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Sample records for latvian soldier injured

  1. Damage Control Resuscitation: A New Paradigm for Fluid Resuscitation of Severely Injured Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    hypotensive) resuscitation with Hextend for the treatment of injured soldiers the goal is (Dubick and Atkins, 2003; PHTLS , 2005) to raise blood...Fibrinolysis, 17, 397-402. Peng, R. Y. and Bongard, F. S., 1999: Hypothermia in trauma patients. J Am Coll Surg, 188, 685-696. 7 PHTLS Basic and Advanced

  2. Music for the injured soldier: a contribution of American women's military bands during World War II.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jill M

    2007-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the contributions of women's military bands in the United States to the reconditioning of the injured American troops during World War II. Primary and secondary sources revealed that these bands welcomed home hospital ships, performed for convalescing soldiers in hospitals, and provided music for hospital dances. While each of the bands investigated served in similar capacities, only one, the 403rd Women's Army Corps (WAC) Band, was stationed at a hospital. While entertainment by women's bands was an important part of the Army Reconditioning Program for the injured, the study also revealed a working partnership that developed between these musicians and the medical community. Sixty years after the war, band members believe their performances in hospitals were the most important contribution of their service. Some historians have concluded that music used in military hospitals during the war was the impetus for the music therapy profession.

  3. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Reduce Prophylactic Fasciotomies for and Missed Cases of Acute Compartment Syndrome in Soldiers Injured in OEF/OIF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    TITLE: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Reduce Prophylactic Fasciotomies for and Missed Cases of Acute Compartment Syndrome in Soldiers Injured in OEF...Compartment Syndrome in Soldiers Injured in OEF/OIF 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-2-0184 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...validate the accuracy and reliability of a specific NIRS sensor (Equanox, Nonin, Inc, Plymouth, MN) in diagnosing acute compartment syndrome in

  4. Soldiers injured during the Falklands campaign 1982. Sepsis in soft tissue limb wounds.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D S

    2007-01-01

    The factors related to the development of sepsis in the soft tissue limb injuries sustained by soldiers during the Falkland Campaign have been assessed. Delay in surgery and delay in antibiotic administration are the most important factors, and where delay in surgery is inevitable, delay in antibiotic administration assumes an even greater importance.

  5. Pain-related psychological distress, self-rated health and significance of neuropathic pain in Danish soldiers injured in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Duffy, J R; Warburg, F E; Koelle, S-F T; Werner, M U; Nielsen, P R

    2015-11-01

    Pain and mental health concerns are prevalent among veterans. While the majority of research has focused on chronic pain as an entity, there has been little work directed towards investigating the role of neuropathic pain in relation to psychological comorbidity. As such, we hypothesised that participants with signs of neuropathic pain would report higher levels of psychological distress and diminished self-rated health compared to those without a neuropathic component. A retrospective review of standardised questionnaires (PainDETECT Questionnaire, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and EuroQOL Visual Analogue Scale) administered to injured soldiers. The participants were classified into three groups according to the PainDETECT questionnaire: non-neuropathic pain, possible neuropathic pain and definite neuropathic pain. Fifty-three participants were included. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian score was in median (interquartile range) 26 (22-31), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score was 4 (2-6.5) and 2 (1-5) for anxiety and depression respectively. Evidence of neuropathic pain correlated positively with the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian score (rho = 0.469, P < 0.001) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale subscale for anxiety score (rho = 0.357, P = 0.009), and inversely with the EuroQOL Visual Analogue Scale score (rho = -0.361, P = 0.008). In multivariate regression analyses, the associations remained when adjusting for socio-demographics and clinical characteristics. The results from the present study suggest that neuropathic pain is related to increased psychological distress and deterioration in self-rated health in injured soldiers. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. MILITARY PAY: Processes for Retaining Injured Army National Guard and Reserve Soldiers on Active Duty Have Been Improved, but Some Challenges Remain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    average length of stay of soldiers treated by civilian providers through CBHCI with the average length of stay of soldiers treated at MTFs...these metrics may be misleading. According to the Army’s metrics, the average length of stay , before being returned to duty or medically separated...for soldiers treated by civilian providers through CBHCI is 288 days whereas the average length of stay for soldiers

  7. Indian Soldiers Need Eye Protection

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Combat-related eye injuries entail enormous financial, social and psychological cost. Military Combat Eye Protection (MCEP) decreases both the incidence and severity of eye injuries. Experts have recognised the need for MCEP for Indian soldiers. We aim to review the combat-related eye injuries and combat eye protection among the Indian soldiers. Global practices of MCEP are also reviewed. We also aim to offer our recommendations for Indian soldiers. We carried out Medline search for combat-related eye injuries and MCEP and separately searched for eye injuries among Indian soldiers during war and other operations. We present the findings as results. Recommendations are based on the opinions of the experts. Combat-related eye injuries increased from 3% of injured in the 1965 Indo-Pakistan War to 4.8% in 1971 war. During peace-keeping operations in Sri Lanka (1987-89) eye injuries increased to 10.5% of the injured. Statistics on eye injuries during counterinsurgency operations are not available. MCEP have shown reduction in eye injuries, and thus MCEP forms a part of personal equipment of the soldiers in developed countries. Indian soldiers do not have provision of MCEP. Combat-related eye injuries among Indian Army soldiers have been increasing. Data on eye injuries during counterinsurgency operations are not available. Indian soldiers do not have provision of MCEP. Provision of MCEP is therefore desirable. Awareness program among the commanders and the soldiers shall result in attitudinal changes and increased compliance. PMID:28384904

  8. Near-infrared Spectroscopy to Reduce Prophylactic Fasciotomies for and Missed Cases of Acute Compartment Syndrome in Soldiers Injured in OEF/OIF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    in combat soldiers and civilians sufferring high energy trauma to the lower extremities. Part 1 was to be two clinical observational studies. The...second study (Phase 2) was originally planned to be conducted in theater at Level III CSHs in Afghanistan and Iraq with support from the Joint ...Combat Casualty Research Team (JC2RT) and a researcher who specifically deployed to lead this study in- theater. However, during the protocol review

  9. [The former soldiers becoming first aid trainers].

    PubMed

    Prieur, Joël

    2015-12-01

    The Order of Malta France is organising, through an innovative partnership with the French Army, the training of first aid instructors aimed at former soldiers injured in combat. One soldier, who received multiple wounds in Lebanon in 2011, describes his training experience.

  10. Paranormal beliefs of Latvian college students: a Latvian version of the revised paranormal belief scale.

    PubMed

    Utinans, A; Ancane, G; Tobacyk, J J; Boyraz, G; Livingston, M M; Tobacyk, J S

    2015-02-01

    A Latvian version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) was completed by 229 Latvian university students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed six relatively independent factors labeled Magical Abilities, Psychokinesis, Traditional Religious Belief, Superstition, Spirit Travel, and Extraordinary Life Forms. Based on the motivational-control model, it was hypothesized that the societal stressors affecting Latvian society during the last 50 yr. have led to a reduced sense of personal control which, in turn, has resulted in increased endorsement of paranormal beliefs to re-establish a sense of control. The motivational-control hypothesis was not supported. Results indicated that (except for Traditional Religious Belief in women), the majority of these students were disbelievers in paranormal phenomena. As hypothesized, Latvian women reported significantly greater paranormal belief than men.

  11. Development of Latvian Information Infrastructure and Tasks for Latvian Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnitis, Edwin

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of information infrastructure development in Latvia and discusses the role of the Latvian Academic Library. Describes Latvia's telecommunications, information network, data transmission, and electronic information services and reviews the types of electronic information sources that have been created. (Author/JMV)

  12. Wave Energy Potential in the Latvian EEZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beriņš, J.; Beriņš, J.; Kalnačs, J.; Kalnačs, A.

    2016-06-01

    The present article deals with one of the alternative forms of energy - sea wave energy potential in the Latvian Exclusice Economic Zone (EEZ). Results have been achieved using a new method - VEVPP. Calculations have been performed using the data on wave parameters over the past five years (2010-2014). We have also considered wave energy potential in the Gulf of Riga. The conclusions have been drawn on the recommended methodology for the sea wave potential and power calculations for wave-power plant pre-design stage.

  13. Soldiering on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Coeli

    2010-01-01

    As community colleges welcome an influx of veterans returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan, administrators must focus on helping these soldiers--many who are pursuing higher education for the first time--obtain the knowledge and skills necessary to thrive in a changing economy. The process starts the moment these men and women set foot on…

  14. Soldiering on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Coeli

    2010-01-01

    As community colleges welcome an influx of veterans returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan, administrators must focus on helping these soldiers--many who are pursuing higher education for the first time--obtain the knowledge and skills necessary to thrive in a changing economy. The process starts the moment these men and women set foot on…

  15. Retrospective dosimetry for Latvian workers at Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Mironova-Ulmane, N; Pavlenko, A; Zvagule, T; Kärner, T; Bruvere, R; Volrate, A

    2001-01-01

    Between 1986 and 1991 approximately 6500 Latvian inhabitants were recruited for clean-up work at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Their absorbed doses are usually unknown, because less than half of them had their external exposure officially documented. Clinical investigations show a high morbidity rate for these clean-up workers when compared with that of the general population. In order to understand the causes of their diseases and the impact of ionising radiation, electron spin resonance (ESR) has been used to measure the absorbed doses in human tooth enamel. The doses estimated by ESR were between two and three times higher than previously documented and are in accord with the results of immunological and biological tests. The results may be explained by considering the effects of irradiation caused by long-lived incorporated radionuclides.

  16. Corrective Feedback in L2 Latvian Classrooms: Teacher Perceptions versus the Observed Actualities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilans, Gatis

    2016-01-01

    This two-part study aims to investigate teacher perceptions about providing oral corrective feedback (CF) to minority students of Latvian as a second language and compare the perceptions to the actual provision of CF in L2 Latvian classrooms. The survey sample represents sixty-six L2 Latvian teachers while the classroom observations involved 13…

  17. Corrective Feedback in L2 Latvian Classrooms: Teacher Perceptions versus the Observed Actualities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilans, Gatis

    2016-01-01

    This two-part study aims to investigate teacher perceptions about providing oral corrective feedback (CF) to minority students of Latvian as a second language and compare the perceptions to the actual provision of CF in L2 Latvian classrooms. The survey sample represents sixty-six L2 Latvian teachers while the classroom observations involved 13…

  18. Homogeneity of Latvian temperature and precipitation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizuma, L.; Briede, A.

    2010-09-01

    During previous years and decades the homogenization of Latvian monthly temperature and precipitation data series was based on the direct homogenization methods which relayed on metadata and studies of the effects of specific changes in time of observation as well as methods of observation. However, the method is not effective for temperature and precipitation data series shifts detection caused by measurement's place relocation or environmental changes. The both climatological temperature and precipitation records are significantly affected by a number of non-climatological factors (station moves, changes in instrumentation; introduction of different observing practices like a different observing time or introduction of wetting corrections for precipitation, changes in the local urban environment). If these non-homogeneities are not accounted for properly, that makes the data unrepresentative to be used for analyses of climate state, variations and changes. Monthly and daily Latvian station series (1950-2008) of surface air temperature and precipitation are statistically tested with respect to homogeneity. Two homogeneity tests are applied to evaluate monthly series. The multiple analyses of series for homogenization MASHv3.02 has been applied to 23 Latvian mean, maximum and minimum daily and monthly data series and daily and monthly precipitation series. The standard normal homogeneity tests (SNHT) has been applied to monthly mean temperature and precipitation series. During the tested period the station network is dense enough for efficient homogeneity testing. It has been found that all the time series contain the homogeneity breaks at least during one of the month. For some stations the multiple breaks were found. For mean temperature time series the 80 % of the breaks are generally less than ±0.20C. The largest detected homogeneity breaks in the mean monthly temperatures are up to ±1.00C, in mean monthly maximum temperature are up to ±1.30C and for mean

  19. Analysis of the causes of medical evacuation of injured and sick soldiers of the Polish Military Contingent in the Islamic State of Afghanistan taking part in International Security Assistance Force operations.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Radosław

    2012-04-01

    Military casualties in Afghanistan arise in part from climatic and natural conditions that are difficult for European soldiers to endure, as well as from intense guerrilla combat with mass use of IEDs (improvised explosive devices), thus posing numerous and diverse medical problems requiring evacuation to the home country. A search of the literature revealed no comprehensive studies of the causes of medical evacuation from this theater of operations. This article is a review of medical reports of the Polish Military Contingent taking part in Operation Enduring Freedom during the period from 01 January 2010 to 31 December 2011, including an analysis of causes of all ROLE 4 medical evacuations (to the military base in Germany or to the home country). As many as 565 (5.49%) of the total of 10 294 contingent soldiers were evacuated during the analyzed period. Of these, 29% of evacuation cases were due to combat injuries, 23% to complications of respiratory tract infection, 11% to mental health problems, 11% to chronic neuralgias, 12% to complications of acute gastrointestinal infections, 4% to non-combat injuries, 3% to dental and maxillofacial problems, 2% to dermatological problems and 2% to leishmaniasis. The remaining causes included chronic organic/systemic diseases manifested during service. The main causes of medical evacuations to the home country were the consequences of combat injuries, mainly due to IED attacks. Appropriate diagnosis and early treatment of infections is also an important problem in the face of a significant number of complications resulting in evacuation of soldiers to their home country.

  20. [Medical Service of the Latvian National Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Aleinikov, S I; Golota, A S; Krassii, A B; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin, R A

    2015-08-01

    The article is a brief description of the current state of the Latvian National Armed Forces medical service and is based on the study of the open access foreign sources. At the beginning, the general information about Latvia, its Armed Forces, and their medical service is presented. Then the medical service particular features are described with more detail, namely, the organization of inpatient and outpatient treatment, medical supply, scientific research, combat medicine, medical staff education and training, medical service personnel income.

  1. Exploring discourse surrounding therapeutic enhancement of veterans and soldiers with injuries.

    PubMed

    Wolbring, Gregor; Martin, Angelica; Tynedal, Jeremy; Ball, Natalie; Yumakulov, Sophya

    2015-01-01

    Human enhancement (the enhancement of the abilities of a normative person beyond the norm) of soldiers has been debated for some time. However, therapeutic enhancement of soldiers and veterans with injuries (the enhancement of the abilities of a sub-normative labeled person beyond the norm) is much less discussed. This article discusses 1) historical examples of policies and views linked to soldiers and veterans that have been injured in the Americas, and perception of injured veterans and soldiers; 2) the science and technology of the therapeutic enhancement landscape and 3) views of veterans on therapeutic enhancements. Three methods were used: a) historical search of policy documents; b) content analysis of the New York Times and c) online delivered exploratory non-probability survey using the Survey Monkey platform. Researchers found that veterans played a special role in policy developments in the United States, such as disability pension plans, and that veterans who were injured were portrayed more positively than other people with disabilities in the NYT from 1851-2010. However, within the current public discourse around the use of enhancement enabling therapeutic assistive devices, the voices of injured soldiers and veterans are not visible. Therapeutic enhancements, especially of injured soldiers and veterans, are an under researched area with various open ethical questions in need of more coverage.

  2. Latvian Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in the Republic of Latvia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viksnins, Helen M.

    This guide is designed for Latvian language training of Peace Corps workers in Latvia, is intended for use in a competency-based language training program, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of an introductory section on the history, alphabet, and phonology of the Latvian language and a series of 13 topical…

  3. Examination of the Effectiveness of Predictors for Musculoskeletal Injuries in Female Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Kodesh, Einat; Shargal, Eyal; Kislev-Cohen, Rotem; Funk, Shany; Dorfman, Lev; Samuelly, Gil; Hoffman, Jay R.; Sharvit, Nurit

    2015-01-01

    The amount of training days lost to injury during military training has highlighted the need to identify a screening tool to predict injury. One hundred and fifty-eight female soldiers from the Combat Fitness Instructor Course (CFIC) of the Israel Defense Forces volunteered to participate in this study. All soldiers were free of orthopedic and neurologic conditions for at least one month before the study. All participants performed a battery of measurements during the first week of the course. Measures included anthropometric, functional movement screen (FMS), power performances (counter movement jump [CMJ], drop jump, single leg triple hop jump [SLTH], 10-m sprint) and a 2K run. Injury data was collected throughout the 3 month course. Median tests were used to compare between injured/non-injured soldiers. Chi-square and/or logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between various predictors and injury. Percent body fat [%BF] was higher (p = 0.04), distance for SLTH was less for both left and right legs (p = 0.029, p = 0.047 respectively) and 2K run was slower (p =0.044) in injured compared to non-injured soldiers. No differences between groups were noted in total FMS score, however more zero scores in one or more movement pattern were found in the injured group (51.35 % vs. 30.5% p=0.0293). Only %BF, 2K run and SLTH distance were significant predictors of injury (p = 0.05, p = 0.02, p =0.016 respectively). The results of this study indicated that the FMS total score is not a predictor of injury in female soldiers in a CFIC. We found that %BF, SLTH, 2K run time, 10 meter sprint time and zero scores differentiated between injured and non-injured soldiers. In addition, %BF, 2K run and SLTH were each found to be separate predictors of injury. Further research is needed to determine threshold scores that predict injury. Key points A total of 145 injuries were reported during the three month Combat Fitness Instructor Course in a female soldiers

  4. Demystifying the Citizen Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of citizen soldiers, nationalsecurity policy will remain consistent with the will of the people-the ultimate requirement ofour democracy. For Meyer...controversial foreign wars, and-most important of all-embodied the ideals of citizen soldier. While most of todays debateabout the active-reserve...ability to prevent the United States from fighting controversial foreign wars* embodiment of the ideals of the citizen soldier.

  5. Changes in Soldier Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drucker, Eugene H.

    As part of a study for increasing motivation and preventing attitude deterioration among enlisted men, two studies were conducted: (1) to determine the attitudes of soldiers in 1970 (974 basic trainees at Fort Knox) and compare them with those of soldiers similarly questioned between 1945 and 1951; and (2) to review the literature on attitude…

  6. Are injuries from terror and war similar? A comparison study of civilians and soldiers.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Kobi; Jaffe, Dena H

    2010-08-01

    To compare injuries and hospital utilization and outcomes from terror and war for civilians and soldiers. Injuries from terror and war are not necessarily comparable, especially among civilians and soldiers. For example, civilians have less direct exposure to conflict and are unprepared for injury, whereas soldiers are psychologically and physically prepared for combat on battlefields that are often far from trauma centers. Evidence-based studies distinguishing and characterizing differences in injuries according to conflict type and population group are lacking. A retrospective study was performed using hospitalization data from the Israel National Trauma Registry (10/2000-12/2006). Terror and war accounted for trauma hospitalizations among 1784 civilians and 802 soldiers. Most civilians (93%) were injured in terror and transferred to trauma centers by land, whereas soldiers were transferred by land and air. Critical injuries and injuries to multiple body regions were more likely in terror than war. Soldiers tended to present with less severe injuries from war than from terror. Rates of first admission to orthopedic surgery were greater for all casualties with the exception of civilians injured in terror who were equally likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit. In-hospital mortality was higher among terror (7%) than war (2%) casualties, and particularly among civilians. This study provides evidence that substantial differences exist in injury characteristics and hospital resources required to treat civilians and soldiers injured in terror and war. Hospital preparedness and management should focus on treating combat injuries that result from specific causes-terror or war.

  7. Latvian scientists research into chemical uses of timber

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-20

    Scientists of the Institute of Wood Chemistry of the Latvian Academy of Sciences have developed two highly efficient processes for producing furfural, a feedstock for varnishes, synthetic resins and plastics. It is made of production wastes, including branches and small-dimension timber. By one process, the raw material is chipped, treated first with diluted sulphuric acid and then with steam heated to 250 degrees C. The other uses concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst. Besides furfural, this process also yields sugar solutions used in alcohol and nutrient yeast production.

  8. Facing the Long War: Factors that Lead Soldiers to Stay in the Army during Persistent Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    beyond the living conditions approach, which tends to focus on the material resources available to individuals” Quality of Life studies became popular...in the 1970s. See Jens Alber, et al., “The Quality of Life in Europe,” European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions ...Health problems also decrease soldier resiliency, as sick or injured soldiers are less capable of adapting to harsh conditions .29 Due to an increase

  9. Decontamination of Combat Wounds in the Injured Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Command Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21701 Contract No. DADAl7-72-C-2153 Department of t’lastic Surgery University of Virginia Medical Center...curred within fou- weeks. The healed fingertip had an excellent sensory perception, normal range of motion, and an acceptable cosmetic appearance. This...Stevenson, T.R., Magee, C.M., Thacker, J.G., and Edgerton, M.T.: Treatise on the contaminated wound. in "Symposium on Basic Science in Plastic Surgery .* Ed

  10. Helping Severely Injured Soldiers Participate Fully in Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Veterans Research Foundation Pittsburgh, PA 15206-1206...Cooper, Ph.D. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Veterans ... veterans with disabilities completed questionnaires and interviews during the 2008 National Disabled Veterans Winter Sports Clinic (sponsored by the

  11. Soldier’s Radio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-14

    individual soldier. "t’s primary use is by individuals in squads or small units, but may also be used to interconnect into local and wide area...Velopilnq the concept for the Soldier’s Radio. The operation of the SR can be partitioned into two areas. The architecture required to provide intra- squad ... SQUAD CONMECTrVITY The basic radio ccmmunications architectures suitable for :cnsideration for the SR intra- squad operations include the Net, .tar

  12. Latvian and Russian textbooks: eye movements in reading text formatted in two columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paeglis, Roberts; Gorshanova, Irina; Bagucka, Kristine; Lacis, Ivars

    2008-09-01

    Research of eye movements in reading textbooks suggests that reading the Cyrillic-based Russian language differs from reading the extended Latin-based Latvian texts. Ten bilingual students were asked to start reading a book passage in Latvian and to continue reading the text in Russian. Key parameters in information processing have been analyzed. Even though the difference in duration of fixations does not reach statistical significance, saccade size and regression rate are smaller in Russian.

  13. Soldier-Computer Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-27

    understandable units. (5) Immediate Feedback : Operators should always be presented with readily understandable information so that they know...operation, system response time, and special commands. d. Feedback : Operators should always be presented with readily understandable information on...considerations (handedness, physical strength, wearing of eyeglasses, and facility of spoken English). TABLE 3. SOLDIER-COMPUTER INTERFACE CRITERIA

  14. The Student Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Educating America's service men and women has long been a core mission of many community colleges, especially in cities and towns that host military bases and installations. Today, a soldier, sailor, or Marine can be stationed anywhere in the world and continue his or her education with the help of distance learning initiatives. Whether a soldier…

  15. The Student Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Educating America's service men and women has long been a core mission of many community colleges, especially in cities and towns that host military bases and installations. Today, a soldier, sailor, or Marine can be stationed anywhere in the world and continue his or her education with the help of distance learning initiatives. Whether a soldier…

  16. Six legged soldiers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Jeffrey Lockwood has written a fascinating if at times depressing exploration of the role of insects in warfare. Dr. Lockwood reviews the martial use of insects, starting with stinging bees and wasps, which were in ancient and Medieval times widely used in war to induce panic among enemy soldiers. ...

  17. Soldier System Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-31

    capability 21 Photovoltaic Power Sources 23 Maximum Power Tracking in Solar Arrays 23 Optimum Configuration of Solar Array for Enhanced Power Generation...Sources", IEEE Transactions on Power Elec- tronics, vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 244-253, Jan. 2005. 9. S. Liu, R. Dougal, E. Solodovnik, "Maximum Power Tracking and...eguate FRetulat Fig. 5.5. Flow chart of control algorithm. 22 Soldier System Power Sources Final Project Report PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SOURCES MAXIMUM POWER

  18. Soldier systems sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Kathryne M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

  19. Developing Soldier Cultural Competency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-03

    heavily on small patrols establishing personal relationships with the local populace -- understanding the culture is a key to success. The commander...the world, a Soldier’s cultural misstep can quickly turn a local , simple cultural misunderstanding into a situation with strategic implications -- “the...means for developing a Soldier’s cultural awareness is decentralized to local commanders. When assigned to a command overseas, Soldiers typically

  20. Psychosocial factors related to returning to work in U.S. Army Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Julian, Christopher H; Valente, Juliana M

    2015-01-01

    Work provides daily structure, physical and mental activity, interpersonal contact, social status, self-esteem, respect of others, and the ability to use acquired skills. Wounded, ill, or injured soldiers are often removed from duty and assigned or attached to a Warrior Transition Unit during medical and rehabilitation management. Separation from meaningful employment can lead to negative physical and behavioral health outcomes that may impact an active duty soldier's ability to resume work. This cross-sectional study explored the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) psychosocial factors of Personal Causation, Values, Interests, Roles, Habits, and Perceptions of Environment related to returning to work in US Army Soldiers in a Warrior Transition Unit (WTU) at a large military medical center. Single data collection sessions were held for 34 soldiers using the following instruments: a demographic and work status questionnaire, the Role Checklist, and the Worker Role Interview (WRI). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square analysis, and the Mann Whitney U test were used to analyze the results. Analysis revealed that one WRI item related to Personal Causation and three items related to Roles and Habits were supportive factors for successfully returning to employment among soldiers that were working or engaged in returning to work. There are significant differences among psychosocial factors related to returning to work between soldiers who are currently working or have returned to work and those who have not. Longitudinal studies could help to clarify how these factors augment a soldier's rehabilitation at a WTU.

  1. Epidemiology of Voice Disorders in Latvian School Teachers.

    PubMed

    Trinite, Baiba

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of voice disorders in the teacher population in Latvia has not been studied so far and this is the first epidemiological study whose goal is to investigate the prevalence of voice disorders and their risk factors in this professional group. A wide cross-sectional study using stratified sampling methodology was implemented in the general education schools of Latvia. The self-administered voice risk factor questionnaire and the Voice Handicap Index were completed by 522 teachers. Two teachers groups were formed: the voice disorders group which included 235 teachers with actual voice problems or problems during the last 9 months; and the control group which included 174 teachers without voice disorders. Sixty-six percent of teachers gave a positive answer to the following question: Have you ever had problems with your voice? Voice problems are more often found in female than male teachers (68.2% vs 48.8%). Music teachers suffer from voice disorders more often than teachers of other subjects. Eighty-two percent of teachers first faced voice problems in their professional carrier. The odds of voice disorders increase if the following risk factors exist: extra vocal load, shouting, throat clearing, neglecting of personal health, background noise, chronic illnesses of the upper respiratory tract, allergy, job dissatisfaction, and regular stress in the working place. The study findings indicated a high risk of voice disorders among Latvian teachers. The study confirmed data concerning the multifactorial etiology of voice disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Female Leaders in a Radical Right Movement: The Latvian National Front

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasulane, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Gender is the central axis around which the transformation of radical right forces is taking place: a new type of movement is emerging which is not excessively masculine. Latvia is experiencing an increase in women's participation in the radical right, the Latvian National Front (LNF) being a vivid example. The development of the LNF was…

  3. Female Leaders in a Radical Right Movement: The Latvian National Front

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasulane, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Gender is the central axis around which the transformation of radical right forces is taking place: a new type of movement is emerging which is not excessively masculine. Latvia is experiencing an increase in women's participation in the radical right, the Latvian National Front (LNF) being a vivid example. The development of the LNF was…

  4. Sustainability by Education: How Latvian Heritage Was Kept Alive in German Exile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzenburg, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability is one of the core challenges for education in modern times, particularly concerning cultural heritage. The study evaluates, from a German point of view, how Latvians outside of Latvia after World War II kept their cultural heritage alive by educational concepts, which can be characterized as early roots of modern sustainable…

  5. Conspicuity of moving soldiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beintema, Jaap A.; Toet, Alexander; de Vries, Sjoerd J.

    2011-05-01

    The construction and validation of soldier combat models requires data on the conspicuity of camouflaged targets in the field, and human targets in particular. So far, this data is lacking. Also, it si currently unknown to what degree luminance contrast and motion contribute to target conspicuity. These data are needed to enable the validation and further development of human visual search performance modules in soldier combat models like SCOPE or IWARS. In this study we measured the conspicuity of a person wearing a Dutch army camouflage uniform, while he was either standing still, walking or running along a forest in the background, both for viewing with the naked eye (NE) and for viewing dynamic thermal scene recordings (IR). We varied the viewing distance (80m and 230 m), the camouflage pattern (woodland and desert), the type of background (pine-tree and deciduous forest), and season (summer and winter), The IR (thermal) conspicuity of the person was much larger than his NE (visual) conspicuity. In both cases the effects of movement were large and saturated as a function of retinal target speed. For NE, we find large effects of shading that can not explained by local luminance contrast variations. Also for NE, conspicuity was reduced in winter, probably as a result of an increase in scene clutter. The results suggest that conspicuity is not only a function of retinal target motion and global luminance contrast, but also depends on the amount of clutter in the scene.

  6. THE "BRAIN INJURED" ADOLESCENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GORDON, SOL

    WRITTEN FOR PARENTS, THIS BOOKLET DESCRIBES THE BRAIN INJURED ADOLESCENT AND THE PROBLEMS AND EXPERIENCES FACED BY THE ADOLESCENT AND HIS PARENTS. EIGHTEEN QUESTIONS ASKED BY PARENTS OF THESE CHILDREN ARE DISCUSSED. THE AREAS COVERED ARE-- (1) SOCIAL EXPERIENCES, (2) GUIDED INDEPENDENCE, (3) SOCIAL SKILLS, (4) SUCCESS EXPERIENCES, (5) LEISURE TIME…

  7. Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Nishiyama, Yuta; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    Based on the field observation of soldier crabs, we previously proposed a model for a swarm of soldier crabs. Here, we describe the interaction of coherent swarms in the simulation model, which is implemented in a logical gate. Because a swarm is generated by inherent perturbation, a swarm can be generated and maintained under highly perturbed conditions. Thus, the model reveals a robust logical gate rather than stable one. In addition, we show that the logical gate of swarms is also implemented by real soldier crabs (Mictyris guinotae).

  8. Effect of Heat on Wounded Warriors in Ground Combat Vehicles: Insights from the Army Medical Community, and the Simulation of a Novel Method for Soldier Thermal Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    characteristics, have been used to assist in thermoregulation for casualties with low core temperatures [1]; a survey of other methods can be found...and simulation of the human body from a thermoregulation perspective. Examples of some of these tools include Thermoanalytics’ Human Comfort module...relative changes of thermoregulation mechanisms for injured soldiers relative to healthy soldiers for any type or severity of battlefield injury

  9. Sierra Leone's child soldiers: war exposures and mental health problems by gender.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Borisova, Ivelina I; de la Soudière, Marie; Williamson, John

    2011-07-01

    To examine associations between war experiences, mental health, and gender in a sample of male and female Sierra Leonean former child soldiers. A total of 273 former child soldiers (29% females) were assessed for depression and anxiety by using the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist, and for hostility, confidence, and prosocial attitudes by using an instrument developed for use with Sierra Leonean child soldiers. The former child soldiers had witnessed and perpetrated violence at largely comparable rates, although females experienced higher rates of rape (p < .0001). More females scored within clinical ranges for depression (p = .008) and anxiety (p < .0001). In multiple regression analyses, female gender was a significant predictor of lower levels of confidence but not of mental health problems. Children who perpetrated injury or killing reported greater levels of depression (p < .0001), anxiety (p < .0001), and hostility (p < .0001). Surviving rape was associated with increased anxiety (p < .05) and hostility (p < .05), in males. Surviving rape was also related to higher confidence levels (p < .05) and prosocial attitudes (p < .05). Male former child soldiers who lost caregivers were also more vulnerable to depression (p < .05) and anxiety (p < .05), strong and significant effects noted among male child soldiers. In our sample, female and male child soldiers experienced comparable levels of most war exposures. Female soldiers reported higher rates of rape and lower levels of adaptive outcomes. Toxic forms of violence (killing or injuring; rape) were associated with particularly poor outcomes. Although all boys and girls who experience rape and loss of caregivers are generally at risk for mental health problems, boys in our sample demonstrated increased vulnerability; these findings indicate a need for more inclusive mental health services. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Latvian Approach to the Environmental Issues in the Military Area and Unexploded Ordnance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    Regional Development would be involved. Environmental Education and Training in the Military Area When being tasked to provide the Latvian National Armed...of Environmental Protection and Regional Development 15-28 Proposed Activities to enhance the environmental education and training in military area In...Ministry of Defence * National Armed Forces Staff * National Defence Academy 15-29 Proposed Activities to enhance the environmental education and

  11. The Dark Side of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidelson, Roy; Pilisuk, Marc; Soldz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF), the focus of the January 2011 special issue of the "American Psychologist," is a $125 million resilience training initiative designed to reduce and prevent the adverse psychological consequences of combat for soldiers and veterans. These are worthy goals. Soldiers and veterans deserve the best care possible,…

  12. Soldier universal robot controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyams, Jeffrey; Batavia, Parag; Liao, Elizabeth; Somerville, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    The Soldier Universal Robot Controller (SURC) is a modular OCU designed for simultaneous control of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles. It has a well defined, published API., defined using XML schemas, that allows other potential users of the system to develop their own modules for rapid integration with SURC. The SURC architecture is broken down into three layers: User Interface, Core Functions, and Transport. The User Interface layer is the front end module which provides the human computer interface for user control of robots. The Core layer is further divided into the following modules: Capabilities, Tactical, Mobility, and World Model. The Capabilities module keeps track of the known robots and provides a list of specifications and services. The Mobility module provides path planning via D*, while the Tactical module provides higher level mission planning (multi-agent/multi-mission) capabilities for collaborative operations. The World Model module is a relational database which stores world model objects. Finally, a Transport module provides translation from the SURC architecture to the robot specific messaging protocols (such as JAUS). This allows fast integration of new robot protocols into an existing SURC implementation to enable a new system to rapidly leverage existing SURC capabilities. The communication between different modules within the SURC architecture is done via XML. This gives developers and users the flexibility to extend existing messages without breaking backwards compatibility. The modularity of SURC offers users and developers alike the capability to create custom modules and plug them into place, as long as they follow the pre defined messaging API for that module.

  13. Retention of Basic Soldiering Skills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    then make their own ’ decisions about which training to conduct and when. The commander knows what demands proficiency requirements make on his...34Variable Test Package"? Yes No (29) 13. Do you have your own copy of a Soldier’s Manual? Yes No (30) 14. What unit did you belong to durinig either Basic...SKILLS INTRODUCTION Assuming the next armed conflict will be a "come as you are" war, soldiers will not have time to significantly improve skills before

  14. What is a Quality Soldier?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-13

    Syrons, c0L, AR; R. W . Bilberry, LTC, A; M. H. Caram, LTC, IN; J . S. Luallin, LTC, IN;R. S. Mason, LTC, MI TILE: What is a Quality Soldier? FORMAT...CMDR [CO, bN: DRC9 B T! 2 ÷• W • w ’( 457) I STAFF OFF - NCO I 3 .’:***** ( J , I SGM ISG-AAC N 4 ********** ***** ***** C 490) I So LDR-PLT SGT-STAT 5 Soo...1982 ,dv• WHAT IS A QUALITY SOLDIER? by il• by OELECTE•! " SP 3 1982 COLONEL RODNEY W . SYMONS, AR S LIEUTENANT COLONEL RALPH W . BILBERRY, AG D

  15. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: Global Delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach.…

  16. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: Global Delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach.…

  17. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziukynas, V.; Klementavičius, A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011) and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023).

  18. Genetic variation spectrum in ATP7B gene identified in Latvian patients with Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Zarina, Agnese; Tolmane, Ieva; Kreile, Madara; Chernushenko, Aleksandrs; Cernevska, Gunta; Pukite, Ieva; Micule, Ieva; Krumina, Zita; Krumina, Astrida; Rozentale, Baiba; Piekuse, Linda

    2017-07-01

    Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism caused by allelic variants in ATP7B gene. More than 500 distinct variants have been reported, the most common WD causing allelic variant in the patients from Central, Eastern, and Northern Europe is H1069Q. All Latvian patients with clinically confirmed WD were screened for the most common mutation p.H1069Q by PCR Bi-PASA method. Direct DNA sequencing of gene ATP7B (all 21 exons) was performed for the patients with WD symptoms, being either heterozygous for H1069Q or without it on any allele. We identified 15 different allelic variants along with eight non-disease-causing allelic variants. Based on the gene molecular analysis and patients' clinical data variant p.His1069Gln was found in 66.9% of WD alleles. Wide clinical variability was observed among individuals with the same ATP7B genotype. The results of our study confirm that neurological manifestations of WD are typically present later than the liver disease but no significant association between the presence/absence of the most common genetic variant and mode of initial WD presentation or age at presentation was identified. (1) The most prevalent mutation in Latvian patients with Wilson disease was c.3207C>A (p.His1069Gln); (2) No significant phenotype-genotype correlation was found in Latvian patients with Wilson disease; (3) The estimated prevalence of Wilson disease in Latvia is 1 of 24,000 cases which is higher than frequently quoted prevalence of 1: 30,000.

  19. Left Behind: Children of Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerles, Joe F.

    2011-01-01

    Recent international conflicts have increased the dangers of American military personnel. These soldiers are part of the growing contingent of military families with children. Because these children are more aware of the dangers, the stress and worry affects them in a variety of ways, especially in school-age children. This article investigates…

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production from Marine Macroalgae: a Latvian Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilicka, Iluta; Blumberga, Dagnija; Romagnoli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    There is potential environmental benefit to be gained from the use of algae because of their ability to fix CO2, no need for direct land use and utilization of bio-waste (rich in potassium, phosphate and nitrogen based compounds) as a nutrients. The aim of the research is to assess the impact of biogas production and the final use in a cogeneration unit system from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in comparison with a similar reference system using a non-renewable source (e.g. natural gas). The paper is intended to be a preliminary study for understanding the implementation of this novel technology in a Latvian context.

  1. "Once a Soldier, a Soldier Forever": Exiled Zimbabwean Soldiers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maringira, Godfrey; Carrasco, Lorena Núñez

    2015-01-01

    Through military training, soldiers' bodies are shaped and prepared for war and military-related duties. In the context these former Zimbabwean soldiers find themselves--that of desertion and 'underground life' in exile in South Africa--their military-trained bodies and military skills are their only resource. In this article, we explore the ways in which former soldiers maintain and 'reuse' their military-trained bodies in South Africa for survival, in a context of high unemployment and a violent, inner-city environment. We look at their social world and practices of soldiering--a term that refers to the specific forms of their social interaction in exile, through which they keep their memories of their military past alive. By attending to their subjectivities and the endurance of their masculine military identities and bodies, we aim to contribute to the discussion on demilitarization, which has largely focused on the failure of models of intervention to assist ex-combatants in postconflict contexts.

  2. Soldier Integrated Protective Ensemble: The Soldiers’ Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    enthusiastic about the sight despite limited experience. Four used the black hot polarity display for thermal, five used white hot; none could...soldier defending white hot said it was easier to detect with. Another articulated his preference for black hot. "[I use] black because the cross hairs...offered more flexibility. Active cooling vest (ACV)/Coolmax T shirt . The ACV interfaced with the air cooling system and the black Coolmax T shirt

  3. The injured eye

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

  4. Risk factors for long-term mental and psychosomatic distress in Latvian Chernobyl liquidators.

    PubMed Central

    Viel, J F; Curbakova, E; Dzerve, B; Eglite, M; Zvagule, T; Vincent, C

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies on the health effects of the Chernobyl disaster have focused largely on physical health, whereas the psychological consequences have received little attention. The authors have assessed the associations of various exposure variables with mental and psychosomatic distress in a sample of 1412 Latvian liquidators drawn from the State Latvian Chernobyl Clean-up Workers Registry. The outcome was a mixed mental-psychosomatic disorder occurring during 1986 to 1995. Comparisons among subgroups of the cohort classified according to exposure type or level were based on the proportional hazards model. Length of work (> or = 28 days) in a 10-km radius from the reactor (relative risk [RR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.70), work (> 1 time) on the damaged reactor roof (RR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.02-2.09), forest work (RR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.19-1.68), fresh fruit consumption (> or = 1 time/day) (RR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.12-2.65) are risk factors for mixed mental-psychosomatic disorder. Construction of the sarcophagus (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 0.89-3.72) is also associated with this outcome, although nonsignificantly. Distinguishing stress-related from radiation-induced effects in this data set was difficult and these findings should provide a basis for later hypothesis testing in other cohorts. PMID:9467079

  5. Eyekon: Distributed Augmented Reality for Soldier Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    Eyekon: Distributed Augmented Reality for Soldier Teams TOPIC: Information Superiority/Information Operations and Information Age... Augmented Reality for Soldier Teams 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...by ANSI Std Z39-18 Eyekon: Distributed Augmented Reality for Soldier Teams Abstract The battlefield is a place of violence ruled by

  6. Soldier Alienation: A Measureable Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    to the general question, "Who is today’s soldier and hoW should she/he be treated in order to maximize performance?" The technology exists to perform...modify expectations (Meglino, Youngblood, Randolph, Mobly , and DeNise, 1979). The approach suggested, then, would involve longitudinal research aired...In W. H. Truitt & G. Lolomons (Eds.), Science, Technology and Freedom. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974. Lee, A. M. An obituary for alienation, Social

  7. Sleep and Resiliency in Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    were just resting (NSF). The timing of sleep is critical, therefore it is important for us to examine the time that Soldiers sleep in our study as...figure 1. 10 Figure 1 The black represents movement of the wrist ; the blue shaded area represents duration of sleep suggested by the lack of... wrist movement (Philips Respironics, 2009). The goal is to analyze the duration of the sleep periods, the quality of the sleep based on the number

  8. Civil Liberties of a Soldier.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The degree to which soldiers can exercise their First Amendment rights, defined as civil liberties, within the confines of the military establishment is the subject under discussion. Historical precedents for the exercise of such rights in Post World War I Austria and West Germany are cited and placed in juxtaposition to similiar liberties in the U.S. Army. The four liberties contained in the First Amendment are then discussed.

  9. Soldier Dimensions in Combat Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-07

    basic questions in this area of research. We urge our reviewers to provide constructive suggestions regarding ways to improve this plan. Moreover, we...experiment would last 3 full days and nights--a total of 72 hours. Randomly generated numbers from a simple BASIC program using the R•4D command could be...1%). Field hospital care: Excellent . The soldier you will be rating is operating a 25 mm cannon on a Bradley Fi’hting Vehicle. Read each item

  10. Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  11. Remains of War: Walt Whitman, Civil War Soldiers, and the Legacy of Medical Collections

    PubMed Central

    Barbian, Lenore; Sledzik, Paul S.; Reznick, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    The National Museum of Health and Medicine holds a collection of anatomical specimens from nearly 2,000 soldiers injured during the American Civil War. Originally collected as part of a study of trauma and disease during war, these specimens have been museum artifacts for over 140 years. During this time, they have been displayed and utilized in an array of interpretative strategies. They have functioned as medical specimens documenting the effects of gunshot wounds and infection to the human body, as mementos mori symbolizing the refuse of a nation divided by war, and as objects of osteological and forensic interest. The museum’s curators recently discovered four of these specimens from soldiers who the poet and essayist Walt Whitman nursed in the wartime hospitals of Washington, DC. Uniting these remains with Whitman’s words yields a new interpretation that bears witness to individual histories during a time of unprecedented conflict in American history. PMID:22741042

  12. Early mental health treatment-seeking among U.S. National Guard soldiers deployed to Iraq.

    PubMed

    Kehle, Shannon M; Polusny, Melissa A; Murdoch, Maureen; Erbes, Christopher R; Arbisi, Paul A; Thuras, Paul; Meis, Laura A

    2010-02-01

    The authors examined rates of and factors associated with postdeployment treatment-seeking in a panel of 424 National Guard soldiers who spent 16 months in Iraq. Soldiers completed a self-report, mailed survey 3- to 6-months after returning home. Approximately one third of respondents reported postdeployment mental health treatment. Those who screened positive for mental health problems were more likely to indicate that they had received treatment compared to those who screened negative, but over one half of those who screened positive were not engaged with mental health treatment. Variables related to reported treatment receipt included positive attitudes about mental health therapies, having been injured in-theater, illness-based need, and having received mental health treatment while in-theater. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  13. Soldier Representation in Modeling and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-18

    33  Appendix A - TRAC-MTRY Recommended FY07 Soldier FACT CRAs ...A-1  Appendix B - TRAC-MTRY Recommended FY08 Soldier FACT CRAs ................................. B-1  Appendix C - Original Collaborative...1  iii iv List of Tables Table A-1. Recommended CRAs for FY07

  14. The Life of a Civil War Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Barbara J.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan that is based on the Gettysburg National Military Park's "Life of a Civil War Soldier" traveling trunk program. Explains that this lesson offers a recipe for using a trunk to present the life of a Civil War soldier in the classroom. Includes activities and learning stations. (CMK)

  15. Stressors experienced by injured athletes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Lynne; Wadey, Ross; Hanton, Sheldon; Mitchell, Ian

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the stressors experienced by injured athletes during three phases of their recovery from sport injury, and (b) to explore the differences in the stressors experienced by team as compared to individual-sport athletes. Participants comprised previously injured high-level rugby union players (n = 5) and golfers (n = 5). Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the stressors participants experienced during three phases of injury (onset, rehabilitation and return to competitive sport). Within- and cross-case analyses showed that athletes experienced sport, medical/physical, social and financial stressors. There were a number of differences in the stressors experienced across the three phases and between team and individual-sport athletes. Findings have important implications for the design and implementation of interventions aimed at managing the potentially stressful sport injury experience and facilitating injured athletes' return to competitive sport.

  16. Sierra Leone's former child soldiers: a longitudinal study of risk, protective factors, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Brennan, Robert T; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Gilman, Stephen E

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at baseline) were recruited from the roster of an non-governmental organization (NGO)-run Interim Care Center in Kono District and interviewed in 2002, 2004, and 2008. The retention rate was 69%. Linear growth models were used to investigate trends related to war and postconflict experiences. The long-term mental health of former child soldiers was associated with war experiences and postconflict risk factors, which were partly mitigated by postconflict protective factors. Increases in externalizing behavior were associated with killing/injuring others during the war and postconflict stigma, whereas increased community acceptance was associated with decreases in externalizing problems (b = -1.09). High baseline levels of internalizing problems were associated with being raped, whereas increases were associated with younger involvement in armed groups and social and economic hardships. Improvements in internalizing problems were associated with higher levels of community acceptance and increases in community acceptance (b = -0.86). Decreases in adaptive/prosocial behaviors were associated with killing/injuring others during the war and postconflict stigma, but partially mitigated by social support, being in school and increased community acceptance (b = 1.93). Psychosocial interventions for former child soldiers may be more effective if they account for postconflict factors in addition to war exposures. Youth with accumulated risk factors, lack of protective factors, and persistent distress should be identified. Sustainable services to promote community acceptance, reduce stigma, and expand social supports and educational access are recommended. 2010

  17. The Comprehensive Female Soldier Support Model.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Daniel L; Kovacich, Joann; Rivers, Melvin J

    2017-04-25

    Women represent a small minority in the U.S. military and an even smaller minority in the military chaplaincy. Prior to this study, the U.S. Army chaplaincy did not have a gender-specific model for providing support to women soldiers. In this Delphi research project, wounded women soldiers and female military chaplains provided expert opinions to develop the comprehensive female soldier support model (CFS2). Ten military women and 11 female chaplains who had been deployed overseas contributed to the body of knowledge related to the understanding of the emotional and spiritual support needs of wounded female soldiers. Five key findings appeared in the study: (a) many women did not get the chaplain support they needed; (b) the gender of the chaplain was not significant; (c) the attitude of the chaplain was critical; (d) chaplain skills not found in literature were identified; and (e) the comprehensive female soldier support model was developed.

  18. Soldiers' experiences with military health care.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Bonnie M; Loan, Lori A; Heiner, Stacy L; Hemman, Eileen A; Swanson, Kristen M

    2005-12-01

    Patient satisfaction can be enhanced by narrowing gaps between what health care consumers experience and what they expect. A study was therefore conducted to better understand health care experiences and expectations among Army beneficiaries. Data collected using focus groups were analyzed by using qualitative research methods. A concept was identified and labeled "Soldier Care." It involves first-line care delivered at the unit level as well as the interface between first-line care and military treatment facilities. There are four features of Soldier Care, i.e., provider competence, the sick call cycle, getting appointments, and unit leadership. Together, these features affect soldiers' time from injury to recovery. Insights about Soldier Care can provide decision-makers with direction for initiating changes that may contribute to improved soldier satisfaction with health care.

  19. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: global delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness.

    PubMed

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach. The platform needed to be agile, provide powerful real-time reporting, and have the capacity to quickly transform to meet emerging requirements. Existing organizational applications, such as "Single Sign-On," and authoritative data sources were exploited to the maximum extent possible. Development of the "Soldier Fitness Tracker" is the most recent, and possibly the best, demonstration of the potential benefits possible when existing organizational capabilities are married to new, innovative applications. Combining the capabilities of the extant applications with the newly developed applications expedited development, eliminated redundant data collection, resulted in the exceeding of program objectives, and produced a comfortable experience for the end user, all in less than six months. This is a model for future technology integration.

  20. Associations of HLA DR and DQ molecules with Lyme borreliosis in Latvian patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many autoimmune diseases are associated with variants of HLA genes such as those encoding the MHC complex. This correlation is not absolute, but may help in understanding of the molecular mechanism of disease. The purpose of this study was to determine HLA-DR,-DQ alleles in Latvian patients with Lyme borreliosis and control (healthy) persons. Case patients and control subjects were similar in age, gender and ethnic heritage and differed only as regards the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. The study included 25 patients with clinical stage – erythema migrans and 30 control (healthy) persons. HLA genotyping was performed by PCR with sequence-specific primers. Results The results show difference in HLA-DRB1 alleles distribution between patients and control subjects. The frequencies of HLA-DRB1 *04 (OR 11.24; p < 0.007) and HLA-DRB1 *17 (03) (OR 8.05; p < 0.033) were increased in the Lyme disease patients. And the frequency of allele DRB1*13 (OR 0.12; p < 0.017) was lower in Borreliosis patients and higher in control group. But, significant differences in frequencies of HLA-DQ alleles we did not detect. Conclusions HLA predisposition to Lyme borreliosis appears not to be limited to HLA molecules, but some HLA-DR alleles also have a significant influence, and, may have implications in our understanding of pathogenesis of this disease. In particular, HLA-DRB1*04 and DRB1 *17 (03) may contribute to the Lyme borreliosis development in Latvian population PMID:22892251

  1. Associations of HLA DR and DQ molecules with Lyme borreliosis in Latvian patients.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuka, Lilija; Eglite, Jelena; Lucenko, Irina; Zalite, Mara; Viksna, Ludmila; Krumiņa, Angelika

    2012-08-14

    Many autoimmune diseases are associated with variants of HLA genes such as those encoding the MHC complex. This correlation is not absolute, but may help in understanding of the molecular mechanism of disease. The purpose of this study was to determine HLA-DR,-DQ alleles in Latvian patients with Lyme borreliosis and control (healthy) persons. Case patients and control subjects were similar in age, gender and ethnic heritage and differed only as regards the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. The study included 25 patients with clinical stage - erythema migrans and 30 control (healthy) persons. HLA genotyping was performed by PCR with sequence-specific primers. The results show difference in HLA-DRB1 alleles distribution between patients and control subjects. The frequencies of HLA-DRB1 *04 (OR 11.24; p < 0.007) and HLA-DRB1 *17 (03) (OR 8.05; p < 0.033) were increased in the Lyme disease patients. And the frequency of allele DRB1*13 (OR 0.12; p < 0.017) was lower in Borreliosis patients and higher in control group. But, significant differences in frequencies of HLA-DQ alleles we did not detect. HLA predisposition to Lyme borreliosis appears not to be limited to HLA molecules, but some HLA-DR alleles also have a significant influence, and, may have implications in our understanding of pathogenesis of this disease. In particular, HLA-DRB1*04 and DRB1 *17 (03) may contribute to the Lyme borreliosis development in Latvian population.

  2. Soldier Quality of Life Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    being established overseas. In fact, over the past two decades over 1,000 contingency camps have been established (Army Technical Publication 3.37...within the past 24 months, though some of the National Guard Soldiers that were surveyed had deployed less recently – over 5 years ago in 11 cases...deployed over 5 years ago, 94.98% fell within a 36-month time frame. Across the sample, the mean period since the last deployment was 16.79 months (SD

  3. Within-year Exertional Heat Illness Incidence in U.S. Army Soldiers, 2008-2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    follow-up” injury events, affected Soldiers were not considered at risk for “new” EHIs within 60 days of prior heat injury events. It is possible...6.1. T bl 61 D a e em oil rap! ICS 0 0 1ers 0 h" f S ld" Wh E xpenence an ’ -d EHI 2008 2012 (n=6,838) Variable Variable Level n % injured Sex Male...visit more than 60 days after the initial event, leading to over-estimation of the number of repeat EHI. There is evidence from animal models of heat

  4. Casualties in civilians and coalition soldiers from suicide bombings in Iraq, 2003-10: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Dardagan, Hamit; Bagnall, Peter M; Spagat, Michael; Sloboda, John A

    2011-09-03

    Suicide bombs in Iraq are a major public health problem. We aimed to describe documented casualties from suicide bombs in Iraq during 2003-10 in Iraqi civilians and coalition soldiers. In this descriptive study, we analysed and compared suicide bomb casualties in Iraq that were documented in two datasets covering March 20, 2003, to Dec 31, 2010--one reporting coalition-soldier deaths from suicide bombs, the other reporting deaths and injuries of Iraqi civilians from armed violence. We analysed deaths and injuries over time, by bomb subtype and victim demographics. In 2003-10, 1003 documented suicide bomb events caused 19% (42,928 of 225,789) of all Iraqi civilian casualties in our dataset, 26% (30,644 of 117,165) of injured civilians, and 11% (12,284 of 108,624) of civilian deaths. The injured-to-killed ratio for civilians was 2·5 people injured to one person killed from suicide bombs. Suicide bombers on foot caused 43% (5314 of 12,284) of documented suicide bomb deaths. Suicide bombers who used cars caused 40% (12,224 of 30,644) of civilian injuries. Of 3963 demographically identifiable suicide bomb fatalities, 2981 (75%) were men, 428 (11%) were women, and 554 (14%) were children. Children made up a higher proportion of demographically identifiable deaths from suicide bombings than from general armed violence (9%, 3669 of 40,276 deaths; p<0·0001). The injured-to-killed ratio for all suicide bombings was slightly higher for women than it was for men (p=0·02), but the ratio for children was lower than it was for both women (p<0·0001) and men (p=0·0002). 200 coalition soldiers were killed in 79 suicide bomb events during 2003-10. More Iraqi civilians per lethal event were killed than were coalition soldiers (12 vs 3; p=0·004). Suicide bombers in Iraq kill significantly more Iraqi civilians than coalition soldiers. Among civilians, children are more likely to die than adults when injured by suicide bombs. None. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Ethics surrounding the medical evacuation of catastrophically injured individuals from an operational theatre of war.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Rebecca A

    2016-10-01

    Although prolonging life is usually in the best interests of patients, the British Medical Association states that it is not appropriate to prolong life with no regard to its quality. Medical advances both on the battlefield and within the field hospitals have resulted in the unexpected survival of a number of British personnel, and in some cases, soldiers are being repatriated with injuries categorised as 'catastrophic'. This paper considers medical ethics based on the Beauchamp and Childress Four Principles framework with regard to whether catastrophically injured individuals should be repatriated without any prior advanced directive and without evaluation of future quality of life.

  6. Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    psychological problems. As of 28 October 2011, 25 Soldiers who had sought behavioral health treatment had been interviewed. All of these Soldiers...military leaders to identify soldiers to participate in 12 focus groups regarding why soldiers do and do not receive treatment for psychological problems...3 each of soldiers in the following rank categories: E1-E4, E5-7, O1-O3, O4-O5, on issues involved in seeking treatment for psychological problems

  7. Watch Out for the Children: Army Policy and Child Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    of child soldier in the Child Soldier Prevention Act of 2008, which is consistent with the Optional Protocol to the Convention of the Rights of the...Child. The Child Soldier Prevention Act identifies a child soldier as any individual conscripted under the age of 18, or any individual under the age...study, “child soldier” will follow the United States’ definition, as outlined in the Child Soldier Prevention Act of 2008. As it has been shown

  8. PHYSICAL MEDICINE FOR INJURED HANDS

    PubMed Central

    Dorinson, S. Malvern

    1955-01-01

    The functional concepts of treatment of the injured hand by use of the various modalities of physical medicine, including heat, massage, electrical stimulation, passive exercises, active exercises, occupational therapy and splints are discussed. Immobilization is often necessary to correct anatomical injuries. Mobilization activities using physical medicine are just as necessary to correct functional deficiencies of the hand occurring either from the injury or the enforced immobilization following an injury. PMID:14364288

  9. [Soldier's social adaptation during the military service].

    PubMed

    Dedić, Gordana

    2004-01-01

    Soldier's social adaptation includes his interpersonal relationships with his environment integration into the military community and the ability to fulfill his role in the military environment and to function adequately outside of it. The aim of this study was to establish the dynamics of soldier's social adaptation during the military service. The study involved soldiers of two platoons of the Armed Forces of Serbia and Montenegro, divided into three groups according to the period of the study: after the first month, after the basic training and at the end of the military service. The instruments applied for the study were sociodemografic questionnaire and Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale. Statistical analysis of the obtained data was done using Stident's t-test. The results of the study that soldier's contentment with his professional role and with the quality of his interpersonal relations was highest during the basic training, but the quality of leisure activities was lowest at the end of the military service.

  10. Damage Control Resuscitation: Optimizing Blood Component use to Save Lives of Severely Injured Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    amounts of fibrinogen contained in each blood component (FFP, platelets , WB, RBCs and cryoprecipitate) as described by Stinger et al (2008). 2.2...patients who received the usual higher ratio of RBCs to plasma. O ussed in this current paper involve the use of fresh whole blood and apheresis ... platelets in theater. Data suggest that the availability of platelets will reduce the need for fresh whole blood, but the availability of platelets is

  11. Evaluation of Stroma-Free Hemoglobin Solutions as Resuscitative Fluids for the Injured Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    sri -~ S. i~ -~I *1*~-. - -~ ti- H -~ S - - +1-i-i ~ .--.- -~ ~ .4 ~’ ~ - -Cl -- - :4 - I; I :4 - :4 .44- :4 I :4 . - ~f1 :4 ti- H - H ...hemoglobin solutions have FWo .𔄁~i if !t 1V& lt-j: di aised the question of non-stroma related n:z i i, L𔃼 !, A i h ,7,, ! \\,ycr 4dm’, toxicity in the...animal, wecre anesthetized andsl_ that peratia all\\ prepared as prex.iou’ dcscrillci by- 1_71(2(_bi solta iW P x th px’ I U, \\kit h the modification th

  12. Feasibility of Mind-Body Intervention to Promote Wellness in Injured Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-06

    health treatment. It is a self-care practice that is more accessible than most yoga practices and can be adapted to those with injuries. Qigong has been...New York: HarperCollins. Hoge, C. W., Auchterlonie, J. L., & Milliken, C. S. (2006). Mental health problems, use of mental health services, and...Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Patient Health Questionnaire -15 (PHQ-15), and a Client Satisfaction

  13. Infrared Thermographic Measurement of Long Term Circulatory Compromise in Trenchfoot Injured Argentine Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-17

    surface pain, cold sensitivity or hyperhidrosis . Equipment The subject’s temperatures were monitored by utilizing an AGEMA TIC-8000 Infrared System...injury; the patient’s reports of cold intolerance, weight bearing surface pain and hyperhidrosis six years post injury support this conclusion. It

  14. Injured coliforms in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    McFeters, G A; Kippin, J S; LeChevallier, M W

    1986-01-01

    Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after conventional treatment, during the backwash cycle, at various points in the distribution system, and 1 week after the break and subsequent repair of a distribution main. Injured coliforms in these samples averaged greater than 95%. m-T7 agar yielded 8- to 38-fold more coliforms than did m-Endo agar LES. The geometric mean of coliforms recovered by m-Endo agar LES was less than 1 confirmed coliform per 100 ml, although m-T7 agar yielded 5.7 to 67.5 confirmed coliforms per 100 ml. In addition, the majority of these samples giving positive results on m-T7 agar produced no detectable counts on m-Endo agar LES. These findings indicated that coliforms were injured and largely undetected by use of accepted analytical media in the systems examined. PMID:3513698

  15. Soldier Mental Fitness Psychological Construct Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    comments suggesting most journals will prefer measurement validity evidence for both military and non-military samples. An applied user guide is...example; in the past some questionnaires that investigators have used to assess self- perceptions of resilience have required Soldiers to respond to...Disagree Somewhat Agree Agree Strongly Agree 31). To be a good Soldier you need to be born with the basic qualities that will allow success

  16. Characterizing the Size of the Encumbered Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Follow the procedures in DoD 5200.22-M, Industrial Security Manual, Section ll-19 or DoD 5200.1-R, Information Security Program Regulation, Chapter...thereby improve Soldier performance, survivability and comfort while reducing overall risk and/or 2) Soldier CIE should be sufficiently reduced so...SIZES(DIMENSIONS) HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING DESIGN CRITERIA PERFORMANCE(HUMAN) ARMY PERSONNEL CIE(CLOTHING AND INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT

  17. The Factors of Soldier’s Load

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    captains of history , such as Frederick the Great, Napoleon, and Scharnhorst, all found it necessary to give personal guidance as to the packing lists of...soldier’s burdens through history and published its findings in 1922.10 The American Soldier-Author Brigadier General S. L. A. Marshall studied the...several others as well. First, what causative factors have emerged from history and previous study? This study examines these known factors to

  18. Embedded Training in a Ground Soldier System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    what a Soldier/leader sees via night vision goggles as well as enhanced goggles that fuse image intensification and thermal imagery. However, the...10 Can the conditions under which this task is performed (body position, combat situation, day/ night ) be quite varied, and practice /experience...What features must the virtual world incorporate specifically for ground Soldier systems? Night scenarios, not day, should be the default

  19. Shooting disabled soldiers: medicine and photography in World War I America.

    PubMed

    Linker, Beth

    2011-07-01

    This article challenges conventional theories about the role of medical photography in the early twentieth century. Some scholars argue that the camera intensified the Foucauldian medical gaze, reducing patients to mere pathologies. Others maintain that with the rise of the new modern hospital and its state-of-the-art technologies, the patient fell from view entirely, with apertures pointing toward streamlined operating rooms rather than the human subjects who would go under the knife. The Army Surgeon General's World War I rehabilitation journal, Carry On: A Magazine on the Reconstruction of Disabled Soldiers and Sailors, problematizes these assumptions. Hoping to persuade a skeptical public that the Army's new programs in medical rehabilitation for disabled soldiers provided the best means of veteran welfare, the editorial officials at Carry On photographed patients fully clothed, wounds hidden, engaged in everyday activities in order to give the impression that the medical sciences of the day could cure permanent disabilities. In the end, Carry On shows us that medical doctors could, and did, use photography to conceal as well as reveal the reality faced by injured soldiers. In doing so, they (like other Progressive reformers at the time) hoped to persuade the public that rehabilitation had the power to make the wounds of war disappear. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. Homecoming of Citizen Soldiers: Postdeployment Problems and Service Use Among Army National Guard Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Griffith, James

    2017-03-24

    The present study described the types and amount of problems and services sought among returned deployed Army National Guard soldiers (4568 soldiers in 50 units). The study responds to gaps in the research literature to better understand community intervention needs of reservists. About half (48%) of the soldiers reported one or two problems, mostly those of psychological well-being, such as feelings of anger and frustration, upsetting memories, and troubled sleep (34% of the study sample), followed by problems of social support (18%), alcohol use (17%), feelings of isolation including suicidal thoughts (13%), and financial difficulties (11%). Having engaged in direct combat and having wounded or killed someone showed positive relationships with reported problems. One-third (35%) of soldiers who reported having used services went to one service and, generally, soldiers went to services related to their expressed problems. Variance in self-reported problems explained by service use was low, suggesting unsought postdeployment services.

  1. Immunogenetic Markers Definition in Latvian Patients with Lyme Borreliosis and Lyme Neuroborreliosis

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuka, Lilija; Cvetkova, Svetlana; Trofimova, Julija; Eglite, Jelena; Gintere, Sandra; Lucenko, Irina; Oczko-Grzesik, Barbara; Viksna, Ludmila; Krumina, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles in two groups of patients in Latvia: patients with Lyme borreliosis and patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis. The study included 216 patients with Lyme borreliosis, 29 patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis and 282 control persons. All surveyed persons were residents of Latvia. The HLA-DR genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction- sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP). The predisposition to the Lyme borreliosis is associated with the HLA-DRB1*07, -DRB1*17(03), -DRB1*04, -DRB1*15(02) alleles. The allele -DRB1*11(05), -DRB1*14(06) and -DRB1*13(06) were significantly more frequent in controls. In-group with Lyme neuroborreliosis differences were found for the -DRB1*07 and -DRB1*04 alleles, but only HLA-DRB1*07 allele was statistically significant after Bonferroni correction and associated with Lyme neuroborreliosis in Latvian patients. PMID:27916969

  2. Immunogenetic Markers Definition in Latvian Patients with Lyme Borreliosis and Lyme Neuroborreliosis.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuka, Lilija; Cvetkova, Svetlana; Trofimova, Julija; Eglite, Jelena; Gintere, Sandra; Lucenko, Irina; Oczko-Grzesik, Barbara; Viksna, Ludmila; Krumina, Angelika

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles in two groups of patients in Latvia: patients with Lyme borreliosis and patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis. The study included 216 patients with Lyme borreliosis, 29 patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis and 282 control persons. All surveyed persons were residents of Latvia. The HLA-DR genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction- sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP). The predisposition to the Lyme borreliosis is associated with the HLA-DRB1*07, -DRB1*17(03), -DRB1*04, -DRB1*15(02) alleles. The allele -DRB1*11(05), -DRB1*14(06) and -DRB1*13(06) were significantly more frequent in controls. In-group with Lyme neuroborreliosis differences were found for the -DRB1*07 and -DRB1*04 alleles, but only HLA-DRB1*07 allele was statistically significant after Bonferroni correction and associated with Lyme neuroborreliosis in Latvian patients.

  3. Rehabilitation of injured U.S. servicemember with traumatic brain injury, stroke, spinal cord injury, and bilateral amputations: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pai, Ajit B; Jasper, Nicholas R; Cifu, David X

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of injuries that can arise from combat situations, specifically as a result of the Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom conflicts, is challenging. As injured troops leave the war zone early for medical care, they are treated by an interwoven system of care that includes both the Department of Defense and Veterans Health Administration. Physicians across these settings are increasingly faced with patients who have multiple rehabilitation diagnoses as a result of the severity of blast injuries; therefore, the importance of active communication across the system must be highlighted. This case describes the seamless transition of an injured soldier across the continuum of care.

  4. Soldier formation regulated by a primer pheromone from the soldier frontal gland in a higher termite, Nasutitermes lujae

    PubMed Central

    Lefeuve, Patrick; Bordereau, Christian

    1984-01-01

    In the nasute higher termite Nasutitermes lujae, the differentiation of new soldiers is suppressed or delayed by the soldiers themselves. Experimental data strongly suggest that this inhibitory effect results from the action of a primer pheromone secreted by the frontal gland of soldiers. The pheromone must be contacted directly. Thus, the frontal gland of termite soldiers assumes a new role in addition to alarm and defense, although this extension cannot be generalized to all termite species. The soldier inhibitory pheromone is evidently only one of multiple factors contributing soldier regulation in termite societies. PMID:16578779

  5. Soldier formation regulated by a primer pheromone from the soldier frontal gland in a higher termite, Nasutitermes lujae.

    PubMed

    Lefeuve, P; Bordereau, C

    1984-12-01

    In the nasute higher termite Nasutitermes lujae, the differentiation of new soldiers is suppressed or delayed by the soldiers themselves. Experimental data strongly suggest that this inhibitory effect results from the action of a primer pheromone secreted by the frontal gland of soldiers. The pheromone must be contacted directly. Thus, the frontal gland of termite soldiers assumes a new role in addition to alarm and defense, although this extension cannot be generalized to all termite species. The soldier inhibitory pheromone is evidently only one of multiple factors contributing soldier regulation in termite societies.

  6. 3. OVERVIEW OF NORTH PART, SOLDIER FIELD, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERVIEW OF NORTH PART, SOLDIER FIELD, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE WALL ALONG THE WEST SIDE, OPPOSITE THE CHAPEL. NOTE STONE WALL AND PILASTERS IN THE FAR CENTRAL DISTANCE. - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  7. CDKN2A and CDK4 variants in Latvian melanoma patients: analysis of a clinic-based population.

    PubMed

    Pjanova, Dace; Engele, Ludmila; Randerson-Moor, Juliette A; Harland, Mark; Bishop, D Timothy; Newton Bishop, Julia A; Taylor, Claire; Debniak, Tadeusz; Lubinski, Jan; Kleina, Regina; Heisele, Olita

    2007-06-01

    Germline mutations of the CDKN2A and CDK4 genes explain a significant proportion of familial melanoma. To date, there have been few published estimations of the prevalence of such mutations in sporadic melanoma patients. In this study, we investigated CDKN2A and CDK4 exon 2 for germline mutations in 125 consecutive cutaneous malignant melanoma patients recruited through the Latvian Oncological Center, using amplicon melting analysis and sequencing. No disease-related CDKN2A germline mutations were identified in any of the melanoma patients analysed but the previously described CDK4 mutation, Arg24His, was found in one patient with a family history of melanoma. CDKN2A polymorphisms were studied as putative low penetrance susceptibility genes. The proportion of cases with polymorphisms in this Latvian melanoma population was Ala148Thr (c.442G>A) (6%), 500 C/G (c.*29C>G) (18%), and 540 C/T (c.*69C>T) (20%); however, only the frequency of the Ala148Thr polymorphism was higher in melanoma patients than in 203 controls (6 versus 1%, P=0.03). Ala148Thr has also been reported in association with melanoma in a Polish series but not in an English series. We therefore examined the Ala148Thr carrier's haplotype in 10 Latvian and 39 Polish samples. No significant difference was seen between these populations and the predominant haplotype observed in English samples, giving no indication that the discrepancy could be explained by population differences in linkage disequilibrium. In summary, our results show that germline mutations at the CDKN2A locus are rare in sporadic melanoma in Latvia. The study does, however, provide some additional evidence for a role for the CDKN2A polymorphism Ala148Thr as a low penetrance susceptibility gene. The detected CDK4 exon 2 mutation was found in only the seventh family identified worldwide with a germline CDK4 mutation.

  8. Beyond medicalization: Self-injuring acts revisited.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Inger

    2016-07-01

    For too long, medical/psychiatric and psychological studies, with focus on emotional sensitivity, personality traits, and correlation with psychopathology, have dominated research on self-injuring acts. The phenomenon thus has been defined as a predominantly medical issue. However, a large body of community prevalence studies show self-injuring acts to be a common phenomenon in society, and most of those who self-injure are unknown in psychiatric or other clinical settings. This article describes and analyzes the medicalization of self-injuring acts and argues a need to move research on self-injuring acts out of the medical paradigm. There is a need to explicitly explore the impact of social, cultural, structural, and gendered factors surrounding and influencing self-injuring acts. A non-medical approach, beyond the limits of the medical perspective, would feed research forward and create a more nuanced view on this widespread social phenomenon. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Physical training risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in female soldiers.

    PubMed

    Roy, Tanja C; Songer, Thomas; Ye, Feifei; LaPorte, Ronald; Grier, Tyson; Anderson, Morgan; Chervak, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) result in the most medical encounters, lost duty days, and permanent disability. Women are at greater risk of injury than men and physical training is the leading cause of injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic, body composition, fitness, and physical training risk factors for injuries in female Soldiers serving in garrison Army units over the past 12 months. Self-report survey was collected from 625 women. The ankle was the most frequently injured body region, 13%. Running was the activity most often associated with injury, 34%. In univariate analysis lower rank, older age, history of deployment, no unit runs, weekly frequency of personal resistance training, and history of injury were all associated with injury. In multivariate analysis rank, history of injury, weekly frequency of unit runs, and weekly frequency of personal resistance training were the best combination of predictors of injury. Running once or twice a week with the unit protected against MSIs, whereas participating in personal resistance training sessions once or twice a week increased the risk of MSIs. With more emphasis on running and resistance training, the U.S. Army could reduce injuries and save billions of dollars in training and health care costs.

  10. Occupational Stress, Health, and General Well Being among Soldiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartone, Paul T.; Hoover, Elizabeth

    A soldier's occupation is a very stressful one, especially for junior enlisted soldiers who have little control over their highly-regimented work lives. This prospective study examined the relationship between soldier occupational stress and health and well-being 8 to 10 months later. Through an ongoing, longitudinal study of attitudes, health,…

  11. Soldier/robot team acoustic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Stuart H.; Scanlon, Michael V.

    2003-09-01

    The future battlefield will require an unprecedented level of automation in which soldier-operated, autonomous, and semi-autonomous ground, air, and sea platforms along with mounted and dismounted soldiers will function as a tightly coupled team. Sophisticated robotic platforms with diverse sensor suites will be an integral part of the Objective Force, and must be able to collaborate not only amongst themselves but also with their manned partners. The Army Research Laboratory has developed a robot-based acoustic detection system that will detect and localize on an impulsive noise event, such as a sniper's weapon firing. Additionally, acoustic sensor arrays worn on a soldier's helmet or equipment can enhance his situational awareness and RSTA capabilities. The Land Warrior or Objective Force Warrior body-worn computer can detect tactically significant impulsive signatures from bullets, mortars, artillery, and missiles or spectral signatures from tanks, helicopters, UAVs, and mobile robots. Time-difference-of-arrival techniques can determine a sound's direction of arrival, while head attitude sensors can instantly determine the helmet orientation at time of capture. With precision GPS location of the soldier, along with the locations of other soldiers, robots, or unattended ground sensors that heard the same event, triangulation techniques can produce an accurate location of the target. Data from C-4 explosions and 0.50-Caliber shots shows that both helmet and robot systems can localize on the same event. This provides an awesome capability - mobile robots and soldiers working together on an ever-changing battlespace to detect the enemy and improve the survivability, mobility, and lethality of our future warriors.

  12. Wounded, Ill, and Injured Challenges.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    The Washington Post articles of February 2007 led to a close examination of the care provided Wounded Warriors at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Subsequent reports by the President's Commission, Independent Review Group, and Defense Health Board all recommended ways to improve care. Joint Task Force National Capital Region Medical was established to implement the recommended improvements in Warrior care, and the recommendations of the Base Realignment and Closure Commission to close Walter Reed and realign the staff into a new Walter Reed National Military Medical Center and Fort Belvoir Community Hospital. It accomplished these tasks, maintained existing wounded, ill, and injured care, and safely transferred patients during the height of the fighting season in Afghanistan. It successfully accomplished its mission through engaged leadership, establishing an appropriate environment for Warrior care, careful management of casualty flow, and robust communication with all parties affected by the changes. The lessons learned in Warrior care should be considered when planning future military medical operations.

  13. Rehabilitation of the Injured Worker

    PubMed Central

    van Schoor, J.T.; Wright, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Workers' Compensation Board is mostly involved in secondary and tertiary prevention of work-related accidents and disease. Through its new Medical Rehabilitation Strategy, the board will help to ensure that optimal health care programs are available to injured workers. For workers who are left with restricted function, even after the best possible health care, vocational rehabilitation or tertiary prevention programs are offered. In both phases the primary care physician has a key function and must be familiar with the “state of the art” treatment of so-called minor trauma and activity-related disorders. Physicians also must recognize the importance of providing a reasonable prognosis as early as possible because it will drive the vocational rehabilitation planning process. PMID:21248924

  14. Dynamics of telomere length in different age groups in a Latvian population.

    PubMed

    Zole, Egija; Pliss, Liana; Ranka, Renate; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2013-12-01

    The shortening of telomeres with ageing is a well-documented observation; however, the reported number of nucleotides in telomeres varies between different laboratories and studies. Such variability is likely caused by ethnic differences between the populations studied. Until now, there were no studies that investigated the variability of telomere length in a senescent Latvian population of the most common mitochondrial haplogroups, defined as H (45%), U (25%), Y chromosomal N1c (40%) and R1a1 (40%). Telomere length was determined in 121 individuals in different age groups, including a control group containing individuals of 20-40 years old and groups of individuals between 60-70 years old, 71-80 years old, 81-90 years old, and above 90 years old. Telomere length was determined using the Southern blot telomeric restriction fragment assay (TRF). Decreased telomere length with ageing was confirmed, but a comparison of centenarians and individuals between 60-90 years of age did not demonstrate a significant difference in telomere length. However, significant variability in telomere length was observed in the control group, indicating probable rapid telomere shortening in some individuals that could lead up to development of health status decline appearing with ageing. Telomere length measured in mononuclear blood cells (MNC) was compared with the telomere length measured in whole peripheral white blood cells (WBC) using TRF. Telomere length in MNC was longer than in WBC for the control group with individuals 20 to 40 years old; in contrast, for the group of individuals aged 65 to 85 years old, measured telomere length was shorter in MNC when compared to WBC.

  15. Point mutations associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in a Latvian population

    PubMed Central

    Baumane, Kristine; Zalite, Solveiga; Ranka, Renate; Zole, Egija; Pole, Ilva; Sepetiene, Svetlana; Laganovska, Guna; Baumanis, Viesturs; Pliss, Liana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To study mutations associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in patients suspected of having this mitochondrial disorder in a Latvian population. Additional aims were to determine the heteroplasmy status of all non-synonymous polymorphisms identified in the current study and to identify the mitochondrial haplogroups of the studied participants because these factors may contribute to the manifestation of LHON. Methods Twelve patients, including patients in two families, were enrolled in the current study. LHON was suspected based on the findings of ophthalmologic examinations. In clinically affected individuals, the presence of all previously reported LHON-associated mutations was assessed with sequencing analysis. Additionally, the SURVEYOR endonuclease assay was used to detect heteroplasmy. The mitochondrial haplogroups were identified with restriction analysis and the sequencing of hypervariable segment 1. Results In one family (mother and son), there was one primary LHON-associated mutation, G11778A. In addition, one rare previously reported LHON-associated polymorphism, A13637G, was detected in two unrelated patients. A non-synonymous polymorphism at T6253C was found in one individual. This mutation was reported in the background of the 3460 mutation among LHON patients in a Chinese population. No non-synonymous point mutations in mitochondrial DNA were found in five of the study participants. Conclusions Molecular analysis of 12 patients with suspected LHON confirmed the diagnosis in four patients and allowed the use of appropriate prophylactic measures and treatment. Further investigations and additional studies of different populations are necessary to confirm the role of the non-synonymous polymorphisms A13637G and T6253C in the manifestation of LHON and the associations of these polymorphisms with mitochondrial haplogroups and heteroplasmy. PMID:24319328

  16. Soldier Data Tag Study Effort. Appendices,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-10

    84-C-0146 on ,.a. SOLDIER DATA TAG " -:.,r .* STUDY EFFORT I T IT t APPENDICES to U.S. Army Soldier Support Center ATZI /ODS (Mr. Occhialini) Fort...SUPPORT CENTER * P2 DEN HARRISON, IN 46216 11 -:NG QVFZF N UAE AND ADORESS i REPORT DATE ATZI --DDS (MR. OCCHIALINI) JN 13 WAMSEROF PAGES 7-4 .’,kT N...Memorandum ATZI -DDS (14 Sep. 83) Subject: Input Requirements for SDT Cost/Benefits Analysis (CBA) , To Ch, Ofc of Analysis Spt From C, SDT, Date 5 Oct. 83

  17. A Comparative Study of Visual Depth Perception of Brain-Injured and Nonbrain-Injured Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Elise

    1972-01-01

    The brain-injured group performed with greater error scores and required more time to complete the tasks; although the brain-injured group took more time on the binocular tasks, their performance scores were similar to the nonbrain-injured group scores. (Author)

  18. Metabolism of Escherichia coli injured by copper.

    PubMed

    Domek, M J; Robbins, J E; Anderson, M E; McFeters, G A

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli injured by copper in carbonate buffer simulating the drinking water environment showed decreased oxygen utilization. Oxygraph measurements revealed that copper-injured bacteria had a rate of oxygen utilization that was less than 25% of that of control cells. Respirometry experiments measured rates over a longer period of time and showed similar trends. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C nmr) and gas chromatography were used to identify differences in metabolism between healthy and injured populations of E. coli. The rate of glucose utilization by injured cells under anaerobic conditions was 64% of that of healthy cells. The rates of lactate and ethanol accumulation were 88 and 50% of the control, respectively. The 13C nmr studies of oxygenated cultures revealed differences in the accumulation of acetate and glutamine. Aerobic utilization of glucose and succinate by injured cells were 87 and 21% of the rate of the controls, respectively. Additional studies revealed injured cells had a decreased ability to reduce 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) with a variety of carbohydrate substrates. Injured cells reduced greater quantities of INT than healthy cells when NADH was used as a substrate. A comparison of metabolic end products suggested that injured cells also had considerable differences in carbon flow compared with healthy cells.

  19. Posttraumatic Resilience in Former Ugandan Child Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Post, Manuela; Hoyer, Catrin; Adam, Hubertus

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines posttraumatic resilience in extremely exposed children and adolescents based on interviews with 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age = 11-17, female = 48.5%). Despite severe trauma exposure, 27.6% showed posttraumatic resilience as indicated by the absence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and clinically…

  20. Deployments, Stress, and Soldiers' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perot, Mindy

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on identifying whether certain factors affected the academic performance of Soldiers attending an Army educational institution. Academic performance was measured by the grade percentile average of the participant upon the completion of their course of enrollment. Factors that were considered within the study through…

  1. Distance Learning: The Soldiers’s Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    eligible soldiers access to college degree programs through the Internet. It involves creation of the largest online education system ever designed...this point. Although 85% of respon- dents expressed at least moderate confidence that they could com- plete an online education or training course, as

  2. Deployments, Stress, and Soldiers' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perot, Mindy

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on identifying whether certain factors affected the academic performance of Soldiers attending an Army educational institution. Academic performance was measured by the grade percentile average of the participant upon the completion of their course of enrollment. Factors that were considered within the study through…

  3. Soldier Integrated Headwear System: System Design Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Nationale Canada Abstract The aim of the Soldier Integrated Headwear System –Technology Demonstration Project (SIHS-TDP) is to empirically...determine the most promising headwear integration concept that significantly enhances the survivability and effectiveness of the future Canadian

  4. Diogenes, Dogfaced Soldiers, and Deployment Music Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Geoffrey; Williamson, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This webtext explores the cynical/kynical humor of soldier videos, suggesting that amateur videos paradoxically both undercut authority and honor effective leaders, both make light of and also publicly reveal deployment hardships, both distance the performers from military groupthink and celebrate unit camaraderie.

  5. Diogenes, Dogfaced Soldiers, and Deployment Music Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Geoffrey; Williamson, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This webtext explores the cynical/kynical humor of soldier videos, suggesting that amateur videos paradoxically both undercut authority and honor effective leaders, both make light of and also publicly reveal deployment hardships, both distance the performers from military groupthink and celebrate unit camaraderie.

  6. Posttraumatic Resilience in Former Ugandan Child Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Post, Manuela; Hoyer, Catrin; Adam, Hubertus

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines posttraumatic resilience in extremely exposed children and adolescents based on interviews with 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age = 11-17, female = 48.5%). Despite severe trauma exposure, 27.6% showed posttraumatic resilience as indicated by the absence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and clinically…

  7. Letters of a Slave Turned Union Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humanities, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the influx of Black soldiers into the Union army following the Emancipation Proclamation. Concentrates on the case of Private Spotswood Rice. Provides a short history of Rice, including copies of Rice's letters to his enslaved daughters, the daughter's slaveholders, and an angry retort from the slaveowner to the federal commander in…

  8. Child Soldiers: Rights Denied, Hope Restored

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carano, Kenneth T.; Bailey, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The forceful induction of children as child soldiers is an abhorrent violation of human rights. It is very disturbing that while many children are forcibly recruited into armed conflicts, others actually volunteer, due to their nightmarish alternatives. Although the practice has recently gained worldwide attention, awareness alone will not end the…

  9. LM-research opportunities and activities at the Latvian Academy of Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Lielausis, O.

    1996-06-01

    In this presentation selected examples will be considered characterizing the breadth of their interests in LM applications. So, InGaSn eutectic was used as a modeling liquid for investigation of MHD effects typical to some LM-blanket configurations. LM coatings proposed for the protection of divertor plates were considered too. Experiments were performed on a superconducting magnet providing a 5.6 T magnetic field in a 30 liters bore. In a large vacuum chamber (12 m{sup 3}; 6.65 10{sup {minus}4} Pa) lithium cooling system for high temperature reactors was examined. Electromagnetic pumps and flowmeters able to work at lithium temperatures up to 960{degrees}C were tested. A Na loop, where two mounted in line electromagnetic pumps are delivering a 25 atm. pressure. The main Na loop equipped with em. pumps is based on a d=10 cm tubing. LM devices were installed in the Latvian 500 MW nuclear research reactor IRT-5000 too. First, a equipped with conductive e.m. pumps loop, where InGaSn serves as a {gamma}-carrier from activity generator (placed close to the core) to two outer 20 Mrad/h irradiators. Second, a LM system for rector control, where contained in InGaSn indium is used for neutron absorption and reactivity control. A closed cylindrical LM container was installed in the core instead of a traditional control rod. The container is divided in two chambers by means of elastic membranes. The one chamber contains InGaSn, the second GaSn (without In). By means of e.m. pumps the proportion between InGaSn and GaSn in the active zone can be changed ensuring a possibility to control the amount of introduced in the core absorbing material. Long term tests of the system were performed on a zero-power assembly. But for a shorter time the system was inserted in the core of the acting main reactor too and the efficiency of the control was confirmed.

  10. Performance Analysis of Air-to-Water Heat Pump in Latvian Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazjonovs, Janis; Sipkevics, Andrejs; Jakovics, Andris; Dancigs, Andris; Bajare, Diana; Dancigs, Leonards

    2014-12-01

    Strategy of the European Union in efficient energy usage demands to have a higher proportion of renewable energy in the energy market. Since heat pumps are considered to be one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems, they will play an important role in the energy consumption reduction in buildings aimed to meet the target of nearly zero energy buildings set out in the EU Directive 2010/31/EU. Unfortunately, the declared heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) corresponds to a certain outdoor temperature (+7 °C), therefore different climate conditions, building characteristics and settings result in different COP values during the year. The aim of this research is to investigate the Seasonal Performance factor (SPF) values of air-to-water heat pump which better characterize the effectiveness of heat pump in a longer selected period of time, especially during the winter season, in different types of residential buildings in Latvian climate conditions. Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Latvia is characterized by cold, maritime climate (duration of the average heating period being 203 days, the average outdoor air temperature during the heating period being 0.0 °C, the coldest five-day average temperature being -20.7 °C, the average annual air temperature being +6.2 °C, the daily average relative humidity being 79 %). The first part of this research consists of operational air-towater heat pump energy performance monitoring in different residential buildings during the winter season. The second part of the research takes place under natural conditions in an experimental construction stand which is located in an urban environment in Riga, Latvia. The inner area of this test stand, where air-to-water heat pump performance is analyzed, is 9 m2. The ceiling height is 3 m, all external wall constructions (U = 0.16 W/(m2K)) have ventilated facades. To calculate SPF, the

  11. Ventilator Technologies Sustain Critically Injured Patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Consider this scenario: A soldier has been critically wounded in a sudden firefight in a remote region of Afghanistan. The soldier s comrades attend to him and radio for help, but the soldier needs immediate medical expertise and treatment that is currently miles away. The connection between medical support for soldiers on the battlefield and astronauts in space may not be immediately obvious. But when it comes to providing adequate critical care, NASA and the military have very similar operational challenges, says Shannon Melton of NASA contractor Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering. Melton works within Johnson Space Center s Space Medicine Division, which supports astronaut crew health before, during, and after flight. In space, we have a limited number of care providers, and those providers are not always clinicians with extensive medical training. We have limited room to provide care, limited consumables, and our environment is not like that of a hospital, she says. The Space Medicine Division s Advanced Projects Group works on combining the expertise of both clinicians and engineers to develop new capabilities that address the challenges of medical support in space, including providing care to distant patients. This field, called telemedicine, blends advanced communications practices and technologies with innovative medical devices and techniques to allow caregivers with limited or no medical experience to support a patient s needs. NASA, just by its nature, has been doing remote medicine since the beginning of the Space Program, says Melton, an engineer in the Advanced Projects Group. Since part of NASA s mandate is to transfer the results of its technological innovation for the benefit of the public, the Agency has worked with doctors and private industry to find ways to apply the benefits of space medicine on Earth. In one such case, a NASA partnership has resulted in new technologies that may improve the quality of emergency medicine for wounded

  12. Factors influencing injury severity score regarding Thai military personnel injured in mass casualty incident April 10, 2010: lessons learned from armed conflict casualties: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Boonthep, Nuttapong; Intharachat, Suthee; Iemsomboon, Tassanee

    2012-01-03

    Political conflicts in Bangkok, Thailand have caused mass casualties, especially the latest event April 10, 2010, in which many military personnel were injured. Most of them were transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital, the largest military hospital in Thailand. The current study aimed to assess factors influencing Injury Severity Score (ISS) regarding Thai military personnel injured in the mass casualty incident (MCI) April 10, 2010. A total of 728 injured soldiers transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital were reviewed. Descriptive statistics was used to display characteristics of the injuries, relationship between mechanism of injury and injured body regions. Multiple logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR) of ISS comparing injured body region categories. In all, 153 subjects defined as major data category were enrolled in this study. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury (90.2%). These victims displayed 276 injured body regions. The most common injured body region was the extremities (48.5%). A total of 18 patients (11.7%) had an ISS revealing more than 16 points. Three victims who died were expected to die due to high Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS). However, one with high TRISS survived. Factors influencing ISS were age (p = 0.04), abdomen injury (adjusted OR = 29.9; 95% CI, 5.8-153.5; P < 0.01), head & neck injury (adjusted OR = 13.8; 95% CI, 2.4-80.4; P < 0.01) and chest injury (adjusted OR = 9.9; 95% CI, 2.1-47.3; P < 0.01). Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury among Thai military personnel injured in the MCI April 10, 2010. Age and injured body region such as head & neck, chest and abdomen significantly influenced ISS. These factors should be investigated for effective medical treatment and preparing protective equipment to prevent such injuries in the future.

  13. Factors influencing injury severity score regarding Thai military personnel injured in mass casualty incident April 10, 2010: lessons learned from armed conflict casualties: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Political conflicts in Bangkok, Thailand have caused mass casualties, especially the latest event April 10, 2010, in which many military personnel were injured. Most of them were transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital, the largest military hospital in Thailand. The current study aimed to assess factors influencing Injury Severity Score (ISS) regarding Thai military personnel injured in the mass casualty incident (MCI) April 10, 2010. Methods A total of 728 injured soldiers transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital were reviewed. Descriptive statistics was used to display characteristics of the injuries, relationship between mechanism of injury and injured body regions. Multiple logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR) of ISS comparing injured body region categories. Results In all, 153 subjects defined as major data category were enrolled in this study. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury (90.2%). These victims displayed 276 injured body regions. The most common injured body region was the extremities (48.5%). A total of 18 patients (11.7%) had an ISS revealing more than 16 points. Three victims who died were expected to die due to high Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS). However, one with high TRISS survived. Factors influencing ISS were age (p = 0.04), abdomen injury (adjusted OR = 29.9; 95% CI, 5.8-153.5; P < 0.01), head & neck injury (adjusted OR = 13.8; 95% CI, 2.4-80.4; P < 0.01) and chest injury (adjusted OR = 9.9; 95% CI, 2.1-47.3; P < 0.01). Conclusions Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury among Thai military personnel injured in the MCI April 10, 2010. Age and injured body region such as head & neck, chest and abdomen significantly influenced ISS. These factors should be investigated for effective medical treatment and preparing protective equipment to prevent such injuries in the future. PMID:22214518

  14. No Significant Acute and Subacute Differences between Blast and Blunt Concussions across Multiple Neurocognitive Measures and Symptoms in Deployed Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Dretsch, Michael N; Kelly, Mark P; Coldren, Rodney L; Parish, Robert V; Russell, Michael L

    2015-08-15

    Seventy-one deployed U.S. Army soldiers who presented for concussion care due to either blast or blunt mechanisms within 72 h of injury were assessed using the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation, the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM), traditional neuropsychological tests, and health status questionnaires. Follow-up ANAM testing was performed 10 d after initial testing (±5 d). Twenty-one soldiers were excluded: two for poor effort and 19 who had combined blast/blunt injuries. Of the remaining 50 male participants, 34 had blast injuries and 16 had blunt injuries. There were no statistically significant differences between blast injury and blunt injury participants in demographic, physical, or psychological health factors, concussive symptoms, or automated and traditional neurocognitive testing scores within 72 h post-injury. In addition, follow-up ANAM scores up to 15 d post-injury were not significantly different (available on 21 blast-injured and 13 blunt-injured subjects). Pre-injury baseline ANAM scores were compared where available, and revealed no statistically significant differences between 22 blast injury and eight blunt injury participants. These findings suggest there are no significant differences between mechanisms of injury during both the acute and subacute periods in neurobehavioral concussion sequelae while deployed in a combat environment. The current study supports the use of sports/mechanical concussion models for early concussion management in the deployed setting and exploration of variability in potential long-term outcomes.

  15. Injured athletes' perceptions about social support.

    PubMed

    Clement, Damien; Shannon, Vanessa R

    2011-11-01

    According to the buffering hypothesis, social support moderates the harmful effects of stress and, in turn, indirectly affects injured athletes' health and well-being. Previous research suggests that perceptions of social support influence athletes' psychological reactions, as well as their rehabilitation adherence, but additional research in this area is warranted. To examine injured athletes' perceptions regarding satisfaction, availability, and contribution for each of the 8 types of social support. Descriptive. Mid-Atlantic Division II and III institutions. 49 injured athletes. Social support was assessed using a modified version of the Social Support Survey. Injured athletes were significantly more satisfied with social support provided by athletic trainers (ATCs) than that provided by coaches and teammates. In addition, injured athletes reported that social support provided by ATCs contributed significantly more to their overall well-being. Athletes reported several significant differences regarding satisfaction and contribution to well-being among the 8 different types of social support. Injury, an unavoidable part of sport, is often accompanied by negative psychological reactions. This reaction may have a negative influence on an athlete's experience of injury and rehabilitation. Findings suggest that perceptions of social support provided by ATCs have the greatest influence on injured athletes' rehabilitation and well-being.

  16. Relations between enabling skills and reading comprehension: a follow-up study of Latvian students from first to second grade.

    PubMed

    Sprugevica, Ieva; Høien, Torleiv

    2004-04-01

    In order to examine the relationships among various phonological skills and reading comprehension, Latvian children were followed from grade 1 to grade 2 and were tested with a battery of phonological, word reading, and reading comprehension tasks. A principal component analysis of the phonological tasks revealed three salient factors: a phonemic awareness factor, a rapid naming factor, and a short-term memory factor. In order to analyze the relationship between various phonological skills and reading comprehension, a structural modeling analysis was performed. Phonemic awareness and rapid naming explained approximately the same amount of unique variance in reading comprehension, but phonemic awareness had most predictive power indirectly via word decoding. Only rapid naming had a significant direct impact on reading comprehension.

  17. [Therapeutic possibilities regarding somatoform disorders in soldiers].

    PubMed

    Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Bartosz

    2002-01-01

    The authors used the ICD-10 classification and presented the most common psychopathological syndromes from the category "neurotic disorders connected to stress and somatoform disorders" present amongst recruited soldiers. Recruitment to the army is a "situation which is endangering to the mental health" (from the Act on mental health protection), however socio-political changes that took place in our country are an additional factor which can lead to such disorders. The limitations in treatment of these disorders, which are due to army specifications, cause for the majority of those soldiers affected to be unable to carry out their duty. As a consequence of this, civil units carry out the therapeutic processes. Particular attention, amongst the other disorders described, is attributed to the so-called organ neuroses. The authors stress upon the need for psychoprophylactic actions which would reduce the health consequences of being recruited into the army.

  18. Posttraumatic resilience in former Ugandan child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Post, Manuela; Hoyer, Catrin; Adam, Hubertus

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines posttraumatic resilience in extremely exposed children and adolescents based on interviews with 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age = 11-17, female = 48.5%). Despite severe trauma exposure, 27.6% showed posttraumatic resilience as indicated by the absence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and clinically significant behavioral and emotional problems. Among these former child soldiers, posttraumatic resilience was associated with lower exposure to domestic violence, lower guilt cognitions, less motivation to seek revenge, better socioeconomic situation in the family, and more perceived spiritual support. Among the youth with significant psychopathology, many of them had symptoms extending beyond the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, in keeping with the emerging concept of developmental trauma disorder. Implications for future research, intervention, and policy are discussed.

  19. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airborne Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Phase 1 Aim 2 To perform task and demand analyses of tactical operations training in Soldiers of the Army 101st Airborne and develop protocols for...were displayed by 30% of the Soldiers for shoulder strength, 95% for knee strength, 40% for hip strength, 49% for ankle strength, and 33% for torso...to ligamentous sprain and potential rupture. NUTRITION: Carbohydrate intake was below the recommended value for 85% of the Soldiers while

  20. Postmodern Chapel Services for Generation X and Millennial Generation Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    POSTMODERN CHAPEL SERVICES FOR GENERATION X AND MILLENNIAL GENERATION SOLDIERS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...Services for Generation X and Millennial Generation Soldiers 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...majority of soldiers by age demographic. They are from two postmodern generations, Generation X and the Millennial Generation. The thesis examines

  1. Special Operations and the Soldier System: Critical Acquisition Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    dismounted soldier, vehicle crewmen (both air and ground), along with the capabilities required to support 9 the soldier, such as field and health...the lethality of infantry weapons, improve the living conditions of soldiers in the field, and correct deficiencies identified during Desert Shield...Power (Blower, Filter, Power, Air Distribution) * Load Bearing Equipment (Harness/Belt, Packs) * Weapon (Individual Weapon and Ammunition) TEISS will

  2. Development of Accommodation Models for Soldiers in Vehicles: Squad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    in a squad mockup (Figure 1). Figure 1. Squad mockup . The current study used data from 144 men and women tested in the squad mockup . Table...measurements in the mockup . At the Advanced Combat Uniform (ACU) level, Soldiers wore their own advanced combat uniform consisting of a jacket, trousers...ensemble levels. Note that a Rifleman kit was included in the Seated Soldier Study but only worn by Soldiers tested in the driver mockup . All squad

  3. The CHEK2 del5395 is a founder mutation without direct effects for cancer risk in the latvian population

    PubMed Central

    Kalniete, D; Nakazawa-Miklasevica, M; Irmejs, A; Vjaters, E; Gardovskis, J; Miklasevics, E

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to determine: 1) whether the checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) del5395 (g.27417113-27422508 del, NC_000022.11) is a founder mutation in the Latvian population, 2) if there is an association between CHEK2 del5395 mutation and cancer risk, and 3) and whether the CHEK2 del5395 mutation impacts cancer predisposition in Chernobyl disaster liquidators (the civil and military personnel who were called upon to deal with consequences of the 1986 nuclear disaster) as well as geriatric populations. We recruited 438 breast cancer patients, 568 colorectal cancer patients, 399 ovarian cancer patients, 419 prostate cancer patients, 526 healthy blood donors, 480 Chernobyl disaster liquidators and 444 geriatric cancer-free participants. DNA samples were isolated from blood samples and subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The truncation of del5395 was estimated by fragment size of the multiplex PCR.All groups were compared to the healthy blood donors using Fisher’s exact test. All p values were two-sided and the odds ratios (OR) calculated by two-by-two table. In cancer groups, the del5395 mutation was most frequently observed in the ovarian cancer group (1.00%, OR = 1.32). In control groups, the del5395 mutation was most frequent (0.76%) in the healthy donors, which exceeded its frequency in the Chernobyl liquidators group and the geriatric group by 0.01 and 0.08%, respectively. For all groups, the OR appeared to be >1 only in ovarian cancer patients. However, OR rates showed no statistical significance in either cancer or control groups, with the p value fluctuating within the range of 0.39-1.00. The CHEK2 gene del5395 is a founder mutation in the Latvian population, which, however, does not have a direct impact on genetic predisposition toward colorectal, breast, ovarian and prostate cancer. PMID:27785394

  4. Genotype and allele frequencies of isoniazid-metabolizing enzymes NAT2 and GSTM1 in Latvian tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Igumnova, Viktorija; Capligina, Valentina; Krams, Alvils; Cirule, Andra; Elferts, Didzis; Pole, Ilva; Jansone, Inta; Bandere, Dace; Ranka, Renate

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacogenomic testing of tuberculosis drug-metabolizing enzyme genes was proposed as a strategy to identify patients at risk for suboptimal responses to medications. However, variations of the genotype frequencies among ethnic groups exist and new alleles are been identified. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms of genes encoding metabolic enzymes NAT2 and GSTM1 in tuberculosis patients in Latvia and to estimate the frequency of NAT2 slow acetylator and GSTM1 null genotypes. In total, 85 DNA samples were genotyped, all individuals were Caucasian. An ethnic heterogeneity reflecting the multiethnic population of the country was observed. 49 patients were Latvians, 30 were Russians and 6 of other ethnicity. In total, 7 NAT2 alleles were identified: *4, *5, *6, *7, *11, *12, * and *13. The most frequent was the slow acetylation allele NAT2*6 (frequency 0.388) followed by the slow acetylation allele NAT2*5 and the rapid acetylation allele NAT2*4 (frequencies 0.306 and 0.194, respectively). The predominance of slow (51.8%) and intermediate (43.5%) acetylators compared with rapid acetylators (4.7%) was observed. The GSTM1 null genotype was detected in 48.2% of tuberculosis patients. When subgroup analysis was performed according to ethnicity, the results showed that neither NAT2 allele frequencies nor GSTM1 null genotype frequency did not differ significantly in TB patients of Latvian or Russian ethnicity. Overall, genotyping results were similar with previous reports of a NAT2 gene variation and GSTM1 null genotype frequency in Caucasians. Our findings have a contribution for the pharmacogenetics-based tuberculosis therapy in Latvia in future. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Weight Measurements and Standards for Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    evaluate the efficacy of the intervention, and 4) evaluate consumer satisfaction with the intervention. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nutrition , physical fitness... prevent overweight. 5 Introduction The primary aim of this investigation, entitled “Weight Measurement and Standards for Soldiers” was...to provide a non-clinical, environmental approach for weight gain prevention and modest weight loss for Soldiers of the 94th Regional Readiness

  6. Tailoring Multimedia Instruction to Soldier Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Psychology , Division 19 of the American Psychological Association . Paul (Norm) Blankenbeckler is a Training Manager with Northrop Grumman in Columbus...Fort Monroe, VA: Department of the Army, Training and Doctrine Command. U.S. Army. (2008). Soldier Training Publication No. 21-24-SMCT, Soldier’s Manual ...instructional design techniques could be applied to design IMI for learners’ specific needs, and (c) what outcomes are associated with different types of needs

  7. Genetic Screen for PTSD-Prone Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    for determining genotypes at 8 loci in the calcyon gene which is strongly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and...associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could be useful as an unbiased screen for PTSD-prone soldiers. Subjects participating... deficit / hyperactivity disorder . Mol. Psychiatry 10, 1117-1125. Li,J.Z., Absher,D.M., Tang,H., Southwick,A.M., Casto,A.M., Ramachandran,S., Cann,H.M

  8. Latino Soldiering: The Red, White, and Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conde, Carlos D.

    2006-01-01

    U.S. Latinos--particularly Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans--are known as exemplary soldiers. The record shows they have always answered the call to duty proudly and willingly no matter the cause or the burden. That is why they have won so many Congressional Medals of Honor. There are currently about 85,000 Hispanics on active military duty.…

  9. Cultural Adaptation of Second Language Soldiers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-05

    Although we interviewed second language soldiers from Korea, the Philippeans, Micronesia, Samoa, Guam, Italy, Turkey, Bolivia, Colombia and Vietnam, by far...we are citizens of the US." Interview #26 LTC Littlefield, Director, Transportation Career Development Division and MAJ Saylor, Coordinator... Transportation Officer Basic Course, Transporta- tion School, Ft Eustis, VA, 14 Jun 81. NARRATIVE 4. This interview dealt with the performance of Puerto Rican

  10. Making the Soldier Decisive on Future Battlefields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Our combat individuals enter engagements to win. To that end, this country has used its technical prowess and industrial capability to develop... country is now engaged in what has been identified as an “era of persistent conflict” in which the most important weapon is the dismounted soldier...should be engaged in combat with adversaries on a “level playing field”. Our combat individuals enter engagements to win. To that end, this country

  11. Iron supplementation and the female soldier.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anthony E

    2006-04-01

    Twenty-two percent of women in the United States are iron deficient. Iron deficiency adversely affects immune function as well as physical and cognitive performance. Although the risk of developing iron deficiency is high for female soldiers, this risk can be minimized with proper nutritional guidance. Recommended dietary modifications include (1) heme iron consumption, (2) ingestion of vitamin C and protein with meals, and (3) discontinued tea and coffee consumption with meals.

  12. Women Soldiers in Korea: Troop Viewpoints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    27. Recreation/Education Services6-Satisfaction Score Analisis 121 29. Women-in Co--mba Attitude Sore Anaysis 123 28. then i Comy Atitude ,Scii Anaysis...The technical supplement also contains a series of analyses of score differences. The scores were simple suns of the number of ,times a person agreed or...QUESTIONNAIRE INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE TO: Persons Selected for This Survey 1. You have been selected from among all the soldiers in Eighth U.S

  13. MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), DETAIL SHOWING INSCRIPTION ON FRONT ELEVATION. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  14. VIEW OF CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MONUMENT, WITH MARYLAND MONUMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MONUMENT, WITH MARYLAND MONUMENT AND FLAGPOLE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Point Lookout Confederate Cemetery, Point Lookout, Ridge, St. Mary's County, MD

  15. Narrating the self-injured body

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Illness narratives have traditionally been used as a conceptual tool for exploring experiences of chronic illness or disease. In this paper, I suggest that Frank's typology of illness narratives (chaos, restitution and quest) also offers an illuminating approach to analysing accounts of self-injury, demonstrating the diverse ways in which self-injury is practiced, experienced and narrated. Drawing on 24 narrative interviews with 12 people who had self-injured, I focus on participants’ accounts of their self-injured bodies. The approach is phenomenological, and concerned with talk about the experience of living with and in a body that has been marked by self-injury. Thus, the act of self-injury is not the sole focus, and particular attention is paid to accounts of the bodily aftermath: scars, marks and wounds. Scars left by self-injury can be seen as communicative, and the analysis developed here demonstrates some of the various ways that these marks may be read. Attending to these diverse narratives can contribute to the provision of compassionate, non-judgemental care for patients who have self-injured. Further, highlighting the existence of different ways of narrating the self-injured body may offer an optimistic resource for people who have self-injured. PMID:24812335

  16. Strengthening care of injured children globally

    PubMed Central

    Abantanga, Francis; Goosen, Jacques; Joshipura, Manjul; Juillard, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Part of the solution to the growing problem of child injury is to strengthen the care that injured children receive. This paper will point out the potential health gains to be made by doing this and will then review recent advances in the care of injured children in individual institutions and countries. It will discuss how these individual efforts have been aided by increased international attention to trauma care. Although there are no major, well-funded global programmes to improve trauma care, recent guidance documents developed by WHO and a broad network of collaborators have stimulated increased global attention to improving planning and resources for trauma care. This has in turn led to increased attention to strengthening trauma care capabilities in countries, including needs assessments and implementation of WHO recommendations in national policy. Most of these global efforts, however, have not yet specifically addressed children. Given the special needs of the injured child and the high burden of injury-related death and disability among children, clearly greater emphasis on childhood trauma care is needed. Trauma care needs assessments being conducted in a growing number of countries need to focus more on capabilities for care of injured children. Trauma care policy development needs to better encompass childhood trauma care. More broadly, the growing network of individuals and groups collaborating to strengthen trauma care globally needs to engage a broader range of stakeholders who will focus on and champion the improvement of care for injured children. PMID:19551257

  17. Wearable technologies for soldier first responder assessment and remote monitoring (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    Embedded combat medical personnel require accurate and timely biometric data to ensure appropriate life saving measures. Injured warfighter's operating in remote environments require both assessment and monitoring often while still engaged with enemy forces. Small wearable devices that can be placed on injured personnel capable of collecting essential biometric data, including the capacity to remotely deliver collected data in real-time, would allow additional medical monitoring and triage that will greatly help the medic in the battlefield. These new capabilities will provide a force multiplier through remote assessment, increased survivability, and in freeing engaged warfighter's from direct monitoring thus improving combat effectiveness and increasing situational awareness. Key questions around what information does the medic require and how effective it can be relayed to support personnel are at their early stages of development. A low power biometric wearable device capable of reliable electrocardiogram (EKG) rhythm, temperature, pulse, and other vital data collection which can provide real-time remote monitoring are in development for the Soldier.

  18. Early Management of the Critically Injured

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Donald J.

    1966-01-01

    A plan for the early management of the critically injured patient is described with emphasis on the priorities of management of injuries to certain organ-systems. The most important priorities are the establishment and maintenance of adequate ventilation and adequate circulation. The general surgeon is best qualified to assume full responsibility for the proper care of the critically injured, of patients with multiple injuries, and of patients in traumatic shock. He must assume the risk of transfusing unmatched whole blood and of deferring non-essential radiographs. The emergency and radiology departments may have to be by-passed to save the life of the critically injured patient. The measures required to establish a clear airway, to treat complications which can impair ventilation, to manage shock and hemorrhage and the possible complications of massive transfusions of blood are reviewed. PMID:5922504

  19. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Ken; Miura, Toru

    2016-01-01

    In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA), as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes. PMID:27196303

  20. Finding "Another Great World": Australian Soldiers and Wartime Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugesen, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    This article is an exploration of the relationship between Australian soldiers and wartime libraries in the First and Second World Wars. It examines the way soldiers, as readers, used a variety of libraries, including those of charitable organizations, the education libraries organized by military authorities, and the libraries formed in Prisoner…

  1. 15. NORTHEAST CORNER, SOLDIER FIELD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST TOWARD THE GYMNASIUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NORTHEAST CORNER, SOLDIER FIELD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST TOWARD THE GYMNASIUM, SHOWING EAST DITCH AND A SECTION OF LOW WALL. No date, probably ca. 1935. Photographer unknown. Original silver gelatin print measures 13.1 cm by 7.3 cm, flush mounted on mat board. - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  2. Mild Head Trauma and Chronic Headaches in Returning US Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    multiple headache diagnoses. Two of the soldiers with migraine were also diagnosed with occipital neuralgia . One of these soldiers was diag- nosed with...13 (27) Occipital neuralgia 5 (15) 3 (6) Medication overuse headache 4 (12) 0 (0) Headache NOS 7 (21) 7 (14) Multiple headache types 10 (30) 16 (33

  3. Finding "Another Great World": Australian Soldiers and Wartime Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugesen, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    This article is an exploration of the relationship between Australian soldiers and wartime libraries in the First and Second World Wars. It examines the way soldiers, as readers, used a variety of libraries, including those of charitable organizations, the education libraries organized by military authorities, and the libraries formed in Prisoner…

  4. Soldier Education in the British Army, 1920-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys the history of compulsory education for soldiers' career advancement in the British army. It begins with an examination of the organizational context before analyzing the rationale, syllabus, teaching and assessment of soldier education. It concludes that for members of the army education organization their self-perception as…

  5. 11. Photocopy of engraving (from A. Witteman's Ohio Soldiers' and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of engraving (from A. Witteman's Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Home Near Sandusky, (New York: The Albertype Co.), 1894) VIEW SOUTH, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, COTTAGE 'H', COTTAGE 'I', COTTAGE 'K', ASSEMBLY HALL, COTTAGE 'L', COTTAGE 'M', COTTAGE 'N' - Ohio Soldiers' & Sailors' Home, U.S. Route 250 at DeWitt Avenue, Sandusky, Erie County, OH

  6. eArmyU Improves Educational Access for Soldiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, Phaedra

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the Army's venture into distance learning, eArmyU, is proving to be a big success, with more than 12,000 soldiers enrolled since it began a year ago. Soldiers are lining up for the program that offers free tuition, a laptop, and Internet access. But historically black colleges and universities may be missing out due to distance…

  7. 13. Photocopy of engraving (from A. Witteman's Ohio Soldiers' and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of engraving (from A. Witteman's Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Home Near Sandusky, (New York: The Albertype Co.), 1894) VIEW EAST, COTTAGE 'L', (UPPER LEFT COTTAGE 'F', COTTAGE 'G'; UPPER RIGHT COTTAGE UNKNOWN) - Ohio Soldiers' & Sailors' Home, Cottage L, U.S. Route 250 at DeWitt Avenue, Sandusky, Erie County, OH

  8. Zinc: an essential trace element with potential benefits to soldiers.

    PubMed

    McClung, James P; Scrimgeour, Angus G

    2005-12-01

    Zinc is a trace element known to be an essential nutrient for life. It functions as a cofactor for numerous enzymes, including those involved in DNA and RNA replication and protein synthesis. Soldiers represent a unique population faced with intense metabolic and mental demands, as well as exposure to various immune challenges. Some of these factors may affect their dietary zinc requirements. Although severe zinc deficiency is unlikely to occur, some soldiers may experience less than optimal zinc status because of diminished intake coupled with increased requirements. For those soldiers, supplemental dietary zinc may serve a protective function in numerous disease states affecting modern warfighters. This review highlights the importance of adequate zinc nutriture to soldiers and discusses the potential benefits of supplemental zinc in a number of diseases currently affecting soldiers, including diarrhea, respiratory diseases, malaria, and leishmaniasis.

  9. Soldier evaluation of the virtual reality Iraq.

    PubMed

    Reger, Greg M; Gahm, Gregory A; Rizzo, Albert A; Swanson, Robert; Duma, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Repeated combat deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan are resulting in increased rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel. Although exposure therapy is an effective treatment for this disorder, some personnel do not significantly respond to treatment, possibly due to poor activation of the trauma memory or a lack of emotional engagement during therapy. In addition, some service members do not seek mental healthcare due to treatment stigma. Researchers recently developed a virtual reality (VR) Iraq to attempt to improve activation of the traumatic memory during exposure therapy and to provide a treatment approach that may be more appealing to some service members, relative to traditional face-to-face talk therapy. Initial validation of the application requires an assessment of how well it represents the experiences of previously deployed service members. This study evaluated the realism of the VR Iraq application according to the subjective evaluation of 93 U.S. Army soldiers who returned from Iraq in the last year. Those screening negative for PTSD used and evaluated a VR tactical convoy and a VR dismounted patrol in a simulated Middle Eastern city. Results indicated that 86% of soldiers rated the overall realism of the VR convoy as ranging from adequate to excellent. Eighty-two percent of soldiers reported adequate-to-excellent overall realism of the city environment. Results provide evidence that the VR Iraq presents a realistic context in which VR exposure therapy can be conducted. However, clinical trials are needed to assess the efficacy of VR exposure therapy for Iraq veterans with PTSD.

  10. Integrated soldier power and data system (ISPDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroumov, Roman; Forrester, Thomas; Lee, Kang; Stephens, Robert; Lai, Anthony; Zahzah, Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Physical Optics Corporation (POC) developed the body-worn Integrated Soldier Power and Data System (ISPDS), a configurable node for plug-in wired or wireless server/client or peer-to-peer computing with accommodations for power, sensor I/O interfaces, and energy harvesting. The enabling technology increases the efficacy of uniformed personnel and first responders and provides an option for reducing force structure associated with the need for hardware network infrastructure to enable a mobile digital communications architecture for dismounted troops. The ISPDS system addresses the DoD's need for an "intelligent" power control system in an effort to increase mission duration and maximize the first responders and warfighter's effectiveness without concern for the available energy resources (i.e., batteries). ISPDS maximizes durability and survivability, assesses influences that affect performance, and provides the network backbone and mobile node hardware. POC is producing two vest-integrated variants, one each for the U.S. Army PEO Ground Soldier and the Air Soldier, with each including state-of-the-art low-profile and robust wearable connectors, cabling, and harnesses, and an integrated low-profile power manager and conformal battery for data and power distribution. The innovative intelligent power controller (IPC), in the form of the ISPDS firmware and power sensing and control electronics, will enable ISPDS to optimize power levels both automatically and in accordance with manually set preferences. The IPC module is power dense and efficient, and adaptively provides lossless transfer of available harvested photovoltaic energy to the battery. The integrated systems were tested for suitable electrical, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and environmental performance as outlined in military standards such as MIL-STD- 810G and MIL STD-461F.

  11. Self-inflicted burns in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Gronovich, Yoav; Binenboym, Rami; Tuchman, Izhak; Eizenman, Nirit; Golan, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    Self-inflicted burns are a multidisciplinary medical challenge. In contrast to the more common motive of attempted suicide in self-infliction of a burn, usually of a serious degree, a second motive is malingering. Motivation of this nature has been exhibited among Israeli soldiers who inflict on themselves low- to moderate-degree burns to obtain dismissal from mandatory military service. The purpose of our study is to investigate and define this phenomenon. A retrospective analysis was performed on a population of 75 soldiers admitted to our Medical Center during the year 2010 with the diagnosis of any sort of burn. We set up a database including all relevant information about the burns including date and time of occurrence, cause, body location, depth of burn injury, area and shape of burn, etiology, and prescribed treatment. The summer was found to be the season with the highest incidence of burns. As far as the day of the week was influential, we found that the greater percentage of burns occurred at the beginning of the week. Most of the burns involved a minor surface area on the dorsal aspect of the foot. Scalding with hot water was the most common cause of burn. Eighty-one percent of the burns were atypical, being well demarcated.Most of the burn cases happened at home with no witnesses to the event. Sixty-one percent of the patients were not admitted to the hospital and were conservatively treated. Israeli soldiers tend to inflict burns on themselves for ulterior motives. Such burns are almost always minor with a small trauma area and sharp demarcations, and hence can be differentiated from other self-inflicted burns described in the literature. We found that most of the burns occur when the soldiers are on vacation at home. This is probably because the privacy allows them to carry out their act undisturbed. It is important to raise the awareness of attending physicians to the characteristics of these burns. Such patients should be evaluated by medical teams

  12. Breastfeeding during military deployment: a soldier's story.

    PubMed

    Sleutel, Martha Rider

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of women of childbearing age are serving and being deployed in the United States military. U.S. Department of Defense policies related to breastfeeding and deployment are inconsistent among the different branches of the military and sometimes conflict with evidence-based guidelines about optimal breastfeeding practices. This is the story of an active duty soldier who was deployed while breastfeeding and the obstacles she encountered trying to send breast milk home to her son. The article explores policy, health and professional practice implications.

  13. Child Soldiers: Children Associated with Fighting Forces.

    PubMed

    Song, Suzan J; de Jong, Joop

    2015-10-01

    Around the world, there are an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 children involved in armed conflict. Children can be abducted into a fighting force to fight or serve as sex slaves. Child soldiers have depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, evidence is mixed because of methodologic limitations. Various mental health interventions have been tried, with promising results. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are uniquely trained in understanding and assisting youth to heal from such extraordinary experiences. A public health paradigm could include interventions that are based on a comprehensive assessment of interweaving developmental, biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  15. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  16. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  17. Nutritional support in the critically injured.

    PubMed

    Fox, Vicki J; Miller, Julie; McClung, Meredith

    2004-12-01

    Nutritional support must be an integral part of the management of trauma victims. This article compares the stress response, a maladaptive response, and starvation, an adaptive process, examines the clinical research regarding total parenteral nutrition and total enteral nutrition, provides an evidence-based approach to initiating nutritional support in critically injured patients, and discusses considerations in selecting nutritional formulas.

  18. Reconstructive Surgery in the Thermally Injured Patient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    lateral thoracic, lower abdom- inal, or groin areas are chosen. Since harvesting includes removal of all regenerative dermal layers down to adipose tissue...Understanding and managing burn pain : part 1. Am J Nursing 2009;109:4. 113Reconstructive Surgery in the Thermally Injured Patient

  19. Nursing care of the thermally injured patient.

    PubMed

    Elfving, U

    1980-01-01

    Team work is required in the treatment of the thermally injured patient--nursing staff being part of the team. The nurses are with the patient for 24 hours a day and they have to understand the objectives of all other members of the team involved in the treatment as well as thoroughly mastering their own work. For the nursing staff the care of the thermally injured patient is a challenge. The work demands strong motivation and interest--it includes at times painful treatment, isolation and also constant alertness. It is important that the nursing staff is given continuous training so that they are able to give the required care efficiently and to keep up active interest. Practical work is the best way of getting aquainted with the complex forms of treatment of the thermally injured patient. It also lessens the fear of a badly burned patient. Nursing care of the thermally injured patient consists of good basic care, local attention and active observation. The basic care consists of basic hygiene, diet, observation of the patient's psychological condition, giving emotional support, encouraging initiative physiotherapy and postural treatment.

  20. The Head-Injured College Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Cooper B.

    Intended for use by professionals as well as head-injured college students and their families, the text provides basic information about head injuries, brain anatomy, the effects of injury to the various areas of the brain, and the major factors in recovery and rehabilitation. It examines the viability of college attendance for the head-injured…

  1. Medical field management of the injured diver.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, K

    1999-03-01

    This article discusses the history of medical field management of the injured diver, and presents a comprehensive medical equipment list for field treatment as well as treatment protocols. Case reports are used to illustrate the principles and outcome of medical field management.

  2. The Head-Injured College Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Cooper B.

    Intended for use by professionals as well as head-injured college students and their families, the text provides basic information about head injuries, brain anatomy, the effects of injury to the various areas of the brain, and the major factors in recovery and rehabilitation. It examines the viability of college attendance for the head-injured…

  3. Body fat in children and adolescents participating in organized sports: Descriptive epidemiological study of 6048 Latvian athletes.

    PubMed

    Kalnina, Liga; Sauka, Melita; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Nylander, Eva; Selga, Guntars; Ligere, Renate; Karklina, Helena; Priedite, Ilga S; Larins, Viesturs

    2015-08-01

    Pressure among young athletes to meet body composition goals may lead to poor nutrition and affect growth. To examine the proportion of body fat (%BF), measured by bioimpedance analysis, among Latvian children and adolescents participating in organized sports. Our study had a nationally representative sample of 6048 young athletes, aged 10-17 years. Their %BF was measured using a multifrequency, 8-pole, bioelectrical impedance leg-to-hand analyzer. About 19.2% (CI 14.4-20.0) of boys and 15.1% (CI 14.0-16.3) of girls had a %BF value below the recommended levels. The %BF in young female athletes participating in aesthetic sports was lower than among their peers participating in other sports. Young male athletes participating in aesthetic sports had lower %BF levels at 10 and 12 years of age, compared with participants in weight-class sports; and lower levels of %BF from age 10-14 years, compared with participants in non-weight-sensitive sports. Almost every fifth child and adolescent participating in organized sports displayed critically low body fat levels. Body fat needs to be assessed regularly in young athletes, to prevent negative consequences on health. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  4. Stability of sterigmatocystin during the bread making process and its occurrence in bread from the Latvian market.

    PubMed

    Veršilovskis, Aleksandrs; Bartkevičs, Vadims

    2012-05-01

    Sterigmatocystin (STC) is a carcinogenic and mutagenic mycotoxin produced by fungi of many Aspergillus species. The aim of this research was to test the stability of STC during the bread making process and to check bread samples from the Latvian market for STC contamination, using a previously developed electrospray positive ionisation (ESI(+)) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Wheat grain naturally contaminated with STC was used for bread baking. STC was found to be stable during the bread-making process. In the food survey 17% of the analysed breads were positive for STC, with concentration levels of 2-7 μg kg(-1). One out of six rye bread samples, one out of nine rye-wheat bread samples and three out of 14 wheat bread samples were contaminated with STC. Four out of five contaminated samples contained whole grains as the main ingredient. We conclude that whole grain bread may be a possible source of STC, although even STC-positive bread samples identified in this study contained quite low toxin levels.

  5. The Objective Force Soldier/Soldier Team. Volume II - The Science and Technology Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    SCIENCE BOARD FINAL REPORT November 2001 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE ARMY (ACQUISITION, LOGISTICS AND TECHNOLOGY ) WASHINGTON...D.C. 20310-0103 VOLUME II THE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burder...Soldier Team - Volume II - The Science and Technology Challenges Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  6. The Objective Force Soldier/Soldier Team. Volume III - Background and Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    instability during the Objective Force soldier timeframe Threats-6 6 Population Growth and Urbanization Megacities Growth 1950 2000 2050 21001850 190018001750...and where most of the growth will occur in already overcrowded urban areas. This will give rise to a number of Zone II megacities and the inherent...Hostile to United States Chinese Military with New 5.8-mm Rifle Russia’s TOS-1 Heavy “Flame” Thrower Myanmar “Soldier” • Strategic Threats Endure, but

  7. Accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pang, T Y; Umar, R S; Azhar, A A; Ahmad, M M; Nasir, M T; Harwant, S

    2000-03-01

    This study examines the accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of motorcyclists who are at higher fatality risk and subsequently be the targeted group for the fatality-reduction countermeasures. A total of 412 motorcycle crash victims with serious or fatal injuries were analysed. The results showed that the injured motorcyclists were predominant young, novice riders of less than 3 years licensure and male. A fatal outcome was more likely to be associated with a larger engine capacity motorcycle, collision with a heavy vehicle, head on collision, and collision at a non-junction road. In contrast, a non-fatal outcome was more likely to be associated with a small engine capacity motorcycle, collision with another motorcycle or passenger car, junction accidents, and side or rear collisions.

  8. Acute Management for the Injured Hand

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Geoffrey J.

    1985-01-01

    If not optimally treated, a hand injury can lead to disability which often has considerable economic and social implications. The role of the primary care physician is to diagnose the injury correctly and initiate management which will keep this disability to a minimum. This is best achieved by making a composite diagnosis to include all the injured components of the hand. The emphasis must be on early mobilization of the injured area and the maintenance of mobility in all joints of the upper limb. Early referral to physiotherapy and occupational therapy departments is highly desirable. The major pitfall in managing hand injuries is over zealous treatment of the fracture at the expense of the soft tissue injury, resulting in iatrogenic stiffness. PMID:21274226

  9. Hydrologic data for Soldier Creek Basin, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    1978-01-01

    Selected hydrologic data collected in the Soldier Creek basin in northeastern Kansas are available on magnetic tape in card-image format. Data on the tape include water discharge in fifteen-minute and daily time intervals; rainfall in fifteen-minute and daily time intervals; concentrations and particle sizes of suspended sediment; particle sizes of bed material; ground-water levels; and chemical quality of water in concentrations of selected constituents. The data-collection system includes: (1) 7 recording streamflow stations; (2) 5 recording rainfall stations; (3) 51 nonrecording rainfall stations located within and adjacent to the basin; (4) 31 ground-water observation wells (two recording); and (5) intermittent chemical quality of water and sediment sampling sites. Examples of the information on magnetic tape for each type of data collected are presented in computer-printout format. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. The pattern of peripheral nerve injuries among Pakistani soldiers in the war against terror.

    PubMed

    Razaq, Sarah; Yasmeen, Rehana; Butt, Aamir Waheed; Akhtar, Noreen; Mansoor, Sahibzada Nasir

    2015-05-01

    To determine the pattern of peripheral nerve injuries in Pakistani soldiers in the War against terror. Case series. Department of Electrodiagnosis at Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from June 2008 to June 2011. All new cases of war wounded soldiers with peripheral nerve injuries were consecutively enrolled. Physical examination and electrodiagnostic study was carried out by experienced physiatrists. Data was entered in pretested especially designed questionnaire which was analysed using SPSS version 17.0. Seddon's classification system was used to assess the severity of injury. There were 418 cases of peripheral nerve injuries with 504 different nerve segments. Mean age was 29.41 ±8 years. Blast was the main cause of nerve injury in 244 (48.5%) cases followed by gunshot in 215 (42.7%) and 45 (8.9%) cases had nerve injuries secondary to fall, burial under debris and motor vehicle accidents. Eighty six (17%) cases had multiple nerve injuries. Most commonly injured nerve was ulnar (20.6%) followed by sciatic (16.7%), median (16.5%), radial (16.3%), peroneal (8.7%), brachial plexus (8.5%), axillary (4.8%), tibial (2%), femoral (1.8%), long thoracic (0.4%) and others (3.8%). Axonotmesis was seen in 459 (91.1%) cases, 44 (8.7%) cases revealed neurotmesis and 1 (0.2%) case had neuropraxia. Peripheral nerve injuries are a major component of war related injuries mainly involving the upper limbs. Electrodiagnostic studies help in assessing severity and determining prognosis. Precise documentation of severity of nerve injuries is important to estimate the burden on our resources and to extend rehabilitation services.

  11. Rehabilitation methods for the burn injured individual.

    PubMed

    Spires, M Catherine; Kelly, Brian M; Pangilinan, Percival H

    2007-11-01

    Physiatrists play a critical role in managing the medical and functional consequences of serious burn injuries. Goals of rehabilitation include wound healing, scar prevention, hypertrophic scarring suppression, full range of motion, strengthening, and independent mobility and activities of daily living. This article is an overview of burn rehabilitation principles and patient management. The ultimate rehabilitation goal is independence in all spheres of an individual's life. Achievement of independence depends on the commitment of the injured individual and the entire health care team.

  12. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zito, Dima

    2016-12-01

    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  13. Home Health Care for California's Injured Workers

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Barbara O.; Boustead, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The California Department of Industrial Relations/Division of Worker's Compensation asked RAND to provide technical assistance in developing a fee schedule for home health services provided to injured workers. The fee schedule needs to address the full spectrum of home health services ranging from skilled nursing and therapy services to unskilled personal care or chore services that may be provided by family members. RAND researchers consulted with stakeholders in the California workers’ compensation system to outline issues the fee schedule should address, reviewed home health fee schedules used by other payers, and conducted interviews with WC administrators from other jurisdictions to elicit their experiences. California stakeholders identified unskilled attendant services as most problematic in determining need and payment rates, particularly services furnished by family members. RAND researchers concentrated on fee schedule options that would result in a single fee schedule covering the full range of home health care services furnished to injured workers and made three sets of recommendations. The first set pertains to obtaining additional information that would highlight the policy issues likely to occur with the implementation of the fee schedule and alternatives for assessing an injured worker's home health care needs. Another approach conforms most closely with the Labor Code requirements. It would integrate the fee schedules used by Medicare, In-Home Health Supportive Services, and the federal Office of Workers’ Compensation. The third approach would base the home health fee schedule on rules used by the federal Office of Workers’ Compensation. PMID:28083362

  14. Closeup of headstones in Section 4 of soldiers from Brazil, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up of headstones in Section 4 of soldiers from Brazil, Italy, Argentina, and Britain, view to southwest - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Jamaica Avenue Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  15. Soldier occupational load carriage: a narrative review of associated injuries.

    PubMed

    Orr, Robin Marc; Pope, Rodney; Johnston, Venerina; Coyle, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This narrative review examines injuries sustained by soldiers undertaking occupational load carriage tasks. Military soldiers are required to carry increasingly heavier occupational loads. These loads have been found to increase the physiological cost to the soldier and alter their gait mechanics. Aggregated research findings suggest that the lower limbs are the most frequent anatomical site of injury associated with load carriage. While foot blisters are common, other prevalent lower limb injuries include stress fractures, knee and foot pain, and neuropathies, like digitalgia and meralgia. Shoulder neuropathies (brachial plexus palsy) and lower back injuries are not uncommon. Soldier occupational load carriage has the potential to cause injuries that impact on force generation and force sustainment. Through understanding the nature of these injuries targeted interventions, like improved physical conditioning and support to specialised organisations, can be employed.

  16. REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG EAST OBELISK ROAD. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  17. FRONT ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, WITH HEADSTONES IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  18. SECTION C, WITH SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MONUMENT AT LEFT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION C, WITH SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MONUMENT AT LEFT AND COMMITTAL SHELTER AT EXTREME RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST. - Bath National Cemetery, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Juan Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  19. VIEW OF SITE WITH CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MONUMENT, MARYLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SITE WITH CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MONUMENT, MARYLAND MONUMENT, FENCING, GATE, AND FLAGPOLE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Point Lookout Confederate Cemetery, Point Lookout, Ridge, St. Mary's County, MD

  20. PSMA6 (rs2277460, rs1048990), PSMC6 (rs2295826, rs2295827) and PSMA3 (rs2348071) genetic diversity in Latvians, Lithuanians and Taiwanese

    PubMed Central

    Sjakste, Tatjana; Paramonova, Natalia; Wu, Lawrence Shi-Shin; Zemeckiene, Zivile; Sitkauskiene, Brigita; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Sjakste, Nikolajs

    2014-01-01

    PSMA6 (rs2277460, rs1048990), PSMC6 (rs2295826, rs2295827) and PSMA3 (rs2348071) genetic diversity was investigated in 1438 unrelated subjects from Latvia, Lithuania and Taiwan. In general, polymorphism of each individual locus showed tendencies similar to determined previously in HapMap populations. Main differences concern Taiwanese and include presence of rs2277460 rare allele A not found before in Asians and absence of rs2295827 rare alleles homozygotes TT observed in all other human populations. Observed patterns of SNPs and haplotype diversity were compatible with expectation of neutral model of evolution. Linkage disequilibrium between the rs2295826 and rs2295827 was detected to be complete in Latvians and Lithuanians (D´ = 1; r2 = 1) and slightly disrupted in Taiwanese (D´ = 0.978; r2 = 0.901). Population differentiation (FST statistics) was estimated from pairwise population comparisons of loci variability, five locus haplotypes and PSMA6 and PSMC6 two locus haplotypes. Latvians were significantly different from all Asians at each of 5 SNPs and from Lithuanians at the rs1048990 and PSMC6 loci. Lithuanian and Asian populations exhibited similarities at the PSMC6 loci and were different at the PSMA6 and PSMA3 SNPs. Considering five locus haplotypes all European populations were significantly different from Asian; Lithuanian population was different from both Latvian and CEU. Allele specific patterns of transcription factor binding sites and splicing signals were predicted in silico and addressed to eventual functionality of nucleotide substitutions and their potential to be involved in human genome evolution and geographical adaptation. Current study represents a novel step toward a systematic analysis of the proteasomal gene genetic diversity in human populations. PMID:25606411

  1. Soldier and Food Service Personnel Attitudes Toward Nutrition Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-31

    TABLE 23. Attitudes Toward Nutrition of Nutritionally Aware and Unaware Soldiers Page 16 17 TABLE 24. Food Service Personnel’s Attitudes Towards...their responses to the item: How often do you choose foods based on nutrition content? SoIdiers who made nutritionally based choices at least weekly...were designated as nutritionally aware; soldiers who made choices based on nutrition less than weekly were designated as nutritionally unaware

  2. Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-2-0010 TITLE: Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas W. Britt...SUBTITLE Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Sb. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0010 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...the final version of the ’’Facilitating Mental Health Treatment (FMHT)" unit and leader training, gaining Institutional Review Board (and MRMC

  3. Weight Measurements and Standards for Soldiers, Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    be available for all population Soldiers during periods designated by the research study design. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Soldiers, standards, nutrition ...achieving healthy management of body weight, healthy nutrition , physical fitness, and combat readiness. The H.E.A.L.T.H. study is a cluster (group...of nutrition , fitness, sleep and mind/body health. During Year 7, final analyses for the LANG study will be conducted and further dissemination of

  4. Family Reintegration Experiences of Soldiers with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-26

    DATES COVERED 26 FEB 2014 Final 1 SEP 2011 - 31 DEC 2013 - 4. TITLE AND S UBTITLE I’· CONTRACT NUMBER I Family Reintegration Experiences of Soldiers...unlimited [ 13. SUPPLEMENTARY OTES I N/A 14. ABSTRACT I Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore family reintegration processes ofpost-mTBI...nurses who provide much of that care and who educate soldiers and their family members about mTBI. 15. SUBJECT TERMS family reintegration , deployment

  5. Understanding the elevated suicide risk of female soldiers during deployments.

    PubMed

    Street, A E; Gilman, S E; Rosellini, A J; Stein, M B; Bromet, E J; Cox, K L; Colpe, L J; Fullerton, C S; Gruber, M J; Heeringa, S G; Lewandowski-Romps, L; Little, R J A; Naifeh, J A; Nock, M K; Sampson, N A; Schoenbaum, M; Ursano, R J; Zaslavsky, A M; Kessler, R C

    2015-03-01

    The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) has found that the proportional elevation in the US Army enlisted soldier suicide rate during deployment (compared with the never-deployed or previously deployed) is significantly higher among women than men, raising the possibility of gender differences in the adverse psychological effects of deployment. Person-month survival models based on a consolidated administrative database for active duty enlisted Regular Army soldiers in 2004-2009 (n = 975,057) were used to characterize the gender × deployment interaction predicting suicide. Four explanatory hypotheses were explored involving the proportion of females in each soldier's occupation, the proportion of same-gender soldiers in each soldier's unit, whether the soldier reported sexual assault victimization in the previous 12 months, and the soldier's pre-deployment history of treated mental/behavioral disorders. The suicide rate of currently deployed women (14.0/100,000 person-years) was 3.1-3.5 times the rates of other (i.e. never-deployed/previously deployed) women. The suicide rate of currently deployed men (22.6/100,000 person-years) was 0.9-1.2 times the rates of other men. The adjusted (for time trends, sociodemographics, and Army career variables) female:male odds ratio comparing the suicide rates of currently deployed v. other women v. men was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-6.8), became 2.4 after excluding soldiers with Direct Combat Arms occupations, and remained elevated (in the range 1.9-2.8) after adjusting for the hypothesized explanatory variables. These results are valuable in excluding otherwise plausible hypotheses for the elevated suicide rate of deployed women and point to the importance of expanding future research on the psychological challenges of deployment for women.

  6. A Review of the Soldier’s Equipment Burden

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    most common was the bivvy bag, which is a weather- proof outer to the sleeping bag. Camelbacks were also used by the majority of soldiers. Some also...type) Bivvy bag Cold Weather Uniform Gun oil bottle (larger) Caribena Pan Mess Kit Knife (combat) Gas bottle & burner Sleeping Bag Knife (utility...This report is not aiming to prove there is a soldier load carriage problem. The problem is so prevalent that no further proof is considered

  7. Tactical Behavior Mining of a Soldier-Based Gaming Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-23

    U.S. ARMY TANK AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER Tactical Behavior Mining of a Soldier-Based Gaming Environment 5/23/2016 …Plus...risks • 50% did not include operational scenarios …But they DON’T SOURCE: Roberts, N., & Edson, R. (2008). System Concept of Operations: Standards ...Engineering Concepts TARDEC’s Digital-Prototyping Process Soldier Innovation Workshop CAE Performance Analysis C B OBJECTIVE DATA -and- SUBJECTIVE SURVEYS

  8. Stability and Change in Dimensions of Soldier Morale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-16

    Bartone, Ph.D 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 15. PAGE COUNT Scientific Report FROM Sep 87 To Dec 88 1989...soldiers over time . Over a one-year period, results showed stability in some factors but somewhat different from that of soldiers stationed in the US. For...regardless of location or proximity to a potential battlefield. Over time , however, different structures emerge that reflect increased understanding of

  9. Knowledge brokering with injured workers: Perspectives of injured worker groups and health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lynn; McDermid, Joy; Kothari, Anita; Lindsay, Rob; Brake, Phil; Page, Peter; Argyle, Colin; Gagnon, Crystal; Knott, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the barriers and facilitators in brokering knowledge brokering knowledge to help injured workers make informed decisions about recovery and to support their transitions to return to work (RTW). Perceptions of 63 Injured Worker Groups (IWGs) and 43 Health Care Professionals (HCPs) in facilitating and brokering knowledge were examined. Critical theory and participatory action research approaches informed the development of a multi-stakeholder research team and the study design to support an exploration into knowledge exchange and transfer. Data was analyzed using a critical occupational perspective to reveal the source of barriers and to identify the facilitators of the knowledge exchange and transfer process. Barriers in transferring knowledge included system barriers, a lack of information accessibility, and problems with variations in injured worker capacity and experience using information. IWG and HCP participants lacked expertise in knowledge transfer. Findings also revealed the interactive knowledge transfer processes that IWGs and HCPs use to help injured workers understand and use information. Change is required to improve knowledge exchange and transfer of information for and to persons with injuries and disabilities. Suggested changes include the development of a sustainable knowledge transfer community of practice, a best practice guide for knowledge brokers such as IWGs and HCPs, and a process for ongoing assessment and evaluation of injured worker information needs and preferences.

  10. Armor and anesthesia: exposure, feeling, and the soldier's body.

    PubMed

    MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2012-03-01

    For many civilians, the high-tech weapons, armor, and military medicine with which U.S. soldiers are equipped present an image of lethal capacity and physical invulnerability. But, as this article explores, soldiers themselves just as often associate the life-sustaining technology of modern warfare with feelings that range from a pragmatic ambivalence about exposure to harm all the way to profoundly unsettling vulnerability. This article, based on fieldwork among soldiers and military families at the U.S. Army's Ft. Hood, examines sensory and affective dimensions of soldiers' intimate bodily relationships with the technologies that alternately or even simultaneously keep them alive and expose them to harm. I argue that modern military discipline and technology conspire to cultivate soldiers as highly durable, capable, unfeeling, interchangeable bodies, or what might be called, after Susan Buck-Morss (1992), anesthetic subjects. But for soldiers themselves, their training, combat environment, protective gear, and weapons are a rich font of both emotional and bodily feeling that exists in complex tension with the also deeply felt military imperative to carry on in the face of extreme discomfort and danger.

  11. The invisible soldiers: understanding how the life experiences of girl child soldiers impacts upon their health and rehabilitation needs.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Amy Jane

    2014-05-01

    There are estimated 120,000 girl child soldiers worldwide. Recruitment makes girls vulnerable to the violence of war, torture, psychological trauma and sexual abuse with huge impact on their physical, mental and reproductive health. Despite this, girl soldiers often remain an invisible and marginalised group frequently neglected from disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programmes. This is not just a local issue: with former child soldiers seeking asylum as refugees there is an increasing need for health workers in the destination countries to understand their health needs in order to inform appropriate holistic service provision. This review provides an overview of how the duties and life experiences of girl soldiers, including gender-specific abuses, impacts upon their health and concludes with a summary of recommendations as to how their rehabilitation needs can be addressed.

  12. Altered glycosaminoglycan metabolism in injured arterial wall

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, B.G.; Hajjar, D.P.; Minick, C.R.

    1985-06-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) are believed to be important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We have previously demonstrated that areas of injured aorta that have been re-endothelialized accumulate increased amounts of lipid and GAG when compared to areas remaining de-endothelialized. We have now examined the net incorporation of labeled precursors into the individual GAG present in both re-endothelialized and de-endothelialized areas of rabbit aorta. Aortic tissue was examined at 2-3 and 10-14 weeks after a denuding injury by incubating tissue minces with (/sup 3/H)glucosamine and sodium (/sup 35/S)sulfate for 24 hr. Following incubation, the aortic GAG were isolated and assayed for uronic acid concentration and radioactivity. Results indicate that the total GAG concentration was significantly greater in the re-endothelialized as compared to de-endothelialized areas. The concentration in uninjured aorta was 9.01. The difference between the injured tissues was attributable to increased concentrations of sulfated GAG. Hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate were the most metabolically active of the GAG in either uninjured or injured aorta, together accounting for over 75% of the /sup 3/H label. The /sup 3/H specific radioactivities of the four GAG in the short-term, re-endothelialized subgroup were all increased nearly twice that found in uninjured and de-endothelialized tissues. With the exception of heparan sulfate, no significant differences were noted in the /sup 3/H specific radioactivities between the re-endothelialized and de-endothelialized areas in the long-term subgroup. These results indicate that, relative to adjacent areas of de-endothelialization, GAG preferentially accumulate in re-endothelialized areas even as early as 2-3 weeks following a denuding injury.

  13. Analysis of Latvian familial melanoma patients shows novel variants in the noncoding regions of CDKN2A and that the CDK4 mutation R24H is a founder mutation.

    PubMed

    Veinalde, Rūta; Ozola, Aija; Azarjana, Kristīne; Molven, Anders; Akslen, Lars A; Doniņa, Simona; Proboka, Guna; Cēma, Ingrīda; Baginskis, Ainārs; Pjanova, Dace

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary cutaneous melanoma is associated with mutations in the high-risk CDKN2A gene in about 40% of melanoma-prone families. Mutations in the CDK4 gene are the cause in only a few pedigrees. In this study, we analyzed 20 Latvian familial melanoma probands and carried out a comprehensive analysis of CDKN2A including sequencing of its promoter/intronic regions and deletion screening. We also analyzed the critical second exon of the CDK4 gene. One novel intronic variant (IVS2+82C>T) of the CDKN2A gene and a small deletion (c.-20677_-20682delGTACGC) in its promoter region were found. Genotyping of the novel variants in larger melanoma and control groups indicated that the deletion increases the risk of melanoma (odds ratio=6.353, 95% confidence interval: 1.34-30.22, P=0.0168). The CDK4 gene analysis showed a Latvian melanoma family with the mutation R24H carried on the same haplotype as in two previously described Latvian CDK4-positive families. Our study suggests that the main risk gene in Latvian families with a strong family history of melanoma is CDK4 and that most of the other cases analyzed could be sporadic or associated with low-penetrance risk genes.

  14. Caffeine use among active duty US Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Harris R; Stavinoha, Trisha; McGraw, Susan; White, Alan; Hadden, Louise; Marriott, Bernadette P

    2012-06-01

    Eighty-percent of the US adult population regularly consumes caffeine, but limited information is available on the extent and patterns of use. Caffeine use is a public health issue and its risks and benefits are regularly considered in scientific literature and the lay media. Recently, new caffeine-containing products have been introduced and are widely available on Army bases and are added to rations to maintain cognitive performance. This study surveyed caffeine consumption and demographic characteristics in 990 US Army soldiers. Data were weighted by age, sex, rank, and Special Forces status. Total caffeine intake and intake from specific products were estimated. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between caffeine use and soldier demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Eighty-two percent of soldiers consumed caffeine at least once a week. Mean daily caffeine consumption was 285 mg/day (347 mg/day among regular caffeine consumers). Male soldiers consumed, on average, 303 mg/day and females 163 mg/day (regular consumers: 365 mg/day for male soldiers, 216 mg/day for female soldiers). Coffee was the main source of caffeine intake. Among young males, energy drinks were the largest source of caffeine intake, but their intake was not greater than older males. Regression analysis indicated an association of higher caffeine intake with male sex, white race, and tobacco use (P<0.01). Most soldiers consume caffeine in levels accepted as safe, but some consume greater quantities than recommended, although definitive information on safe upper limits of caffeine intake is not available. Labels of caffeine-containing products should provide caffeine content so individuals can make informed decisions.

  15. Blood pressure in head‐injured patients

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Patrick; Gregson, Barbara A; Piper, Ian; Citerio, Giuseppe; Mendelow, A David; Chambers, Iain R

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the statistical characteristics of blood pressure (BP) readings from a large number of head‐injured patients. Methods The BrainIT group has collected high time‐resolution physiological and clinical data from head‐injured patients who require intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. The statistical features of this dataset of BP measurements with time resolution of 1 min from 200 patients is examined. The distributions of BP measurements and their relationship with simultaneous ICP measurements are described. Results The distributions of mean, systolic and diastolic readings are close to normal with modest skewing towards higher values. There is a trend towards an increase in blood pressure with advancing age, but this is not significant. Simultaneous blood pressure and ICP values suggest a triphasic relationship with a BP rising at 0.28 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP, for ICP up to 32 mm Hg, and 0.9 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP for ICP from 33 to 55 mm Hg, and falling sharply with rising ICP for ICP >55 mm Hg. Conclusions Patients with head injury appear to have a near normal distribution of blood pressure readings that are skewed towards higher values. The relationship between BP and ICP may be triphasic. PMID:17138594

  16. 77 FR 61509 - Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 Memorandum for the Secretary of State Pursuant to section 404 of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (CSPA) (title IV, Public Law 110-457), I hereby...

  17. Intragenomic Conflict over Soldier Allocation in Polyembryonic Parasitoid Wasps.

    PubMed

    Rautiala, Petri; Gardner, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the selection pressures that have driven the evolution of sterile insect castes has been the focus of decades of intense scientific debate. An amenable empirical test bed for theory on this topic is provided by the sterile-soldier caste of polyembryonic parasitoid wasps. The function of these soldiers has been a source of controversy, with two basic hypotheses emerging: the "brood-benefit" hypothesis that they provide an overall benefit for their siblings and the "sex-ratio-conflict" hypothesis that the soldiers mediate a conflict between brothers and sisters by killing their opposite-sex siblings. Here, we investigate the divergent sex-ratio optima of a female embryo's maternal-origin and paternal-origin genes, to determine the potential for, and direction of, intragenomic conflict over soldiering. We then derive contrasting empirically testable predictions concerning the patterns of genomic imprinting that are expected to arise out of this intragenomic conflict, for the brood-benefit versus the sex-ratio-conflict hypothesis of soldier function.

  18. Head-mounted display systems and the special operations soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyd, Rodney B.

    1998-08-01

    In 1997, the Boeing Company, working with DARPA under the Smart Modules program and the US Army Soldier Systems Command, embarked on an advanced research and development program to develop a wearable computer system tailored for use with soldiers of the US Special Operations Command. The 'special operations combat management system' is a rugged advanced wearable tactical computer, designed to provide the special operations soldier with enhanced situation awareness and battlefield information capabilities. Many issues must be considered during the design of wearable computers for a combat soldier, including the system weight, placement on the body with respect to other equipment, user interfaces and display system characteristics. During the initial feasibility study for the system, the operational environment was examined and potential users were interviewed to establish the proper display solution for the system. Many display system requirements resulted, such as head or helmet mounting, Night Vision Goggle compatibility, minimal visible light emissions, environmental performance and even the need for handheld or other 'off the head' type display systems. This paper will address these issues and other end user requirements for display systems for applications in the harsh and demanding environment of the Special Operations soldier.

  19. The soldiers in societies: defense, regulation, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Zhou, Xuguo

    2014-01-01

    The presence of reproductively altruistic castes is one of the primary traits of the eusocial societies. Adaptation and regulation of the sterile caste, to a certain extent, drives the evolution of eusociality. Depending on adaptive functions of the first evolved sterile caste, eusocial societies can be categorized into the worker-first and soldier-first lineages, respectively. The former is marked by a worker caste as the first evolved altruistic caste, whose primary function is housekeeping, and the latter is highlighted by a sterile soldier caste as the first evolved altruistic caste, whose task is predominantly colony defense. The apparent functional differences between these two fundamentally important castes suggest worker-first and soldier-first eusociality are potentially driven by a suite of distinctively different factors. Current studies of eusocial evolution have been focused largely on the worker-first Hymenoptera, whereas understanding of soldier-first lineages including termites, eusocial aphids, gall-dwelling thrips, and snapping shrimp, is greatly lacking. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge on biology, morphology, adaptive functions, and caste regulation of the soldier caste. In addition, we discuss the biological, ecological and genetic factors that might contribute to the evolution of distinct caste systems within eusocial lineages.

  20. The Soldiers in Societies: Defense, Regulation, and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Zhou, Xuguo

    2014-01-01

    The presence of reproductively altruistic castes is one of the primary traits of the eusocial societies. Adaptation and regulation of the sterile caste, to a certain extent, drives the evolution of eusociality. Depending on adaptive functions of the first evolved sterile caste, eusocial societies can be categorized into the worker-first and soldier-first lineages, respectively. The former is marked by a worker caste as the first evolved altruistic caste, whose primary function is housekeeping, and the latter is highlighted by a sterile soldier caste as the first evolved altruistic caste, whose task is predominantly colony defense. The apparent functional differences between these two fundamentally important castes suggest worker-first and soldier-first eusociality are potentially driven by a suite of distinctively different factors. Current studies of eusocial evolution have been focused largely on the worker-first Hymenoptera, whereas understanding of soldier-first lineages including termites, eusocial aphids, gall-dwelling thrips, and snapping shrimp, is greatly lacking. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge on biology, morphology, adaptive functions, and caste regulation of the soldier caste. In addition, we discuss the biological, ecological and genetic factors that might contribute to the evolution of distinct caste systems within eusocial lineages. PMID:24644427

  1. Beyond child soldiering: the interference of daily living conditions in former child soldiers' longer term psychosocial well-being in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Coppens, Kathleen; De Schryver, Maarten; Loots, Gerrit; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2013-01-01

    Given the various developments in former child soldiers' psychosocial well-being over time, the question arises as to which factors are associated with the prevalence of psychological distress. An ongoing debate points to the plausible importance of child soldiering-related and post-child soldiering factors. This study is an exploratory analysis of both types of association with former child soldiers' psychosocial well-being in the longer term. Follow-up data on a convenience sample of 424 northern Ugandan former child soldiers are analysed. Psychological symptoms are assessed by a review of the intake and assessment forms of the Rachele Rehabilitation Centre, which were not validated and did not include a standardised translation into the local language. These psychological symptoms and possible associated factors are analysed using binary logistic regression analysis. Thereby, both child soldiering-related and post-child soldiering variables are accounted for. The outcomes reveal almost no significant main effects of child soldiering-related variables, while a range of post-child soldiering variables (number of meals a day, school attendance, insults and professional support) are clearly associated with the prevalence of the measured psychological symptoms in the longer term. These exploratory conclusions should be further investigated in representative samples of former child soldiers using validated assessment tools.

  2. Development of a Model of Soldier Effectiveness: Retranslation Materials and Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    sion training exercise with seven aggres- sors against one soldier, this soldier quickly found the best escape route and accomplished his mission...PERFORMANCE EFFECTIVENESS CATEGORY LEVEL 191. When apprehended for possession of mari- juana , this soldier agreed to work close- ly with his NCO to

  3. Army Reserve Components: Improvements Needed to Data Quality and Management Procedures to Better Report Soldier Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    military which details the policies and procedures for investigating the circumstances of a soldier’s disease , injury, or death. The Deputy Chief of...the soldier possesses a chronic or prolonged deployment- limiting medical or mental condition; or...soldiers whose service has been interrupted by injury, illness, disease , or death. Soldiers who are not medically ready with medical conditions that

  4. Scratching the Surface: A Comparison of Girl Soldiers from Three Geographic Regions of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    Over 300,000 children are estimated to be conscripted participants in conflicts throughout the world. Depending on the particular armed group that employs child soldiers, girls represent 6 to 50% of child soldiers. Despite this prevalence of involvement, the experience of girls as soldiers in war and political conflict has rarely been…

  5. Scratching the Surface: A Comparison of Girl Soldiers from Three Geographic Regions of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    Over 300,000 children are estimated to be conscripted participants in conflicts throughout the world. Depending on the particular armed group that employs child soldiers, girls represent 6 to 50% of child soldiers. Despite this prevalence of involvement, the experience of girls as soldiers in war and political conflict has rarely been…

  6. High Hopes, Grim Reality: Reintegration and the Education of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Simmons, Stephanie; Borisova, Ivelina; Brewer, Stephanie E.; Iweala, Uzo; de la Soudiere, Marie

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies have explored aspects of education relating to the reintegration of former child soldiers into their communities. In particular, researchers have shown the negative effects of child soldiering on the educational and economic outcomes of former child soldiers. A few studies have discussed the relative benefits of education for…

  7. An Action Research Intervention for Improving Soldiers' Success in Their Off-Duty Education Pursuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferby, Clifford Jerome

    2013-01-01

    Many soldiers are interested in pursuing their college education but discover there are barriers and roadblocks that hamper their ability to take college courses. The notion of taking the classroom to the soldiers within their military unit should be studied further. The reason for this research was to improve soldiers' success in pursuing their…

  8. High Hopes, Grim Reality: Reintegration and the Education of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Simmons, Stephanie; Borisova, Ivelina; Brewer, Stephanie E.; Iweala, Uzo; de la Soudiere, Marie

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies have explored aspects of education relating to the reintegration of former child soldiers into their communities. In particular, researchers have shown the negative effects of child soldiering on the educational and economic outcomes of former child soldiers. A few studies have discussed the relative benefits of education for…

  9. 78 FR 63365 - Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...-- Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0..., 2013 Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 Memorandum for the Secretary of State Pursuant to section 404 of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (CSPA) (title IV...

  10. 76 FR 65927 - Certification and Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ..., 2011 Certification and Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 Memorandum for the Secretary of State Pursuant to section 404 of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008... government-supported use of child soldiers and to ensure that no children are recruited, conscripted, or...

  11. Automated segmentation of the injured spleen.

    PubMed

    Dandin, Ozgür; Teomete, Uygar; Osman, Onur; Tulum, Gökalp; Ergin, Tuncer; Sabuncuoglu, Mehmet Zafer

    2016-03-01

    To develop a novel automated method for segmentation of the injured spleen using morphological properties following abdominal trauma. Average attenuation of a normal spleen in computed tomography (CT) does not vary significantly between subjects. However, in the case of solid organ injury, the shape and attenuation of the spleen on CT may vary depending on the time and severity of the injury. Timely assessment of the severity and extent of the injury is of vital importance in the setting of trauma. We developed an automated computer-aided method for segmenting the injured spleen from CT scans of patients who had splenectomy due to abdominal trauma. We used ten subjects to train our computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) method. To validate the CAD method, we used twenty subjects in our testing group. Probabilistic atlases of the spleens were created using manually segmented data from ten CT scans. The organ location was modeled based on the position of the spleen with respect to the left side of the spine followed by the extraction of shape features. We performed the spleen segmentation in three steps. First, we created a mask of the spleen, and then we used this mask to segment the spleen. The third and final step was the estimation of the spleen edges in the presence of an injury such as laceration or hematoma. The traumatized spleens were segmented with a high degree of agreement with the radiologist-drawn contours. The spleen quantification led to [Formula: see text] volume overlap, [Formula: see text] Dice similarity index, [Formula: see text] precision/sensitivity, [Formula: see text] volume estimation error rate, [Formula: see text] average surface distance/root-mean-squared error. Our CAD method robustly segments the spleen in the presence of morphological changes such as laceration, contusion, pseudoaneurysm, active bleeding, periorgan and parenchymal hematoma, including subcapsular hematoma due to abdominal trauma. CAD of the splenic injury due to abdominal

  12. Medically Documented Suicide Ideation Among U.S. Army Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C; Stein, Murray B; Naifeh, James A; Nock, Matthew K; Aliaga, Pablo A; Fullerton, Carol S; Wynn, Gary H; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Dinh, Hieu M; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; McCarroll, James E; Cox, Kenneth L; Heeringa, Steven G

    2016-11-29

    We used administrative data to examine predictors of medically documented suicide ideation (SI) among Regular Army soldiers from 2006 through 2009 (N = 10,466 ideators, 124,959 control person-months). Enlisted ideators (97.8% of all cases) were more likely than controls to be female, younger, older when entering service, less educated, never or previously deployed, and have a recent mental health diagnosis. Officer ideators were more likely than controls to be female, younger, younger when entering service, never married, and have a recent mental health diagnosis. Risk among enlisted soldiers peaked in the second month of service and declined steadily, whereas risk among officers remained relatively stable over time. Risk of SI is highest among enlisted soldiers early in Army service, females, and those with a recent mental health diagnosis.

  13. Reintegration of child soldiers in Burundi: a tracer study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. Methods This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452) and never-recruited peers (N=191) who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005–06); immediately afterwards (T2; 2006–07); and at present (T3; 2010). Participants also rated present functional impairment and mental health indicators. Results Participants reported improvement on all indicators, especially economic opportunity and social integration. At present no difference existed between both groups on any of the outcome indicators. Socio-economic functioning was negatively related with depression- and, health complaints and positively with intervention satisfaction. Conclusion The present study demonstrates promising reintegration trajectories of former child soldiers after participating in a support program. PMID:23095403

  14. Multiple trauma and mental health in former Ugandan child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Adam, Hubertus

    2010-10-01

    The present study examines the effect of war and domestic violence on the mental health of child soldiers in a sample consisting of 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age: 11-17 years, female: 49%). All children had experienced at least 1 war-related event and 78% were additionally exposed to at least 1 incident of domestic violence. Prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder were 33%, and 36%, respectively. Behavioral and emotional problems above clinical cutoff were measured in 61%. No gender differences were found regarding mental health outcomes. War experience and domestic violence were significantly associated with all mental health outcomes. The authors' findings point to the detrimental effects of domestic violence in addition to traumatizing war experiences in child soldiers.

  15. Reintegration of child soldiers in Burundi: a tracer study.

    PubMed

    Jordans, Mark J D; Komproe, Ivan H; Tol, Wietse A; Ndayisaba, Aline; Nisabwe, Theodora; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2012-10-25

    Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452) and never-recruited peers (N=191) who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005-06); immediately afterwards (T2; 2006-07); and at present (T3; 2010). Participants also rated present functional impairment and mental health indicators. Participants reported improvement on all indicators, especially economic opportunity and social integration. At present no difference existed between both groups on any of the outcome indicators. Socio-economic functioning was negatively related with depression- and, health complaints and positively with intervention satisfaction. The present study demonstrates promising reintegration trajectories of former child soldiers after participating in a support program.

  16. Exoskeleton for Soldier Enhancement Systems Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.

    2000-09-28

    The development of a successful exoskeleton for human performance augmentation (EHPA) will require a multi-disciplinary systems approach based upon sound biomechanics, power generation and actuation systems, controls technology, and operator interfaces. The ability to integrate key components into a system that enhances performance without impeding operator mobility is essential. The purpose of this study and report are to address the issue of feasibility of building a fieldable EHPA. Previous efforts, while demonstrating progress and enhancing knowledge, have not approached the level required for a fully functional, fieldable system. It is doubtless that the technologies required for a successful exoskeleton have advanced, and some of them significantly. The question to be addressed in this report is have they advanced to the point of making a system feasible in the next three to five years? In this study, the key technologies required to successfully build an exoskeleton have been examined. The primary focus has been on the key technologies of power sources, actuators, and controls. Power sources, including internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, and hybrid sources have been investigated and compared with respect to the exoskeleton application. Both conventional and non-conventional actuator technologies that could impact EHPA have been assessed. In addition to the current state of the art of actuators, the potential for near-term improvements using non-conventional actuators has also been addressed. Controls strategies, and their implication to the design approach, and the exoskeleton to soldier interface have also been investigated. In addition to these key subsystems and technologies, this report addresses technical concepts and issues relating to an integrated design. A recommended approach, based on the results of the study is also presented.

  17. Muzzle flash localization for the dismounted soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy Scott, Will

    2015-05-01

    The ability to accurately and rapidly know the precise location of enemy fire would be a substantial capability enhancement to the dismounted soldier. Acoustic gun-shot detections systems can provide an approximate bearing but it is desired to precisely know the location (direction and range) of enemy fire; for example to know from `which window' the fire is coming from. Funded by the UK MOD (via Roke Manor Research) QinetiQ is developing an imaging solution built around an InGaAs camera. This paper presents work that QinetiQ has undertaken on the Muzzle Flash Locator system. Key technical challenges that have been overcome are explained and discussed in this paper. They include; the design of the optical sensor and processing hardware to meet low size, weight and power requirements; the algorithm approach required to maintain sensitivity whilst rejecting false alarms from sources such as close passing insects and sun glint from scene objects; and operation on the move. This work shows that such a sensor can provide sufficient sensitivity to detect muzzle flash events to militarily significant ranges and that such a system can be combined with an acoustic gunshot detection system to minimize the false alarm rate. The muzzle flash sensor developed in this work operates in real-time and has a field of view of approximately 29° (horizontal) by 12° (vertical) with a pixel resolution of 0.13°. The work has demonstrated that extension to a sensor with realistic angular rotation rate is feasible.

  18. Keeping injured employees working. Overcoming common problems.

    PubMed

    Howe, M L

    1996-10-01

    1. In the past, employers did not routinely provide work for injured/disabled employees. While today many companies wish to reduce workers' compensation costs and understand the savings available through modified work programs, remnants of the old philosophy remain. 2. Often employers initiate a new program, only to have it detailed or complicated by misunderstandings and lack of common assumptions. The occupational health nurse can be a key team member in recognizing and countering fears and concerns that prevent implementation of a successful program. 3. Common obstacles that arise are both philosophical (the employee must be 100% fit) and practical (all our jobs are repetitive, so how can we provide work?). The occupational health nurse must continue to educate, motivate, assist, and communicate the goals and vision of the new philosophy.

  19. [The lung of the thermally injured patient].

    PubMed

    Bargues, Laurent

    2002-12-15

    Severely burned patients are at high risk for developing respiratory failure at any time during their treatment. The lung of a thermally injured patient may sustain many injuries such as smoke inhalation, physical forces, inflammation and infection. The knowledge of the mechanisms of burn injury, physical exam findings, laboratory studies, relevant radiologic examinations, and fiberoptic bronchoscopy allow an early and accurate diagnosis of pulmonary damage. The treatment consists of oxygenation, mechanical ventilation, surgical treatment of burn wounds and trauma, and possible therapy for poisoning. The respiratory injuries are one of the main factors responsible for high mortality in burned patients. Better understanding of the pathophysiology and inflammatory response will lead to future therapeutic advances.

  20. Dreams in head-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Benyakar, M; Tadir, M; Groswasser, Z; Stern, M J

    1988-01-01

    It is commonly believed that patients following severe head injury tend to dream less than before the injury. In order to evaluate this assumption 51 married head injury patients were interviewed about the frequency and content of their dreams before and after injury. Dreams with threatening content and dreams with manifest sexual content were especially analysed. The results indicate that the overall incidence of dreams in the late post-traumatic phase was similar to the pre-injury era. Threatening dreams were almost significantly more frequent after injury, and the reported incidence of dream with sexual manifest content decreased significantly post-injury. It is suggested that the dynamic mechanism for this phenomenon in head-injured patients is different from that found in the post-traumatic neurosis syndrome.

  1. Predicting knee osteoarthritis risk in injured populations.

    PubMed

    Long, Michael J; Papi, Enrica; Duffell, Lynsey D; McGregor, Alison H

    2017-08-01

    Individuals who suffered a lower limb injury have an increased risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. Early diagnosis of osteoarthritis and the ability to track its progression is challenging. This study aimed to explore links between self-reported knee osteoarthritis outcome scores and biomechanical gait parameters, whether self-reported outcome scores could predict gait abnormalities characteristic of knee osteoarthritis in injured populations and, whether scores and biomechanical outcomes were related to osteoarthritis severity via Spearman's correlation coefficient. A cross-sectional study was conducted with asymptomatic participants, participants with lower-limb injury and those with medial knee osteoarthritis. Spearman rank determined relationships between knee injury and outcome scores and hip and knee kinetic/kinematic gait parameters. K-Nearest Neighbour algorithm was used to determine which of the evaluated parameters created the strongest classifier model. Differences in outcome scores were evident between groups, with knee quality of life correlated to first and second peak external knee adduction moment (0.47, 0.55). Combining hip and knee kinetics with quality of life outcome produced the strongest classifier (1.00) with the least prediction error (0.02), enabling classification of injured subjects gait as characteristic of either asymptomatic or knee osteoarthritis subjects. When correlating outcome scores and biomechanical outcomes with osteoarthritis severity only maximum external hip and knee abduction moment (0.62, 0.62) in addition to first peak hip adduction moment (0.47) displayed significant correlations. The use of predictive models could enable clinicians to identify individuals at risk of knee osteoarthritis and be a cost-effective method for osteoarthritis screening. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Evaluation for Occult Fractures in Injured Children

    PubMed Central

    French, Benjamin; Song, Lihai; Feudtner, Chris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine variation across US hospitals in evaluation for occult fractures in (1) children <2 years old diagnosed with physical abuse and (2) infants <1 year old with injuries associated with a high likelihood of abuse and to identify factors associated with such variation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in children <2 years old with a diagnosis of physical abuse and in infants <1 year old with non-motor vehicle crash–related traumatic brain injury or femur fractures discharged from 366 hospitals in the Premier database from 2009 to 2013. We examined across-hospital variation and identified child- and hospital-level factors associated with evaluation for occult fractures. RESULTS: Evaluations for occult fractures were performed in 48% of the 2502 children with an abuse diagnosis, in 51% of the 1574 infants with traumatic brain injury, and in 53% of the 859 infants with femur fractures. Hospitals varied substantially with regard to their rates of evaluation for occult fractures in all 3 groups. Occult fracture evaluations were more likely to be performed at teaching hospitals than at nonteaching hospitals (all P < .001). The hospital-level annual volume of young, injured children was associated with the probability of occult fracture evaluation, such that hospitals treating more young, injured patients were more likely to evaluate for occult fractures (all P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial variation in evaluation for occult fractures among young children with a diagnosis of abuse or injuries associated with a high likelihood of abuse highlights opportunities for quality improvement in this vulnerable population. PMID:26169425

  3. Predictors of Change in Substance Abuse Status in Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Mehrazmay, Alireza; Karambakhsh, Alireza; Salesi, Mahmood; Heydari, Mostafa; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Military service is a stressful task that influences the life style of army personnel. Several factors can make soldiers less capable of coping with stressful events; so they may try to start drug abuse or increase in the amount or diversity of substance abuse. Understanding factors responsible for this misbehavior among soldiers is crucial for their commanders to modify these factors. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the predictors of change in substance abuse status in soldiers. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional research was conducted to evaluate the substance abuse status among Iranian soldiers in 2010. The target population was the soldiers who had spent at least 3 months of their military service. Cluster sampling was done from army service garrisons in 12 provinces in Iran. A total of 3960 soldiers were selected with different levels of education and age. Data gathering was done with demographic questionnaires, Texas Christian university (TCU) drug screen II and ASI questionnaire (fifth edition). Four types of dependent variables were defined: “improvement”, “without change”, “deterioration”, and “severe deterioration”. Backward ordinal regression analysis was done and P values, OR, and SE were calculated by SPSS19 software. Results: Totally, 6.7% of soldiers improved, 82% remained without change, 6.1% deteriorated, and 5.2% severely deteriorated with regard to their substance abuse. Modifiable predictors were distance from home lower than 200 km (OR =1.54), bad relationship with commanders (OR = 1.88), service place dissatisfaction (OR = 1.39), and always feeling lonely (OR = 1.83). Non-modifiable factors were alcohol use within family and friends (P = 0.000); psychiatric drug use history (OR = 1.72); suicidal attempt history (OR = 1.31); divorce, separation, and extramarital contact (P = 0.001); unemployment (P = 0.019); leisure time dissatisfaction (P = 0.004); living alone (OR = 2.43); and substance abuse

  4. [Psychological impact on French soldiers in the Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Le Pape, Erwan; de Montleau, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The many constraints and psychologically demanding situations to which French soldiers are subjected (living conditions, operational pace, scenes of exaction, hostile crowds, combat situations) have justified a psychiatrist being posted to the theatre of operation Sangaris, in the Central African Republic, soon after the military intervention began. While the psychiatrist's activity is typical of psychiatry in operational situations,.the configuration of the conflict- a civil war - and its impact on the psyche of the soldiers making up the task force have resulted in these practices being adapted and acknowledgement of the need to update skills.

  5. Soldier morphogenesis in a nasute termite: discovery of a disc-like structure forming a soldier nasus.

    PubMed Central

    Miura, T; Matsumoto, T

    2000-01-01

    Nasute termites belonging to the subfamily Nasutitermitinae, have a soldier caste that possesses a frontal projection (nasus) on the head, from which defensive substances are secreted. In the course of caste differentiation of the processional nasute termite Hospitalitermes medioflavus, the most dynamic morphogenesis occurs in the stage of moulting from male minor worker to presoldier (the stage preceding the soldier stage). We examined the presumptive nasus epithelium in minor workers and determined that the nasus develops rapidly just prior to the moulting to presoldiers. The rapid growth is associated with two folding layers of cuticle and epithelium, which we termed the soldier-nasus disc, and resembles the imaginal discs found in holometabolous insects. PMID:10902684

  6. Big and tall soldiers are more likely to survive battle: a possible explanation for the 'returning soldier effect' on the secondary sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2007-11-01

    It is widely known that more boys are born during and immediately after wars, but there has not been any ultimate (evolutionary) explanation for this 'returning soldier effect'. Here, I suggest that the higher sex ratios during and immediately after wars might be a byproduct of the fact that taller soldiers are more likely to survive battle and that taller parents are more likely to have sons. I analyze a large sample of British Army service records during World War I. Surviving soldiers were on average more than one inch (3.33 cm) taller than fallen soldiers. Conservative estimates suggest that the one-inch height advantage alone is more than twice as sufficient to account for all the excess boys born in the UK during and after World War I. While it remains unclear why taller soldiers are more likely to survive battle, I predict that the returning soldier effect will not happen in more recent and future wars.

  7. A Soldier is a Soldier: Successful Gender Integration in the Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    l y a n d e m p i r i c a l l y d u b i o u s . ’󈧗 Dr. J u d i t h S t i ehm , a n o t e d po l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t , r e d u c...real world, wingmen get shotdown by small arms fire, even strong men break and run and sometimes our own soldiers die in friendly fire incidents...34putting yourself in the other guy’s shoes." Moskos points out that. in addition to educating whites, "these courses send a strong signal to blacks that

  8. How Brain-Injured Children Learn to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doman, Glenn

    This paper discusses the place of reading instruction in the education of brain-injured children and presents some arguments for early reading instruction for children in general. Reading instruction is especially suitable for brain-injured children because reading presents an additional means of stimulating the brain. Meaning is attached to…

  9. THE BRAIN-INJURED CHILD IN HOME, SCHOOL, AND COMMUNITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRUICKSHANK, WILLIAM M.

    WRITTEN FOR PARENTS, TEACHERS, AND OTHERS WHO WORK DAILY WITH BRAIN INJURED CHILDREN, THE BOOK INCLUDES CONSIDERATION OF THE SYMPTOMS OF BRAIN DAMAGE, RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES AND PERSONNEL, AND DESCRIPTIONS OF TREATMENT TECHNIQUES THAT HAVE PROVED EFFECTIVE AT HOME AND IN THE CLASSROOM. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE BRAIN INJURED CHILD…

  10. Enemy recognition is linked to soldier size in a polymorphic stingless bee.

    PubMed

    Grüter, Christoph; Segers, Francisca H I D; Santos, Luana L G; Hammel, Benedikt; Zimmermann, Uwe; Nascimento, Fabio S

    2017-10-01

    Many ant and termite colonies are defended by soldiers with powerful mandibles or chemical weaponry. Recently, it was reported that several stingless bee species also have soldiers for colony defence. These soldiers are larger than foragers, but otherwise lack obvious morphological adaptations for defence. Thus, how these soldiers improve colony fitness is not well understood. Robbing is common in stingless bees and we hypothesized that increased body size improves the ability to recognize intruders based on chemosensory cues. We studied the Neotropical species Tetragonisca angustula and found that large soldiers were better than small soldiers at recognizing potential intruders. Larger soldiers also had more olfactory pore plates on their antennae, which is likely to increase their chemosensory sensitivity. Our results suggest that improved enemy recognition might select for increased guard size in stingless bees. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Sustainable Use Of Macro-Algae For Biogas Production In Latvian Conditions: A Preliminary Study Through An Integrated Mca And Lca Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastare, Laura; Romagnoli, Francesco; Lauka, Dace; Dzene, Ilze; Kuznecova, Tatjana

    2014-12-01

    The study focuses on sustainability evaluation of an algae-based energy system in Latvia with a holistic and integrated approach of multi-criteria analysis combined with life cycle assessment (including a practical side - biogas yield experiments of locally available algae). The study shows potential for sustainable use of algae in Latvian conditions and thus that algal biomass can be utilized for the production of biogas. The most sustainable and feasible scenario of using algae for biogas energy production foresees the collection of algae biomass from natural water bodies. Important beneficial effects through the use of algae are related to avoiding global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication impacts. Biogas batch experiments carried out with the local macrophyte C.demersum have shown a methane yield of 554 l CH4/kg VS.

  12. Assessment of the Present and Future Offshore Wind Power Potential: A Case Study in a Target Territory of the Baltic Sea Near the Latvian Coast

    PubMed Central

    Teilans, Artis

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century. PMID:23983619

  13. Assessment of the present and future offshore wind power potential: a case study in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast.

    PubMed

    Lizuma, Lita; Avotniece, Zanita; Rupainis, Sergejs; Teilans, Artis

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century.

  14. DUI histories in intoxicated injured bicyclists.

    PubMed

    Maximus, Steven; Figueroa, Cesar; Pham, Jacqueline; Kuncir, Eric; Barrios, Cristobal

    2016-10-01

    It has been well documented that the use of alcohol correlates with injury risk, especially in DUI (driving under the influence) and DWI (driving while intoxicated). Consumption of alcohol in patients presenting with bicycle-related injuries is associated with greater injury severity, longer hospitalization, and higher health care costs. We hypothesized that intoxicated patients operating a bicycle with traumatic injuries have previous DUI or DWI convictions and had lost their privilege to drive a motor vehicle, resorted to bicycling, and had continued alcohol consumption despite negative previous consequences. We retrospectively collected data on injured bicyclists older than 18 years with positive blood alcohol content levels treated from the period January 2009 to June 2014 at a large Level 1 urban trauma center. We then matched each patient by name and date of birth and were able to obtain public criminal records through the Superior Court of California for the local of county. A total of 149 injured bicyclists with positive blood alcohol levels were identified. Their average blood alcohol content was 236.0 mg/dL, and their average age was 41 years. Sixty-six (44.2%) of these patients had prior DUI/DWI convictions with suspension of driving privileges. Ninety-five patients in this group (63.8%) had no health insurance, and 51 patients (34.2%) tested positive for other drugs. Intoxicated bicyclists trended toward longer hospital length compared with nonintoxicated bicyclists (4.60 vs. 3.44 days; p = 0.07). Three (0.02%) of 149 patients were charged with bicycling while intoxicated. Intoxicated bicyclists involved in trauma are more likely to have a previous DUI/DWI, have other drug use, tend to have longer hospital stays, and are less likely to have insurance. Bicycle safety education and behavior modification targeting DUI/DWI offenders are warranted. In order to promote injury prevention, resources to increase awareness of this underestimated public health

  15. Missing: Critical and Skeptical Perspectives on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, James Campbell

    2011-01-01

    The author read with interest, and concern, the January 2011 issue of the "American Psychologist". The "Special Issue on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness" addressed a hugely consequential national issue and offered a vision for psychological resilience along with an elaborate set of supporting articles, concluding with some comments on "Objections"…

  16. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: Building Resilience in a Challenging Institutional Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornum, Rhonda; Matthews, Michael D.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program is designed to increase psychological strength and positive performance and to reduce the incidence of maladaptive responses of the entire U.S. Army. Based on the principles of positive psychology, CSF is a historically unique approach to behavioral health in a large (1.1 million members)…

  17. The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program: Family Skills Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottman, John M.; Gottman, Julie S.; Atkins, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Field combat stress clinics and research have identified the signature event that precedes thoughts of suicide and homicide in combat soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan: a distressing personal relationship event with a stateside partner. In response to this alarming information, we have identified critical factors and precipitating incidents as well…

  18. Child Soldiers, Peace Education, and Postconflict Reconstruction for Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessells, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Worldwide, children are drawn into lives as soldiers and terrorism as the result of forced recruitment and also by extremist ideologies and their inability to obtain security, food, power, prestige, education, and positive life options through civilian means. Using an example from Sierra Leone, this article shows that peace education is an…

  19. Paul Mills Ireland III Portrait of a Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the life and identity of Paul Mills Ireland, III. The qualitative study was conducted using the portraiture approach and was further developed by incorporating the holistic content approach of analysis in narrative research. This fifth generation soldier was the product of a strong military lineage, most of whom were…

  20. Active Army and Army Reserve Soldiers: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkan, JoJo T.; And Others

    A study determined whether chemical operations specialists at skill level 1 differ in terms of aptitude, job knowledge, job confidence, and perceptions of task difficulty, task importance, task frequency, and task training, depending on whether the specialists are active U.S. Army soldiers or are in the Army Reserve. The subjects for whom complete…

  1. Active Army and Army Reserve Soldiers: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkan, JoJo T.; And Others

    A study determined whether chemical operations specialists at skill level 1 differ in terms of aptitude, job knowledge, job confidence, and perceptions of task difficulty, task importance, task frequency, and task training, depending on whether the specialists are active U.S. Army soldiers or are in the Army Reserve. The subjects for whom complete…

  2. The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program: Family Skills Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottman, John M.; Gottman, Julie S.; Atkins, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Field combat stress clinics and research have identified the signature event that precedes thoughts of suicide and homicide in combat soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan: a distressing personal relationship event with a stateside partner. In response to this alarming information, we have identified critical factors and precipitating incidents as well…

  3. PEO Soldier Simulation Road Map V - The MATREX Federation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Integrated Casualty Estimation Model ( ICEM ). This includes conceptual modeling, KA/KE, model implementation, integration, and test Command and Control...prevent real-time linkage ^ith ICEM Rulesof Engagement IWARS Develop representations and soldier behaviorsthat capture the effects of IFF systems

  4. Paul Mills Ireland III Portrait of a Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the life and identity of Paul Mills Ireland, III. The qualitative study was conducted using the portraiture approach and was further developed by incorporating the holistic content approach of analysis in narrative research. This fifth generation soldier was the product of a strong military lineage, most of whom were…

  5. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: Building Resilience in a Challenging Institutional Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornum, Rhonda; Matthews, Michael D.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program is designed to increase psychological strength and positive performance and to reduce the incidence of maladaptive responses of the entire U.S. Army. Based on the principles of positive psychology, CSF is a historically unique approach to behavioral health in a large (1.1 million members)…

  6. The Latin American Challenge and Army Hispanic Soldier Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-18

    assessment system. 6. Institute Hispanic cultural awareness , and acculturation training for second language soldiers, second language families, commanders...level evaluation through the English assessrent system. 6. Institute Hispanic cultural awareness and accul turation training for second language...attrition and mediocre junior officer performance a three part program of English language and intercultural communica- tion was begun in 1982. The

  7. Lives beyond Suffering: The Child Soldiers of African Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Jacqueline N.; Baer, Allison L.

    2011-01-01

    Sierra Leone is only one of the more than 50 armed conflicts currently going on around the world. It is estimated that 20 million children were either refugees or displaced internally, and some 300,000 children under the age of 18 were used in hostilities at any given time as government or rebel soldiers, with about one-third reportedly fighting…

  8. Radio and the Black Soldier during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckiffe, Donald; Murray, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the representation of race in the electronic media. Traces particular social, political, and institutional pressure influencing the production of the figure of the black soldier in U.S. radio during World War II. Shows how it served to varying degrees the immediate interests of the black press, the federal government,…

  9. Lives beyond Suffering: The Child Soldiers of African Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Jacqueline N.; Baer, Allison L.

    2011-01-01

    Sierra Leone is only one of the more than 50 armed conflicts currently going on around the world. It is estimated that 20 million children were either refugees or displaced internally, and some 300,000 children under the age of 18 were used in hostilities at any given time as government or rebel soldiers, with about one-third reportedly fighting…

  10. Ideological Eclecticism and Coherence among Black Soldiers: A Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigert, Kathleen Maas

    1980-01-01

    Data from a sample of Black soldiers are utilized to examine extent to which "eclecticism" (low interrelatedness between goal and means) rather than "coherence" (high interrelatedness between goal and means) characterizes the ideological profiles of members of this minority group. (GC)

  11. The spined soldier bug: an important biocontrol agent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is a generalist predator known to feed on over 75 insect species, several of which are important invasive insect pests. A substantial body of knowledge from our research studies on the ecology of this predator will be present...

  12. Streamflow characteristics and trends along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-08-16

    Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages along Soldier Creek in northeast Kansas were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends. This information is required by the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to assess annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow.Annual mean streamflows along Soldier Creek were characterized by substantial year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trends. On average, annual mean base flow accounted for about 20 percent of annual mean streamflow. Mean monthly flows followed a general seasonal pattern that included peak values in spring and low values in winter. Annual peak flows, which were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability, were most likely to occur in May and June and least likely to occur during November through February. With the exception of a weak yet statistically significant increasing trend at the Soldier Creek near Topeka, Kansas, streamgage, there were no pronounced long-term trends in annual peak flows. Annual 1-day, 30-day, and 90-day mean minimum flows were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trend. During an extreme drought, as was the case in the mid-1950s, there may be zero flow in Soldier Creek continuously for a period of one to several months.

  13. Soldier System Modeling and Integrated Unit Simulation System (IUSS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    SI_n~le’P_k:’Fact_or) Explicit Target Acquisition, Hit. Kill (P"x pllX pk) • Target Acquisition Model - Exchange Shot Models Circadian Rhythms I...to the effectiveness of the total Soldier System. A flow chart of an example three dimensional relationship for the Engagement sub- capability is

  14. Child Soldiers and Iconography: Portrayals and (Mis)Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denov, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, child soldiers have inundated the popular media. Images of boys armed with AK47s appear ubiquitous, providing a cautionary tale of innocent childhood gone awry. While these representations turn commonly held assumptions of a protected and innocuous childhood on its head, what they conceal is as provocative as what they…

  15. TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICANAMERICAN SOLDIERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICAN-AMERICAN SOLDIERS, POST IN 1939 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1939.00.00.06, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  16. AFRICANAMERICAN CAVALRY SOLDIERS AND THEIR MOUNTS ENTER A CORRAL BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AFRICAN-AMERICAN CAVALRY SOLDIERS AND THEIR MOUNTS ENTER A CORRAL BETWEEN TWO OF THE 1916 STABLES. PHOTOGRAPH IS LOOKING TO THE WEST AND WAS TAKEN IN 1928 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1928.00.00.13, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  17. Child Soldiers and Iconography: Portrayals and (Mis)Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denov, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, child soldiers have inundated the popular media. Images of boys armed with AK47s appear ubiquitous, providing a cautionary tale of innocent childhood gone awry. While these representations turn commonly held assumptions of a protected and innocuous childhood on its head, what they conceal is as provocative as what they…

  18. Marital Status & Risk Behaviors Among U.S. Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    who were not married. These findings are consistent with the extensive civilian research literature documenting the physical and mental health...had a greater likelihood of driving without a seatbelt compared to married soldiers. The findings indicate that marital status is an...married. These findings are consistent with the extensive civilian research literature documenting the physical and mental health advantage of being

  19. An Ex-Soldier Finds a New Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    Matthew Reilly's roundabout journey to college took a painful, decisive turn after a nighttime crash in Iraq. In 2008, six months into his first combat tour with the Army, Mr. Reilly and nine soldiers from his platoon were pursuing an insurgent when their armored fighting vehicle slammed into a roadblock. It was 2 o'clock in the morning, and fresh…

  20. Digestive enzymes from workers and soldiers of termite Nasutitermes corniger.

    PubMed

    Lima, Thâmarah de Albuquerque; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Dornelles, Leonardo Prezzi; Amorim, Poliana Karla; Sá, Roberto Araújo; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2014-10-01

    The digestive apparatus of termites may have several biotechnological applications, as well as being a target for pest control. This report discusses the detection of cellulases (endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase), hemicellulases (β-xylosidase, α-l-arabinofuranosidase, and β-d-xylanase), α-amylase, and proteases (trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like, and keratinase-type) in gut extracts from Nasutitermes corniger workers and soldiers. Additionally, the effects of pH (3.0-11.0) and temperature (30-100°C) on enzyme activities were evaluated. All enzymes investigated were detected in the gut extracts of worker and soldier termites. Endoglucanase and β-xylanase were the main cellulase and hemicellulase, respectively. Zymography for proteases of worker extracts revealed polypeptides of 22, 30, and 43kDa that hydrolyzed casein, and assays using protease inhibitors showed that serine proteases were the main proteases in worker and soldier guts. The determined enzyme activities and their response to different pH and temperature values revealed that workers and soldiers contained a distinct digestive apparatus. The ability of these termites to efficiently digest the main components of lignocellulosic materials stimulates the purification of gut enzymes. Further investigation into their biotechnological potential as well as whether the enzymes detected are produced by the termites or by their symbionts is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An Ex-Soldier Finds a New Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    Matthew Reilly's roundabout journey to college took a painful, decisive turn after a nighttime crash in Iraq. In 2008, six months into his first combat tour with the Army, Mr. Reilly and nine soldiers from his platoon were pursuing an insurgent when their armored fighting vehicle slammed into a roadblock. It was 2 o'clock in the morning, and fresh…

  2. Improving Employment Prospects for Soldiers Leaving the Regular Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    leadership, teamwork , persistence, and atten- tion to detail—allowing transitioning soldiers to cite them when communicating with potential employers. What...This occurs partly because soft skills identified in our approach—such as leadership, teamwork , and train- ing, coaching, and mentoring others—are

  3. Cowards, Comrades, and Killer Angels: The Soldier in Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Gole, Henry O. "Literature and History for Soldiers," MilitalY Review, 68 (May 1988), 2~15. Hemingway , Ernest . Across the River and Into the Trees. New...them. - Hemingway A Farewell to Arms Given similar combat settings, what separates the coward from the brave is neither the presence, nor even the

  4. Soldier-worn augmented reality system for tactical icon visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.

  5. Telemedicine in US Army soldiers with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y Sammy; Cucura, Jon; Jain, Ram; Berry-Caban, Cristobal

    2015-10-01

    A retrospective study of a telemedicine clinic for active duty US Army soldiers with type 1 diabetes was conducted. Fifty-one consecutive patients (mean age 33.9 years) were enrolled into the clinic. All soldiers with known or newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes received three weekly office visits for intensive diabetes education. After this, all communication occurred via a messaging system consisting of texting, web-based download, and/or email to a diabetes management team. For urgent matters, 24/7 direct paging or telephone access was provided. Routine adjustments in insulin dosing were accomplished via email. Soldiers were followed for a mean of 17.1 months. Baseline, three-month, and end of study glycated hemoglobin (A1C) values were 9.8, 7.3, and 6.9, respectively. There were no significant differences in end of study A1C levels between patients with known vs. newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, nor were there any differences between those patients who received insulin via pump therapy vs. multiple daily injections. Telemedicine was safe and effective in lowering A1C levels in US Army soldiers with type 1 diabetes.

  6. Learning about the Civil War through Soldiers' Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how students in an American history class learned about the Civil War through soldiers' letters. Letters from the Civil War era come in a variety of styles and syntax. Some are easy to read while others are extremely difficult to transcribe. But every one of them speaks to the reader, revealing an unknown entity from another…

  7. Child Soldiers, Peace Education, and Postconflict Reconstruction for Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessells, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Worldwide, children are drawn into lives as soldiers and terrorism as the result of forced recruitment and also by extremist ideologies and their inability to obtain security, food, power, prestige, education, and positive life options through civilian means. Using an example from Sierra Leone, this article shows that peace education is an…

  8. Imaging the Injured Pediatric Athlete: Upper Extremity.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Jorge; Jaramillo, Diego; Chauvin, Nancy A

    2016-10-01

    Increased physical activity in childhood has resulted in a large number of sports-related injuries. Although there is overlap between the sports-related injuries seen in pediatric and adult patients, important differences exist in the injury patterns of pediatric patients. These differences are related to the continuous changes in the developing skeleton and its relationship with adjacent soft tissues. The imbalance in strength between the growing bones and the nearby tendons and ligaments makes the bones prone to acute and chronic injuries. Acute injuries are more common in contact sports such as football and wrestling, whereas chronic injuries are often seen in baseball pitchers and gymnasts. Acute injuries unique to pediatric athletes include physeal fractures of the proximal and distal portions of the clavicle (periosteal sleeve fracture), the proximal humeral physis, and the coracoid process, as well as supracondylar, lateral condylar, and medial condylar fractures around the elbow. Chronic injuries, most commonly caused by repetitive microtrauma, include acromial apophyseolysis, Little Leaguer's shoulder, the constellation of findings seen in Little Leaguer's elbow, and injuries to the medial, lateral, and posterior elbow compartments. In addition, trochlear osteochondral lesions, gymnast's wrist, and rock climber's finger are less-common injuries that may be seen in children. In this article, the normal osseous development of the upper extremity is reviewed, with emphasis on the structures that are most commonly injured. The pathophysiology, imaging appearance, and imaging findings of pediatric athletic injuries are described, along with the prognostic implications. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  9. DANCE in developing and injured lung.

    PubMed

    Jean, Jyh-Chang; Eruchalu, Ifeanyi; Cao, Yu Xia; Joyce-Brady, Martin

    2002-01-01

    We identified rat developing arteries and neural crest derivatives with multiple epidermal growth factor-like domains (DANCE) as a developmentally regulated gene using suppression-subtractive hybridization. Northern analysis confirmed a fivefold induction of this mRNA transcript between fetal day 18 and 20 that persisted through postnatal day 17. The level was declining at postnatal day 21 and was similar in adult lung to that at fetal day 18. In adults DANCE mRNA abundance was highest in lung, kidney, and spleen, lower in heart, skeletal muscle, and brain, but absent from liver and thymus. It was abundant in pulmonary artery endothelium and a lung epithelial type 2 cell line, barely detectable in vascular smooth muscle, and absent in fibroblasts. In situ hybridization revealed a regulated pattern of expression in endothelial cells of fetal, postnatal, and adult lung. Because DANCE mRNA was inducible in systemic arteries during recovery from injury, we searched for induction in lung injured by hyperoxia. Mouse DANCE mRNA abundance was unchanged during an acute 3-day exposure period, induced threefold 5 days into the recovery phase, and returned to baseline at days 8, 11, and 14. In situ hybridization at day 5 suggested a diffuse pattern of induction. DANCE may play a role in lung endothelial cell biology during development repair after injury.

  10. Haemorrhage control in severely injured patients.

    PubMed

    Gruen, Russell L; Brohi, Karim; Schreiber, Martin; Balogh, Zsolt J; Pitt, Veronica; Narayan, Mayur; Maier, Ronald V

    2012-09-22

    Most surgeons have adopted damage control surgery for severely injured patients, in which the initial operation is abbreviated after control of bleeding and contamination to allow ongoing resuscitation in the intensive-care unit. Developments in early resuscitation that emphasise rapid control of bleeding, restrictive volume replacement, and prevention or early management of coagulopathy are making definitive surgery during the first operation possible for many patients. Improved topical haemostatic agents and interventional radiology are becoming increasingly useful adjuncts to surgical control of bleeding. Better understanding of trauma-induced coagulopathy is paving the way for the replacement of blind, unguided protocols for blood component therapy with systemic treatments targeting specific deficiencies in coagulation. Similarly, treatments targeting dysregulated inflammatory responses to severe injury are under investigation. As point-of-care diagnostics become more suited to emergency environments, timely targeted intervention for haemorrhage control will result in better patient outcomes and reduced demand for blood products. Our Series paper describes how our understanding of the roles of the microcirculation, inflammation, and coagulation has shaped new and emerging treatment strategies.

  11. Helping American Soldiers in Time of War: Reply to Comments on the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2011-01-01

    Seligman responds to the comments made about the January 2011 "American Psychologist" "Special Issue on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness" (CSF). Seligman proposed an entire issue of on the topic of CSF to encourage psychologists to come to the aid of our government, and he urges psychologists not to be discouraged by this tactic.…

  12. Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance: Translating State-of-the-Science Soldier Research for Operational Utility.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2015-11-01

    The Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance (ICSPP) was held on August 18-21, 2014 in Boston, MA, where it had a record attendance of 374 registrants from 27 countries. The Congress included 8 invited keynote lectures, 12 symposia, 1 featured science session, more than 200 oral and poster free communication sessions, 8 thematic poster sessions, and a Warfighter Readiness Roundtable. Collectively, the presentations focused on a fundamental premise that soldiers are the center of warfighting capability, and the human service member is the prime resource and key enabler of all warfighting systems. The intent of the ICSPP series is to focus on the soldier-the individual service member. As we move forward with focus placed on the human dimension of soldiering, the key to our scientific success and what will prove to be transformative will be the extent to which we can operationalize and disseminate our scientific knowledge for the benefit of our soldiers on the ground. The Congress fostered important scientific exchange, and dialog centered on improving military physical performance and readiness. As countries around the globe respond to current and emerging threats to their national security, it is increasingly clear that we must ensure optimal human performance of our military personnel. By taking advantage of the science and applications of physical fitness and injury prevention research, we can leverage our increased understanding for the optimal application of physical readiness processes while minimizing the injury risk potential. We believe that the continued scientific and evidence-based dialog across international partners will prove to be transformative in identifying the most effective strategies for human performance optimization in the 21st century. Innovation, leveraging current state-of-the-science, and international partnerships were all key themes throughout the Congress. From the ICSPP scientific program, it was clear that there

  13. Fungistatic Activity of Freshly Killed Termite, Nasutitermes acajutlae, Soldiers in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Claire A.

    2007-01-01

    Termites may have high exposure to both pathogenic and competitive fungal species. Previous studies have shown anti-fungal properties of the primary components (α-pinene and limonene) of Nasutitermes frontal glands that are present on soldiers. In this study, the termite Nasutitermes acajutlae (Isoptera: Termitidae) was used to examine if the growth of naturally occurring fungi was inhibited by soldiers, as compared to workers that do not have frontal glands. Soldiers and workers were killed, surface sterilized, and placed on nutrient agar either singly or in combinations with other termites. Time until appearance of fungus and growth of visible fungal colonies was determined. Fungus appeared significantly earlier in cultures with single workers than with single soldiers (P < 0.001). Once fungus appeared, there were no significant differences in growth rate. When worker and/or soldier fluids were combined in one culture, fungal growth appeared later in cultures containing soldiers; growth was significantly slower in colonies with 5 workers and 5 soldiers than in cultures with 5 workers alone; P < 0.001. Finally, growth appeared later in cultures with 5 soldiers than in cultures with one soldier, suggesting a dose-response. Fungi that grew from termites were mostly non-pathogenic, suggesting the anti-fungal properties of soldiers may inhibit both pathogens and competitors. PMID:20307241

  14. Fungistatic activity of freshly killed termite, Nasutitermes acajutlae, soldiers in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Claire A

    2007-01-01

    Termites may have high exposure to both pathogenic and competitive fungal species. Previous studies have shown anti-fungal properties of the primary components (alpha-pinene and limonene) of Nasutitermes frontal glands that are present on soldiers. In this study, the termite Nasutitermes acajutlae (Isoptera: Termitidae) was used to examine if the growth of naturally occurring fungi was inhibited by soldiers, as compared to workers that do not have frontal glands. Soldiers and workers were killed, surface sterilized, and placed on nutrient agar either singly or in combinations with other termites. Time until appearance of fungus and growth of visible fungal colonies was determined. Fungus appeared significantly earlier in cultures with single workers than with single soldiers (P < 0.001). Once fungus appeared, there were no significant differences in growth rate. When worker and/or soldier fluids were combined in one culture, fungal growth appeared later in cultures containing soldiers; growth was significantly slower in colonies with 5 workers and 5 soldiers than in cultures with 5 workers alone; P < 0.001. Finally, growth appeared later in cultures with 5 soldiers than in cultures with one soldier, suggesting a dose-response. Fungi that grew from termites were mostly non-pathogenic, suggesting the anti-fungal properties of soldiers may inhibit both pathogens and competitors.

  15. Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis among Israel Defense Force Soldiers: 20 Years Experience at the Hadassah Medical Centers.

    PubMed

    Pikkel, Yoav Y; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Eliahou, Ruth; Honig, Asaf

    2015-11-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis pose major risks of morbidity and mortality. To describe 20 years of experience treating infections of the central nervous system in Israel Defense Force (IDF) soldiers, including the common presentations, pathogens and sequelae, and to identify risk groups among soldiers. All soldiers who were admitted to the Hadassah University Medical Center (both campuses: Ein Kerem and Mt. Scopus) due to meningitis and meningoencephalitis from January 1993 to January 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, laboratory and radiologic data were reviewed from their hospital and army medical corps files. Attention was given to patients' military job description, i.e., combat vs. non-combat soldier, soldiers in training, and medical personnel. We identified 97 cases of suspected meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Six were mistakenly filed and these patients were found to have other disorders. Four soldiers were diagnosed with epidural abscess and five with meningitis due to non-infectious in flammatory diseases. Eighty-two soldiers in active and reserve duty had infectious meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Of these, 46 (56.1%) were combat soldiers and 31 (37.8%) non-combat; 20 (29.2%) were soldiers in training, 10 (12.2%) were training staff and 8 (9.8%) were medical staff. The main pathogens were enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus an d Neisseria meningitidis. In our series, soldiers in training, combat soldiers and medical personnel had meningitis and meningoencephalitis more than other soldiers. Enteroviruses are highly infectious pathogens and can cause outbreaks. N. meningitidis among IDF soldiers is still a concern. Early and aggressive treatment with steroids should be considered especially in robust meningoencephalitis cases.

  16. Racial Disparities in Survival Among Injured Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Haskins, Amy E.; Clark, David E.; Travis, Lori L.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies on racial and ethnic disparities in survival after motor vehicle crashes have examined only population-based death rates or have been restricted to hospitalized patients. In the current study, we examined 3 components of crash survival by race/ethnicity: survival overall, survival to reach a hospital, and survival among those hospitalized. Nine years of data (from 2000 through 2008) from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were used to examine white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, and Hispanic drivers aged ≥15 years with serious injuries (injury severity scores of ≥9). By using multivariable logistic regression, we found that a driver's race/ethnicity was not significantly associated with overall survival after being injured in a crash (for blacks, odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36, 1.32; for Hispanics, OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.72), and blacks and Hispanics were equally likely to survive to be treated at a hospital compared with whites (for blacks, OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.52, 1.93; for Hispanics, OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.79). However, among patients who were treated at a hospital, blacks were 50% less likely to survive 30 days compared with whites (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.76). The disparity in survival after serious traffic injuries among blacks appears to occur after hospitalization, not in prehospital survival. PMID:23371352

  17. Altered thyroid function in severely injured patients

    PubMed Central

    Grill, Elena; Strong, Michelle; Sonnad, Seema S.; Sarani, Babak; Pascual, Jose; Collins, Heather; Sims, Carrie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic shock profoundly affects the neuroendocrine profile of trauma patients, and we hypothesized that massive resuscitation would negatively impact thyroid function. Methods A prospective, observational study investigating thyroid function in hypotensive trauma patients (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg × 2) who survived >48 h was conducted at a Level I center over a 6-mo period. Blood samples for thyroid function were collected at time of presentation to the trauma bay and serially for 48 h. Collected data included demographics, injury data, vital signs, transfusion needs, crystalloid use, and vasopressor requirements. Patients receiving >5 units packed red blood cells (PRBC) within 12 h were compared with those receiving ≥ 5 units. Results Patients who required >5 units of PRBC/12 h had significantly lower total and free T4 levels on initial presentation, and levels remained significantly depressed over the next 48 h when compared with patients who required a less aggressive resuscitative effort. T3 values were markedly suppressed during the initial 48 h post trauma in all patients, but were significantly lower in patients requiring >5 units PRBC. TSH levels remained within the normal range for all time points. Lower trauma admission T4 levels were associated with the need for greater crystalloid resuscitation within the first 24 h. Conclusion Measurements of thyroid function are significantly altered in severely injured patients on initial presentation, and low T4 levels predict the need for large resuscitation. Further research investigating the profile and impact of thyroid function in trauma patients during resuscitation and recovery is warranted. PMID:23043865

  18. Coagulation and fibrinolysis in injured patients

    PubMed Central

    Innes, D.; Sevitt, S.

    1964-01-01

    Serial changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis studied among 42 patients admitted to hospital with a wide variety of injuries are reported. The first hours after trauma are dominated by an acceleration of fibrinolysis (clot lysis) and clotting time which are often followed by an abrupt rebound to prolonged fibrinolysis and normal clotting. Evidence is presented that acceleration of fibrinolysis is due to flooding of the circulation by plasminogen activator and that prolongation is probably due to an inhibitor. A prolonged prothrombin time, increased prothrombin consumption index, an acceleration of the heparin-retarded clotting time, and a fall in the platelet count are also frequent during the first hours after injury. There is evidence also of an early deficiency in factor V and the onset of a fall in factor VII and prothrombin. The following days are characterized by continued prolongation of fibrinolysis, a lengthening of clotting time, and an increased prothrombin consumption index suggestive of a defect in thrombo-plastin generation. Subsequent periods of prolonged fibrinolysis may develop. Prothrombin time often continues prolonged for one to three weeks and may vary phasically; plasma prothrombin and factor VII are reduced but there is now little change in factor V. The platelet count continues to fall for one to three days, then a thrombocytosis develops, often with abnormally high platelet levels, a week or so later. Plasma fibrinogen rises within 24 hours to reach a plateau maximum a few days later and levels remain high for prolonged periods in the severely injured. Various changes are related to or influenced by the severity of trauma. Mechanisms are discussed, including thrombosis in vivo, and reference is made to homeostatic significance and its possible breakdown. PMID:14103515

  19. Transcranial Optical Imaging of Cold-Injured Brain in Rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Yoshinori; Sato, Shunichi; Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Shima, Katsuji; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2005-06-01

    We performed a transcranial optical imaging of a cold-injured brain in a rat. The rat skull was illuminated with a 633 nm HeNe laser, and the distribution of reflected light intensity was imaged with a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. An increase in reflected light intensity was observed in the injured area. The analysis of brain tissues perfused with India ink suggested that a reduced blood flow rate in the area of injury enhances reflection.

  20. A retrospective study of ketamine administration and the development of acute or post-traumatic stress disorder in 274 war-wounded soldiers.

    PubMed

    Mion, G; Le Masson, J; Granier, C; Hoffmann, C

    2017-10-03

    The objective of this study was to explore whether ketamine prevents or exacerbates acute or post-traumatic stress disorders in military trauma patients. We conducted a retrospective study of a database from the French Military Health Service, including all soldiers surviving a war injury in Afghanistan (2010-2012). The diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder was made by a psychiatrist and patients were analysed according to the presence or absence of this condition. Analysis included the following covariables: age; sex; acute stress disorder; blast injury; associated fatality; brain injury; traumatic amputation; Glasgow coma scale; injury severity score; administered drugs; number of surgical procedures; physical, neurosensory or aesthetic sequelae; and the development chronic pain. Covariables related to post-traumatic and acute stress disorders with a p ≤ 0.10 were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. The data from 450 soldiers were identified; 399 survived, of which 274 were analysed. Among these, 98 (36%) suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder and 89 (32%) had received ketamine. Fifty-four patients (55%) in the post-traumatic stress disorder group received ketamine vs. 35 (20%) in the no PTSD group (p < 0.001). The 89 injured soldiers who received ketamine had a median (IQR [range]) injury severity score of 5 (3-13 [1-26]) vs. 3 (2-4 [1-6] in the 185 patients who did not (p < 0.001). At multivariable analysis, only acute stress disorder and total number of surgical procedures were independently associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. In this retrospective study, ketamine administration was not a risk factor for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in the military trauma setting. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Types of injuries among Polish soldiers and civilian staff in the 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th rotation of the Afghan stabilization mission.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Radosław

    2012-03-01

    The Afghan military theatre is specifically marked by guerilla operations and massive use of IEDs (improvised explosive devices) that pose new types of threats for their victims. At the same time, the relevant literature contains only a single, fragmentary analysis on injuries suffered by soldiers serving in the Afghan mission. This is a review of medical reports of the Polish Military Contingent deployed within Operation Enduring Freedom, from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011; the analysis includes all cases of combat and non-combat injuries in terms of their causes. In the period under analysis, 380 Polish soldiers were reported injured; 87.1% of cases were combat and 12.9% non-combat injuries. The structure of injuries caused as a result of IED explosions was dominated by multiple limb injuries, associated most frequently with severe body cavities/spine injuries. In the case of other incidents, both combat and non-combat, the predominant consequences were single and, most commonly, less severe injuries. The average number of injuries suffered from IED attacks (3.37) was significantly higher than the number of injuries from other attacks (1.16), and higher than the number of non-combat injuries (1.43). IED attacks pose a serious medical problem, considering their high number and the severity of injuries they cause.

  2. Types of injuries among Polish soldiers and civilian staff in the 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th rotation of the Afghan stabilization mission

    PubMed Central

    Ziemba, Radosław

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The Afghan military theatre is specifically marked by guerilla operations and massive use of IEDs (improvised explosive devices) that pose new types of threats for their victims. At the same time, the relevant literature contains only a single, fragmentary analysis on injuries suffered by soldiers serving in the Afghan mission. Material/Methods This is a review of medical reports of the Polish Military Contingent deployed within Operation Enduring Freedom, from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011; the analysis includes all cases of combat and non-combat injuries in terms of their causes. Results In the period under analysis, 380 Polish soldiers were reported injured; 87.1% of cases were combat and 12.9% non-combat injuries. The structure of injuries caused as a result of IED explosions was dominated by multiple limb injuries, associated most frequently with severe body cavities/spine injuries. In the case of other incidents, both combat and non-combat, the predominant consequences were single and, most commonly, less severe injuries. The average number of injuries suffered from IED attacks (3.37) was significantly higher than the number of injuries from other attacks (1.16), and higher than the number of non-combat injuries (1.43). Conclusions IED attacks pose a serious medical problem, considering their high number and the severity of injuries they cause. PMID:22367143

  3. Health significance and occurrence of injured bacteria in drinking water.

    PubMed

    McFeters, G A; LeChevallier, M W; Singh, A; Kippin, J S

    1986-01-01

    Enteropathogenic and indicator bacteria become injured in drinking water with exposure to sublethal levels of various biological, chemical and physical factors. One manifestation of this injury is the inability to grow and form colonies on selective media containing surfactants. The resulting underestimation of indicator bacteria can lead to a false estimation of water potability. m-T7 medium was developed specifically for the recovery of injured coliforms (both "total" and fecal) in drinking water. The m-T7 method was used to survey operating drinking water treatment and distribution systems for the presence of injured coliforms that were undetected with currently used media. The mean recovery with m-Endo LES medium was less than 1/100 ml while it ranged between 6 and 68/100ml with m-T7 agar. The majority of samples giving positive results with m-T7 medium yielded no detectable coliforms with m-Endo LES agar. Over 95% of the coliform bacteria in these samples were injured. Laboratory experiments were also done to ascribe the virulence of injured waterborne pathogens. Enteropathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella spp. required up to 20 times the chlorine levels to produce the same injury in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and nonpathogenic coliforms. Similar results were seen with Y. enterocolitica exposed to copper. The recovery of ETEC was followed by delayed enterotoxin production, both in vitro and in the gut of experimental animals. This indicates that injured waterborne enteropathogenic bacteria can be virulent.

  4. Health significance and occurrence of injured bacteria in drinking water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; LeChevallier, M. W.; Singh, A.; Kippin, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Enteropathogenic and indicator bacteria become injured in drinking water with exposure to sublethal levels of various biological, chemical and physical factors. One manifestation of this injury is the inability to grow and form colonies on selective media containing surfactants. The resulting underestimation of indicator bacteria can lead to a false estimation of water potability. m-T7 medium was developed specifically for the recovery of injured coliforms (both "total" and fecal) in drinking water. The m-T7 method was used to survey operating drinking water treatment and distribution systems for the presence of injured coliforms that were undetected with currently used media. The mean recovery with m-Endo LES medium was less than 1/100 ml while it ranged between 6 and 68/100ml with m-T7 agar. The majority of samples giving positive results with m-T7 medium yielded no detectable coliforms with m-Endo LES agar. Over 95% of the coliform bacteria in these samples were injured. Laboratory experiments were also done to ascribe the virulence of injured waterborne pathogens. Enteropathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella spp. required up to 20 times the chlorine levels to produce the same injury in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and nonpathogenic coliforms. Similar results were seen with Y. enterocolitica exposed to copper. The recovery of ETEC was followed by delayed enterotoxin production, both in vitro and in the gut of experimental animals. This indicates that injured waterborne enteropathogenic bacteria can be virulent.

  5. Health significance and occurrence of injured bacteria in drinking water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; LeChevallier, M. W.; Singh, A.; Kippin, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Enteropathogenic and indicator bacteria become injured in drinking water with exposure to sublethal levels of various biological, chemical and physical factors. One manifestation of this injury is the inability to grow and form colonies on selective media containing surfactants. The resulting underestimation of indicator bacteria can lead to a false estimation of water potability. m-T7 medium was developed specifically for the recovery of injured coliforms (both "total" and fecal) in drinking water. The m-T7 method was used to survey operating drinking water treatment and distribution systems for the presence of injured coliforms that were undetected with currently used media. The mean recovery with m-Endo LES medium was less than 1/100 ml while it ranged between 6 and 68/100ml with m-T7 agar. The majority of samples giving positive results with m-T7 medium yielded no detectable coliforms with m-Endo LES agar. Over 95% of the coliform bacteria in these samples were injured. Laboratory experiments were also done to ascribe the virulence of injured waterborne pathogens. Enteropathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella spp. required up to 20 times the chlorine levels to produce the same injury in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and nonpathogenic coliforms. Similar results were seen with Y. enterocolitica exposed to copper. The recovery of ETEC was followed by delayed enterotoxin production, both in vitro and in the gut of experimental animals. This indicates that injured waterborne enteropathogenic bacteria can be virulent.

  6. Missing: critical and skeptical perspectives on comprehensive soldier fitness.

    PubMed

    Quick, James Campbell

    2011-10-01

    The author read with interest, and concern, the January 2011 issue of the American Psychologist. The Special Issue on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness addressed a hugely consequential national issue and offered a vision for psychological resilience along with an elaborate set of supporting articles, concluding with some comments on "Objections" to psychologists working with the military. While a bold vision was offered and a game plan presented, no data or evidence are yet available (it is far too early in the process), and that should concern us all. The author hopes the American Psychological Association (APA) and the American Psychologist offer skeptical and critical views in future issues on the issue of the psychological health of our military and as evidence emerges regarding the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program.

  7. The German-Jewish soldier: from participant to victim.

    PubMed

    Penslar, Derek

    2011-01-01

    The story of German-Jewish soldiers and veterans of World War I illustrates how, under circumstances of inclusion (even if incomplete) rather than vicious persecution, Jewish suffering in wartime, and with it the forms of collective memory and strategies for commemoration of the dead, could closely parallel, even intersect with, the suffering of Germans as a whole. To be sure, the points of intersection were accompanied by points of deflection. Even when Jews served, fought, suffered and died as German soldiers, their interpretations of the war experience, and their communities’ postwar memory and commemorative practices, differed from those of other Germans. In many ways, however, German-Jewish veterans suffered the aftermath of the war as did other Germans; they shared the prevailing fury over war guilt and reparations, and they retained a strong pride in their military service, a pride through which they interpreted the events of 1933–1945.

  8. The Bluebirds: World War I Soldiers' Experiences of Occupational Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Judith; Robinson, Katie; Moloney, Stephanie

    More is known about the experience of occupational therapists than the experience of patients during the profession's early years. We examined soldiers' experiences of occupational therapy in American Base Hospital 9 in France during World War I through analysis of a 53-line poem by Corporal Frank Wren contained in the unpublished memoir of occupational therapy reconstruction aide Lena Hitchcock. Historical documentary research methods and thematic analysis were used to analyze the poem, the memoir, and the hospital's published history. The poem describes the activities engaged in during occupational therapy, equipment used, and the context of therapy. It articulates positive dimensions of the experience of engaging in activities, including emotional benefits, diversion, and orthopedic benefits. Previous historical research has identified core philosophical premises about the use of occupational therapy; in this article, the enactment of these principles is established through the analysis of a soldier's account of receiving occupational therapy.

  9. Front End Analysis of Soldier Individual Power Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    Engine," US Patent No. 2,963,853, issued to W. B. Wescott. Jr., 30 September 1960. 68 Front End Analysis of Soldier Indlvlidual , Pwr RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE...He3 - 269.9 - 453.8 3.2 Helium He4 -268.9 -452.0 4.2 Hydrogen H2 -252.8 -423.0 20.3 Deuterium D2 -249.5 -417.1 23.6 Tritium T2 -248.1 -414.6 25.0...Front End Analysis of Soldier Individual Power tS v nms 1992 Input # Power Peak Pwr Input Energy Equipment Name Of Units Watts Watts Utiliz. Watt-Hrs

  10. Nanocontamination of the Soldiers in a Battle Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, A. M.; Montanari, S.

    The paper deals with the unusual pathologies some soldiers contracted after exposure in battle theatres in Iraq and in the Balkans, and considers the hypotheses the Authors developed to explain the origin of those diseases, that proved to be lethal in a few cases. The scenario of particulate nanopollution generated by high-temperature combustions characteristic of some weapons is described. The electron-microscopy observations carried out in 37 soldiers' pathological tissues verified the internal dissemination of toxic metallic micro and nano-particles. The article considers the way of entrance of those nanopollutants: the lung for inhalation and the digestive system for the ingestion of polluted food. Battle theatre pollution is also discussed.

  11. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Extremity Infections in Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Kimberly A.; McAllister, C. Kenneth; Gray, Paula J.

    2005-01-01

    War wound infection and osteomyelitis caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter species have been prevalent during the 2003–2005 military operations in Iraq. Twenty-three soldiers wounded in Iraq and subsequently admitted to our facility from March 2003 to May 2004 had wound cultures positive for Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex. Eighteen had osteomyelitis, 2 burn infection, and 3 deep wound infection. Primary therapy for these infections was directed antimicrobial agents for an average of 6 weeks. All soldiers initially improved, regardless of the specific type of therapy. Patients were followed up to 23 months after completing therapy, and none had recurrent infection with Acinetobacter species. Despite the drug resistance that infecting organisms demonstrated in this series, a regimen of carefully selected extended antimicrobial-drug therapy appears effective for osteomyelitis caused by MDR Acinetobacter spp. PMID:16102310

  12. Resilience to traumatic exposure among soldiers deployed in combat.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, John M; Riolli, Laura T; Peng, Ann Chunyan; Spain, Everett S

    2011-01-01

    We examined the influence of positive psychological capital (PsyCap), a metaconstruct that combines established psychological predispositions to be resilient to stress, on the well-being of soldiers during combat deployment. Among U.S. Army personnel deployed in Iraq, cognitive appraisal of stress mediated the effects of trait PsyCap on health symptoms. The indirect effects through appraisal were moderated by levels of exposure to potentially traumatic stimuli. Trait PsyCap covaried more strongly with cognitive appraisals, and had stronger indirect effects through appraisal on health, among soldiers in units with higher levels of potentially traumatic exposures. We discuss implications for research on resilience to trauma in the workplace and for helping workers cope with potentially traumatic exposures.

  13. Satisfaction of active duty soldiers with family dental care.

    PubMed

    Chisick, M C

    1997-02-01

    In the fall of 1992, a random, worldwide sample of 6,442 married and single parent soldiers completed a self-administered survey on satisfaction with 22 attributes of family dental care. Simple descriptive statistics for each attribute were derived, as was a composite overall satisfaction score using factor analysis. Composite scores were regressed on demographics, annual dental utilization, and access barriers to identify those factors having an impact on a soldier's overall satisfaction with family dental care. Separate regression models were constructed for single parents, childless couples, and couples with children. Results show below-average satisfaction with nearly all attributes of family dental care, with access attributes having the lowest average satisfaction scores. Factors influencing satisfaction with family dental care varied by family type with one exception: dependent dental utilization within the past year contributed positively to satisfaction across all family types.

  14. Leptospirosis in a British soldier after travel to Borneo.

    PubMed

    Burns, Daniel S; Clay, K A; Bailey, M S

    2016-12-01

    Undifferentiated febrile illness in a returning soldier is a common problem encountered by serving medical officers. A 32-year-old soldier presented to Birmingham Heartlands Hospital with fever and acute kidney injury after return from Borneo. Leptospirosis was suspected and empirical antibiotics were started before subsequent confirmation by serology and PCR. Leptospirosis is common in South-East Asia, and troops exercising in jungle areas, and in the UK, are at risk. Advice, including inpatient management when appropriate, is available from the UK Role 4 Military Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Service. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers.

    PubMed

    Reger, Greg M; Gahm, Gregory A

    2008-08-01

    Virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy is a promising treatment for a variety of anxiety disorders and has recently been extended to the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this article, the authors briefly review the rationale for VRE and its key processes. They illustrate the treatment with an active-duty Army soldier diagnosed with combat-related PTSD. Six sessions of VRE were provided using an immersive simulation of a military convoy in Iraq. Self-reported PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were reduced at posttreatment relative to pretreatment reports, as assessed by the PTSD Checklist-Military Version and the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale-24. The case outcomes parallel those reported in the research with other disorders and suggest the applicability of VRE in treating active duty soldiers with combat-related PTSD.

  16. Soldiers Initiate Foraging Activities in the Subterranean Termite, Heterotermes tenuis

    PubMed Central

    Casarin, Fabiana Elaine; Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria

    2008-01-01

    Caste polyethism has been recorded in some termite species, however the foraging behavior of subterranean termites remains poorly known. Heterotermes tenuis Hagen (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is a subterranean termite that is native to Brazil and is an agricultural and urban pest. The aim of this study was to investigate which caste acts as scouts when searching for food sources and determinate the percentages of each caste present in the foraging territories of field colonies of H. tenuis. Our results showed no significant differences among the caste proportions present in the foraging territories of the three colonies studied in the field. Laboratory experiments showed that minor soldiers were the most frequent initiators of foraging activities. This result suggests that the exploratory phase of the foraging behavior may be regulated by the number of soldiers present in the foraging territories of each colony. PMID:20345313

  17. Quantifying Soldier Shooting Performance of the M4 Carbine with and without a Vertical Grip

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying Soldier Shooting Performance of the M4 Carbine with and without a Vertical Grip by Samson V Ortega Jr, William H Harper, and...21005-5425 ARL-TR-7173 January 2015 Quantifying Soldier Shooting Performance of the M4 Carbine with and without a Vertical Grip...Quantifying Soldier Shooting Performance of the M4 Carbine with and without a Vertical Grip 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  18. Identification of Soldier Behaviors Associated with Search and Target Acquisition (STA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    3 UNCLASSIFIED different gaps. Each of these FACTs focused on several critical research areas ( CRAs ). The Fiscal Year (FY) 08 Soldier FACT Call...for Proposals identified the following CRA : Soldier Search and Target Acquisition (STA): Determine validity of current Soldier STA processes for...place him in a position where he can engage any threats (i.e., can see where to aim and shoot ). The order of behaviors for “audio cues” and

  19. Sustaining Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness: Critical for Army 2020

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    showing that the MRT skills are having a positive effect on Soldier-reported resilience and psychological health (R/ PH). The evaluation shows that MRT...operational commanders.”91 Resilience programs are about training, education, and culture, and therefore are best positioned outside of health and medical...The views expressed in this student academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the

  20. CERDEC Fuel Cell Team: Military Transitions for Soldier Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-27

    Fuel Cell (DMFC) (PEO Soldier) Samsung: 20W DMFC (CRADA) General Atomics & Jadoo: 50W Ammonia Borane Fueled PEMFC Current Fuel Cell Team Efforts...Continued Ardica: 20W Wearable PEMFC operating on Chemical Hydrides Spectrum Brands w/ Rayovac: Hydrogen Generators and Alkaline Fuel Cells for AA...100W Ammonia Borane fueled PEMFC Ultralife: 150W sodium borohydride fueled PEMFC Protonex: 250W RMFC and Power Manager (ARO) NanoDynamics: 250W SOFC

  1. Loads Carried by Soldiers: Historical, Physiological, Biomechanical and Medical Aspects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    most affected. " Winged scapula " was common in many cases. Symptoms were probably due to compression of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. In...Environmental .,;edicine Protocol No. PH-l-88, Natick, MA, 1988. 49. Hauser, CU and Martin WF. Two additional cases of traumatic winged scapula occurring in...Holder, HG. Winged scapula : case occwrring in soldiers from knapsacks. JAMA 120:448-449, 1942. 55. Jones, BH et al. Exercise induced stress fractures

  2. Ethics and the Military Profession. Values and the Professional Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    endangered? A genuine relativist would have to forego such action. And what about the egoist? Egoism is the claim that self-interest is the focus of all...may not have made a careful study of egoism and may hold other moral views inconsistent with the egoist position. This would be true of the...professional soldier who thinks he accepts egoism ; without reconciling it to his commitment to military values. Because so much of what any person routinely

  3. The Effect of Physical Load and Environment on Soldier Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    that scores on perceptual tasks were higher after mild physical activity than during periods of no exercise and sleep deprivation . Gliner et al...Akerstedt, T.; Charles, A.; Bioulac, B. Fatigue, Sleepiness, and Performance in Simulated Versus Real Driving Conditions. Sleep 2005, 28 (12), 1511–1516...The Effect of Physical Load and Environment on Soldier Performance by Ellen C. Haas, Harrison Philip Crowell, and Kathy L. Kehring ARL-TR

  4. Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    climate associated with Soldiers getting mental health treatment. This report identifies the SOW and accomplishments for the third year of the grant...perceptions of mental health treatment based upon the Year 1 focus group and interview studies. This article highlights how new information ...time for mental health treatment. (.669) 5. Leaders do not adequately communicate how to go about getting treatment. (.710) 6. Leaders are too

  5. Using Research to Match the Soldier to the Job

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    of p •ary concern. 83 male and 44 female active duty troops assigned to the 24th Infantry Division were tested on a series of strength measures ...lifting movement were measured . These isometric strength measures were then compared to the amount of weight soldiers were able to lift to the height of a...stamina 2. Skinfold determination of percent body fat and lean body mass 3. Isometric 38cm upright pull force-a measure of static lifting strength 4

  6. Satisfaction with Military Dental Care by Active Duty Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    problem and may contribute to reducing the morale similar score in Table II would indicate a satisfaction level be- of soldiers as well . As Marine Corps...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) In fall 1992, a random, worldwide sample of 5,474 enlisted personnel and 4,036 officers was surveyed on satisfaction with twenty...composite overall satisfaction score using factor analysis. Composite scores were regressed on demographics, dental utilization, and access .barriers

  7. Cold Regions - Environmental Testing of Individual Soldier Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-17

    This Test Operations Procedure (TOP) provides testing guidelines for individual Soldier cold weather clothing and footwear in a cold regions...Cold weather clothing test Cold weather footwear test Environmental clothing test Environmental footwear test 16...1983; TOP 10-3-512 Cold Regions Environmental Test of Boot and Similar Footwear , dated 9 May 1980; and TOP 10-4-005 Arctic Environmental Test of

  8. Army Science Board 1991 Summer Study - Soldier as a System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Dr. Gerald D. Godclen Mr. Marvin R. Hotter Dr. Walter B. LaBerge (Cont) _____________ 7.11PEIFORIKNG, ORGANIXATION NAWES) AND ADDRESSME) L. PWRORMINC...Cort) General James G. Lindsay (USA-Ret) Mr. Charles L. Malone Dr. Bruce Montgomery Dr. Edward J. Powers, Jr. Dr. Robert E. Weigle Dr. Stanley C. White ...the need is to get science and technology resources focused on Soldier System performance. Limitations of time and resources restricted the level of

  9. Soldier Performance on a New Marksmanship Course of Fire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1924 Soldier Performance on a New...Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Department of the Army Deputy Chief of Staff, G1 Authorized and approved for distribution...and Social Sciences , Attn: DAPE-ARI-ZXM, 2511 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, Virginia 22202-3926. FINAL DISPOSITION: This Research Report

  10. After Action Review Tools for Dismounted Soldier Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    medical sensor subsystem that monitors and collects information regarding vital signs such as body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. Future...systems may also monitor hydration , stress levels, sleep status, body positioning and workload capacity of the Soldier. The PSM can notify medics and...Fort Benning, GA 31995-2086 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. MONITOR ACRONYM U. S. Army Research Institute for the

  11. GENDER ISSUES: Medical Support for Female Soldiers Deployed to Bosnia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    as yeast infections and urinary tract infections . They could also test for pregnancy and dispense birth control. The clinics, however, were not...settings, including advice about avoiding urinary tract infections and yeast infections; (3) female-specific health care services available in- theater...Soldiers Deployed to Bosnia had provided information on preventing urinary tract infections and vaginal infections (see fig 1.2). Figure 1.2: Which

  12. Soldiers, Scholars, Diplomats: Educating Strategic Leaders at Foreign Staff Colleges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    Soldiers, Scholars, Diplomats: Educating Strategic Leaders at Foreign Staff Colleges A Monograph by MAJ Christopher Gin United States Army...SCHOLARS, DIPLOMATS: EDUCATING STRATEGIC LEADERS AT FOREIGN STAFF COLLEGES Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT...foreign staff colleges. It argues that the US Anny should educate more of its best field grade officers abroad to gain worldly, contextual intelligence

  13. PEO Soldier Simulation Roadmap: Initial Steps in Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Data Manger (EDM), AW Block 2 Helicopter Oxygen System (HOS) Laser Eye Protection (AW-LEP) Retinal Scanning Display (AW-RSD) SRU-37/P One Man Life Raft...AN/PVS-10 & Long Range SNS) Soldier Night Vision Devices (AN/PVS-7 NVG & AN/PVS-14 MNVD) STORM Micro-Laser Ranger Finder (MLRF) Target Acquisition...choice of weapon, engagement choice of optic, choice decisions of posture Engagement decision, actual target location, range, weather and terrain

  14. Anthropometry and Range of Motion of the Encumbered Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    RANGE OF MOTION OF THE ENCUMBERED SOLDIER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 32 (Lighten the Load) 6. AUTHOR(S...motion ranges of the semi-nude or lightly clothed individual, limited information and data currently exists characterizing the space and movement ...for the grenadier than for the rifleman duty position. Because much of the bulk was added around the waist, movements that involved bending at the

  15. Soldier Performance and Mood States Following a Strenuous Road March

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    min after the march). Soldiers jumped as high as possible and marked a board at the highest point of the jump . The highest of 3 trials was recorded...improve shooting accuracy (15, 16). The grenade throw and vertical jump tests were used to evaluate explosive strength or power (6, 17). Under the...appear to affect leg power. Patton et al. (18) found no decline in peak or mean power on the Wingate test when subjects performed a loaded road march task

  16. FOCU:S--future operator control unit: soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Barry J.; Karan, Cem; Young, Stuart H.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Computational and Information Sciences Directorate (CISD) has long been involved in autonomous asset control, specifically as it relates to small robots. Over the past year, CISD has been making strides in the implementation of three areas of small robot autonomy, namely platform autonomy, Soldier-robot interface, and tactical behaviors. It is CISD's belief that these three areas must be considered as a whole in order to provide Soldiers with useful capabilities. In addressing the Soldier-robot interface aspect, CISD has begun development on a unique dismounted controller called the Future Operator Control Unit: Soldier (FOCU:S) that is based on an Apple iPod Touch. The iPod Touch's small form factor, unique touch-screen input device, and the presence of general purpose computing applications such as a web browser combine to give this device the potential to be a disruptive technology. Setting CISD's implementation apart from other similar iPod or iPhone-based devices is the ARL software that allows multiple robotic platforms to be controlled from a single OCU. The FOCU:S uses the same Agile Computing Infrastructure (ACI) that all other assets in the ARL robotic control system use, enabling automated asset discovery on any type of network. Further, a custom ad hoc routing implementation allows the FOCU:S to communicate with the ARL ad hoc communications system and enables it to extend the range of the network. This paper will briefly describe the current robotic control architecture employed by ARL and provide short descriptions of existing capabilities. Further, the paper will discuss FOCU:S specific software developed for the iPod Touch, including unique capabilities enabled by the device's unique hardware.

  17. Civilian Spouses of Female Soldiers: A Forgotten Breed?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-30

    the children during his absence. This too could have an impact on readiness and retention. In the child care arena, there remain societal expectations...this belief. If they are more traditional in their orientation, they expect the mother to take off from work when a child becomes ill. They do not...be absent because of family considerations. This could become especially acute if his soldier-wife is deployed and cannot share equally in child care

  18. Affirming the Soldier’s Spirit Through Intentional Dialogue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Shay’s observation through the application of contemplative prayer. Such prayer “is a time of quietness with the anticipation of one’s relationship with...0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing...psychological traumas. At the present time the Army lacks an intentional spiritual intervention or spirit- centric assessment for Soldiers. An optimal

  19. Development of Accommodation Models for Soldiers in Vehicles: Squad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    male and female enlisted personnel at three Army posts as they sat in a squad mockup (Figure 1). Figure 1. Squad mockup . The current study...used data from 144 men and women tested in the squad mockup . Table 1 lists summary statistics for standard anthropometric variables for the combined...unlimited 10 Figure 2 shows the ensemble levels used for measurements in the mockup . At the Advanced Combat Uniform (ACU) level, Soldiers wore

  20. Psychiatric symptoms of Turkish combat-injured non-professional veterans

    PubMed Central

    Güloğlu, Berna

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well-known that exposure to combat puts individuals at risk for developing adverse psychological problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and health-related behaviour problems and that the presence of combat-related injury increases the risk for psychopathology. Little is known, however, about the consequences of combat among conscripted soldiers fighting against terrorism in their homeland. Objective The main aim of the current study was to examine the prevalence of probable PTSD, severity of PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and PTSD-related functional impairment among Turkish combat-injured, non-professional veterans. In addition, investigated were also the possible differences among the symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety of the veterans by the frequency of current cigarette and alcohol use. Methods A total of 366 male veterans were assessed by using a demographic information form, which obtained information about injury status and health behaviours, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Symptom frequency and multivariate analysis of variances (MANOVA) were used to analyse the data. Results The prevalence of probable PTSD was 46.7% (171) among Turkish veterans while 16.4% experienced severe depression and 18% experienced severe anxiety. “Upset at reminders (65.8%)” was the most common PTSD symptom. “Responsibilities related to home (48.4%)” was the most frequently reported PTSD-related functional impairment. Results indicated that veterans who smoke more than half a pack per day scored significantly higher in severity of PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Contrary to expectations, there was no significant difference in symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety related to the frequency of current alcohol use. Conclusion Turkish non-professional veterans with physical injuries have serious psychiatric problems an average of 13 years after

  1. [Description of the severely injured in the DRG system: is treatment of the severely injured still affordable?].

    PubMed

    Mahlke, L; Lefering, R; Siebert, H; Windolf, J; Roeder, N; Franz, D

    2013-11-01

    Due to the heterogeneity of severely injured patients (multiple trauma) it is difficult to assign them to homogeneic diagnosis-related groups (DRG). In recent years this has led to a systematic underfunding in the German reimbursement system (G-DRG) for cases of multiply injured patients. This project aimed to improve the reimbursement by modifying the case allocation algorithms of multiply injured patients within the G-DRG system. A retrospective analysis of standardized G-DRG data according to §21 of the Hospital Reimbursement Act (§ 21 KHEntgG) including case-related cost data from 3,362 critically injured patients from 2007 and 2008 from 10 university hospitals and 7 large municipal hospitals was carried out. For 1,241 cases complementary detailed information was available from the trauma registry of the German Trauma Society to monitor the case allocation of multiply injured patients within the G-DRG system. Analysis of coding and grouping, performance of case allocation and the homogeneity of costs in the G-DRG versions 2008-2012 was carried out. The results showed systematic underfunding of trauma patients in the G-DRG version 2008 but adequate cost covering in the majority of cases with the G-DRG versions 2011 and 2012. Cost coverage was foundfor multiply injured patients from the clinical viewpoint who were identified as multiple trauma by the G-DRG system. Some of the overfunded trauma patients had high intensive care costs. Also there was underfunding for multiple injured patients not identified as such in the G-DRG system. Specific modifications of the G-DRG allocation structures could increase the appropriateness of reimbursement of multiply injured patients. Data-based analysis is an essential prerequisite for a constructive development of the G-DRG system and a necessary tool for the active participation of medical specialist societies.

  2. Evaluation of the ability of primary selective enrichment to resuscitate heat-injured and freeze-injured Listeria monocytogenes cells.

    PubMed Central

    Budu-Amoako, E; Toora, S; Ablett, R F; Smith, J

    1992-01-01

    Resuscitation rates of injured Listeria monocytogenes on conventional selective Listeria enrichment broth and nonselective Trypticase soy broth containing 0.6% yeast extract were compared. Cells were heated to 60 degrees C for 5 min or frozen at -20 degrees C for 7 days. Inoculation of Trypticase soy broth-yeast extract with the stressed cells resulted in growth that was superior to that in Listeria enrichment broth. Injured cells were fully recovered at 6 to 8 h. PMID:1444432

  3. On the skin of a soldier: The story of flogging.

    PubMed

    Garrisi, Diana

    2015-01-01

    After Farrier-Major Critton struck the 150th lash on the back of Private Frederick John White, at the end of a common disciplinary session at Hounslow Barracks, West London, in 1846, the soldier, whistling, walked himself to the infirmary to have his wounds dressed. His skin healed promptly, but 4 weeks later, he was found dead in his dormitory. The army medical officers, after performing an autopsy, reached the conclusion that the soldier had died from inflammation of internal organs but excluded any connection with flogging. This version of facts did not convince the coroner for Middlesex, who decided to open an inquest. After 3 more weeks of inquiry and 2 more postmortem examinations, the famous dermatologist Erasmus Wilson contradicted the army officers by affirming that the soldier had indeed died from the effects of flogging as the analysis of the cutaneous lesions and underneath would demonstrate. This contribution will detail how the inquest into the death of Private John White sparked a medical debate on the effects of military flogging to the skin. The discussion raised by the publication of the details of the autopsies demonstrated that different and opposing points of view coexisted in the Victorian period concerning the relation between external lacerations and internal organs in cases of flogging.

  4. The Felin soldier system: a tailored solution for networked operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Sueur, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    Sagem Defense Securite has been awarded a 800M euro contract for the French infantrymen modernisation programme. This programme covers the development, the qualification and the production of about 32 000 soldier systems to equip all the French infantry starting fielding in 2008. The FELIN soldier system provides the infantryman with an integrated system increasing dramatically the soldier capability in any dismounted close combat domains. Man remains at the centre of the system, which can interface equipments or systems already fielded and future equipments to match any customer's needs. Urban operations are carefully addressed thanks to a versatile and modular solution and a dedicated C4I system, Sagem Defense Securite is a European leader in defence electronics and takes part of this major French Army transformation programme, which will play a key role in the Info Centric Network initiatives promoted in France and other countries. This paper summarises the system solutions selected by the French Army with a focus on the networked capabilities and the optronic devices.

  5. Development of seating accommodation models for soldiers in vehicles.

    PubMed

    Zerehsaz, Yaser; Jin, Jionghua Judy; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P

    2017-04-01

    Data from a previous study of soldier driving postures and seating positions were analysed to develop statistical models for defining accommodation of driver seating positions in military vehicles. Regression models were created for seating accommodation applicable to driver positions with a fixed heel point and a range of steering wheel locations in typical tactical vehicles. The models predict the driver-selected seat position as a function of population anthropometry and vehicle layout. These models are the first driver accommodation models considering the effects of body armor and body-borne gear. The obtained results can benefit the design of military vehicles, and the methods can also be extended to be utilised in the development of seating accommodation models for other driving environments where protective equipment affects driver seating posture, such as vehicles used by law-enforcement officers and firefighters. Practitioner Summary: A large-scale laboratory study of soldier driving posture and seating position was designed to focus on tactical vehicle (truck) designs. Regression techniques are utilised to develop accommodation models suitable for tactical vehicles. These are the first seating accommodation models based on soldier data to consider the effects of personal protective equipment and body-borne gear.

  6. Soldiers' personal technologies on deployment and at home.

    PubMed

    Bush, Nigel E; Fullerton, Nicole; Crumpton, Rosa; Metzger-Abamukong, Melinda; Fantelli, Emily

    2012-05-01

    Personal technologies such as smartphones, computers, and gaming devices, are ubiquitous in the civilian world. Consequently they represent ideal vehicles for disseminating psychological and other health resources and interventions. However, almost nothing is known about personal technology use in the U.S. military. We conducted the most comprehensive survey to date of the use, availability, and need for personal technologies by U.S. military service members. Our survey asked detailed questions about computers and the Internet, phones and smartphones, other mobile or portable technologies, gaming devices, and TV and video media used during deployment and at permanent duty station or home. We collected data by paper-and-pencil survey in 2010 and 2011 from 331 active Army service members at a processing and registration center in a large military installation in the western United States. Two cohorts were surveyed: Soldiers who had previously been deployed to a warzone and soldiers who had never been deployed. We measured high rates of personal technology use by service members at home across all popular electronic media. Soldiers at home essentially resembled civilian consumers in their use of popular technologies. Some technologies, including the Internet, gaming, and TV, were widespread on deployment. Others, most notably cellphones, were more restricted by availability, connectivity, opportunity, and military regulation in the warzone. Results will enable researchers and technology developers target their efforts on the most promising and popular technologies for psychological health in the military.

  7. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance.

    PubMed

    Askew, Graham N; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E

    2012-02-22

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (C(met)) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. C(met) for locomotion in armour was 2.1-2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with C(met) for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles.

  8. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance

    PubMed Central

    Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E.

    2012-01-01

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (Cmet) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. Cmet for locomotion in armour was 2.1–2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with Cmet for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles. PMID:21775328

  9. Sociality in Parasitic Flatworms: When Do Soldiers Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Vedrenne, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    Although not traditionally recognized as such, trematode infections in molluscan first intermediate hosts comprise colonies. When two trematode species simultaneously infect a snail host, one generally kills the other. Thus, there can be strong selective pressure for established trematode colonies to protect and defend against new infections. Recent findings demonstrate that some trematode species have a reproductive division of labor involving a reproductive and a soldier caste. Reproductives are larger and filled with offspring, while soldiers lack developing embryos, and are specialized for inter-trematode antagonism. This reproductive division of labor has now been documented for intramolluscan stages of fourteen trematode species from different geographic regions and host species. Further, literature descriptions of the life history of several species suggest that this phenomenon is widespread, although there are important intra- and inter-specific differences in colony structure. It has been predicted that trematode soldier castes would most likely evolve in taxa that are typically dominant in interspecific hierarchies, in situations of invasion risk, and among trematodes that infect longer lived hosts. Here I address these hypotheses and present the extent of evidence for trematode social organization.

  10. SCAT3 assessment of non-head injured and head injured athletes competing in a large international youth soccer tournament.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Matthew; Hecht, Suzanne; Samborski, Andrew; Lunos, Scott; Elias, Steven; Stovitz, Steven D

    2017-01-01

    To our knowledge, no study has evaluated Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool -3rd Edition (SCAT3) scores during competition in athletes who have not had a head injury. The purpose of our pilot study was to compare SCAT3 scores in non-injured (NI), injured (but not head injured) (I), and head injured (HI) youth soccer players during competition and to establish preliminary baseline data for non-head injured athletes in a competitive setting. The HI group demonstrated significantly more symptoms (M = 9.7, SE = 0.8) than the I and NI (3.3, SE = 1.2, and 3.2, SE = 0.7, respectively) groups. The HI group also demonstrated a significantly higher symptom severity score (25.3, SE = 2.8) than the I and NI groups (7.7, SE = 4.1, and 5.9, SE = 2.5, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in mean total Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) scores and mean subsection SAC scores between the groups. Clinicians should also be aware that non-injured in-competition athletes may report more symptoms on the SCAT3 than those evaluated in a non-competition setting.

  11. Supplemental genistein, quercetin, and resveratrol intake in active duty army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Sepowitz, John J; Fauser, Kristina R; Meyer, Stephanie A; Jackson, Steven J

    2015-05-01

    Previous reports indicate that the majority of U.S. Army soldiers consume dietary supplements (DSs) > 1 time/wk. However, these studies did not evaluate phytonutrient supplementation. A growing literature suggests inclusion of phytonutrients in DSs may pose a risk for toxicity, which could impact the performance of soldier duties, as well as long-term health and wellness. This study was conducted to assess and understand soldiers' motivations to consume phytonutrient-containing DSs, specifically genistein, quercetin, and resveratrol. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive mixed-methods design using a survey and semistructured interviews. There were 436 soldiers stationed at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington who completed the survey, from which 36 soldiers completed an interview. Overall, 34% of soldiers reported taking a single or multicomponent phytonutrient DS > 1 time/wk, from which 41 soldiers took >1 supplement/wk. Soldiers' reasons for use included unsure (54%), weight loss (12%), and other, unspecified (24%). The majority of interviewees did not consume DSs based on inclusion of genistein, quercetin, or resveratrol. The majority of soldiers, in our study, appear unable to rationalize their phytonutrient DS choices. Findings from this study illuminate the need for future research to further explore DS practices within military populations and encourage informed use of DSs.

  12. Combined foraging strategies and soldier behaviour in Nasutitermes aff. coxipoensis (Blattodea: Termitoidea: Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Almeida, Camilla S; Cristaldo, Paulo F; Florencio, Daniela F; Cruz, Nayara G; Santos, Abraão A; Oliveira, Alexandre P; Santana, Alisson S; Ribeiro, Efrem J M; Lima, Ana P S; Bacci, Leandro; Araújo, Ana P A

    2016-05-01

    A range of behavioural strategies and sensory abilities allows animals to minimize costs involved in food search. By building a network of tunnels and presenting a large number of soldiers (i.e., trophically dependent individuals), Nasutitermes spp. termites feature behaviours that imply additional costs during this process. Here we evaluated N. aff. coxipoensis foraging strategies focusing on the role of soldiers during foraging. Field experiments were carried out via nests transplantation to dune areas, and laboratory experiments evaluated termite responses to sternal gland chemical signals from workers and soldiers. N. aff. coxipoensis presented primarily nocturnal foraging. Soldiers typically initiated foraging; however, in established trails, the number of workers was always higher than that of soldiers. The number of trails remained constant over time, while the number of tunnels increased linearly over time. A higher proportion of tunnels originated in surrounding areas than directly from the nests. At observation points with tunnels, there were more stationary than walking soldiers; the opposite was true at observation points without tunnels. In mixed groups, the workers chose to follow soldier chemical signals, and in these groups, soldiers were the first to follow trails. Our results allowed us to identify a not common foraging strategy in termite species; which included the establishment of trails followed by construction of tunnels. Such foraging strategies occur predominantly at night and soldiers play a key role in the foraging process. This foraging strategy reported here seems to be employed to optimize energetic gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Soldiers Under Threat: An Exploration of the Effect of Real Threat on Soldier’s Perceptions, Attitudes and Morale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    interpreted (Florian, Mikulincer & Taubmam, 1995; Bartone, Johnsen, Eid, Brun & Laberg , 2002; Bartone, 2006). As we focus on aspects of soldiers...Organizational responses to death in the military. Death Studies, 18, 23-39. Bartone, P.T., Johnsen, B.H., Eid, J. Brun, W. & Laberg , J.C. (2002...1997). General and personal mortality salience and nationalistic bias. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 884- 892. Neuberg, Steven L

  14. The prevalence of symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among soldiers with amputation of a limb or spinal injury: a report from a rehabilitation centre in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Abeyasinghe, N L; de Zoysa, P; Bandara, K M K C; Bartholameuz, N A; Bandara, J M U J

    2012-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder has been identified as one of the most commonly occurring mental illnesses in combatants. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among soldiers who had undergone amputation of a lower or an upper limb or sustained a spinal cord injury in the battlefield, and to compare the prevalence among these categories. The research presented seeks to increase the awareness of this condition among those treating war casualties so that appropriate treatment choices could be made to address them. The study was carried out in 2009 at a rehabilitation centre for combatants of war. Data were collected from 96 male army veterans between the ages of 18-49 years using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Impact of Event Scale and the PTSD symptom scale. Soldiers with injuries sustained at least four weeks prior to the study were selected by a convenience sampling technique. Soldiers with multiple injuries, head injuries or those diagnosed with psychiatric disorders were excluded. The results revealed that 41.7% of the study population was compatible with the diagnosis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Within the three groups, 42.5% of the lower limb amputees, 33.3% of the upper limb amputees and 45.7% of the participants with spinal cord injury had symptoms compatible with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. There was no difference between the prevalence among the different injury categories considered. This study highlights the need to pay more attention in providing psychological care as a part of the overall health management of injured combatants. Early preparation of soldiers for stressors of war and screening for and proper management of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder will improve the overall outcome of rehabilitation.

  15. Soldier-Specific Modification of the Mandibular Motor Neurons in Termites

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Miura, Toru

    2008-01-01

    Social insects exhibit a variety of caste-specific behavioral tendencies that constitute the basis of division of labor within the colony. In termites, the soldier caste display distinctive defense behaviors, such as aggressively attacking enemies with well-developed mandibles, while the other castes retreat into the colony without exhibiting any aggressive response. It is thus likely that some form of soldier-specific neuronal modification exists in termites. In this study, the authors compared the brain (cerebral ganglion) and the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) of soldiers and pseudergates (workers) in the damp-wood termite, Hodotermopsis sjostedti. The size of the SOG was significantly larger in soldiers than in pseudergates, but no difference in brain size was apparent between castes. Furthermore, mandibular nerves were thicker in soldiers than in pseudergates. Retrograde staining revealed that the somata sizes of the mandibular motor neurons (MdMNs) in soldiers were more than twice as large as those of pseudergates. The enlargement of MdMNs was also observed in individuals treated with a juvenile hormone analogue (JHA), indicating that MdMNs become enlarged in response to juvenile hormone (JH) action during soldier differentiation. This enlargement is likely to have two functions: a behavioral function in which soldier termites will be able to defend more effectively through relatively faster and stronger mandibular movements, and a developmental function that associates with the development of soldier-specific mandibular muscle morphogenesis in termite head. The soldier-specific enlargement of mandibular motor neurons was observed in all examined species in five termite families that have different mechanisms of defense, suggesting that such neuronal modification was already present in the common ancestor of termites and is significant for soldier function. PMID:18612458

  16. 78 FR 72789 - Delegation of Authority Pursuant to Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008, as Amended Memorandum for the Secretary of State... the authority conferred upon the President by the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (title IV...

  17. 75 FR 75855 - Presidential Determination With Respect To Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Respect To Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 Memorandum for the Secretary of... of America, pursuant to section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (CSPA), title IV...

  18. Electrical stimulation promotes regeneration of injured oculomotor nerves in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lei; Yang, Min; Wan, Liang; Wang, Xu-hui; Li, Shi-ting

    2016-01-01

    Functional recovery after oculomotor nerve injury is very poor. Electrical stimulation has been shown to promote regeneration of injured nerves. We hypothesized that electrical stimulation would improve the functional recovery of injured oculomotor nerves. Oculomotor nerve injury models were created by crushing the right oculomotor nerves of adult dogs. Stimulating electrodes were positioned in both proximal and distal locations of the lesion, and non-continuous rectangular, biphasic current pulses (0.7 V, 5 Hz) were administered 1 hour daily for 2 consecutive weeks. Analysis of the results showed that electrophysiological and morphological recovery of the injured oculomotor nerve was enhanced, indicating that electrical stimulation improved neural regeneration. Thus, this therapy has the potential to promote the recovery of oculomotor nerve dysfunction. PMID:27904500

  19. Inhibition of Injured Escherichia coli by Several Selective Agents 1

    PubMed Central

    Scheusner, D. L.; Busta, F. F.; Speck, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    A population of Escherichia coli ML30 cells was exposed to a quaternary ammonium compound, and injury to the cells was measured by a comparison of counts on Trypticase Soy Agar and Violet Red Bile Agar. Substantial injury could not be detected with a minimal medium. The ingredients of Violet Red Bile Agar were tested against damaged cells. The bile salts mixture alone in the medium prevented as many injured cells from growing as did any combination of the selective agents and inhibited as many injured bacteria as were inhibited by Violet Red Bile Agar itself. These dyes and salts were similarly assayed in minimal agar, and comparable results were obtained. Individual bile salts and other potential selective agents were added to the minimal medium, and the media were tested for inhibition of injured E. coli. Sodium deoxycholate was the bile salt most inhibitory to damaged E. coli cells. PMID:4924998

  20. Perceptions of Supervision Among Injured and Non-Injured Teens Working in the Retail or Service Industry.

    PubMed

    Zierold, Kristina M

    2016-04-01

    According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), a teen is injured every 9 minutes at work. Workplace supervision may affect whether teens are injured on the job. Because research on workplace supervision among teens is limited, the objectives of this study were to characterize the perceptions of supervision among injured and non-injured teen workers and assess the characteristics and perceptions of supervisors that may be associated with work-related injuries. In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among high school students. Teens who worked in retail or service industries (n= 270) were included in the sample. Non-injured teens were more likely to have reported that their supervisors cared about their safety, were helpful, listened well, and ensured that teen workers understood workplace safety. Most teens (70%) did not feel comfortable talking about safety issues with their supervisors. The importance of supervision and how supervisors are perceived in the workplace may be significant in creating a safety culture that leaves a lasting impression. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. CU @ The FOB: How the Forward Operating Base is Changing the Life of Combat Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    times a day.”17 Today’s soldiers would be hard pressed to claim they could not get enough to eat. An embedded journalist marveled over the culinary ...Times, March 27, 2005, p. A1. 5. While the researchers did not specify gender as a criterion for selecting soldiers to be interviewed, only male

  2. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy--Implications of Science Education Research for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Colin

    1984-01-01

    Categorizes researchers as tinkers, tailors, soldiers, and spies and discusses how each group contributes to the improvement of science education. Tinkers direct attention to content of children's minds; tailors focus on cognitive processes and development; spies consider classroom interactions; and soldiers believe best solutions come from those…

  3. Diagnosis and Management of Borrelia turicatae Infection in Febrile Soldier, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Anna M; Pietralczyk, Elizabeth; Lopez, Job E; Brooks, Christopher; Schriefer, Martin E; Wozniak, Edward; Stermole, Benjamin

    2017-05-01

    In August 2015, a soldier returned from field exercises in Texas, USA, with nonspecific febrile illness. Culture and sequencing of spirochetes from peripheral blood diagnosed Borrelia turicatae infection. The patient recovered after receiving doxycycline. No illness occurred in asymptomatic soldiers potentially exposed to the vector tick and prophylactically given treatment.

  4. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Cemetery. 553.16 Section 553.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.16 Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers'...

  5. Undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as a cause of acute urinary retention in a young soldier.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Shin, Y S; Choi, H; Kim, M K; Jeong, Y B; Park, J K

    2016-10-01

    We present a case of undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as a cause of acute urinary retention in a 21-year-old male soldier. Soldiers live in close quarters, and have a regimented lifestyle that may not allow for frequent voiding; therefore, undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus may result in acute urinary retention.

  6. The Problems of Authority and the Want of Apprenticeship in Soldiers' Character Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berghaus, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Militaries that take a character development approach in their moral education programs but rely heavily on authority figures as subject matter experts to teach soldiers face two serious problems. First, soldiers improperly defer to their instructors and, as a result, do not understand the moral virtues taught in class. Second, instructors are in…

  7. Phenotypically plastic traits regulate caste formation and soldier function in polyembryonic wasps.

    PubMed

    Smith, M S; Milton, I; Strand, M R

    2010-12-01

    Polyembryonic encyrtid wasps are parasitoids that have evolved a clonal form of embryogenesis and a caste system where some progeny become reproducing wasps whereas others develop into a sterile soldier caste. Theory based on the biology of Copidosoma floridanum predicts that the primary role of soldier larvae is to mediate conflict over sex ratio, which also favours female-biased soldier production. Other data, however, suggest that female-biased soldier production reflects a developmental constraint. Here, we assessed whether female-biased soldier function by polyembryonic wasps reflects sex-specific adaptation or constraint by conducting comparative studies with Copidosoma bakeri, a species that produces clutch sizes similar to C. floridanum yet rarely produces broods associated with sex ratio conflict. Our results indicate that the oviposition behaviour of adults, development of progeny and function of soldier larvae differ greatly between C. bakeri and C. floridanum. These findings indicate that caste formation and soldier function in polyembryonic encyrtid wasps are regulated by phenotypically plastic traits. Our results further suggest that the primary function of the soldier caste in some species is defence of host resources from competitors whereas in others it is the resolution of sex ratio conflict. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. PEO EIS Delivers Information Dominance to Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    PEO EIS Delivers Information Dominance to Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan Jill Finnie In the business world, it is common knowledge that superior...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PEO EIS Delivers Information Dominance to Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan 5a. CONTRACT

  9. The Problems of Authority and the Want of Apprenticeship in Soldiers' Character Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berghaus, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Militaries that take a character development approach in their moral education programs but rely heavily on authority figures as subject matter experts to teach soldiers face two serious problems. First, soldiers improperly defer to their instructors and, as a result, do not understand the moral virtues taught in class. Second, instructors are in…

  10. Heavy metal concentrations of the soldier crab (Mictyris brevidactylus) along the inshore area of Changhua, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hsiao-Chien; Chen, I-Ming; Chen, Ping; Wang, Wei-Hsien

    2009-06-01

    In order to compare with and assess the metal-accumulating ability of the soldier crab (Mictyris brevidactylus), the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and cadmium of ambient water and the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) were investigated. Seawater, soldier crabs and Pacific oysters were simultaneously collected from the Changhua coastal area, located in West-Central Taiwan. The Pacific oyster and stream results proved that site B is contaminated by Cu, Zn and Pb from streams B-1 and B-2. The highest Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb concentrations in soldier crabs appeared at site B, and significant differences in the accumulated concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni in soldier crabs were found between the sites tested. The highest bioconcentration factors of Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb in soldier crabs appeared at site B, indicating that the soldier crab can accumulate Cu, Zn and Pb to the same degree as the Pacific oyster. In fact, soldier crabs can accumulate more Ni than Pacific oysters, better reflecting the conditions of the ambient environment. These phenomena, as well as the fact that the soldier crab is able to accumulate relatively high levels of Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni, suggest that this crab is a potential biomonitor of Pb and Ni pollution in aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Growing up in armed groups: trauma and aggression among child soldiers in DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Hermenau, Katharin; Hecker, Tobias; Maedl, Anna; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression. To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants in the DR Congo. We conducted semi-structured interviews concerning military experiences, experienced and perpetrated violence, and mental health. Former child soldiers reported more experienced and perpetrated violence, a greater severity of trauma-related suffering, as well as higher appetitive aggression than adult ex-combatants. Appetitive aggression was related to more perpetrated violence, higher military ranks, voluntary recruitment and higher rates of reenlistments in former child soldiers. Our results indicate that growing up in an armed group is related to higher levels of trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior. This may explain the challenge of reintegrating former child soldiers. It is thus important to consider mental health problems, particularly trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior, of former child soldiers for designing adequate reintegration programs.

  12. Revolting Soldiers: The Origins of Education in the Armies of the Empire in World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    1985-01-01

    Explores the circumstances surrounding the creation of education schemes in the armies of the British Empire. Discusses attitudes toward war and toward the soldier's role in the early 1900s, attitudes of the soldiers toward war, the University of Vimy Ridge, the Canadian Khaki University, the Oatlands program, and education for the New Zealand…

  13. Prior Health Care Utilization Patterns and Suicide among U.S. Army Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nicole S.; Harford, Thomas C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Hollander, Ilyssa E.; Kay, Ashley B.

    2010-01-01

    Suicides among U.S. Army soldiers are increasing and, in January 2009, outpaced deaths due to combat. For this study, 1,873 army suicides identified through death, inpatient, and emergency room records were matched with 5,619 controls. In multivariate models, older, male, White, single, and enlisted soldiers with a prior injury (OR = 2.04, 95% CI…

  14. The Impact of Soldiers with Permanent Medical Profiles on Army Operational Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    legislation to automatically separate HIV positive soldiers. In Soraya S. Nelson’s, AIDS Likely to Cost the Military $3 Billion," he estimated HIV ... treatment cost for DOD is $3 billion between 1990 and 2000.59 That is $300 million a year to treat a handful of HIV positive soldiers left on active duty

  15. Reintegration of National Guard Soldiers with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    It recommends procedures and policy that will provide better support for returning Guard veterans . REINTEGRATION OF NATIONAL GUARD SOLDIERS...OIF deployments started, the military had little recent experience with reintegrating Guard combat veterans back into their communities. 42 It was...and DOD led to the YRRP, a national combat veteran reintegration program that provides Guard soldiers and their families with information, services

  16. Prior Health Care Utilization Patterns and Suicide among U.S. Army Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nicole S.; Harford, Thomas C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Hollander, Ilyssa E.; Kay, Ashley B.

    2010-01-01

    Suicides among U.S. Army soldiers are increasing and, in January 2009, outpaced deaths due to combat. For this study, 1,873 army suicides identified through death, inpatient, and emergency room records were matched with 5,619 controls. In multivariate models, older, male, White, single, and enlisted soldiers with a prior injury (OR = 2.04, 95% CI…

  17. [Reconstructive investigations and identification measures in unknown soldiers of the Second World War].

    PubMed

    Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home.

  18. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  19. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  20. Phenotypically plastic traits regulate caste formation and soldier function in polyembryonic wasps

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Margaret S.; Milton, Ian; Strand, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Polyembryonic encyrtid wasps are parasitoids that have evolved a clonal form of embryogenesis and a caste system where some progeny become reproducing wasps while others develop into a sterile soldier caste. Theory based on the biology of Copidosoma floridanum predicts the primary role of soldier larvae is to mediate conflict over sex ratio, which also favours female-biased soldier production. Other data, however, suggest female-biased soldier production reflects a developmental constraint. Here we assessed whether female-biased soldier function by polyembryonic wasps reflects sex specific adaptation or constraint by conducting comparative studies with Copidosma bakeri; a species that produces clutch sizes similar to C. floridanum yet rarely produces broods associated with sex ratio conflict. Our results indicate the oviposition behaviour of adults, development of progeny, and function of soldier larvae differs greatly between C. bakeri and C. floridanum. These findings indicate that caste formation and soldier function in polyembryonic encyrtid wasps are regulated by phenotypically plastic traits. Our results further suggest the primary function of the soldier caste in some species is defence of host resources from competitors while in others it is resolution of sex ratio conflict. PMID:21040070

  1. Assessment for the U.S. Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program: The Global Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher; Park, Nansook; Castro, Carl A.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology and the U.S. military have a long history of collaboration. The U.S. Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program aims to measure the psychosocial strengths and assets of soldiers as well as their problems, to identify those in need of basic training in a given domain as well as those who would benefit from advanced training, and…

  2. Forced Conscription of Children during Armed Conflict: Experiences of Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Coppens, Kathleen; Derluyn, Ilse; De Schryver, Maarten; Loots, Gerrit; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child soldiering can be considered as one of the worst practices of institutionalized child abuse. However, little is known about the scope and nature of this abuse and the consequent experiences of children enrolled in an armed faction. This research aims at enriching the knowledge on the experiences of child soldiers in the Lord's…

  3. Lithium Carbon Monofluoride: The Next Primary Chemistry for Soldier Portable Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    LITHIUM CARBON MONOFLUORIDE: THE NEXT PRIMARY CHEMISTRY FOR SOLDIER PORTABLE POWER SOURCES Arek Suszko RDECOM, CERDEC, Army Power Division...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lithium Carbon Monofluoride: The Next Primary Chemistry For Soldier Portable Power Sources 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  4. Forced Conscription of Children during Armed Conflict: Experiences of Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Coppens, Kathleen; Derluyn, Ilse; De Schryver, Maarten; Loots, Gerrit; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child soldiering can be considered as one of the worst practices of institutionalized child abuse. However, little is known about the scope and nature of this abuse and the consequent experiences of children enrolled in an armed faction. This research aims at enriching the knowledge on the experiences of child soldiers in the Lord's…

  5. Social ecology interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder: what can we learn from child soldiers?

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Brandon

    2013-09-01

    Research with child soldiers is crucial to improving mental health services after war. This research also can illuminate innovative approaches to treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adult soldiers, veterans and other trauma survivors in high-income countries. A key contribution is the role of social ecology for trauma-healing interventions.

  6. Development of a Model of Soldier Effectiveness. Project A. Improving the Selection, Classification, and Utilization of Army Enlisted Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    previous experience with enlisted Army soldiers provided the basis for a preliminary conceptual model of individual soldier effectiveness. Behavioral ... analysis workshops involving 77 officers and noncommissioned officers then provided more than 1,300 examples of effective and ineffective soldier behavior

  7. Comparison of postural stability between injured and uninjured ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, I-Jung; Liao, Jung-Hsien; Wu, Hong-Wen; Su, Fong-Chin

    2011-06-01

    Ballet movements require a limited base of support; thus, ballet dancers require a high level of postural control. However, postural stability in ballet dancers is still unclear and needs to be understood. To evaluate ballet dancers' postural stability in performing single-leg standing, the en pointe task, and the first and fifth positions and to determine differences in task performance among healthy nondancers, healthy dancers, and dancers with ankle sprains. Controlled laboratory study. Injured dancers, uninjured dancers, and nondancers were recruited for this study (N = 33 age-matched participants; n= 11 per group). The tasks tested were single-leg standing with eyes open and closed, first position, fifth position, and en pointe. Center of pressure parameters were calculated from the ground-reaction force collected with 1 force plate. Analysis of variance was used to assess the differences of center of pressure parameters among 3 groups in single-leg standing; independent t test was used to examine the differences of center of pressure parameters between injured and uninjured dancers. During single-leg standing, injured dancers had significantly greater maximum displacement in the medial-lateral direction and total trajectory of center of pressure, compared with the uninjured dancers and nondancers. During the first and fifth positions, the injured dancers demonstrated significantly greater standard deviation of center of pressure position in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, compared with the uninjured dancers. During en pointe, the injured dancers had significantly greater maximum displacement in the medial-lateral direction and the anterior-posterior direction, compared with the uninjured dancers. The injured and uninjured dancers demonstrated differences in postural stability in the medial-lateral direction during single-leg standing and the ballet postures. Although the injured dancers received ballet training, their postural stability

  8. Soldiers' Preferences Regarding Sperm Preservation, Posthumous Reproduction, and Attributes of a Potential "Posthumous Mother".

    PubMed

    Bokek-Cohen, Ya'arit; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2017-01-01

    We present study results regarding soldiers' willingness to conduct posthumous reproduction. Two hundred twelve Israeli soldiers filled in a questionnaire designed to examine their willingness to cryopreserve sperm and evaluate in which familial circumstances they would consent to posthumous reproduction. They ranked the desirability of 46 attributes of a potential mother and a life partner. Findings indicate a relatively high predisposition in favor of posthumous-assisted reproduction; the wishes of soldiers' parents had much more influence on soldiers' willingness to pursue this technology than those of a partner. Soldiers preferred "feminine" jobs for a potential mother that would allow her to dedicate herself to child-rearing. The desired traits of such a mother were rated similarly to partner preferences; however, significant differences were found in attributes that are most related to the potential mother's devotion to maternity. Interpretations of these findings are contextualized in relation to ethical and bereavement considerations.

  9. Comparing elite soldiers' perceptions of psychological and physical demands during military training.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jeffrey L; Adler, Amy B; Wittels, Peter; Enne, Robert; Johannes, Bernd

    2004-07-01

    This research examined the impact of psychological and physical demands on a group of elite soldiers (N = 9) before, during and after training exercises involving routine and unrehearse tasks. Based on the psychological concept of toughening, we expected soldier responses to unrehearsed demands to be les resilient than to routine training demands. As hypothesized soldiers rated their perceptions of physical and psychologica demands higher during the unrehearsed training phase of the study. It was also hypothesized that soldiers would recover more from physical demands than from psychological de mands after the training exercise. Although a trend in the data marginally supported this hypothesis, a note of caution is warranted because of the small sample size. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed, with particular emphasis on the dual importance of psychological and physical training in preparing soldiers for mission demands.

  10. Nutrition knowledge and supplement use among elite U.S. army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Bovill, Maria E; Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R

    2003-12-01

    A U.S. Army Special Forces (SF) unit was studied to determine characteristics of supplement users, assess nutrition knowledge, and identify nutrition information sources. SF-qualified (n = 119) and non-SF, support soldiers (n = 38) participated. Most soldiers (87%) reported current supplement use with more SF (90%) than non-SF, support soldiers (76%) using supplements (p < or = 0.05). Supplements SF reported using most were multivitamins, sports bars/drinks, and vitamin C. The mean nutrition knowledge score for all soldiers was 48.5 +/- 15.2% correct responses. Most soldiers incorrectly believe protein is used for energy for short-term athletic events (64%) and that vitamins provide energy (58%). The most common information sources reportedly used were popular magazines/books (75%), friends/teammates (55%), physicians/nurses, radio/television (34%), and the Internet (31%).

  11. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbances studied were habitual snoring, difficulty inducing sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakenings (EMA), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Insomnia was defined as having at least one of DIS, DMS, or EMA. The covariates used in the matching and adjustments were age, gender, smoking habits, BMI, education, ever having had asthma, moist snuff, and exercise habits. Results The veterans had a significantly lower prevalence of insomnia (26.2% versus 30.4%) and EDS (22.7% versus 29.4%) compared with a matched group from the reference population, using propensity score matching. Analyses with logistic regression showed that belonging to the military population was related to a lower risk of having DMS (adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.64-0.91)), insomnia (OR 0.82 (0.71-0.95)), and EDS (OR 0.74 (0.63-0.86)), whereas no significant difference was found for snoring, DIS, and EMA. Conclusion Swedish veterans have fewer problems with insomnia and daytime sleepiness than the general Swedish population. The explanation of our findings may be the selection processes involved in becoming a soldier and when sampling personnel for military assignments abroad.

  12. Soldiers' load carriage performance in high mountains: a physiological study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tirthankar; Bhattacharyya, Debojyoti; Pramanik, Anilendu; Pal, Madhusudan; Majumdar, Deepti; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate load carriage performance at extremely high altitudes with different loads and walking speeds in terms of physiological evaluation. The degree of maximum oxygen consumption changes at high altitudes was also examined. Twelve Indian Army soldiers were acclimatized at altitudes of 3,505 m and 4,300 m. They walked for 10 minutes on a motorized treadmill at 2.5 km/h and 3.5 km/h speeds during carrying no loads and three magnitudes of load (10.7 kg, 21.4kg, 30 kg) at both altitudes. Physiological parameters such as oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, heart rate, and ventilation were recorded for each breath using a gas analyzer. The rating of perceived exertion was also noted after each load carriage session. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured at sea level and the two high altitudes, and respective relative workloads (% of VO2max) were calculated from oxygen consumption. Repeated measure ANOVA was applied to reveal the significant effects of the independent variables. The participants had significant reductions in VO2max with rising altitude. Marked increases in almost all physiological parameters were observed with increasing load, altitude, and speed. The soldiers expressed heavy perceived exertion levels with higher loads at 3.5 km/h at the two high altitudes. Considering the physiological responses, expressions of perceived exertion and changes in relative work load at both of the high altitudes Indian soldiers are advised to walk slowly with adequate rest in between their schedules and to carry not more than 32% of their body weight.

  13. Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries for soldiers deployed to Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Roy, Tanja C; Knapik, Joseph J; Ritland, Bradley M; Murphy, Nicole; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2012-11-01

    This study determined injury incidence and examined the association between musculoskeletal injuries and potential intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. This retrospective cohort study involved a survey of 593 volunteers from two battalions of a Stryker Brigade Combat Team upon completion of a 12-mo deployment to Afghanistan. The survey included questions on physical characteristics, work duties, equipment worn, fitness training, and injuries experienced during the deployment. Of the surveyed soldiers, 45% sustained an injury during the deployment. Total injuries resulted in 5049 d of limited duty, an average of 8.5 d per injury. The body regions with the largest numbers of injuries were the low back (17.4%), knee (12.7%), and shoulder (10.0%). The majority (65%) of injuries occurred while working. The most frequent activities soldiers reported as the cause of injury were lifting and carrying (9.8%), dismounted patrolling (9.6%), and physical training (8.0%). Older age, higher enlisted rank, female sex, months deployed, more time spent standing, longer strength training sessions, heaviest load worn, and heavier or more frequent lifting tasks were all associated with injury. Tasks requiring physical energy expenditure such as load carriage, lifting, or standing resulted in an increased risk of musculoskeletal injury in this study. Lifting/carrying, dismounted patrols, and physical training were associated with 26% of musculoskeletal injuries. The weight of loads carried and lifting may be exceeding the work capacity of the soldiers, resulting in injury. These injuries in turn limit available work days for military units, reducing combat power.

  14. Modelling of soldier fly halteres for gyroscopic oscillations.

    PubMed

    Parween, Rizuwana; Pratap, Rudra

    2015-01-08

    Nature has evolved a beautiful design for small-scale vibratory rate-gyro in the form of dipteran halteres that detect body rotations via Coriolis acceleration. In most Diptera, including soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, halteres are a pair of special organs, located in the space between the thorax and the abdomen. The halteres along with their connecting joint with the fly's body constitute a mechanism that is used for muscle-actuated oscillations of the halteres along the actuation direction. These oscillations lead to bending vibrations in the sensing direction (out of the haltere's actuation plane) upon any impressed rotation due to the resulting Coriolis force. This induced vibration is sensed by the sensory organs at the base of the haltere in order to determine the rate of rotation. In this study, we evaluate the boundary conditions and the stiffness of the anesthetized halteres along the actuation and the sensing direction. We take several cross-sectional SEM (scanning electron microscope) images of the soldier fly haltere and construct its three dimensional model to get the mass properties. Based on these measurements, we estimate the natural frequency along both actuation and sensing directions, propose a finite element model of the haltere's joint mechanism, and discuss the significance of the haltere's asymmetric cross-section. The estimated natural frequency along the actuation direction is within the range of the haltere's flapping frequency. However, the natural frequency along the sensing direction is roughly double the haltere's flapping frequency that provides a large bandwidth for sensing the rate of rotation to the soldier flies.

  15. Modelling of soldier fly halteres for gyroscopic oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Parween, Rizuwana; Pratap, Rudra

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nature has evolved a beautiful design for small-scale vibratory rate-gyro in the form of dipteran halteres that detect body rotations via Coriolis acceleration. In most Diptera, including soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, halteres are a pair of special organs, located in the space between the thorax and the abdomen. The halteres along with their connecting joint with the fly's body constitute a mechanism that is used for muscle-actuated oscillations of the halteres along the actuation direction. These oscillations lead to bending vibrations in the sensing direction (out of the haltere's actuation plane) upon any impressed rotation due to the resulting Coriolis force. This induced vibration is sensed by the sensory organs at the base of the haltere in order to determine the rate of rotation. In this study, we evaluate the boundary conditions and the stiffness of the anesthetized halteres along the actuation and the sensing direction. We take several cross-sectional SEM (scanning electron microscope) images of the soldier fly haltere and construct its three dimensional model to get the mass properties. Based on these measurements, we estimate the natural frequency along both actuation and sensing directions, propose a finite element model of the haltere's joint mechanism, and discuss the significance of the haltere's asymmetric cross-section. The estimated natural frequency along the actuation direction is within the range of the haltere's flapping frequency. However, the natural frequency along the sensing direction is roughly double the haltere's flapping frequency that provides a large bandwidth for sensing the rate of rotation to the soldier flies. PMID:25572422

  16. Repatriation and identification of the Finnish World War II soldiers.

    PubMed

    Palo, Jukka U; Hedman, Minttu; Söderholm, Niklas; Sajantila, Antti

    2007-08-01

    To present a summary of the organization, field search, repatriation, forensic anthropological examination, and DNA analysis for the purpose of identification of Finnish soldiers with unresolved fate in World War II. Field searches were organized, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Education and the Association for Cherishing the Memory of the Dead of the War. Anthropological examination conducted on human remains retrieved in the field searches was used to establish the minimum number of individuals and description of the skeletal diseases, treatment, anomalies, or injuries. DNA tests were performed by extracting DNA from powdered bones and blood samples from relatives. Mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons, together with circumstantial evidence, were used to connect the remains to the putative family members. At present, the skeletal remains of about a thousand soldiers have been found and repatriated. In forensic anthropological examination, several injuries related to death were documented. For the total of 181 bone samples, mtDNA HVR-1 and HVR-2 sequences were successfully obtained for 167 (92.3%) and 148 (81.8%) of the samples, respectively. Five samples yielded no reliable sequence data. Our data suggests that mtDNA preserves at least for 60 years in the boreal acidic soil. The quality of the obtained mtDNA sequence data varied depending on the sample bone type, with long compact bones (femur, tibia and humerus) having significantly better (90.0%) success rate than other bones (51.2%). Although more than 60 years have passed since the World War II, our experience is that resolving the fate of soldiers missing in action is still of uttermost importance for people having lost their relatives in the war. Although cultural and individual differences may exist, our experience presented here gives a good perspective on the importance of individual identification performed by forensic professionals.

  17. Repatriation and Identification of Finnish World War II Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Palo, Jukka U.; Hedman, Minttu; Söderholm, Niklas; Sajantila, Antti

    2007-01-01

    Aim To present a summary of the organization, field search, repatriation, forensic anthropological examination, and DNA analysis for the purpose of identification of Finnish soldiers with unresolved fate in World War II. Methods Field searches were organized, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Education and the Association for Cherishing the Memory of the Dead of the War. Anthropological examination conducted on human remains retrieved in the field searches was used to establish the minimum number of individuals and description of the skeletal diseases, treatment, anomalies, or injuries. DNA tests were performed by extracting DNA from powdered bones and blood samples from relatives. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence comparisons, together with circumstantial evidence, were used to connect the remains to the putative family members. Results At present, the skeletal remains of about a thousand soldiers have been found and repatriated. In forensic anthropological examination, several injuries related to death were documented. For the total of 181 bone samples, mtDNA HVR-1 and HVR-2 sequences were successfully obtained for 167 (92.3%) and 148 (81.8%) of the samples, respectively. Five samples yielded no reliable sequence data. Our data suggests that mtDNA preserves at least for 60 years in the boreal acidic soil. The quality of the obtained mtDNA sequence data varied depending on the sample bone type, with long compact bones (femur, tibia and humerus) having significantly better (90.0%) success rate than other bones (51.2%). Conclusion Although more than 60 years have passed since the World War II, our experience is that resolving the fate of soldiers missing in action is still of uttermost importance for people having lost their relatives in the war. Although cultural and individual differences may exist, our experience presented here gives a good perspective on the importance of individual identification performed by forensic professionals. PMID:17696308

  18. The major infectious epidemic diseases of Civil War soldiers.

    PubMed

    Bollet, Alfred Jay

    2004-06-01

    Two thirds of the 600,000 deaths of Civil War soldiers were caused by disease. Physicians during the war kept detailed records and reports, which were tabulated, discussed in detail, and published after the war. These records include case histories, autopsy descriptions, photographs, and photomicrographs; they are the best records of the medical experiences of any of America's wars, even those in the twentieth century. Because the Civil War occurred just before the discoveries of bacteriology, these records are of particular historical interest.

  19. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness and the future of psychology.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Fowler, Raymond D

    2011-01-01

    Psychology responded to the national needs in World War I and World War II and was itself transformed. National need calls a third time: unprecedented levels of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide, and anxiety along with a need for a resilient Army capable of meeting the persistent warfare of the foreseeable future. As a large part of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program, positive psychology is meeting this need with new tests, with new fitness courses, and with resilience training. These developments may transform the practice of psychology and psychology's relation to medicine and education. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Personal Adjustment Training for the Spinal Cord Injured

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This article describes experiences with Personal Achievement Skills (PAS), a group counseling process in a spinal cord injury project, emphasizing training in communication and goal setting in the context of group process. Issues in conducting such training and providing comprehensive service to the spinal cord injured are discussed in detail.…

  1. The Unintentional Injurer: Results From the Boston Youth Survey

    PubMed Central

    Solnick, Sara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to provide additional information about the characteristics of adolescents who were most likely to cause unintentional injury to other people. Methods. In 2008, as part of a randomized survey of high-school students in the Boston Public School system, more than 1800 respondents answered questions about unintentionally causing an injury to someone else in the past year. Results. More than 20% of boys and 13% of girls reported unintentionally injuring another person in the past year. Being male, exercising, participating in organized activities, and having carried a knife were risk factors for unintentionally causing an injury during sports. Using illegal drugs, having friends who are a bad influence, and having carried a knife were risk factors for unintentionally causing an injury not associated with sports. Conclusions. Unintentionally injuring another person is a fairly common event for high-school students. Characteristics differ between adolescents who unintentionally injure others during sports versus those who unintentionally injure others during nonsports activities. Many of the risk factors for causing unintentional injury unrelated to sports are similar to those for intentionally causing injury. PMID:21389291

  2. Midodrine improves ejaculation in spinal cord injured men.

    PubMed

    Soler, J M; Previnaire, J G; Plante, P; Denys, P; Chartier-Kastler, E

    2007-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of the alpha1-adrenergic agonist midodrine given orally for anejaculation in spinal cord injured men. A total of 185 spinal cord injured patients who reported absent ejaculation during sexual intercourse and who failed to respond to penile vibratory stimulation were treated with midodrine 30 to 120 minutes before a new stimulation. The procedure was repeated weekly, increasing doses by 7.5 mg to a maximum of 30 mg. Cardiovascular effects were monitored throughout the procedure. Antegrade or retrograde ejaculation was achieved in 102 spinal cord injured men (64.6%). A positive response was more frequent in patients with complete lesions (American Spinal Injury Association A) and upper motor neuron lesions above T10. Midodrine induced a significant but moderate increase (maximum 10 mm Hg) in mean arterial pressure in all patients. The highest systolic blood pressure (more than 200 mm Hg) was seen in patients with quadriplegia. No other significant side effect was recorded. The average dose of midodrine required for ejaculation was 18.7 mg. Midodrine is a safe and efficient adjunct to penile vibratory stimulation for anejaculation in spinal cord injured patients.

  3. Addressing the Needs of Children and Families of Combat Injured

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    active duty non-injured combat veterans (matched with CI participants for combat experience and relevant demographic factors ) and their spouses with at...who otherwise would qualify for enrollment are parents of very young children (younger than the current inclusion criteria). These demographics have...5 INTRODUCTION: This investigation focuses on measuring the impact of parental combat injury on military children

  4. Cognitive Rehabilitation and the Head-Injured Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses development of cognitive rehabilitation therapy (which attempts to address intervention needs of traumatically brain-injured child), particular concerns at various stages of patients' recovery, some fundamental principles of treatment, and framework for viewing cognition functionally. Considers questions clinicians ask and strategies for…

  5. RECREATION AND SOCIALIZATION FOR THE BRAIN INJURED CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOLUB, RISA S.; GORDON, SOL

    DESIGNED FOR PARENTS AND SPECIALISTS PLANNING THERAPEUTICALLY ORIENTED RECREATIONAL AND SOCIALIZATION PROGRAMS FOR BRAIN INJURED CHILDREN, THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS 13 CHAPTERS BY DIFFERENT AUTHORS. ACTIVITIES DISCUSSED ARE GENERALLY NONCOMPETITIVE, EMPHASIZING STRUCTURE AND LIMIT. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE ROLE OF THE OPTOMETRIST WITH THE INADEQUATE…

  6. Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, John L.

    2001-01-01

    This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)

  7. Interleukin 6 in intact and injured mouse peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Reichert, F; Levitzky, R; Rotshenker, S

    1996-03-01

    The multifunctional cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) has direct growth, survival and differentiation effects on peripheral and central neurons. Furthermore, it can modulate the production by non-neuronal cells of other cytokines and growth factors, and thereby affect nerve cells indirectly. We have studied IL-6 expression and production in intact and injured peripheral nerves of C57/BL/6NHSD mice, which display the normal rapid progression of Wallerian degeneration. The IL-6 mRNA was detected in nerves degenerating in vitro or in vivo, but not in intact nerves. In vitro- and in vivo-degenerating nerve segments and neuroma nerve segments synthesized and secreted IL-6. The onset of IL-6 production was rapid and prolonged. It was detected as early as 2 h after injury and persisted for the entire period of 21 days tested after the injury. Of the non-neuronal cells that reside in intact and injured nerves, macrophages and fibroblasts were the major contributors to IL-6 production. We also studied IL-6 production in intact and injured nerves of mutant C57BL/6-WLD/OLA/NHSD mice, which display very slow progression of Wallerian degeneration. Injured nerves of C57BL/6-WLD/OLA/NHSD mice produced significantly lower amounts of IL-6 than did rapidly degenerating nerves of C57/BL/6NHSD mice.

  8. MMPI--2 Code-Type Congruence of Injured Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Ronald B.; Jennings, Earl; Colotla, Victor A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.; Shercliffe, Regan J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the stability of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 (J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) code types in a sample of 94 injured workers with a mean test-retest interval of 21.3 months (SD = 14.1). Congruence rates for undefined code types were 34% for…

  9. The Use of Computer Assisted Career Guidance with Injured Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Julia; Wigtil, James V.

    Injured workers are individuals whose injuries have resulted in residual impairment, making it impossible for them to return to their former jobs or to seek work in an allied field. This study investigated the differential effects of computer assisted career guidance (CACG) systems combined with a cognitive information processing strategy on…

  10. MMPI--2 Code-Type Congruence of Injured Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Ronald B.; Jennings, Earl; Colotla, Victor A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.; Shercliffe, Regan J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the stability of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 (J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) code types in a sample of 94 injured workers with a mean test-retest interval of 21.3 months (SD = 14.1). Congruence rates for undefined code types were 34% for…

  11. Facilitating Classroom Success for the Closed Head Injured Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePompei, Roberta; Blosser, Jean L.

    Intended for special educators and administrators, the paper addresses the educational implications of closed head injury in children. Characteristics of head injured students are noted, including previous successful experiences in social and academic settings, inconsistent performance patterns, and cognitive deficits which are present as in other…

  12. [The injured of the summer of 1914 and their stories].

    PubMed

    McGarry, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    The situation of the French Military Health Service was particularly precarious at the beginning of the Great War. Contemporary novelists wished to expose the lies of propaganda and described without any complacency the disorganisation, the improvisation and the mistakes of the first weeks of the conflict. In this context they show the initiatives taken by civilians, especially the ladies from the aristocracy, to help the wounded. From the battlefield to the hospitals they describe the stations of the cross of the soldiers, those hoping for "la bonne blessure" and those who end up being amputated when alternatives could have been possible.

  13. [Otoacoustic emission examinations in soldiers before and after shooting].

    PubMed

    Konopka, W; Pietkiewicz, P; Zalewski, P

    2000-01-01

    Firearms are a common source of impulse noise that may potentially damage hearing organ. The purpose of this study was evaluation of the click evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) before and after shooting and comparison with conventional pure tone audiometry. Standard pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, TEOAE and DPOAE were made before and 10-15 minutes after shooting. Ten male soldiers (20 ears) were exposed to impulse noise from automatic gunfire (15 single rounds of live ammunition). They did not use any earplugs. The reduction amplitude of the TEOAE after shooting was found especially for the frequency 3,4 kHz for the right ear and 1 and 2 kHz for the left ear. The DPOAE greatest reduction concerned frequency 2,5 and 4 kHz for the left ear. All our shooters were right-handed and probably the asymmetrical effect resulted from the shooting posture. Any differences existing between the audiometric threshold before and after shooting were not noticed. Clinical experience with OAE indicates that it may play a role as a screening method for the soldiers exposed to noise and as a tool for monitoring early changes in cochlea. Emissions seem to be more sensitive for monitoring early cochlear changes after shooting than pure tone audiometry.

  14. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2005-10-01

    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  15. Fusion solution for soldier wearable gunfire detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakiades, George; Desai, Sachi; Deligeorges, Socrates; Buckland, Bruce E.; George, Jemin

    2012-06-01

    Currently existing acoustic based Gunfire Detection Systems (GDS) such as soldier wearable, vehicle mounted, and fixed site devices provide enemy detection and localization capabilities to the user. However, the solution to the problem of portability versus performance tradeoff remains elusive. The Data Fusion Module (DFM), described herein, is a sensor/platform agnostic software supplemental tool that addresses this tradeoff problem by leveraging existing soldier networks to enhance GDS performance across a Tactical Combat Unit (TCU). The DFM software enhances performance by leveraging all available acoustic GDS information across the TCU synergistically to calculate highly accurate solutions more consistently than any individual GDS in the TCU. The networked sensor architecture provides additional capabilities addressing the multiple shooter/fire-fight problems in addition to sniper detection/localization. The addition of the fusion solution to the overall Size, Weight and Power & Cost (SWaP&C) is zero to negligible. At the end of the first-year effort, the DFM integrated sensor network's performance was impressive showing improvements upwards of 50% in comparison to a single sensor solution. Further improvements are expected when the networked sensor architecture created in this effort is fully exploited.

  16. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions.

  17. Socioeconomic Differences in the Health of Black Union Army Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates patterns of socioeconomic difference in the wartime morbidity and mortality of black Union Army soldiers. Among the factors that contributed to a lower probability of contracting and dying from diseases were (1) lighter skin color, (2) a non-field occupation, (3) residence on a large plantation, and (4) residence in a rural area prior to enlistment. Patterns of disease-specific mortality and timing of death suggest that the differences in the development of immunity against diseases and in nutritional status prior to enlistment were responsible for the observed socioeconomic differences in wartime health. For example, the advantages of light-skinned soldiers over dark-skinned and of enlisted men formerly engaged in non-field occupations over field hands resulted from differences in nutritional status. The lower wartime mortality of ex-slaves from large plantations can be explained by their better-developed immunity as well as superior nutritional status. The results of this paper suggest that there were substantial disparities in the health of the slave population on the eve of the Civil War. PMID:22933827

  18. Dopamine regulates termite soldier differentiation through trophallactic behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Yaguchi, Hajime; Inoue, Takaya; Sasaki, Ken; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-01-01

    Caste polyphenism in social insects is regulated by social interactions among colony members. Trophallaxis is one of the most frequently observed interactions, but no studies have been conducted identifying the intrinsic factors involved in this behaviour and caste differentiation. Dopamine (DA) has multiple roles in the modulation of behaviours and physiology, and it produces species-specific behaviours in animals. Here, to verify the role of DA in termite soldier differentiation, we focused on the first soldier in an incipient colony of Zootermopsis nevadensis, which always differentiates from the oldest 3rd instar (No. 1 larva) via a presoldier. First, brain DA levels of the No. 1 larva at day 3 after its appearance were significantly higher than day 0. Second, DA synthesis gene expression levels were extraordinarily high in the No. 1 larva at day 0–1 after appearance. Finally, injection of a DA receptor antagonist into the No. 1 larva resulted in the inhibition of presoldier differentiation. Behavioural observations of the antagonist or control-injected larvae suggested that brain DA and signalling activity regulate the frequencies of trophallaxis from reproductives and presoldier differentiation. Because trophallaxis is a social behaviour frequently observed in natural conditions, the role of DA should be investigated in other social insects with frequent trophallactic and allogrooming behaviour. PMID:26998327

  19. Soldier detection using unattended acoustic and seismic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, P.; Hengy, S.; Hamery, P.

    2012-06-01

    During recent military conflicts, as well as for security interventions, the urban zone has taken a preponderant place. Studies have been initiated in national and in international programs to stimulate the technical innovations for these specific scenarios. For example joint field experiments have been organized by the NATO group SET-142 to evaluate the capability for the detection and localization of snipers, mortars or artillery guns using acoustic devices. Another important operational need corresponds to the protection of military sites or buildings. In this context, unattended acoustic and seismic sensors are envisaged to contribute to the survey of specific points by the detection of approaching enemy soldiers. This paper describes some measurements done in an anechoic chamber and in free field to characterize typical sounds generated by the soldier activities (walking, crawling, weapon handling, radio communication, clothing noises...). Footstep, speech and some specific impulsive sounds are detectable at various distances from the source. Such detection algorithms may be easily merged with the existing weapon firing detection algorithms to provide a more generic "battlefield acoustic" early warning system. Results obtained in various conditions (grassy terrain, gravel path, road, forest) will be presented. A method to extrapolate the distances of detection has been developed, based on an acoustic propagation model and applied to the laboratory measurements.

  20. The Impact of Unit Membership on Smoking Among Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Toblin, Robin L; Anderson, James A; Riviere, Lyndon A; McGurk, Dennis; Sipos, Maurice L

    2016-01-01

    Cultural, organizational, and dyadic influences have been found to be associated with smoking in the military while group-level influences have been identified in the general population. However, there are few studies examining group-level influences in the military and none using group-level analyses. Such studies are essential for understanding how to optimally forestall or cease smoking. This study, using mixed effects modelling, examined whether unit membership influenced smoking behavior in soldiers from brigade combat teams. Unit membership was assessed in 2008 to 2009 at the company level (n = 2204) and in 2012 at the platoon level (n = 452). Smoking was assessed by the number of daily cigarettes smoked (range: 0-99) with smoking status (nonsmoker vs. smoker) and smoking level (none, smoker, and heavy [20 + cigarettes/day]) as the outcomes. For both samples, unit membership was not significantly associated with a soldier's propensity to smoke when comparing either all smokers to nonsmokers or heavy smokers to smokers. These results suggest typical military unit-level training programs are unlikely to be the most effective mode of intervention for smoking prevention or cessation. Smoking rates in the military may be influenced instead by small group or individual relationships or by overall military culture.

  1. Using black soldier fly larvae for processing organic leachates.

    PubMed

    Popa, Radu; Green, Terrence R

    2012-04-01

    A large number of biodegradable byproducts including alcohols, soluble saccharides, volatile organic acids, and amines accumulate in the liquid fraction (leachate) produced as vegetal and food scrap waste decomposes. Untreated leachate, because it is rich in nutrients and organic byproducts, has a high chemical oxygen demand and is normally cleared of soluble organic byproducts by mineralization before its discharge into waterways. Mineralizing leachates using chemical and microbial biotechnologies is, however, a lengthy and costly process. We report here that the larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), an insect rich in protein and lipids, and having significant commercial value, while feeding and growing off of compost leachate, lowers its chemical oxygen demand relative to that of leachate unexposed to larvae, neutralizes its acidity, and clears it of volatile organic acids, amines, and alcohols. These observations demonstrate that black soldier fly larvae could be used to help offset the cost and clean up of organic solutes in leachate waste streams while recycling carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate into usable and commercially valuable biomass.

  2. Head Injured Learners: Facilitating the Education/Social Adjustment of Traumatically Brain Injured Learners in Academic Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buethe, Diane; Buethe, Chris

    Based upon 15 interviews, the paper discusses specific educational and social problems as perceived by nine brain injured learners (14-24 years old), their teachers, families, and peers. Interview excerpts illustrate executive functions of self-awareness, self-evaluation, and self-monitoring; the effects on families; and student difficulties in…

  3. Emotional ambivalence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers during military operations.

    PubMed

    Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Walter, Steffen; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Traue, Harald C

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study examined the extent to which a specific mechanism of emotion regulation - namely, ambivalence concerning the expressiveness of German soldiers' emotions - affects the severity of PTSD symptoms after a military operation. A survey was conducted at three points in time among 66 soldiers deployed on military crisis operations. The Harvard Trauma Questionaire (HTQ), the Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire (AEQ-G18), and a questionnaire on the particular stress of German soldiers during military operations were used. The study showed a significant correlation between emotional ambivalence and traumatization. Furthermore, it was shown that the subjective stress of soldiers leading up to deployment is more pronounced when emotional ambivalence is stronger in the context of military operations. This particular stress is greater before and during the military operation than after. Compared to a male control sample, the average AEQ-G18 scores of the soldier sample examined here are considerably lower. This pilot study clearly indicates that the AEQ-G18 could be a suitable predictor of the psychological burden on soldiers. The correlations between emotional ambivalence on the one hand and the particular and post-traumatic stressors on the other hand are not only statistically significant in the present pilot study, but may also be relevant as risk factors. It is, therefore, necessary to conduct more extensive studies on soldiers participating in military operations to verify the results of this pilot study.

  4. Differential Child Maltreatment Risk Across Deployment Periods of US Army Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christine M; Ross, Michelle E; Wood, Joanne N; Griffis, Heather M; Harb, Gerlinde C; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G; Rubin, David M

    2016-01-01

    We described the risk for maltreatment among toddlers of US Army soldiers over different deployment cycles to develop a systematic response within the US Army to provide families appropriate supports. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated maltreatment reports and medical diagnoses among children of 112,325 deployed US Army soldiers between 2001 and 2007. Risk of maltreatment was elevated after deployment for children of soldiers deployed once but not for children of soldiers deployed twice. During the 6 months after deployment, children of soldiers deployed once had 4.43 substantiated maltreatment reports and 4.96 medical diagnoses per 10,000 child-months. The highest maltreatment rate among children of soldiers deployed twice occurred during the second deployment for substantiated maltreatment (4.83 episodes per 10,000 child-months) and before the first deployment for medical diagnoses of maltreatment (3.78 episodes per 10,000 child-months). We confirmed an elevated risk for child maltreatment during deployment but also found a previously unidentified high-risk period during the 6 months following deployment, indicating elevated stress within families of deployed and returning soldiers. These findings can inform efforts by the military to initiate and standardize support and preparation to families during periods of elevated risk.

  5. Evaluation of the thin agar layer method for the recovery of pressure-injured and heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Lavieri, Nicolas A; Sebranek, Joseph G; Cordray, Joseph C; Dickson, James S; Jung, Stephanie; Manu, David K; Mendonça, Aubrey F; Brehm-Stecher, Byron F; Stock, Joseph; Stalder, Kenneth J

    2014-05-01

    A sublethally injured bacterial cell has been defined as a cell that survives a stress such as heating, freezing, acid treatment, or other antimicrobial intervention but can repair the cellular damage exerted by the stressor and later regain its original ability to grow. Consequently, sublethally injured cells are not likely to be included in conventional enumeration procedures, which could result in unrealistically low counts unless efforts are made to encourage recovery of the injured cells before enumeration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the thin agar layer (TAL) method for the recovery of pressure-injured and heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes in a tryptic soy broth with 0.6% yeast extract system. Pressure injury consisted of treatment of a culture of mixed L. monocytogenes strains with high hydrostatic pressure at 400 or 600 MPa for 1 s, 2 min, 4 min, or 6 min at a process temperature of 12±2 °C. Heat injury consisted of treatment of a culture of mixed L. monocytogenes strains at 60±1 °C for 3, 6, or 9 min. Growth media were tryptic soy agar (TSA) with 0.6% yeast extract, modified Oxford medium (MOX), and TAL, which consisted of a 7-ml layer of TSA overlaid onto solidified MOX. Counts of viable L. monocytogenes on TAL were higher than those on MOX in the heat-injury experiment but not in the pressure-injury experiment. Therefore, the effectiveness of the TAL method may be specific to the type of injury applied to the microorganism and should be investigated in a variety of cellular injury scenarios.

  6. Risk factors for subsequent impaired driving by injured passengers.

    PubMed

    Purssell, Roy A; Chan, Herbert; Brown, Douglas; Fang, Ming; Brubacher, Jeffrey R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of, and risk factors for, subsequent impaired driving activity (IDA) in a cohort of injured passengers who were treated for injuries in a Canadian trauma center. We studied adult passengers who were occupants in vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and either included in the British Columbia (BC) trauma registry (January 1, 1992-December 31, 2004) or treated in the emergency department (ED) of Vancouver General Hospital (VGH; January 1, 1999-December 31, 2003). Passengers were linked to their driver's license and hence to their driving record using personal health number and demographic information. Injured passengers were stratified into 3 groups based on their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at time of ED presentation: group 1: BAC = 0, group 2: 0 < BAC ≤ 17.3 mM (0.08%), group 3: BAC > 17.3 mM (0.08%). Two outcome variables were studied: involvement in a subsequent IDA and time to their first subsequent IDA. IDA was defined as a criminal code conviction for impaired driving, a 24-h or 90-day license suspension for impaired driving, and/or involvement in an MVC where police cited alcohol as a factor. Time to first IDA following the index event among passenger BAC groups was compared with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the effect of various potential risk factors on time to engage in first IDA. Injured passengers with any BAC at the time of ED visit were more likely to engage in IDA and had their first IDA sooner after the index event than those with zero BAC. Among this cohort of injured passengers, 12.1 percent with BAC = 0, 29.9 percent with 0 < BAC ≤ 17.3 mM (0.08%), and 37.8 percent with a BAC > 17.3 mM (0.08%) engaged in IDA. Compared to passengers with BAC = 0, group 3 passengers and group 2 passengers were 2.06 times and 1.79 times more likely to engage in future IDA. Twenty-five percent of injured passengers engaged their first

  7. Interpersonal-Psychological Theory, Alexithymia, and Personality Predict Suicide Ideation among Maladjusted Soldiers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai-Cheng; Tzeng, Dong-Sheng; Lin, Chi-Hung; Chung, Wei-Ching

    2016-11-24

    This case-control study enrolled 226 maladjusted soldiers and 229 controls to investigate the impact of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, alexithymia, personality, and childhood trauma on suicide risk among Taiwanese soldiers. Assessments included the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Brief Symptom Rating Scale. In addition to thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, other risks included less extraversion with higher neuroticism, higher alexithymia, poor academic performance, domestic violence, and life-threatening events. Our study demonstrates the interaction of the interpersonal-psychological theory and other suicide risk factors in Taiwanese soldiers.

  8. Do Atomic Veterans have excess cancer? New results correcting for the healthy soldier bias.

    PubMed

    Bross, I D; Bross, N S

    1987-12-01

    Reanalysis of the National Research Council report on Mortality of Nuclear Weapons Test Participants, released June 4, 1985, shows 62% excess cancer among soldiers involved in nuclear weapons testing in 1957 codenamed PLUMBBOB, who had exposures to fallout of 300 mrem or more. Although the "healthy soldier bias" was discussed in the original report and a method of correcting for it was described, false negative results were reported because no correction was actually made. Correcting for the healthy soldier bias reveals excess digestive, respiratory, leukemia, and other cancers in PLUMBBOB participants whose reported doses were over 300 mrem.

  9. Development of a complicated pain syndrome following cyanide poisoning in a U.S. soldier.

    PubMed

    Lenart, Mark; Buckenmaier, Chester C; Kim, Moon J; Plunkett, Anthony R

    2010-04-01

    A majority of modern war wounds are caused by blasts and high-energy ballistics. Extremity injuries predominate since modern body armor does not protect these areas due to mobility limitations. A less known and more insidious mechanism of enemy attack among our soldiers involves treachery by the local populace posing as noncombatants. One such recent event involved the contamination of tobacco with cyanide (CN). We describe a case of a soldier with CN intoxication due to ingestion of tobacco purchased from a local merchant. The soldier developed a complex neuropathic pain syndrome and was successfully treated with an inpatient high-dose intravenous ketamine infusion in combination with continuous peripheral nerve blockade.

  10. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia.

  11. Does political ideology moderate stress: the special case of soldiers conducting forced evacuation.

    PubMed

    Shechner, Tomer; Slone, Michelle; Bialik, Gadi

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the moderating role of political ideology on psychological outcomes for Israeli soldiers participating in the forced evacuation of Jewish settlements from Gaza. Change in psychopathology and well-being was assessed for 3 concurrent mission groups differing in their political ideological contentiousness--forced evacuation, Gaza security, and Northern border security. After soldiers in each mission group were classified on the basis of relatively left- or right-wing political ideological tendencies, the authors examined differential impact of each mission on soldiers of differing political ideology. Results confirmed strong moderation effects of political ideology on psychological outcomes in these extreme contexts. Implications for research, prevention, and treatment are discussed.

  12. Enemy deterrence in the recruitment strategy of a termite: Soldier-organized foraging in Nasutitermes costalis.

    PubMed

    Traniello, J F

    1981-03-01

    The nasute soldiers of the neotropical termite Nasutitermes costalis function as scouts by exploring new terrain for food in advance of the worker caste and regulate foraging activity by laying trails composed of sternal gland pheromone. Additional soldiers are at first recruited in large numbers, and subsequently workers appear as the pheromone concentration increases. The role of the nasutes in the organization of foraging is extremely unusual for the soldier caste in social insects and appears to be a component of a foraging/defense system that controls the recruitment of foragers and effectively deters attacks by ants, the most fierce and important predators of termites.

  13. Enemy deterrence in the recruitment strategy of a termite: Soldier-organized foraging in Nasutitermes costalis

    PubMed Central

    Traniello, James F. A.

    1981-01-01

    The nasute soldiers of the neotropical termite Nasutitermes costalis function as scouts by exploring new terrain for food in advance of the worker caste and regulate foraging activity by laying trails composed of sternal gland pheromone. Additional soldiers are at first recruited in large numbers, and subsequently workers appear as the pheromone concentration increases. The role of the nasutes in the organization of foraging is extremely unusual for the soldier caste in social insects and appears to be a component of a foraging/defense system that controls the recruitment of foragers and effectively deters attacks by ants, the most fierce and important predators of termites. PMID:16592995

  14. Development of a CPM Machine for Injured Fingers.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yili; Zhang, Fuxiang; Ma, Xin; Meng, Qinggang

    2005-01-01

    Human fingers are easy to be injured. A CPM machine is a mechanism based on the rehabilitation theory of continuous passive motion (CPM). To develop a CPM machine for the clinic application in the rehabilitation of injured fingers is a significant task. Therefore, based on the theories of evidence based medicine (EBM) and CPM, we've developed a set of biomimetic mechanism after modeling the motions of fingers and analyzing its kinematics and dynamics analysis. We also design an embedded operating system based on ARM (a kind of 32-bit RISC microprocessor). The equipment can achieve the precise control of moving scope of fingers, finger's force and speed. It can serves as a rational checking method and a way of assessment for functional rehabilitation of human hands. Now, the first prototype has been finished and will start the clinical testing in Harbin Medical University shortly.

  15. Acute and Perioperative Care of the Burn-Injured Patient

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Edward A.; Shank, Erik; Woodson, Lee; Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra

    2016-01-01

    Care of burn-injured patients requires knowledge of the pathophysiologic changes affecting virtually all organs from the onset of injury until wounds are healed. Massive airway and/or lung edema can occur rapidly and unpredictably after burn and/or inhalation injury. Hemodynamics in the early phase of severe burn injury are characterized by a reduction in cardiac output, increased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance. Approximately 2–5 days after major burn injury, a hyperdynamic and hypermetabolic state develops. Electrical burns result in morbidity much higher than expected based on burn size alone. Formulae for fluid resuscitation should serve only as guideline; fluids should be titrated to physiologic end points. Burn injury is associated basal and procedural pain requiring higher than normal opioid and sedative doses. Operating room concerns for the burn-injured patient include airway abnormalities, impaired lung function, vascular access, deceptively large and rapid blood loss, hypothermia and altered pharmacology. PMID:25485468

  16. Caring for the injured child in settings of limited resource.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    Children represent the most vulnerable members of our global society, a truth that is magnified when they are physically wounded. In much of the developed world, society has responded by offering protection in the form of law, injury prevention guidelines, and effective trauma systems to provide care for the injured child. Much of our world, though, remains afflicted by poverty and a lack of protective measures. As the globe becomes smaller by way of ease of travel and technology, surgeons are increasingly able to meet these children where they live and in doing so offer their hands and voices to care and protect these young ones. This article is intended as an overview of current issues in pediatric trauma care in the developing world as well as to offer some tips for the volunteer surgeon who may be involved in the care of the injured child in a setting of limited resource availability.

  17. Rehabilitation of burn injured patients following lightning and electrical trauma.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; Van Landuyt, Koen; Hamdi, Moustapha; Blondeel, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    Electrical burn injuries are complicated because of damage to many structures including: blood vessels, muscles, nerves, tendons, bone and skin. Surgeons must confront many problems such as wound healing coverage, scarring, loss of nerve and tendons, progressive joint stiffness and amputation. The goals of burn therapists are to achieve wound healing, functional recovery, and good cosmetic results. Rehabilitation is both preventive and therapeutic and is a fundamental part of managing these patients. In this article, rehabilitation is discussed with emphasis on the following: pain management, wound coverage, positioning, splinting, and exercises (range-of-motion and ambulation). The treatment and prevention of hypertrophic scarring is evaluated. Finally, the use of engineering and assistive technologies for rehabilitation of the electrical burn injured patient is discussed. Successful management of electrical burn injured patients involves communication among the different burn specialists, such as surgeons, anesthesiologists, neurologists, nurses, and kinesitherapists; engineers from the garments/prostheses companies; psychologists; and the patient him/herself.

  18. Long and short term memory in head injured patients.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D N

    1975-12-01

    A group of severely head injured patients were compared with 15 controls on auditory vocal digit span, and on a free recall memory task, enabling short term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM) to be examined. The free recall curves differed for the two groups suggesting that the head injured patients had an essentially normal STM, but a poor LTM. This was supported by the finding of a significantly lower number of semantic errors (presumably retrieved from LTM) and a normal digit span (STM) in the head injury patients. The severity of the injury as judged by post-traumatic amnesia or the presence of neurological signs at the time of memory testing showed only a weak relationship to the severity of the memory deficit. The presence of a skull fracture was of minor importance in determining the severity of the LTM defect. Patients tested early after the injury were significantly poorer on STM, but not on LTM.

  19. Drawing the Curtain Back on Injured Commercial Bicyclists

    PubMed Central

    Heyer, Jessica H.; Sethi, Monica; Wall, Stephen P.; Ayoung-Chee, Patricia; Slaughter, Dekeya; Jacko, Sally; DiMaggio, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the demographic characteristics, behaviors, injuries, and outcomes of commercial bicyclists who were injured while navigating New York City’s (NYC’s) central business district. Methods. Our study involved a secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a level 1 regional trauma center in 2008 to 2014 of bicyclists struck by motor vehicles. We performed univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results. Of 819 injured bicyclists, 284 (34.7%) were working. Commercial bicyclists included 24.4% to 45.1% of injured bicyclists annually. Injured commercial bicyclists were more likely Latino (56.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 50.7, 62.8 vs 22.7%; 95% CI = 19.2, 26.5). Commercial bicyclists were less likely to be distracted by electronic devices (5.0%; 95% CI = 2.7, 8.2 vs 12.7%; 95% CI = 9.9, 15.9) or to have consumed alcohol (0.7%; 95% CI = 0.9, 2.5 vs 9.5%; 95% CI = 7.2, 12.3). Commercial and noncommercial bicyclists did not differ in helmet use (38.4%; 95% CI = 32.7, 44.4 vs 30.8%; 95% CI = 26.9, 34.9). Injury severity scores were less severe in commercial bicyclists (odds ratio = 0.412; 95% CI = 0.235, 0.723). Conclusions. Commercial bicyclists represent a unique cohort of vulnerable roadway users. In NYC, minorities, especially Latinos, should be targeted for safety education programs. PMID:26270281

  20. Addressing the Needs of Children and Families of Combat Injured

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    were concerns (e.g., anxiety) or services the participant needed (e.g., child care ) and then where the participant was referred (e.g., Behavioral...the criteria to 2 years includes a larger population of families in outpatient care and, at FSGA, families at various stages of reintegration. The...families (e.g., Pediatrics, Fleet and Family Services, Family Care Club). We are also connecting with providers who serve injured service members (e.g

  1. Imagery use by injured athletes: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Driediger, Molly; Hall, Craig; Callow, Nichola

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand our knowledge and increase our understanding of imagery use by athletes in sport-injury rehabilitation using a qualitative approach. The participants were 10 injured athletes who were receiving physiotherapy at the time they were interviewed. During the interviews, the athletes provided extensive information about their use of imagery during injury rehabilitation and it was clear that they believed imagery served cognitive, motivational and healing purposes in effectively rehabilitating an injury. Cognitive imagery was used to learn and properly perform the rehabilitation exercises. They employed motivational imagery for goal setting (e.g. imagined being fully recovered) and to enhance mental toughness, help maintain concentration and foster a positive attitude. Imagery was used to manage pain. The methods they employed for controlling pain included using imagery to practise dealing with expected pain, using imagery as a distraction, imagining the pain dispersing, and using imagery to block the pain. With respect to what they imaged (i.e. the content of their imagery), they employed both visual and kinaesthetic imagery and their images tended to be positive and accurate. It was concluded that the implementation of imagery alongside physical rehabilitation should enhance the rehabilitation experience and, therefore, facilitate the recovery rates of injured athletes. Moreover, it was recommended that those responsible for the treatment of injured athletes (e.g. medical doctors, physiotherapists) should understand the benefits of imagery in athletic injury rehabilitation, since it is these practitioners who are in the best position to encourage injured athletes to use imagery.

  2. The first Civil War photographs of soldiers with facial wounds.

    PubMed

    Rogers, B O; Rhode, M G

    1995-01-01

    During the Civil War, for the first time in medical history, a large number of excellent photographs were taken of many wounded Union and (to a lesser degree) Confederate soldiers by photographers assigned by their doctors or surgeons, or by photographers employed by the Army Medical Museum. The majority of these photographs demonstrating facial, head, and neck wounds have not been published since the Civil War, except for a few minor exceptions [3, 9]. The actual art of printing photographs in medical journals, daily newspapers, and magazines did not even begin until the early 1880s--almost two decades after the Civil War [24]. Any photographs that could be found in certain rare medical and surgical books during and immediately after the War were actually pasted into those books by their printers.

  3. For soldier and state: dual loyalty and World War One.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Military medicine has always been characterized by some form of dual loyalty: physicians have to consider the interests of the individual soldier--patient as well as the interests of the state and the military in general. The way in which each individual doctor responds to this dual loyalty has mostly been viewed as a product of war circumstances on the one hand, and the personal character and/or religious and ideological beliefs of the physician on the other. Taking World War One as an example, this article argues that the nature of the illness or wound also had a part to play in this. The article shows that the disfigured were looked upon mainly in relation to the patient's own interests; the invalided-out through a combination of the patient's as well as the state's interests; and the neurotic mainly out of concern for the interests of the state.

  4. Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Benny; Huebner, Larry; Kuhns, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (SWORDS) project was a joint project between the U.S. Army Space & Missile Defense Command (SMDC) and NASA. The effort, lead by SMDC, was intended to develop a three-stage liquid bipropellant (liquid oxygen/liquid methane), pressure-fed launch vehicle capable of inserting a payload of at least 25 kg to a 750-km circular orbit. The vehicle design was driven by low cost instead of high performance. SWORDS leveraged commercial industry standards to utilize standard hardware and technologies over customized unique aerospace designs. SWORDS identified broadly based global industries that have achieved adequate levels of quality control and reliability in their products and then designed around their expertise and business motivations.

  5. Robots Save Soldiers' Lives Overseas (MarcBot)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center mobile communications platform designs for future lunar missions led to improvements to fleets of tactical robots now being deployed by U.S. Army. The Multi-function Agile Remote Control Robot (MARCbot) helps soldiers search out and identify improvised explosive devices. NASA used the MARCbots to test its mobile communications platform, and in working with it, made the robot faster while adding capabilities -- upgrading to a digital camera, encrypting the controllers and video transmission, as well as increasing the range and adding communications abilities. They also simplified the design, providing more plug-and-play sensors and replacing some of the complex electronics with more trouble-free, low-cost components. Applied Geo Technology, a tribally-owned corporation in Choctaw, Mississippi, was given the task of manufacturing the modified robots. The company is now producing 40 units per month, 300 of which have already been deployed overseas.

  6. Ideological commitment and posttraumatic stress in former Tamil child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Kanagaratnam, Pushpa; Raundalen, Magne; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2005-12-01

    This study focuses on the impact of present ideological commitment on posttraumatic stress symptoms in former child soldiers living in exile. Eighteen men and two women (aged 25-37), who had joined different Tamil armed groups in Sri Lanka between the ages of 13 and 17 years, participated. The Impact of Event Scale was used to measure posttraumatic symptoms. Qualitative methods were used to investigate the participants' ideological commitment. Participants reported being exposed to many potentially traumatizing events, and had high scores on the Impact of Event Scale. Twenty-five percent of the sample showed strong ideological commitment to the "cause". Ideological commitment at the present seemed to predict better mental health when exposure was less intense and overwhelming. Time had a negative impact on ideological commitment.

  7. Pretraumatic Stress Reactions in Soldiers Deployed to Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is a diagnosis related to the past. Pre-traumatic stress reactions, as measured by intrusive involuntary images of possible future stressful events and their associated avoidance and increased arousal, have been overlooked in the PTSD literature. Here we introduce a scale that measures pre-traumatic stress reactions providing a clear future-oriented parallel to the posttraumatic stress reactions described in the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. We apply this pre-traumatic stress reactions checklist (PreCL) to Danish soldiers before, during, and after deployment to Afghanistan. The PreCL has good internal consistency and is highly correlated with a standard measure of PTSD symptoms. The PreCL as answered before the soldiers’ deployment significantly predicted level of PTSD symptoms during and after their deployment, while controlling for baseline PTSD symptoms and combat exposure measured during and after deployment. The findings have implications for the conceptualization of PTSD, screening, and treatment. PMID:26366328

  8. Hydraulic resistance exercise benefits cardiovascular fitness of spinal cord injured.

    PubMed

    Cooney, M M; Walker, J B

    1986-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of hydraulic resistance exercise training on fitness in spinal cord injured patients. Ten subjects (five quadriplegics and five paraplegics; seven males and three females) participated in a 9-wk training program. Subjects trained 3 times/wk. The 9-wk program was divided into three, 3-wk periods, designated stages I, II, and III. A discontinuous arm crank protocol was used to assess VO2max before and after training. Assessment of the intensity of the hydraulic resistance exercise was made by continuous ECG monitoring during training. A 60 to 90% maximum observed heart rate was calculated for subjects. The spinal cord-injured subjects' VO2max increased 28.1%, and maximum exercise power output increased 36.7% as a result of the 9-wk training program. Both of these findings were statistically significant (P less than 0.01). The exercise intensity was within a 60 to 90% training zone during stages II and III but not during stage I training. The results of this study indicate that hydraulic resistance exercise training may produce increased cardiovascular fitness in spinal cord-injured subjects.

  9. A Review of metabolic staging in severely injured patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An interpretation of the metabolic response to injury in patients with severe accidental or surgical trauma is made. In the last century, various authors attributed a meaning to the post-traumatic inflammatory response by using teleological arguments. Their interpretations of this response, not only facilitates integrating the knowledge, but also the flow from the bench to the bedside, which is the main objective of modern translational research. The goal of the current review is to correlate the metabolic changes with the three phenotypes -ischemia-reperfusion, leukocytic and angiogenic- that the patients express during the evolution of the systemic inflammatory response. The sequence in the expression of multiple metabolic systems that becomes progressively more elaborate and complex in severe injured patients urges for more detailed knowledge in order to establish the most adequate metabolic support according to the evolutive phase. Thus, clinicians must employ different treatment strategies based on the different metabolic phases when caring for this challenging patient population. Perhaps, the best therapeutic option would be to favor early hypometabolism during the ischemia-reperfusion phase, to boost the antienzymatic metabolism and to reduce hypermetabolism during the leukocytic phase through the early administration of enteral nutrition and the modulation of the acute phase response. Lastly, the early epithelial regeneration of the injured organs and tissues by means of an oxidative metabolism would reduce the fibrotic sequelae in these severely injured patients. PMID:20478066

  10. Proinflammatory cytokines in injured rat brain following perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Maślińska, Danuta; Laure-Kamionowska, Milena; Kaliszek, Agnieszka; Makarewicz, Dorota

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to astrogliosis, which is common to injuries of the adult CNS, in the developing brain this process is minimal. Reasons postulated for this include the relative immaturity of the immune system and the consequent insufficient production of cytokines to evoke astrogliosis. To explore this hypothesis, the study was undertaken to detect the presence of some proinflammatory cytokines in the injured rat brain following perinatal asphyxia (ischaemia/hypoxia). The localisation of TNF-alpha, IL-15, IL-17 and IL-17 receptors was visualised by means of immunohistochemistry. In numerous neurones of the rat brain, the IL-17 appeared to be constitutively expressed. In the early period of inflammation the IL-15 was produced mainly by the blood cells penetrating the injured brain but later it was synthesised also by reactive astrocytes surrounding brain cysts and forming dense astrogliosis around necrotic brain regions. The direct effect on astrogliosis of other estimated cytokines seems to be negligible. All the results lead to the conclusion that from all cytokines identified in the injured immature rat brain the IL-15 plays the most important role during inflammatory response and participates in the gliosis of reactive astrocytes.

  11. Solute transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chin, Hooi Chuan; Moeini, Mohammad; Quinn, Thomas M

    2013-07-15

    Solute transport through extracellular matrix (ECM) is important to physiology and contrast agent-based clinical imaging of articular cartilage. Mechanical injury is likely to have important effects on solute transport since it involves alteration of ECM structure. Therefore it is of interest to characterize effects of mechanical injury on solute transport in cartilage. Using cartilage explants injured by an established mechanical compression protocol, effective partition coefficients and diffusivities of solutes for transport across the articular surface were measured. A range of fluorescent solutes (fluorescein isothiocyanate, 4 and 40kDa dextrans, insulin, and chondroitin sulfate) and an X-ray contrast agent (sodium iodide) were used. Mechanical injury was associated with a significant increase in effective diffusivity versus uninjured explants for all solutes studied. On the other hand, mechanical injury had no effects on effective partition coefficients for most solutes tested, except for 40kDa dextran and chondroitin sulfate where small but significant changes in effective partition coefficient were observed in injured explants. Findings highlight enhanced diffusive transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage, which may have important implications for injury and repair situations. Results also support development of non-equilibrium methods for identification of focal cartilage lesions by contrast agent-based clinical imaging.

  12. Repair of injured proximal tubule does not involve specialized progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Benjamin D.; Czerniak, Suzanne; DiRocco, Derek P.; Hasnain, Wirasat; Cheema, Rabia; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2011-01-01

    Recently we have established that the kidney tubular epithelium is repaired by surviving epithelial cells. It is not known, however, whether a population of intratubular adult progenitor cells are responsible for this epithelial repair after acute kidney injury. In this study, we used an unbiased DNA analog-based approach that does not rely on candidate markers to track multiple rounds of cell division in vivo. In the proximal tubule, robust thymidine analog incorporation was observed postinjury. Cell division was stochastic and enriched among cells that were injured and dedifferentiated. There was no evidence for the presence of a population of specialized progenitors that repeatedly divide in response to injury. Instead, these results indicate that after injury, new epithelial cells arise from self-duplication of surviving cells, most of which are injured. Because the renal papilla contains DNA label-retaining cells and has been proposed as a stem cell niche, we examined the proliferative behavior of these putative progenitors after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although label-retaining cells in the renal papilla diminished with time after ischemia-reperfusion injury, they neither proliferated nor migrated to the outer medulla or cortex. Thus, nonlethally injured cells repopulate the kidney epithelium after injury in the absence of any specialized progenitor cell population. PMID:21576461

  13. Importance of considering injured microorganisms in sterilization validation.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Hideharu

    2006-09-01

    Disinfection or sterilization treatment by heating, irradiation, or chemicals can cause injury to microorganisms at sublethal levels. Microbial injury is the inability to grow under conditions suitable for the uninjured microorganisms. This inability of injured microorganisms to grow is explained in terms of more complex or different nutritional requirements or in terms of increased sensitivity to environmental conditions such as incubation conditions (time or temperature) or to chemical agents such as halogen compounds. Injured microorganisms can be distinguished from those that are dead or mutated by their ability to regain normal physiological activity when placed in appropriate conditions for cultivation. The return to normal physiological function has been termed repair. The extent and severity of sublethal injury, the mechanisms of injury, and the mechanisms and degree of recovery vary with the sterilization procedures, the species, the strains, the condition of the microorganism, and the methods of repair. Injury to spore formers has been detected at different stages of the spore cycle. The sites of injury include damage to enzymes, membrane disruption, and/or damage to DNA or RNA. Information on the sublethal injury and recovery of microorganisms is very important in evaluating sterilization/disinfection procedures. This paper supplies academic as well as practical information dealing with the repair, and detection of injured microorganisms for performing reproducible sterilization validation.

  14. Identifying contextual influences of community reintegration among injured servicemembers.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Brent L; McGuire, Francis A; Britt, Thomas W; Linder, Sandra M

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that community reintegration (CR) after injury and rehabilitation is difficult for many injured servicemembers. However, little is known about the influence of the contextual factors, both personal and environmental, that influence CR. Framed within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Social Cognitive Theory, the quantitative portion of a larger mixed-methods study of 51 injured, community-dwelling servicemembers compared the relative contribution of contextual factors between groups of servicemembers with different levels of CR. Cluster analysis indicated three groups of servicemembers showing low, moderate, and high levels of CR. Statistical analyses identified contextual factors (e.g., personal and environmental factors) that significantly discriminated between CR clusters. Multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis indicated significant contributions of general self-efficacy, services and assistance barriers, physical and structural barriers, attitudes and support barriers, perceived level of disability and/or handicap, work and school barriers, and policy barriers on CR scores. Overall, analyses indicated that injured servicemembers with lower CR scores had lower general self-efficacy scores, reported more difficulty with environmental barriers, and reported their injuries as more disabling.

  15. Understanding contextual influences of community reintegration among injured servicemembers.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Brent L; McGuire, Francis A; Linder, Sandra M; Britt, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger mixed-methods research project investigating the influence of contextual factors on community reintegration (CR), this qualitative study sought to understand the subjective experiences of injured servicemembers and their perception of how contextual factors influenced their CR. More specifically, this article addresses how the influences of contextual factors differ between injured servicemembers with different levels of CR. Using a phenomenological framework, semistructured interviews were conducted with nine injured, community-dwelling servicemembers with low, moderate, and high levels of CR (three per category). Participants provided in-depth descriptions of the contextual barriers and facilitators of CR. Thematic analysis indicated the importance of social support and personal factors (e.g., self-efficacy, personal motivation) as the primary means for being reintegrated into their homes and communities. Other themes indicated factors that had an indirect but important influence on CR, including adapted sports, recreation, and other social programs; rehabilitation programs and therapists; school, work, and volunteering; and organizations and policies in developing social supports and personal factors. Comparisons between servicemembers indicated participants with low CR described many more contextual barriers and far fewer contextual facilitators to reintegration than those with high CR. Those with moderate CR were unique in that they described many facilitators and barriers to reintegration.

  16. Mitochondria Localize to Injured Axons to Support Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung Min; Baig, Huma S; Hammarlund, Marc

    2016-12-21

    Axon regeneration is essential to restore the nervous system after axon injury. However, the neuronal cell biology that underlies axon regeneration is incompletely understood. Here we use in vivo, single-neuron analysis to investigate the relationship between nerve injury, mitochondrial localization, and axon regeneration. Mitochondria translocate into injured axons so that average mitochondria density increases after injury. Moreover, single-neuron analysis reveals that axons that fail to increase mitochondria have poor regeneration. Experimental alterations to axonal mitochondrial distribution or mitochondrial respiratory chain function result in corresponding changes to regeneration outcomes. Axonal mitochondria are specifically required for growth-cone migration, identifying a key energy challenge for injured neurons. Finally, mitochondrial localization to the axon after injury is regulated in part by dual-leucine zipper kinase 1 (DLK-1), a conserved regulator of axon regeneration. These data identify regulation of axonal mitochondria as a new cell-biological mechanism that helps determine the regenerative response of injured neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Regional expansion of oleic acid-injured lungs.

    PubMed

    Martynowicz, M A; Minor, T A; Walters, B J; Hubmayr, R D

    1999-07-01

    It has been suggested that dependent regions of an injured lung are collapsed and subject to cyclic reopening and collapse during mechanical ventilation. To test this hypothesis, we measured both temporal and spatial heterogeneity of lobar expansion in oleic acid (OA)-injured dogs. Regional volumes were measured in nine dogs (seven supine and two prone) during closed loop sinusoidal oscillations of the lungs before and after OA injury using the parenchymal marker technique. In contrast to computer tomography, the parenchymal marker technique provides absolute measures of regional tissue dimensions as opposed to relative measures of regional air to liquid content. The experiments generated three major findings: (1) OA injury did not lead to the collapse of dependent lung units at FRC, (2) OA injury did not steepen the vertical gradient in regional lung volumes at FRC, and (3) during sinusoidal oscillation of the OA-injured lungs from FRC, dependent regions did not undergo cyclic reopening and collapse. On the basis of these results, we propose an alternative mechanism for the topographic variability in regional impedances and lung expansion after injury, namely liquid and foam in conducting airways.

  18. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health.

  19. Evaluation of the Performance of Females as Light Infantry Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Finestone, Aharon S.; Milgrom, Charles; Yanovich, Ran; Evans, Rachel; Constantini, Naama; Moran, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    A few countries permit women to serve in combat roles, but their long term performance in these positions has not been reported. The incidences of overuse injuries and attrition of 85 male and 235 female recruits in a light infantry brigade was followed in a three-year prospective study. Females were shorter (162 cm, CI 161–163 cm) than males (174 cm, CI 173–176), had more body fat (18.9 kg, CI 18.2–19.6 kg) than males (12.6 kg, 11.3–13.8 kg), had lower V˙O2max (36.8 mL·min−1 ·kg−1, CI 35.8–37.78 mL·min−1 ·kg−1) than males (50.48 mL·min−1 ·kg−1, CI 48.4 to 52.48 mL·min−1 ·kg−1), had more stress fractures (21.0%, 95% CI 16.2–26.5%) than males (2.3%, CI 0.3–8.2%), and had more anterior knee pain (41.2%, CI 34.9–47.7%) than males (24.7%, CI 16.0–35.2%). Three-year attrition was 28% CI 22–34% for females and 37% CI 26–48% for males. The females in this study successfully served as light infantry soldiers. Their lower fitness and high incidence of overuse injuries might impede service as regular infantry soldiers. PMID:25215282

  20. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air “burn pits” lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe–positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  1. Near-infrared Spectroscopy to Reduce the Prophylactic Fasciotomies for and Missed Cases of Acute Compartment Syndrome in Soldiers Injured in OEF/OIF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Lower Extremity Trauma By Michael S. Shuler, MD, William M. Reisman, MD, Thomas E . Whitesides Jr., MD, Tracy L. Kinsey, MSPH, E . Mark Hammerberg, MD...Pressures in Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Leg By Michael S. Shuler, MD, William M. Reisman, MD, Tracy L. Kinsey, MSPH, Thomas E . Whitesides Jr...recently reached full enrollment. Details of study progress are described below. All study investigators (Brett Freedman, Michael Shuler, Debra

  2. Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy to Reduce Prophylactic Fasciotomies for and Missed Cases of Acute Compartment Syndrome in Soldiers Injured in OEF/OIF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    ALCS was defined 64 as a loss of muscle twitch during peroneal nerve stimulation but interestingly mean ICP varied 65 greatly. Neither study found an...compartment musculature extended proximal, cranial and caudal to the sensor. On the test leg, 97 four 18 gauge needles were placed at the periphery...Switzerland) to manually elevate the 101 compartmental pressure at predetermined intervals in the test legs. The cranial and caudal 102 needles were used

  3. Improving Soldier Health and Performance by Moving Army Medicine Toward a System for Health.

    PubMed

    Caravalho, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    With growing limitations on military resources, including a reduction in the overall size of our military force, the Army must make the most of every soldier in its ranks. The only way to achieve the necessary improvements in human performance with upcoming constraints will be through exploring innovative ways of thinking while implementing the best policies and doctrine that will maintain each soldier's resilience throughout their military career. Moving the Army from a traditional health care system to a system for health is expected to substantially improve and maintain soldier health and performance by focusing on 3 key areas: the Performance Triad (sleep health, physical activity, and nutrition behaviors), Delivery of Health, and Healthy Environments. The implementation of this system for health will not only improve individual soldier's resiliency/capability both throughout and beyond their military careers and benefit Army Medicine as a whole, but could also serve as a successful model for the nation if changes are adopted.

  4. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.

  5. Danish soldiers in Iraq: perceived exposures, psychological distress, and reporting of physical symptoms.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn; Guldager, Bernadette

    2011-10-01

    Using data from an occupational medical health surveillance program, we studied the associations between mental stressors and social support and the two outcome measures postdeployment psychological distress and multiple physical symptoms among Danish soldiers deployed to Iraq. The study was cross-sectional and questionnaire-based with soldiers returning from the mission as the target group. Witnessing atrocities, fear of being physically harmed, feeling of insecurity, feeling of meaninglessness, and having been in touch with prisoners were associated with both outcome measures. In conclusion, our findings support the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased psychological discomfort and certain mental stressors.

  6. Reproductive division of labour coevolves with gall size in Australian thrips with soldiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, T. E.; Chapman, T. W.; Kranz, B. D.; Schwarz, M. P.

    2001-12-01

    An analysis of multiple species of Australian gall-inducing thrips with soldiers reveals a significant negative correlation between the size of gall produced and the reproductive division of labour. This correlation suggests that the evolution of smaller galls limited the available space and feeding sites for the offspring of female soldiers, and was a major factor that led to the evolution of an altruistic caste in the gall-inducers. We argue that high levels of inbreeding by singly mated foundresses and incestuous mating by her soldier offspring are key to this evolutionary relationship because they make the relatedness of a female soldier to her daughters and sisters approximately equal. Evidence that relatedness plays an important role is strengthened by the observation of outbred multiply mated foundresses and unbiased sex ratio of dispersers in Oncothrips waterhousei, and the inference that both gall volume and skew decreased along this lineage.

  7. Use of body armor protection with fighting load impacts soldier performance and kinematics.

    PubMed

    Loverro, Kari L; Brown, Tyler N; Coyne, Megan E; Schiffman, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to examine how increasing body armor protection with and without a fighting load impacted soldiers' performance and mobility. Thirteen male soldiers performed one performance (repeated 30-m rushing) and three mobility tasks (walk, walk over and walk under) with three different body armor configurations and an anterior fighting load. Increasing body armor protection, decreased soldier performance, as individual and total 30-m rush times were significantly longer with greater protection. While increasing body armor protection had no impact on mobility, i.e. significant effect on trunk and lower limb biomechanics, during the walk and walk over tasks, greater protection did significantly decrease maximum trunk flexion during the walk under task. Adding fighting load may negatively impact soldier mobility, as greater maximum trunk extension was evident during the walk and walk over tasks, and decreased maximum trunk flexion exhibited during the walk under task with the fighting load.

  8. A Cup of Salt for an O. D.: "Dog Soldiers" as Anti-Apocalypse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Stephen H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Robert Stone's "Dog Soldiers," a novel written out of the author's experiences in Vietnam in 1973, and its refusal to present an ultimate apocalyptic vision of history. Contrasts it with other modern works pervaded by apocalyptic anxiety. (DMM)

  9. Indero: intergenerational trauma and resilience between Burundian former child soldiers and their children.

    PubMed

    Song, Suzan Joon; Tol, Wietse; de Jong, Joop

    2014-06-01

    Since many former child soldiers are aging and having children of their own, this study aimed to understand how the effects of trauma are passed to the next generation. In this qualitative study, semistructured interviews, focus groups, and observations were conducted with 25 former child soldiers and 15 matched civilian parents. Analysis used a grounded-theory approach. Trauma may be transmitted from former child soldiers to their offspring via (a) the effect on indero (how to raise a child); (b) severe parental emotional distress; and (c) community effects. Incorporating themes of indero values on how to raise children, the effects of parental posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms on offspring, and the stigma associated with the families of former child soldiers may provide key areas of intervention in mental healing. © 2014 FPI, Inc.

  10. Victims and/or perpetrators? Towards an interdisciplinary dialogue on child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Derluyn, Ilse; Vandenhole, Wouter; Parmentier, Stephan; Mels, Cindy

    2015-10-14

    Worldwide, thousands of children are acting in different roles in armed groups. Whereas human rights activism and humanitarian imperatives tend to emphasize the image of child soldiers as incapable victims of adults' abusive compulsion, this image does not fully correspond with prevailing pedagogical and jurisprudential discourses, nor does it represent all child soldiers' own perceptions of their role. Moreover, contemporary warfare is often marked by fuzzy distinctions between perpetrators and victims. This article deepens on the question how to conceptualize the victim-perpetrator imaginary about child soldiers, starting from three disciplines, children's rights law, psychosocial approaches and transitional justice, and then proceeding into an interdisciplinary approach. We argue that the victim-perpetrator dichotomy in relation to child soldiers needs to be revisited, and that this can only be done successfully through a truly interdisciplinary approach. Key to this interdisciplinary dialogue is the growing awareness within all three disciplines, but admittedly only marginally within children's rights law, that only by moving beyond the binary distinction between victim- and perpetrator-hood, the complexity of childhood soldiering can be grasped. In transitional justice, the concept of role reversal has been instructive, and in psychosocial studies, emphasis has been put on the 'agency' of (former) child soldiers, whereby child soldiers sometimes account on how joining the armed force or group was (partially) out of their own free will. Hence, child soldiers' perpetrator-hood is not only part of the way child soldiers are perceived in the communities they return to, but equally of the way they see themselves. These findings plea for more contextualized approaches, including a greater participation of child soldiers, the elaboration of accountability mechanisms beyond criminal responsibility, and an intimate connection between individual, social and societal

  11. Soldier acceptability of a camouflage face paint combined with DEET insect repellent.

    PubMed

    Debboun, M; Coleman, R E; Sithiprasasna, R; Gupta, R K; Strickman, D

    2001-09-01

    Under operational conditions, current doctrine requires separate application of the standard military insect repellent and camouflage face paint. Working with an industrial partner, Amon Re, Inc., we developed a combined camouflage face paint and insect repellent that offers excellent protection from arthropod disease vectors. We undertook a study to determine whether the new product was acceptable to soldiers under field conditions. A new formulation of camouflage face paint containing the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (DEET) was tested for user acceptability during a joint-service, multinational, military field training exercise (Operation Cobra Gold 1999) in Thailand. Soldiers testing the camouflage face paint were members of one of three companies (A, B, and C) of 1st Battalion, 21st Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. Soldiers in A company (N = 98) received standard military camouflage face paint and the U.S. military's Extended Duration Topical Insect and Arthropod Repellent containing 33% DEET, soldiers in B company (N = 75) received a new formulation of camouflage face paint without DEET, and soldiers in C company (N = 88) received the new formulation of camouflage face paint containing 30% DEET. Every soldier who volunteered to participate completed the study and submitted responses to the questionnaire. The different treatments were evaluated while soldiers spent 4 days conducting simulated combat exercises in a hot, tropical environment in central Thailand. Soldiers were provided the test materials, given a briefing on the study, and completed an initial questionnaire on May 19, 1999. Soldiers completed a final questionnaire after they returned from the training exercise on May 24, 1999. Results of the study indicated that soldiers found the new formulation of 30% DEET camouflage face paint easier to apply (88% of respondents) and remove (77%) than the current standard issue camouflage face paint. Soldiers liked the new 30% DEET

  12. Efficacy of a Metalloproteinase Inhibitor in Spinal Cord Injured Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Jonathan M.; Cohen, Noah D.; Heller, Michael; Fajt, Virginia R.; Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Kerwin, Sharon C.; Trivedi, Alpa A.; Fandel, Thomas M.; Werb, Zena; Modestino, Augusta; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is elevated within the acutely injured murine spinal cord and blockade of this early proteolytic activity with GM6001, a broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, results in improved recovery after spinal cord injury. As matrix metalloproteinase-9 is likewise acutely elevated in dogs with naturally occurring spinal cord injuries, we evaluated efficacy of GM6001 solubilized in dimethyl sulfoxide in this second species. Safety and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in naïve dogs. After confirming safety, subsequent pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated that a 100 mg/kg subcutaneous dose of GM6001 resulted in plasma concentrations that peaked shortly after administration and were sustained for at least 4 days at levels that produced robust in vitro inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9. A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study was then conducted to assess efficacy of GM6001 given within 48 hours of spinal cord injury. Dogs were enrolled in 3 groups: GM6001 dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (n = 35), dimethyl sulfoxide (n = 37), or saline (n = 41). Matrix metalloproteinase activity was increased in the serum of injured dogs and GM6001 reduced this serum protease activity compared to the other two groups. To assess recovery, dogs were a priori stratified into a severely injured group and a mild-to-moderate injured group, using a Modified Frankel Scale. The Texas Spinal Cord Injury Score was then used to assess long-term motor/sensory function. In dogs with severe spinal cord injuries, those treated with saline had a mean motor score of 2 (95% CI 0–4.0) that was significantly (P<0.05; generalized linear model) less than the estimated mean motor score for dogs receiving dimethyl sulfoxide (mean, 5; 95% CI 2.0–8.0) or GM6001 (mean, 5; 95% CI 2.0–8.0). As there was no independent effect of GM6001, we attribute improved neurological outcomes to dimethyl sulfoxide, a pleotropic agent that may target diverse

  13. Use of Body Surface Heat Patterns for Predicting and Evaluating Acute Lower Extremity Pain among Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-31

    reducing the incidence of injury and pain in these areas among fully trained soldiers treated at Army Podiatry clinics in Germany and FAMC. Method: We are...innersoles: A prospective study. American Journal of Sports Medicine, In Press, 1991. (c) Frederick EC: Impact testing of insoles. Exeter Research...the type proposed to soldiers seen in the Podiatry Clinic at FAMC who are experiencing several types of lower limb pain (caused by such problems as

  14. Soldier Quality of Life (Operational) and Readiness at Contingency Base Camps: Insights From Qualitative Interviews

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-13

    Caelli Craig 5d. PROJECT NUMBER VT5 5e. TASK NUMBER RK09 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING...During the interviews, Soldiers first provided detailed descriptions of the camp capabilities and conditions they experienced while deployed. They...were then asked to identify instances in which camp conditions led to impacts on their CPSE readiness domains. Soldiers rated each impact as mild

  15. Embedded Journalists Are Uniquely Qualified to Convey the Experience of a Combat Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    their late teens or early twenties. Youth plays a factor in the ability to understand the complex emotions that these soldiers encounter in combat...their proximity to combat. Furthermore, embedded journalists are trained to translate experiences into the written word, so are better equipped to...American combat soldier and give the American public a better understanding of the costs of war. Statement of Purpose This paper addresses the similar

  16. Buffalo Soldiers: the Formation of the Ninth Cavalry Regiment: July 1866-March 1867

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-07

    supervise or train the enlisted soldiers properly. Literacy was not the unit’s biggest problem. Despite the lack of officers, the Ninth Cavalry Regiment was...concludes there were not enough officers available to supervise or train the enlisted soldiers properly. Literacy was not the unit’s biggest problem... Bernard C. Nalty’s Strength for the Fight. The Post-Civil War Army Books written about life in the Post-civil War Army also contributed information on

  17. Sustaining Soldier Health and Performance During Operation Support Hope: Guidance for Small Unit Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    adequately cooked and served steaming hot. Soldiers eating only standard military rations (MREs or tray packs) are at low risk of diarrheal disease. f...c. The headache of AMS often can be helped by taking medications like ibuprofen (Advil@ or Motrinr) or indomethacin (Indocin@). Aspirin and...of multinational forces will also serve to introduce soldiers to each other and prevent friction. g. Deliver mail. Ensure that the unit’s system for

  18. Human Factors Assessment of Prototype Lightweight Thermal Undergarment Systems for the Clothe-the-Soldier Programme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    PROTOTYPE LIGHTWEIGHT THERMAL UNDERGARMENT SYSTEMS FOR THE CLOTHE-THE-SOLDIER PROGRAMME System Number: Patron Number: Requester: Notes: DSIS Use... Lightweight Thermal Undergarment Systems for the Clothe-the-Soldier Programme 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Toronto, Ontario, M2H 2Z3 Phone: 416-494-2816 Fax: 416-494-0303 Email: wayne@ica.net Human Factors Assessment of Prototype Lightweight Thermal

  19. Forced conscription of children during armed conflict: experiences of former child soldiers in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Coppens, Kathleen; Derluyn, Ilse; De Schryver, Maarten; Loots, Gerrit; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-07-01

    Child soldiering can be considered as one of the worst practices of institutionalized child abuse. However, little is known about the scope and nature of this abuse and the consequent experiences of children enrolled in an armed faction. This research aims at enriching the knowledge on the experiences of child soldiers in the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) in northern Uganda. The databases of 4 former Interim Care Centres for returned child soldiers in northern Uganda, comprising socio-demographic information of 8,790 returnees, and additional data from the Rachele Rehabilitation Centre on war-related experiences of 1,995 former child soldiers, are analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of covariance and regression analysis. During on average 1.5 years in captivity, nearly all participants had various war-related experiences, whereby 88% witnessed and 76% forcibly participated in atrocities. Variations in exposure to warfare appear to be mainly associated with age of abduction, duration of captivity, location of captivity, being military trained, and being a rebel's wife. These findings testify to the vastness of abuse lived through by the child soldiers in this study. They fulfilled a multifaceted position in the LRA, which delivers a range of potential direct and indirect consequences. The variables decisive in differential experiences unveil trends in the strategic abduction by the LRA and in differential exposure to warfare among child soldiers. The variation in exposure to warfare urges for an individualized approach and monitoring of returning child soldiers. In order to address the potential indirect impact of child soldiering, support also needs to be oriented towards the child's network, based on a socio-ecological approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expanded Enlistment Eligibility Metrics (EEEM): Recommendations on a Non-Cognitive Screen for New Soldier Selection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    estimates approached or exceeded .70. The substantive scales with fairly low internal consistency reliability estimates were Narcissism (.55) and Gratitude...they favored the majority group (e.g., Black Soldiers had higher Narcissism scores than White Soldiers, d = .46). Among all the experimental predictor...68 .66 Narcissism 6 3.60 .57 .55 Gratitude 3 3.98 .71 .42 Response Distortion Scale 7 0.09 .14 .52 Pure Fitness Motivation a 5 3.41 .73 .71 B

  1. A prospective comparison of lower extremity kinematics and kinetics between injured and non-injured collegiate cross country runners.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Robert I; Pamukoff, Derek N; Lynn, Scott K; Kersey, Robert D; Noffal, Guillermo J

    2017-04-01

    Collegiate cross country runners are at risk for running related injuries (RRI) due to high training volume and the potential for aberrant lower extremity biomechanics. However, there is a need for prospective research to determine biomechanical risk factors for RRI. The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare ankle, knee, and hip kinematics and kinetics and ground reaction force characteristics between injured and non-injured cross country runners over a 14-week season. Biomechanical running analyses were conducted on 31 collegiate-cross country runners using a 3-dimensional motion capture system and force plate prior to the start of the season. Twelve runners were injured and 19 remained healthy during the course of the season. Peak external knee adduction moment (KAM), a surrogate for frontal plane knee loading, and peak ankle eversion velocity were greater in runners who sustained an injury compared to those who did not, and no differences were noted in ground reaction force characteristics, or hip kinematics and kinetics. Reducing the KAM and ankle eversion velocity may be an important aspect of preventing RRI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Emotional ambivalence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers during military operations

    PubMed Central

    Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Walter, Steffen; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Traue, Harald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the extent to which a specific mechanism of emotion regulation – namely, ambivalence concerning the expressiveness of German soldiers’ emotions – affects the severity of PTSD symptoms after a military operation. Methodology: A survey was conducted at three points in time among 66 soldiers deployed on military crisis operations. The Harvard Trauma Questionaire (HTQ), the Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire (AEQ-G18), and a questionnaire on the particular stress of German soldiers during military operations were used. Results: The study showed a significant correlation between emotional ambivalence and traumatization. Furthermore, it was shown that the subjective stress of soldiers leading up to deployment is more pronounced when emotional ambivalence is stronger in the context of military operations. This particular stress is greater before and during the military operation than after. Compared to a male control sample, the average AEQ-G18 scores of the soldier sample examined here are considerably lower. Conclusion: This pilot study clearly indicates that the AEQ-G18 could be a suitable predictor of the psychological burden on soldiers. The correlations between emotional ambivalence on the one hand and the particular and post-traumatic stressors on the other hand are not only statistically significant in the present pilot study, but may also be relevant as risk factors. It is, therefore, necessary to conduct more extensive studies on soldiers participating in military operations to verify the results of this pilot study. PMID:23798980

  3. Postdeployment mental health screening: an application of the Soldier Adaptation Model.

    PubMed

    Harmon, S Cory; Hoyt, Timothy V; Jones, Michael D; Etherage, Joseph R; Okiishi, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Global War on Terrorism and its corresponding frequent and long deployments have resulted in an increase in mental health concerns among active duty troops. To mitigate these impacts, the Department of Defense has implemented postdeployment screening initiatives designed to identify symptomatic soldiers and refer them for mental health care. Although the primary purpose of these screenings is to identify and provide assistance to individuals, macrolevel reporting of screening results for groups can assist Commanders, who are charged with ensuring the wellbeing of their soldiers, to make unit-level interventions. This study assesses the utility of a metatheory of occupational stress, the Soldier Adaptation Model, in organizing feedback information provided to Army Commanders on their units' postdeployment screening results. The results of a combat brigade of 2319 soldiers who completed post-deployment screening following return from Iraq were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling to assess the Soldier Adaptation Model's use for macrolevel reporting. Results indicate the Soldier Adaptation Model did not strengthen the macrolevel reporting; however, alcohol use and reckless driving were found to mediate the relationship between combat exposure and numerous mental health symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, anger, depression, anxiety, etc.). Research and practice implications are discussed.

  4. Development and evaluation of portable and wearable fuel cells for soldier use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampan, T.; Shah, D.; Cook, C.; Novoa, J.; Shah, S.

    2014-08-01

    A number of fuel cell systems have been recently developed to meet the U.S. Army's soldier power requirements. The operation and performance of these systems are discussed based on laboratory results and limited soldier evaluation. The systems reviewed are primarily intended for soldier use in an austere environment with minimum access to resupply and vehicular transportation. These applications require high power and energy density sources that are portable (300 W) and wearable (20 W) to minimize the soldier's load burden. Based on soldier field evaluations of portable fuel cell systems, improvements in power density and compatibility with logistical fuels are required to be successfully deployed. For soldier worn applications, a novel chemical hydride system has shown significant advances in power and energy density while maintaining a small form factor. The use of a high energy dense fuel cartridge (800 Wh kg-1) based on AlH3 (Alane) thermolysis, allows a power density of (28 W kg-1) which offers promising weight savings compared to the standard military batteries.

  5. Trends in Mental Health Services Utilization and Stigma in US Soldiers From 2002 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Joshua E.; Thomas, Jeffrey L.; Bray, Robert M.; Rae Olmsted, Kristine L.; Brown, Janice M.; Williams, Jason; Kim, Paul Y.; Clarke-Walper, Kristina; Hoge, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized trends in mental health services utilization and stigma over the course of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars among active-component US soldiers. Methods. We evaluated trends in mental health services utilization and stigma using US Army data from the Health-Related Behavior (HRB) surveys from 2002, 2005, and 2008 (n = 12 835) and the Land Combat Study (LCS) surveys administered to soldiers annually from 2003 to 2009 and again in 2011 (n = 22 627). Results. HRB and LCS data suggested increased mental health services utilization and decreased stigma in US soldiers between 2002 and 2011. These trends were evident in soldiers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or PTSD and MDD. Despite the improving trends, more than half of soldiers with mental health problems did not report seeking care. Conclusions. Mental health services utilization increased and stigma decreased over the course of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although promising, these findings indicate that a significant proportion of US soldiers meeting criteria for PTSD or MDD do not utilize mental health services, and stigma remains a pervasive problem requiring further attention. PMID:25033143

  6. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C.

  7. Soldier caste-specific gene expression in the mandibular glands of Hodotermopsis japonica (Isoptera: Termopsidae)

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Toru; Kamikouchi, Azusa; Sawata, Miyuki; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Natori, Syunji; Kubo, Takeo; Matsumoto, Tadao

    1999-01-01

    Although “polymorphic castes” in social insects are well known as one of the most important phenomena of polyphenism, few studies of caste-specific gene expressions have been performed in social insects. To identify genes specifically expressed in the soldier caste of the Japanese damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis japonica, we employed the differential-display method using oligo(dT) and arbitrary primers, compared mRNA from the heads of mature soldiers and pseudergates (worker caste), and identified a clone (PCR product) 329 bp in length termed SOL1. Northern blot analysis showed that the SOL1 mRNA is about 1.0 kb in length and is expressed specifically in mature soldiers, but not in pseudergates, even in the presoldier induction by juvenile hormone analogue, suggesting that the product is specific for terminally differentiated soldiers. By using the method of 5′- and 3′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we isolated the full length of SOL1 cDNA, which contained an ORF with a putative signal peptide at the N terminus. The sequence showed no significant homology with any other known protein sequences. In situ hybridization analysis showed that SOL1 is expressed specifically in the mandibular glands. These results strongly suggest that the SOL1 gene encodes a secretory protein specifically synthesized in the mandibular glands of the soldiers. Histological observations revealed that the gland actually develops during the differentiation into the soldier caste. PMID:10570166

  8. A scalable soldier-machine interface for human-robotic interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samples, Brian A.

    2007-04-01

    As part of the Crew-Automated and integration Testbed (CAT) Advanced Technology Objective (ATO), the US Army Tank-automotive and Armaments Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) developed crew stations that provided soldiers the ability to control both manned and unmanned vehicles. The crew stations were designed to optimize soldier workload and provide the ability to conduct mission planning, route planning, reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA), and fire control capabilities. The crew station software is fully configurable, portable (between crew stations), and interoperable with one another. However, the software architecture was optimized for the specific computing platform utilized by each crew station and user interfaces were hard coded. Current CAT crew station capabilities are required to execute on other crew station configurations as well as handheld devices to meet the needs of expanded soldier roles, including dismounted infantry. TARDEC is currently exploring ways to develop a scalable software architecture that is able to adapt to the physical characteristics of differing computing platforms and devices. In addition, based upon a soldier's role, the software must be able to adapt and optimize the displays based upon individual soldier needs. And finally, the software must be capable of applying a unique style to the presentation of information to the soldier. Future programs require more robust software architectures that take these requirements into account. This paper will describe how scalable software architectures can be designed to address each of these unique requirements.

  9. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities.

  10. Age of first reported sexual experience among U.S. soldiers.

    PubMed

    Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S; Jenkins, Jamie N; Goorley, Elizabeth; Gray, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Studies show that the age of first sexual intercourse is directly correlated with risky sexual behavior among civilian populations. However, few studies have looked at the age of first intercourse and its consequence among soldiers. A study was conducted to examine the age of first sexual experience and sexual practices among soldiers surveyed at a large military post. The survey consisted of 31 fixed-choice items that focused on the soldiers' sexual knowledge, beliefs and behaviors. A total of 450 soldiers were included in the sample. Respondents were divided into three main categories by age groupings of first sexual experience as follows: under 14 years of age, between the ages of 14 to 17 years, and over 18 years. All values were analyzed using frequency distributions with calculations of means, standard deviations, and range. Results showed that soldiers who had their first sexual experience under the age of 14 were more likely to participate in risky sexual behaviors than those whose first sexual experience occurred when soldiers were over the age of 18.

  11. Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recycle Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue.

  12. Sexual complementarity between host humoral toxicity and soldier caste in a polyembryonic wasp.

    PubMed

    Uka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Takuma; Yoshimura, Jin; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2016-07-07

    Defense against enemies is a type of natural selection considered fundamentally equivalent between the sexes. In reality, however, whether males and females differ in defense strategy is unknown. Multiparasitism necessarily leads to the problem of defense for a parasite (parasitoid). The polyembryonic parasitic wasp Copidosoma floridanum is famous for its larval soldiers' ability to kill other parasites. This wasp also exhibits sexual differences not only with regard to the competitive ability of the soldier caste but also with regard to host immune enhancement. Female soldiers are more aggressive than male soldiers, and their numbers increase upon invasion of the host by other parasites. In this report, in vivo and in vitro competition assays were used to test whether females have a toxic humoral factor; if so, then its strength was compared with that of males. We found that females have a toxic factor that is much weaker than that of males. Our results imply sexual complementarity between host humoral toxicity and larval soldiers. We discuss how this sexual complementarity guarantees adaptive advantages for both males and females despite the one-sided killing of male reproductives by larval female soldiers in a mixed-sex brood.

  13. Trends in mental health services utilization and stigma in US soldiers from 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Quartana, Phillip J; Wilk, Joshua E; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Bray, Robert M; Rae Olmsted, Kristine L; Brown, Janice M; Williams, Jason; Kim, Paul Y; Clarke-Walper, Kristina; Hoge, Charles W

    2014-09-01

    We characterized trends in mental health services utilization and stigma over the course of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars among active-component US soldiers. We evaluated trends in mental health services utilization and stigma using US Army data from the Health-Related Behavior (HRB) surveys from 2002, 2005, and 2008 (n = 12,835) and the Land Combat Study (LCS) surveys administered to soldiers annually from 2003 to 2009 and again in 2011 (n = 22,627). HRB and LCS data suggested increased mental health services utilization and decreased stigma in US soldiers between 2002 and 2011. These trends were evident in soldiers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or PTSD and MDD. Despite the improving trends, more than half of soldiers with mental health problems did not report seeking care. Mental health services utilization increased and stigma decreased over the course of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although promising, these findings indicate that a significant proportion of US soldiers meeting criteria for PTSD or MDD do not utilize mental health services, and stigma remains a pervasive problem requiring further attention.

  14. An examination of successful soldier postdeployment transition from combat to garrison life.

    PubMed

    Fink, David S; Gallaway, M Shayne; Millikan, Amy M

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that combat exposures and deployment-related stressors have negative implications on soldiers' postdeployment health and well-being. The current study aimed to examine the individual and combined effects of organizational and social support on the success of soldiers' postdeployment reintegration. In this study, 2,922 U.S. soldiers were surveyed from a brigade combat team at 90-120 days postdeployment, measuring soldiers' perceptions of postdeployment transition home, occupational and social support, stigma and barriers associated with accessing behavioral health care, and previous behavioral health care. Logistic regression analysis indicated that soldiers reporting a positive postdeployment transition home (n = 1,776; 61%) was significantly associated with leadership perceptions, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.02, 1.39], unit cohesion, AOR = 1.29, 95% CI [1.09, 1.53], personal support, AOR = 1.37, 95% CI [1.23, 1.52], perceived levels of stigma, AOR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.65, 0.82] barriers to accessing care, AOR = 0.86, 95% CI [0.76, 0.97], and previously accessing behavioral health care, AOR = 0.34, 95% CI [0.28, 0.43]. These findings suggest redeploying soldiers may benefit from programs aimed at improving self-efficacy and coping through fostering occupational and social support, with special concern taken to reduce stigma and barriers to care across the Army.

  15. Communication training improves patient-centered provider behavior and screening for soldiers' mental health concerns.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Susan R; Vides de Andrade, Ana Regina; Boyd, Stephanie; Leslie, Melanie; Webb, Lynn; Davis, Lauren; Fraine, Melissa; Frazer, Nicole L; Hargraves, Ryan; Bickman, Leonard

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of patient-centered communication training for military providers who conduct post-deployment health screening. The half-day interactive workshop included simulated Soldier patients using video technology. Using a quasi-experimental design, all health care providers at four military treatment facilities were recruited for data collection during a four- to nine-day site visit (23 trained providers, 28 providers in the control group, and one provider declined to participate). All Soldiers were eligible to participate and were blinded to provider training status. Immediately after screening encounters, providers reported on their identification of mental health concerns and Soldiers reported on provider communication behaviors resulting in 1,400 matched pairs. Electronic health records were also available for 26,005 Soldiers. The workshop was found to increase (1) providers' patient-centered communication behaviors as evaluated by Soldiers; (2) provider identification of Soldier mental health concerns; and (3), related health outcomes including provision of education and referral to a confidential counseling resource. Results are promising, but with small effect sizes and study limitations, further research is warranted. A brief intensive workshop on patient-centered communication tailored to the military screening context is feasible and may improve key outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. What pre-deployment and early post-deployment factors predict health function after combat deployment?: a prospective longitudinal study of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) soldiers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical and mental function are strong indicators of disability and mortality. OEF/OIF Veterans returning from deployment have been found to have poorer function than soldiers who have not deployed; however the reasons for this are unknown. Methods A prospective cohort of 790 soldiers was assessed both pre- and immediately after deployment to determine predictors of physical and mental function after war. Results On average, OEF/OIF Veterans showed significant declines in both physical (t=6.65, p<.0001) and mental function (t=7.11, p<.0001). After controlling for pre-deployment function, poorer physical function after deployment was associated with older age, more physical symptoms, blunted systolic blood pressure reactivity and being injured. After controlling for pre-deployment function, poorer mental function after deployment was associated with younger age, lower social desirability, lower social support, greater physical symptoms and greater PTSD symptoms. Conclusions Combat deployment was associated with an immediate decline in both mental and physical function. The relationship of combat deployment to function is complex and influenced by demographic, psychosocial, physiological and experiential factors. Social support and physical symptoms emerged as potentially modifiable factors. PMID:23631419

  17. Effects of Visual and Auditory Background on Reading Achievement Test Performance of Brain-Injured and Non Brain-Injured Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, John L.

    Forty-two brain injured boys and 42 non brain injured boys (aged 11-6 to 12-6) were tested to determine the effects of increasing amounts of visual and auditory distraction on reading performance. The Stanford Achievement Reading Comprehension Test was administered with three degrees of distraction. The visual distraction consisted of either very…

  18. Muscle timing in injured and non-injured leg of athletes with chronic ankle instability in response to a visual stimulus during forward jumping.

    PubMed

    Fereydounnia, Sara; Shadmehr, Azadeh; Talebian Moghadam, Saeed; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Jalaie, Shohreh; Tahmasebi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate premotor time, motor time and reaction time of the injured and non-injured leg muscles of athletes with chronic ankle instability in response to a visual stimulus during forward jumping. Surface electromyography was performed on injured and non-injured leg of eight athletes with chronic ankle instability during forward jumping. Results showed that premotor time of the peroneus longus was significantly longer in non-injured leg compared with injured leg (489.37 ± 220.22 ms vs. 306.46 ± 142.92 ms, P = 0.031); on the contrary, motor time of the peroneus longus was significantly shorter in non-injured leg compared with injured leg (569.04 ± 318.62 ms vs. 715.12 ± 328.72 ms, P = 0.022). No significant difference was noted in the timing of other calf muscles (P > 0.05). According to the results of this study, rehabilitation protocols, regarding ankle instability, need to put greater emphasis on tasks that require proper timing of muscles and muscle re-education so that protocols could reduce residual symptoms after sprain and prevent recurrent sprains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Randomized Clinical Trial of the Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality vs. Enhanced Care as Usual for Sucidal Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    data quality in this study, a review of the military electronic health record for the relevant time period was conducted prior to each assessment and...unique qualities of suicidal drivers. 78 2016 Military Health Systems Research Symposium (Orlando, FL) Presentation title: Operation Worth...Active-Duty Soldiers who presented to a military outpatient behavioral health clinic. There were 73 Soldiers received CAMS; 75 Soldiers received E

  20. The Soldier-Cyborg Transformation: A Framework for Analysis of Social and Ethical Issues of Future Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-26

    government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...UNCLASSIFIED USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...P) Donald A. Gagliano, M.D. TITLE: THE SOLDIER CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE WARFARE