachining of vertical through vias in order to minimize damage to the active die. Via isolation experiments were done in order to determine the best method in isolating the bond pads of the die. Die thinning techniques were developed to allow for die thickness as thin as 50 {mu}m. This would allow for high 3-D density when the die are stacked. A method was developed to metal fill the vias with solder using a wire bonder with solder wire.

  15. Fossil shell emission in dying radio loud AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kino, M.; Ito, H.; Kawakatu, N.; Orienti, M.; Nagai, H.; Wajima, K.; Itoh, R.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate shell emission associated with dying radio loud AGNs. First, based on our recent work by Ito et al. (2015), we describe the dynamical and spectral evolution of shells after stopping the jet energy injection. We find that the shell emission overwhelms that of the radio lobes soon after stopping the jet energy injection because fresh electrons are continuously supplied into the shell via the forward shock, while the radio lobes rapidly fade out without jet energy injection. We find that such fossil shells can be a new class of target sources for SKA telescope. Next, we apply the model to the nearby radio source 3C84. Then, we find that the fossil shell emission in 3C84 is less luminous in the radio band while it is bright in the TeV γ-ray band and can be detectable by CTA. Data from STELLA

  16. [Recent case law about the right to die].

    PubMed

    Bascuñán R, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    This paper reviews the sentences dictated between 1993 and 2002 by the Supreme Courts of Canada and the Unites States, the House of Lords and Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and the European Human Rights Court, about the validity of the legal prohibition of assistance for suicide. These sentences constituted a judicial consensus about the right to die. This consensus recognized the legal right of patients to reject medical treatments but did not recognize the right to be assisted by a physician to commit suicide. This exclusion is changing in the recent case law of Canada and the United Kingdom, which accepts the fundamental right of terminal patients to medically assisted suicide. PMID:27401380

  17. Vacuum Die Casting of Silicon Sheet for Photovoltaic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The development of a vacuum die-casting process for producing silicon sheet suitable for photovoltaic cells with a terrestrial efficiency greater than 12 percent and having the potential to be scaled for large quantity production is considered. The initial approach includes: (1) obtaining mechanical design parameters by using boron nitride, which has been shown to non-wetting to silicon; (2) optimizing silicon nitride material composition and coatings by sessile drop experiments; (3) testing effectiveness of fluoride salt interfacial media with a graphite mold; and (4) testing the effect of surface finish using both boron nitride and graphite. When the material and mechanical boundary conditions are established, a finalized version of the prototype assembly will be constructed and the casting variables determined.

  18. Can others exercise an incapacitated patient's right to die?

    PubMed

    Ellman, I M

    1990-01-01

    Ellman's article is one of four in this issue of the Hastings Center Report on the first right to die case to come before the U.S. Supreme Court. The author, a law professor, agrees with critics that the Missouri Supreme Court erred in Cruzan when it declined to grant the parents of a woman in a persistent vegetative state authority to halt her tube feedings. However, he believes that in order to overturn Cruzan, the U.S. Supreme Court would have to wrongly and dangerously hold that Missouri is obliged to follow the family's instructions, even if Cruzan's wishes are unknown. Ellman warns against recognizing a third party's claim to exercise an individual's constitutional right to decide about medical care on her behalf. He argues that this right, emerging from a principle of self determination, can apply only to decisions concerning oneself, and cannot be exercised by another.

  19. The whisper of death: psychotherapy with a dying Vietnam veteran.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, T A

    2000-01-01

    Psychotherapy with a dying Vietnam veteran is described. In spite of a severe heart condition and HIV-positive diagnosis, the outspoken and provocative patient reverts to heroin and cocaine use early in the treatment. This causes a heart attack and interruption of treatment. The therapist maintains empathy, a solid bond is forged, and the patient returns, but under constrained circumstances. A turning point is reached, both in the treatment and in this final phase of the patient's life, with major life improvement ensuing. At death the patient leaves word to thank the therapist. This case exemplifies how the approach of death lends urgency to positive forces appropriate to life's final developmental stage, and how end-of-life therapy bolsters those forces.

  20. Did Alexander the Great die of acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Sbarounis, C N

    1997-06-01

    I propose that Alexander the Great died of acute pancreatitis secondary to heavy alcohol consumption and a very rich meal. The cause of death of prominent historic or artistic figures attracts considerable interest of historians and researchers. This is especially the case for Alexander the Great. More than 20,000 publications, books, or monographs on the life and work of Alexander the Great have been published. There are several theories and hypotheses regarding the cause of his death, that are based on historic descriptions, diaries, notations, and interpretations of events. It is inevitable that history and myth intermingle in any investigative approach, no matter how scholarly. In this article, on the basis of several historic sources. I have made an effort to reconstruct the final 14 days of his life and record the course of medical events that preceded his death with the formulation of a plausible diagnosis.