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Sample records for lauric acid

  1. Lauric Acid Stimulates Ketone Body Production in the KT-5 Astrocyte Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Yudai; Takagi, Tetsuo; Inai, Makoto; Nishimura, Shuhei; Urashima, Shogo; Honda, Kazumitsu; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Terada, Shin

    2016-08-01

    Coconut oil has recently attracted considerable attention as a potential Alzheimer's disease therapy because it contains large amounts of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and its consumption is thought to stimulate hepatic ketogenesis, supplying an alternative energy source for brains with impaired glucose metabolism. In this study, we first reevaluated the responses of plasma ketone bodies to oral administration of coconut oil to rats. We found that the coconut oil-induced increase in plasma ketone body concentration was negligible and did not significantly differ from that observed after high-oleic sunflower oil administration. In contrast, the administration of coconut oil substantially increased the plasma free fatty acid concentration and lauric acid content, which is the major MCFA in coconut oil. Next, to elucidate whether lauric acid can activate ketogenesis in astrocytes with the capacity to generate ketone bodies from fatty acids, we treated the KT-5 astrocyte cell line with 50 and 100 μM lauric acid for 4 h. The lauric acid treatments increased the total ketone body concentration in the cell culture supernatant to a greater extent than oleic acid, suggesting that lauric acid can directly and potently activate ketogenesis in KT-5 astrocytes. These results suggest that coconut oil intake may improve brain health by directly activating ketogenesis in astrocytes and thereby by providing fuel to neighboring neurons.

  2. Activity of virgin coconut oil, lauric acid or monolaurin in combination with lactic acid against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Tangwatcharin, Pussadee; Khopaibool, Prapaporn

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro activities of virgin coconut oil, lauric acid and monolaurin in combination with lactic acid against two strains of Staphylococcus aureus, ATCC 25923 and an isolate from a pig carcass, by determination of Fractional Bactericidal Concentration Index (FBCI), time-kill method, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of lauric acid, monolaurin and lactic acid were 3.2 mg/ml, 0.1 mg/ml and 0.4% (v/v), respectively. The effects of lauric acid + lactic acid and monolaurin + lactic acid combinations were synergistic against both strains, exhibiting FBCIs of 0.25 and 0.63, respectively. In time-kill studies, lauric acid and monolaurin + lactic acid combinations added at their minimum inhibitory concentrations produced a bactericidal effect. The induction of stress in non-stressed cells was dependent on the type and concentration of antimicrobial. This resulted in a loss and change of the cytoplasm and membrane in cells of the bacterium. In contrast, virgin coconut oil (10%) was not active against S. aureus. The bacterial counts found in pork loin treated with lauric acid and monolaurin alone were significantly higher (p <0.05) than those treated with both lipids in combination with lactic acid at sub-inhibitory concentrations. The color, odor and overall acceptability of the pork loins were adversely affected by treatment with the three lipids and lactic acid alone but when combinations of the agents were used the sensory quality was acceptable.

  3. Lauric acid as feed additive – An approach to reducing Campylobacter spp. in broiler meat

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Katrin; Popp, Johanna; Becker, André; Hankel, Julia; Visscher, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of Campylobacter spp. within broiler populations is a major problem for food safety and consumer protection worldwide. In vitro studies could already demonstrate that Campylobacter spp. are susceptible to lauric acid. The purpose of this study was to examine in vivo the influence of lauric acid as a feed additive on slaughter parameters, muscle fatty acid profile, meat quality traits and the reduction of Campylobacter coli in inoculated meat of Ross 308 (R308) and Hubbard JA 757 (HJA) broilers in three independent trials (n = 3). Although slaughter parameters did not show any significant differences, the fatty acid profile of both breeds revealed significantly higher lauric acid concentrations (P < 0.0001) in the Musculus pectoralis superficialis of treated broilers. Comparing both tested breeds, R308 test broilers had significantly higher lauric acid concentrations than HJA test broilers (P < 0.0001), indicating a higher conversion rate in those animals. The meat quality traits showed no differences in the R308 breed (P > 0.05), but HJA test broilers had higher values for drip loss, electrical conductivity, CIE color values L* and b*, and lower pH values. The inoculation trials of R308 showed that initial bacterial loads of 5.9 log10 cfu/g were reduced during six days of storage (4°C) to approximately 4.3 log10 cfu/g in the control groups compared to 3.5 log10 cfu/g in the treatment groups (P = 0.0295), which could be due to antimicrobial effects of lauric acid within the muscle. This study therefore suggests that lauric acid as a feed additive has the potential to improve food safety by reducing the numbers of Campylobacter coli in broiler meat. However, this effect seems to be dependent on the breed determining the feed intake capacity, the fat deposition and therefore the ability to incorporate lauric acid in the muscle. PMID:28419122

  4. The synthesis and characterization of hydrogel chitosan-alginate with the addition of plasticizer lauric acid for wound dressing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izak Rudyardjo, Djony; Wijayanto, Setiawan

    2017-05-01

    The writers conducted a study about the synthesis and characterization of hydrogel chitosan-alginate by addition plasticizer lauric acid for wound dressing application. The purpose was to find out the impact of lauric acid concentration variation on hydrogel chitosan-alginate to get the best mechanical and physical properties to be applied as wound dressing in accordance with existing standards. This study used commercially chitosan from extract of shells crab, commercially-available alginate from the extract of sargassum sp, and commercial lauric acid from palm starch. The addition of lauric acid was aimed to repair mechanical properties of hydrogel. The composition of chitosan-alginate is 4:1 (v/v), while the lauric acid concentration variations are 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% w/v. The characterization of mechanical properties test (Tensile strength and Elongation at break) at hydrogel showed the hydrogel chitosan-alginate-lauric acid have the characteristic which meets the standard of mechanical properties for human skin. The best performance of hydrogel chitosan-alginate-lauric acid was obtained by increasing luric acid concentration by 4%, which has a thickness value of 125.46±0.63 µm, elongation 28.89±1.01 %, tensile strength (9.01±0.65) MPa, and ability to absorb liquids (601.45 ±1.24) %.

  5. Synthesis of glycerol mono-laurate from lauric acid and glycerol for food antibacterial additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setianto, W. B.; Wibowo, T. Y.; Yohanes, H.; Illaningtyas, F.; Anggoro, D. D.

    2017-05-01

    Synthesis of glycerol mono-laurate (GML) has been performed using esterification reaction of glycerol and lauric acid. The reaction was performed at the condition of temperature of 120-140 °C within 7 hour, variation of molar ratio of glycerol - lauric acid, and was using heterogeneous catalyst of zeolist Y. Without catalyst dealumination the maximum acid conversion was 78%, with GML contained in the sample was 38.6%, and it was obtained at the reaction condition of 140 oC, 15wt% catalyst, and 8:1 molar ratio of glycerol - lauric acid. At the same condition, using dealuminated catalyst, the maximum acid conversion was increased up to 98%, with GML contained in the sample was 50.4%. The GML antibacterial activity was examined. It was observed that the GML has antibacterial activity against gram positive bacterial such as B. cereus and S. aureus.

  6. Collagen-chitosan scaffold - Lauric acid plasticizer for skin tissue engineering on burn cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiyanti, Prihartini; Setyadi, Ewing Dian; Rudyardjo, Djony Izak

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of burns in the world is more than 800 cases per one million people each year and this is the second highest cause of death due to trauma after traffic accident. Many studies are turning to skin substitute methods of tissue engineering. The purpose of this study is to determine the composition of the collagen, chitosan, and lauric acid scaffold, as well as knowing the results of the characterization of the scaffold. The synthesis of chitosan collagen lauric acid scaffold as a skin tissue was engineered using freeze dried method. Results from making of collagen chitosan lauric acid scaffold was characterized physically, biologically and mechanically by SEM, cytotoxicity, biodegradation, and tensile strength. From the morphology test, the result obtained is that pore diameter size ranges from 94.11 to 140.1 µm for samples A,B,C,D, which are in the range of normal pore size 63-150 µm, while sample E has value below the standard which is about 37.87 to 47.36 µm. From cytotoxicity assay, the result obtained is the percentage value of living cells between 20.11 to 21.51%. This value is below 50% the standard value of living cells. Incompatibility is made possible because of human error mainly the replication of washing process over the standard. Degradation testing obtained values of 19.44% - 40% by weight which are degraded during the 7 days of observation. Tensile test results obtained a range of values of 0.192 - 3.53 MPa. Only sample A (3.53 MPa) and B (1.935 MPa) meet the standard values of skin tissue scaffold that is 1-24 MPa. Based on the results of the characteristics of this study, composite chitosan collagen scaffold with lauric acid plasticizer has a potential candidate for skin tissue engineering for skin burns cases.

  7. Starch-based Antimicrobial Films Incorporated with Lauric Acid and Chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, E.; Muhamad, I. I.

    2010-03-01

    Antimicrobial (AM) packaging is one of the most promising active packaging systems. Starch-based film is considered an economical material for antimicrobial packaging. This study aimed at the development of food packaging based on wheat starch incorporated with lauric acid and chitosan as antimicrobial agents. The purpose is to restrain or inhibit the growth of spoilage and/or pathogenic microorganisms that are contaminating foods. The antimicrobial effect was tested on B. substilis and E. coli. Inhibition of bacterial growth was examined using two methods, i.e. zone of inhibition test on solid media and liquid culture test (optical density measurements). The control and AM films (incorporated with chitosan and lauric acid) were produced by casting method. From the observations, AM films exhibited inhibitory zones. Interestingly, a wide clear zone on solid media was observed for B. substilis growth inhibition whereas inhibition for E. coli was not as effective as B. substilis. From the liquid culture test, the AM films clearly demonstrated a better inhibition against B. substilis than E. coli.

  8. Anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of capric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: a comparative study with lauric acid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Cheng; Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Li, You-Yi; Zouboulis, Christos C; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2014-03-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a commensal bacterium which is possibly involved in acne inflammation. The saturated fatty acid, lauric acid (C12:0) has been shown to possess antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties against P. acnes. Little is known concerning the potential effects of its decanoic counterpart, capric acid (C10:0). To examine the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of capric acid against P. acnes and to investigate the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action. The antimicrobial activity of fatty acids was detected using the broth dilution method. An evaluation of P. acnes-induced ear edema in mice was conducted to evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect. To elucidate the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect, human SZ95 sebocytes and monocytic THP-1 cells were treated with P. acnes alone or in the presence of a fatty acid. The mRNA levels and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by qRT-PCR and enzyme immunoassay, respectively. NF-κB activation and MAPK expression were analyzed by ELISA and Western blot, respectively. Lauric acid had stronger antimicrobial activity against P. acnes than capric acid in vitro and in vivo. However, both fatty acids attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling in mice along with microabscess and significantly reduced interleukin (IL)-6 and CXCL8 (also known as IL-8) production in P. acnes-stimulated SZ95 sebocytes. P. acnes-induced mRNA levels and secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α in THP-1 cells were suppressed by both fatty acids, which inhibited NF-κB activation and the phosphorylation of MAP kinases. Our data demonstrate that both capric acid and lauric acid exert bactericidal and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes. The anti-inflammatory effect may partially occur through the inhibition of NF-κB activation and the phosphorylation of MAP kinases. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spray washing carcasses with alkaline solutions of lauric acid to reduce bacterial contamination.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of spray washing carcasses with lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) on bacteria recovered from whole-carcass-rinsates (WCR) was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Camp...

  10. The triglyceride composition of 17 seed fats rich in octanoic, decanoic, or lauric acid.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, C; Miller, E; Harlow, R D; Reiser, R

    1967-07-01

    Seed fats of eight species ofLauraceae (laurel family), six species ofCuphea (Lythraceae family), and three species ofUlmaceae (elm family) were extracted, and the triglycerides were isolated by preparative thin-layer chromatography. GLC of the triglycerides on a silicone column resolved 10 to 18 peaks with a 22 to 58 carbon number range for each fat. These carbon number distributions yielded considerable information about triglyceride compositions of the fats.The most interesting finding was withLaurus nobilis seed fat, which contained 58.4% lauric acid and 29.2-29.8% trilaurin. A maximum of 19.9% trilaurin would be predicted by a 1, 2, 3-random, a 1, 3-random-2-random, or a 1-random-2-random-3-random distribution of the lauric acid(3). This indicates a specificity for the biosynthesis of a simple triglyceride byLaurus nobilis seed enzymes.Cuphea lanceolata seed fat also contained more simple triglyceride (tridecanoin) than would be predicted by the fatty acid distribution theories.

  11. In vivo treatment of Propionibacterium acnes infection with liposomal lauric acids.

    PubMed

    Pornpattananangkul, Dissaya; Fu, Victoria; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Zhang, Li; Chen, Michael; Vecchio, James; Gao, Weiwei; Huang, Chun-Ming; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a Gram-positive bacterium strongly associated with acne infection. While many antimicrobial agents have been used in clinic to treat acne infection by targeting P. acnes, these existing anti-acne agents usually produce considerable side effects. Herein, the development and evaluation of liposomal lauric acids (LipoLA) is reported as a new, effective and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne infection. By incorporating lauric acids into the lipid bilayer of liposomes, it is observed that the resulting LipoLA readily fuse with bacterial membranes, causing effective killing of P. acnes by disrupting bacterial membrane structures. Using a mouse ear model, we demonstrated that the bactericidal property of LipoLA against P. acne is well preserved at physiological conditions. Topically applying LipoLA in a gel form onto the infectious sites leads to eradication of P. acnes bacteria in vivo. Further skin toxicity studies show that LipoLA does not induce acute toxicity to normal mouse skin, while benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid, the two most popular over-the-counter acne medications, generate moderate to severe skin irritation within 24 h. These results suggest that LipoLA hold a high therapeutic potential for the treatment of acne infection and other P. acnes related diseases. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Deoxygenation of Palmitic and Lauric Acids over Pt/ZIF-67 Membrane/Zeolite 5A Bead Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liqiu; Carreon, Moises A

    2017-09-20

    The deoxygenation of palmitic and lauric acids over 0.5 wt % Pt/ZIF-67 membrane/zeolite 5A bead catalysts is demonstrated. Almost complete conversion (% deoxygenation of ≥95%) of these two fatty acids was observed over both fresh and recycled catalyst after a 2 h reaction time. The catalysts displayed high selectivity to pentadecane and undecane via decarboxylation reaction pathway even at low 0.5 wt % Pt loading. Selectivity to pentadecane and undecane as high as ∼92% and ∼94% was observed under CO 2 atmosphere when palmitic and lauric acids were used respectively as reactants. Depending on the reaction gas atmosphere, two distinctive reaction pathways were observed: decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation. Specifically, it was found that decarboxylation reaction pathway was more favorable in the presence of helium and CO 2 , while hydrodeoxygenation pathway strongly competed against the decarboxylation pathway when hydrogen was employed during the deoxygenation reactions. Esters were identified as the key reaction intermediates leading to decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation pathways.

  13. Role of lauric acid-potassium hydroxide concentration on bacterial contamination of spray washed broiler carcasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with various concentrations of lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions. Fifty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing line of...

  14. In Silico and Wet Lab Studies Reveal the Cholesterol Lowering Efficacy of Lauric Acid, a Medium Chain Fat of Coconut Oil.

    PubMed

    Lekshmi Sheela, Devi; Nazeem, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla; Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Manalil, Jeksy Jos; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2016-12-01

    The coconut oil (CO) contains 91 % of saturated fatty acids in which 72 % are medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) like lauric, capric and caprylic acids. In contrast to animal fat, coconut oil has no cholesterol. Despite this fact, CO is sidelined among other vegetable oils due to the health hazards attributed to the saturated fatty acids. Though various medicinal effects of CO have been reported including the hypolipidemic activity, people are still confused in the consumption of this natural oil. In silico analyses and wet lab experiments have been carried out to identify the hypolipidemic properties of MCFAs and phenolic acids in CO by using different protein targets involved in cholesterol synthesis. The molecular docking studies were carried out using CDOCKER protocol in Accelery's Discovery Studio, by taking different proteins like HMG- CoA reductase and cholesterol esterase as targets and the different phytocompounds in coconut as ligands. Molecular docking highlighted the potential of lauric acid in inhibiting the protein targets involved in hyperlipidemics. Further, validation of in silico results was carried out through in vivo studies. The activity of key enzymes HMG- CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase were found reduced in animals fed with lauric acid and CO.

  15. Influence of washing time on residual contamination of carcasses sprayed with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed for various times in a spray cabinet with a 2% lauric acid (LA)-1% potassium hydroxide (KOH) (w/v) solution. Forty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing l...

  16. Effects of lauric acid on ruminal protozoal numbers and fermentation pattern and milk production in lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate lauric acid (LA) as a practical agent to suppress ruminal protozoa (RP), and to assess the effects of RP suppression on fermentation patterns and milk production in dairy cows. In experiment 1, six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in ...

  17. Lauric Acid Accelerates Glycolytic Muscle Fiber Formation through TLR4 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leshan; Luo, Lv; Zhao, Weijie; Yang, Kelin; Shu, Gang; Wang, Songbo; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiaotong; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Yongliang; Jiang, Qingyan; Wang, Lina

    2018-06-18

    Lauric acid (LA), which is the primary fatty acid in coconut oil, was reported to have many metabolic benefits. TLR4 is a common receptor of lipopolysaccharides and involved mainly in inflammation responses. Here, we focused on the effects of LA on skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolism. We found that 200 μM LA treatment in C2C12 or dietary supplementation of 1% LA increased MHCIIb protein expression and the proportion of type IIb muscle fibers from 0.452 ± 0.0165 to 0.572 ± 0.0153, increasing the mRNA expression of genes involved in glycolysis, such as HK2 and LDH2 (from 1.00 ± 0.110 to 1.35 ± 0.0843 and from 1.00 ± 0.123 to 1.71 ± 0.302 in vivo, respectively), decreasing the catalytic activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and transforming lactic acid to pyruvic acid. Furthermore, LA activated TLR4 signaling, and TLR4 knockdown reversed the effect of LA on muscle fiber type and glycolysis. Thus, we inferred that LA promoted glycolytic fiber formation through TLR4 signaling.

  18. Effects of feeding lauric acid on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation, and digestion and on milk production in dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the level of lauric acid (LA) addition to the diet necessary to effectively suppress ruminal protozoa (RP) to the extent observed when a single dose was given directly into the rumen; (2) to assess its effects on production and ruminal metabolism; ...

  19. Thermal Characterization of Lauric-Stearic Acid/Expanded Graphite Eutectic Mixture as Phase Change Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Peng; Meng, Zhaonan; Li, Ming

    2015-04-01

    The eutectic mixture of lauric acid (LA) and stearic acid (SA) is a desirable phase change material (PCM) due to the constant melting temperature and large latent heat. However, its poor thermal conductivity has hampered its broad utilization. In the present study, pure LA, SA and the mixtures with various mass fractions of LA-SA were used as the basic PCMs, and 10 wt% expanded graphite (EG) was added to enhance the thermal conductivities. The phase change behaviors, microstructural analysis, thermal conductivities and thermal stabilities of the mixtures of PCMs were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), transient plane source (TPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The results show that the LA-SA binary mixture of mixture ratio of 76.3 wt%: 23.7 wt% forms an eutectic mixture, which melts at 38.99 °C and has a latent heat of 159.94 J/g. The melted fatty acids are well absorbed by the porous network of EG and they have a good thermal stability. Furthermore, poor thermal conductivities can be well enhanced by the addition of EG.

  20. Blend-modification of soy protein/lauric acid edible films using polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongyang; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Jie; Jin, Zhengyu

    2014-05-15

    Different types of polysaccharides (propyleneglycol alginate (PGA), pectin, carrageenan and aloe polysaccharide) were incorporated into soy protein isolate (SPI)/lauric acid (La) films using a co-drying process or by direct addition to form biodegradable composite films with modified water vapour permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties. The WVP of SPI/La/polysaccharide films decreased when polysaccharides were added using the co-drying process, regardless of the type of polysaccharide. The tensile strength of SPI/La film was increased by the addition of polysaccharides, and the percentage elongation at break was increased by incorporating PGA using the co-drying process. Regarding oxygen-barrier performance, no notable differences were observed between the SPI/La and SPI/La/polysaccharide films. The most significant improvement was observed by blending PGA, with the co-dried preparation exhibiting better properties than the direct-addition preparation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the microstructures of the films are the basis for the differences in the barrier and mechanical properties of the modified blends of SPI, polysaccharides and La. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibacterial efficacy of triple-layered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/nanoapatite/lauric acid guided bone regeneration membrane on periodontal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Saarani, Nur Najiha; Jamuna-Thevi, Kalitheerta; Shahab, Neelam; Hermawan, Hendra; Saidin, Syafiqah

    2017-05-31

    A guided bone regeneration (GBR) membrane has been extensively used in the repair and regeneration of damaged periodontal tissues. One of the main challenges of GBR restoration is bacterial colonization on the membrane, constitutes to premature membrane degradation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of triple-layered GBR membrane composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), nanoapatite (NAp) and lauric acid (LA) with two types of Gram-negative periodontal bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis through a disc diffusion and bacterial count tests. The membranes exhibited a pattern of growth inhibition and killing effect against both bacteria. The increase in LA concentration tended to increase the bactericidal activities which indicated by higher diameter of inhibition zone and higher antibacterial percentage. It is shown that the incorporation of LA into the GBR membrane has retarded the growth and proliferation of Gram-negative periodontal bacteria for the treatment of periodontal disease.

  2. Fat high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in comparison with fats high in palmitic acid or high in myristic and lauric acids.

    PubMed

    Tholstrup, T; Marckmann, P; Jespersen, J; Sandström, B

    1994-02-01

    The effect of fats high in individual, prevalent saturated dietary fatty acids on lipoproteins and hemostatic variables in young healthy subjects was evaluated in a randomized strictly controlled metabolic feeding study. Three experimental diets: shea butter (S; 42% stearic acid), palm oil (P; 43% palmitic palmitic acid), and palm-kernel oil with high-oleic sunflower oil (ML; 10% myristic acid, 30% lauric acid) were served to 15 men for 3 wk each, separated by washout periods. Diet S compared with diet P resulted in significant reduction in plasma cholesterol (22%) LDL cholesterol (26%), apolipoprotein B (18%), HDL cholesterol (12%), apolipoprotein A-I (13%), and a 13% lower factor VII coagulant activity (P = 0.001). Similar differences were observed between diets S and ML. In conclusion, intake of shea butter high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in young men, compared with fats high in saturated fatty acids with 12-16 carbons.

  3. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  4. Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on mesoporous silica morphology and esterification of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jinyu; Zhou, Guowei, E-mail: guoweizhou@hotmail.com; Jiang, Bin

    2014-05-01

    Mesoporous silica materials with a range of morphology evolution, i.e., from curved rod-shaped mesoporous silica to straight rod-shaped mesoporous silica, were successfully prepared using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and triblock copolymer as dual template. The effects of PVP molecular weight and concentration on mesoporous silica structure parameters were studied. Results showed that surface area and pore volume continuously decreased with increased PVP molecular weight. Mesoporous silica prepared with PVP K30 also possessed larger pore diameter, interplanar spacing (d{sub 100}), and cell parameter (a{sub 0}) than that prepared with PVP K15 and PVP K90. In addition, with increased PVP concentration, d{sub 100} andmore » a{sub 0} continuously decreased. The mechanism of morphology evolution caused by the change in PVP concentration was investigated. The conversion rate of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was also evaluated. Results showed that PPL immobilized on amino-functionalized straight rod-shaped mesoporous silica maintained 50% of its esterification conversion rate even after five cycles of use with a maximum conversion rate was about 90.15%. - Graphical abstract: Curved rod-shaped mesoporous silica can be obtained at low and the highest PVP concentration, while straight rod-shaped mesoporous silica can be obtained at higher PVP concentration. - Highlights: • Mesoporous silica with morphology evolution from CRMS to SRMS were prepared. • Effects of PVP molecular weight and concentration on silica morphology were studied. • A possible mechanism for the formation of morphology evolution SiO{sub 2} was proposed. • Esterification of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized PPL.« less

  5. The mechanism of lauric acid-modified protein nanocapsules escape from intercellular trafficking vesicles and its implication for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lijuan; Liang, Xin; Liu, Gan; Zhou, Yun; Ye, Xinyu; Chen, Xiuli; Miao, Qianwei; Gao, Li; Zhang, Xudong; Mei, Lin

    2018-11-01

    Protein nanocapsules have exhibited promising potential applications in the field of protein drug delivery. A major issue with various promising nano-sized biotherapeutics including protein nanocapsules is that owing to their particle size they are subject to cellular uptake via endocytosis, and become entrapped and then degraded within endolysosomes, which can significantly impair their therapeutic efficacy. In addition, many nano-sized biotherapeutics could be also sequestered by autophagosomes and degraded through the autolysosomal pathway. Thus, a limiting step in achieving an effective protein therapy is to facilitate the endosomal escape and auto-lysosomal escape to ensure cytosolic delivery of the protein drugs. Here, we prepared a protein nanocapsule based on BSA (nBSA) and the BSA nanocapsules modified with a bilayer of lauric acid (LA-nBSA) to investigate the escape effects from the endosome and autophagosome. The size distribution of nBSA and LA-nBSA analyzed using DLS presents a uniform diameter centered at 10 nm and 16 nm. The data also showed that FITC-labeled nBSA and LA-nBSA were taken up by the cells mainly through Arf-6-dependent endocytosis and Rab34-mediated macropinocytosis. In addition, LA-nBSA could efficiently escape from endosomal before the degradation in endo-lysosomes. Autophagy could also sequester the LA-nBSA through p62 autophagosome vesicles. These two types of nanocapsules underwent different intracellular destinies and lauric acid (LA) coating played a vital role in intracellular particle retention. In conclusion, the protein nanocapsules modified with LA could enhance the protein nanocapsules escape from intercellular trafficking vesicles, and protect the protein from degradation by the lysosomes.

  6. Modeling the efficacy of triplet antimicrobial combinations: yeast suppression by lauric arginate, cinnamic acid, and sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate as a case study.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yumei; Normand, Mark D; Weiss, Jochen; Peleg, Micha

    2010-03-01

    The growth of four spoilage yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, and Brettanomyces naardenensis, was inhibited with three-agent (triplet) combinations of lauric arginate, cinnamic acid, and sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate. The inhibition efficacy was determined by monitoring the optical density of yeast cultures grown in microtiter plates for 7 days. The relationship between the optical density and the sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate concentrations followed a single-term exponential decay model. The critical effective concentration was defined as the concentration at which the optical density was 0.05, which became an efficacy criterion for the mixtures. Critical concentrations of sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate as a function of the lauric arginate and cinnamic acid concentrations were then fitted with an empirical model that mapped three-agent combinations of equal efficacy. The contours of this function are presented in tabulated form and as two- and three-dimensional plots. Triplet combinations were highly effective against all four spoilage yeasts at three practical pH levels, especially at pH 3.0. The triplet combinations were particularly effective for inhibiting growth of Z. bailii, and combinations containing potassium sorbate had synergistic activities. The equal efficacy concentration model also allowed tabulation of the cost of the various combinations of agents and identification of those most economically feasible.

  7. Influence of fat addition on the antimicrobial activity of sodium lactate, lauric arginate and methylparaben in minced meat.

    PubMed

    Magrinyà, Núria; Terjung, Nino; Loeffler, Myriam; Gibis, Monika; Bou, Ricard; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-12-23

    A minced meat model system containing three different fat levels (0, 15, and 50 wt.%) was used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three antimicrobials with different aqueous solubilities (sodium lactate>lauric arginate (Nα-lauroyl-L-arginine ethyl ester, LAE)>methylparaben). Various concentrations of sodium lactate (20, 40, and 60 mg/g), lauric arginate (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/g) and methylparaben (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/g) were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against natural meat microbiota (total aerobic mesophilic colony counts, coliform bacteria, and lactic acid bacteria). The results indicate that the three antimicrobials tested are influenced at different strengths by the changes of the fat addition of the minced meat. The antimicrobial efficacy of LAE and methylparaben is increased by a higher fat content in the meat batter, whereas for lactate no clear lactate proportionality relationship can be seen. This structure sensitivity is most strongly pronounced with lauric arginate, which we attributed to the amphiphilic character of the molecule. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal properties of lauric acid filled in carbon nanotubes as shape-stabilized phase change materials.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanhui; Wei, Runzhi; Huang, Zhi; Zhang, Xinxin; Wang, Ge

    2018-03-14

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled with lauric acid (LA) as a kind of shape-stabilized phase change material were prepared and their structures and phase change properties were characterized. The results showed that the melting point and latent heat of LA confined in carbon nanotubes were lower than those of the bulk material, and both decrease as the diameters of CNTs and the filling ratios of LA decrease. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicated that LA molecules form a liquid layer near pore walls and crystallize at the pore center. When the LA filling ratio was reduced to a certain value, all LA molecules were attached to the inner walls of CNTs, hindering their crystallization. A linear relationship between the melting temperature shift and structural properties was obtained based on the modified Gibbs-Thomson equation, which gives a reliable interpretation of the size effect of nanochannels in phase change materials. We also found that the thermal conductivity of the composite CNTs/LA was four times larger than that of pure LA. This study will provide insights into the design of novel composite phase change materials with better thermal properties by the selection of suitable porous materials and tailoring their pore structures.

  9. The effectiveness of organic PCM based on lauric acid from coconut oil and inorganic PCM based on salt hydrate CaCl2.6H2o as latent heat energy storage system in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U, Sri Rahayu A.; Putri, Widya A.; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2016-08-01

    A latent heat energy storage system utilizing phase change materials (PCM) is an alternative strategy to reduce the use of Air Conditioning (AC) system in big cities in Indonesia in order for energy conservation in the future. In this research we used two kinds of materials, namely organic PCM based on lauric acid from coconut oil (CO) and inorganic PCM based on salt hydrate CaCl2.6H2O, because they have thermophysical parameters suitable for human's thermal comfort application in the building. The CO which contained more than 50% lauric acid has the melting temperature (Tm ) of about 26 °C and heat entalphy (ΔH) around 103 kJ/kg, while CaCl2.6H2O has the melting point of 29 °C and heat entalphy of 190 kJ/kg. In this paper we report the effectiveness of those two kinds of PCM in reducing the air temperature as one of some criteria for human's thermal comfort. The experiments were performed in a close and adiabatic room and the time-temperature measurements were done automatically using Arduino microcontroller and LM35 temperature sensor connected to the PC.

  10. Lauric acid and myristic acid from Allium sativum inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra: in silico analysis reveals possible binding to protein kinase B.

    PubMed

    Muniyan, Rajiniraja; Gurunathan, Jayaraman

    2016-12-01

    The bulb of Allium sativum Linn (Alliaceae) has numerous medicinal values. Though the petroleum ether extract of the bulb has shown to exhibit antimycobacterial activity, the phytochemical(s) responsible for this inhibitory activity is not known. To characterize the bioactive compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Allium sativum (garlic) that inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Bioactivity-guided fractionation was employed to isolate the bioactive compounds. Antimycobacterial activity was evaluated by well-diffusion method and microplate alamar blue assay (MABA). Infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to characterize the bioactive compounds. Autodock was used to obtain information on molecular recognition, and molecular dynamics simulation was performed using GROMACS. The bioactive compounds that inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis H37Ra were found to be lauric acid (LA) and myristic acid (MA). The minimal inhibitory concentration of LA and MA was found to be 22.2 and 66.7 μg/mL, respectively. In silico analysis revealed that these fatty acids could bind at the cleft between the N-terminal and C-terminal lobes of the cytosolic domain of serine/threonine protein kinase B (PknB). The inhibition activity was dependent on the alkyl chain length of the fatty acid, and the amino acid residues involved in binding to fatty acid was found to be conserved across the Pkn family of proteins. The study indicates the possibility of using fatty acid derivatives, involving Pkn family of proteins, to inhibit the signal transduction processes in M. tuberculosis.

  11. Lauric acid-rich medium-chain triglycerides can substitute for other oils in cooking applications and may have limited pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2016-01-01

    Recently, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) containing a large fraction of lauric acid (LA) (C12)-about 30%-have been introduced commercially for use in salad oils and in cooking applications. As compared to the long-chain fatty acids found in other cooking oils, the medium-chain fats in MCTs are far less likely to be stored in adipose tissue, do not give rise to 'ectopic fat' metabolites that promote insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be less likely to activate macrophages. When ingested, medium-chain fatty acids are rapidly oxidised in hepatic mitochondria; the resulting glut of acetyl-coenzyme A drives ketone body production and also provokes a thermogenic response. Hence, studies in animals and humans indicate that MCT ingestion is less obesogenic than comparable intakes of longer chain oils. Although LA tends to raise serum cholesterol, it has a more substantial impact on high density lipoprotein (HDL) than low density lipoprotein (LDL) in this regard, such that the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol decreases. LA constitutes about 50% of the fatty acid content of coconut oil; south Asian and Oceanic societies which use coconut oil as their primary source of dietary fat tend to be at low cardiovascular risk. Since ketone bodies can exert neuroprotective effects, the moderate ketosis induced by regular MCT ingestion may have neuroprotective potential. As compared to traditional MCTs featuring C6-C10, laurate-rich MCTs are more feasible for use in moderate-temperature frying and tend to produce a lower but more sustained pattern of blood ketone elevation owing to the more gradual hepatic oxidation of ingested laurate.

  12. Lauric acid-rich medium-chain triglycerides can substitute for other oils in cooking applications and may have limited pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2016-01-01

    Recently, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) containing a large fraction of lauric acid (LA) (C12)—about 30%—have been introduced commercially for use in salad oils and in cooking applications. As compared to the long-chain fatty acids found in other cooking oils, the medium-chain fats in MCTs are far less likely to be stored in adipose tissue, do not give rise to ‘ectopic fat’ metabolites that promote insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be less likely to activate macrophages. When ingested, medium-chain fatty acids are rapidly oxidised in hepatic mitochondria; the resulting glut of acetyl-coenzyme A drives ketone body production and also provokes a thermogenic response. Hence, studies in animals and humans indicate that MCT ingestion is less obesogenic than comparable intakes of longer chain oils. Although LA tends to raise serum cholesterol, it has a more substantial impact on high density lipoprotein (HDL) than low density lipoprotein (LDL) in this regard, such that the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol decreases. LA constitutes about 50% of the fatty acid content of coconut oil; south Asian and Oceanic societies which use coconut oil as their primary source of dietary fat tend to be at low cardiovascular risk. Since ketone bodies can exert neuroprotective effects, the moderate ketosis induced by regular MCT ingestion may have neuroprotective potential. As compared to traditional MCTs featuring C6–C10, laurate-rich MCTs are more feasible for use in moderate-temperature frying and tend to produce a lower but more sustained pattern of blood ketone elevation owing to the more gradual hepatic oxidation of ingested laurate. PMID:27547436

  13. Lymphatic fatty acids from rats fed human milk and formula containing coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Roche, M E; Clark, R M

    1994-06-01

    Human milk and infant formula containing coconut/soy oil were infused into the duodenum of rats to determine the incorporation of capric, lauric, myristic and palmitic acids into lymphatic triacylglycerol (TAG). The proportion of capric and lauric acids in the lymphatic TAG reflected the fatty acid composition of the diet. Based on positional analysis, it appears that more than 50% of the capric and lauric acids could have been absorbed from the intestine as sn-2 monoacylglycerols. In the rats fed human milk, 50% of palmitic acid in lymphatic TAG was in the sn-2 position. Because of the nonrandom distribution of palmitic acid in the lymphatic TAG, the nonspecific lipase in human milk, i.e., bile salt-stimulated lipase, did not appear to be a factor in milk lipid digestion.

  14. Glycyrrhetinic Acid Liposomes Containing Mannose-Diester Lauric Diacid-Cholesterol Conjugate Synthesized by Lipase-Catalytic Acylation for Liver-Specific Delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Chen, Yuchao; Cheng, Yi; Gao, Youheng

    2017-09-24

    Mannose-diester lauric diacid-cholesterol (Man-DLD-Chol), as a liposomal target ligand, was synthesized by lipase catalyzed in a non-aqueous medium. Its chemical structure was confirmed by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) liposomes containing Man-DLD-Chol (Man-DLD-Chol-GA-Lp) were prepared by the film-dispersion method. We evaluated the characterizations of liposomes, drug-release in vitro, the hemolytic test, cellular uptake, pharmacokinetics, and the tissue distributions. The cellular uptake in vitro suggested that the uptake of Man-DLD-Chol-modified liposomes was significantly higher than that of unmodified liposomes in HepG2 cells. Pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that Man-DLD-Chol-GA-Lp was eliminated more rapidly than GA-Lp. In tissue distributions, the targeting efficiency (Te) of Man-DLD-Chol-GA-Lp on liver was 54.67%, relative targeting efficiency (R Te ) was 3.39, relative uptake rate (Re) was 4.78, and peak concentration ratio (Ce) was 3.46. All these results supported the hypothesis that Man-DLD-Chol would be an efficient liposomal carrier, and demonstrated that Man-DLD-Chol-GA-Lp has potential as a drug delivery for liver-targeting therapy.

  15. Susceptibility of Salmonella enterica Isolates from Tomato Farm Environments to Fatty Acids Naturally Found on Tomato Fruit.

    PubMed

    Dev Kumar, Govindaraj; Micallef, Shirley A

    2017-05-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica can colonize tomato fruit as it interacts with fruit surface compounds. The exometabolome of tomato fruit contains a mixture of compounds, including fatty acids, which could affect Salmonella fitness. Fatty acids detected in fruit exudates were investigated for Salmonella inhibition. Pelargonic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, margaric, stearic, and oleic acids were suspended in water dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or emulsified in water and quillaja saponin to assess how bioavailability impacted Salmonella growth. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fatty acids were determined using a resazurin assay. Quillaja saponin emulsion and DMSO solution of pelargonic acid were inhibitory to Salmonella at 31.25 mM. Lauric and myristic acid emulsions inhibited growth at 1 M concentrations in quillaja emulsions and 62.5 mM in DMSO. Lauric and myristic acids significantly affected growth of Salmonella Newport, Javiana, and Typhimurium (p ≤ 0.05). Growth curve analysis using the Baranyi model revealed reduced maxima populations for all treatments (p ≤ 0.001) and shorter lag phase durations for Salmonella Newport with lauric acid (p < 0.01) and Salmonella Javiana with lauric (p < 0.001) and myristic (p < 0.001) acids. Salmonella Newport and Javiana exhibited an accelerated growth rate with lauric acid (p < 0.001) as a result of early stationary phase transition (shorter log phase). In myristic acid-amended media, Salmonella Javiana also displayed a faster growth rate (p < 0.001). Pelargonic acid (31.25 mM) treatment of Salmonella cells resulted in a drop in culturable cells to below detection in an hour. Microscopic analysis with Cyto-dye and propidium iodide of bacterial cells treated with pelargonic acid indicated a mixture of live and dead cells, with cell lysis of some cells. A subset of cells exhibited elongation-possibly indicating filament formation, a known antibiotic stress response

  16. Development of a lauric acid/albumin hybrid iron oxide nanoparticle system with improved biocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Zaloga, Jan; Janko, Christina; Nowak, Johannes; Matuszak, Jasmin; Knaup, Sabine; Eberbeck, Dietmar; Tietze, Rainer; Unterweger, Harald; Friedrich, Ralf P; Duerr, Stephan; Heimke-Brinck, Ralph; Baum, Eva; Cicha, Iwona; Dörje, Frank; Odenbach, Stefan; Lyer, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey; Alexiou, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The promising potential of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in various nanomedical applications has been frequently reported. However, although many different synthesis methods, coatings, and functionalization techniques have been described, not many core-shell SPION drug delivery systems are available for clinicians at the moment. Here, bovine serum albumin was adsorbed onto lauric acid-stabilized SPIONs. The agglomeration behavior, zeta potential, and their dependence on the synthesis conditions were characterized with dynamic light scattering. The existence and composition of the core-shell-matrix structure was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and zeta potential measurements. We showed that the iron oxide cores form agglomerates in the range of 80 nm. Moreover, despite their remarkably low tendency to aggregate even in a complex media like whole blood, the SPIONs still maintained their magnetic properties and were well attractable with a magnet. The magnetic properties were quantified by vibrating sample magnetometry and a superconducting quantum interference device. Using flow cytometry, we further investigated the effects of the different types of nanoparticle coating on morphology, viability, and DNA integrity of Jurkat cells. We showed that by addition of bovine serum albumin, the toxicity of nanoparticles is greatly reduced. We also investigated the effect of the particles on the growth of primary human endothelial cells to further demonstrate the biocompatibility of the particles. As proof of principle, we showed that the hybrid-coated particles are able to carry payloads of up to 800 μg/mL of the cytostatic drug mitoxantrone while still staying colloidally stable. The drug-loaded system exhibited excellent therapeutic potential in vitro, exceeding that of free mitoxantrone. In conclusion, we have synthesized a biocompatible ferrofluid that shows great potential for clinical

  17. Lauric Acid Stimulates Mammary Gland Development of Pubertal Mice through Activation of GPR84 and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yingying; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Fenglin; Ai, Wei; Zhu, Xiaotong; Shu, Gang; Wang, Lina; Gao, Ping; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Yongliang; Liang, Xingwei; Jiang, Qingyan; Wang, Songbo

    2017-01-11

    It has been demonstrated that dietary fat affects pubertal mammary gland development. However, the role of lauric acid (LA) in this process remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of LA on mammary gland development in pubertal mice and to explore the underlying mechanism. In vitro, 100 μM LA significantly promoted proliferation of mouse mammary epithelial cell line HC11 by regulating expression of proliferative markers (cyclin D1/3, p21, PCNA). Meanwhile, LA activated the G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. In agreement, dietary 1% LA enhanced mammary duct development, increased the expression of GPR84 and cyclin D1, and activated PI3K/Akt in mammary gland of pubertal mice. Furthermore, knockdown of GPR84 or inhibition of PI3K/Akt totally abolished the promotion of HC11 proliferation induced by LA. These results showed that LA stimulated mammary gland development of pubertal mice through activation of GPR84 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  18. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Zaloga, Jan; Stapf, Marcus; Nowak, Johannes; Pöttler, Marina; Friedrich, Ralf P; Tietze, Rainer; Lyer, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-08-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEON(LA-BSA), which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEON(LA-BSA) particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v). Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEON(LA-BSA) changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 °C up to 64.9 °C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment.

  19. Effect of lauric acid and coconut oil on ruminal fermentation, digestion, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Vander Pol, M; Agle, M; Zaman, S; Schneider, C; Ndegwa, P; Vaddella, V K; Johnson, K; Shingfield, K J; Karnati, S K R

    2009-11-01

    This experiment (replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design) was conducted to investigate the effects of lauric acid (LA) or coconut oil (CO) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition in lactating cows. Treatments consisted of intraruminal doses of 240 g of stearic acid/d (SA; control), 240 g of LA/d, or 530 g of CO/d administered once daily, before feeding. Between periods, cows were inoculated with ruminal contents from donor cows and allowed a 7-d recovery period. Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk composition. Ruminal pH was slightly increased by CO compared with the other treatments, whereas LA and CO decreased ruminal ammonia concentration compared with SA. Both LA and CO decreased protozoal counts by 80% or more compared with SA. Methane production rate in the rumen was reduced by CO compared with LA and SA, with no differences between LA and SA. Treatments had no effect on total tract apparent dry matter, organic matter, N, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility coefficients or on cumulative (15 d) in vitro ammonia losses from manure. Compared with SA, LA and CO increased milk fat 12:0, cis-9 12:1, and trans-9 12:1 content and decreased 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, cis-9 10:1, 16:0, 18:0, cis 18:1, total 18:2, 18:3 n-3 and total polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Administration of LA and 14:0 (as CO) in the rumen were apparently transferred into milk fat with a mean efficiency of 18 and 15%, respectively. In conclusion, current data confirmed that LA and CO exhibit strong antiprotozoal activity when dosed intraruminally, an effect that is accompanied by decreases in ammonia concentration and, for CO, lowered methane production. Administration of LA and CO in the rumen also altered milk FA composition.

  20. Efficacy of ε-polylysine, lauric arginate, or acidic calcium sulfate applied sequentially for Salmonella reduction on membrane filters and chicken carcasses.

    PubMed

    Benli, Hakan; Sanchez-Plata, Marcos X; Keeton, Jimmy T

    2011-05-01

    Salmonella contamination continues to be one of the major concerns for the microbiological safety of raw poultry products. Application of more than one decontamination agent as a multihurdle intervention to carcasses in a processing line might produce greater reductions than one treatment alone due to different modes of action of individual antimicrobials. In this study, all possible two-way combinations and individual applications of ε-polylysine (EPL), lauric arginate (LAE), and acidic calcium sulfate (ACS) solutions were evaluated for their effects against Salmonella enterica serovars, including Enteritidis and Typhimurium, using a sterile membrane filter model system. The combinations that provided higher Salmonella reductions were further evaluated on inoculated chicken carcasses in various concentrations applied in a sequential manner. Sequential spray applications of 300 mg of EPL per liter followed by 30% ACS and of 200 mg of LAE per liter followed by 30% ACS produced the highest Salmonella reductions on inoculated chicken carcasses, by 2.1 and 2.2 log CFU/ml, respectively. Our results indicated that these sequential spray applications of decontamination agents are effective for decreasing Salmonella contamination on poultry carcasses, but further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of these combinations over a storage period.

  1. Diets high in palmitic acid (16:0), lauric and myristic acids (12:0 + 14:0), or oleic acid (18:1) do not alter postprandial or fasting plasma homocysteine and inflammatory markers in healthy Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Voon, Phooi Tee; Ng, Tony Kock Wai; Lee, Verna Kar Mun; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary fat type is known to modulate the plasma lipid profile, but its effects on plasma homocysteine and inflammatory markers are unclear. We investigated the effects of high-protein Malaysian diets prepared with palm olein, coconut oil (CO), or virgin olive oil on plasma homocysteine and selected markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in healthy adults. A randomized-crossover intervention with 3 dietary sequences of 5 wk each was conducted in 45 healthy subjects. The 3 test fats, namely palmitic acid (16:0)-rich palm olein (PO), lauric and myristic acid (12:0 + 14:0)-rich CO, and oleic acid (18:1)-rich virgin olive oil (OO), were incorporated at two-thirds of 30% fat calories into high-protein Malaysian diets. No significant differences were observed in the effects of the 3 diets on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and the inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interferon-γ. Diets prepared with PO and OO had comparable nonhypercholesterolemic effects; the postprandial total cholesterol for both diets and all fasting lipid indexes for the OO diet were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than for the CO diet. Unlike the PO and OO diets, the CO diet was shown to decrease postprandial lipoprotein(a). Diets that were rich in saturated fatty acids prepared with either PO or CO, and an OO diet that was high in oleic acid, did not alter postprandial or fasting plasma concentrations of tHcy and selected inflammatory markers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00941837.

  2. A comparison of the metabolic fate of Fatty acids of different chain lengths in developing oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Battey, J F; Ohlrogge, J B

    1989-07-01

    To determine if medium and long chain fatty acids can be appropriately metabolized by species that normally produce 16 and 18 carbon fatty acids, homogenates of developing Cuphea wrightii, Carthamus tinctorius, and Crambe abyssinica seeds were incubated with radiolabeled lauric, palmitic, oleic, and erucic acids. In all three species, acyl-CoA synthetase showed broad substrate specificity in synthesis of acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) from any of the fatty acids presented. In Carthamus, two- to fivefold less of the foreign FAs, lauric, and erucic acid was incorporated into acyl-CoAs than palmitic and oleic acid. Lauric and erucic acid also supported less glycerolipid synthesis in Carthamus than palmitic and oleic acid, but the rate of acyl-CoA synthesis did not control rate of glycerolipid synthesis. In all species examined, medium and long chain fatty acids were incorporated predominantly into triacylglycerols and were almost excluded from phospholipid synthesis, whereas palmitic and oleic acid were found predominantly in polar lipids. However, the rate of esterification of unusual fatty acids to triacylglycerol is slow in species that do not normally synthesize these acyl substrates.

  3. A Comparison of the Metabolic Fate of Fatty Acids of Different Chain Lengths in Developing Oilseeds

    PubMed Central

    Battey, James F.; Ohlrogge, John B.

    1989-01-01

    To determine if medium and long chain fatty acids can be appropriately metabolized by species that normally produce 16 and 18 carbon fatty acids, homogenates of developing Cuphea wrightii, Carthamus tinctorius, and Crambe abyssinica seeds were incubated with radiolabeled lauric, palmitic, oleic, and erucic acids. In all three species, acyl-CoA synthetase showed broad substrate specificity in synthesis of acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) from any of the fatty acids presented. In Carthamus, two- to fivefold less of the foreign FAs, lauric, and erucic acid was incorporated into acyl-CoAs than palmitic and oleic acid. Lauric and erucic acid also supported less glycerolipid synthesis in Carthamus than palmitic and oleic acid, but the rate of acyl-CoA synthesis did not control rate of glycerolipid synthesis. In all species examined, medium and long chain fatty acids were incorporated predominantly into triacylglycerols and were almost excluded from phospholipid synthesis, whereas palmitic and oleic acid were found predominantly in polar lipids. However, the rate of esterification of unusual fatty acids to triacylglycerol is slow in species that do not normally synthesize these acyl substrates. PMID:16666885

  4. Influence of ethylenediamine-n,n’-disuccinic acid (EDDS) concentration on the bactericidal activity of fatty acids in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The antibacterial activity of mixtures of ethylenediamine-N,N’-disuccinic acid (EDDS) and antibacterial fatty acids (FA) was examined using the agar diffusion assay. Solutions of caproic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acids dissolved in potassium hydroxide (KOH) were supplemented with 0, 5, or 10 mM ...

  5. Pharmacologically relevant receptor binding characteristics and 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of free Fatty acids contained in saw palmetto extract.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Oyunzul, Luvsandorj; Oki-Fujino, Tomomi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), used widely for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been shown to bind alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) calcium channel antagonist receptors. Major constituents of SPE are lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The aim of this study was to investigate binding affinities of these fatty acids for pharmacologically relevant (alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP) receptors. The fatty acids inhibited specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat brain in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 23.8 to 136 microg/ml, and specific (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 binding with IC(50) values of 24.5 to 79.5 microg/ml. Also, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid inhibited specific [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) binding in rat brain with IC(50) values of 56.4 to 169 microg/ml. Palmitic acid had no effect on specific [(3)H]NMS binding. The affinity of oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid for each receptor was greater than the affinity of SPE. Scatchard analysis revealed that oleic acid and lauric acid caused a significant decrease in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]prazosin, [(3)H]NMS and (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110. The results suggest that lauric acid and oleic acid bind noncompetitively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP calcium channel antagonist receptors. We developed a novel and convenient method of determining 5alpha-reductase activity using LC/MS. With this method, SPE was shown to inhibit 5alpha-reductase activity in rat liver with an IC(50) of 101 microg/ml. Similarly, all the fatty acids except palmitic acid inhibited 5alpha-reductase activity, with IC(50) values of 42.1 to 67.6 microg/ml. In conclusion, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, and linoleic acid, major constituents of SPE, exerted binding activities of alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP receptors and inhibited 5

  6. Isolation and pharmacological characterization of fatty acids from saw palmetto extract.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Asahi; Onoue, Satomi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary-tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The mechanisms of pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase, anti-androgenic effects, anti-proliferative effects, and anti-inflammatory effects. Previously, we showed that SPE bound actively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel (1,4-DHP) receptors in the prostate and bladder of rats, whereas its active constituents have not been fully clarified. The present investigation is aimed to identify the main active components contained in hexane and diethyl ether extracts of SPE with the use of column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Based on the binding activity with alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic, and 1,4-DHP receptors, both isolated oleic and lauric acids were deduced to be active components. Authentic samples of oleic and lauric acids also exhibited similar binding activities to these receptors as the fatty acids isolated from SPE, consistent with our findings. In addition, oleic and lauric acids inhibited 5alpha-reductase, possibly leading to therapeutic effects against benign prostatic hyperplasia and related lower urinary-tract symptoms.

  7. Variability in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm and hybrids for fatty acid profile of oil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Naresh

    2011-12-28

    Coconut oil, the main product of coconut fruit, is the richest source of glycerol and lauric acid and hence is called lauric oil. This paper reports the fatty acid profile of oil from 60 Talls, 14 Dwarfs, and 34 hybrids. These include collections from 13 countries covering a large coconut-growing area of the world, apart from the indigenous ones. Capillary gas chromatography analysis of oil indicated a wider variation for the fatty acid profile than earlier reported. Apart from this, for the first time other fatty acids such as behenic and lignoceric acids were detected. Oil from cultivars and hybrids of coconut has significantly differed, particularly for commercially important fatty acids such as lauric acid and unsaturated fatty acids. However, coconut oil seems to have a conserved fatty acid profile, mainly because of low unsaturated fatty acids, indicating the possibility of grouping cultivars on the basis of their fatty acid profiles. The cluster analysis based on fatty acid profile indicated grouping together of geographically and typically closely related cultivars. Cultivars with high concentrations of specific fatty acids can be of potential use for industrial exploitation, whereas those with high concentrations of short- and medium-chain fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids are more suitable for human consumption. Cultivars and hybrids with high and low values for each of the fatty acids are also identified.

  8. Lipase catalyzed epoxidation of fatty acid methyl esters derived from unsaturated vegetable oils in absence of carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Sustaita-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Ramos-Sánchez, Víctor H; Camacho-Dávila, Alejandro A; Zaragoza-Galán, Gerardo; Espinoza-Hicks, José C; Chávez-Flores, David

    2018-04-11

    Nowadays the industrial chemistry reactions rely on green technologies. Enzymes as lipases are increasing its use in diverse chemical processes. Epoxidized fatty acid methyl esters obtained from transesterification of vegetable oils have recently found applications as polymer plasticizer, agrochemical, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food additives. In this research article, grapeseed, avocado and olive oils naturally containing high percents of mono and poly unsaturations were used as starting materials for the production of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. The effect of lauric acid as an active oxygen carrier was studied on epoxidation reactions where unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters were converted to epoxy fatty acid methyl esters using immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase type B as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as oxygen donor at mild temperature and pressure conditions. After this study it was confirmed by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and GC-MS that the addition of lauric acid to the enzymatic reaction is unnecessary to transform the alkenes in to epoxides. It was found that quantitative conversions were possible in despite of a carboxylic acid absence.

  9. Influence of chain length and unsaturation on the effects of fatty acids on phosphoglyceride biosynthesis in isolated rat and pig hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Akesson, B; Sundler, R; Nilsson, A

    1976-03-16

    Hepatocytes isolated from rat or pig by collagenase perfusion were incubated with [3H]glcyerol and different albumin-bount fatty acids. Among C22 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid stimulated phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis in rat hepatocytes most effectively. Addition of docosahexaenoic acid plus either palmitic or stearic acid resulted almost in the same stimulation whereas combinations of this acid with lauric or myristic acid had no effect. Lauric acid and myristic acid alone inhibited phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis. The chain length specificity for monoenoic fatty acids was similar, the hexadecenoic and octadecenoic acids (both cis and trans) being most stimulatory. The addition of 0.2 mM ethanolamine markedly stimulated phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis, but most effects of fatty acids were similar in its presence or absence.

  10. Influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the on the ability of fatty acids to inhibit the growth of bacteria associated with poultry processing.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids was examined. A 0.5 M concentration of caproic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acids was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and then supplemented with 0, 5, or 10 mM of EDTA. T...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of lauric arginate-coated polylactic acid films against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium on cooked sliced ham.

    PubMed

    Theinsathid, Pornpun; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Kruenate, Jittiporn; Kingcha, Yutthana; Keeratipibul, Suwimon

    2012-02-01

    A novel type of environmentally friendly packaging with antibacterial activity was developed from lauric arginate (LAE)-coating of polylactic acid (PLA) films after surface activation using a corona discharge. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-based analysis of the LAE/PLA films confirmed the successful coating of LAE on the PLA surface. The mechanical properties of the LAE/PLA films with different levels of LAE-coating (0% to 2.6%[w/w]) were essentially the same as those of the neat PLA film. The antibacterial activity of the LAE/PLA films against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) was confirmed by a qualitative modified agar diffusion assay and quantitative JIS Z 2801:2000 method. Using the LAE/PLA film as a food-contact antimicrobial packaging for cooked cured ham, as a model system, suggested a potential application to inhibit L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium on ham with a 0.07% (w/w) LAE coating on the PLA when high transparency is required, as evidenced from the 2 to 3 log CFU/tested film lower pathogen growth after 7 d storage but even greater antibacterial activity is obtained with a LAE coating level of 2.6% (w/w) but at the cost of a reduced transparency of the finished product. This article shows how we can simply develop functional green packaging of PLA for food with effective and efficient antimicrobial activity by use of LAE coating on the surface via corona discharge. The effectiveness of an innovative antimicrobial LAE-coated PLA film against foodborne pathogens was demonstrated. Importantly, the application of the LAE to form the LAE-coated PLA film can be customized within current film manufacturing lines. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Control of Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broilers by target-released butyric acid, fatty acids and essential oils.

    PubMed

    Timbermont, L; Lanckriet, A; Dewulf, J; Nollet, N; Schwarzer, K; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2010-04-01

    The efficacy of target-released butyric acid, medium-chain fatty acids (C(6) to C(12) but mainly lauric acid) and essential oils (thymol, cinnamaldehyde, essential oil of eucalyptus) micro-encapsulated in a poly-sugar matrix to control necrotic enteritis was investigated. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the different additives were determined in vitro, showing that lauric acid, thymol, and cinnamaldehyde are very effective in inhibiting the growth of Clostridium perfringens. The in vivo effects were studied in two trials in an experimental necrotic enteritis model in broiler chickens. In the first trial, four groups of chickens were fed a diet supplemented with butyric acid, with essential oils, with butyric acid in combination with medium-chain fatty acids, or with butyric acid in combination with medium-chain fatty acids and essential oils. In all groups except for the group receiving only butyric acid, a significant decrease in the number of birds with necrotic lesions was found compared with the infected, untreated control group. In the second trial the same products were tested but at a higher concentration. An additional group was fed a diet supplemented with only medium-chain fatty acids. In all groups except for that receiving butyric acid in combination with medium-chain fatty acids and essential oils, a significant decrease in the number of birds with necrotic lesions was found compared with the infected, untreated control group. These results suggest that butyric acid, medium-chain fatty acids and/or essential oils may contribute to the prevention of necrotic enteritis in broilers.

  13. Relationship between Acute Phase Proteins and Serum Fatty Acid Composition in Morbidly Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Beserra, Bruna Teles Soares; Cunha, Raphael Salles Granato; Hillesheim, Elaine; Camargo, Carolina de Quadros; Pequito, Danielle Cristina Tonello; de Castro, Isabela Coelho; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio; Nunes, Everson Araújo; Trindade, Erasmo Benício Santos de Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Background. Obesity is considered a low-grade inflammatory state and has been associated with increased acute phase proteins as well as changes in serum fatty acids. Few studies have assessed associations between acute phase proteins and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Objective. To investigate the relationship between acute phase proteins (C-Reactive Protein, Orosomucoid, and Albumin) and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Methods. Twenty-two morbidly obese patients were enrolled in this study. Biochemical and clinical data were obtained before bariatric surgery, and fatty acids measured in preoperative serum. Results. Orosomucoid was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P = 0.027) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (P = 0.037) and positively with arachidonic acid (AA) (P = 0.035), AA/EPA ratio (P = 0.005), and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (P = 0.035). C-Reactive Protein (CRP) was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P = 0.048), and both CRP and CRP/Albumin ratio were negatively correlated with margaric acid (P = 0.010, P = 0.008, resp.). Albumin was positively correlated with EPA (P = 0.027) and margaric acid (P = 0.008). Other correlations were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that serum fatty acids are linked to acute phase proteins in morbidly obese patients. PMID:24167354

  14. Bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids towards bacteria associated with poultry processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids were determined using the agar diffusion assay. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid (FA) was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric aci...

  15. A Study on a Novel Phase Change Material Panel Based on Tetradecanol/Lauric Acid/Expanded Perlite/Aluminium Powder for Building Heat Storage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Enyu; Kong, Xiangfei; Rong, Xian; Yao, Chengqiang; Yang, Hua; Qi, Chengying

    2016-01-01

    Phase change material (PCM) used in buildings can reduce the building energy consumption and indoor temperature fluctuation. A composite PCM has been fabricated by the binary eutectic mixture of tetradecanol (TD) and lauric acid (LA) absorbed into the expanded perlite (EP) using vacuum impregnation method, and its thermal conductivity was promoted by aluminium powder (AP) additive. Besides, the styrene-acrylic emulsion has been mixed with the composite PCM particles to form the protective film, so as to solve the problem of leakage. Thus, a novel PCM panel (PCMP) has been prepared using compression moulding forming method. The thermal property, microstructure characteristic, mechanical property, thermal conductivity, thermal reliability and leakage of the composite PCM have been investigated and analysed. Meanwhile, the thermal performance of the prepared PCMP was tested through PCMPs installed on the inside wall of a cell under outdoor climatic conditions. The composite PCM has a melting temperature of 24.9 °C, a freezing temperature of 25.2 °C, a melting latent heat of 78.2 J/g and a freezing latent heat of 81.3 J/g. The thermal conductivity test exposed that the thermal conductivity has been enhanced with the addition of AP and the latent heat has been decreased, but it still remains in a high level. The leakage test result has proven that liquid PCM leaking has been avoided by the surface film method. The thermal performance experiment has shown the significant function of PCMP about adjusting the indoor temperature and reducing the heats transferring between the wall inside and outside. In view of the thermal performance, mechanical property and thermal reliability results, it can be concluded that the prepared PCMP has a promising building application potential. PMID:28774020

  16. The antimicrobial efficacy and structure activity relationship of novel carbohydrate fatty acid derivatives against Listeria spp. and food spoilage microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Nobmann, Patricia; Smith, Aoife; Dunne, Julie; Henehan, Gary; Bourke, Paula

    2009-01-15

    Novel mono-substituted carbohydrate fatty acid (CFA) esters and ethers were investigated for their antibacterial activity against a range of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria focussing on Listeria monocytogenes. Carbohydrate derivatives with structural differences enable comparative studies on the structure/activity relationship for antimicrobial efficacy and mechanism of action. The antimicrobial efficacy of the synthesized compounds was compared with commercially available compounds such as monolaurin and monocaprylin, as well as the pure free fatty acids, lauric acid and caprylic acid, which have proven antimicrobial activity. Compound efficacy was compared using an absorbance based broth microdilution assay to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), increase in lag phase and decrease in maximum growth rate. Among the carbohydrate derivatives synthesized, lauric ether of methyl alpha-d-glucopyranoside and lauric ester of methyl alpha-d-mannopyranoside showed the highest growth-inhibitory effect with MIC values of 0.04 mM, comparable to monolaurin. CFA derivatives were generally more active against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. The analysis of both ester and ether fatty acid derivatives of the same carbohydrate, in tandem with alpha and beta configuration of the carbohydrate moiety suggest that the carbohydrate moiety is involved in the antimicrobial activity of the fatty acid derivatives and that the nature of the bond also has a significant effect on efficacy, which requires further investigation. This class of CFA derivatives has great potential for developing antibacterial agents relevant to the food industry, particularly for control of Listeria or other Gram-positive pathogens.

  17. A novel regulatory system in plants involving medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hunzicker, Gretel Mara

    2009-12-01

    Polyethylene glycol sorbitan monoacylates (Tween) are detergents of widespread use in plant sciences. However, little is known about the plant response to these compounds. Interestingly, the structure of Tweens' detergents (especially from Tween 20) resembles the lipid A structure from gram-negative bacteria polysaccharides (a backbone with short saturated fatty acids). Thus, different assays (microarray, GC-MS, RT-PCR, Northern blots, alkalinization and mutant analyses) were conducted in order to elucidate physiological changes in the plant response to Tween 20 detergent. Tween 20 causes a rapid and complex change in transcript abundance which bears all characteristics of a pathogenesis-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)/elicitor-induced defense response, and they do so at concentrations which cause no detectable deleterious effects on plant cellular integrity. In the present work, it is shown that the PAMP/elicitor-induced defense responses are caused by medium-chain fatty acids which are efficiently released from the Tween backbone by the plant, notably lauric acid (12:0) and methyl lauric acid. These compounds induce the production of ethylene, medium alkalinization and gene activation in a jasmonate-independent manner. Medium-chain fatty acids are thus novel elicitors/regulators of plant pathogen defense as they have being proved in animals.

  18. Antimicrobial polylactic acid packaging films against Listeria and Salmonella in culture medium and on ready-to-eat meat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The contamination of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products has been a concern for the meat industry. In this study, edible chitosan-acid solutions incorporating lauric arginate ester (LAE), sodium lactate (NaL) and sorbic acid (SA) alone or in combinations we...

  19. Free fatty acids as inducers and regulators of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in liver mitochondria with participation of ADP/ATP- and aspartate/glutamate-antiporter.

    PubMed

    Samartsev, V N; Marchik, E I; Shamagulova, L V

    2011-02-01

    In liver mitochondria fatty acids act as protonophoric uncouplers mainly with participation of internal membrane protein carriers - ADP/ATP and aspartate/glutamate antiporters. In this study the values of recoupling effects of carboxyatractylate and glutamate (or aspartate) were used to assess the degree of participation of ADP/ATP and aspartate/glutamate antiporters in uncoupling activity of fatty acids. These values were determined from the ability of these recoupling agents to suppress the respiration stimulated by fatty acids and to raise the membrane potential reduced by fatty acids. Increase in palmitic and lauric acid concentration was shown to increase the degree of participation of ADP/ATP antiporter and to decrease the degree of participation of aspartate/glutamate antiporter in uncoupling to the same extent. These data suggest that fatty acids are not only inducers of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, but that they also act the regulators of this process. The linear dependence of carboxyatractylate and glutamate recoupling effects ratio on palmitic and lauric acids concentration was established. Comparison of the effects of fatty acids (palmitic, myristic, lauric, capric, and caprylic having 16, 14, 12, 10, and 8 carbon atoms, respectively) has shown that, as the hydrophobicity of fatty acids decreases, the effectiveness decreases to a greater degree than the respective values of their specific uncoupling activity. The action of fatty acids as regulators of uncoupling is supposed to consist of activation of transport of their anions from the internal to the external monolayer of the internal membrane with participation of ADP/ATP antiporter and, at the same time, in inhibition of this process with the participation of aspartate/glutamate antiporter.

  20. Influence of stearic acid on hemostatic risk factors in humans.

    PubMed

    Tholstrup, Tine

    2005-12-01

    Stearic acid has been claimed to be prothrombotic. Elevated plasma factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc) may raise the risk of coronary thrombosis in the event of plaque rupture. Fibrinogen, an acute-phase protein, is necessary for normal blood clotting; however, elevated levels of fibrinogen increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Here I report the results of three controlled, human dietary intervention studies, which used a randomized crossover design to investigate the hemostatic effects of stearic acid-rich test diets in healthy young men. A diet high in stearic acid (shea butter) resulted in a 13% lower fasting plasma FVIIc than a high palmitic acid diet, and was 18% lower than a diet high in myristic and lauric acids (P = 0.001) after 3 wk of intervention. The stearic acid-rich test fat increased plasma fibrinogen concentrations slightly compared with the myristic-lauric acid diet (P < 0.01). When investigating the acute effects of fatty meals, those high in stearic acid (synthesized test fat) resulted in a smaller postprandial increase in FVII than those high in trans and oleic FA, indicating a smaller increase in activated FVII after ingesting stearic acid compared with fats high in monounsaturated FA, probably caused by lower postprandial lipemia. Thus, the present investigations did not find dietary stearic acid to be more thrombogenic, in either fasting effects compared with other long-chain FA, or in acute effects compared with dietary unsaturated FA, including trans monounsaturated FA. The slightly increased effect on fasting plasma fibrinogen may be biologically insignificant, but it should be investigated further.

  1. Solvent-free enzymatic synthesis of 1, 3-Diacylglycerols by direct esterification of glycerol with saturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pure 1, 3-diacylglycerols (1, 3-DAG) have been considered to be significant surfactants in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries, as well as the effect on obesity prevention. Methods In this study, a vacuum-driven air bubbling operation mode was developed and evaluated for the enzymatic synthesis of 1, 3-DAG of saturated fatty acids, by direct esterification of glycerol with fatty acids in a solvent-free system. The employed vacuum-driven air bubbling operation mode was comparable to vacuum-driven N2 bubbling protocol, in terms of lauric acid conversion and 1, 3-dilaurin content. Results Some operation parameters were optimized, and 95.3% of lauric acid conversion and 80.3% of 1, 3-dilaurin content was obtained after 3-h reaction at 50°C, with 5 wt% of Lipozyme RM IM (based on reactants) amount. Of the lipases studied, both Lipozyme RM IM and Novozym 435 exhibited good performance in terms of lauric acid conversion. Lipozyme TL IM, however, showed low activity. Lipozyme RM IM showed good operational stability in this operation protocol, 80.2% of the original catalytic activity remained after 10 consecutive batch applications. Some other 1, 3-DAG were prepared and high content was obtained after purification: 98.5% for 1, 3-dicaprylin, 99.2% for 1, 3-dicaprin, 99.1% for 1, 3-dilaurin, 99.5 for 1, 3-dipalmitin and 99.4% for 1, 3-disterin. Conclusion The established vacuum-driven air bubbling operation protocol had been demonstrated to be a simple-operating, cost-effective, application practical and efficient methodology for 1, 3-DAG preparation. PMID:23656739

  2. Comparison of the structures of triacylglycerols from native and transgenic medium-chain fatty acid-enriched rape seed oil by liquid chromatography--atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-ITMS).

    PubMed

    Beermann, Christopher; Winterling, Nadine; Green, Angelika; Möbius, Michael; Schmitt, Joachim J; Boehm, Günther

    2007-04-01

    The sn position of fatty acids in seed oil lipids affects physiological function in pharmaceutical and dietary applications. In this study the composition of acyl-chain substituents in the sn positions of glycerol backbones in triacylglycerols (TAG) have been compared. TAG from native and transgenic medium-chain fatty acid-enriched rape seed oil were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with online atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. The transformation of summer rape with thioesterase and 3-ketoacyl-[ACP]-synthase genes of Cuphea lanceolata led to increased expression of 1.5% (w/w) caprylic acid (8:0), 6.7% (w/w) capric acid (10:0), 0.9% (w/w) lauric acid (12:0), and 0.2% (w/w) myristic acid (14:0). In contrast, linoleic (18:2n6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n3) levels decreased compared with the original seed oil. The TAG sn position distribution of fatty acids was also modified. The original oil included eleven unique TAG species whereas the transgenic oil contained sixty. Twenty species were common to both oils. The transgenic oil included trioctadecenoyl-glycerol (18:1/18:1/18:1) and trioctadecatrienoyl-glycerol (18:3/18:3/18:3) whereas the native oil included only the latter. The transgenic TAG were dominated by combinations of caprylic, capric, lauric, myrisitic, palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1n9), linoleic, arachidic (20:0), behenic (22:0), and lignoceric acids (24:0), which accounted for 52% of the total fat. In the original TAG palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids accounted for 50% of the total fat. Medium-chain triacylglycerols with capric and lauric acids combined with stearic, oleic, linoleic, alpha-linolenic, arachidic, and gondoic acids (20:1n9) accounted for 25% of the transgenic oil. The medium-chain fatty acids were mainly integrated into the sn-1/3 position combined with the essential linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids at the sn-2 position. Eight species

  3. Antimicrobial effects of virgin coconut oil and its medium-chain fatty acids on Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Shilling, Michael; Matt, Laurie; Rubin, Evelyn; Visitacion, Mark Paul; Haller, Nairmeen A; Grey, Scott F; Woolverton, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide; in addition, the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant C. difficile is becoming a significant problem. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been shown previously to have the antimicrobial activity. This study evaluates the lipid components of VCO for the control of C. difficile. VCO and its most active individual fatty acids were tested to evaluate their antimicrobial effect on C. difficile in vitro. The data indicate that exposure to lauric acid (C12) was the most inhibitory to growth (P<.001), as determined by a reduction in colony-forming units per milliliter. Capric acid (C10) and caprylic acid (C8) were inhibitory to growth, but to a lesser degree. VCO did not inhibit the growth of C. difficile; however, growth was inhibited when bacterial cells were exposed to 0.15-1.2% lipolyzed coconut oil. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the disruption of both the cell membrane and the cytoplasm of cells exposed to 2 mg/mL of lauric acid. Changes in bacterial cell membrane integrity were additionally confirmed for VCO and select fatty acids using Live/Dead staining. This study demonstrates the growth inhibition of C. difficile mediated by medium-chain fatty acids derived from VCO.

  4. Use of agar diffusion assay to measure bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric acid. Solu...

  5. Effect of pH alkaline salts of fatty acids on the inhibition of bacteria associated with poultry processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine the effect of pH on the ability of alkaline salts of three fatty acids (FA) to inhibit growth of bacteria associated with poultry processing. FA solutions were prepared by dissolving 0.5 M concentrations of caprylic, capric, or lauric acid in separate ali...

  6. Reduction of Salmonella in skinless chicken breast fillets by lauric arginate surface application.

    PubMed

    Sharma, C S; Ates, A; Joseph, P; Nannapaneni, R; Kiess, A

    2013-05-01

    Lauric arginate (LAE) has been found to be effective against various foodborne pathogens. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of LAE against Salmonella and mesophilic organisms was evaluated in fresh, skinless, boneless, uncooked chicken breast fillets. The effect of LAE treatments on pH and color of breast fillets was also assessed. Chicken breast fillets were inoculated with a 4-strain Salmonella cocktail (Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 4931, Salmonella Heidelberg ATCC 8326, Salmonella Kentucky ATCC 9263, and Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028) and then treated with sterile dionized water (positive control) and 200 ppm and 400 ppm of LAE. The chicken breast fillets were stored at 4 ± 1°C and analyzed on d 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 for Salmonella, total aerobes, color, and pH. The fillets destined for color analysis were not inoculated with Salmonella cocktail and stored under conditions simulating the retail display. The fillets treated with 400 ppm LAE had lower (P < 0.05) Salmonella counts compared with the positive control from d 0 through d 7 of storage except on d 3, when no effect of LAE was observed. Treating fillets with 200 ppm of LAE caused a significant reduction in Salmonella counts (P < 0.1) on d 0, 1, and 7. Reductions in Salmonella spp. were 0.7 log cfu/g and 0.7 to 1.0 log cfu/g for 200 and 400 ppm treatments, respectively. Lauric arginate did not exhibit any treatment effect on the growth of mesophilic microorganisms, pH, and color of chicken breast fillets (P > 0.05) when applied at 200 and 400 ppm concentrations. These results indicate that surface application of LAE in chicken breast fillets significantly reduces Salmonella during refrigerated aerobic storage without negatively affecting the color of chicken breast fillets.

  7. Molecular Characterization of the Elaeis guineensis Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase DGAT1-1 by Heterologous Expression in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Aymé, Laure; Jolivet, Pascale; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Chardot, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are involved in the acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol. Palm kernel oil, extracted from Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) seeds, has a high content of medium-chain fatty acids mainly lauric acid (C12:0). A putative E. guineensis diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (EgDGAT1-1) is expressed at the onset of lauric acid accumulation in the seed endosperm suggesting that it is a determinant of medium-chain triacylglycerol storage. To test this hypothesis, we thoroughly characterized EgDGAT1-1 activity through functional complementation of a Yarrowia lipolytica mutant strain devoid of neutral lipids. EgDGAT1-1 expression is sufficient to restore triacylglycerol accumulation in neosynthesized lipid droplets. A comparative functional study with Arabidopsis thaliana DGAT1 highlighted contrasting substrate specificities when the recombinant yeast was cultured in lauric acid supplemented medium. The EgDGAT1-1 expressing strain preferentially accumulated medium-chain triacylglycerols whereas AtDGAT1 expression induced long-chain triacylglycerol storage in Y. lipolytica. EgDGAT1-1 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum where TAG biosynthesis takes place. Reestablishing neutral lipid accumulation in the Y. lipolytica mutant strain did not induce major reorganization of the yeast microsomal proteome. Overall, our findings demonstrate that EgDGAT1-1 is an endoplasmic reticulum DGAT with preference for medium-chain fatty acid substrates, in line with its physiological role in palm kernel. The characterized EgDGAT1-1 could be used to promote medium-chain triacylglycerol accumulation in microbial-produced oil for industrial chemicals and cosmetics.

  8. Molecular Characterization of the Elaeis guineensis Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase DGAT1-1 by Heterologous Expression in Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Aymé, Laure; Jolivet, Pascale; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Chardot, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are involved in the acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol. Palm kernel oil, extracted from Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) seeds, has a high content of medium-chain fatty acids mainly lauric acid (C12:0). A putative E. guineensis diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (EgDGAT1-1) is expressed at the onset of lauric acid accumulation in the seed endosperm suggesting that it is a determinant of medium-chain triacylglycerol storage. To test this hypothesis, we thoroughly characterized EgDGAT1-1 activity through functional complementation of a Yarrowia lipolytica mutant strain devoid of neutral lipids. EgDGAT1-1 expression is sufficient to restore triacylglycerol accumulation in neosynthesized lipid droplets. A comparative functional study with Arabidopsis thaliana DGAT1 highlighted contrasting substrate specificities when the recombinant yeast was cultured in lauric acid supplemented medium. The EgDGAT1-1 expressing strain preferentially accumulated medium-chain triacylglycerols whereas AtDGAT1 expression induced long-chain triacylglycerol storage in Y. lipolytica. EgDGAT1-1 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum where TAG biosynthesis takes place. Reestablishing neutral lipid accumulation in the Y. lipolytica mutant strain did not induce major reorganization of the yeast microsomal proteome. Overall, our findings demonstrate that EgDGAT1-1 is an endoplasmic reticulum DGAT with preference for medium-chain fatty acid substrates, in line with its physiological role in palm kernel. The characterized EgDGAT1-1 could be used to promote medium-chain triacylglycerol accumulation in microbial-produced oil for industrial chemicals and cosmetics. PMID:26581109

  9. Effect of three edible oils on the intestinal absorption of caffeic acid: An in vivo and in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Prasadani, W. Chaturi; Senanayake, Chaturi M.; Jayathilaka, Nimanthi; Ekanayake, Sagarika

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenolic antioxidants are mainly absorbed through passive paracellular permeation regulated by tight junctions. Some fatty acids are known to modulate tight junctions. Fatty acids resulting from the digestion of edible oils may improve the absorption of polyphenolic antioxidants. Therefore, we explored the effect of three edible oils on the intestinal absorption of caffeic acid. Rats were fed with soybean oil and caffeic acid dissolved in distilled water. Caffeic acid contents in the plasma collected up to 1 hr were quantified. The experiment was repeated with coconut oil and olive oil. Component fatty acids of the oils were individually tested in vitro for their effect on permeability of caffeic acid using Caco-2 cell monolayers. Highest absorption of caffeic acid was observed in animals fed with coconut oil. In vitro transport percentages of caffeic acid in 2.5 mmol/L solutions of fatty acids were 22.01±0.12 (lauric), 15.30 ± 0.25 (myristic acid), 13.59 ± 0.35 (linoleic acid), 3.70 ± 0.09 (oleic acid) and 0.10–2.0 (all other fatty acids). Lauric acid and myristic acid are the two major fatty acids present in coconut oil. Therefore, these fatty acids may contribute to the higher absorption of caffeic acid in the presence of coconut oil. PMID:28617858

  10. Cuphea: a new plant source of medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Graham, S A

    1989-01-01

    The plant genus Cuphea (family Lythraceae) promises to provide a new source of industrially and nutritionally important medium-chain fatty acids, especially of lauric acid now supplied exclusively by coconut and palm kernel oils from foreign sources. The seed lipids of Cuphea were first discovered in the 1960s to contain high percentages of several medium-chain fatty acids, including caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acid. Research is still in the early stages, but it is intensifying toward the goal of developing the genus into a new temperate climate crop for production of specialty oils. Given the diversity of Cuphea seed lipid composition and the wide ecological and distributional range of the genus, it may be possible to tailor crops to produce selected fatty acids on demand under a variety of growing conditions. Cuphea comprises about 260 species, most native to the New World tropics. Its morphology, classification, chromosome numbers, distribution, ecology, and folk uses are presented. Seed structure is described and seed lipid composition for 73 species is summarized. Problems in domestication and agronomic progress are reviewed. Knowledge of the biosynthetic mechanism controlling the lipids produced by Cuphea remains very limited. Future research in this area, and particularly successful employment of gene transfer techniques, may allow genes controlling the mechanism to be transferred to an already established seed oil producer such as rapeseed. Presently, both traditional plant breeding techniques and newer biotechnological methods are directed toward Cuphea oilseed development.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis Scavenges Host Fatty Acids for Phospholipid Synthesis via an Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthetase*

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jiangwei; Dodson, V. Joshua; Frank, Matthew W.; Rock, Charles O.

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular parasite Chlamydia trachomatis has a reduced genome but relies on de novo fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis to produce its membrane phospholipids. Lipidomic analyses showed that 8% of the phospholipid molecular species synthesized by C. trachomatis contained oleic acid, an abundant host fatty acid that cannot be made by the bacterium. Mass tracing experiments showed that isotopically labeled palmitic, myristic, and lauric acids added to the medium were incorporated into C. trachomatis-derived phospholipid molecular species. HeLa cells did not elongate lauric acid, but infected HeLa cell cultures elongated laurate to myristate and palmitate. The elongated fatty acids were incorporated exclusively into C. trachomatis-produced phospholipid molecular species. C. trachomatis has adjacent genes encoding the separate domains of the bifunctional acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthetase/2-acylglycerolphosphoethanolamine acyltransferase gene (aas) of Escherichia coli. The CT775 gene encodes an acyltransferase (LpaT) that selectively transfers fatty acids from acyl-ACP to the 1-position of 2-acyl-glycerophospholipids. The CT776 gene encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AasC) with a substrate preference for palmitic compared with oleic acid in vitro. Exogenous fatty acids were elongated and incorporated into phospholipids by Escherichia coli-expressing AasC, illustrating its function as an acyl-ACP synthetase in vivo. These data point to an AasC-dependent pathway in C. trachomatis that selectively scavenges host saturated fatty acids to be used for the de novo synthesis of its membrane constituents. PMID:26195634

  12. The solubilization of fatty acids in systems based on block copolymers and nonionic surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirgorodskaya, A. B.; Yatskevich, E. I.; Zakharova, L. Ya.

    2010-12-01

    The solubilizing action of micellar, microemulsion, and polymer-colloid systems formed on the basis of biologically compatible amphiphilic polymers and nonionic surfactants on capric, lauric, palmitic, and stearic acids was characterized quantitatively. Systems based on micelle forming oxyethyl compounds increased the solubility of fatty acids by more than an order of magnitude. Acid molecules incorporated into micelles increased their size and caused structural changes. Solubilization was accompanied by complete or partial destruction of intrinsic acid associates and an increase in their p K a by 1.5-2 units compared with water.

  13. Free acetate production by rat hepatocytes during peroxisomal fatty acid and dicarboxylic acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Leighton, F; Bergseth, S; Rørtveit, T; Christiansen, E N; Bremer, J

    1989-06-25

    The fate of the acetyl-CoA units released during peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation was studied in isolated hepatocytes from normal and peroxisome-proliferated rats. Ketogenesis and hydrogen peroxide generation were employed as indicators of mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, respectively. Butyric and hexanoic acids were employed as mitochondrial substrates, 1, omega-dicarboxylic acids as predominantly peroxisomal substrates, and lauric acid as a substrate for both mitochondria and peroxisomes. Ketogenesis from dicarboxylic acids was either absent or very low in normal and peroxisome-proliferated hepatocytes, but free acetate release was detected at rates that could account for all the acetyl-CoA produced in peroxisomes by dicarboxylic and also by monocarboxylic acids. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation also led to free acetate generation but at low rates relative to ketogenesis. The origin of the acetate released was confirmed employing [1-14C]dodecanedioic acid. Thus, the activity of peroxisomes might contribute significantly to the free acetate generation known to occur during fatty acid oxidation in rats and possibly also in humans.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of fatty acid methyl esters of some members of Chenopodiaceae.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Manivachagam; Kannathasan, Krishnan; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) extracts of four halophytic plants, viz. Arthrocnemum indicum, Salicornia brachiata, Suaeda maritima and Suaeda monoica belonging to the family Chenopodiaceae, were prepared and their composition was analyzed by GC-MS. The FAME extracts were also screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of more saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids. Among the fatty acids analyzed, the relative percentage of lauric acid was high in S. brachiata (61.85%). The FAME extract of S. brachiata showed the highest antibacterial and antifungal activities among the extracts tested. The other three extracts showed potent antibacterial and moderate anticandidal activities.

  15. Nanoemulsions of thymol and eugenol co-emulsified by lauric arginate and lecithin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiumin; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-09-01

    Lauric arginate (LAE) is a cationic surfactant with excellent antimicrobial activities. To incorporate essential oil components (EOCs) in aqueous systems, properties of EOC nanoemulsions prepared with a LAE and lecithin mixture were studied. The LAE-lecithin mixture resulted in stable translucent nanoemulsions of thymol and eugenol with spherical droplets smaller than 100nm, contrasting with the turbid emulsions prepared with individual emulsifiers. Zeta-potential data suggested the formation of LAE-lecithin complexes probably through hydrophobic interaction. Negligible difference was observed for antimicrobial activities of nanoemulsions and LAE in tryptic soy broth. In 2% reduced fat milk, nanoemulsions showed similar antilisterial activities compared to free LAE in inhibiting Listeria monocytogenes, but was less effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 than free LAE, which was correlated with the availability of LAE as observed in release kinetics. Therefore, mixing LAE with lecithin improved the physical properties of EOC nanoemulsions but did not improve antimicrobial activities, especially against Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatty acids and bioactive compounds of the pulps and kernels of Brazilian palm species, guariroba (Syagrus oleraces), jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana) and macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata).

    PubMed

    Coimbra, Michelle C; Jorge, Neuza

    2012-02-01

    Bioactive compounds are capable of providing health benefits, reducing disease incidence or favoring body functioning. There is a growing search for vegetable oils containing such compounds. This study aimed to characterize the pulp and kernel oils of the Brazilian palm species guariroba (Syagrus oleracea), jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana) and macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata), aiming at possible uses in several industries. Fatty acid composition, phenolic and carotenoid contents, tocopherol composition were evaluated. The majority of the fatty acids in pulps were oleic and linoleic; macaúba pulp contained 526 g kg⁻¹ of oleic acid. Lauric acid was detected in the kernels of all three species as the major saturated fatty acid, in amounts ranging from 325.8 to 424.3 g kg⁻¹. The jerivá pulp contained carotenoids and tocopherols on average of 1219 µg g⁻¹ and 323.50 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. The pulps contained more unsaturated fatty acids than the kernels, mainly oleic and linoleic. Moreover, the pulps showed higher carotenoid and tocopherol contents. The kernels showed a predominance of saturated fatty acids, especially lauric acid. The fatty acid profiles of the kernels suggest that these oils may be better suited for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries than for use in foods. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Films prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) and amylose-fatty acid salt inclusion complexes with increased surface hydrophobicity and high elongation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, water-soluble amylose-inclusion complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and sodium salts of lauric, palmitic, and stearic acid by steam jet cooking. Cast films were prepared by combining the amylose complexes with poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVOH) solution at ratios varying from...

  18. Effect of fatty acids on endothelium-dependent relaxation in the rabbit aorta.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, Indika; McCormick Hallam, Kellie; Kappagoda, C Tissa

    2006-08-01

    The metabolic syndrome, Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes and obesity are associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased plasma concentrations of NEFAs (non-esterified fatty acids; free fatty acids). The present study was undertaken to define the inhibitory effects of saturated NEFAs on EDR (endothelium-dependent relaxation). Experiments were performed in rings of rabbit aorta to establish (i) dose-response relationships, (ii) the effect of chain length, (iii) the effect of the presence of double bonds, (iv) reversibility and time course of inhibition, and (v) the effect on nitric oxide production. Aortic rings were incubated (1 h) with NEFA-albumin complexes derived from lauric (C(12:0)), myristic (C(14:0)), palmitic (C(16:0)), stearic (C(18:0)) and linolenic (C(18:3)) acids. EDR induced by acetylcholine (0.1-10 mumol/l) was measured after pre-contraction with noradrenaline. Inhibition of EDR was dose-dependent (0.5-2 mmol/l NEFA), and the greatest inhibition (51%) was observed with stearic acid (2 mmol/l). Lauric acid had the smallest inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effects were always reversible and were evident after 15 min of incubation. Linolenic acid caused a significantly lower inhibition of EDR than stearic acid. SOD (superoxide dismutase) restored the inhibitory effect caused by NEFAs, suggesting the involvement of ROS (reactive oxygen species) in removing nitric oxide. The nitric oxide concentration measured after exposure of the rings to acetylcholine was lower after incubation with NEFAs than with Krebs buffer alone. This finding is consistent with removal of nitric oxide by ROS. This claim was supported by the demonstration of increased concentrations of nitrated tyrosine in the rings incubated with NEFAs.

  19. Production of aviation fuel via catalytic hydrothermal decarboxylation of fatty acids in microalgae oil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cuiyue; Nie, Renfeng; Fu, Jie; Hou, Zhaoyin; Lu, Xiuyang

    2013-10-01

    A series of fatty acids in microalgae oil, such as stearic acid, palmitic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid, were selected as the raw materials to produce aviation fuel via hydrothermal decarboxylation over a multi-wall carbon nanotube supported Pt catalyst (Pt/MWCNTs). It was found that Pt/MWCNTs catalysts exhibited higher activity for the hydrothermal decarboxylation of stearic acid with a 97% selectivity toward heptadecane compared to Pt/C and Ru/C under the same conditions. And Pt/MWCNTs is also capable for the decarboxylation of different fatty acids in microalgae oil. The reaction conditions, such as Pt/MWCNTs loading amount, reaction temperature and time were optimized. The activation energy of stearic acid decarboxylation over Pt/MWCNTs was calculated (114 kJ/mol). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of saturated fatty acid-rich dietary vegetable oils on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kochikuzhyil, Benson Mathai; Devi, Kshama; Fattepur, Santosh Raghunandan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich dietary vegetable oils on the lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p.) in neonatal rats. Twenty-eight-day-old normal (N) and diabetic (D) male Wistar rats were fed for 45 days with a fat-enriched special diet (10%) prepared with coconut oil (CO) – lauric acid-rich SFA, palm oil (PO) – palmitic acid-rich SFA and groundnut oil (GNO) – control (N and D). Lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and oral glucose tolerance tests were monitored. Results: D rats fed with CO (D + CO) exhibited a significant decrease in the total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Besides, they also showed a trend toward improving antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance as compared to the D + GNO group, whereas D + PO treatment aggravated the dyslipidemic condition while causing a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase levels when compared to N rats fed with GNO (N + GNO). D + PO treatment also impaired the glucose tolerance when compared to N + GNO and D + GNO. Conclusion: The type of FA in the dietary oil determines its deleterious or beneficial effects. Lauric acid present in CO may protect against diabetes-induced dyslipidemia. PMID:20871763

  1. Antibacterial activity of sphingoid bases and fatty acids against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Carol L; Drake, David R; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Wertz, Philip W

    2012-03-01

    There is growing evidence that the role of lipids in innate immunity is more important than previously realized. How lipids interact with bacteria to achieve a level of protection, however, is still poorly understood. To begin to address the mechanisms of antibacterial activity, we determined MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of lipids common to the skin and oral cavity--the sphingoid bases D-sphingosine, phytosphingosine, and dihydrosphingosine and the fatty acids sapienic acid and lauric acid--against four Gram-negative bacteria and seven Gram-positive bacteria. Exact Kruskal-Wallis tests of these values showed differences among lipid treatments (P < 0.0001) for each bacterial species except Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. D-sphingosine (MBC range, 0.3 to 19.6 μg/ml), dihydrosphingosine (MBC range, 0.6 to 39.1 μg/ml), and phytosphingosine (MBC range, 3.3 to 62.5 μg/ml) were active against all bacteria except S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Sapienic acid (MBC range, 31.3 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum but not active against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. marcescens, P. aeruginosa, Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium striatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Lauric acid (MBC range, 6.8 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against all bacteria except E. coli, S. marcescens, and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Complete killing was achieved as early as 0.5 h for some lipids but took as long as 24 h for others. Hence, sphingoid bases and fatty acids have different antibacterial activities and may have potential for prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in infection.

  2. Experimental study on thermal storage performance of binary mixtures of fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Quanying; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Chao; Liu, Sha; Sun, Xiangyu

    2018-02-01

    We selected five kinds of fatty acids including the capric acid, stearic acid, lauric acid, palmitic acid and myristic acid and mixed them to prepare10 kinds of binary mixtures of fatty acids according to the predetermined proportion,tested the phase change temperature and latent heat of mixtures by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). In order to find the fatty acid mixture which has suitable phase change temperature, the larger phase change latent heat and can be used for phase change wall. The results showed that the phase change temperature and latent heats of the binary mixtures of fatty acids decreased compared with the single component;The phase change temperature of the binary mixtures of fatty acids containing capric acid were lower, the range was roughly 20∼30°C,and latent heat is large,which are ideal phase change materials for phase change wall energy storage;The phase change temperature of the binary mixtures consisting of other fatty acids were still high,didn’t meet the temperature requirements of the wall energy storage.

  3. Safety assessment of myristic acid as a food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G

    2007-04-01

    Myristic acid is used in the food industry as a flavor ingredient. It is found widely distributed in fats throughout the plant and animal kingdom, including common human foodstuffs, such as nutmeg. Myristic acid (a 14-carbon, straight-chain saturated fatty acid) has been shown to have a low order of acute oral toxicity in rodents. It may be irritating in pure form to skin and eyes under exaggerated exposure conditions, but is not known or predicted to induce sensitization responses. Myristic acid did not induce a mutagenic response in either bacterial or mammalian systems in vitro. Relevant subchronic toxicity data are available on closely related fatty acid analogs. In particular, a NOEL of >6000mg/kg was reported for lauric acid (a 12-carbon, straight-chain saturated fatty acid) following dietary exposure to male rats for 18 weeks and a NOEL of >5000mg/kg was reported for palmitic acid (a 16-carbon, straight-chain saturated fatty acid) following dietary exposure to rats for 150 days. The data and information that are available indicate that at the current level of intake, food flavoring use of myristic acid does not pose a health risk to humans.

  4. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    PubMed Central

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23971051

  5. Improvement of medium chain fatty acid content and antimicrobial activity of coconut oil via solid-state fermentation using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum.

    PubMed

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Stability of sublethal acid stress adaptaion and induced cross protection against lauric arginate in Listeria monocytogenes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The stability of acid stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes and its induced cross protection effect against GRAS (generally recognized as safe) antimicrobial compounds has never been investigated before. In the present study, the acid stress adaptation in L. monocytogenes was initially induced...

  7. Lauroyl-L-aspartate decreased food intake and body temperature in neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Erwan, E; Chowdhury, V S; Ito, K; Furuse, M

    2013-11-15

    We hypothesized that the effects of L- and D-amino acids might be influenced when conjugated with fatty acid. Thus, the effects of oral administration of lauroyl-L-aspartate (Lau-L-Asp) as well as lauroyl-D-aspartate (Lau-D-Asp) were examined. In Experiment 1, oral administration of both Lau-L-Asp and Lau-D-Asp decreased food intake while L- or D-Asp did not influence food intake. Interestingly, only Lau-L-Asp decreased body temperature. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine whether non-conjugated mixture of L-Asp plus lauric acid has same effects under ad libitum feeding conditions. Lau-L-Asp decreased food intake and body temperature, but L-Asp plus lauric acid did not show any effect studied. In Experiment 3, we found that Lau-L-Asp declined food intake as well as time-dependently suppressed the body temperature in fasted chicks. However, L-Asp plus lauric acid did not show any effect. These results suggest that Lau-L-Asp may exert anorexigenic and hypothermic actions in chicks. © 2013.

  8. Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer from krabok (irvingia malayana) seed fat and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ornla-Ied, Pimwalan; Aneknun, Tanapa

    2015-01-01

    Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer (LCBR) was produced from a blend of krabok seed fat (KSF) and coconut oil (CO). Four fat blends with different ratios of KSF/CO (20/80, 40/60, 60/40 and 80/20 (%wt)), CO, KSF and a commercial LCBR (C-LCBR) were characterized using various techniques. It was found that blend 60/40 exhibited SFC curve and crystallization/melting behavior most similar to that of C-LCBR. The blend met the requirements to be considered as LCBR and has potential as an alternative to commercial LCBR that are being used nowadays and hence it was recommended as LCBR (called R-LCBR). The polymorphic behavior of both C-LCBR and R-LCBR was investigated and both fats displayed mainly short spacing pattern associated with β' polymorph, a required polymorph for LCBR. The compatibility between R-LCBR and CB was investigated by mixing the R-LCBR with CB in different proportions and softening due to the eutectic effect was observed in the mixed fats. This limits the proportion of CB and the R-LCBR in compound coatings to no more than 5% of CB in the total fat phase.

  9. Design, synthesis and evaluation of a new Mn - Contrast agent for MR imaging of myocardium based on the DTPA-phenylpentadecanoic acid complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyanin, Maxim L.; Stepanova, Elena V.; Valiev, Rashid R.; Filimonov, Victor D.; Usov, Vladimir Y.; Borodin, Oleg Y.; Ågren, Hans

    2016-11-01

    In the present paper we describe the first synthesis and evaluation of a novel Mn (II) complex (DTPA-PPDA Mn (II)) which contains a C-15 fatty acid moiety that has high affinity to the heart muscle. The complexation energy of DTPA-PPDA Mn (II) evaluated by quantum chemistry methodology indicates that it essentially exceeds the corresponding value for the known DTPA Mn (II) complex. Molecular docking revealed that the affinity of the designed complex to the heart-type transport protein H-FABP well exceeds that of lauric acid. Phantom experiments in low-field MRI the designed contrast agent provides MR imaging comparable to gadopentetic acid.

  10. Simple and sensitive analysis of long-chain free fatty acids in milk by fluorogenic derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chi-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Lung; Chen, Su-Hwei; Kou, Hwang-Shang; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2002-01-02

    A highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method is described for the simultaneous determination of some important saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in milk, including lauric (dodecanoic), myristic (tetradecanoic), palmitic (hexadecanoic), stearic (octadecanoic), palmitoleic (hexadecenoic), oleic (octadecenoic), and linoleic acids (octadecadienoic acids). The fatty acids were fluorogenically derivatized with 2-(2-naphthoxy)ethyl 2-(piperidino)ethanesulfonate (NOEPES) as their naphthoxyethyl derivatives. The resulting derivatives were separated by isocratic HPLC and monitored with a fluorometric detector (lambdaex = 235 nm, lambdaem = 350 nm). The fatty acids in milk were extracted with toluene, and the extract with the fatty acids was directly derivatized with NOEPES without solvent replacement. Determination of long-chain free fatty acids in milk is feasible by a standard addition method. A small amount of milk product, 10 microL, is sufficient for the analysis.

  11. Preparation of Copper (II) Containing Phosphomolybdic Acid Salt as Catalyst for the Synthesis of Biodiesel by Esterification.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jie; Zhang, Qiu-Yun; Wei, Fang-Fang; Huang, Jin-Shu; Feng, Yun-Mei; Ma, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Yutao-

    2018-04-01

    Copper (II) containing phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) catalysts were synthesized by ion exchange method and characterization using various physico-chemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric (TG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characterization results showed that the Keggin ions were retained in the catalysts and possessed well thermal stability. The catalytic esterification of lauric acid with methanol could be easily achieved about 78.7% conversion under optimum condition, the catalyst also contributed to the stability of the catalyst in which it can be reused for a certain time. This study demonstrated an alternative approach to biodiesel production with high efficiency by Cu (II) ion exchanged phosphomolybdic acid catalyst in the esterification catalytic.

  12. Fatty acids derived from a food frequency questionnaire and measured in the erythrocyte membrane in relation to adiponectin and leptin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Santos, S; Oliveira, A; Pinho, C; Casal, S; Lopes, C

    2014-05-01

    Evidence on the association between fatty acids and adiponectin and leptin concentrations is scarce and inconsistent, which may in part be due to limitations of dietary reporting methods. We aimed to estimate the association of fatty acids, derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and measured in the erythrocyte membrane, with adiponectin and leptin concentrations. We studied 330 non-institutionalized inhabitants of Porto (52.4% women; age range: 26-64 years) evaluated in 2010-2011, as part of the EPIPorto cohort study. Fatty acids were derived from a validated semiquantitative FFQ and measured in the erythrocyte membrane by gas chromatography. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin were determined through radioimmunoassay. Regression coefficients (β) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were obtained from linear regression models, after controlling for gender, age, education, leisure time physical activity and total body fat percentage (obtained from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Fatty acids measured by FFQ showed no significant associations with both adipokines. Lauric and linoleic acids, measured in the erythrocyte membrane, were significantly and positively associated with adiponectin (β=0.292, 95% CI: 0.168-0.416; β=0.150, 95% CI: 0.020-0.280) and leptin (β=0.071, 95% CI: 0.003-0.138; β=0.071, 95% CI: 0.002-0.140), whereas total n-3, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were significantly but negatively associated with adiponectin (β=-0.289, 95% CI: -0.420 to -0.159; β=-0.174, 95% CI -0.307 to -0.040; β=-0.253, 95% CI -0.383 to -0.124) and leptin (β=-0.151, 95% CI: -0.220 to -0.083; β=-0.080, 95% CI: -0.151 to -0.009; β=-0.146, 95% CI: -0.214 to -0.078). Positive significant associations of palmitic and trans-fatty acids with adiponectin were also observed. A positive association of lauric and linoleic acids and a negative association of total n-3 fatty acids with both adipokines were observed only with fatty acids

  13. Particulate organic acids in the atmosphere of Italian cities: Are they environmentally relevant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balducci, Catia; Cecinato, Angelo

    2010-02-01

    Mono- and dicarboxylic n-alkyl acids were extensively investigated in downtown Rome, Italy, and in Montelibretti, ˜30 km NE of the city, during 2005-2007. Congeners ranging from lauric to mellisic, and from succinic to α,ω-docosanedioic acids were evaluated as well as phthalic, palmitoleic and oleic acids, by solvent extraction of airborne particulates followed by derivatization with propanol in the presence of boron trifluoride, and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. Shorter measurements were made in Milan, in Taranto, at suburban and rural sites of Italy, and in the polar regions, from 1996 to 2005. The predominance of palmitic and stearic acids observed elsewhere was confirmed, and the behaviour of azelaic and phthalic acids resulted strongly dependent upon the year season. In the urban sites, among the long-chain compounds, the lignoceric acid was usually the most abundant, while the cerotic, montanic and mellisic homologues cumulatively never exceeded 8% of the total. Unlike other contaminants, the concentrations of organic acids remained fairly invariant over the last decade, suggesting that more attention must be paid to them in the future.

  14. Association of polymorphisms in solute carrier family 27, isoform A6 (SLC27A6) and fatty acid-binding protein-3 and fatty acid-binding protein-4 (FABP3 and FABP4) with fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Nafikov, R A; Schoonmaker, J P; Korn, K T; Noack, K; Garrick, D J; Koehler, K J; Minick-Bormann, J; Reecy, J M; Spurlock, D E; Beitz, D C

    2013-09-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop tools for genetic selection of animals producing milk with a lower concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The reasons for changing milk fatty acid (FA) composition were to improve milk technological properties, such as for production of more spreadable butter, and milk nutritional value with respect to the potentially adverse effects of SFA on human health. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in solute carrier family 27, isoform A6 (SLC27A6) fatty acid transport protein gene and fatty acid binding protein (FABP)-3 and FABP-4 (FABP3 and FABP4) would affect the selectivity of FA uptake into, and FA redistribution inside, mammary epithelial cells, resulting in altered FA composition of bovine milk. The objectives of our study were to discover genetic polymorphisms in SLC27A6, FABP3, and FABP4, and to test those polymorphisms for associations with milk FA composition. The results showed that after pairwise comparisons between SLC27A6 haplotypes for significantly associated traits, haplotype H3 was significantly associated with 1.37 weight percentage (wt%) lower SFA concentration, 0.091 lower SFA:UFA ratio, and 0.17 wt% lower lauric acid (12:0) concentration, but 1.37 wt% higher UFA and 1.24 wt% higher monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations compared with haplotype H1 during the first 3 mo of lactation. Pairwise comparisons between FABP4 haplotypes for significantly associated traits showed that haplotype H3 was significantly associated with 1.04 wt% lower SFA concentration, 0.079 lower SFA:UFA ratio, 0.15 wt% lower lauric acid (12:0), and 0.27 wt% lower myristic acid (14:0) concentrations, but 1.04 wt% higher UFA and 0.91 wt% higher MUFA concentrations compared with haplotype H1 during the first 3 mo of lactation. Percentages of genetic variance explained by H3 versus H1 haplotype substitutions for SLC27A6 and FABP4 ranged from 2.50 to 4.86% and

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  16. Fabrication, stability and efficacy of dual-component antimicrobial nanoemulsions: essential oil (thyme oil) and cationic surfactant (lauric arginate).

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuhua; McLandsborough, Lynne; McClements, David Julian

    2015-04-01

    The influence of a cationic surfactant (lauric arginate, LAE) on the physical properties and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions was investigated. Nanoemulsions prepared from pure thyme oil were highly unstable due to Ostwald ripening, but they could be stabilized by adding a ripening inhibitor (corn oil) to the oil phase prior to homogenisation. The loading capacity and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions were significantly increased by adding LAE. In the absence of LAE, at least 60 wt% corn oil had to be added to the lipid phase to inhibit Ostwald ripening; but in the presence of 0.1 wt% LAE, only 30 wt% corn oil was needed. LAE addition substantially increased the antimicrobial efficacy of the thyme oil nanoemulsions: 200 μg/ml thyme oil was needed to inhibit growth of a spoilage yeast (Zygosaccharomyces bailii) if LAE was added, whereas ⩾ 400 μg/ml was needed in the absence of LAE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Interaction of free fatty acids with mitochondria during uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation].

    PubMed

    Samartsev, V N; Rybakova, S R; Dubinin, M V

    2013-01-01

    The activity of free saturated fatty acids (caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic) as inducers and regulators of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation with participation of ADP/ATP antiporter, aspartate/glutamate antiporter and cyclosporin A-sensitive structure was investigated in experiments on rat liver mitochondria. It is established that at equal uncoupling activity of fatty acids the regulatory effect is minimal for caprylic acid and raised with increasing the hydrophobicity of fatty acids reaching the maximum value for stearic acid. There exists the linear dependence of the regulatory effect value of fatty acids on fatty acids content in the hydrophobic region of the inner membrane. The model that describes the interaction of fatty acids with the hydrophobic region of the mitochondrial inner membrane preserving functional activity of organelles is developed. It is established that if molecules of various fatty acids being in the hydrophobic region of the membrane are equally effective as uncoupling regulators, their specific uncoupling activity is different. Caprylic acid, a short-chain fatty acid, possesses the highest uncoupling activity. As the acyl chain length increases, the specific uncoupling activity of fatty acids reduces exponentially. Under these conditions components of the uncoupling activity sensitive to glutamate and carboxyatractylate and glutamate and insensitive to these reagents (but sensitive to cyclosporin A) change approximately equally.

  18. [The fatty acid composition of large pumpkin seed oil (Curucbitae maxima Dich) cultivated in Georgia].

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to identify qualitatively and quantitatively fatty acid composition of large pumpkin seed oil cultivated in Georgia (Cucurbitae maxima Duch) and evaluate its biological activities. Evaluation was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography method. Fatty acids ranging from C12:0 to C22:0 were identified in the probe. The oil contained 0,2В±0,01mg% lauric, 0,3В±0,01 mg% miristic, 9,0В±0,7mg% palmitic, 5,5В±0,4 mg% stearic, 28,1В±1,0 mg% oleic, 40,2В±1,9 mg% linolic, 12,1В±1,0 mg% linolenic, 2,0В±0,2mg% arachinic and 1,2В±0,1 mg% begenic acids. The investigation showed that large pumpkin seed oil contains a range of biologically significant fatty acids, unique proportion of which attaches great value to the vegetative material.

  19. Tocopherol content and Fatty Acid profile of different Iranian date seed oils.

    PubMed

    Biglar, Mahmood; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Hassani, Shokufeh; Moghaddam, Ghazaleh; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Date is one of the world's oldest food-producing plants wich has always played an important role in the economy and social life. Various researchers examined chemical composition and nutritional values of edible parts of dates while limited information about chemical composition and nutritional quality of date seed is available. In this study, fatty acid composition and total tocopherol content of 14 Iranian date seed oils were studied. Statistical analysis was performed through SPSS computing package. According to the fatty acid profiles, seven fatty acids were found through nearly 50% oleic acid in seeds. Shekar cultivar by 51.40% had the maximum amount and Lasht cultivar by 33.38% had the minimum amount of oleic acid. Tocopherol content in the samples varied between 33.86 μg vit E/g oil for Shahabi2 to 10.09 μg vit E/g oil for Shekar. Tocopherol content was 1.88 and 0.61 μg respectively in one-gram seed of these two cultivars. Iranian date seed oils classified as oleic-lauric oil, had a high amount of oleic acid and could serve as a profitable source of valuable oils for industrial applications.

  20. Synthesis-Free Phase-Selective Gelator for Oil-Spill Remediation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yaowen; Li, Mei-Chun; Wu, Qinglin; Pojman, John A; Kuroda, Daniel G

    2017-10-04

    A new deep eutectic solvent (DES) was developed as a phase-selective gelator for oil-spill remediation. The newly designed nonionic DES is based on a combination of an amide (N-methylacetamide) and a long chain carboxylic acid (lauric acid) and does not require any synthetic procedure besides mixing. Our studies show that the DES works as gelator by forming a gel between lauric acid and the hydrocarbon, whereas the amide serves to form the DES and dissolves in water during the gelation process. In addition, the DES material has gelation properties comparable to those considered as state-of-the-art. Overall, the newly developed material shows a promising future in oil recovery methodologies.

  1. Engineering acyl carrier protein to enhance production of shortened fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueliang; Hicks, Wade M; Silver, Pamela A; Way, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    The acyl carrier protein (ACP) is an essential and ubiquitous component of microbial synthesis of fatty acids, the natural precursor to biofuels. Natural fatty acids usually contain long chains of 16 or more carbon atoms. Shorter carbon chains, with increased fuel volatility, are desired for internal combustion engines. Engineering the length specificity of key proteins in fatty acid metabolism, such as ACP, may enable microbial synthesis of these shorter chain fatty acids. We constructed a homology model of the Synechococcus elongatus ACP, showing a hydrophobic pocket harboring the growing acyl chain. Amino acids within the pocket were mutated to increase steric hindrance to the acyl chain. Certain mutant ACPs, when over-expressed in Escherichia coli, increased the proportion of shorter chain lipids; I75 W and I75Y showed the strongest effects. Expression of I75 W and I75Y mutant ACPs also increased production of lauric acid in E. coli that expressed the C12-specific acyl-ACP thioesterase from Cuphea palustris. We engineered the specificity of the ACP, an essential protein of fatty acid metabolism, to alter the E. coli lipid pool and enhance production of medium-chain fatty acids as biofuel precursors. These results indicate that modification of ACP itself could be combined with enzymes affecting length specificity in fatty acid synthesis to enhance production of commodity chemicals based on fatty acids.

  2. Synthesis and emulsifying properties of carbohydrate fatty acid esters produced from Agave tequilana fructans by enzymatic acylation.

    PubMed

    Casas-Godoy, Leticia; Arrizon, Javier; Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Plou, Francisco J; Sandoval, Georgina

    2016-08-01

    Carbohydrate fatty acid esters are non-ionic surfactants with a broad spectrum of applications. These molecules are generally synthesized using short carbohydrates or linear fructans; however in this research carbohydrate fatty acid esters were produced for the first time with branched fructans from Agave tequilana. Using immobilized lipases we successfully acylated A. tequilana fructans with vinyl laurate, obtaining products with different degrees of polymerization (DP). Lipozyme 435 was the most efficient lipase to catalyze the transesterification reaction. HPLC and ESI-MS analysis proved the presence of a mixture of acylated products as a result of the chemical complexity of fructans in the A. tequilana. The ESI-MS spectra showed a molecular mass shift between 183 and 366g/mol for fructooligosaccharides with a DP lower than 6, which indicated the presence of Agave fructans that had been mono- and diacylated with lauric acid. The carbohydrate fatty acid esters (CFAE) obtained showed good emulsifying properties in W/O emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enzymatic synthesis of farnesyl laurate in organic solvent: initial water activity, kinetics mechanism, optimization of continuous operation using packed bed reactor and mass transfer studies.

    PubMed

    Rahman, N K; Kamaruddin, A H; Uzir, M H

    2011-08-01

    The influence of water activity and water content was investigated with farnesyl laurate synthesis catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM. Lipozyme RM IM activity depended strongly on initial water activity value. The best results were achieved for a reaction medium with an initial water activity of 0.11 since it gives the best conversion value of 96.80%. The rate constants obtained in the kinetics study using Ping-Pong-Bi-Bi and Ordered-Bi-Bi mechanisms with dead-end complex inhibition of lauric acid were compared. The corresponding parameters were found to obey the Ordered-Bi-Bi mechanism with dead-end complex inhibition of lauric acid. Kinetic parameters were calculated based on this model as follows: V (max) = 5.80 mmol l(-1) min(-1) g enzyme(-1), K (m,A) = 0.70 mmol l(-1) g enzyme(-1), K (m,B) = 115.48 mmol l(-1) g enzyme(-1), K (i) = 11.25 mmol l(-1) g enzyme(-1). The optimum conditions for the esterification of farnesol with lauric acid in a continuous packed bed reactor were found as the following: 18.18 cm packed bed height and 0.9 ml/min substrate flow rate. The optimum molar conversion of lauric acid to farnesyl laurate was 98.07 ± 0.82%. The effect of mass transfer in the packed bed reactor has also been studied using two models for cases of reaction limited and mass transfer limited. A very good agreement between the mass transfer limited model and the experimental data obtained indicating that the esterification in a packed bed reactor was mass transfer limited.

  4. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by food antimicrobials applied singly and in combination.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Alex L; Castillo, Alejandro; Harris, Kerri B; Keeton, Jimmy T; Hardin, Margaret D; Taylor, Thomas M

    2010-01-01

    Combining food antimicrobials can enhance inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) meats. A broth dilution assay was used to compare the inhibition of L. monocytogenes resulting from exposure to nisin, acidic calcium sulfate, ε-poly-L-lysine, and lauric arginate ester applied singly and in combination. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were the lowest concentrations of single antimicrobials producing inhibition following 24 h incubation at 35 °C. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were the lowest concentrations that decreased populations by ≥3.0 log(10) CFU/mL. Combinations of nisin with acidic calcium sulfate, nisin with lauric arginate ester, and ɛ-poly-L-lysine with acidic calcium sulfate were prepared using a checkerboard assay to determine optimal inhibitory combinations (OICs). Fractional inhibitory concentrations (FICs) were calculated from OICs and were used to create FIC indices (FIC(I)s) and isobolograms to classify combinations as synergistic (FIC(I) < 1.00), additive/indifferent (FIC(I)= 1.00), or antagonistic (FIC(I) > 1.00). MIC values for nisin ranged from 3.13 to 6.25 μg/g with MBC values at 6.25 μg/g for all strains except for Natl. Animal Disease Center (NADC) 2045. MIC values for ε-poly-L-lysine ranged from 6.25 to 12.50 μg/g with MBCs from 12.50 to 25.00 μg/g. Lauric arginate ester at 12.50 μg/g was the MIC and MBC for all strains; 12.50 mL/L was the MIC and MBC for acidic calcium sulfate. Combining nisin with acidic calcium sulfate synergistically inhibited L. monocytogenes; nisin with lauric arginate ester produced additive-type inhibition, while ε-poly-L-lysine with acidic calcium sulfate produced antagonistic-type inhibition. Applying nisin along with acidic calcium sulfate should be further investigated for efficacy on RTE meat surfaces. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. 78 FR 68027 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Revlon Consumer Products Corporation, Subzone 93G...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ..., lauric acid, potassium sorbate, ethylene brassylate, copper gluconate, octinoxate, phenylenediamine..., cellulose, agarose, polymers, PVC, methyl methacrylate, and ethylene terapthalate (duty rate ranges from...

  6. Synthesis of the Fatty Esters of Solketal and Glycerol-Formal: Biobased Specialty Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Perosa, Alvise; Moraschini, Andrea; Selva, Maurizio; Noè, Marco

    2016-01-30

    The caprylic, lauric, palmitic and stearic esters of solketal and glycerol formal were synthesized with high selectivity and in good yields by a solvent-free acid catalyzed procedure. No acetal hydrolysis was observed, notwithstanding the acidic reaction conditions.

  7. Production of medium chain fatty acid rich mustard oil using packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Avery; Roy, Susmita; Mukherjee, Sohini; Ghosh, Mahua

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study was done on the production of different medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) rich mustard oil using a stirred tank batchreactor (STBR) and packed bed bio reactor (PBBR) using three commercially available immobilised lipases viz. Thermomyces lanuginosus, Candida antarctica and Rhizomucor meihe. Three different MCFAs capric, caprylic and lauric acids were incorporated in the mustard oil. Reaction parameters, such as substrate molar ratio, reaction temperature and enzyme concentration were standardized in the STBR and maintained in the PBBR. To provide equal time of residence between the substrate and enzyme in both the reactors for the same amount of substrates, the substrate flow rate in the PBBR was maintainedat 0.27 ml/min. Gas liquid chromatography was used to monitor the incorporation of MCFA in mustard oil. The study showed that the PBBR was more efficient than the STBR in the synthesis of structured lipids with less migration of acyl groups. The physico-chemical parameters of the product along with fatty acid composition in all positions and sn-2 positions were also determined.

  8. [The composition of nonesterified fatty acids in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Novgorodtseva, T P; Ivanov, E M; Antoniuk, M V; Karaman, Iu K; Zhukova, N V; Iurenko, A V

    2008-10-01

    The blood composition of non-etherized fatty acids (NEFA) was studied in 22 patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and 11 healthy individuals. The qualitative NEFA composition presented by 31 components of individual fatty acids was analyzed, by taking into account of glucose-insulin homeostatic changes in MS patients: those without insulin resistance (IR) (Group 1) and those with diagnosed IR (Group 2). MS patients with normal insulinemia were ascertained to have lower levels of lauric, myristic, palmitic, C24:0, C16:0i acids. With a decrease in the relative quantity of saturated NEFA, the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) increased. The proportions of linoleic (C18:2 omega 6) and linolenic (C18:3 omega 3) acids doubled (p < 0.01), arachidonic acid (C20:4 omega 6) was observed to tend to rise. The cumulative FA index sigma omega 6 increased twofold. In Group 1, the integrated index of changes in the FA series (unsaturation index) was 41% higher than that in the control group (p < 0.05). In Group 2, the vector of changes in the relative quantity of NEFA was similar, but impairments were less marked than that in Group 1. The findings suggest that the development of insulin resistance is preceded by impaired blood cell transfer and absorption of NEFA.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in the... fatty acids, and free glycerin that contains at least 90 percent-by-weight glycerides. (b) The...

  10. Identification of light-independent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection through bioguided fractionation of Hypericum perforatum

    PubMed Central

    Maury, Wendy; Price, Jason P; Brindley, Melinda A; Oh, ChoonSeok; Neighbors, Jeffrey D; Wiemer, David F; Wills, Nickolas; Carpenter, Susan; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia; Widrlechner, Mark P; Delate, Kathleen; Kumar, Ganesh; Kraus, George A; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Nikolau, Basil

    2009-01-01

    Background Light-dependent activities against enveloped viruses in St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) extracts have been extensively studied. In contrast, light-independent antiviral activity from this species has not been investigated. Results Here, we identify the light-independent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) by highly purified fractions of chloroform extracts of H. perforatum. Both cytotoxicity and antiviral activity were evident in initial chloroform extracts, but bioassay-guided fractionation produced fractions that inhibited HIV-1 with little to no cytotoxicity. Separation of these two biological activities has not been reported for constituents responsible for the light-dependent antiviral activities. Antiviral activity was associated with more polar subfractions. GC/MS analysis of the two most active subfractions identified 3-hydroxy lauric acid as predominant in one fraction and 3-hydroxy myristic acid as predominant in the other. Synthetic 3-hydroxy lauric acid inhibited HIV infectivity without cytotoxicity, suggesting that this modified fatty acid is likely responsible for observed antiviral activity present in that fraction. As production of 3-hydroxy fatty acids by plants remains controversial, H. perforatum seedlings were grown sterilely and evaluated for presence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids by GC/MS. Small quantities of some 3-hydroxy fatty acids were detected in sterile plants, whereas different 3-hydroxy fatty acids were detected in our chloroform extracts or field-grown material. Conclusion Through bioguided fractionation, we have identified that 3-hydroxy lauric acid found in field grown Hypericum perforatum has anti-HIV activity. This novel anti-HIV activity can be potentially developed into inexpensive therapies, expanding the current arsenal of anti-retroviral agents. PMID:19594941

  11. Fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins in ewe's milk predicted by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Determination of seasonality.

    PubMed

    Revilla, I; Escuredo, O; González-Martín, M I; Palacios, C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin composition and the season of ewe's milk production using NIR spectroscopy. 219 ewe's milk samples from different breeds and feeding regimes were taken each month over one year. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography, and retinol and α-, and γ-tocopherol by liquid chromatography. The results showed that the quantification was more accurate for the milk dried on paper, except for vitamins. Calibration statistical descriptors on milk dried on paper were good for capric, lauric, myristic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids, and acceptable for caprilic, undecanoic, 9c, 11tCLA, ΣCLA, PUFA, ω3, ω6, retinol and α-tocopherol. The equations for the discrimination of seasonality was obtained using the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) algorithm. 93% of winter samples and 89% of summer samples were correctly classified using the NIR spectra of milk dried on paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on muscle fatty acid composition in goats.

    PubMed

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control diet (CD), (2) 80% decanter cake diet (DCD), (3) 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and (4) CD plus 5% palm oil (PO) supplemented diet (CPOD). After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD), infraspinatus (IS) and biceps femoris (BF) were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05) concentration of lauric acid (C12:0) than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were lower (P<0.05) and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was higher (P<0.05) in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat.

  13. Synthesis and release of fatty acids by human trophoblast cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.A.; Haynes, E.B.

    1987-11-01

    In order to determine whether placental cells can synthesize and release fatty acids, trophoblast cells from term human placentas were established in monolayer culture. The cells continued to secrete placental lactogen and progesterone and maintained specific activities of critical enzymes of triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis for 24 to 72 hr in culture. Fatty acid was rapidly synthesized from (/sup 14/C)acetate and released by the cells. Palmitoleic, palmitic, and oleic acids were the major fatty acids synthesized from (/sup 14/C)acetate and released. Small amounts of lauric, myristic, and stearic acids were also identified. (/sup 14/C)acetate was also incorporated into cellular triacylglycerol,more » phospholipid, and cholesterol, but radiolabeled free fatty acid did not accumulate intracellularly. In a pulse-chase experiment, cellular glycerolipids were labeled with (1-/sup 14/C)oleate; trophoblast cells then released /sup 14/C-labeled fatty acid into the media as the cellular content of labeled phospholipid and triacylglycerol decreased without intracellular accumulation of free fatty acid. Twenty percent of the /sup 14/C-label lost from cellular glycerolipid could not be recovered as a chloroform-extractable product, suggesting that some of the hydrolyzed fatty acid had been oxidized. These data indicate that cultured placenta trophoblast cells can release fatty acids that have either been synthesized de novo or that have been hydrolyzed from cellular glycerolipids. Trophoblast cells in monolayer culture should provide an excellent model for molecular studies of placental fatty acid metabolism and release.« less

  14. Psyllium husk fibre supplementation to soybean and coconut oil diets of humans: effect on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion.

    PubMed

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1994-08-01

    The effects of psyllium fibre supplementation to polyunsaturated fatty acid rich soybean oil and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil diets on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion were investigated in healthy humans. The study consisted of four 7-day experimental periods. Participants consumed soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (SO+PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (CO+PF) diets. Laboratory diet provided 30% calories from fat (20% from test oils and 10% from basal diet), 15% calories from protein and 55% calories from carbohydrate. Fat digestibility was significantly lower and faecal fat excretion was significantly higher with SO+PF diet than SO diet and with CO+PF diet than CO diet. Faecal excretion of myristic and lauric acids was not affected by test diets. Percent faecal palmitic acid excretion was significantly higher during psyllium supplementation periods. Higher faecal linoleic acid excretion was observed with soybean oil diets compared with coconut oil diets. Increased faecal fat loss, decreased fat digestibility and increased faecal palmitic acid excretion with psyllium supplementation may partly explain the hypocholesterolaemic action of psyllium fibre.

  15. Controlled release properties of zein-fatty acid blend films for multiple bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Arcan, Iskender; Yemenicioğlu, Ahmet

    2014-08-13

    To develop edible films having controlled release properties for multiple bioactive compounds, hydrophobicity and morphology of zein films were modified by blending zein with oleic (C18:1)Δ⁹, linoleic (C18:2)Δ(9,12), or lauric (C₁₂) acids in the presence of lecithin. The blend zein films showed 2-8.5- and 1.6-2.9-fold lower initial release rates for the model active compounds, lysozyme (LYS) and (+)-catechin (CAT), than the zein control films, respectively. The change of fatty acid chain length affected both CAT and LYS release rates while the change of fatty acid double bond number affected only the CAT release rate. The film morphologies suggested that the blend films owe their controlled release properties mainly to the microspheres formed within their matrix and encapsulation of active compounds. The blend films showed antilisterial activity and antioxidant activity up to 81 μmol Trolox/cm². The controlled release of multiple bioactive compounds from a single film showed the possibility of combining application of active and bioactive packaging technologies and improving not only safety and quality but also health benefits of packed food.

  16. Relationship of the Reported Intakes of Fat and Fatty Acids to Body Weight in US Adults.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-04-28

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categories (1) for the US adult population and, (2) by sociodemographic groups. Reported dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and What We Eat in America (WWEIA) surveys in the years 2005-2012 were analyzed. Overall, we found that the reported intake of carbohydrate, protein, total fat, total saturated fat (as well as long-chain saturated fatty acids 14:0-18:0), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were positively associated with BMI; while lauric acid (a medium-chain saturated fatty acid, 12:0) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (as well as all individual PUFAs) were not associated with BMI. Non-Hispanic black individuals demonstrated a negative association between BMI and energy intake and a positive association between total PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and BMI. Individuals with less than a high school education showed a negative association between BMI and DHA. Mexican-Americans reported intakes with no association between BMI and energy, any macronutrient, or individual fatty acids. These findings support those of experimental studies demonstrating fatty acid-dependent associations between dietary fatty acid composition and body weight. Notably, we observed divergent results for some sociodemographic groups which warrant further investigation.

  17. Effect of additives on isothermal crystallization kinetics and physical characteristics of coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Chaleepa, Kesarin; Szepes, Anikó; Ulrich, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The effect of lauric acid and low-HLB sucrose esters (L-195, S170) on the isothermal crystallization of coconut oil was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The fundamental crystallization parameters, such as induction time of nucleation and crystallization rate, were obtained by using the Gompertz equation. The Gibb's free energy of nucleation was calculated via the Fisher-Turnbull equation based on the equilibrium melting temperature. All additives, investigated in this work, proved to have an inhibition effect on nucleation and crystallization kinetics of coconut oil. Our results revealed that the inhibition effect is related to the dissimilarity of the molecular characteristics between coconut oil and the additives. The equilibrium melting temperature (T(m) degrees ) of the coconut oil-additive mixtures estimated by the Hoffman-Weeks method was decreased with the addition of lauric acid and increased by using sucrose esters as additives. Micrographs showing simultaneous crystallization of coconut oil and lauric acid indicated that strong molecular interaction led to the increase in lamellar thickness resulting in the T(m) degrees depression of coconut oil. The addition of L-195 modified the crystal morphology of coconut oil into large, dense, non-porous crystals without altering the polymorphic occurrence of coconut oil. The enhancement in lamellar thickness and crystal perfection supported the T(m) degrees elevation of coconut oil. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enzymatic Acylation of Anthocyanins Isolated from Alpine Bearberry ( Arctostaphylos alpina) and Lipophilic Properties, Thermostability, and Antioxidant Capacity of the Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Kortesniemi, Maaria; Yang, Baoru; Zheng, Jie

    2018-03-21

    Cyanidin-3- O-galactoside (cy-gal) isolated from alpine bearberry ( Arctostaphylos alpine L.) was enzymatically acylated with saturated fatty acids of different chain lengths with Candida antarctica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin (Novozyme 435). The acylation reaction was optimized by considering the reaction medium, acyl donor, substrate molar ratio, reaction temperature, and reaction time. The highest conversion yield of 73% was obtained by reacting cy-gal with lauric acid (molar ratio of 1:10) in tert-butanol at 60 °C for 72 h. A novel compound was synthesized, which was identified as cyanidin-3- O-(6″-dodecanoyl)galactoside by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Introducing lauric acid into cy-gal significantly improved both the lipophilicity and thermostability and substantially preserved the ultraviolet-visible absorbance and antioxidant properties. The research provides important insight in expanding the application of natural anthocyanins in the cosmetic and food industries.

  19. Crosslinked self-assemblies of lipoid acid-substituted low molecular weight (1800 Da) polyethylenimine as reductive-sensitive non-viral gene vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojiao; Yuan, Zhefan; Yi, Xiaoqing; Zhuo, Renxi; Li, Feng

    2012-10-01

    In this study, amphiphilic polyethylenimine-graft-thioctic acid (PEI-TA) and polyethylenimine-graft-lauric acid (PEI-LA) were synthesized. Both PEI-TA and PEI-LA could self-assemble into micelles. Due to the existence of disulfide-linked rings at the end of hydrophobic moieties, PEI-TA could form stable micelles with disulfide crosslinked cores (PEI-TA-SS). In comparison with the PEI-LA micelle, PEI-TA-SS possessed higher DNA binding ability according to the gel retardation assay and heparin replacement assay. In vitro transfection experiments indicated that PEI-TA-SS showed comparably high transfection efficiency as compared to 25 kDa PEI. More interestingly, the luciferase expression of PEI-TA-SS was superior to that of PEI-LA at low N/P ratio, which might be ascribed to the stronger binding capacity of PEI-TA-SS facilitating the entering of PEI-TA-SS/pDNA complexes into cells.

  20. Relationship of the Reported Intakes of Fat and Fatty Acids to Body Weight in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K; Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categories (1) for the US adult population and, (2) by sociodemographic groups. Reported dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and What We Eat in America (WWEIA) surveys in the years 2005–2012 were analyzed. Overall, we found that the reported intake of carbohydrate, protein, total fat, total saturated fat (as well as long-chain saturated fatty acids 14:0–18:0), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were positively associated with BMI; while lauric acid (a medium-chain saturated fatty acid, 12:0) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (as well as all individual PUFAs) were not associated with BMI. Non-Hispanic black individuals demonstrated a negative association between BMI and energy intake and a positive association between total PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and BMI. Individuals with less than a high school education showed a negative association between BMI and DHA. Mexican-Americans reported intakes with no association between BMI and energy, any macronutrient, or individual fatty acids. These findings support those of experimental studies demonstrating fatty acid-dependent associations between dietary fatty acid composition and body weight. Notably, we observed divergent results for some sociodemographic groups which warrant further investigation. PMID:28452961

  1. Fatty acid composition of ewe milk as affected by solar radiation and high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Sevi, Agostino; Rotunno, Taddeo; Di Roberto, Caterina; Muscio, Antonio

    2002-05-01

    Forty lactating Comisana ewes were either exposed to or protected from solar radiation and fed either in the morning or afternoon during summer in a Mediterranean climate. Individual milk samples were taken on days 7, 21 and 42 of the study period to determine fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Exposure to solar radiation resulted in higher proportions of short-chain and saturated fatty acids in milk, primarily because of increased contents of caproic, capric, lauric, myristic and stearic acids (by 3-18%), and decreased contents of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids (by 2-9%). As a consequence, the long to short chain and the unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios were significantly higher by 4 and 13% respectively in the milk of the protected ewes compared with that of the exposed animals. Provision of shade also led to an increase in the 18:0+18:1 to 16:0 ratio, and to a decrease in the 12:0 + 14:0 + 16:0 fatty acid group, which are regarded as reliable indexes of the nutritional property of dietary fat in reducing cholesterol levels in human plasma. Feeding time had little impact on milk fat. Our findings suggest that high ambient temperature may markedly modify the lipid composition of ewe milk and that provision of shade, but not feeding management, can improve the milk fatty acid profile in dairy sheep raised in hot climates.

  2. Occurrence of 3-MCPD fatty acid esters in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Zelinková, Z; Novotný, O; Schůrek, J; Velísek, J; Hajslová, J; Dolezal, M

    2008-06-01

    A series of twelve breast milk samples were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operated in selected ion monitoring mode for 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD). Whilst none of the samples contained 3-MCPD above the limit of detection of 3 microg kg(-1) milk, all contained high amounts of 3-MCPD esterified with higher fatty acids. The levels of 3-MCPD released by hydrolysis of these esters (bound 3-MCPD) ranged from the limit of detection (300 microg kg(-1), expressed on a fat basis) to 2195 microg kg(-1); with a mean level of bound 3-MCPD of 1014 microg kg(-1), which corresponded to 35.5 microg kg(-1) milk. The presence of bound 3-MCPD was confirmed using orthogonal gas chromatography coupled with high-speed time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis for four randomly selected breast milk samples. Six breast milks collected from one of the nursing mothers 14-76 days after childbirth contained bound 3-MCPD within the range of 328-2078 microg kg(-1) fat (mean 930 microg kg(-1) fat). The calculated bound 3-MCPD content of these samples was within the range of 6 and 19 microg kg(-1) milk (mean of 12 microg kg(-1) milk). The major types of 3-MCPD esters were the symmetric diesters with lauric, palmitic, and oleic acids, and asymmetric diesters with palmitic acid/oleic acid among which 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol 1,2-dioleate prevailed.

  3. Monoglycerides and fatty acids from Ibervillea sonorae root: isolation and hypoglycemic activity.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Galicia, Erica; Calzada, Fernando; Roman-Ramos, Rubén; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J

    2007-03-01

    Eleven monoglycerides (MG), 1-monopalmitin (1), glyceryl 1-monomargarate (2), 1-monostearin (3), glyceryl 1-monononadecylate ( 4), glyceryl 1-monoarachidate (5), glyceryl 1-monobehenate (6), glyceryl 1-monotricosanoate (7), glyceryl 1-monotetracosanoate (8), glyceryl 1-monopentacosanoate (9), glyceryl 1-monohexacosanoate (10) and glyceryl 1-monooctacosanoate (11), together with five fatty acids (FA), lauric acid (12), myristic acid (13), pentadecanoic acid (14), palmitic acid (15) and stearic acid (16) were isolated of the root of IBERVILLEA SONORAE Greene (Cucurbitaceae). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods as well as GC-MS analysis. The hypoglycemic activity of the dichloromethane (DCM) extract, of fractions (F1-F10 and SF1-SF5), of monoglycerides (MG) and of fatty acids (FA) mixtures obtained of the root from I. SONORAE was evaluated in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results showed that by intraperitoneal administration the DCM extract (300 mg/kg), F9 (300 mg/kg) and SF1 (150 mg/kg) significantly reduced glucose levels in both models. For fraction SF1, the hypoglycemic activity was more pronounced than that of tolbutamide (150 mg/kg) used as control. However, neither MG (75 mg/kg) nor FA (75 mg/kg) mixtures isolated from SF1 exhibited a significant hypoglycemic effect. However, when MG and FA were combined in equal proportions (75 mg: 75 mg/kg), their effect was comparable to that of SF1. The observed activity for the DCM extract, F9, SF1 and the MG-FA mixture provides additional support for the popular use of this plant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Mexican traditional medicine.

  4. Intestinal permeability enhancement of levothyroxine sodium by straight chain fatty acids studied in MDCK epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Pabla, Dimple; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh; Zia, Hossein

    2010-08-11

    Levothyroxine sodium (T4), administered orally, is used for the treatment of hypothyroidism. T4 is a narrow therapeutic index drug with highly variable bioavailability (40-80%). The purpose of the present study was to increase the transepithelial transport of T4 using straight chain fatty acids across Madin-Darby Canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. Capric acid (C10), lauric acid (C12) and oleic acid (C18) were studied in molar ratios of 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (T4:fatty acid). Transport of the hydrophilic marker, Lucifer yellow, was also studied. All three fatty acids proved to significantly increase T4 transport and the order of enhancement was to the effect of C12 approximately C18>C10. This Increase in transport was accompanied by reductions in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values, which indicates an opening of tight junctions. Cytotoxic effects of the fatty acids were evaluated by TEER measurements, lactate dehydrogenase release, percent viability and propidium iodide staining of the cells. At the lower molar concentrations of 1:1, the fatty acids did not show any toxicity. However, C12 and C18 when added, to T4:fatty acid molar ratio of 1:2 and 1:3, respectively showed severe toxicity with irreversible damage to the cells. Hence, addition of fatty acids to T4 formulations at low concentrations can significantly improve intestinal permeability of T4 without any toxicity potentially leading to improved bioavailability. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Leukotriene B4 omega-hydroxylase in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Suicidal inactivation by acetylenic fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Shak, S; Reich, N O; Goldstein, I M; Ortiz de Montellano, P R

    1985-10-25

    Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) not only generate and respond to leukotriene B4 (LTB4), but also catabolize this mediator of inflammation rapidly and specifically by omega-oxidation (probably due to the action of a cytochrome P-450 enzyme). To develop pharmacologically useful inhibitors of the LTB4 omega-hydroxylase in human PMN, we devised a general scheme for synthesizing terminal acetylenic fatty acids based on the "acetylenic zipper" reaction. We found that the LTB4 omega-hydroxylase in intact PMN and in PMN sonicates is inactivated in a concentration-dependent fashion by terminal acetylenic analogues of lauric, palmitic, and stearic acids (i.e. 11-dodecynoic, 15-hexadecynoic, and 17-octadecynoic acids). Consistent with a suicidal process, inactivation of the LTB4 omega-hydroxylase requires molecular oxygen and NADPH, is time-dependent, and follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. Inactivation of the omega-hydroxylase by acetylenic fatty acids also is dependent on the terminal acetylenic moiety and the carbon chain length. Saturated fatty acids lacking a terminal acetylenic moiety do not inactivate the omega-hydroxylase. In addition, the two long-chain (C16, C18) acetylenic fatty acids inactivate the omega-hydroxylase at much lower concentrations (less than 5.0 microM) than those required for inactivation by the short-chain (C12) terminal acetylenic fatty acid (100 microM). Potent suicidal inhibitors of the LTB4 omega-hydroxylase in human PMN will help elucidate the roles played by LTB4 and its omega-oxidation products in regulating PMN function and in mediating inflammation.

  6. FY08 Chemical Synthesis for the Self-Decontaminating Coatings Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    These synthesized materials consist of Boltorn hyperbranched polymers that are functionalized with hydantoin, alkyl, and perfluorinated groups. 15...envisioned that completely prevents sorption of chemical agents, enables autonomous decontamination, reduces the volume of cleaning solution...modified with perfluorinated octanoic acid (PFOA), lauric acid, and a hydantoin moiety. HO OH CH3 HO O 3 Figure 2. Synthetic targets 1–3

  7. Synthesis of palm oil fatty acid as foaming agent for firefighting application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivai, M.; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Fitria, R.; Firmansyah, S.; Pradesi, J.

    2017-05-01

    Many factors including natural factor, human carelessness, new land clearance or agricultural burning/act of vandalism and ground fire are suspected as the causes of forest fire. Foam, which cools the fire down, covers the burning material/fuel, and avoids contact between burning materials with oxygen, is an effective material used to fight large-scale fires. For this purpose, surfactant which can facilitate foam formation and inhibit the spread of smoke is required. This study was aimed at producing prototype product of foaming agent from palm oil and its formulation as a fire fighting material. Before the formulation stage, the foaming agent was resulted from saponification process of oleic, lauric, and palmitic acids by using NaOH and KOH alkaline. Foam stability was used as the main indicator of foaming agent. Results showed that potassium palmitate had the highest foam stability of 82% until the 3rd day. The best potassium palmitate concentration was 7%.

  8. Identification of optimum fatty acid extraction methods for two different microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Haematococcus pluvialis for food and biodiesel applications.

    PubMed

    Otero, Paz; Saha, Sushanta Kumar; Gushin, Joanne Mc; Moane, Siobhan; Barron, John; Murray, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Microalgae have the potential to synthesize and accumulate lipids which contain high value fatty acids intended for nutrition and biodiesel applications. Nevertheless, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established and there is not a standard analytical methodology to extract fatty acids from lipid-producing microalgae. In this paper, current lipid extraction procedures employing organic solvents (chloroform/methanol, 2:1 and 1:2, v/v), sodium hypochlorite solution (NaClO), acid-catalysed hot-water extraction and the saponification process [2.5 M KOH/methanol (1:4, v/v)] have been evaluated with two species of microalgae with different types of cell walls. One is a marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and the other a freshwater green microalga, Haematococcus pluvialis. Lipids from all types of extracts were estimated gravimetrically and their fatty acids were quantified by a HPLC equipped with Q-TOF mass spectrometer. Results indicated significant differences both in lipids yield and fatty acids composition. The chloroform and methanol mixture was the most effective extraction solvent for the unsaturated fatty acids such as DPA (C22:05), DHA, (C22:06), EPA (C20:05) and ARA (C20:04). While acid treatments improved the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) yield, especially the short chain SFA, lauric acid (C12:0), whose amount was 64% higher in P. tricornutum and 156% higher in H. pluvialis compared to organic solvent extractions. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  9. Employing metabolic engineered lipolytic microbial platform for 1-alkene one-step conversion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juli; Yu, Haiying; Zhu, Kun

    2018-05-01

    1-Alkenes are traditionally used as basic chemicals with great importance. Biosynthetic 1-alkenes also have the potential to serve as biofuels. In this study, we engineered a Pseudomonas lipolytic microbial platform for 1-alkene production using hydrophobic substrate as sole carbon source. Fatty acid decarboxylase UndA and UndB were cloned and expressed, which successfully produced 1-alkenes. Optimal culturing temperature and the interruption of competitive pathway were proven to be beneficial to 1-alkene synthesis. Chromosomal integration of UndB conferred 177.8 mg/L 1-alkenes (mainly 1-undecene) in lauric acid medium and 128.9 mg/L 1-alkenes (mainly 1-pentadecene) in palm oil medium. Thioesterase expression, adjustments of fatty acid degradation pathway and a second copy of UndB improved 1-alkene titer to 1102.6 mg/L using lauric acid and 778.4 mg/L using palm oil. All in all, this study offers the first demonstration of lipolytic microbial 1-alkene producing platform with highest reported 1-alkene product titer up to date. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular assembly, interfacial rheology and foaming properties of oligofructose fatty acid esters.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Silvia E H J; Schols, Henk A; van der Linden, Erik; Sagis, Leonard M C

    2014-01-01

    Two major types of food-grade surfactants used to stabilize foams are proteins and low molecular weight (LMW) surfactants. Proteins lower the surface tension of interfaces and tend to unfold and stabilize the interface by the formation of a visco-elastic network, which leads to high surface moduli. In contrast, LMW surfactants lower the surface tension more than proteins, but do not form interfaces with a high modulus. Instead, they stabilize the interface through the Gibbs-Marangoni mechanism that relies on rapid diffusion of surfactants, when surface tension gradients develop as a result of deformations of the interface. A molecule than can lower the surface tension considerably, like a LMW surfactant, but also provide the interface with a high modulus, like a protein, would be an excellent foam stabilizer. In this article we will discuss molecules with those properties: oligofructose fatty acid esters, both in pure and mixed systems. First, we will address the synthesis and structural characterization of the esters. Next, we will address self-assembly and rheological properties of air/water interfaces stabilized by the esters. Subsequently, this paper will deal with mixed systems of mono-esters with either di-esters and lauric acid, or proteins. Then, the foaming functionality of the esters is discussed.

  11. Structural Characterization of Myotoxic Ecarpholin S From Echis carinatus Venom

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xingding; Tan, Tien-Chye; Valiyaveettil, S.; Go, Mei Lin; Kini, R. Manjunatha; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Sivaraman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a common toxic component of snake venom, has been implicated in various pharmacological effects. Ecarpholin S, isolated from the venom of the snake Echis carinatus sochureki, is a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) belonging to the Ser49-PLA2 subgroup. It has been characterized as having low enzymatic but potent myotoxic activities. The crystal structures of native ecarpholin S and its complexes with lauric acid, and its inhibitor suramin, were elucidated. This is the first report of the structure of a member of the Ser49-PLA2 subgroup. We also examined interactions of ecarpholin S with phosphatidylglycerol and lauric acid, using surface plasmon resonance, and of suramin with isothermal titration calorimetry. Most Ca2+-dependent PLA2 enzymes have Asp in position 49, which plays a crucial role in Ca2+ binding. The three-dimensional structure of ecarpholin S reveals a unique conformation of the Ca2+-binding loop that is not favorable for Ca2+ coordination. Furthermore, the endogenously bound fatty acid (lauric acid) in the hydrophobic channel may also interrupt the catalytic cycle. These two observations may account for the low enzymatic activity of ecarpholin S, despite full retention of the catalytic machinery. These observations may also be applicable to other non-Asp49-PLA2 enzymes. The interaction of suramin in its complex with ecarpholin S is quite different from that reported for the Lys49-PLA2/suramin complex, where the interfacial recognition face (i-face), C-terminal region, and N-terminal region of ecarpholin S play important roles. This study provides significant structural and functional insights into the myotoxic activity of ecarpholin S and, in general, of non-Asp49-PLA2 enzymes. PMID:18586854

  12. Structural Characterization of Myotoxic Ecarpholin S From Echis carinatus Venom

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Tan, T; Valiyaveettil, S

    2008-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a common toxic component of snake venom, has been implicated in various pharmacological effects. Ecarpholin S, isolated from the venom of the snake Echis carinatus sochureki, is a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) belonging to the Ser49-PLA2 subgroup. It has been characterized as having low enzymatic but potent myotoxic activities. The crystal structures of native ecarpholin S and its complexes with lauric acid, and its inhibitor suramin, were elucidated. This is the first report of the structure of a member of the Ser49-PLA2 subgroup. We also examined interactions of ecarpholin S with phosphatidylglycerol and lauric acid, using surface plasmonmore » resonance, and of suramin with isothermal titration calorimetry. Most Ca2+-dependent PLA2 enzymes have Asp in position 49, which plays a crucial role in Ca2+ binding. The three-dimensional structure of ecarpholin S reveals a unique conformation of the Ca2+-binding loop that is not favorable for Ca2+ coordination. Furthermore, the endogenously bound fatty acid (lauric acid) in the hydrophobic channel may also interrupt the catalytic cycle. These two observations may account for the low enzymatic activity of ecarpholin S, despite full retention of the catalytic machinery. These observations may also be applicable to other non-Asp49-PLA2 enzymes. The interaction of suramin in its complex with ecarpholin S is quite different from that reported for the Lys49-PLA2/suramin complex, where the interfacial recognition face (i-face), C-terminal region, and N-terminal region of ecarpholin S play important roles. This study provides significant structural and functional insights into the myotoxic activity of ecarpholin S and, in general, of non-Asp49-PLA2 enzymes.« less

  13. Application of a novel antimicrobial coating on roast beef for inactivation and inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes during storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The antilisterial efficacy of novel coating solutions made with organic acids, lauric arginate ester, and chitosan was evaluated in a three-stage study on inoculated roast beef for the first time. Ready-to-eat roast beef was specially ordered from the manufacturer. The meat surface was inoculated wi...

  14. A Greener Approach for Measuring Colligative Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Sean M.; Gordon-Wylie, Scott W.

    2005-01-01

    As a first step towards the greening of instructional laboratories, we present a new greener version of a laboratory procedure designed to measure colligative properties. The greener procedure substitutes the nontoxic, noncarcinogenic compounds stearic, myristic, lauric, and palmitic acids for the less benign aromatic compounds p-dichlorobenzene,…

  15. Effects of fatty acids composition and microstructure properties of fats and oils on textural properties of dough and cookie quality.

    PubMed

    Devi, Amita; Khatkar, B S

    2018-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition and microstructure properties of fats and oils on the textural properties of cookie dough and quality attributes of cookies. Fatty acid composition and microstructure properties of six fats and oils (butter, hydrogenated fat, palm oil, coconut oil, groundnut oil, and sunflower oil) were analyzed. Sunflower oil was found to be the most unsaturated oil with 88.39% unsaturated fatty acid content. Coconut oil and palm oil differed from other fats and oils by having an appreciable amount of lauric acid (59.36%) and palmitic acid (42.14%), respectively. Microstructure size of all fats and oils ranged from 1 to 20 μm being the largest for coconut oil and the smallest for palm oil. In palm oil, small rod-shaped and randomly arranged microstructures were observed, whereas sunflower oil and groundnut oil possessed large, scattered ovule shaped microstructures. It was reported that sunflower oil produced the softest dough, the largest cookie spread and the hardest cookie texture, whereas hydrogenated fat produced the stiffest dough, the lowest spread and most tender cookies. Statistical analysis depicted that palmitic acid and oleic acid demonstrated a positive correlation with dough hardness. Linoleic acid exhibited positive link with cookie spread ratio (r = 0.836**) and breaking strength (r = 0.792**). Microstructure size showed a significant positive relationship with dough density (r = 0.792**), cookie density (r = 0.386*), spread ratio (r = 0.312*), and breaking strength (r = 0.303*).

  16. Comparison between the amino acid, fatty acid, mineral and nutritional quality of raw, germinated and fermented African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) flour.

    PubMed

    Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve; Keshinro, Oluremi Olufunke

    2012-04-02

    The most popular form of utilization of African locust bean (ALB) is in its traditional fermentation food condiment (iru/dawadawa), which adds protein to a protein-poor diet and also as medicine. In view of the nutritive values of ALB, the present study therefore aimed at investigating the effect of germination and fermentation on the nutritional quality of ALB flour. The ALB was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The seeds were divided into three portions, and treated as raw African locust bean (RALB), germinated African locust bean (GALB) and fermented African locust bean (FALB) respectively. Each of the samples was milled, sieved and analysed for chemical, functional properties and nutritional qualities using standard methods. Some most important results of the chemical analysis were as follows: protein content range between 33.64 ±0.41 - 41.49 ±1.89 g/100 g, while the energy value was between 442.79 ±2.32 - 457.20 ±2.15 kcal. The P/Ca and Na/K ratio of the RALB were higher than other fl our samples respectively. Total essential amino acid was between 29.960-27.514 mg/100 g. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) was between 1.78-1.87; essential amino acid index 31.43-34.75%; while biological values were 22.56-26.18%. The dominant fatty acid (FA) composition of the samples was linoleic with 33.687%, 31.578% and 28.7% for RALB, GALB and FALB respectively; while the least was lauric acid. The polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio ranges between 0.589-0.718. The antinutrient concentration of fermented flour sample was significantly reduced than other food samples. The present study investigated the effect of germination and fermentation on the nutritional quality of ALB flour. The finding showed that fermentation technique significantly reduced antinutrient concentration and also improved the nutrient composition, particularly amino acid profile of ALB flour.

  17. Evaluation of a novel antimicrobial solution and its potential for control E. coli O157:H7, non-O157:H7 shiga toxin-producing E. coli, Salmononella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes on beef

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial solution made with chitosan, lauric arginate ester, and organic acids on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli cocktails and to test its potential to b...

  18. Broad hexagonal columnar mesophases formation in bioinspired transition-metal complexes of simple fatty acid meta-octaester derivatives of meso-tetraphenyl porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Chen, Keyang; Deng, Yuchen; Chen, Jian; Liu, Chengjie; Cheng, Rongshi; Chen, Dongzhong

    2015-02-23

    A series of meta-substituted fatty acid octaester derivatives and their transition-metal complexes of meso- tetraphenyl porphyrins (TPP-8OOCR, with R = C(n-1)H(2n-1), n = 8, 12, or 16) have been prepared through very simple synthesis protocols. The thermotropic phase behavior and the liquid crystalline (LC) organization structures of the synthesized porphyrin derivatives were systematically investigated by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), and variable-temperature small-angle X-ray scattering/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques. The shorter octanoic acid ester substituted porphyrin (C8-TPP) did not show liquid crystallinity and its metal porphyrins exhibited an uncommon columnar mesophase. The lauric acid octaester (C12-TPP) and the palmitic acid octaester (C16-TPP) series porphyrins generated hexagonal columnar mesophase Colh. Moreover, the metal porphyrins C12-TPPM and C16-TPPM with M = Zn, Cu, or Ni, exhibited well-organized Colh mesophases of broad LC temperature ranges increasing in the order of TPPNiacid octaester porphyrins and their metal complexes very attractive for variant applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of long-chain Fatty acids on the binding of triflupromazine to human serum albumin: a spectrophotometric study.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Keisuke; Takegami, Shigehiko; Tanaka, Rumi; Omran, Ahmed Ahmed; Kitade, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) in the blood binds long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), and the number of bound LCFAs varies from 1 to 7 depending on the physical condition of the body. In this study, the influence of LCFA-HSA binding on drug-HSA binding was studied using triflupromazine (TFZ), a psychotropic phenothiazine drug, in a buffer (0.1 M NaCl, pH 7.40, 37°C) by a second-derivative spectrophotometric method which can suppress the residual background signal effects of HSA observed in the absorption spectra. The examined LCFAs were caprylic acid (CPA), lauric acid (LRA), oleic acid (OLA), and linoleic acid (LNA), respectively. Using the derivative intensity change of TFZ induced by the addition of HSA containing LCFA, the binding mode of TFZ was predicted to be a partition-like nonspecific binding. The binding constant (K M(-1)) showed an increase according to the LCFA content in HSA for LRA, OLA, and LNA up to an LCFA/HSA molar ratio of 3-4. However, at higher ratios the K value decreased, i.e. for OLA and LNA, at an LCFA/HSA ratio of 6-7, the K value decreased to 40% of the value for HSA alone. In contrast, CPA, having the shortest chain length (8 carbons) among the studied LCFAs, induced a 20% decrease in the K value regardless of its content in HSA. Since the pharmacological activity of a drug is closely related to the unbound drug concentration in the blood, the results of the present study are pharmaco-kinetically, pharmacologically, and clinically very important.

  20. Saturated and cis- and trans-unsaturated fatty acids intake in rural and urban Costa Rican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Campos, Hannia; Fernández Rojas, Xinia

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether intake of saturated fatty acids and cis- and trans-unsaturated fatty acids is associated with an urban compared to a rural lifestyle, and whether these associations are responsible for differences in plasma lipid concentrations. Two hundred seventy-five adolescents, aged 12 to 19 years, living in rural and urban areas of San José, Costa Rica, were included in the study. All participants completed three-day food records, provided a fasting blood sample, and carried out a modified Harvard Step Test. Compared to rural, urban adolescents reported higher intakes of energy-adjusted individual and total saturated fatty acids, total n-3, total n-6 (p < 0.05). Compared to rural, urban adolescents had higher intake of 18:1 (3.65 vs. 3.25, p = 0.0001) and 18:2 (0.62 vs. 0.80, p = 0.001) trans fatty acids, as well as lower intake of carbohydrate (p < 0.05). Palm shortening was the main source of saturated fat (32%), and partially hydrogenated soybean oil used for cooking was the main source of n-3 fatty acids (33%), n-6 fatty acids (33%) and trans fatty acids (34%). Compared to rural, urban adolescents had lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure and higher plasma HDL cholesterol concentration (44 vs. 40 mg/dL, p < 0.0001), but were more likely to be sedentary (68% vs. 57%, p < 0.0001). Among environmental factors, higher carbohydrate intake was a significant determinant of a lower HDL cholesterol (beta coeff = -1.45, p = 0.04), while lauric and myristic fatty acids correlated with increased LDL cholesterol (beta coeff = 3.6, 1.7, p < 0.05). A diet containing less carbohydrate and less saturated fatty acids contributes to a more beneficial lipid profile in Costa Rican adolescents, but a trend towards high trans fatty acids intake, particularly in the urban area, is worrisome given the well-known adverse effects of trans fatty acids.

  1. [Study on Chemical Constituents of Fermented Antrodia camphorata Powder].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-su; Chen, Fei; Liu, Xun-hong; Yang, Nian-yun; Ma, Yang; Hou, Ya; Luo, Yi-yuan

    2015-02-01

    To study the chemical constituents of fermented Antrodia camphorata powder. 15 compounds were isolated from Antrodia camphorata by Silica gel column chromatography, ODS column chromatography, gel column chromatography, preparative liquid phase chromatography separation technique, as well as recrystallization. On the basis of their physical and chemical properties and spectral data,their structures were identified as Ferulic acid (1), Inositol (2), β-Sitosterol (3),Vanillin (4),Vanillic acid (5), Butyric acid (6), Daucosterol (7), p-Hydroxycinnamic acid (8), Lauric acid (9), Inosine (10), Uridine (11), Adenine (12), D(+)-Sucrose (13), Arachidic acid (14) and Guanosine (15). Compounds 1, 5, 6 and 8-15 are isolated from fermented powder for the first time.

  2. Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort: associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengxin; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Sluijs, Ivonne

    2018-03-09

    The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients. 37,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort were included in this study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. T2D risks were estimated by Cox regression models adjusted for non-dietary and dietary covariates. 893 incident T2D cases were documented during 10.1-year follow-up. We observed no association between total SFA and T2D risk. Marginally inverse associations were found for lauric acid (HR per 1 SD of energy%, 95% CI 0.92, 0.85-0.99), myristic acid (0.89, 0.79-0.99), margaric acid (0.84, 0.73-0.97), odd-chain SFA (pentadecylic plus margaric acids; 0.88, 0.79-0.99), and cheese derived SFA (0.90, 0.83-0.98). Soft and liquid fats derived SFA was found related to higher T2D risk (1.08, 1.01-1.17). When substituting SFA by proteins, carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly higher risks of T2D were observed (HRs per 1 energy% ranging from 1.05 to 1.15). In this Dutch population, total SFA does not relate to T2D risk. Rather, the association may depend on the types and food sources of SFA. Cheese-derived SFA and individual SFA that are commonly found in cheese, were significantly related to lower T2D risks. We cannot exclude the higher T2D risks found for soft and liquid fats derived SFA and for substituting SFA with other macronutrients are influenced by residual confounding by trans fatty acids or limited intake variation in polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetable protein.

  3. Characterization of an anti-tuberculosis resin glycoside from the prairie medicinal plant Ipomoea leptophylla.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Curtis C; Smalley, Mary K; Manfredi, Kirk P; Kindscher, Kelly; Loring, Hillary; Sheeley, Douglas M

    2003-11-01

    The organic soluble extract from the leaves of the native North American prairie plant Ipomoea leptophylla (big root morning glory) showed in vitro activity against M. tuberculosis. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract resulted in the identification of two new resin glycosides (6, 7). Base-catalyzed hydrolysis of these glycosides gave operculinic acid (1) as the glycosidic acid component as well as trans-cinnamic acid, propanoic acid, and lauric acid. The complete structure elucidation was accomplished through derivatization, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy (TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC, HMBC), and MS/MS experiments on 6 and 7 as well as the permethylated derivative 8.

  4. Fatty acids do not pay the toll: effect of SFA and PUFA on human adipose tissue and mature adipocytes inflammation.

    PubMed

    Murumalla, Ravi Kumar; Gunasekaran, Manoj Kumar; Padhan, Jibesh Kumar; Bencharif, Karima; Gence, Lydie; Festy, Franck; Césari, Maya; Roche, Régis; Hoareau, Laurence

    2012-12-21

    On the basis that high fat diet induces inflammation in adipose tissue, we wanted to test the effect of dietary saturated and polysunsaturated fatty acids on human adipose tissue and adipocytes inflammation. Moreover we wanted to determine if TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in this pathway. Human adipose tissue and adipocytes primary cultures were treated with endotoxin-free BSA conjugated with SFA (lauric acid and palmitic acid--LA and PA) and PUFA (eicosapentaeneic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and oleic acid--EPA, DHA and OA) with or without LPS. Cytokines were then assayed by ELISA (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MCP-1). In order to determine if TLR2 and TLR4 are activated by fatty acid (FA), we used HEK-Blue cells transfected by genes from TLR2 or TLR4 pathways associated with secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter gene. None of the FA tested in HEK-Blue cells were able to activate TLR2 or TLR4, which is concordant with the fact that after FA treatment, adipose tissue and adipocytes cytokines levels remain the same as controls. However, all the PUFA tested: DHA, EPA and to a lesser extent OA down-regulated TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in human adipose tissue and adipocytes cultures. This study first confirms that FA do not activate TLR2 and TLR4. Moreover by using endotoxin-free BSA, both SFA and PUFA tested were not proinflammatory in human adipose tissue and adipocytes model. More interestingly we showed that some PUFA exert an anti-inflammatory action in human adipose tissue and adipocytes model. These results are important since they clarify the relationship between dietary fatty acids and inflammation linked to obesity.

  5. Fatty acids do not pay the toll: effect of SFA and PUFA on human adipose tissue and mature adipocytes inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background On the basis that high fat diet induces inflammation in adipose tissue, we wanted to test the effect of dietary saturated and polysunsaturated fatty acids on human adipose tissue and adipocytes inflammation. Moreover we wanted to determine if TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in this pathway. Methods Human adipose tissue and adipocytes primary cultures were treated with endotoxin-free BSA conjugated with SFA (lauric acid and palmitic acid - LA and PA) and PUFA (eicosapentaeneic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and oleic acid - EPA, DHA and OA) with or without LPS. Cytokines were then assayed by ELISA (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MCP-1). In order to determine if TLR2 and TLR4 are activated by fatty acid (FA), we used HEK-Blue cells transfected by genes from TLR2 or TLR4 pathways associated with secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter gene. Results None of the FA tested in HEK-Blue cells were able to activate TLR2 or TLR4, which is concordant with the fact that after FA treatment, adipose tissue and adipocytes cytokines levels remain the same as controls. However, all the PUFA tested: DHA, EPA and to a lesser extent OA down-regulated TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in human adipose tissue and adipocytes cultures. Conclusions This study first confirms that FA do not activate TLR2 and TLR4. Moreover by using endotoxin-free BSA, both SFA and PUFA tested were not proinflammatory in human adipose tissue and adipocytes model. More interestingly we showed that some PUFA exert an anti-inflammatory action in human adipose tissue and adipocytes model. These results are important since they clarify the relationship between dietary fatty acids and inflammation linked to obesity. PMID:23259689

  6. Form-Stable Phase Change Materials Based on Eutectic Mixture of Tetradecanol and Fatty Acids for Building Energy Storage: Preparation and Performance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jingyu; Lu, Shilei; Kong, Xiangfei; Liu, Shangbao; li, Yiran

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focused on preparation and performance analysis of a series of form-stable phase change materials (FSPCMs), based on eutectic mixtures as phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage and high-density polyethylene (HDPE)-ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) polymer as supporting materials. The PCMs were eutectic mixtures of tetradecanol (TD)–capric acid (CA), TD–lauric acid (LA), and TD–myristic acid (MA), which were rarely explored before. Thermal properties of eutectic mixtures and FSPCMs were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The onset melting/solidification temperatures of form-stable PCMs were 19.13 °C/13.32 °C (FS TD–CA PCM), 24.53 °C/24.92 °C (FS TD–LA PCM), and 33.15 °C/30.72 °C (FS TD–MA PCM), respectively, and latent heats were almost greater than 90 J/g. The surface morphologies and chemical stability of form-stable PCM were surveyed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. The thermal cycling test revealed that the thermal reliability of these three form-stable PCMs was good. Thermal storage/release experiment indicated melting/solidification time was shortened by introducing 10 wt % aluminum powder (AP). It is concluded that these FSPCMs can act as potential building thermal storage materials in terms of their satisfactory thermal properties. PMID:28788358

  7. Form-Stable Phase Change Materials Based on Eutectic Mixture of Tetradecanol and Fatty Acids for Building Energy Storage: Preparation and Performance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingyu; Lu, Shilei; Kong, Xiangfei; Liu, Shangbao; Li, Yiran

    2013-10-22

    This paper is focused on preparation and performance analysis of a series of form-stable phase change materials (FSPCMs), based on eutectic mixtures as phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage and high-density polyethylene (HDPE)-ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) polymer as supporting materials. The PCMs were eutectic mixtures of tetradecanol (TD)-capric acid (CA), TD-lauric acid (LA), and TD-myristic acid (MA), which were rarely explored before. Thermal properties of eutectic mixtures and FSPCMs were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The onset melting/solidification temperatures of form-stable PCMs were 19.13 °C/13.32 °C (FS TD-CA PCM), 24.53 °C/24.92 °C (FS TD-LA PCM), and 33.15 °C/30.72 °C (FS TD-MA PCM), respectively, and latent heats were almost greater than 90 J/g. The surface morphologies and chemical stability of form-stable PCM were surveyed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. The thermal cycling test revealed that the thermal reliability of these three form-stable PCMs was good. Thermal storage/release experiment indicated melting/solidification time was shortened by introducing 10 wt % aluminum powder (AP). It is concluded that these FSPCMs can act as potential building thermal storage materials in terms of their satisfactory thermal properties.

  8. Enrichment, separation, and gas-chromatographic and mass-spectrometric analyses of fission products from irradiated or heated fats, oils, and test substances (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, B.

    1973-01-01

    From international colloquium: the identification of irradiated foodstuffs; Karlsrahe, Germany (24 Oct 1973). Tripalmitate, tristearate, trioleate, oleic acid methyl ester, linoleic acid methyl ester, lauric acid, lard, coconut butter, sunflower oil, and olive oil were irradiated at 0.5-6 Mrad,or heated up to 174 deg C for 24 hr. The fission products were fractionally distilled with silica gel according to polarity into elutropic series. Subsequent identification and quantitative determination were done by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Approximately 28 hydrocarbons and 24 oxygen compounds are dealt with, the typical substances being described individually as regards their identification and quantitative distribution. (GE)

  9. Identification of the mechanism that confers superhydrophobicity on 316L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Escobar, Ana M.; Llorca-Isern, Nuria; Rius-Ayra, Oriol

    This study develops a rapid method to confer superhydrophobicity on 316L stainless steel surfaces with an amphiphilic reagent such as dodecanoic acid. The highest contact angle (approaching 173°) was obtained after forming hierarchical structures with a non-aqueous electrolyte by an electrolytic process. Our goal was to induce superhydrophobicity directly on 316L stainless steel substrates and to establish which molecules cause the effect. The superhydrophobic behaviour is analysed by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The growth mechanism is analysed using FE-SEM, TOF-SIMS and XPS in order to determine the molecules involved inmore » the reaction and the growth. The TOF-SIMS analysis revealed that the Ni{sup 2+} ions react with lauric acid to create an ester on the stainless steel surface. - Highlights: • This study develops a rapid and facile approach to impart superhydrophobicity properties to 316L stainless steel surfaces with an amphiphilic reagent such as dodecanoic acid. Surface character changes from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity. • This process changes the surface character from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity. • The process based on electrolysis of a nickel salt in lauric acid provides superhydrophobic behaviour in 316L stainless steel. • The growth mechanism is proposed as a mode island (Volmert- Weber mode). • TOF-SIMS and XPS provided the identification of the molecules involved in the surface modification reaction on AISI 316L inducing superhydrophobicity.« less

  10. Thermophysical Parameters of Organic PCM Coconut Oil from T-History Method and Its Potential as Thermal Energy Storage in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silalahi, Alfriska O.; Sukmawati, Nissa; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2017-07-01

    The thermophysical parameters of organic phase change material (PCM) of coconut oil (co_oil) have been studied by analyzing the temperature vs time data during liquid-solid phase transition (solidification process) based on T-history method, adopting the original version and its modified form to extract the values of mean specific heats of the solid and liquid co_oil and the heat of fusion related to phase transition of co_oil. We found that the liquid-solid phase transition occurs rather gradually, which might be due to the fact that co_oil consists of many kinds of fatty acids with the largest amount of lauric acid (about 50%), with relatively small supercooling degree. For this reason, the end of phase transition region become smeared out, although the inflection point in the temperature derivative is clearly observed signifying the drastic temperature variation between the phase transition and solid phase periods. The data have led to the values of mean specific heat of the solid and liquid co_oil that are comparable to the pure lauric acid, while the value for heat of fusion is resemble to those of the DSC result, both from references data. The advantage of co_oil as the potential sensible and latent TES for room-temperature conditioning application in Indonesia is discussed in terms of its rather broad working temperature range due to its mixture composition characteristic.

  11. Aquivion Perfluorosulfonic Superacid as an Efficient Pickering Interfacial Catalyst for the Hydrolysis of Triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Fan, Zhaoyu; Hong, Bing; Pera-Titus, Marc

    2017-09-11

    Rational design of the surface properties of heterogeneous catalysts can boost the interfacial activity in biphasic reactions through the generation of Pickering emulsions. This concept, termed Pickering interfacial catalysis (PIC), has shown promising credentials in acid-catalyzed transesterification, ester hydrolysis, acetalization, etherification, and alkylation reactions. PIC has now been applied to the efficient, solvent-free hydrolysis of the triglyceride glyceryl trilaurate to lauric acid, catalyzed by Aquivion perfluorosulfonic superacid at mild conditions (100 °C and ambient pressure). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. CYP77A19 and CYP77A20 characterized from Solanum tuberosum oxidize fatty acids in vitro and partially restore the wild phenotype in an Arabidopsis thaliana cutin mutant.

    PubMed

    Grausem, B; Widemann, E; Verdier, G; Nosbüsch, D; Aubert, Y; Beisson, F; Schreiber, L; Franke, R; Pinot, F

    2014-09-01

    Cutin and suberin represent lipophilic polymers forming plant/environment interfaces in leaves and roots. Despite recent progress in Arabidopsis, there is still a lack on information concerning cutin and suberin synthesis, especially in crops. Based on sequence homology, we isolated two cDNA clones of new cytochrome P450s, CYP77A19 and CYP77A20 from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum). Both enzymes hydroxylated lauric acid (C12:0) on position ω-1 to ω-5. They oxidized fatty acids with chain length ranging from C12 to C18 and catalysed hydroxylation of 16-hydroxypalmitic acid leading to dihydroxypalmitic (DHP) acids, the major C16 cutin and suberin monomers. CYP77A19 also produced epoxides from linoleic acid (C18:2). Exploration of expression pattern in potato by RT-qPCR revealed the presence of transcripts in all tissues tested with the highest expression in the seed compared with leaves. Water stress enhanced their expression level in roots but not in leaves. Application of methyl jasmonate specifically induced CYP77A19 expression. Expression of either gene in the Arabidopsis null mutant cyp77a6-1 defective in flower cutin restored petal cuticular impermeability. Nanoridges were also observed in CYP77A20-expressing lines. However, only very low levels of the major flower cutin monomer 10,16-dihydroxypalmitate and no C18 epoxy monomers were found in the cutin of the complemented lines. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Surface activity of branched alkylamino-compounds and their influence on phase transfer behavior in water solutions of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuiqin; Guo, Suyue; Lin, Zhiyu; Wang, Jun; Ge, Tengjie

    2016-02-01

    Two branched alkylamino-compounds (AAC, R12-0.5G, and R12-1.0G), were synthesized from dodecylamine, methyl acrylate and ethylenediamine. The surface tension measurements on branched alkylamino- compounds demonstrated that surface activity of R12-1.0G is superior to that of R12-0.5G at 25°C. It has been found that the self-assembly of R12-1.0G and lauric acid formed by electrostatic interaction and the self-assembly of the molecule might transfer water-soluble dyes from water to toluene. These AAC might be applied for treating dyes in wastewater. The mass ratio of lauric to toluene, the concentration of R12-1.0G, and hydrophilic groups of dyes affected the transfer rate of the water-soluble dyes. The transfer rates of the watersoluble dyes by R12-1.0G were higher than that of 1.0G polyacrylamide-acrylamide.

  14. Comparison of the fatty acid composition of transitional and mature milk of mothers who delivered healthy full-term babies, preterm babies and full-term small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Bobiński, R; Mikulska, M; Mojska, H; Simon, M

    2013-09-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of breast milk throughout the period of lactation is fairly well understood. What is not known, however, is the FA composition of breast milk at the interface of physiology and pathology of pregnancy. We therefore decided to analyse and compare the differences in the FA composition of transitional and mature milk of mothers who delivered small for gestational age (SGA) neonates born at term; infants delivered at 35-37 weeks of gestation, that is 'late preterm'; and that of mothers who gave birth to appropriate for gestational age neonates (AGA). The FAs were analysed by HPLC equipped with MS detector. We found differences in the percentage share of the studied FA pool regarding levels of capric, lauric and gadoleic acids. Comparing transitional and mature milk, the greatest diversity was seen in the group of mothers of AGA neonates and the least was noted in the group of mothers of SGA neonates. Both 'late prematurity' and reduced neonatal weight of children born at term affect the FA composition of breast milk. Even a small degree of fetal malformation alters the composition of breast milk, which is probably related to the child's needs and condition.

  15. Composition, Antifungal and Antiproliferative Activities of the Hydrodistilled Oils from Leaves and Flower Heads of Pterocephalus nestorianus Nábělek.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Fuad O; Hussain, Faiq H S; Mannucci, Barbara; Lappano, Rosamaria; Tosi, Solveig; Maggiolini, Marcello; Vidari, Giovanni

    2017-07-01

    This article reports the first study of the chemical composition, and antifungal and antiproliferative properties of the volatile extracts obtained by hydrodistillation of the flower heads and leaves of the traditional Kurdish medicinal plant Pterocephalus nestorianus Nábělek, collected in the wild. A total of 55 constituents, 43 of the flower heads' oil (PFO) and 46 of the leaves' oil (PLO), respectively, were identified by GC/MS, constituting 99.68% and 99.04% of the two oils, respectively. The oils were obtained in 0.15% and 0.10% yields (w/w), respectively, on air-dried vegetable material. The prevalent constituents of the PFO were α-terpineol (2.41%), α-linalool (6.42%), 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one (2.59%), myristic acid (24.65%), and lauric acid (50.44%), while the major components of PLO were (E)-hex-2-enal (2.26%), (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol (2.04), myristic acid (34.03%), and lauric acid (50.35%). The two oils showed significant inhibitory and fungicidal activities against the medically important fungi Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.7 to 3.3 mg/ml and minimum fungicidal concentration varying from 1.4 to 6.6 mg/ml. The antiproliferative activity of the two oils was assayed against one normal and six human tumor cell lines. Both oils showed selective cytotoxic activity, with IC 50 values ranging from 1.4 to 3.3 μg/ml. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. Chemical composition of volatiles from Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia prolifera growing on Catalina Island, California.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the cladodes of Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia prolifera growing wild on Santa Catalina Island, California, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Terpenoids were the dominant class of volatiles in O. littoralis, with the two main components being the furanoid forms of cis-linalool oxide (10.8%) and trans-linalool oxide (8.8%). Fatty acid-derived compounds dominated the essential oil of O. ficus-indica with linoleic acid (22.3%), palmitic acid (12.7%), lauric acid (10.5%) and myristic acid (4.2%) as major fatty acids. O. prolifera oil was composed of 46.6% alkanes and the primary hydrocarbon component was heptadecane (19.2%). Sixteen compounds were common to all the three Opuntia species.

  17. Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Rani, Sunita; Khan, Suroor A; Ali, M

    2010-09-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) led to the isolation of three new phytoconstituents, identified as n-hexacos-2-enyl-1,5-olide (altheahexacosanyl lactone), 2beta-hydroxycalamene (altheacalamene) and 5,6-dihydroxycoumarin-5-dodecanoate-6beta-D-glucopyranoside (altheacoumarin glucoside), along with the known phytoconstituents lauric acid, beta-sitosterol and lanosterol. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical reactions.

  18. Oilseed crop with promise

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, D.

    1986-02-01

    Cuphea, a relatively unknown plant outside the scientific community, might someday provide valuable oils for manufacturing soaps, detergents, surfactants, and lubricants, and may have medical, nutritional and dietetic applications as well. Unique properties of oils found in its seed make cuphea a potentially valuable new crop for the USA. Its seeds contain large quantities of medium-chain fatty acids such as lauric acid, which is used in manufacturing soaps and detergents. Other medium-chain fatty acids in cuphea can be used for clinical treatment of rare human ailments associated with fat absorption. New uses for the fatty acids in the seed maymore » be developed and economic conditions may change, making the crop more or less valuable.« less

  19. [Fatty acid composition in breast milk of women from Gdansk and the surrounding district in the course of lactation].

    PubMed

    Martysiak-Żurowska, Dorota; Zóralska, Kinga; Zagierski, Maciej; Szlagtys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the optimal way of feeding infants and young children. For the human infant, very important ingredients of milk are fatty acids (FA), including long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids LC-PUFA, which are necessary for the development of human nervous system. The aim of this study was to determine the content and composition of FA in the fat of human milk in the course of lactation, taking into account the composition of FA in mothers' diet. Milk samples were obtained from 80 puerperal women hospitalized in the Obstetrics Department in Gdansk, on the 2nd, 14th, 30th and 90th day of lactation. The mothers were questionnaired about the health state and diet. Based on food frequency questionnaires the content of individual groups of FA in the daily food portions were estimated. The composition and content of FA were determined by HR-GC technique. In the studied human milk fat about 60 different FA were found. Main FA detected were: oleic, palmitic, linoleic, stearic, myristic and lauric acids. PUFA accounted on average for 13.2% of total FAs. The mean levels of trans FA in the human milk fat was 2.45% of total FAs. Percentage of each group of FA in the diet of the studied population of women averaged to 43.67, 41.74 and 14.59%, for saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FA, respectively. 1. Studies have shown that the biggest differences in fatty acid content in the human milk were observed between 2 and 14 day of lactation. 2. A positive correlation and statistically significant eff ect was observed between the composition of particular groups of FAs in human milk and the breastfeeding women's diet.

  20. A combined microwave pretreatment/solvent extraction process for the production of oil from palm fruit: optimisation, oil quality and effect of prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jason Cx; Chuah, Cheng-Hock; Cheng, Sit-Foon

    2017-04-01

    Conventional palm oil milling involves multiple stages after fruit collection; in particular, oil clarification introduces water into the pressed oil, which results in a large quantity of wastewater. A combined process of microwave pretreatment and solvent extraction to mill crude palm oil, without introducing water or steam, is described. An excellent yield (up to 30%) of oil was obtained with pretreatment in a 42 L, 1000 W and 2450 MHz microwave oven followed by hexane extraction. The optimum conditions (10 min microwave pretreatment and 12 h solvent extraction) yielded an oil with a low free fatty acid content (<1.0%) and an acceptable anisidine value (<3.0 meq kg -1 ). The oil had a fatty acid composition not resembling those of conventional crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil. In the pretreatment, the leached oil had 6.3% lauric acid whereas the solvent extracted oil had only 1.5% lauric acid. Among the factors affecting the oil quality, microwave pretreatment affected the oil quality significantly; however, an optimised duration that would ensure high efficiency in solvent extraction also resulted in ruptured fruitlets, although not to the extent of causing excessive oxidation. In fact, microwave pretreatment should exceed 12 min; after only 15 min, the oil had 1-methylcyclopentanol (12.96%), 1-tetradecanol (9.44%), 1-nonadecene (7.22%), nonanal (7.13%) and 1-tridecene (5.09%), which probably arose from the degradation of fibres. Microwave pretreatment represents an alternative milling process for crude palm oil compared with conventional processes in the omission of wet treatment with steam. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Antifungal Activity of Amphotericin B Conjugated to Nanosized Magnetite in the Treatment of Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Camila Arruda; Garcia, Mônica Pereira; Iocca, Diego Cesar; Rebelo, Luciana Guilherme; Souza, Ana Camila Oliveira; Bocca, Anamélia Lorenzetti; Almeida Santos, Maria de Fátima Menezes; Morais, Paulo Cesar; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on in vitro and in vivo tests that sought to assess the antifungal activity of a newly developed magnetic carrier system comprising amphotericin B loaded onto the surface of pre-coated (with a double-layer of lauric acid) magnetite nanoparticles. The in vitro tests compared two drugs; i.e., this newly developed form and free amphotericin B. We found that this nanocomplex exhibited antifungal activity without cytotoxicity to human urinary cells and with low cytotoxicity to peritoneal macrophages. We also evaluated the efficacy of the nanocomplex in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. BALB/c mice were intratracheally infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and treated with the compound for 30 or 60 days beginning the day after infection. The newly developed amphotericin B coupled with magnetic nanoparticles was effective against experimental paracoccidioidomycosis, and it did not induce clinical, biochemical or histopathological alterations. The nanocomplex also did not induce genotoxic effects in bone marrow cells. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that amphotericin B coupled to magnetic nanoparticles and stabilized with bilayer lauric acid is a promising nanotool for the treatment of the experimental paracoccidioidomycosis because it exhibited antifungal activity that was similar to that of free amphotericin B, did not induce adverse effects in therapeutic doses and allowed for a reduction in the number of applications. PMID:27303789

  2. Synthetic α-mangostin dilaurate strongly suppresses wide-spectrum organ metastasis in a mouse model of mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masa-Aki; Hamaoka, Hitomi; Morimoto, Junji; Kanayama, Tadashi; Maemura, Kentaro; Ito, Yuko; Iinuma, Munekazu; Kondo, Yoichi

    2018-03-30

    We previously reported that, in a mouse model of mammary cancer, α-mangostin alone exhibits anti-metastatic properties. To enhance this anti-metastatic effect, we examined the efficacy of synthetic α-mangostin dilaurate (MGD), prepared by adding lauric acid to α-mangostin, in the same experimental system wherein mice bearing mammary tumors are exposed to dietary MGD at 0, 2000 and 4000 ppm. Lauric acid has a high propensity for lymphatic absorption, which is the most common pathway of initial dissemination of many solid malignancies. Both mammary tumor volumes and wide-spectrum organ metastasis were markedly reduced at 2000 and 4000 ppm: furthermore, survival in the 4000-ppm group was significantly greater than in control mice. Apoptosis in mammary carcinomas was also significantly increased in the 4000-ppm group, whereas blood microvessel density and lymphatic vessel invasion were markedly reduced. In real-time PCR analyses of tumor samples, increased p21 and decreased Pcna expression were observed with 4000 ppm but values were not statistically significant when compared to expression in control tumors. However, exposure to 4000 ppm significantly decreased expression of phospho-Akt (Ser473/Thr308) as compared to the control, indicating a role in the anti-tumorigenic effects of MGD. These findings suggest that MGD may be useful for adjuvant therapy and chemoprevention and that conjugated medium-chain fatty acids may enhance the efficacy of certain chemotherapeutic agents. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  3. Effect of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis - A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Peedikayil, Faizal C; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Narayanan, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Oil pulling or oil swishing therapy is a traditional procedure in which the practitioners rinse or swish oil in their mouth. It is supposed to cure oral and systemic diseases but the evidence is minimal. Oil pulling with sesame oil and sunflower oil was found to reduce plaque related gingivitis. Coconut oil is an easily available edible oil. It is unique because it contains predominantly medium chain fatty acids of which 45-50 percent is lauric acid. Lauric acid has proven anti inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. No studies have been done on the benefits of oil pulling using coconut oil to date. So a pilot study was planned to assess the effect of coconut oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coconut oil pulling/oil swishing on plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. A prospective interventional study was carried out. 60 age matched adolescent boys and girls in the age-group of 16-18 years with plaque induced gingivitis were included in the study and oil pulling was included in their oral hygiene routine. The study period was 30 days. Plaque and gingival indices of the subjects were assessed at baseline days 1,7,15 and 30. The data was analyzed using paired t test. A statistically significant decrease in the plaque and gingival indices was noticed from day 7 and the scores continued to decrease during the period of study. Oil pulling using coconut oil could be an effective adjuvant procedure in decreasing plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis.

  4. Synthesis and in vitro transfection efficiency of spermine-based cationic lipids with different central core structures and lipophilic tails.

    PubMed

    Niyomtham, Nattisa; Apiratikul, Nuttapon; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Opanasopit, Praneet; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek

    2015-02-01

    Twelve spermine-based cationic lipids with four different central core structures (di(oxyethyl)amino, di(oxyethyl)amino carboxy, 3-amino-1,2-dioxypropyl and 2-amino-1,3-dioxypropyl) and three hydrophobic tails (lauric acid, myristic acid and palmitic acid) were synthesized. The liposomes containing lipids and DOPE showed moderate to good in vitro DNA delivery into HeLa cells. GFP expression experiments revealed that liposomes composed of lipids with 3-amino-1,2-dioxypropyl as a central core structure exhibited highest transfection efficiency under serum-free condition. Whereas, lipid with 2-amino-1,3-dioxypropyl core structure showed highest transfection under 10% serum condition. Moreover, the liposomes and lipoplexes composted of these cationic lipids exhibited low cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Composition and antimicrobial activity of fatty acids detected in the hygroscopic secretion collected from the secretory setae of larvae of the biting midge Forcipomyia nigra (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Aleksandra; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Stepnowski, Piotr; Boros-Majewska, Joanna; Gabriel, Iwona; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gołębiowski, Marek

    2012-09-01

    The hygroscopic secretion produced by the secretory setae of terrestrial larvae of the biting midge Forcipomyia nigra (Winnertz) was analysed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The viscous secretion is stored at the top of each seta and absorbs water from moist air. GC-MS analyses (four independent tests) showed that the secretion contained 12 free fatty acids, the most abundant of which were oleic (18:1), palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1) and linoleic (18:2). Other acids identified were valeric (5:0), enanthic (7:0), caprylic (8:0), pelargonic (9:0), capric (10:0), lauric (12:0), myristic (14:0) and stearic (18:0). Two other compounds, glycerol and pyroglutamic acid, were also found. The antibacterial activity of the fatty acids and pyroglutamic acid was tested using the agar disc diffusion method and targeted Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram negative bacterial strains (Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens). The antifungal activity was tested by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of examined compounds. Fatty acids were tested against enthomopathogenic fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Lecanicillium lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana (Tve-N39), Beauveria bassiana (Dv-1/07)). The most effective acids against bacterial and fungal growth were C(9:0), C(10:0) and C(16:1), whereas C(14:0), C(16:0,) C(18:0) and C(18:1) demonstrated rather poor antifungal activity and did not inhibit the growth of bacteria. The antimicrobial assay investigated mixtures of fatty and pyroglutamic acids (corresponding to the results of each GC-MS test): they were found to be active against almost all the bacteria except P. fluorescens and also demonstrated certain fungistatic activity against enthomopathogenic fungi. The hygroscopic secretion facilitates cuticular respiration and plays an important role in the

  6. Controlled production of camembert-type cheeses: part III role of the ripening microflora on free fatty acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Leclercq-Perlat, Marie-Noëlle; Corrieu, Georges; Spinnler, Henry-Eric

    2007-05-01

    Phenomena generating FFAs, important flavour precursors, are significant in cheese ripening. In Camembert-like cheeses, it was intended to establish the relationships between the dynamics of FFA concentrations changes and the succession of ripening microflora during ripening. Experimental Camembert-type cheeses were prepared in duplicate from pasteurised milk inoculated with Kluyveromyces lactis, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum under aseptic conditions. For each cheese and each cheesy medium, concentrations of FFAs with odd-numbered carbons, except for 9:0 and 13:0, did not change over time. For long-chain FFAs, concentrations varied with the given cheese part (rind or core). K. lactis produced only short or medium-chain FFAs during its growth and had a minor influence on caproic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acids in comparison with G. candidum, the most lipolytic of the strains used here. It generated all short or medium-chain FFAs (4:0-12:0) during its exponential and slowdown growth periods and only long-chain ones (14:0-18:0) during its stationary phase. Pen. camemberti produced more long-chain FFAs (14:0-18:0) during its sporulation. Brev. aurantiacum did not generate any FFAs. The evidence of links between specific FFAs and the growth of a given microorganism is shown.

  7. Chamaerops humilis L. var. argentea André date palm seed oil: a potential dietetic plant product.

    PubMed

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Mokbli, Sadok; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2014-04-01

    Chamaerops humilis L. var. argentea André (C. humilis) date palm seeds are an underutilized source of vegetable oil, and no studies describing their physicochemical characteristics to indicate the potential uses of this seed or seed oil have been reported. The oil content of the seeds is about 10%, mainly composed of oleic acid (38.71%), lauric acid (21.27%), linoleic acid (15.15%), palmitic acid (9.96%), and stearic acid (7.17%). The tocol (tocopherols and tocotrienols) content is 74 mg/100 g, with δ-tocotrienol as the major contributor (31.91%), followed by α-tocotrienol (29.37%), γ-tocopherol (20.16%), and γ-tocotrienol (11.86%). Furthermore, this oil shows high thermal stability. The differential scanning calorimetery curves revealed that the melting and crystallization points are 9.33 °C and -15.23 °C, respectively. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Effect of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis — A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Peedikayil, Faizal C.; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Narayanan, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oil pulling or oil swishing therapy is a traditional procedure in which the practitioners rinse or swish oil in their mouth. It is supposed to cure oral and systemic diseases but the evidence is minimal. Oil pulling with sesame oil and sunflower oil was found to reduce plaque related gingivitis. Coconut oil is an easily available edible oil. It is unique because it contains predominantly medium chain fatty acids of which 45-50 percent is lauric acid. Lauric acid has proven anti inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. No studies have been done on the benefits of oil pulling using coconut oil to date. So a pilot study was planned to assess the effect of coconut oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coconut oil pulling/oil swishing on plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. A prospective interventional study was carried out. 60 age matched adolescent boys and girls in the age-group of 16-18 years with plaque induced gingivitis were included in the study and oil pulling was included in their oral hygiene routine. The study period was 30 days. Plaque and gingival indices of the subjects were assessed at baseline days 1,7,15 and 30. The data was analyzed using paired t test. Results: A statistically significant decrease in the plaque and gingival indices was noticed from day 7 and the scores continued to decrease during the period of study. Conclusion: Oil pulling using coconut oil could be an effective adjuvant procedure in decreasing plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. PMID:25838632

  9. Structure analysis of aqueous ferrofluids at interface with silicon: neutron reflectometry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gapon, I. V.; Petrenko, V. I.; Bulavin, L. A.; Balasoiu, M.; Kubovcikova, M.; Zavisova, V.; Koneracka, M.; Kopcansky, P.; Chiriac, H.; Avdeev, M. V.

    2017-05-01

    Adsorption of nanoparticles from aqueous ferrofluids (FFs) on solid surface (crystalline silicon) was studied by neutron reflectometry (NR). Two kinds of FFs were considered. First kind was heavy water-based ferrofluids with magnetite nanoparticles coated by double layer of sodium oleate. Second one FF was cobalt ferrite nanoparticles stabilized by lauric acid/sodium n-dodecylsulphate layer and dispersed in water. It was obtained only a single adsorption layer for two types of ferrofluids. The impact of the magnetic nanoparticles concentration and geometry was considered in frame of the adsorption characteristic of FFs.

  10. The Effects of 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid Identified from Bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) Shoots on Kv1.4 Channel

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad, Fatin H.; Wong, Jia Hui; Mohamad, Habsah; Ismail, Abdul Hadi; Mohamed Yusoff, Abdul Aziz; Osman, Hasnah; Wong, Kok Tong; Idris, Zamzuri; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2018-01-01

    Background Bamboo shoot has been used as a treatment for epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine for generations to treat neuronal disorders such as convulsive, dizziness and headaches. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-hba) is a non-flavonoid phenol found abundantly in Dendrocalamus asper shoots (bamboo), fruits (strawberries and apples) and flowers. Kv1.4 is a rapidly inactivating Shaker-related member of the voltage-gated potassium channels with two inactivation mechanisms; the fast N-type and slow C-type. It plays vital roles in repolarisation, hyperpolarisation and signaling the restoration of resting membrane potential through the regulation of the movement of K+ across the cellular membrane. Methods Chemical compounds from Dendrocalamus asper bamboo shoots were purified and identified as major palmitic acids mixed with other minor fatty acids, palmitic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, lauric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and cholest-4-ene-3-one. The response of synthetic 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was tested on Kv1.4 potassium channel which was injected into viable oocytes that was extracted from Xenopus laevis. The current were detected by the two-microelectrode voltage clamp, holding potential starting from −80 mV with 20 mV step-up until +80 mV. Readings of treatments with 0.1% DMSO, 4-hba concentrations and K channel blockers were taken at +60 mV. The ratio of tail/peak amplitude is the index of the activity of the Kv1.4 channels with n ≥ 6 (number of oocytes tested). The decreases of the ratios of five different concentrations (1 μM, 10 μM, 100 μM, 1 mM and 2.5 mM) were compared with 0.1% DMSO as the control. Results All concentration showed statistically significant results with P < 0.05 except for 100 μM. The normalised current of the 4-hba concentrations were compared with potassium channel blockers (TEA and 4-AP) and all groups showed statistically significant results. This study also showed that time taken for each concentration to affect Kv1.4 does not play

  11. Erythorbyl laurate as a potential food additive with multi-functionalities: Interfacial characteristics and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Min Joo; Jo, Su-Kyung; Choi, Seung Jun; Lee, JaeHwan; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2017-01-15

    The interfacial characteristics and antioxidant activities of erythorbyl laurate were investigated to provide information on practical applications as a multi-functional food additive. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of erythorbyl laurate was 0.101mM and its foam stability was three times (half-life 24.33±0.94h) higher than that of Tween 20 (8.00±1.63h). In free radical scavenging assay, the negligible decrease in EC50 of erythorbyl laurate compared to erythorbic acid manifested that C-5 selective esterification of erythorbic acid with an acyl group (lauric acid) did not reduce the inherent antioxidant activity of the donor (erythorbic acid). Erythorbyl laurate formed lipid peroxides slower (i.e. retarded oxidation) in an emulsion system than did erythorbic acid. The localization of erythorbyl laurate as an emulsifier allowed the antioxidant molecules to be concentrated at the oil-water interface where oxidation is prevalent, which led to more effective retardation of lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical synthesis and NMR characterization of structured polyunsaturated triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Fauconnot, Laëtitia; Robert, Fabien; Villard, Renaud; Dionisi, Fabiola

    2006-02-01

    The chemical synthesis of pure triacylglycerol (TAG) regioisomers, that contain long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid (AA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and saturated fatty acids, such as lauric acid (La) or palmitic acid (P), at defined positions, is described. A single step methodology using (benzotriazol-1-yloxy)-tripyrrolidinophosphonium hexafluorophosphate (PyBOP), an activator of carboxyl group commonly used in peptide synthesis and occasionally used in carboxylic acid esterification, has been developed for structured TAG synthesis. Identification of the fatty acyl chains for each TAG species was confirmed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) and fatty acid positional distribution was determined by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra. The generic described procedures can be applied to a large variety of substrates and was used for the production of specific triacylglycerols of defined molecular structures, with high regioisomeric purity. Combination of MS and NMR was shown to be an efficient tool for structural analysis of TAG. In particular, some NMR signals were demonstrated to be regioisomer specific, allowing rapid positional analysis of LC-PUFA containing TAG.

  13. Self-assembly and bilayer-micelle transition of fatty acids studied by replica-exchange constant pH molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Brian H.; Koenig, Peter H.; Shen, Jana K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent interest in the development of surfactant-based nano delivery systems targeting tumor sites has sparked our curiosity to understand the detailed mechanism of the self-assembly and phase transitions of pH-sensitive surfactants. Towards this goal we applied a state-of-the-art simulation technique, continuous constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) with the hybrid-solvent scheme and pH-based replica-exchange protocol, to study de novo self-assembly of 30 and 40 lauric acids, a simple model titratable surfactant. We observed the formation of a gel-state bilayer at low and intermediate pH and a spherical micelle at high pH, with the phase transition starting at 20–30% ionization and completing at 50%. The degree of cooperativity for the transition increases from the 30-mer to the 40-mer. The calculated apparent or bulk pKa value is 7.0 for the 30-mer and 7.5 for the 40-mer. Congruent with experiment, these data demonstrate that CpHMD is capable of accurately modeling large conformational transitions of surfactant systems while allowing simultaneous proton titration of constituent molecules. We suggest that CpHMD simulations may become a useful tool to aid in the design and development of pH-sensitive nanocarriers for a variety of biomedical and technological applications. PMID:24215478

  14. Biodiesel production from municipal secondary sludge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Ghosh, Pooja; Khosla, Khushboo; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of biodiesel production from freeze dried sewage sludge was studied and its yield was enhanced by optimization of the in situ transesterification conditions (temperature, catalyst and concentration of sludge solids). Optimized conditions (45°C, 5% catalyst and 0.16g/mL sludge solids) resulted in a 20.76±0.04% biodiesel yield. The purity of biodiesel was ascertained by GC-MS, FT-IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectroscopy. The biodiesel profile obtained revealed the predominance of methyl esters of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic, myristic, stearic, lauric, palmitoleic and linoleic acids indicating potential use of sludge as a biodiesel feedstock. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional reconstitution of Arabidopsis thaliana plant uncoupling mitochondrial protein (AtPUMP1) expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Borecký, J; Maia, I G; Costa, A D; Jezek, P; Chaimovich, H; de Andrade, P B; Vercesi, A E; Arruda, P

    2001-09-14

    The Arabidopsis thaliana uncoupling protein (UCP) gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and isolated protein reconstituted into liposomes. Linoleic acid-induced H+ fluxes were sensitive to purine nucleotide inhibition with an apparent K(i) (in mM) of 0.8 (GDP), 0.85 (ATP), 0.98 (GTP), and 1.41 (ADP); the inhibition was pH-dependent. Kinetics of AtPUMP1-mediated H+ fluxes were determined for lauric, myristic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. Properties of recombinant AtPUMP1 indicate that it represents a plant counterpart of animal UCP2 or UCP3. This work brings the functional and genetic approaches together for the first time, providing strong support that AtPUMP1 is truly an UCP.

  16. Environmentally evaluated HPLC-ELSD method to monitor enzymatic synthesis of a non-ionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Yasser; Akerman, Cecilia Orellana; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2014-01-01

    N-Lauroyl-N-methylglucamide is a biodegradable surfactant derived from renewable resources. In an earlier study, we presented an enzymatic solvent-free method for synthesis of this compound. In the present report, the HPLC method developed to follow the reaction between lauric acid/methyl laurate and N-methyl glucamine (MEG) and its environmental assessment are described. Use of ultraviolet (UV) absorption or refractive index (RI) detectors did not allow the detection of N-methyl glucamine (MEG). With Evaporative light scattering detector ELSD, it was possible to apply a gradient elution, and detect MEG with a limit of detection, LOD = 0.12 μg. A good separation of the peaks: MEG, lauric acid, product (amide) and by-product (amide-ester) was achieved with the gradient program with a run time of 40 min. The setting of ELSD detector was optimized using methyl laurate as the analyte. LC-MS/MS was used to confirm the amide and amide-ester peaks. We evaluated the greenness of the developed method using the freely available software HPLC-Environmental Assessment Tool (HPLC-EAT) and the method got a scoring of 73 HPLC-EAT units, implying that the analytical procedure was more environmentally benign compared to some other methods reported in literature whose HPLC-EAT values scored up to 182. Use of ELSD detector allowed the detection and quantification of the substrates and the reaction products of enzymatic synthesis of the surfactant, N-lauroyl-N-methylglucamide. The developed HPLC method has acceptable environmental profile based on HPLC-EAT evaluation.

  17. Environmentally evaluated HPLC-ELSD method to monitor enzymatic synthesis of a non-ionic surfactant

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background N-Lauroyl-N-methylglucamide is a biodegradable surfactant derived from renewable resources. In an earlier study, we presented an enzymatic solvent-free method for synthesis of this compound. In the present report, the HPLC method developed to follow the reaction between lauric acid/methyl laurate and N-methyl glucamine (MEG) and its environmental assessment are described. Results Use of ultraviolet (UV) absorption or refractive index (RI) detectors did not allow the detection of N-methyl glucamine (MEG). With Evaporative light scattering detector ELSD, it was possible to apply a gradient elution, and detect MEG with a limit of detection, LOD = 0.12 μg. A good separation of the peaks: MEG, lauric acid, product (amide) and by-product (amide-ester) was achieved with the gradient program with a run time of 40 min. The setting of ELSD detector was optimized using methyl laurate as the analyte. LC-MS/MS was used to confirm the amide and amide-ester peaks. We evaluated the greenness of the developed method using the freely available software HPLC-Environmental Assessment Tool (HPLC-EAT) and the method got a scoring of 73 HPLC-EAT units, implying that the analytical procedure was more environmentally benign compared to some other methods reported in literature whose HPLC-EAT values scored up to 182. Conclusion Use of ELSD detector allowed the detection and quantification of the substrates and the reaction products of enzymatic synthesis of the surfactant, N-lauroyl-N-methylglucamide. The developed HPLC method has acceptable environmental profile based on HPLC-EAT evaluation. PMID:24914404

  18. Control of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in plants. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-31

    Seeds of most species of the Umbelliferae (Apiaciae), Araliaceae, and Garryaceae families are characterized by their high content of the unusual C{sub 18} monounsaturated fatty acid petroselinic acid (18:l{Delta}{sup 6cis}). Prior to a recent report of this lab, little was known of the biosynthetic origin of the cis{Delta}{sup 6} double bond of petroselinic acid. Such knowledge may be of both biochemical and biotechnological significance. Because petroselinic acid is potentially the product of a novel desaturase, information regarding its synthesis may contribute to an understanding of fatty acid desaturation mechanisms in plants. Through chemical cleavage at its double bond, petroselinic acidmore » can be used as a precursor of lauric acid (12:0), a component of detergents and surfactants, and adipic acid (6:0 dicarboxylic), the monomeric component of nylon 6,6. Therefore, the development of an agronomic source of an oil rich in petroselinic acid is of biotechnological interest. As such, studies of petroselinic acid biosynthesis may provide basic information required for any attempt to genetically engineer the production and accumulation of this fatty acid in an existing oilseed.« less

  19. Control of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-31

    Seeds of most species of the Umbelliferae (Apiaciae), Araliaceae, and Garryaceae families are characterized by their high content of the unusual C[sub 18] monounsaturated fatty acid petroselinic acid (18:l[Delta][sup 6cis]). Prior to a recent report of this lab, little was known of the biosynthetic origin of the cis[Delta][sup 6] double bond of petroselinic acid. Such knowledge may be of both biochemical and biotechnological significance. Because petroselinic acid is potentially the product of a novel desaturase, information regarding its synthesis may contribute to an understanding of fatty acid desaturation mechanisms in plants. Through chemical cleavage at its double bond, petroselinic acidmore » can be used as a precursor of lauric acid (12:0), a component of detergents and surfactants, and adipic acid (6:0 dicarboxylic), the monomeric component of nylon 6,6. Therefore, the development of an agronomic source of an oil rich in petroselinic acid is of biotechnological interest. As such, studies of petroselinic acid biosynthesis may provide basic information required for any attempt to genetically engineer the production and accumulation of this fatty acid in an existing oilseed.« less

  20. Stimulation of insulin secretion by long-chain free fatty acids. A direct pancreatic effect.

    PubMed

    Crespin, S R; Greenough, W B; Steinberg, D

    1973-08-01

    A continuous-flow centrifuge was used to infuse sodium salts of oleic, linoleic, lauric, or palmitic acid into the pancreatic artery of anesthetized dogs. In these regional perfusion studies there was no increase in FFA levels in the general circulation. Elevation of pancreatic FFA levels produced an immediate increase in pancreatic venous immunoreactive insulin (IRI). After 10 min of FFA infusion. IRI levels declined somewhat from the initial peak response but soon rose again to high levels which were then sustained until the infusion was terminated. All four long-chain FFA tested produced a similar biphasic IRI response. Clearcut increases in IRI were associated with absolute FFA levels (measured in pancreaticoduodenal venous plasma) as low as 0.6-0.8 mueq/ml and with increments over basal levels of as little as 0.4-0.5 mueq/ml. At higher levels of FFA, absolute IRI levels in the pancreatic venous effluent exceeded 1,000 muU/ml in some experiments and 5- to 10-fold increases over basal values were observed. These studies indicate that long-chain FFA, in physiological concentrations, can markedly stimulate insulin secretion by a direct effect on the pancreas. The results lend support to the concept of insulin as a hormone that is importantly involved in regulating the metabolism of all three principal classes of metabolic substrates and whose release is in turn regulated by all of them. The relative importance and precise nature of its physiologic role in the regulation of lipolysis, lipid deposition, and ketone body formation remains to be established.

  1. Characterization of two acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases from developing Cuphea seeds specific for medium-chain- and oleoyl-acyl carrier protein.

    PubMed

    Dörmann, P; Spener, F; Ohlrogge, J B

    1993-03-01

    Two acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases were partially purified from developing seeds of Cuphea lanceolata Ait., a plant with decanoic acid-rich triacylglycerols. The two enzymes differ markedly in their substrate specificity. One is specific for medium-chain acyl-ACPs, the other one for oleoyl-ACP. In addition, these enzymes are distinct with regard to molecular weight, pH optimum and sensitivity to salt. The thioesterases could be separated by Mono Q chromatography or gel filtration. The medium-chain acyl-ACP thioesterase and oleoyl-ACP thioesterase were purified from a crude extract 29- and 180-fold, respectively. In Cuphea wrightii A. Gray, which predominantly contains decanoic a nd lauric acid in the seeds, two different thioesterases were also found with a similar substrate specificity as in Cuphea lanceolata.

  2. Impact of combined sodium chloride and saturated long-chain fatty acid challenge on the differentiation of T helper cells in neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Anna; Schliep, Anne; Jörg, Stefanie; Haghikia, Aiden; Gold, Ralf; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Müller, Dominik N; Linker, Ralf A

    2017-09-12

    There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last decades which is most likely driven by a change in environmental factors. Here, growing evidence suggests that ingredients of a Western diet like high intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) or saturated fatty acids may impact systemic immune responses, thus increasing disease susceptibility. Recently, we have shown that high dietary salt or long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intake indeed aggravates T helper (Th) cell responses and neuroinflammation. Naïve CD4 + T cells were treated with an excess of 40 mM NaCl and/or 250 μM lauric acid (LA) in vitro to analyze effects on Th cell differentiation, cytokine secretion, and gene expression. We employed ex vivo analyses of the model disease murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to investigate whether salt and LCFA may affect disease severity and T cell activation in vivo. LCFA, like LA, together with NaCl enhance the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine and gene expression in vitro. In cell culture, we observed an additive effect of LA and hypertonic extracellular NaCl (NaCl + LA) in Th17 differentiation assays as well as on IL-17, GM-CSF, and IL-2 gene expression. In contrast, NaCl + LA reduced Th2 frequencies. We employed EAE as a model of Th1/Th17 cell-mediated autoimmunity and show that the combination of a NaCl- and LA-rich diet aggravated the disease course and increased T cell infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS) to the same extent as dietary NaCl. Our findings demonstrate a partially additive effect of NaCl and LA on Th cell polarization in vitro and on Th cell responses in autoimmune neuroinflammation. These data may help to better understand the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases such as MS.

  3. N-Lauroylation during the Expression of Recombinant N-Myristoylated Proteins: Implications and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Andrea Gabriele; Le Roux, Anabel-Lise; Mateos, Borja; Díaz-Lobo, Mireia; Storch, Barbara; Breuker, Kathrin; Konrat, Robert; Pons, Miquel; Coudevylle, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Incorporation of myristic acid onto the N terminus of a protein is a crucial modification that promotes membrane binding and correct localization of important components of signaling pathways. Recombinant expression of N-myristoylated proteins in Escherichia coli can be achieved by co-expressing yeast N-myristoyltransferase and supplementing the growth medium with myristic acid. However, undesired incorporation of the 12-carbon fatty acid lauric acid can also occur (leading to heterogeneous samples), especially when the available carbon sources are scarce, as it is the case in minimal medium for the expression of isotopically enriched samples. By applying this method to the brain acid soluble protein 1 and the 1-185 N-terminal region of c-Src, we show the significant, and protein-specific, differences in the membrane binding properties of lauroylated and myristoylated forms. We also present a robust strategy for obtaining lauryl-free samples of myristoylated proteins in both rich and minimal media. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  4. Nutritional and technological characteristics of olive (Olea europea L.) fruit and oil: two varieties growing in two different locations of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cevat; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2009-08-01

    Olea europea L. fruits were evaluated for weight, moisture, ash, crude protein, crude oil, energy, crude fibre, roundness, resistance against extra force and product density. The relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value and unsaponifiables were determined in the olive oils. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2). Of the identified fatty acids, lauric acid (12:0), linolenic acid (18:3), arachidic acid (20:0), eicosenoic acid (20:1), behenic acid (22:0) and lignoseric acid (24:0) were found in trace amounts. As expected, the oleic acid content was the major fatty acid of olive oil. Oleic acid was represented in much higher concentrations than the other acids. The product roundness, resistance against extra force, product density and weight of 100 fruit were established as technological characteristics in olive fruit. The damage energy and the unit of volume deformation energy of the Memecik and Tavşanyüreği varieties were 1.36×10(-3) J and 3.59×10(-4) J/mm(3) and 1.89×10(-3) J and 5.10×10(-4) J/mm(3), respectively. The fruits showed a similar composition, and both fruit and oil contained unsaturated fatty acids.

  5. [Rate of interaction of ferricytochrome c with negatively charged liposomes from natural lecithin: effect of the physicochemical state of the membrane hydrophobic layer].

    PubMed

    Obraztsov, V V; Selishcheva, A A; Danilov, V S

    1975-01-01

    The absorption velocity of ferricytochrome c on the surface of liposomes from egg lecithin containing 10% of lauric acid was studied. Liposomes were prepared from lecithin of three fractions which differed by the composition of fatty acids, unsaturation and the lipid interaction decreased at the temperature below T phi pi for lecithin fractions containing larger quantity of saturated fatty acids. An opposite tendency was observed for the temperature above T phi pi. In the phase transition region of lecithin of refractory fraction the local maximum of protein-lipid interaction was observed. Judging by the character of the changes of the values of energy activation, small additions of cholesterol in the membrane loosen the bilayer at the temperature below T phi pi and condense it at above T phi pi. The data obtained are discussed in terms of the effect of the state of molecule hydrophobic part on the velocity of protein-lipid interaction.

  6. Effect of Acrocomia aculeata Kernel Oil on Adiposity in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ângela A; Buccini, Danieli F; Jaques, Jeandre A S; Portugal, Luciane C; Guimarães, Rita C A; Favaro, Simone P; Caldas, Ruy A; Carvalho, Cristiano M E

    2018-03-01

    The macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata) is native of tropical America and is found mostly in the Cerrados and Pantanal biomes. The fruits provide an oily pulp, rich in long chain fatty acids, and a kernel that encompass more than 50% of lipids rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFA). Based on biochemical and nutritional evidences MCFA is readily catabolized and can reduce body fat accumulation. In this study, an animal model was employed to evaluate the effect of Acrocomia aculeata kernel oil (AKO) on the blood glucose level and the fatty acid deposit in the epididymal adipose tissue. The A. aculeata kernel oil obtained by cold pressing presented suitable quality as edible oil. Its fatty acid profile indicates high concentration of MCFA, mainly lauric, capric and caprilic. Type 2 diabetic rats fed with that kernel oil showed reduction of blood glucose level in comparison with the diabetic control group. Acrocomia aculeata kernel oil showed hypoglycemic effect. A small fraction of total dietary medium chain fatty acid was accumulated in the epididymal adipose tissue of rats fed with AKO at both low and high doses and caprilic acid did not deposit at all.

  7. Coconut oil protects cortical neurons from amyloid beta toxicity by enhancing signaling of cell survival pathways.

    PubMed

    Nafar, F; Clarke, J P; Mearow, K M

    2017-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has links with other conditions that can often be modified by dietary and life-style interventions. In particular, coconut oil has received attention as having potentially having benefits in lessening the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. In a recent report, we showed that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ was rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Here we investigated treatment with Aβ for 1, 6 or 24 h followed by addition of coconut oil for a further 24 h, or treatment with coconut oil for 24 h followed by Aβ exposure for various periods. Neuronal survival and several cellular parameters (cleaved caspase 3, synaptophysin labeling and ROS) were assessed. In addition, the influence of these treatments on relevant signaling pathways was investigated with Western blotting. In terms of the treatment timing, our data indicated that coconut oil rescues cells pre-exposed to Aβ for 1 or 6 h, but is less effective when the pre-exposure has been 24 h. However, pretreatment with coconut oil prior to Aβ exposure showed the best outcomes. Treatment with octanoic or lauric acid also provided protection against Aβ, but was not as effective as the complete oil. The coconut oil treatment reduced the number of cells with cleaved caspase and ROS labeling, as well as rescuing the loss of synaptophysin labeling observed with Aβ treatment. Treatment with coconut oil, as well as octanoic, decanoic and lauric acids, resulted in a modest increase in ketone bodies compared to controls. The biochemical data suggest that Akt and ERK activation may contribute to the survival promoting influence of coconut oil. This was supported by observations that a PI3-Kinase inhibitor blocked the rescue effect of CoOil on Aβ amyloid toxicity. Further studies into the mechanisms of action of coconut oil and its constituent medium chain fatty acids are warranted

  8. Engineering Synergistically Active and Bioavailable Cost-effective Medicines for Neglected Tropical Diseases; The Role of Excipients.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Dolores R; Lalatsa, Aikaterini; Dea-Ayuela, M Auxiliadora

    2017-07-19

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease responsible for the ninth largest disease burden in the world threatening 350 million people mostly in developing countries. The lack of efficacy, severe adverse effects, long duration, high cost and parenteral administration of the current therapies result in poor patient compliance and emergence of resistance. Leishmaniasis' unmet need for safer, affordable and more effective treatments is only partly addressed by today's global health product pipeline that focuses on products amenable to rapid clinical development, mainly by reformulating or repurposing existing drugs for new uses. Excipients are necessary for ensuring the stability and bioavailability of currently available antileishmaniasis drugs which in their majority are poorly soluble or have severe side-effects. Thus, selection of excipients that can ensure bioavailability and safety as well as elicit a synergistic effect against the Leishmania parasites without compromising safety will result in a more efficacious, safe and fast to market medicine. We have evaluated the in vitro activity of 30 commercially available generally regarded as safe (GRAS) excipients against different Leishmania spp., their cytotoxicity and potential use for inclusion in novel formulations. Amongst the tested excipients, the compounds with higher selectivity index were Eudragit E100 (cationic triblock copolymer of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylate, and methyl methacrylate), CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, cationic), lauric acid, Labrasol(non-ionic, caprylocaproyl polyoxyl- 8 glycerides) and sodium deoxycholate. An ideal excipient need to possess amphiphilic nature with ionic/polar groups and possess a short or medium fatty acid chain such as lauric (C12), capric C10) or caprylicacid (C8). Inclusion of these excipients and identification of the optimal combination of drug and excipients would lead to a more effective and safer antileishmanial therapies

  9. Thermal storage in drywall using organic phase-change material

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, M.M.; Feldman, D.; Hawes, D.

    1987-01-01

    Two mixtures of phase-change material (PCM), 49% butyl stearate with 48% butyl palmitate, and 55% lauric acid with 45% capric acid, diluted 10% with fire retardant, were diffused into 13-mm (0.5-in.) wallboard. No exudation of liquid PCM occurs below 25% by weight. In the wallboard, initial PCM freezing points were 21/sup 0/ and 22/sup 0/C (70/sup 0/ and 72/sup 0/F), respectively, with melting points of 17/sup 0/ and 18/sup 0/C (63/sup 0/ and 64/sup 0/F). For a 4/sup 0/C (7/sup 0/F) temperature swing, thermal storage capacities up to 350 kJ/m/sup 2/ (31 Btu/ft/sup 2/) and 317 kJ/m/sup 2/ (28 Btu/ft/supmore » 2/), respectively, are available. These are equivalent to about 3.8 cm (1.5 in.) of concrete cycled through 7/sup 0/C (13/sup 0/F). Preliminary tests showed little extra flame spread beyond that of unloaded wallboard. The thermal conductivity of the wallboard increased from 0.19 to 0.22 W/m /sup 0/C (0.11 to 0.13 Btu/h ft /sup 0/F) with liquid PCM. During melting, the effective thermal diffusivity falls from 2.1 x 10/sup -7/ m/sup 2//s (2.3 x 10/sup -6/ ft/sup 2//s) for the unloaded wallboard to 1.4 x 10/sup -7/ m/sup 2//s (1.5 x 10/sup -6/ ft/sup 2//s) with 23.4% butyl stearate-palmitate and to 1.6 x 10/sup -7/ m/sup 2//s (1.7 x 10/sup -6/ ft/sup 2//s) with 28% of the lauric-capric mixture. (The mixture fraction is defined as the ratio of PCM mass to gypsum mass.)« less

  10. Oyster mushroom’s lipase enzyme entrapment on calcium alginate as biocatalyst in the synthesis of lauryl diethanolamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayati, N.; Masubah, K.; Supartono

    2017-02-01

    Lipase is an enzyme with large biotechnology applications, such as hydrolysis in the food industry, applications in chemical industry, synthesis of polymers and surfactants. Lipase was isolated from oyster mushroom with activity 0,93 U/mg and protein content 1,1234 mg/mL. Lipase was immobilized by entrapment method in a matrix of Ca-alginate. This report describes that we have developed for the synthesis of lauryl diethanolamide The result showed that the optimum condition of lipase immobilization was achieved on 3% Na-alginate solution with protein content 0,84 mg/mL and the activity 3,33 U/mg. An amide (22.911%) formed from the amidation of lauric acid and diethanolamine.

  11. Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase from Coconut Endosperm Mediates the Insertion of Laurate at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lauric Rapeseed Oil and Can Increase Total Laurate Levels

    PubMed Central

    Knutzon, Deborah S.; Hayes, Thomas R.; Wyrick, Annette; Xiong, Hui; Maelor Davies, H.; Voelker, Toni A.

    1999-01-01

    Expression of a California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase, bay thioesterase (BTE), in developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) led to the production of oils containing up to 50% laurate. In these BTE oils, laurate is found almost exclusively at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the triacylglycerols (T.A. Voelker, T.R. Hayes, A.C. Cranmer, H.M. Davies [1996] Plant J 9: 229–241). Coexpression of a coconut (Cocos nucifera) 12:0-coenzyme A-preferring lysophosphatitic acid acyltransferase (D.S. Knutzon, K.D. Lardizabal, J.S. Nelsen, J.L. Bleibaum, H.M. Davies, J.G. Metz [1995] Plant Physiol 109: 999–1006) in BTE oilseed rape seeds facilitates efficient laurate deposition at the sn-2 position, resulting in the acccumulation of trilaurin. The introduction of the coconut protein into BTE oilseed rape lines with laurate above 50 mol % further increases total laurate levels. PMID:10398708

  12. Physico-chemical characteristics of oil produced from seeds of some date palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.) .

    PubMed

    Soliman, S S; Al-Obeed, R S; Ahmed, T A

    2015-03-01

    The oil content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with some physico-chemical properties and nutrients were investigated in oil produced from seeds of six important date palm cultivars and one seed strain present in Saudi Arabia. The results indicated that the oil extracted from six seed cultivars of date palm ranged from 6.73-10.89% w/w oil. The refractive index of date seeds oil was found to be between 1.4574 to 1.4615. The iodine values, acid values and saponification values were in the range of 74.2-86.6 g iodine 100 g(-1); 2.50-2.58 mg KOH g(-1) and 0.206-0.217 mg KOH g(-1), respectively. Lauric acid, Myristic acid, Palmitic acid C15, Palmitic acid C16 Stearic acid, Arachidic acid and Behenic acid of date seeds oil contents were found between 8.67-49.27; 7.01-15.43; 0-0.57; 4.82-18.09; 1.02-7.86; 0-0.08; and 0-0.15% w/w, in that order. Omega-6 and Omega-9 of date seeds oil were found between 7.31-17.87 and 52.12-58.78%, respectively. Khalas, Barhy cvs. and seed strain gave highest K and Ca, Na and Fe, Mg as compared with other studied cultivars.

  13. Biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes for bio-aviation fuel by metabolic engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Nie, Kaili; Cao, Hao; Xu, Haijun; Fang, Yunming; Tan, Tianwei; Baeyens, Jan; Liu, Luo

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the synthesis of medium-chain length alkanes (MCLA), as bio-aviation product. To control the chain length of alkanes and increase the production of MCLA, Escherichia coli cells were engineered by incorporating (i) a chain length specific thioesterase from Umbellularia californica (UC), (ii) a plant origin acyl carrier protein (ACP) gene and (iii) the whole fatty acid synthesis system (FASs) from Jatropha curcas (JC). The genetic combination was designed to control the product spectrum towards optimum MCLA. Decanoic, lauric and myristic acid were produced at concentrations of 0.011, 0.093 and 1.657mg/g, respectively. The concentration of final products nonane, undecane and tridecane were 0.00062mg/g, 0.0052mg/g, and 0.249mg/g respectively. Thioesterase from UC controlled the fatty acid chain length in a range of 10-14 carbons and the ACP gene with whole FASs from JC significantly increased the production of MCLA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical, chemical and sensory properties of brownies substituted with sweet potato flour (Ipomoea batatas L.) with addition of black cumin oil (Nigella sativa L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligarnasari, I. P.; Anam, C.; Sanjaya, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Effect of addition black cumin oil on the physical (hardness) characteristics, chemical (water, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate, antioxidant IC50, total phenol and active component) characteristics and sensory (flavor, taste, texture, overall) characteristics of brownies substituted sweet potato flour were investigated. Substituted brownies was added with 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20% and 0.25% of nigella sativa oil. The result showed that water content, ash, protein, fat, total phenol were increased and carbohydrate, antioxidant IC50 was decreased by the addition of nigella sativa oil. Due to the sensory characteristics, panelist gave the high score for substituted brownies which was added 0.05% nigella sativa oil. The result showed that the best formula of substituted brownies which was added 0.05% of nigella sativa oil had 24.89% water content, 1.19% ash content, 7.54% protein content, 37.79% fat content, 53.06% carbohydrate contain, 1043.6 ppm IC50 antioxidant and 0.22% total phenol. The active component on the brownies using GCMS identification were palmitic acid, oleic acid, lauric acid, theobromine and vitamin E.

  15. The Production of Biodiesel and Bio-kerosene from Coconut Oil Using Microwave Assisted Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAIFUDDIN, N.; SITI FAZLILI, A.; KUMARAN, P.; PEI-JUA, N.; PRIATHASHINI, P.

    2016-03-01

    Biofuels including biodiesel, an alternative fuel, is renewable, environmentally friendly, non-toxic and low emissions. The raw material used in this work was coconut oil, which contained saturated fatty acids about 90% with high percentage of medium chain (C8-C12), especially lauric acid and myristic acid. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of power and NaOH catalyst in transesterification assisted by microwave for production of biofuels (biodiesel and bio-kerosene) derived from coconut oil. The reaction was performed with oil and methanol using mole ratio of 1:6, catalyst concentration of 0.6% with microwave power at 100W, 180W, 300W, 450W, 600W, and 850W. The reaction time was set at of 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 min. The results showed that microwave could accelerate the transesterification process to produce biodiesel and bio-kerosene using NaOH catalyst. The highest yield of biodiesel was 97.17 %, or 99.05 % conversion at 5 min and 100W microwave power. Meanwhile, the bio-kerosene obtained was 65% after distillation.

  16. Physical and chemical properties, antioxidant activity, total phenol and mineral profile of seeds of seven different date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Ghafoor, Kashif; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2012-02-01

    The physical and chemical properties of the date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seeds from seven date samples (Soukari, Soulag, Barhi, Khulas, Rozaiz, Soughi and Monaif) were evaluated. Energy values of dried and ground seeds were found between 4340 kcal/kg (Barhi cv) and 4795 kcal/kg (Rozaiz cv). Also, while crude oil content of seeds were established between 4.68% (Khulas cv) and 7.96% (Monaif cv), crude protein contents were found at the levels between 3.71% (Soulag cv) and 5.47% (Barhi cv). The antioxidant activity of seeds obtained from different date fruits changed between 78.03 (mg/ml) (Monaif cv) and 79.94 (mg/ml) (Barhi cv). In addition, the total phenol contents of seeds were found between 1.98 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g (Barhi cv) and 4.65 mg GAE/100 g (Soughi cv). The most abundant fatty acids of the date seed oils were oleic, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids. Ca, Mg, K and P contents of date seeds were found at the high concentrations.

  17. Biodiesel Derive Bio-oil of Hermetia illucens Pre-pupae Catalysed by Sulphonated Biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoong Leong, Siew; Chong, Soo Shin; Chin, Kah Seng

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the development of biochar catalyst from bamboo applied for biodiesel synthesis. A non-conventional biodiesel feedstock was used in the in-situ transesterification reaction. This non-conventional feedstock is obtained from an insect's fly, the Hermetia illucens fly. Biochar derived from bamboo has been investigated as a promising catalyst for biodiesel synthesis. The biochar acid catalysts were prepared by sulphonation via impregnation with concentrated sulphuric acid. The prepared catalysts were investigated for their performance to catalyse in-situ transesterification via ultra-sonication of Hermetia illucens bio-oil. The effects of carbonisation time (1 hour and 2 hour) and temperature (400°C, 500°C and 600°C) as well as catalyst loading (5-20 wt% on oil basis) on the transesterification yield were studied. Result showed that the highest yield of FAME obtained was 95.6% with catalyst loading of 15 wt% carbonized at 500°C for 2 hours. Sharp band of methyl ester functional groups were observed in the FTIR spectra at 1735-1750cm-1. The composition of this methyl ester was further deduced using gas chromatography and the fatty acid was predominantly lauric acid.

  18. Analysis of processing contaminants in edible oils. Part 2. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the direct detection of 3-monochloropropanediol and 2-monochloropropanediol diesters.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, Shaun; Begley, Timothy H; Diachenko, Gregory W

    2013-05-22

    A method was developed and validated for the detection of fatty acid diesters of 2-monochloropropanediol (2-MCPD) and 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) in edible oils. These analytes are potentially carcinogenic chemical contaminants formed during edible oil processing. After separation from oil matrices using a two-step solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure, the target compounds are quantitated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI). The first chromatographic conditions have been developed that separate intact diesters of 2-MCPD and 3-MCPD, allowing for their individual quantitation. The method has been validated for 28 3-MCPD diesters of lauric, myristic, palmitic, linolenic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids in coconut, olive, and palm oils, as well as 3 2-MCPD diesters, using an external calibration curve. The range of average recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) across the three oil matrices at three spiking concentrations are 88-118% (2-16% RSD) with maximum limits of quantitation of 30 ng/g (ppb).

  19. Triacylglycerols determine the unusual storage physiology of Cuphea seed.

    PubMed

    Crane, Jennifer; Miller, Annette L; van Roekel, J William; Walters, Christina

    2003-09-01

    Many species within the genus Cuphea (Lythraceae) produce seed with high levels of medium-chain fatty acids. Seeds of some Cuphea species lose viability when placed into storage at -18 degrees C. These species tolerate significant drying to 0.05 g/g and may, therefore, be intermediate in their storage characteristics. The thermal properties of seed lipids were observed using differential scanning calorimetry. Species with peak lipid melting temperatures >/=27 degrees C were found to be sensitive to -18 degrees C exposure while those with melting temperatures <27 degrees C were able to tolerate low-temperature exposure. This relationship was determined by the triacylglycerol composition of the individual species. Sensitive species have high concentrations of lauric acid (C(12)) and/or myristic acid (C(14)). Species with high concentrations of capric (C(8)) or caprylic acid (C(10)) or with high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids tolerate low temperature exposure. Potential damage caused by low temperature exposure can be avoided by exposing seeds to a brief heat pulse of 45 degrees C to melt solidified lipids prior to imbibition. The relationship between the behavior of triacylglycerols in vivo, seed storage behavior and sensitivity to imbibitional damage is previously unreported and may apply to other species with physiologies that make them difficult to store.

  20. Palmitic acid induces neurotoxicity and gliatoxicity in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma and T98G human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ng, Yee-Wen; Say, Yee-How

    2018-01-01

    Obesity-related central nervous system (CNS) pathologies like neuroinflammation and reactive gliosis are associated with high-fat diet (HFD) related elevation of saturated fatty acids like palmitic acid (PA) in neurons and astrocytes of the brain. Human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y (as a neuronal model) and human glioblastoma cells T98G (as an astrocytic model), were treated with 100-500 µM PA, oleic acid (OA) or lauric acid (LA) for 24 h or 48 h, and their cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of stable overexpression of γ-synuclein (γ-syn), a neuronal protein recently recognized as a novel regulator of lipid handling in adipocytes, and transient overexpression of Parkinson's disease (PD) α-synuclein [α-syn; wild-type (wt) and its pathogenic mutants A53T, A30P and E46K] in SH-SY5Y and T98G cells, were also evaluated. The effects of co-treatment of PA with paraquat (PQ), a Parkinsonian pesticide, and leptin, a hormone involved in the brain-adipose axis, were also assessed. Cell death mode and cell cycle were analyzed by Annexin V/PI flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was determined using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescien diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay and lipid peroxidation level was determined using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. MTT assay revealed dose- and time-dependent PA cytotoxicity on SH-SY5Y and T98G cells, but not OA and LA. The cytotoxicity was significantly lower in SH-SY5Y-γ-syn cells, while transient overexpression of wt α-syn or its PD mutants (A30P and E46K, but not A53T) modestly (but still significantly) rescued the cytotoxicity of PA in SH-SY5Y and T98G cells. Co-treatment of increasing concentrations of PQ exacerbated PA's neurotoxicity. Pre-treatment of leptin, an anti-apoptotic adipokine, did not successfully rescue SH-SY5Y cells from PA-induced cytotoxicity-suggesting a mechanism of PA-induced leptin resistance. Annexin V/PI flow

  1. The Primary Active Components, Antioxidant Properties, and Differential Metabolite Profiles of Radish Sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) upon Domestic Storage: Analysis of Nutritional Quality.

    PubMed

    Li, Ru; Zhu, Yi

    2018-05-21

    This study aimed to analyze the nutritional quality of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) upon domestic short-term storage. We stored fresh radish sprouts at 25±1°C and at 4±1°C for 12 h, detected phenolic substances, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, vitamin C, and various antioxidant and abiotic stress-related factors. We investigated nutrient-related metabolic differences and associated pathways and postharvest treatment effects on nutritional quality via metabolomics analysis. Most active substances and antioxidant properties, not phenolic acids and vitamin C, decreased significantly (p<0.05) upon domestic storage; this reduction was decelerated at low temperatures. Short-term storage disrupted redox balance; low temperature enhanced stress resistance. Differences were observed in amino acid and vitamin derivatives, phospholipid accumulation, and organic acids. Short-term storage at ambient temperature promoted lysine, threonine, cysteine, vitamin H, phospholipid, and lauric (dodecanoic) acid accumulation, inhibiting proline, phosphatidic acid (PA) (14:1(9Z)/12:0), and phosphatidylcholine (PC) (O-18:0/O-18:0) accumulation; low-temperature short-term storage promoted myristic acid and phospholipid accumulation and reduced methionine synthesis and vitamin H and K accumulation. Overall, the nutritional quality of radish sprout decreased upon short-term storage, with differences in certain active substances. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Unusual poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) biosynthesis behavior of Pseudomonas putida Bet001 and Delftia tsuruhatensis Bet002 isolated from palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Razaif-Mazinah, Mohd Rafais Mohd; Anis, Siti Nor Syairah; Harun, Hazwani Izzati; Rashid, Khairunnisa Abdul; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad

    2017-03-01

    Pseudomonas putida Bet001 and Delftia tsuruhatensis Bet002, isolated from palm oil mill effluent, accumulated poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) when grown on aliphatic fatty acids, sugars, and glycerol. The substrates were supplied at 20:1 C/N mole ratio. Among C-even n-alkanoic acids, myristic acid gave the highest PHA content 26 and 28 wt% in P. putida and D. tsuruhatensis, respectively. Among C-odd n-alkanoic acids, undecanoic gave the highest PHA content at 40 wt% in P. putida and 46 wt% in D. tsuruhatensis on pentadecanoic acid. Sugar and glycerol gave <10 wt% of PHA content for both bacteria. Interestingly, D. tsuruhatensis accumulated both short- and medium-chain length PHA when supplied with n-alkanoic acids ranging from octanoic to lauric, sucrose, and glycerol with 3-hydroxybutyrate as the major monomer unit. In P. putida, the major hydroxyalkanoates unit was 3-hydroxyoctanoate and 3-hydroxydecanoate when grown on C-even acids. Conversely, 3-hydroxyheptanoate, 3-hydrxoynonanoate, and 3-hydroxyundecanoate were accumulated with C-odd acids. Weight-averaged molecular weight (M w ) was in the range of 53-81 kDa and 107-415 kDa for P. putida and D. tsuruhatensis, respectively. Calorimetric analyses indicated that both bacteria synthesized semicrystalline polymer with good thermal stability with degradation temperature (T d ) ranging from 178 to 282 °C. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. The influence of the emulsion composition on the wettability of the emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan Jun; Shao, Jian Nan; Lei Liu, Peng

    2018-03-01

    In order to explore the influence of the emulsion composition on the wettability of the emulsion, using lauric acid polyoxyethylene esters (LAE) and polyethylene oleic acid diester (DQA) as the emulsifier and oleic acid ester (QA) as the smoothing agent, the spinning oil emulsion system with the content of smoothing agent above 30% was prepared. The results show that: with the increase of emulsion concentration, the surface tension of emulsion, the contact Angle of emulsion on the surface of the polypropylene fiber and the wetting time of canvas in emulsion all decreases. At the same time,the emulsion has critical micelle concentration, when the concentration is less than CMC, the surface tension of emulsion, the contact Angle of emulsion on the surface of the polypropylene fiber and the wetting time of canvas in the emulsion decreases rapidly with the increase of the emulsion concentration, while it’s more than this concentration, the influence of emulsion concentration on the three kinds of nature is smaller. Besides, the increase of the mass fraction of the smoothing agent and the increase of the compound emulsifier HLB will result in worse wettability.

  4. Thermophilic molds: Biology and applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bijender; Poças-Fonseca, Marcio J; Johri, B N; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2016-11-01

    Thermophilic molds thrive in a variety of natural habitats including soils, composts, wood chip piles, nesting materials of birds and other animals, municipal refuse and others, and ubiquitous in their distribution. These molds grow in simple media containing carbon and nitrogen sources and mineral salts. Polyamines are synthesized in these molds and the composition of lipids varies considerably, predominantly containing palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids with low levels of lauric, palmiotoleic and stearic acids. Thermophilic molds are capable of efficiently degrading organic materials by secreting thermostable enzymes, which are useful in the bioremediation of industrial wastes and effluents that are rich in oil, heavy metals, anti-nutritional factors such as phytic acid and polysaccharides. Thermophilic molds synthesize several antimicrobial substances and biotechnologically useful miscellaneous enzymes. The analysis of genomes of thermophilic molds reveals high G:C contents, shorter introns and intergenic regions with lesser repetitive sequences, and further confirms their ability to degrade agro-residues efficiently. Genetic engineering has aided in ameliorating the characteristics of the enzymes of thermophilic molds. This review is aimed at focusing on the biology of thermophilic molds with emphasis on recent developments in the analysis of genomes, genetic engineering and potential applications.

  5. Synthesis, surface properties and antimicrobial activity of some germanium nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Mohamed F; Tawfik, Salah M

    2014-01-01

    Esterification reaction between different fatty acid namely; lauric, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids and polyethylene glycol-400 were performed. The produced polyethylene glycol ester were reacted with p-amine benzoic acid followed by condensation reaction with germanium dioxide in presence of sodium carbonate to form desired germinate surfactants. The chemical structures of the synthesized surfactants were determined using different spectra tools. The surface parameter including: the critical micelle concentration (CMC), effectiveness (π(cmc)), efficiency (Pc20), maximum surface excess (Γ(max)) and minimum surface area (A(min)), were calculated from the surface tension measurements. The synthesized surfactants showed higher surface activity. The thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption and micellization processes are spontaneous. It is clear that the synthesized nonionic surfactants showed their tendency towards adsorption at the interfaces and also micellization in the bulk of their solutions. The synthesized surfactants were tested against different strain of bacteria using inhibition zone diameters. The synthesized surfactants showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms including Gram positive, Gram negative as well as fungi. The promising inhibition efficiency of these compounds against the sulfate reducing bacteria facilitates them to be applicable as new categories of sulfate reducing bacteria biocides.

  6. Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Li, Ying

    2012-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressingmore » cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ► CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ► The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP

  7. Determination of Ancylostoma caninum ova viability using metabolic profiling.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, P; Beale, D J; Ahmed, W; Karpe, A V; Magalhaes, R J Soares; Morrison, P D; Palombo, E A

    2016-09-01

    Differentiation between viable and non-viable hookworm ova in environmental samples is necessary in order to implement strategies to mitigate re-infections in endemic regions. In this study, an untargeted metabolic profiling method was developed that utilised gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to investigate hookworm ova viability. Ancylostoma caninum was used to investigate the metabolites within viable and non-viable ova. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of the data resulted in the identification of 53 significant metabolites across all hookworm ova samples. The major compounds observed in viable and non-viable hookworm ova were tetradecanoic acid, commonly known as myristic acid [fold change (FC) = 0.4], and dodecanoic acid, commonly known as lauric acid (FC = 0.388). Additionally, the viable ova had self-protecting metabolites such as prostaglandins, a typical feature absent in non-viable ova. The results of this study demonstrate that metabolic profiling using GC-MS methods can be used to determine the viability of canine hookworm ova. Further studies are needed to assess the applicability of metabolic profiling using GC-MS to detect viable hookworm ova in the mixed (viable and non-viable) populations from environmental samples and identify the metabolites specific to human hookworm species.

  8. [STUDY OF LIPIDS SEED'S OIL OF VITEX AGNUS CASTUS GROWING IN GEORGIA].

    PubMed

    Kikalishvili, B; Zurabashvili, D; Sulakvelidze, Ts; Malania, M; Turabelidze, D

    2016-07-01

    There was established the lipid composition of the seeds of Vitex agnus castus L. by the qualitative and quantitative methods of analyses. There were received neutral lipids from the seeds by extraction with hexane in the yield 10%, counted on dry material. For the divide of neutral lipids there was used silica gel plates LS 5/40 in the systems of solvents: 1. petroleum ether-diethylether-acidum aceticum (85:14:1), 2. hexane-diethylether (1:1). After obtaining neutral lipids from the residual plant shrot pollar lipids was extracted with the mixture of chloroform-methanol (2:1) and was divided on silica gel plates LS 5/40, mobile phase: 1. chloroform-methanol-25% ammonium hydrate 2. chloroform-methanol icy acetic acid-water (170:25:25:6). In the sum of polar lipids qualitatively were established phospholipids: lisophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinosit, phospatidylethanolamine and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine, in neutral lipids, hydrocarbons, triglycerids, free fatty acids and sterines. By the method of high performance liquid chromatography analyses there were identified following free fatty acids: lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolic, linolenic, arachidic and begenic, unsaturated oleic and polyunsaturated linolic and linolenic acids. obtained oil with unique composition from the seeds of Vitex agnus-castus indicates to its high biological activity and importance for usage in medicine.

  9. Physicochemical and sensory properties of ice-cream formulated with virgin coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Choo, S Y; Leong, S K; Henna Lu, F S

    2010-12-01

    The substitution of milk fat with virgin coconut oil (VCO) was used to produce nutritious ice cream with pleasant coconut flavor and aroma. Three formulations were developed whereby formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 was substituted with 4%, 8% and 12% of VCO, respectively. The physicochemical properties of ice creams analyzed include overrun, meltdown, pH, titratable acidity, total solid, protein and fat content. The fatty acids profile of VCO formulated ice creams and their stabilities over 3 and 6 weeks storage were studied respectively using gas chromatography (GC). Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and consumer affective test were performed among the trained and untrained panelists. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of overrun, pH, total solid, protein and fat content between ice cream formulations were observed except titratable acidity. Increased VCO content in ice cream formulations lowered the melting resistance of ice cream. For GC analysis, the major fatty acid identified was lauric acid. Upon storage time, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acid decreased but the concentration of saturated fatty acid increased. The result of QDA showed that formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 were significantly (p < 0.05) different in attributes of color, firmness and smoothness as compared to the control ice cream. Formulation VCO12 was highly accepted by panelists in terms of the acceptance level of appearance, aroma, texture, flavor and overall acceptability. Hence, it has a potential marketable value.

  10. Peroxisome proliferation due to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP): species differences and possible mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Elcombe, C R; Mitchell, A M

    1986-01-01

    The exposure of cultured rat hepatocytes to mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) for 72 hr resulted in marked induction of peroxisomal enzyme activity (beta-oxidation; cyanide-insensitive palmitoyl CoA oxidase) and concomitant increases in the number of peroxisomes. Similar treatment of cultured guinea pig, marmoset, or human hepatocytes revealed little or no effect of MEHP. In order to eliminate possible confounding influences of biotransformation, the proximate peroxisome proliferator(s) derived from MEHP have been identified. Using cultured hepatocytes these agents were found to be metabolite VI [mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate] and metabolite IX [mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate]. The addition of these "active" metabolites to cultured guinea pig, marmoset, or human hepatocytes again revealed little effect upon peroxisomes or related enzyme activities (peroxisomal beta-oxidation or microsomal lauric acid hydroxylation). These studies demonstrate a marked species difference in the response of hepatocytes to MEHP-elicited peroxisome proliferation. Preliminary studies have also suggested that peroxisome proliferation due to MEHP may be due to an initial biochemical lesion of fatty acid metabolism. Images FIGURE 4. a FIGURE 4. b PMID:3104023

  11. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety)

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60–80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 ± 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 ± 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 ± 1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77 ± 0.06 mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.). PMID:26904626

  12. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60-80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 ± 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 ± 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 ± 1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77 ± 0.06 mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.).

  13. Antibacterial chitosan/silk sericin 3D porous scaffolds as a wound dressing material.

    PubMed

    Karahaliloglu, Zeynep; Kilicay, Ebru; Denkbas, Emir Baki

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial mixed dressings have traditionally been used to minimize bacterial infection of burns and other wounds. This study presents the advancement of biocompatible chitosan/silk sericin (CHT/SS) scaffolds combined with lauric acid (LA) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) for the successful wound dressing applications. Antibacterial assay results showed that the diameters of the inhibition zone increased from 2 ± 0.4 to 7 ± 0.1 mm for Escherichia coli, as well as from 2.5 ± 0.2 to 6 ± 0.4 mm for Staphylococcus aureus while CHTS/SS/100nZnO compared to CHT/SS/0.01LA. The results not only showed excellent inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial growth but also revealed improved proliferation and extended viability for HaCaT cells.

  14. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  15. Characterization of medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT)-enriched seed oil from Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae) and its oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhang, Bing; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Li, Jing; Fan, Ya-Wei; Liu, Rong; Tang, Liang; Lee, Ki-Teak; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2011-05-11

    Medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT)-enriched oil was extracted by supercritical fluid extraction of carbon dioxide (SFE-CO(2)) from Cinnamomum camphora seeds. The SFE-CO(2) process was optimized using the Box-Behnken design (BBD). The maximum oil yield (42.82%) was obtained under the optimal SFE-CO(2) conditions: extraction pressure, 21.16 MPa; extraction temperature, 45.67 °C; and extraction time, 2.38 h. Subsequently, the physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, tocopherol content, and DSC profile as well as oxidative stabilities of C. camphora seed oil (CCSO) were studied. Results showed that CCSO contained two major medium-chain fatty acids, capric acid (53.27%) and lauric acid (39.93%). The predominant TAG species in CCSO was LaCC/CLaC (ECN 32, 79.29%). Meanwhile, it can be found that CCSO had much higher oxidative stabilities than coconut oil due to the higher content of tocopherols in CCSO (α-tocopherol, 8.67 ± 0.51 mg/100 g; γ-tocopherol, 22.6 ± 1.02 mg/100 g; δ-tocopherol, 8.38 ± 0.47 mg/100 g). Conclusively, CCSO with such a high level of MCTs and high oxidative stabilities could be potentially applied in special food for specific persons such as weak patients and overweight persons because oils enriched in MCTs can be rapidly absorbed into body to provide energy without fat accumulation.

  16. Chemical Composition of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Seed Oil from Six Saudi Arabian Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Nehdi, Imeddedine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Rashid, Umer; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2018-03-01

    This investigation aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of seed oils from 6 date palm (Phoenix. dactylifera L.) cultivars (Barhi, Khalas, Manifi, Rezeiz, Sulaj, and Sukkari) growing in Saudi Arabia and to compare them with conventional palm olein. The mean oil content of the seeds was about 7%. Oleic acid (48.67%) was the main fatty acid, followed by lauric acid (17.26%), stearic acid (10.74%), palmitic acid (9.88%), and linolenic acid (8.13%). The mean value for free fatty acids content was 0.5%. The P. dactylifera seed oil also exhibited a mean tocol content of 70.75 mg/100 g. α-Tocotrienol was the most abundant isomer (30.19%), followed by γ-tocopherol (23.61%), γ-tocotrienol (19.07%), and α-tocopherol (17.52%). The oils showed high thermal and oxidative stabilities. The findings indicate that date seed oil has the potential to be used in the food industry as an abundant alternative to palm olein. This study showed that date seed had great nutritional value due to which it can be used for food applications especially as frying or cooking oil. In addition, date oil has also potential to be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical practices as well. The extraction of oil from Phoenix dactylifera seed on large scale can create positive socioeconomic benefits especially for rural communities and could also assist to resolve the environmental issues generated by excess date production in large scale date-producing countries such as Saudi Arabia. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Characterization of physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of krabok (Irvingia Malayana ) and rambutan seed fats.

    PubMed

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ponprachanuvut, Punnee

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition, physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of fats extracted from the seeds of krabok (Irvingia Malayana) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) trees grown in Thailand were studied and compared with cocoa butter (CB). The krabok seed fat, KSF, consisted of 46.9% lauric and 40.3% myristic acids. It exhibited the highest saponification value and slip melting point but the lowest iodine values. The three fats displayed different crystallization behavior at 25°C. KSF crystallized into a mixture of β' and pseudo-β' structures with a one-step crystallization curve and high solid fat content (SFC). The fat showed simple DSC crystallization and melting thermograms with one distinct peak. The rambutan seed fat, RSF, consisted of 42.5% arachidic and 33.1% oleic acids. Its crystallization behavior was more similar to CB than KSF, displaying a two-step crystallization curve with SFC lower than that of KSF. RSF solidified into a mixture of β' and pseudo-β' before transforming to β after 24 h. The large spherulitic microstructures were observed in both KSF and RSF. According to these results, the Thai KSF and RSF exhibited physicochemical, thermal characteristics and crystallization behavior that could be suitable for specific applications in several areas of the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. Does Inhalation of Virgin Coconut Oil Accelerate Reversal of Airway Remodelling in an Allergic Model of Asthma?

    PubMed

    Kamalaldin, N A; Sulaiman, S A; Yusop, M R; Yahaya, B

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have been done to evaluate the effect of various natural products in controlling asthma symptoms. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is known to contain active compounds that have beneficial effects on human health and diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of VCO inhalation on airway remodelling in a rabbit model of allergic asthma. The effects of VCO inhalation on infiltration of airway inflammatory cells, airway structures, goblet cell hyperplasia, and cell proliferation following ovalbumin induction were evaluated. Allergic asthma was induced by a combination of ovalbumin and alum injection and/or followed by ovalbumin inhalation. The effect of VCO inhalation was then evaluated via the rescue or the preventive route. Percentage of inflammatory cells infiltration, thickness of epithelium and mucosa regions, and the numbers of goblet and proliferative cells were reduced in the rescue group but not in preventive group. Analysis using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry found that lauric acid and capric acid were among the most abundant fatty acids present in the sample. Significant improvement was observed in rescue route in alleviating the asthma symptoms, which indicates the VCO was able to relieve asthma-related symptoms more than preventing the onset of asthma.

  19. Smart Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Nanofibers with Thermal Energy Storage and Retrieval Functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, De'Andre James

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are generally substances with a high heat of fusion in the process of solid to liquid phase change. The nature of PCMs make them efficient materials to store and retrieve large amounts of thermal energy. Presently, high efficiency thermal energy storage/retrieval in applications where flexibility and space saving are required, such as smart textiles, still remains as a challenge. In this study, lauric acid (LA) and myristic acid (MA) were combined to prepare a specific binary fatty acid eutectic (LA-MA) with a melting point near the operating body temperature of a human being and then encapsulated in polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers through the electrospinning technique. Functionalized PCM-enhanced PAN nanofibers containing LA-MA at 30%, 50%, 70% and 100% of the weight of the PAN were successfully synthesized. The morphological structures and thermal energy storage capacity of the PCM-enhanced PAN nanofibers were characterized by electron microscopy (EM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The novel PCM-enhanced PAN nanofibers maintained their cylindrical fiber morphology after multiple heating-cooling cycles and retained their latent heat storage functionality. Thus, it is envisioned that the prepared PCM-enhanced PAN nanofibers will find use in applications such as smart textiles where temperature regulation functionality is required.

  20. Does Inhalation of Virgin Coconut Oil Accelerate Reversal of Airway Remodelling in an Allergic Model of Asthma?

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have been done to evaluate the effect of various natural products in controlling asthma symptoms. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is known to contain active compounds that have beneficial effects on human health and diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of VCO inhalation on airway remodelling in a rabbit model of allergic asthma. The effects of VCO inhalation on infiltration of airway inflammatory cells, airway structures, goblet cell hyperplasia, and cell proliferation following ovalbumin induction were evaluated. Allergic asthma was induced by a combination of ovalbumin and alum injection and/or followed by ovalbumin inhalation. The effect of VCO inhalation was then evaluated via the rescue or the preventive route. Percentage of inflammatory cells infiltration, thickness of epithelium and mucosa regions, and the numbers of goblet and proliferative cells were reduced in the rescue group but not in preventive group. Analysis using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry found that lauric acid and capric acid were among the most abundant fatty acids present in the sample. Significant improvement was observed in rescue route in alleviating the asthma symptoms, which indicates the VCO was able to relieve asthma-related symptoms more than preventing the onset of asthma. PMID:28660089

  1. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of seed oil of two Algerian date palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera).

    PubMed

    Boukouada, Mustapha; Ghiaba, Zineb; Gourine, Nadhir; Bombarda, Isabelle; Saidi, Mokhtar; Yousfi, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    The fatty acid composition of date seed oil from two different date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars, locally known as Degla-Baïdha and Tafezouine, were investigated. GC analysis revealed the presence of five dominant fatty acids: oleic C18:1 (46.51; 39.15%), lauric C12:0 (22.1; 28.5%), myristic C14:0 (10.7; 11.4%), palmitic C16:0 (9.6; 8.7%) and linoleic C18:2 (6.9; 6.1%). The oils was characterised by a low content of tocopherols (0.53; 1.41 μg/g). The antioxidant activity of the oils was investigated using the DPPH*(1,1-di-phenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) scavenging assay. The oils had a weak bleaching effect on DPPH* free radicals. This study showed that the qualities of the tested oils are highly comparable with those of some commercial seed oils of other plants. Furthermore, a statistical analysis using the hierarchy ascendant classification method was conducted in order to highlight the similarities and/or the differences regarding the contents of the main fatty acids found in some common plants and in the five most famous cultivars of Phoenix dactylifera of south eastern Algeria (Tafezouine, Degla-Baïdha, Deglet-Nour, Ghars, Tamdjouhert).

  2. Inhibitors of bacterial multidrug efflux pumps from the resin glycosides of Ipomoea murucoides.

    PubMed

    Chérigo, Lilia; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Fragoso-Serrano, Mabel; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia; Kaatz, Glenn W; Gibbons, Simon

    2008-06-01

    A reinvestigation of the CHCl 3-soluble extract from flowers of the Mexican medicinal arborescent morning glory, Ipomoea murucoides, through preparative-scale recycling HPLC, yielded six new pentasaccharides, murucoidins VI-XI (1- 6), as well as the known pescaprein III (7), stoloniferin I (8), and murucoidins I-V (9- 13). Their structures were characterized through the interpretation of their NMR spectroscopic and FABMS data. Compounds 1-6 were found to be macrolactones of three known glycosidic acids identified as simonic acids A and B, and operculinic acid A, with different fatty acids esterifying the same positions, C-2 on the second rhamnose unit and C-4 on the third rhamnose moiety. The lactonization site of the aglycone was placed at C-2 or C-3 of the second saccharide unit. The esterifying residues were composed of two short-chain fatty acids, 2-methylpropanoic and (2S)-methylbutyric acids, and two long-chain fatty acids, n-dodecanoic (lauric) acid and the new (8R)-(-)-8-hydroxydodecanoic acid. For the latter residue, its absolute configuration was determined by analysis of its Mosher ester derivatives. All members of the murucoidin series exerted a potentiation effect of norfloxacin against the NorA overexpressing Staphylococcus aureus strain SA-1199B by increasing the activity 4-fold (8 microg/mL from 32 microg/mL) at concentrations of 5-25 microg/mL. Stoloniferin I (8) enhanced norfloxacin activity 8-fold when incorporated at a concentration of 5 microg/mL. Therefore, this type of amphipathic oligosaccharide could be developed further to provide more potent inhibitors of this multidrug efflux pump.

  3. Chemical characterization of a variety of cold-pressed gourmet oils available on the Brazilian market.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Nicola; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Salvo, Andrea; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Bartolomeo, Giovanni; Mangano, Valentina; Rotondo, Archimede; Di Stefano, Vita; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Dugo, Giacomo

    2018-07-01

    Different specialty extra virgin oils, produced by cold-pressing fruits/nuts (olive, pequi, palm, avocado, coconut, macadamia and Brazil nut) and seeds (grapeseed and canola), and retailed in the Brazilian region of Minas Gerais, were chemically characterized. Specifically, for each type of oil, the fatty acid composition was elucidated by GC-FID, the contents of selected polyphenols and squalene were determined respectively by UHPLC-MS and UHPLC-PDA, whereas minerals were explored by means of ICP-MS. Olive oil was confirmed to have the highest MUFA content due to a valuable level of oleic acid, while oils from grapeseed, Brazil nut and canola were marked by nutritionally important PUFA levels. The highest SFA content found in coconut oil was mainly due to the high levels of lauric acid, known for its advantageous HDL-raising effects. As for polyphenols, gourmet oils from palm, coconut and canola showed higher levels of phenolic acids (e.g. p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, syringic, acids) than olive oil, which was though characterized by peculiar antioxidants, such as tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. Also, olive oil had the highest amount of squalene, followed by the oil from Brazil nut. Finally, all the investigated oils had very low levels (order of μg/kg) of pro-oxidant elements, such as Cu, Fe and Mn. Overall, these findings may fill the gaps still present in literature on certain compositional aspects of commercially available gourmet oils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial degradation of poly(amino acid)s.

    PubMed

    Obst, Martin; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Natural poly(amino acid)s are a group of poly(ionic) molecules (ionomers) with various biological functions and putative technical applications and play, therefore, an important role both in nature and in human life. Because of their biocompatibility and their synthesis from renewable resources, poly(amino acid)s may be employed for many different purposes covering a broad spectrum of medical, pharmaceutical, and personal care applications as well as the domains of agriculture and of environmental applications. Biodegradability is one important advantage of naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s over many synthetic polymers. The intention of this review is to give an overview about the enzyme systems catalyzing the initial steps in poly(amino acid) degradation. The focus is on the naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s cyanophycin, poly(epsilon-L-lysine) and poly(gamma-glutamic acid); but biodegradation of structurally related synthetic polyamides such as poly(aspartic acid) and nylons, which are known from various technical applications, is also included.

  5. Toward production of jet fuel functionality in oilseeds: identification of FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases and evaluation of combinatorial expression strategies in Camelina seeds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E.; Vu, Hieu Sy; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nam, Jeong-Won; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of members of the genus Cuphea accumulate medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; 8:0–14:0). MCFA- and palmitic acid- (16:0) rich vegetable oils have received attention for jet fuel production, given their similarity in chain length to Jet A fuel hydrocarbons. Studies were conducted to test genes, including those from Cuphea, for their ability to confer jet fuel-type fatty acid accumulation in seed oil of the emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa. Transcriptomes from Cuphea viscosissima and Cuphea pulcherrima developing seeds that accumulate >90% of C8 and C10 fatty acids revealed three FatB cDNAs (CpuFatB3, CvFatB1, and CpuFatB4) expressed predominantly in seeds and structurally divergent from typical FatB thioesterases that release 16:0 from acyl carrier protein (ACP). Expression of CpuFatB3 and CvFatB1 resulted in Camelina oil with capric acid (10:0), and CpuFatB4 expression conferred myristic acid (14:0) production and increased 16:0. Co-expression of combinations of previously characterized Cuphea and California bay FatBs produced Camelina oils with mixtures of C8–C16 fatty acids, but amounts of each fatty acid were less than obtained by expression of individual FatB cDNAs. Increases in lauric acid (12:0) and 14:0, but not 10:0, in Camelina oil and at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols resulted from inclusion of a coconut lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase specialized for MCFAs. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of Camelina β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, however, reduced 12:0 in seeds expressing a 12:0-ACP-specific FatB. Camelina lines presented here provide platforms for additional metabolic engineering targeting fatty acid synthase and specialized acyltransferases for achieving oils with high levels of jet fuel-type fatty acids. PMID:25969557

  6. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids: new insights into the pharmacology and biology of docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H

    2013-12-01

    Fish oil contains a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids, which are predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Each of these omega-3 fatty acids has distinct biological effects that may have variable clinical effects. In addition, plasma levels of omega-3 fatty acids are affected not only by dietary intake, but also by the polymorphisms of coding genes fatty acid desaturase 1-3 for the desaturase enzymes that convert short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The clinical significance of this new understanding regarding the complexity of omega-3 fatty acid biology is the purpose of this review. FADS polymorphisms that result in either lower levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or higher levels of long-chain omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, are associated with dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular risk factors. EPA and DHA have differences in their effects on lipoprotein metabolism, in which EPA, with a more potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha effect, decreases hepatic lipogenesis, whereas DHA not only enhances VLDL lipolysis, resulting in greater conversion to LDL, but also increases HDL cholesterol and larger, more buoyant LDL particles. Overall, these results emphasize that blood concentrations of individual long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which reflect both dietary intake and metabolic influences, may have independent, but also complementary- biological effects and reinforce the need to potentially provide a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids to maximize cardiovascular risk reduction.

  8. Strategies to optimize the biocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles - ;SPIONs safe by design;

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janko, Christina; Zaloga, Jan; Pöttler, Marina; Dürr, Stephan; Eberbeck, Dietmar; Tietze, Rainer; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Various nanoparticle systems have been developed for medical applications in recent years. For constant improvement of efficacy and safety of nanoparticles, a close interdisciplinary interplay between synthesis, physicochemical characterizations and toxicological investigations is urgently needed. Based on combined toxicological data, we follow a ;safe-by design; strategy for our superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). Using complementary interference-free toxicological assay systems, we initially identified agglomeration tendencies in physiological fluids, strong uptake by cells and improvable biocompatibility of lauric acid (LA)-coated SPIONs (SPIONLA). Thus, we decided to further stabilize those particles by an artificial protein corona consisting of serum albumin. This approach finally lead to increased colloidal stability, augmented drug loading capacity and improved biocompatibility in previous in vitro assays. Here, we show in whole blood ex vivo and on isolated red blood cells (RBC) that a protein corona protects RBCs from hemolysis by SPIONs.

  9. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  10. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  11. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-06

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  12. Optimization of total vaporization solid-phase microextraction (TV-SPME) for the determination of lipid profiles of Phormia regina, a forensically important blow fly species.

    PubMed

    Kranz, William; Carroll, Clinton; Dixon, Darren; Picard, Christine; Goodpaster, John

    2017-11-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of fatty acids, sterols, and other lipids which naturally occur within pupae of the blow fly Phormia regina. The method relies upon liquid extraction in non-polar solvent, followed by derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) w/ 1% trimethylchlorsilane (TMCS) carried out inside the sample vial. The analysis is facilitated by total vaporization solid-phase microextraction (TV-SPME), with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) serving as the instrumentation for analysis. The TV-SPME delivery technique is approximately a factor of five more sensitive than traditional liquid injection, which may alleviate the need for rotary evaporation, reconstitution, collection of high performance liquid chromatography fractions, and many of the other pre-concentration steps that are commonplace in the current literature. Furthermore, the ability to derivatize the liquid extract in a single easy step while increasing sensitivity represents an improvement over current derivatization methods. The most common lipids identified in fly pupae were various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids ranging from lauric acid (12:0) to arachinoic acid (20:4), as well as cholesterol. The concentrations of myristic acid (14:0), palmitelaidic acid (16:2), and palmitoleic acid (16:1) were the most reliable indicators of the age of the pupae. Graphical abstract Blow fly pupae were extracted prior to emerging as adults. The extracts were analyzed via total vaporization solid-phase microextraction (TV-SPME), revealing a complex mixture of lipids that could be associated with the age of the insect. This information may assist in determining a post-mortum interval (PMI) in a death investigation.

  13. Enantioselective oxidation of racemic lactic acid to D-lactic acid and pyruvic acid by Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Qiu, Jianhua; Li, Jingchen; Ma, Cuiqing; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2009-03-01

    D-lactic acid and pyruvic acid are two important building block intermediates. Production of D-lactic acid and pyruvic acid from racemic lactic acid by biotransformation is economically interesting. Biocatalyst prepared from 9 g dry cell wt l(-1) of Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM could catalyze 45.00 g l(-1)DL-lactic acid into 25.23 g l(-1)D-lactic acid and 19.70 g l(-1) pyruvic acid in 10h. Using a simple ion exchange process, D-lactic acid and pyruvic acid were effectively separated from the biotransformation system. Co-production of d-lactic acid and pyruvic acid by enantioselective oxidation of racemic lactic acid is technically feasible.

  14. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  15. Effect of baseline plasma fatty acids on eicosapentaenoic acid levels in individuals supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    DeFilippis, Andrew P; Harper, Charles R; Cotsonis, George A; Jacobson, Terry A

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported a >50% increase in mean plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels in a general medicine clinic population after supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid. In the current analysis, we evaluate the variability of changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels among individuals supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid and evaluated the impact of baseline plasma fatty acids levels on changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels in these individuals. Changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels among individuals supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid ranged from a 55% decrease to a 967% increase. Baseline plasma fatty acids had no statistically significant effect on changes in eicosapentaenoic levels acid after alpha-linolenic acid supplementation. Changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels varied considerably in a general internal medicine clinic population supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid. Factors that may impact changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels after alpha-linolenic acid supplementation warrant further study.

  16. Antimicrobial Nanoparticle for the Treatment of Bacterial Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pornpattananangkul, Dissaya

    into the liposome membranes and form pores, through which the encapsulated therapeutic agents are released. The released drugs subsequently impose antimicrobial effects on the toxin-secreting bacteria. It was observed that in the presence of toxin-secreting bacteria, 100% of the encapsulated antibiotics were released from the gold nanoparticle-stabilized liposomes and bacterial growth was effectively inhibited by the released antibiotics in 24 h. The second area is to demonstrate an application of the invented technology to treat acne vulgaris by delivering therapeutics to the acne-causing bacteria, named Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes). First, lauric acid (LA), an antimicrobial with strong activity against P. acnes, is encapsulated in liposomes (LipoLA), which is shown to effectively kill the bacteria by fusion with the bacterial membrane, resulting in a direct insertion of LA molecules to the membrane and destruction of its surface structure in vitro and in vivo. The system is then further improved by the acid-responsive technology based on the fact that the acne lesions on human skin are typically acidic. Demonstrated by fluorescent and antimicrobial experiments, the bound gold nanoparticles effectively prevent LipoLA from fusing with one another at neutral pH value. However, at acidic condition, the gold particles detatch from LipoLA surface, allowing the fusion with P.acnes membrane and lauric acid delivery, resulting in a complete killing effect. The stimuli-responsive liposomes presented here provide a new, safe, and effective approach to treat bacterial infections. They can be broadly applied to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria that reside in acidic environment and secrete pore-forming toxins.

  17. Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

  18. Antimicrobial edible coatings and films from micro-emulsions and their food applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study focused on the use of antimicrobial edible coatings and films from micro-emulsions to reduce populations of foodborne pathogens in foods. Corn-Bio-fiber gum (C-BFG) was used as an emulsifier with chitosan. Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) and lauric arginate ester (LAE) served as antimicrobials...

  19. Formulation of Granules for Site-Specific Delivery of an Antimicrobial Essential Oil to the Animal Intestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yin-Hing; Wang, Qi; Gong, Joshua; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2016-03-01

    Owing to proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the use of antibiotics for livestock growth promotion is banned in many countries and alternatives to in-feed antibiotics are needed. Cinnamon essential oil exhibits strong in vitro antibacterial activity; however, direct addition of essential oils to animal feed has limited practicality due to their high volatility, odor, fast decomposition, and poor availability in the lower intestines. To solve these problems, we formulated trans-cinnamaldehyde (CIN) with an adsorbent powder and fatty acid via a melt-solidification technique. Core granules of an optimized composition contained up to 48% wt/wt CIN. The granules were then coated with an enteric polymer to impart site-specific release of CIN. CIN was mostly retained in simulated gastric fluid and released rapidly (>80% under 2 h) in simulated intestinal fluids. Rapid CIN autoxidation into cinnamic acid was inhibited by adding 1% vol/vol eugenol, which maintained CIN stability for at least 1 y. The granule formulation increased the antimicrobial activity of CIN against Escherichia coli K88 slightly with a minimum bactericidal concentration of 450 μg/mL for CIN in lauric acid-based granules compared with 550-600 μg/mL for palmitic acid-based granules and free CIN, respectively. These results encourage the potential use of encapsulated CIN for control of animal enteric pathogens by oral in-feed administration. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  1. Determination of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids in lake trout from the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Helm, Paul A; Mabury, Scott A; Braekevelt, Eric; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2012-11-01

    A comprehensive method to extract perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters simultaneously from fish samples has been developed. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 78 % to 121 %. The new method was used to analyze lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes region. The results showed that the total perfluoroalkane sulfonate concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 145 ng/g (wet weight) with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the dominant contaminant. Concentrations in fish between lakes were in the order of Lakes Ontario ≈ Erie > Huron > Superior ≈ Nipigon. The total perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 18.2 ng/g wet weight. The aggregate mean perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentration in fish across all lakes was 0.045 ± 0.023 ng/g. Mean concentrations of PFOA were not significantly different (p > 0.1) among the five lakes. Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids were detected in lake trout from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron with concentration ranging from non-detect (ND) to 0.032 ng/g. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were detected only in lake trout from Lake Huron, at levels similar to perfluorooctanoic acid.

  2. Feeding Healthy Beagles Medium-Chain Triglycerides, Fish Oil, and Carnitine Offsets Age-Related Changes in Serum Fatty Acids and Carnitine Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; Jewell, Dennis E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if feeding dogs medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), fish oil, and L-carnitine enriched foods offsets age-associated changes in serum fatty acids (FA) and carnitine metabolites. Forty-one healthy Beagles, mean age 9.9 years (range 3.1 to 14.8), were fed control or one of two treatment foods for 6 months. All foods were complete and balanced and met the nutrient requirements for adult dogs, and had similar concentrations of moisture, protein, and fat (approx. 7.4%, 14.0%, and 18.1%, respectively). The treatment diets both contained added L-carnitine (300 mg/kg) and 0.6% (treatment food 1) or 1.5% (treatment food 2) added fish oil. Treatment food 2 also had increased MCT from coconut oil, added corn oil, and reduced animal fat. Composition of serum FA was determined by gas chromatography of FA methyl esters. Metabolomic profiles of serum samples were determined from extracted supernatants that were split and run on GC/MS and LC/MS/MS platforms, for identification and relative quantification of small metabolites. Body composition was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Among dog groups, there was no change in total-lean-body weight, or in serum total protein and serum albumin concentrations, based on time or dietary treatment. Serum concentrations of carnitine metabolites were decreased in geriatric (>7 years) vs. mature adult (≤7 years) dogs, and supplementation with L-carnitine attenuated the effects of aging. The ratio of PUFA to SFA was significantly greater in mature dogs at baseline (P≤0.05). Serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic FA increased in a dose-dependent manner. Dogs consuming treatment food 2 also had increased serum concentrations of lauric and myristic FA, and decreased concentrations of SFA, MUFA, and arachidonate (all P≤0.05) and their PUFA to SFA ratio increased. In summary, dietary MCT, fish oil, and L-carnitine counterbalanced the effects of aging on circulating

  3. Feeding healthy beagles medium-chain triglycerides, fish oil, and carnitine offsets age-related changes in serum fatty acids and carnitine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; Jewell, Dennis E

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if feeding dogs medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), fish oil, and L-carnitine enriched foods offsets age-associated changes in serum fatty acids (FA) and carnitine metabolites. Forty-one healthy Beagles, mean age 9.9 years (range 3.1 to 14.8), were fed control or one of two treatment foods for 6 months. All foods were complete and balanced and met the nutrient requirements for adult dogs, and had similar concentrations of moisture, protein, and fat (approx. 7.4%, 14.0%, and 18.1%, respectively). The treatment diets both contained added L-carnitine (300 mg/kg) and 0.6% (treatment food 1) or 1.5% (treatment food 2) added fish oil. Treatment food 2 also had increased MCT from coconut oil, added corn oil, and reduced animal fat. Composition of serum FA was determined by gas chromatography of FA methyl esters. Metabolomic profiles of serum samples were determined from extracted supernatants that were split and run on GC/MS and LC/MS/MS platforms, for identification and relative quantification of small metabolites. Body composition was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Among dog groups, there was no change in total-lean-body weight, or in serum total protein and serum albumin concentrations, based on time or dietary treatment. Serum concentrations of carnitine metabolites were decreased in geriatric (>7 years) vs. mature adult (≤ 7 years) dogs, and supplementation with L-carnitine attenuated the effects of aging. The ratio of PUFA to SFA was significantly greater in mature dogs at baseline (P ≤ 0.05). Serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic FA increased in a dose-dependent manner. Dogs consuming treatment food 2 also had increased serum concentrations of lauric and myristic FA, and decreased concentrations of SFA, MUFA, and arachidonate (all P ≤ 0.05) and their PUFA to SFA ratio increased. In summary, dietary MCT, fish oil, and L-carnitine counterbalanced the effects of aging on circulating

  4. Hydrolysis Activity of Virgin Coconut Oil Using Lipase from Different Sources.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T A V; Le, Truong D; Phan, Hoa N; Tran, Lam B

    2018-01-01

    Two types of lipase, Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) and porcine pancreas lipase (PPL), were used to hydrolyze virgin coconut oil (VCO). The hydrolysis process was carried out under four parameters, VCO to buffer ratio, lipase concentration, pH, and temperature, which have a significant effect on hydrolysis of lipase. CRL obtained the best hydrolysis condition at 1 : 5 of VCO to buffer ratio, 1.5% of CRL concentration, pH 7, and temperature of 40°C. Meanwhile, PPL gave different results at 1 : 4 of VCO to buffer ratio, 2% of lipase concentration, pH 7.5, and 40°C. The highest hydrolysis degree of CRL and PPL was obtained after 16 hours and 26 hours, reaching 79.64% and 27.94%, respectively. Besides, the hydrolysis process was controlled at different time course (every half an hour) at the first 4 hours of reaction to compare the initial hydrolysis degree of these two lipase types. FFAs from hydrolyzed products were isolated and determined the percentage of each fatty acid which contributes to the FFAs mixture. As a result, medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) made up the main contribution in composition of FFAs and lauric acid (C12) was the largest segment (47.23% for CRL and 44.23% for PPL).

  5. pH-Sensitive self-propelled motion of oil droplets in the presence of cationic surfactants containing hydrolyzable ester linkages.

    PubMed

    Banno, Taisuke; Kuroha, Rie; Toyota, Taro

    2012-01-17

    Self-propelled oil droplets in a nonequilibrium system have drawn much attention as both a primitive type of inanimate chemical machinery and a dynamic model of the origin of life. Here, to create the pH-sensitive self-propelled motion of oil droplets, we synthesized cationic surfactants containing hydrolyzable ester linkages. We found that n-heptyloxybenzaldehyde oil droplets were self-propelled in the presence of ester-containing cationic surfactant. In basic solution prepared with sodium hydroxide, oil droplets moved as molecular aggregates formed on their surface. Moreover, the self-propelled motion in the presence of the hydrolyzable cationic surfactant lasted longer than that in the presence of nonhydrolyzable cationic surfactant. This is probably due to the production of a fatty acid by the hydrolysis of the ester-containing cationic surfactant and the subsequent neutralization of the fatty acid with sodium hydroxide. A complex surfactant was formed in the aqueous solution because of the cation and anion combination. Because such complex formation can induce both a decrease in the interfacial tension of the oil droplet and self-assembly with n-heptyloxybenzaldehyde and lauric acid in the aqueous dispersion, the prolonged movement of the oil droplet may be explained by the increase in heterogeneity of the interfacial tension of the oil droplet triggered by the hydrolysis of the ester-containing surfactant. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Hydrolysis Activity of Virgin Coconut Oil Using Lipase from Different Sources

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Hoa N.; Tran, Lam B.

    2018-01-01

    Two types of lipase, Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) and porcine pancreas lipase (PPL), were used to hydrolyze virgin coconut oil (VCO). The hydrolysis process was carried out under four parameters, VCO to buffer ratio, lipase concentration, pH, and temperature, which have a significant effect on hydrolysis of lipase. CRL obtained the best hydrolysis condition at 1 : 5 of VCO to buffer ratio, 1.5% of CRL concentration, pH 7, and temperature of 40°C. Meanwhile, PPL gave different results at 1 : 4 of VCO to buffer ratio, 2% of lipase concentration, pH 7.5, and 40°C. The highest hydrolysis degree of CRL and PPL was obtained after 16 hours and 26 hours, reaching 79.64% and 27.94%, respectively. Besides, the hydrolysis process was controlled at different time course (every half an hour) at the first 4 hours of reaction to compare the initial hydrolysis degree of these two lipase types. FFAs from hydrolyzed products were isolated and determined the percentage of each fatty acid which contributes to the FFAs mixture. As a result, medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) made up the main contribution in composition of FFAs and lauric acid (C12) was the largest segment (47.23% for CRL and 44.23% for PPL). PMID:29623233

  7. Interaction of Temperature and Photoperiod Increases Growth and Oil Content in the Marine Microalgae Dunaliella viridis

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Brian; Dvora, Mia; Dums, Jacob; Backman, Patrick; Sederoff, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic marine microalgae like Dunaliella spp. have great potential as a feedstock for liquid transportation fuels because they grow fast and can accumulate high levels of triacylgycerides with little need for fresh water or land. Their growth rates vary between species and are dependent on environmental conditions. The cell cycle, starch and triacylglycerol accumulation are controlled by the diurnal light:dark cycle. Storage compounds like starch and triacylglycerol accumulate in the light when CO2 fixation rates exceed the need of assimilated carbon and energy for cell maintenance and division during the dark phase. To delineate environmental effects, we analyzed cell division rates, metabolism and transcriptional regulation in Dunaliella viridis in response to changes in light duration and growth temperatures. Its rate of cell division was increased under continuous light conditions, while a shift in temperature from 25°C to 35°C did not significantly affect the cell division rate, but increased the triacylglycerol content per cell several-fold under continuous light. The amount of saturated fatty acids in triacylglycerol fraction was more responsive to an increase in temperature than to a change in the light regime. Detailed fatty acid profiles showed that Dunaliella viridis incorporated lauric acid (C12:0) into triacylglycerol after 24 hours under continuous light. Transcriptome analysis identified potential regulators involved in the light and temperature-induced lipid accumulation in Dunaliella viridis. PMID:25992838

  8. Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, α-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

  9. Production of succinic Acid from citric Acid and related acids by lactobacillus strains.

    PubMed

    Kaneuchi, C; Seki, M; Komagata, K

    1988-12-01

    A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, alpha-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli.

  10. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  11. Efficacy of Lactic Acid, Lactic Acid-Acetic Acid Blends, and Peracetic Acid To Reduce Salmonella on Chicken Parts under Simulated Commercial Processing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Hernandez, Alejandra; Brashears, Mindy M; Sanchez-Plata, Marcos X

    2018-01-01

    The poultry processing industry has been undergoing a series of changes as it modifies processing practices to comply with new performance standards for chicken parts and comminuted poultry products. The regulatory approach encourages the use of intervention strategies to prevent and control foodborne pathogens in poultry products and thus improve food safety and protect human health. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial interventions for reducing Salmonella on inoculated chicken parts under simulated commercial processing conditions. Chicken pieces were inoculated by immersion in a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at 6 log CFU/mL and then treated with organic acids and oxidizing agents on a commercial rinsing conveyor belt. The efficacy of spraying with six different treatments (sterile water, lactic acid, acetic acid, buffered lactic acid, acetic acid in combination with lactic acid, and peracetic acid) at two concentrations was evaluated on skin-on and skin-off chicken thighs at three application temperatures. Skinless chicken breasts were used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of lactic acid and peracetic acid. The color stability of treated and untreated chicken parts was assessed after the acid interventions. The lactic acid and buffered lactic acid treatments produced the greatest reductions in Salmonella counts. Significant differences between the control and water treatments were identified for 5.11% lactic acid and 5.85% buffered lactic acid in both skin-on and skin-off chicken thighs. No significant effect of treatment temperature for skin-on chicken thighs was found. Lactic acid and peracetic acid were effective agents for eluting Salmonella cells attached to chicken breasts.

  12. Preparation of the 3-monosulphates of cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Haslewood, E S; Haslewood, G A

    1976-01-01

    1. The 3-sulphates of cholic, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acids were prepared as crystalline disodium salts. 2. The method described shows that it is possible to prepare specific sulphate esters of polyhydroxy bile acids and to remove protecting acyl groups without removing the sulphate. 3. A study of bile acid sulphate solvolysis showed that none of the usual methods give the original bile acid in major yield in a single step. 4. An understanding of the preparation, properties and methods of solvolysis of bile acid sulphates is basic for investigations of cholestasis and liver disease. PMID:938488

  13. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  14. Characterization of carotenoids and carotenoid esters in red pepper pods (Capsicum annuum L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ute; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Carotenoids and carotenoid esters were extracted from red pepper pods (Capsicum annuum L.) without saponification. Among the 42 compounds detected, 4 non-esterified, 11 mono- and 17 diesters were characterized based on their retention times, UV/Vis spectra and their fragmentation patterns in collision-induced dissociation experiments in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). Positive and negative ion mode measurements were used for the characterization of major and minor carotenoids and their esters. Capsanthin esterified with lauric, palmitic and myristic acids represented the predominant compounds in the red pepper extracts. Additionally, three beta-cryptoxanthin and one zeaxanthin monoester were tentatively identified in red pepper pods for the first time. Furthermore, the specific fragmentation patterns of capsanthin-laurate-myristate and capsanthin-myristate-palmitate were used for the distinction of both regioisomers. The results obtained from LC-DAD-APCI-MSn experiments demonstrated that the carotenoid profile of red pepper pods is considerably more complex than considered hitherto. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Studies of Phase Change Materials and a Latent Heat Storage Unit Used for a Natural Circulation Cooling/Latent Heat Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakitani, Katsumi; Honda, Hiroshi

    Experiments were performed to investigate feasibility of using organic materials as a PCM for a latent heat storage unit of a natural circulation cooling/latent heat storage system. This system was designed to cool a shelter accommodating telecommunication equipment located in subtropical deserts or similar regions without using a power source. Taking into account practical considerations and the results of various experiments regarding the thermodynamic properties, thermal degradation, and corrosiveness to metals, lauric acid and iron was selected for the PCM and the latent heat storage unit material, respectively. Cyclic heating and cooling of the latent heat storage unit undergoing solid-liquid phase change was repeated for more than 430 days. The results showed that the heating-cooling curve was almost unchanged between the early stage and the 1,870th cycle. It was concluded that the latent heat storage unit could be used safely for more than ten years as a component of the cooling system.

  16. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  17. Production of polymalic acid and malic acid by Aureobasidium pullulans fermentation and acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang; Zhou, Yipin; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-08-01

    Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid widely used in the food industry and also a potential C4 platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. However, microbial fermentation for direct malic acid production is limited by low product yield, titer, and productivity due to end-product inhibition. In this work, a novel process for malic acid production from polymalic acid (PMA) fermentation followed by acid hydrolysis was developed. First, a PMA-producing Aureobasidium pullulans strain ZX-10 was screened and isolated. This microbe produced PMA as the major fermentation product at a high-titer equivalent to 87.6 g/L of malic acid and high-productivity of 0.61 g/L h in free-cell fermentation in a stirred-tank bioreactor. Fed-batch fermentations with cells immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) achieved the highest product titer of 144.2 g/L and productivity of 0.74 g/L h. The fermentation produced PMA was purified by adsorption with IRA-900 anion-exchange resins, achieving a ∼100% purity and a high recovery rate of 84%. Pure malic acid was then produced from PMA by hydrolysis with 2 M sulfuric acid at 85°C, which followed the first-order reaction kinetics. This process provides an efficient and economical way for PMA and malic acid production, and is promising for industrial application. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Acyl coenzyme a preference of diacylglycerol acyltransferase from the maturing seeds of cuphea, maize, rapeseed, and canola.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y Z; Huang, A H

    1987-07-01

    In their seed triacylglycerols, Cuphea carthagenensis contains 62% lauric acid; maize possesses 50% linoleic acid and 30% oleic acid; rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var Dwarf Essex) has 40% erucic acid; and Canola (Brassica napus L. var Tower) holds 60% oleic acid and 23% linoleic acid. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.20) in the microsomal preparations from maturing seeds of the above species were tested for their preference in using different forms of acyl coenzyme A (CoA). Lauroyl CoA, oleoyl CoA, and erucoyl CoA individually or in equimolar mixtures at increasing concentrations were added to the assay mixture containing diolein, and the formation of triacylglycerols from the acyl groups at 24, 32, and 40 degrees C was analyzed. The Cuphea enzyme preferred lauroyl CoA to oleoyl CoA, and was inactive on erucoyl CoA. The maize enzyme had about equal activities on oleoyl CoA and lauroyl CoA, and was inactive on erucoyl CoA. Enzymes from both rapeseed and Canola had the same pattern of acyl CoA preference, with highest activities on lauroyl CoA. The two enzymes were more active on oleoyl CoA than on erucoyl CoA at high acyl CoA concentrations (10 and 20 micromolar) at 24 degrees C, but were more active on erucoyl CoA than on oleoyl CoA at low acyl CoA concentrations (1.36 micromolar or less) at 32 and 40 degrees C. These findings are discussed in terms of the contribution of the enzyme to the acyl specificity in storage triacylglycerols and the implication in seed oil biotechnology.

  19. Acyl Coenzyme A Preference of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase from the Maturing Seeds of Cuphea, Maize, Rapeseed, and Canola 1

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yi-Zhi; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1987-01-01

    In their seed triacylglycerols, Cuphea carthagenensis contains 62% lauric acid; maize possesses 50% linoleic acid and 30% oleic acid; rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var Dwarf Essex) has 40% erucic acid; and Canola (Brassica napus L. var Tower) holds 60% oleic acid and 23% linoleic acid. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.20) in the microsomal preparations from maturing seeds of the above species were tested for their preference in using different forms of acyl coenzyme A (CoA). Lauroyl CoA, oleoyl CoA, and erucoyl CoA individually or in equimolar mixtures at increasing concentrations were added to the assay mixture containing diolein, and the formation of triacylglycerols from the acyl groups at 24, 32, and 40°C was analyzed. The Cuphea enzyme preferred lauroyl CoA to oleoyl CoA, and was inactive on erucoyl CoA. The maize enzyme had about equal activities on oleoyl CoA and lauroyl CoA, and was inactive on erucoyl CoA. Enzymes from both rapeseed and Canola had the same pattern of acyl CoA preference, with highest activities on lauroyl CoA. The two enzymes were more active on oleoyl CoA than on erucoyl CoA at high acyl CoA concentrations (10 and 20 micromolar) at 24°C, but were more active on erucoyl CoA than on oleoyl CoA at low acyl CoA concentrations (1.36 micromolar or less) at 32 and 40°C. These findings are discussed in terms of the contribution of the enzyme to the acyl specificity in storage triacylglycerols and the implication in seed oil biotechnology. PMID:16665518

  20. Molecular and isotopic analyses of the hydroxy acids, dicarboxylic acids, and hydroxydicarboxylic acids of the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Epstein, S.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.

    1993-10-01

    The hydroxymonocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, and hydroxydicarboxylic acids of the Murchison meteorite were analyzed as their tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The hydroxydicarboxylic acids have not been found previously in meteorites. Each class of compounds is numerous with carbon chains up to C8 or C9 and many, if not all, chain and substitution position isomers represented at each carbon number. The alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids and alpha-hydroxydicarboxylic acids correspond structurally to many of the known meteoritic alpha-aminocarboxylic acids and alpha-aminodicarboxylic acids, a fact that supports the proposal that a Strecker synthesis was involved in the formation of both classes of compounds. Isotopic analyses show these acids to be D-rich relative to terrestrial organic compounds, as expected; however, the hydroxy acids appear to be isotopically lighter than the amino acids with respect to both carbon and hydrogen.

  1. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It ... release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of ...

  2. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  3. 5-(Tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid and related hypolipidemic fatty acid-like alkyloxyarylcarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Parker, R A; Kariya, T; Grisar, J M; Petrow, V

    1977-06-01

    5-(Tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid (91, RMI 14514) was found to lower blood lipids and to inhibit fatty acid synthesis with minimal effects on liver weight and liver fat content. This fatty acid-like compound represents a new class of hypolipidemic agent; it is effective in rats and monkeys. The compound resulted from discovery of hypolipidemic activity in certain beta-keto esters, postulation and confirmation of the corresponding benzoic acids as active metabolites, and systematic exploration of the structure--activity relationships.

  4. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  5. Uracil in formic acid hydrolysates of deoxyribonucleic acid

    PubMed Central

    Schein, Arnold H.

    1966-01-01

    1. When DNA is hydrolysed with formic acid for 30min. at 175° and the hydrolysate is chromatographed on paper with propan-2-ol–2n-hydrochloric acid, in addition to expected ultraviolet-absorbing spots corresponding to guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine, an ultraviolet-absorbing region with RF similar to that of uracil can be detected. Uracil was separated from this region and identified by its spectra in acid and alkali, and by its RF in several solvent systems. 2. Cytosine, deoxyribocytidine and deoxyribocytidylic acid similarly treated with formic acid all yielded uracil, as did a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides. 3. Approx. 4% of deoxyribonucleotide cytosine was converted into uracil by the formic acid treatment. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:5949371

  6. Comparison of nitroethane, 2-nitro-1-propanol, lauric acid, Lauricidin and the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros, for potential broad-spectrum control of anaerobically grown lactic acid bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gastrointestinal tract of bovines often contains bacteria that contribute to disorders of the rumen and may also contain foodborne or opportunistic human pathogens as well as bacteria capable of causing mastitis in cows. Thus, there is a need to develop broad-spectrum therapies that are effecti...

  7. Intake of individual saturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women: two prospective longitudinal cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Zong, Geng; Li, Yanping; Wanders, Anne J; Alssema, Marjan; Zock, Peter L; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Sun, Qi

    2016-11-23

     To investigate the association between long term intake of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and the risk of coronary heart disease, in two large cohort studies.  Prospective, longitudinal cohort study.  Health professionals in the United States.  73 147 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012) and 42 635 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010), who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline.  Incidence of coronary heart disease (n=7035) was self-reported, and related deaths were identified by searching National Death Index or through report of next of kin or postal authority. Cases were confirmed by medical records review.  Mean intake of SFAs accounted for 9.0-11.3% energy intake over time, and was mainly composed of lauric acid (12:0), myristic acid (14:0), palmitic acid (16:0), and stearic acid (18:0; 8.8-10.7% energy). Intake of 12:0, 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0 were highly correlated, with Spearman correlation coefficients between 0.38 and 0.93 (all P<0.001). Comparing the highest to the lowest groups of individual SFA intakes, hazard ratios of coronary heart disease were 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.15; P trend =0.05) for 12:0, 1.13 (1.05 to 1.22; P trend <0.001) for 14:0, 1.18 (1.09 to 1.27; P trend <0.001) for 16:0, 1.18 (1.09 to 1.28; P trend <0.001) for 18:0, and 1.18 (1.09 to 1.28; P trend <0.001) for all four SFAs combined (12:0-18:0), after multivariate adjustment of lifestyle factors and total energy intake. Hazard ratios of coronary heart disease for isocaloric replacement of 1% energy from 12:0-18:0 were 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.96; P<0.001) for polyunsaturated fat, 0.95 (0.90 to 1.01; P=0.08) for monounsaturated fat, 0.94 (0.91 to 0.97; P<0.001) for whole grain carbohydrates, and 0.93 (0.89 to 0.97; P=0.001) for plant proteins. For individual SFAs, the lowest risk of coronary heart disease was observed when the most abundant SFA, 16:0, was replaced. Hazard ratios of coronary heart

  8. Distillation Separation of Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric Acid from Acid Waste Using the Salt Effect on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hideki; Sumoge, Iwao

    2011-03-01

    This study presents the distillation separation of hydrofluoric acid with use of the salt effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium for acid aqueous solutions and acid mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrofluoric acid + salt systems (fluorite, potassium nitrate, cesium nitrate) was measured using an apparatus made of perfluoro alkylvinylether. Cesium nitrate showed a salting-out effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Fluorite and potassium nitrate showed a salting-in effect on the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Separation of hydrofluoric acid from an acid mixture containing nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid was tested by the simple distillation treatment using the salt effect of cesium nitrate (45 mass%). An acid mixture of nitric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) and hydrofluoric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) was prepared as a sample solution for distillation tests. The concentration of nitric acid in the first distillate decreased from 5.0 mol · dm-3 to 1.13 mol · dm-3, and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid increased to 5.41 mol · dm-3. This first distillate was further distilled without the addition of salt. The concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid in the second distillate were 7.21 mol · dm-3 and 0.46 mol · dm-3, respectively. It was thus found that the salt effect on vapor-liquid equilibrium of acid mixtures was effective for the recycling of acids from acid mixture wastes.

  9. Synthesis of new kojic acid based unnatural α-amino acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, C; Payili, Nagaraju; Yennam, Satyanarayana; Uma Devi, P; Behera, Manoranjan

    2015-11-01

    An efficient method for the preparation of kojic acid based α-amino acid derivatives by alkylation of glycinate schiff base with bromokojic acids have been described. Using this method, mono as well as di alkylated kojic acid-amino acid conjugates have been prepared. This is the first synthesis of C-linked kojic acid-amino acid conjugate where kojic acid is directly linked to amino acid through a C-C bond. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  11. Short chain fatty acids (butyric acid) and intestinal diseases

    PubMed

    Manrique Vergara, David; González Sánchez, María Eugenia

    2017-10-15

    Short chain fatty acids contain up to 6 carbon atoms. Among them, butyric acid stands out for its key role in pathologies with intestinal affectation. Butyric acid is the main energetic substrate of the colonocyte, it stimulates the absorption of sodium and water in the colon, and presents trophic action on the intestinal cells. To review the clinical use of formulations for the oral use of butyric acid. Review of published articles on oral supplementation with butyric acid in intestinal pathologies. The publications mainly deal with the use of oral butyric acid in pathologies involving inflammation and / or alterations of intestinal motility. Highlighting the clinical potential in inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. The use of oral supplementation with butyric acid is a promising strategy in pathologies such as inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Bio-available butyric acid formulations with acceptable organoleptic characteristics are being advanced.

  12. The bile acids, deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid, regulate colonic epithelial wound healing.

    PubMed

    Mroz, Magdalena S; Lajczak, Natalia K; Goggins, Bridie J; Keely, Simon; Keely, Stephen J

    2018-03-01

    The intestinal epithelium constitutes an innate barrier which, upon injury, undergoes self-repair processes known as restitution. Although bile acids are known as important regulators of epithelial function in health and disease, their effects on wound healing processes are not yet clear. Here we set out to investigate the effects of the colonic bile acids, deoxycholic acid (DCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), on epithelial restitution. Wound healing in T 84 cell monolayers grown on transparent, permeable supports was assessed over 48 h with or without bile acids. Cell migration was measured in Boyden chambers. mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. DCA (50-150 µM) significantly inhibited wound closure in cultured epithelial monolayers and attenuated cell migration in Boyden chamber assays. DCA also induced nuclear accumulation of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), whereas an FXR agonist, GW4064 (10 µM), inhibited wound closure. Both DCA and GW4064 attenuated the expression of CFTR Cl - channels, whereas inhibition of CFTR activity with either CFTR- inh -172 (10 µM) or GlyH-101 (25 µM) also prevented wound healing. Promoter/reporter assays revealed that FXR-induced downregulation of CFTR is mediated at the transcriptional level. In contrast, UDCA (50-150 µM) enhanced wound healing in vitro and prevented the effects of DCA. Finally, DCA inhibited and UDCA promoted mucosal healing in an in vivo mouse model. In conclusion, these studies suggest bile acids are important regulators of epithelial wound healing and are therefore good targets for development of new drugs to modulate intestinal barrier function in disease treatment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The secondary bile acid, deoxycholic acid, inhibits colonic epithelial wound healing, an effect which appears to be mediated by activation of the nuclear bile acid receptor, FXR, with subsequent downregulation of CFTR expression and activity. In contrast, ursodeoxycholic acid promotes

  13. On the acid-base properties of humic acid in soil.

    PubMed

    Cooke, James D; Hamilton-Taylor, John; Tipping, Edward

    2007-01-15

    Humic acid was isolated from three contrasting organic-rich soils and acid-base titrations performed over a range of ionic strengths. Results obtained were unlike most humic acid data sets; they showed a greater ionic strength dependency at low pH than at high pH. Forward- and back-titrations with the base and acid revealed hysteresis, particularly at low pH. Previous authors attributed this type of hysteresis to humic acid aggregates-created during the isolation procedure-being redissolved during titration as the pH increased and regarded the results as artificial. However, forward- and back-titrations with organic-rich soils also demonstrated a similar hysteretic behavior. These observations indicate (i) that titrations of humic acid in aggregated form (as opposed to the more usual dissolved form) are more representative of the acid-base properties of humic acid in soil and (ii) that the ionic strength dependency of proton binding in humic acid is related to its degree of aggregation. Thus, the current use of models based on data from dissolved humic substances to predictthe acid-base properties of humic acid in soil under environmental conditions may be flawed and could substantially overestimate their acid buffering capacity.

  14. Toward production of jet fuel functionality in oilseeds: identification of FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases and evaluation of combinatorial expression strategies in Camelina seeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E; Vu, Hieu Sy; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nam, Jeong-Won; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-07-01

    Seeds of members of the genus Cuphea accumulate medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; 8:0-14:0). MCFA- and palmitic acid- (16:0) rich vegetable oils have received attention for jet fuel production, given their similarity in chain length to Jet A fuel hydrocarbons. Studies were conducted to test genes, including those from Cuphea, for their ability to confer jet fuel-type fatty acid accumulation in seed oil of the emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa. Transcriptomes from Cuphea viscosissima and Cuphea pulcherrima developing seeds that accumulate >90% of C8 and C10 fatty acids revealed three FatB cDNAs (CpuFatB3, CvFatB1, and CpuFatB4) expressed predominantly in seeds and structurally divergent from typical FatB thioesterases that release 16:0 from acyl carrier protein (ACP). Expression of CpuFatB3 and CvFatB1 resulted in Camelina oil with capric acid (10:0), and CpuFatB4 expression conferred myristic acid (14:0) production and increased 16:0. Co-expression of combinations of previously characterized Cuphea and California bay FatBs produced Camelina oils with mixtures of C8-C16 fatty acids, but amounts of each fatty acid were less than obtained by expression of individual FatB cDNAs. Increases in lauric acid (12:0) and 14:0, but not 10:0, in Camelina oil and at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols resulted from inclusion of a coconut lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase specialized for MCFAs. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of Camelina β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, however, reduced 12:0 in seeds expressing a 12:0-ACP-specific FatB. Camelina lines presented here provide platforms for additional metabolic engineering targeting fatty acid synthase and specialized acyltransferases for achieving oils with high levels of jet fuel-type fatty acids. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Toward production of jet fuel functionality in oilseeds: Identification of FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases and evaluation of combinatorial expression strategies in Camelina seeds

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E.; Vu, Hieu Sy; ...

    2015-05-11

    Seeds of members of the genus Cuphea accumulate medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; 8:0–14:0). MCFA- and palmitic acid- (16:0) rich vegetable oils have received attention for jet fuel production, given their similarity in chain length to Jet A fuel hydrocarbons. Studies were conducted to test genes, including those from Cuphea, for their ability to confer jet fuel-type fatty acid accumulation in seed oil of the emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa. Transcriptomes from Cuphea viscosissima and Cuphea pulcherrima developing seeds that accumulate >90% of C8 and C10 fatty acids revealed three FatB cDNAs ( CpuFatB3, CvFatB1, and CpuFatB4) expressed predominantly in seedsmore » and structurally divergent from typical FatB thioesterases that release 16:0 from acyl carrier protein (ACP). Expression of CpuFatB3 and CvFatB1 resulted in Camelina oil with capric acid (10:0), and CpuFatB4 expression conferred myristic acid (14:0) production and increased 16:0. Co-expression of combinations of previously characterized Cuphea and California bay FatBs produced Camelina oils with mixtures of C8–C16 fatty acids, but amounts of each fatty acid were less than obtained by expression of individual FatB cDNAs. Increases in lauric acid (12:0) and 14:0, but not 10:0, in Camelina oil and at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols resulted from inclusion of a coconut lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase specialized for MCFAs. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of Camelina β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, however, reduced 12:0 in seeds expressing a 12:0-ACP-specific FatB. Here, Camelina lines presented here provide platforms for additional metabolic engineering targeting fatty acid synthase and specialized acyltransferases for achieving oils with high levels of jet fuel-type fatty acids.« less

  16. SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E.; Vu, Hieu Sy

    Seeds of members of the genus Cuphea accumulate medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; 8:0–14:0). MCFA- and palmitic acid- (16:0) rich vegetable oils have received attention for jet fuel production, given their similarity in chain length to Jet A fuel hydrocarbons. Studies were conducted to test genes, including those from Cuphea, for their ability to confer jet fuel-type fatty acid accumulation in seed oil of the emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa. Transcriptomes from Cuphea viscosissima and Cuphea pulcherrima developing seeds that accumulate >90% of C8 and C10 fatty acids revealed three FatB cDNAs ( CpuFatB3, CvFatB1, and CpuFatB4) expressed predominantly in seedsmore » and structurally divergent from typical FatB thioesterases that release 16:0 from acyl carrier protein (ACP). Expression of CpuFatB3 and CvFatB1 resulted in Camelina oil with capric acid (10:0), and CpuFatB4 expression conferred myristic acid (14:0) production and increased 16:0. Co-expression of combinations of previously characterized Cuphea and California bay FatBs produced Camelina oils with mixtures of C8–C16 fatty acids, but amounts of each fatty acid were less than obtained by expression of individual FatB cDNAs. Increases in lauric acid (12:0) and 14:0, but not 10:0, in Camelina oil and at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols resulted from inclusion of a coconut lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase specialized for MCFAs. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of Camelina β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, however, reduced 12:0 in seeds expressing a 12:0-ACP-specific FatB. Here, Camelina lines presented here provide platforms for additional metabolic engineering targeting fatty acid synthase and specialized acyltransferases for achieving oils with high levels of jet fuel-type fatty acids.« less

  17. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Du, M; Ahn, D U; Sell, J L

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA.

  18. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    1999-01-01

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising: dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures thereof to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing said alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  19. Molecular analysis of peroxisome proliferation in the hamster.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Agharul I; Sims, Helen M; Horley, Neill J; Roberts, Ruth A; Tomlinson, Simon R; Salter, Andrew M; Bruce, Mary; Shaw, P Nicholas; Kendall, David; Barrett, David A; Bell, David R

    2004-05-15

    Three novel P450 members of the cytochrome P450 4A family were cloned as partial cDNAs from hamster liver, characterised as novel members of the CYP4A subfamily, and designated CYP4A17, 18, and 19. Hamsters were treated with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonists, methylclofenapate (MCP) or Wy-14,643, and shown to develop hepatomegaly and induction of CYP4A17 RNA, and concomitant induction of lauric acid 12- hydroxylase. This treatment also resulted in hypolipidaemia, which was most pronounced in the VLDL fraction, with up to 50% reduction in VLDL-triglycerides; by contrast, blood cholesterol concentration was unaffected by this treatment. These data show that hamster is highly responsive to induction of CYP4A by peroxisome proliferators. To characterise the molecular basis of peroxisome proliferation, the hamster PPARalpha was cloned and shown to encode a 468-amino-acid protein, which is highly similar to rat and mouse PPARalpha proteins. The level of expression of hamster PPARalpha in liver is intermediate between mouse and guinea pig. These results fail to support the hypothesis that the level of PPARalpha in liver is directly responsible for species differences in peroxisome proliferation.

  20. Morphology design of porous coordination polymer crystals by coordination modulation.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Ayako; Diring, Stéphane; Furukawa, Shuhei; Uehara, Hiromitsu; Tsuruoka, Takaaki; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2011-10-05

    The design of crystal morphology, or exposed crystal facets, has enabled the development (e.g., catalytic activities, material attributes, and oriented film formation) of porous coordination polymers (PCPs) without changing material compositions. However, because crystal growth mechanisms are not fully understood, control of crystal morphology still remains challenging. Herein, we report the morphology design of [Cu(3)(btc)(2)](n) (btc = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) by the coordination modulation method (modulator = n-dodecanoic acid or lauric acid). A morphological transition (octahedron-cuboctahedron-cube) in the [Cu(3)(btc)(2)](n) crystal was observed with an increase in concentration of the modulator. By suitably defining a coarse-grained standard unit of [Cu(3)(btc)(2)](n) as its cuboctahedron main pore and determining its attachment energy on crystal surfaces, Monte Carlo coarse-grain modeling revealed the population and orientation of carboxylates and elucidated an important role of the modulator in determining the <100>- and <111>-growth throughout the crystal growth process. This comprehension, in fact, successfully led to designed crystal morphologies with oriented growth on bare substrates. Because selective crystal orientations on the bare substrates were governed by crystal morphology, this contribution also casts a new light on the unexplored issue of the significance of morphology design of PCPs.

  1. Experimental investigation on the thermal performance of heat storage walls coupled with active solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunyu; You, Shijun; Zhu, Chunying; Yu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the performance of a system combining a low-temperature water wall radiant heating system and phase change energy storage technology with an active solar system. This system uses a thermal storage wall that is designed with multilayer thermal storage plates. The heat storage material is expanded graphite that absorbs a mixture of capric acid and lauric acid. An experiment is performed to study the actual effect. The following are studied under winter conditions: (1) the temperature of the radiation wall surface, (2) the melting status of the thermal storage material in the internal plate, (3) the density of the heat flux, and (4) the temperature distribution of the indoor space. The results reveal that the room temperature is controlled between 16 and 20 °C, and the thermal storage wall meets the heating and temperature requirements. The following are also studied under summer conditions: (1) the internal relationship between the indoor temperature distribution and the heat transfer within the regenerative plates during the day and (2) the relationship between the outlet air temperature and inlet air temperature in the thermal storage wall in cooling mode at night. The results indicate that the indoor temperature is approximately 27 °C, which satisfies the summer air-conditioning requirements.

  2. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  3. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, L.

    1999-05-25

    A process is disclosed for preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising. The process involves dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing the alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  4. Validation of a multi-analyte HPLC-DAD method for determination of uric acid, creatinine, homovanillic acid, niacinamide, hippuric acid, indole-3-acetic acid and 2-methylhippuric acid in human urine.

    PubMed

    Remane, Daniela; Grunwald, Soeren; Hoeke, Henrike; Mueller, Andrea; Roeder, Stefan; von Bergen, Martin; Wissenbach, Dirk K

    2015-08-15

    During the last decades exposure sciences and epidemiological studies attracts more attention to unravel the mechanisms for the development of chronic diseases. According to this an existing HPLC-DAD method for determination of creatinine in urine samples was expended for seven analytes and validated. Creatinine, uric acid, homovanillic acid, niacinamide, hippuric acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and 2-methylhippuric acid were separated by gradient elution (formate buffer/methanol) using an Eclipse Plus C18 Rapid Resolution column (4.6mm×100mm). No interfering signals were detected in mobile phase. After injection of blank urine samples signals for the endogenous compounds but no interferences were detected. All analytes were linear in the selected calibration range and a non weighted calibration model was chosen. Bias, intra-day and inter-day precision for all analytes were below 20% for quality control (QC) low and below 10% for QC medium and high. The limits of quantification in mobile phase were in line with reported reference values but had to be adjusted in urine for homovanillic acid (45mg/L), niacinamide 58.5(mg/L), and indole-3-acetic acid (63mg/L). Comparison of creatinine data obtained by the existing method with those of the developed method showing differences from -120mg/L to +110mg/L with a mean of differences of 29.0mg/L for 50 authentic urine samples. Analyzing 50 authentic urine samples, uric acid, creatinine, hippuric acid, and 2-methylhippuric acid were detected in (nearly) all samples. However, homovanillic acid was detected in 40%, niacinamide in 4% and indole-3-acetic acid was never detected within the selected samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression and Functional Characterization of Breast Cancer-Associated Cytochrome P450 4Z1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Matthew G; Ray, Sutapa; Amorosi, Clara J; Sitko, Katherine A; Kowalski, John P; Paco, Lorela; Nath, Abhinav; Gallis, Byron; Totah, Rheem A; Dunham, Maitreya J; Fowler, Douglas M; Rettie, Allan E

    2017-12-01

    CYP4Z1 is an "orphan" cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme that has provoked interest because of its hypothesized role in breast cancer through formation of the signaling molecule 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). We expressed human CYP4Z1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and evaluated its catalytic capabilities toward arachidonic and lauric acids (AA and LA). Specific and sensitive mass spectrometry assays enabled discrimination of the regioselectivity of hydroxylation of these two fatty acids. CYP4Z1 generated 7-, 8-, 9-, 10-, and 11-hydroxy LA, whereas the 12-hydroxy metabolite was not detected. HET0016, the prototypic CYP4 inhibitor, only weakly inhibited laurate metabolite formation (IC 50 ∼15 μ M). CYP4Z1 preferentially oxidized AA to the 14(S),15(R)-epoxide with high regioselectivity and stereoselectivity, a reaction that was also insensitive to HET0016, but neither 20-HETE nor 20-carboxy-AA were detectable metabolites. Docking of LA and AA into a CYP4Z1 homology model was consistent with this preference for internal fatty acid oxidation. Thus, human CYP4Z1 has an inhibitor profile and product regioselectivity distinct from most other CYP4 enzymes, consistent with CYP4Z1's lack of a covalently linked heme. These data suggest that, if CYP4Z1 modulates breast cancer progression, it does so by a mechanism other than direct production of 20-HETE. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  6. A GC-ECD method for estimation of free and bound amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid, salicylic acid, and acetyl salicylic acid from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

    PubMed

    Meher, Hari Charan; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Singh, Ghanendra

    2011-01-01

    A gas chromatograph with electron capture detection method for estimation of selected metabolites--amino acids (free and bound), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), salicylic acid (SA), and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) from tomato--is reported. The method is based on nitrophenylation of the metabolites by 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene under aqueous alkaline conditions to form dinitophenyl derivatives. The derivatives were stable under the operating conditions of GC. Analysis of bound amino acids comprised perchloric acid precipitation of protein, alkylation (carboxymethylation) with iodoacetic acid, vapor-phase hydrolysis, and derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in that order. The metabolites were resolved in 35 min, using a temperature-programmed run. The method is rapid, sensitive, and precise. It easily measured the typical amino acids (aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, alanine, leucine, lysine, and phenylalanine) used for identification and quantification of a protein, resolved amino acids of the same mass (leucine and isoleucine), satisfactorily measured sulfur amino acid (methionine, cystine, and cysteine), and quantified GABA, SA, and ASA, as well. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity, and precision. It has been applied and recommended for estimation of 25 metabolites from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

  7. Targeted metabolomics analysis reveals the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and fatty acids and amino acids profiles in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhipeng; Liu, Rui; Chou, Jing; Yu, Jiaying; Liu, Xiaowei; Sun, Changhao; Li, Ying; Liu, Liyan

    2018-07-15

    Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence offspring's health by affecting development and metabolism. This study aimed to analyze the influence of maternal folic acid (FA) supplementation on the metabolism of rat pups using targeted metabolomics. Twenty female rats were randomly assigned to a FA supplementation (FAS group, n = 10) or control group (n = 10), which were fed AIN93G diet with 2 or 10 mg/kg FA, respectively. We then measured amino acids and their derivatives, biogenic amines, and fatty acids in the female rats and their pups by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS-MS). In maternal rats, the significant changes of three metabolites (proline, γ-aminobutyric acid and esterified octadecatetraenoic acid, P < 0.05) were observed in FAS group. For the rat pups, FAS pups had significantly lower homocysteine and higher FA levels than control pups. The lower levels of amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, serine, proline) were obtained in FAS pups. Furthermore, there were the decreased esterified fatty acids (arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosatetraenoic acid) and free fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, octadecatetraenoic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and selacholeic acid) in FAS pups. Metabolic changes in the FAS pups were characterized by changes in fatty acids and amino acids. These results suggested that FA supplementation during pregnancy influenced amino acids and fatty acids metabolism in rat pups. This study provides new insights into the regulation of amino acids and fatty acids metabolism during early life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. All-trans retinoic acid regulates hepatic bile acid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; He, Yuqi; Liu, Hui-Xin; Tsuei, Jessica; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) and bile acids share common roles in regulating lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. In addition, the receptor for RA (retinoid x receptor) is a permissive partner of the receptor for bile acids, farnesoid x receptor (FXR/NR1H4). Thus, RA can activate the FXR-mediated pathway as well. The current study was designed to understand the effect of all-trans RA on bile acid homeostasis. Mice were fed an all-trans RA-supplemented diet and the expression of 46 genes that participate in regulating bile acid homeostasis was studied. The data showed that all-trans RA has a profound effect in regulating genes involved in synthesis and transport of bile acids. All-trans RA treatment reduced the gene expression levels of Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, and Akr1d1, which are involved in bile acid synthesis. All-trans RA also decreased the hepatic mRNA levels of Lrh-1 (Nr5a2) and Hnf4α (Nr2a1), which positively regulate the gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1. Moreover, all-trans RA induced the gene expression levels of negative regulators of bile acid synthesis including hepatic Fgfr4, Fxr, and Shp (Nr0b2) as well as ileal Fgf15. All-trans RA also decreased the expression of Abcb11 and Slc51b, which have a role in bile acid transport. Consistently, all-trans RA reduced hepatic bile acid levels and the ratio of CA/CDCA, as demonstrated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data suggest that all-trans RA-induced SHP may contribute to the inhibition of CYP7A1 and CYP8B1, which in turn reduces bile acid synthesis and affects lipid absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25175738

  9. Acid-functionalized polyolefin materials and their use in acid-promoted chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Tian, Chengcheng; Bauer, John Christopher

    An acid-functionalized polyolefin material that can be used as an acid catalyst in a wide range of acid-promoted chemical reactions, wherein the acid-functionalized polyolefin material includes a polyolefin backbone on which acid groups are appended. Also described is a method for the preparation of the acid catalyst in which a precursor polyolefin is subjected to ionizing radiation (e.g., electron beam irradiation) of sufficient power and the irradiated precursor polyolefin reacted with at least one vinyl monomer having an acid group thereon. Further described is a method for conducting an acid-promoted chemical reaction, wherein an acid-reactive organic precursor is contacted inmore » liquid form with a solid heterogeneous acid catalyst comprising a polyolefin backbone of at least 1 micron in one dimension and having carboxylic acid groups and either sulfonic acid or phosphoric acid groups appended thereto.« less

  10. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  11. Parabanic acid is the singlet oxygen specific oxidation product of uric acid.

    PubMed

    Iida, Sayaka; Ohkubo, Yuki; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Fujisawa, Akio

    2017-11-01

    Uric acid quenches singlet oxygen physically or reacts with it, but the oxidation product has not been previously characterized. The present study determined that the product is parabanic acid, which was confirmed by LC/TOFMS analysis. Parabanic acid was stable at acidic pH (<5.0), but hydrolyzed to oxaluric acid at neutral or alkaline pH. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid based on consumed uric acid were ~100% in clean singlet oxygen production systems such as UVA irradiation of Rose Bengal and thermal decomposition of 3-(1,4-dihydro-1,4-epidioxy-4-methyl-1-naphthyl)propionic acid. However, the ratio of the amount of uric acid consumed to the total amount of singlet oxygen generated was less than 1/180, indicating that most of the singlet oxygen was physically quenched. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid were high in the uric acid oxidation systems with hydrogen peroxide plus hypochlorite or peroxynitrite. They became less than a few percent in peroxyl radical-, hypochlorite- or peroxynitrite-induced oxidation of uric acid. These results suggest that parabanic acid could be an in vivo probe of singlet oxygen formation because of the wide distribution of uric acid in human tissues and extracellular spaces. In fact, sunlight exposure significantly increased human skin levels of parabanic acid.

  12. Crystal growth and physical characterization of picolinic acid cocrystallized with dicarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somphon, Weenawan; Haller, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are multicomponent materials containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient with another component in well-defined stoichiometry within the same unit cell. Such cocrystals are important in drug design, particularly for improving physicochemical properties such as solubility, bioavailability, or chemical stability. Picolinic acid is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan and is widely used for neuroprotective, immunological, and anti-proliferative effects within the body. In this paper we present cocrystallization experiments of a series of dicarboxylic acids, oxalic acid, succinic acid, DL-tartaric acid, pimelic acid, and phthalic acid, with picolinic acid. Characterization by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, DSC and TG/DTG analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction show that new compounds are formed, including a 1:1 picolinium tartrate monohydrate, a 2:1 monohydrate adduct of picolinic acid and oxalic acid, and a 2:1 picolinic acid-succinic acid monohydrate cocrystal.

  13. Quantification of Triacylglycerol Molecular Species in Edible Fats and Oils by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector Using Correction Factors.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Obi, Junji; Nagai, Toshiharu; Iioka, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Akihiko; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, the resolution parameters and correction factors (CFs) of triacylglycerol (TAG) standards were estimated by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) to achieve the precise quantification of the TAG composition in edible fats and oils. Forty seven TAG standards comprising capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and/or linolenic acid were analyzed, and the CFs of these TAGs were obtained against tripentadecanoyl glycerol as the internal standard. The capillary column was Ultra ALLOY + -65 (30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., 0.10 μm thickness) and the column temperature was programmed to rise from 250°C to 360°C at 4°C/min and then hold for 25 min. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values of the TAG standards were > 0.10 mg and > 0.32 mg per 100 mg fat and oil, respectively, except for LnLnLn, and the LOD and LOQ values of LnLnLn were 0.55 mg and 1.84 mg per 100 mg fat and oil, respectively. The CFs of TAG standards decreased with increasing total acyl carbon number and degree of desaturation of TAG molecules. Also, there were no remarkable differences in the CFs between TAG positional isomers such as 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-rac-glycerol, 1-stearoyl-2-palmitoyl-3-oleoyl-rac-glycerol, and 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-3-oleoyl-rac-glycerol, which cannot be separated by GC-FID. Furthermore, this method was able to predict the CFs of heterogeneous (AAB- and ABC-type) TAGs from the CFs of homogenous (AAA-, BBB-, and CCC-type) TAGs. In addition, the TAG composition in cocoa butter, palm oil, and canola oil was determined using CFs, and the results were found to be in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Therefore, the GC-FID method using CFs can be successfully used for the quantification of TAG molecular species in natural fats and oils.

  14. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... a fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... a fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject to reporting...

  16. A novel approach in acidic disinfection through inhibition of acid resistance mechanisms; Maleic acid-mediated inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase activity enhances acid sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Paudyal, Ranju; Barnes, Ruth H; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas G

    2018-02-01

    Here it is demonstrated a novel approach in disinfection regimes where specific molecular acid resistance systems are inhibited aiming to eliminate microorganisms under acidic conditions. Despite the importance of the Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) system for survival of Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogens under acidic conditions, its potential inhibition by specific compounds that could lead to its elimination from foods or food preparation premises has not been studied. The effects of maleic acid on the acid resistance of L. monocytogenes were investigated and found that it has a higher antimicrobial activity under acidic conditions than other organic acids, while this could not be explained by its pKa or Ka values. The effects were found to be more pronounced on strains with higher GAD activity. Maleic acid affected the extracellular GABA levels while it did not affect the intracellular ones. Maleic acid had a major impact mainly on GadD2 activity as also shown in cell lysates. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that maleic acid is able to partly remove biofilms of L. monocytogenes. Maleic acid is able to inhibit the GAD of L. monocytogenes significantly enhancing its sensitivity to acidic conditions and together with its ability to remove biofilms, make a good candidate for disinfection regimes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bifidobacterium breve with α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism in the maternal separation model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Eoin; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Ross, R Paul; Quigley, Eamonn M; Shanahan, Fergus; Kiely, Barry; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; O'Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15) were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (10(9) microorganisms/day) alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w) linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w) α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05). Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (p<0.05), whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05) compared with the NS un-supplemented controls. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (p<0.01) and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001), whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (p<0.05), and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001). B. breve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated rats

  18. Bifidobacterium breve with α-Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid Alters Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Maternal Separation Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Eoin; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.; Ross, R. Paul; Quigley, Eamonn M.; Shanahan, Fergus; Kiely, Barry; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; O'Toole, Paul W.; Stanton, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15) were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (109 microorganisms/day) alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w) linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w) α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05). Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (p<0.05), whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05) compared with the NS un-supplemented controls. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (p<0.01) and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001), whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (p<0.05), and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001). B. breve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated rats

  19. Aminocaproic Acid and Tranexamic Acid Fail to Reverse Dabigatran-Induced Coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Levine, Michael; Huang, Margaret; Henderson, Sean O; Carmelli, Guy; Thomas, Stephen H

    In recent years, dabigatran has emerged as a popular alternative to warfarin for treatment of atrial fibrillation. If rapid reversal is required, however, no reversal agent has clearly been established. The primary purpose of this manuscript was to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid as agents to reverse dabigatran-induced coagulopathy. Rats were randomly assigned to 6 groups. Each rat received either dabigatran or oral placebo, followed by saline, tranexamic acid, or aminocaproic acid. An activated clotting test was used to measure the coagulopathy. Neither tranexamic acid nor aminocaproic acid successfully reversed dabigatran-induced coagulopathy. In this rodent model of dabigatran-induced coagulopathy, neither tranexamic acid nor aminocaproic acid were able to reverse the coagulopathy.

  20. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The Committee also evaluated the risk posed by two food contaminants, with the aim of deriving tolerable intakes where appropriate and advising on risk management options for the purpose of public health protection. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives and contaminants. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for certain food additives (aluminium-containing food additives, Benzoe Tonkinensis, glycerol ester of gum rosin, glycerol ester of tall oil rosin, glycerol ester of wood rosin, octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic, polydimethyl siloxane, Ponceau 4R, pullulan, pullulanase from Bacillus deromificans expressed in Bacillus licheniformis, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow FCF) and two food contaminants (cyanogenic glycosides and fumonisins). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: aluminium lakes of colouring matters; beta-apo-8'-carotenal; beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester; beta-carotene, synthetic; hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose; magnesium silicate, synthetic; modified starches; nitrous oxide; sodium carboxymethyl cellulose; and sucrose monoesters of lauric, palmitic or stearic acid. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminants considered.

  1. Usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsdóttir, K

    2002-12-01

    Since its first isolation in 1844, usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione] has become the most extensively studied lichen metabolite and one of the few that is commercially available. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Usnea, Lecanora, Ramalina and Evernia. Many lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well as ecological applications. Usnic acid as a pure substance has been formulated in creams, toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants and sunscreen products, in some cases as an active principle, in others as a preservative. In addition to antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogens, usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Ecological effects, such as antigrowth, antiherbivore and anti-insect properties, have also been demonstrated. A difference in biological activity has in some cases been observed between the two enantiomeric forms of usnic acid. Recently health food supplements containing usnic acid have been promoted for use in weight reduction, with little scientific support. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of usnic acid and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale.

  2. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  3. Microarray-based transcriptome of Listeria monocytogenes adapted to sublethal concentrations of acetic acid, lactic acid, and hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Girum Tadesse; Møretrø, Trond; Snipen, Lars; Heir, Even; Holck, Askild; Naterstad, Kristine; Axelsson, Lars

    2012-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes , an important foodborne pathogen, commonly encounters organic acids in food-related environments. The transcriptome of L. monocytogenes L502 was analyzed after adaptation to pH 5 in the presence of acetic acid, lactic acid, or hydrochloric acid (HCl) at 25 °C, representing a condition encountered in mildly acidic ready-to-eat food kept at room temperature. The acid-treated cells were compared with a reference culture with a pH of 6.7 at the time of RNA harvesting. The number of genes and magnitude of transcriptional responses were higher for the organic acids than for HCl. Protein coding genes described for low pH stress, energy transport and metabolism, virulence determinates, and acid tolerance response were commonly regulated in the 3 acid-stressed cultures. Interestingly, the transcriptional levels of histidine and cell wall biosynthetic operons were upregulated, indicating possible universal response against low pH stress in L. monocytogenes. The opuCABCD operon, coding proteins for compatible solutes transport, and the transcriptional regulator sigL were significantly induced in the organic acids, strongly suggesting key roles during organic acid stress. The present study revealed the complex transcriptional responses of L. monocytogenes towards food-related acidulants and opens the roadmap for more specific and in-depth future studies.

  4. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely used...

  5. Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Noack, Kristina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Walter, Christian; Dörnenburg, Heike; Leipertz, Alfred

    2010-02-01

    The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C 20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C-H stretching mode regions around 3000 cm -1 show such significant differences as results of electronic and molecular structure alterations based on the different degree of saturation that both fatty acids can be clearly distinguished from each other.

  6. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids (FAHFAs) With Anti-inflammatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Ondrej; Brezinova, Marie; Rombaldova, Martina; Slavikova, Barbora; Posta, Martin; Beier, Petr; Janovska, Petra; Veleba, Jiri; Kopecky, Jan; Kudova, Eva; Pelikanova, Terezie; Kopecky, Jan

    2016-09-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions. Dysregulation of all of these functions of WAT, together with low-grade inflammation of the tissue in obese individuals, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of marine origin play an important role in the resolution of inflammation and exert beneficial metabolic effects. Using experiments in mice and overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes, we elucidated the structures of novel members of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids-lipokines derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid, which were present in serum and WAT after n-3 PUFA supplementation. These compounds contained DHA esterified to 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HLA) or 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (HDHA), termed 9-DHAHLA, 13-DHAHLA, and 14-DHAHDHA, and were synthesized by adipocytes at concentrations comparable to those of protectins and resolvins derived from DHA in WAT. 13-DHAHLA exerted anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties while reducing macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharides and enhancing the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. Our results document the existence of novel lipid mediators, which are involved in the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects attributed to n-3 PUFAs, in both mice and humans. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  7. Decomposition mechanism of chromite in sulfuric acid-dichromic acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qing; Liu, Cheng-jun; Li, Bao-kuan; Jiang, Mao-fa

    2017-12-01

    The sulfuric acid leaching process is regarded as a promising, cleaner method to prepare trivalent chromium products from chromite; however, the decomposition mechanism of the ore is poorly understood. In this work, binary spinels of Mg-Al, Mg-Fe, and Mg-Cr in the powdered and lump states were synthesized and used as raw materials to investigate the decomposition mechanism of chromite in sulfuric acid-dichromic acid solution. The leaching yields of metallic elements and the changes in morphology of the spinel were studied. The experimental results showed that the three spinels were stable in sulfuric acid solution and that dichromic acid had little influence on the decomposition behavior of the Mg-Al spinel and Mg-Fe spinel because Mg2+, Al3+, and Fe3+ in spinels cannot be oxidized by Cr6+. However, in the case of the Mg-Cr spinel, dichromic acid substantially promoted the decomposition efficiency and functioned as a catalyst. The decomposition mechanism of chromite in sulfuric acid-dichromic acid solution was illustrated on the basis of the findings of this study.

  8. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  9. Incorporation of oxygen into abscisic Acid and phaseic Acid from molecular oxygen.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Zeevaart, J A

    1984-05-01

    Abscisic acid accumulates in detached, wilted leaves of Xanthium strumarium. When these leaves are subsequently rehydrated, phaseic acid, a catabolite of abscisic acid, accumulates. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of phaseic acid isolated from stressed and subsequently rehydrated leaves placed in an atmosphere containing 20% (18)O(2) and 80% N(2) indicates that one atom of (18)O is incorporated in the 6'-hydroxymethyl group of phaseic acid. This suggests that the enzyme that converts abscisic acid to phaseic acid is an oxygenase.Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of abscisic acid isolated from stressed leaves kept in an atmosphere containing (18)O(2) indicates that one atom of (18)O is present in the carboxyl group of abscisic acid. Thus, when abscisic acid accumulates in water-stressed leaves, only one of the four oxygens present in the abscisic acid molecule is derived from molecular oxygen. This suggests that either (a) the oxygen present in the 1'-, 4'-, and one of the two oxygens at the 1-position of abscisic acid arise from water, or (b) there exists a stored precursor with oxygen atoms already present in the 1'- and 4'-positions of abscisic acid which is converted to abscisic acid under conditions of water stress.

  10. Amino acid and fatty acid compositions of Rusip from fermented Anchovy fish (Stolephorussp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koesoemawardani, D.; Hidayati, S.; Subeki

    2018-04-01

    Rusip is a typical food of Bangka Belitung Indonesia made from fermented anchovy. This study aims to determine the properties of chemistry, microbiology, composition of amino acids and fatty acids from fermented fish spontaneously and non spontaneously. Spontaneous rusip treatment is done by anchovy fish (Stolephorussp) after cleaning and added salt 25% (w/w) and palm sugar 10% (w/w). While, non-spontaneous rusip is done by adding a culture mixture of Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, and Lactobacillus bacteria 2% (w/v). The materials are then incubated for 2 weeks. The data obtained were then performed t-test at the level of 5%. Spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip fermentation process showed significant differences in total acid, reducing sugar, salt content, TVN, total lactic acid bacteria, total mold, and total microbial. The dominant amino acid content of spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip are glutamic acid and aspartic acid, while the dominant fatty acids in spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip are docosahexaenoic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid, stearic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, palmitoleic acid, and myristic acid.

  11. Synthesis and Hydrolytic Degradation of Substituted Poly(DL-Lactic Acid)s

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Hideto; Eto, Takehiko; Sakamoto, Yuzuru

    2011-01-01

    Non-substituted racemic poly(DL-lactic acid) (PLA) and substituted racemic poly(DL-lactic acid)s or poly(DL-2-hydroxyalkanoic acid)s with different side-chain lengths, i.e., poly(DL-2-hydroxybutanoic acid) (PBA), poly(DL-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid) (PHA), and poly(DL-2-hydroxydecanoic acid) (PDA) were synthesized by acid-catalyzed polycondensation of DL-lactic acid (LA), DL-2-hydroxybutanoic acid (BA), DL-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid (HA), and DL-2-hydroxydecanoic acid (DA), respectively. The hydrolytic degradation behavior was investigated in phosphate-buffered solution at 80 and 37 °C by gravimetry and gel permeation chromatography. It was found that the reactivity of monomers during polycondensation as monitored by the degree of polymerization (DP) decreased in the following order: LA > DA > BA > HA. The hydrolytic degradation rate traced by DP and weight loss at 80 °C decreased in the following order: PLA > PDA > PHA > PBA and that monitored by DP at 37 °C decreased in the following order: PLA > PDA > PBA > PHA. LA and PLA had the highest reactivity during polymerization and hydrolytic degradation rate, respectively, and were followed by DA and PDA. BA, HA, PBA, and PHA had the lowest reactivity during polymerization and hydrolytic degradation rate. The findings of the present study strongly suggest that inter-chain interactions play a major role in the reactivity of non-substituted and substituted LA monomers and degradation rate of the non-substituted and substituted PLA, along with steric hindrance of the side chains as can be expected. PMID:28824149

  12. Reduction of volatile acidity of acidic wines by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Vilela, A; Schuller, D; Mendes-Faia, A; Côrte-Real, M

    2013-06-01

    Excessive volatile acidity in wines is a major problem and is still prevalent because available solutions are nevertheless unsatisfactory, namely, blending the filter-sterilized acidic wine with other wines of lower volatile acidity or using reverse osmosis. We have previously explored the use of an empirical biological deacidification procedure to lower the acetic acid content of wines. This winemaker's enological practice, which consists in refermentation associated with acetic acid consumption by yeasts, is performed by mixing the acidic wine with freshly crushed grapes, musts, or marc from a finished wine fermentation. We have shown that the commercial strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae S26 is able to decrease the volatile acidity of acidic wines with a volatile acidity higher than 1.44 g L(-1) acetic acid, with no detrimental impact on wine aroma. In this study, we aimed to optimize the immobilization of S26 cells in alginate beads for the bioreduction of volatile acidity of acidic wines. We found that S26 cells immobilized in double-layer alginate-chitosan beads could reduce the volatile acidity of an acidic wine (1.1 g L(-1) acetic acid, 12.5 % (v/v) ethanol, pH 3.12) by 28 and 62 % within 72 and 168 h, respectively, associated with a slight decrease in ethanol concentration (0.7 %). Similar volatile acidity removal efficiencies were obtained in medium with high glucose concentration (20 % w/v), indicating that this process may also be useful in the deacidification of grape musts. We, therefore, show that immobilized S. cerevisiae S26 cells in double-layer beads are an efficient alternative to improve the quality of wines with excessive volatile acidity.

  13. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  14. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  15. Short communication: Eicosatrienoic acid and docosatrienoic acid do not promote vaccenic acid accumulation in mixed ruminal cultures.

    PubMed

    AbuGhazaleh, A A; Holmes, L D; Jacobson, B N; Kalscheur, K F

    2006-11-01

    Previous research found that docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) was a component of fish oil that promotes trans-C18:1 accumulation in ruminal cultures when incubated with linoleic acid. The objective of this study was to determine if eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n-3) and docosatrienoic acid (C22:3n-3), n-3 fatty acids in fish oil, promote accumulation of trans-C18:1, vaccenic acid (VA) in particular, using cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Treatments consisted of control, control plus 5 mg of C20:3n-3 (ETA), control plus 5 mg of C22:3n-3 (DTA), control plus 15 mg of linoleic acid (LA), control plus 5 mg of C20:3n-3 and 15 mg of linoleic acid (ETALA), and control plus 5 mg of C22:3n-3 and 15 mg of linoleic acid (DTALA). Treatments were incubated in triplicate in 125-mL flasks, and 5 mL of culture contents was taken at 0 and 24 h for fatty acid analysis by gas-liquid chromatography. After 24 h of incubation, the concentrations of trans-C18:1 (0.87, 0.88, and 0.99 mg/culture), and VA (0.52, 0.56, and 0.62 mg/culture) were similar for the control, ETA, and DTA cultures, respectively. The concentrations of trans-C18:1 (5.51, 5.41, and 5.36 mg/culture), and VA (4.78, 4.62, and 4.59 mg/culture) were also similar between LA, ETALA, and DTALA cultures, respectively. These data suggest that C20:3n-3 and C22:3n-3 are not the active components in fish oil that promote VA accumulation when incubated with linoleic acid.

  16. Fatty acid transfer between multilamellar liposomes and fatty acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Brecher, P; Saouaf, R; Sugarman, J M; Eisenberg, D; LaRosa, K

    1984-11-10

    A simple experimental system was developed for studying the movement of long-chain fatty acids between multilamellar liposomes and soluble proteins capable of binding fatty acids. Oleic acid was incorporated into multilamellar liposomes containing cholesterol and egg yolk lecithin and incubated with albumin or hepatic fatty acid-binding protein. It was found that the fatty acid transferred from the liposomes to either protein rapidly and selectively under conditions where phospholipid and cholesterol transfer did not occur. More than 50% of the fatty acid contained within liposomes could become protein bound, suggesting that the fatty acid moved readily between and across phospholipid bilayers. Transfer was reduced at low pH, and this reduction appeared to result from decreased dissociation of the protonated fatty acid from the bilayer. Liposomes made with dimyristoyl or dipalmitoyl lecithin and containing 1 mol per cent palmitic acid were used to show the effect of temperature on fatty acid transfer. Transfer to either protein did not occur at temperatures where the liposomes were in a gel state but occurred rapidly at temperatures at or above the transition temperatures of the phospholipid used.

  17. Proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Youhou; Sun, Yulin; Chen, Ziming; Fan, Sigang

    2016-01-01

    Fish maws are commonly recommended and consumed in Asia over many centuries because it is believed to have some traditional medical properties. This study highlights and provides new information on the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws of Cynoscion acoupa, Congresox talabonoides and Sciades proops. The results indicated that fish maws were excellent protein sources and low in fat content. The proteins in fish maws were rich in functional amino acids (FAAs) and the ratio of FAAs and total amino acids in fish maws ranged from 0.68 to 0.69. Among species, croaker C. acoupa contained the most polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapntemacnioc acid, showing the lowest value of index of atherogenicity and index of thrombogenicity, showing the highest value of hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio, which is the most desirable.

  18. A Glutamic Acid-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B.; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound. PMID:22754309

  19. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  20. Photostabilization of ascorbic acid with citric acid, tartaric acid and boric acid in cream formulations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Ali Sheraz, M; Ahmed, S; Shad, Z; Vaid, F H M

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, that is, citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants (0.34-0.95 × 10(-3) min(-1) in light, 0.38-1.24 × 10(-2) day(-1) in dark) for the degradation reactions in the presence of the stabilizers have been determined. These rate constants have been used to derive the second-order rate constants (0.26-1.45 × 10(-2) M(-1) min(-1) in light, 3.75-8.50 × 10(-3) M(-1) day(-1) in dark) for the interaction of AH(2) and the individual stabilizers. These stabilizers are effective in causing the inhibition of the rate of degradation of AH(2) both in the light and in the dark. The inhibitory effect of the stabilizers is in the order of CT > TA > BA. The rate of degradation of AH(2) in the presence of these stabilizers in the light is about 120 times higher than that in the dark. This could be explained on the basis of the deactivation of AH(2) -excited triplet state by CT and TA and by the inhibition of AH(2) degradation through complex formation with BA. AH(2) leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid (A) by chemical and photooxidation in cream formulations. © 2012 The Authors. ICS © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Docosahexaenoic acid affects arachidonic acid uptake in megakaryocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Schick, P.K.; Webster, P.

    1987-05-01

    Dietary omega 3 fatty acids are thought to prevent atherosclerosis, possibly by modifying platelet (PT) function and arachidonic acid (20:4) metabolism. The study was designed to determine whether omega 3 fatty acids primarily affect 20:4 metabolism in megakaryocytes (MK), bone marrow precursors of PT, rather than in circulating PT. MK and PT were isolated from guinea pigs and incubated with (/sup 14/C)-20:4 (0.13uM). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) is a major omega 3 fatty acid in marine oils. The incubation of MK with 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) resulted in the decrease of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-20:4 into total MK phospholipids, 16% andmore » 41% respectively. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3), a major omega 3 fatty acid present in American diets, had no effect on 20:4 uptake in MK. 22:6 primarily affected the uptake of (/sup 14/C)-20:4 into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in MK. In MK, 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) caused a decrease of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-20:4 into PE, 21% and 55% respectively; a decrease into PS, 16% and 48% respectively; but only a decrease of 4% and 18%, respectively, into phosphatidylcholine; and a decrease of 3% and 21% into phosphatidylinositol 22:6 (3.0 uM) had no effect on the uptake of AA into PT phospholipids. The study shows that 22:6 has a selective effect on AA uptake in MK and that the acylation or transacylation of PE and PS are primarily affected. 22:6 and other marine omega 3 fatty acids appear to primarily affect megakaryocytes which may result in the production of platelets with abnormal content and compartmentalization of AA.« less

  2. Nicotinic Acid Metabolism, V. A Cobamide Coenzyme-Dependent Conversion of α-Methyleneglutaric Acid to Dimethylmaleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kung, H. F.; Cederbaum, S.; Tsai, L.; Stadtman, T. C.

    1970-01-01

    A new B12-coenzyme-dependent isomerization, catalyzed by extracts of a nicotinate-fermenting clostridium, results in the conversion of α-methyleneglutaric acid to dimethylmaleic acid. These two acids are intermediates in the multistep anaerobic process wherein nicotinate is converted, ultimately, to one mole each of propionate, acetate, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. Dimethylmaleic acid reacts in its anhydride form with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine to form N-2′,4′-dinitrophenyl-anilino-3,4-dimethylmaleimide. The characteristic reddish color exhibited by the latter derivative in alkaline solution serves as a convenient quantitative assay for dimethylmaleic acid. Comparison of the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatives of the product of the enzymic reaction and of synthetic dimethylmaleic anhydride showed them to be identical in every respect. PMID:5266166

  3. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  4. Enantiomeric Excesses of Acid Labile Amino Acid Precursors of the Murchison Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzarello, Sandra

    1998-10-01

    Amino acids present in carbonaceous chondrite are extracted in water in part as free compounds and in approximately equal part as acid labile precursors. On the assumption that they would be free of contamination, the precursors of two Murchison amino acids that have terrestrial occurrence, alanine and glutamic acid, have been targeted for analysis of their enantiomeric ratios. Pyroglutamic acid, the precursor of glutamic acid, was found with an L-enantiomeric excess comparable to that of the free acid, while alanine's precursor, N-acetyl alanine, appears approximately racemic. Also alpha-imino propioacetic acid, a proposed end product of alanine synthesis in the meteorite, was analyzed and found racemic.

  5. Enantiomeric Excesses of Acid Labile Amino Acid Precursors of the Murchison Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzarello, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    Amino acids present in carbonaceous chondrite are extracted in water in part as free compounds and in approximately equal part as acid labile precursors. On the assumption that they would be free of contamination, the precursors of two Murchison amino acids that have terrestrial occurrence, alanine and glutamic acid, have been targeted for analysis of their enantiomeric ratios. Pyroglutamic acid, the precursor of glutamic acid, was found with an L-enantiomeric excess comparable to that of the free acid, while alanine's precursor, N-acetyl alanine, appears approximately racemic. Also alpha-imino propioacetic acid, a proposed end product of alanine synthesis in the meteorite, was analyzed and found racemic.

  6. Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-05-06

    Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

  7. Extraterrestrial material analysis: loss of amino acids during liquid-phase acid hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Arnaud; Brault, Amaury; Szopa, Cyril; Freissinet, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Searching for building blocks of life in extraterrestrial material is a way to learn more about how life could have appeared on Earth. With this aim, liquid-phase acid hydrolysis has been used, since at least 1970 , in order to extract amino acids and other organic molecules from extraterrestrial materials (e.g. meteorites, lunar fines) or Earth analogues (e.g. Atacama desert soil). This procedure involves drastic conditions such as heating samples in 6N HCl for 24 h, either under inert atmosphere/vacuum, or air. Analysis of the hydrolyzed part of the sample should give its total (free plus bound) amino acid content. The present work deals with the influence of the 6N HCl hydrolysis on amino acid degradation. Our experiments have been performed on a standard solution of 17 amino acids. After liquid-phase acid hydrolysis (6N HCl) under argon atmosphere (24 h at 100°C), the liquid phase was evaporated and the dry residue was derivatized with N-Methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide (DMF), followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. After comparison with derivatized amino acids from the standard solution, a significant reduction of the chromatographic peak areas was observed for most of the amino acids after liquid-phase acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the same loss pattern was observed when the amino acids were exposed to cold 6N HCl for a short amount of time. The least affected amino acid, i.e. glycine, was found to be 73,93% percent less abundant compared to the non-hydrolyzed standard, while the most affected, i.e. histidine, was not found in the chromatograms after hydrolysis. Our experiments thereby indicate that liquid-phase acid hydrolysis, even under inert atmosphere, leads to a partial or total loss of all of the 17 amino acids present in the standard solution, and that a quick cold contact with 6N HCl is sufficient to lead to a loss of amino acids. Therefore, in the literature, the reported increase

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from alpha-linolenic acid is inhibited by diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R A; Neumann, M A; Lien, E L; Boyd, K A; Tu, W C

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of the plant-derived omega-3 (n-3) α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) to the long-chain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) can be increased by ALA sufficient diets compared to ALA deficient diets. Diets containing ALA above an optimal level result in no further increase in DHA levels in animals and humans. The present study evaluates means of maximizing plasma DHA accumulation by systematically varying both linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and ALA dietary level. Weanling rats were fed one of 54 diets for three weeks. The diets varied in the percentage of energy (en%) of LA (0.07-17.1 en%) and ALA (0.02-12.1 en%) by manipulating both the fat content and the balance of vegetable oils. The peak of plasma phospholipid DHA (>8% total fatty acids) was attained as a result of feeding a narrow dietary range of 1-3 en% ALA and 1-2 en% LA but was suppressed to basal levels (∼2% total fatty acids) at dietary intakes of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) above 3 en%. We conclude it is possible to enhance the DHA status of rats fed diets containing ALA as the only source of n-3 fatty acids but only when the level of dietary PUFA is low (<3 en%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a...

  10. Nitrous Acid as an Oxidant in Acidic Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-25

    nitroso oxidations were run in sulfuric acid. The Hammett acidity function is used as the abscissa because it conveniently represents the acidity region...oxidation. 13 Consistent with the general mechanism, equations (1)-(3), and in contrast to nitration, phenol nitrosation displays a primary kinetic...oxidized 1(III) + Alc - 104O + C-O (4) with the only route now removing HNO being NO+ + H - H + + 2N0 (5) Apparently while alcohol remains, equation (5

  11. A comparison of chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Because of federal and state mandates restricting the use of hexavalent chromium, it was deemed worthwhile to compare the corrosion protection afforded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy by both Type I chromic acid and Type II sulfuric acid anodizing per MIL-A-8625. Corrosion measurements were made on large, flat 2219-T87 aluminum alloy sheet material with an area of 1 cm(exp 2) exposed to a corrosive medium of 3.5-percent sodium chloride at pH 5.5. Both ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the dc polarization resistance techniques were employed. The results clearly indicate that the corrosion protection obtained by Type II sulfuric acid anodizing is superior, and no problems should result by substituting Type II sulfuric acid anodizing for Type I chromic acid anodizing.

  12. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  13. Electronic structures and spectra of two antioxidants: uric acid and ascorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, M. K.; Mishra, P. C.

    1996-04-01

    Electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of aqueous solutions of two well known antioxidants, uric acid and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), have been studied at different pH. The observed spectra have been interpreted in terms of neutral and anionic forms of the molecules with the help of molecular orbital calculations. The N 3 site of uric acid has been shown to be the most acidic. Fluorescence of uric acid seems to originate from an anion of the molecule in a wide pH range. Around pH 3, both the neutral and anionic forms of ascorbic acid appear to be present in aqueous solutions. In aqueous media, ascorbic acid appears to get converted easily to its dehydro form and this conversion does not seem to be reversible. An anion of dehydroascorbic acid seems to be formed on heating dehydroascorbic acid in aqueous solutions.

  14. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  15. Chronic Arachidonic Acid Administration Decreases Docosahexaenoic Acid- and Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolites in Kidneys of Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Katakura, Masanori; Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Tanabe, Yoko; Arita, Makoto; Shido, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites produced by cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase are important mediators maintaining physiological renal function. However, the effects of exogenous ARA on kidney function in vivo remain unknown. This study examined the effects of long-term oral ARA administration on normal renal function as well as inflammation and oxidative stress in aged rats. In addition, we measured levels of renal eicosanoids and docosanoids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Control or ARA oil (240 mg/kg body weight/day) was orally administered to 21-month-old Wistar rats for 13 weeks. Levels of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation were not significantly different between the two groups. The ARA concentration in the plasma, kidney, and liver increased in the ARA-administered group. In addition, levels of free-form ARA, prostaglandin E2, and 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid increased in the ARA-administered group, whereas renal concentration of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid decreased in the ARA-administered group. Levels of docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin D1, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived 5-, and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids, and resolvin E2 and E3 decreased in the ARA-administered group. Our results indicate that long-term ARA administration led to no serious adverse reactions under normal conditions and to a decrease in anti-inflammatory docosahexaenoic acid- and eicosapentaenoic acid-derived metabolites in the kidneys of aged rats. These results indicate that there is a possibility of ARA administration having a reducing anti-inflammatory effect on the kidney.

  16. Chronic Arachidonic Acid Administration Decreases Docosahexaenoic Acid- and Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolites in Kidneys of Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Katakura, Masanori; Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Tanabe, Yoko; Arita, Makoto; Shido, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites produced by cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase are important mediators maintaining physiological renal function. However, the effects of exogenous ARA on kidney function in vivo remain unknown. This study examined the effects of long-term oral ARA administration on normal renal function as well as inflammation and oxidative stress in aged rats. In addition, we measured levels of renal eicosanoids and docosanoids using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Control or ARA oil (240 mg/kg body weight/day) was orally administered to 21-month-old Wistar rats for 13 weeks. Levels of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation were not significantly different between the two groups. The ARA concentration in the plasma, kidney, and liver increased in the ARA-administered group. In addition, levels of free-form ARA, prostaglandin E2, and 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid increased in the ARA-administered group, whereas renal concentration of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid decreased in the ARA-administered group. Levels of docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin D1, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived 5-, and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids, and resolvin E2 and E3 decreased in the ARA-administered group. Our results indicate that long-term ARA administration led to no serious adverse reactions under normal conditions and to a decrease in anti-inflammatory docosahexaenoic acid- and eicosapentaenoic acid-derived metabolites in the kidneys of aged rats. These results indicate that there is a possibility of ARA administration having a reducing anti-inflammatory effect on the kidney. PMID:26485038

  17. "JCE" Classroom Activity #109: My Acid Can Beat Up Your Acid!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putti, Alice

    2011-01-01

    In this guided-inquiry activity, students investigate the ionization of strong and weak acids. Bead models are used to study acid ionization on a particulate level. Students analyze seven strong and weak acid models and make generalizations about the relationship between acid strength and dissociation. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)

  18. Metabolic pathways regulated by abscisic acid, salicylic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid in association with improved drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are known to play roles in regulating plant stress responses. This study was conducted to determine metabolites and associated pathways regulated by ABA, SA and GABA that could contribute to drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants were foliar sprayed with ABA (5 μM), GABA (0.5 mM) and SA (10 μM) or water (untreated control) prior to 25 days drought stress in controlled growth chambers. Application of ABA, GABA or SA had similar positive effects on alleviating drought damages, as manifested by the maintenance of lower electrolyte leakage and greater relative water content in leaves of treated plants relative to the untreated control. Metabolic profiling showed that ABA, GABA and SA induced differential metabolic changes under drought stress. ABA mainly promoted the accumulation of organic acids associated with tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid and malic acid). SA strongly stimulated the accumulation of amino acids (proline, serine, threonine and alanine) and carbohydrates (glucose, mannose, fructose and cellobiose). GABA enhanced the accumulation of amino acids (GABA, glycine, valine, proline, 5-oxoproline, serine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and organic acids (malic acid, lactic acid, gluconic acid, malonic acid and ribonic acid). The enhanced drought tolerance could be mainly due to the enhanced respiration metabolism by ABA, amino acids and carbohydrates involved in osmotic adjustment (OA) and energy metabolism by SA, and amino acid metabolism related to OA and stress-defense secondary metabolism by GABA. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Complexity in Acid-Base Titrations: Multimer Formation Between Phosphoric Acids and Imines.

    PubMed

    Malm, Christian; Kim, Heejae; Wagner, Manfred; Hunger, Johannes

    2017-08-10

    Solutions of Brønsted acids with bases in aprotic solvents are not only common model systems to study the fundamentals of proton transfer pathways but are also highly relevant to Brønsted acid catalysis. Despite their importance the light nature of the proton makes characterization of acid-base aggregates challenging. Here, we track such acid-base interactions over a broad range of relative compositions between diphenyl phosphoric acid and the base quinaldine in dichloromethane, by using a combination of dielectric relaxation and NMR spectroscopy. In contrast to what one would expect for an acid-base titration, we find strong deviations from quantitative proton transfer from the acid to the base. Even for an excess of the base, multimers consisting of one base and at least two acid molecules are formed, in addition to the occurrence of proton transfer from the acid to the base and simultaneous formation of ion pairs. For equimolar mixtures such multimers constitute about one third of all intermolecular aggregates. Quantitative analysis of our results shows that the acid-base association constant is only around six times larger than that for the acid binding to an acid-base dimer, that is, to an already protonated base. Our findings have implications for the interpretation of previous studies of reactive intermediates in organocatalysis and provide a rationale for previously observed nonlinear effects in phosphoric acid catalysis. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. Nocturnal weakly acidic reflux promotes aspiration of bile acids in lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Blondeau, Kathleen; Mertens, Veerle; Vanaudenaerde, Bart A; Verleden, Geert M; Van Raemdonck, Dirk E; Sifrim, Daniel; Dupont, Lieven J

    2009-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and aspiration of bile acids have been implicated as non-alloimmune risk factors for the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between GER and gastric aspiration of bile acids and to establish which reflux characteristics may promote aspiration of bile acids into the lungs and may feature as a potential diagnostic tool in identifying lung transplantation (LTx) patients at risk for aspiration. Twenty-four stable LTx recipients were studied 1 year after transplantation. All patients underwent 24-hour ambulatory impedance-pH recording for the detection of acid (pH <4) and weakly acidic (pH 4 to 7) reflux. On the same day, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and then analyzed for the presence of bile acids (Bioquant enzymatic assay). Increased GER was detected in 13 patients, of whom 9 had increased acid reflux and 4 had exclusively increased weakly acidic reflux. Sixteen patients had detectable bile acids in the BALF (0.6 [0.4 to 1.5] micromol/liter). The 24-hour esophageal volume exposure was significantly increased in patients with bile acids compared to patients without bile acids in the BALF. Acid exposure and the number of reflux events (total, acid and weakly acidic) were unrelated to the presence of bile acids in the BALF. However, both nocturnal volume exposure and the number of nocturnal weakly acidic reflux events were significantly higher in patients with bile acids in the BALF. Weakly acidic reflux events, especially during the night, are associated with the aspiration of bile acids in LTx recipients and may therefore feature as a potential risk factor for the development of BOS.

  1. [Molecular docking of chlorogenic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid with human serum albumin].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Ma, Hong-yue; Fan, Xin-sheng; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Tuan-jie

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the mechanism of binding of human serum albumin (HSA) with potential sensitinogen, including chlorogenic acid and two isochlorogenic acids (3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid). By using the docking algorithm of computer-aided molecular design and the Molegro Virtual Docker, the crystal structures of HSA with warfarin and diazepam (Protein Data Bank ID: 2BXD and 2BXF) were selected as molecular docking receptors of HSA sites I and II. According to docking scores, key residues and H-bond, the molecular docking mode was selected and confirmed. The molecular docking of chlorogenic acid and two isochlorogenic acids on sites I and II was compared based on the above design. The results from molecular docking indicated that chlorogenic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid could bind to HSA site I by high affinity scores of -112.3, -155.3 and -153.1, respectively. They could bind to site II on HSA by high affinity scores of -101.7, -138.5 and -133.4, respectively. In site I, two isochlorogenic acids interacted with the key apolar side-chains of Leu238 and Ala291 by higher affinity scores than chlorogenic acid. Furthermore, the H-bonds of isochlorogenic acids with polar residues inside the pocket and at the entrance of the pocket were different from chlorogenic acid. Moreover, the second coffee acyl of isochlorogenic acid occupied the right-hand apolar compartment in the pocket of HSA site I. In site I, the second coffee acyl of isochlorogenic acid formed the H-bonds with polar side-chains, which contributed isochlorogenic acid to binding with site II of HSA. The isochlorogenic acids with two coffee acyls have higher binding abilities with HSA than chlorogenic acid with one coffee acyl, suggesting that isochlorogenic acids binding with HSA may be sensitinogen.

  2. Dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, fatty acids, and benzoic acid in urban aerosols collected during the 2006 Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing (CAREBeijing-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Lee, S. C.; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Tachibana, Eri; Cheng, Y.; Zhu, Tong

    2010-10-01

    Ground-based studies of PM2.5 were conducted for determination of 30 water-soluble organic species, including dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and dicarbonyls, nine fatty acids, and benzoic acid, during the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2006 (CAREBeijing-2006; 21 August to 4 September 2006) at urban (Peking University, PKU) and suburban (Yufa) sites of Beijing. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids demonstrated that oxalic acid (C2) was the most abundant species, followed by phthalic acid (Ph) and succinic acid (C4) at both sites. The sum of three dicarboxylic acids accounted for 71% and 74% of total quantified water-soluble organics (327-1552 and 329-1124 ng m-3) in PKU and Yufa, respectively. Positive correlation was found between total quantified water-soluble species and water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC). On a carbon basis, total quantified dicarboxylic acids and ketocarboxylic acids and dicarbonyls account for up to 14.2% and 30.4% of the WSOC in PKU and Yufa, respectively, suggesting that they are the major WSOC fractions in Beijing. The distributions of fatty acids are characterized by a strong even carbon number predominance with maximum at hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). The ratio of octadecanoic acid (C18:0) to hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) (0.39-0.85, with an average of 0.36) suggests that in addition to vehicular emissions, an input from cooking emissions is important, as is biogenic emission. Benzoic acid that has been proposed as a primary pollutant from vehicular exhaust and a secondary product from photochemical reactions was found to be abundant: 72.2 ± 58.1 ng m-3 in PKU and 78.0 ± 47.3 ng m-3 in Yufa. According to the 72 hour back trajectory analysis, when the air mass passed over the southern or southeastern part of Beijing (24-25 August and 1-2 September), the highest concentrations of organic compounds were observed. On the contrary, when the clean air masses came straight from the north during 3-4 September, the

  3. Contribution of acidic components to the total acid number (TAN) of bio-oil

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Lydia K-E.; Liu, Jiaojun; Yiacoumi, Sotira; ...

    2017-03-28

    Bio-oil or pyrolysis oil — a product of thermochemical decomposition of biomass under oxygen-limited conditions — holds great potential to be a substitute for nonrenewable fossil fuels. But, its high acidity, which is primarily due to the degradation of hemicelluloses, limits its applications. For the evaluation of bio-oil production and treatment, it is essential to accurately measure the acidity of bio-oil. The total acid number (TAN), which is defined as the amount of potassium hydroxide needed to titrate one gram of a sample and has been established as an ASTM method to measure the acidity of petroleum products, has beenmore » employed to investigate the acidity of bio-oil. The TAN values of different concentrations of bio-oil components such as standard solutions of acetic acid, propionic acid, vanillic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and phenol were analyzed according to the ASTM D664 standard method. Our method showed the same linear relationship between the TAN values and the molar concentrations of acetic, propionic, and hydroxybenzoic acids. A different linear relationship was found for vanillic acid, due to the presence of multiple functional groups that can contribute to the TAN value. Furthermore, the influence of the titration solvent on the TAN values has been determined by comparing the TAN values and titration curves obtained from the standard method with results from the TAN analysis in aqueous environment and with equilibrium modeling results. Aqueous bio-oil samples with a known amount of acetic acid added were also analyzed. The additional acetic acid in bio-oil samples caused a proportional increase in the TAN values. These results of this research indicate that the TAN value of a sample with acids acting as monoprotic acids in the titration solvent can be converted to the molar concentration of total acids. For a sample containing acids that act as diprotic and polyprotic acids, however, its TAN value

  4. Contribution of acidic components to the total acid number (TAN) of bio-oil

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Lydia K-E.; Liu, Jiaojun; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    Bio-oil or pyrolysis oil — a product of thermochemical decomposition of biomass under oxygen-limited conditions — holds great potential to be a substitute for nonrenewable fossil fuels. But, its high acidity, which is primarily due to the degradation of hemicelluloses, limits its applications. For the evaluation of bio-oil production and treatment, it is essential to accurately measure the acidity of bio-oil. The total acid number (TAN), which is defined as the amount of potassium hydroxide needed to titrate one gram of a sample and has been established as an ASTM method to measure the acidity of petroleum products, has beenmore » employed to investigate the acidity of bio-oil. The TAN values of different concentrations of bio-oil components such as standard solutions of acetic acid, propionic acid, vanillic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and phenol were analyzed according to the ASTM D664 standard method. Our method showed the same linear relationship between the TAN values and the molar concentrations of acetic, propionic, and hydroxybenzoic acids. A different linear relationship was found for vanillic acid, due to the presence of multiple functional groups that can contribute to the TAN value. Furthermore, the influence of the titration solvent on the TAN values has been determined by comparing the TAN values and titration curves obtained from the standard method with results from the TAN analysis in aqueous environment and with equilibrium modeling results. Aqueous bio-oil samples with a known amount of acetic acid added were also analyzed. The additional acetic acid in bio-oil samples caused a proportional increase in the TAN values. These results of this research indicate that the TAN value of a sample with acids acting as monoprotic acids in the titration solvent can be converted to the molar concentration of total acids. For a sample containing acids that act as diprotic and polyprotic acids, however, its TAN value

  5. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  6. Incorporation of Oxygen into Abscisic Acid and Phaseic Acid from Molecular Oxygen 1

    PubMed Central

    Creelman, Robert A.; Zeevaart, Jan A. D.

    1984-01-01

    Abscisic acid accumulates in detached, wilted leaves of Xanthium strumarium. When these leaves are subsequently rehydrated, phaseic acid, a catabolite of abscisic acid, accumulates. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of phaseic acid isolated from stressed and subsequently rehydrated leaves placed in an atmosphere containing 20% 18O2 and 80% N2 indicates that one atom of 18O is incorporated in the 6′-hydroxymethyl group of phaseic acid. This suggests that the enzyme that converts abscisic acid to phaseic acid is an oxygenase. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of abscisic acid isolated from stressed leaves kept in an atmosphere containing 18O2 indicates that one atom of 18O is present in the carboxyl group of abscisic acid. Thus, when abscisic acid accumulates in water-stressed leaves, only one of the four oxygens present in the abscisic acid molecule is derived from molecular oxygen. This suggests that either (a) the oxygen present in the 1′-, 4′-, and one of the two oxygens at the 1-position of abscisic acid arise from water, or (b) there exists a stored precursor with oxygen atoms already present in the 1′- and 4′-positions of abscisic acid which is converted to abscisic acid under conditions of water stress. PMID:16663564

  7. Synthesis and biological activity of amino acid conjugates of abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Todoroki, Yasushi; Narita, Kenta; Muramatsu, Taku; Shimomura, Hajime; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Mizutani, Masaharu; Ueno, Kotomi; Hirai, Nobuhiro

    2011-03-01

    We prepared 19 amino acid conjugates of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and investigated their biological activity, enzymatic hydrolysis by a recombinant Arabidopsis amidohydrolases GST-ILR1 and GST-IAR3, and metabolic fate in rice seedlings. Different sets of ABA-amino acids induced ABA-like responses in different plants. Some ABA-amino acids, including some that were active in bioassays, were hydrolyzed by recombinant Arabidopsis GST-IAR3, although GST-ILR1 did not show hydrolysis activity for any of the ABA-amino acids. ABA-L-Ala, which was active in all the bioassays, an Arabidopsis seed germination, spinach seed germination, and rice seedling elongation assays, except in a lettuce seed germination assay and was hydrolyzed by GST-IAR3, was hydrolyzed to free ABA in rice seedlings. These findings suggest that some plant amidohydrolases hydrolyze some ABA-amino acid conjugates. Because our study indicates the possibility that different plants have hydrolyzing activity toward different ABA-amino acids, an ABA-amino acid may function as a species-selective pro-hormone of ABA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydroxamic acids as weak base indicators: protonation in strong acid media.

    PubMed

    García, B; Ibeas, S; Hoyuelos, F J; Leal, J M; Secco, F; Venturini, M

    2001-11-30

    The protonation equilibria of N-phenylbenzohydroxamic, benzohydroxamic, salicylhydroxamic, and N-p-tolylcinnamohydroxamic acids have been studied at 25 degrees C in concentrated sulfuric, hydrochloric, and perchloric acid media; the UV-vis spectral measurements were analyzed using the Hammett equation and the Bunnett-Olsen and excess acidity methods. The medium effects observed in the UV spectral curves were corrected with the Cox-Yates and vector analysis methods. The H(A) acidity function based on benzamides provided the best results. The range of variation of the solvation coefficient m is similar to that of amides, this indicating similar solvation requirements for amides and hydroxamic acids. For the same substrate, the observed variations of pK(BH)(+) with the mineral acid used was justified by formation of solvent-separated ion pairs; for the same mineral acid, the observed changes in pK(BH)(+) can be explained by the solvation of BH(+). The change of the pK(BH)(+) values was in reasonably good agreement with the sequence of the catalytic efficiency of the mineral acids used, HCl > H(2)SO(4) > HClO(4).

  9. Differential regulation of placental amino acid transport by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lager, Susanne; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-10-15

    Fatty acids are critical for normal fetal development but may also influence placental function. We have previously reported that oleic acid (OA) stimulates amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs). In other tissues, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids have distinct effects on cellular signaling, for instance, palmitic acid (PA) but not OA reduces IκBα expression. We hypothesized that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids differentially affect trophoblast amino acid transport and cellular signaling. To test this hypothesis, PHTs were cultured in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 50 μM), OA (100 μM), or PA (100 μM). DHA and OA were also combined to test whether DHA could counteract the OA stimulatory effect on amino acid transport. The effects of fatty acids were compared against a vehicle control. Amino acid transport was measured by isotope-labeled tracers. Activation of inflammatory-related signaling pathways and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway were determined by Western blot analysis. Exposure of PHTs to DHA for 24 h reduced amino acid transport and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, STAT3, mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein (rp)S6. In contrast, OA increased amino acid transport and phosphorylation of ERK, mTOR, S6 kinase 1, and rpS6. The combination of DHA with OA increased amino acid transport and rpS6 phosphorylation. PA did not affect amino acid transport but reduced IκBα expression. In conclusion, these fatty acids differentially regulated placental amino acid transport and cellular signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that dietary fatty acids could alter the intrauterine environment by modifying placental function, thereby having long-lasting effects on the developing fetus. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Variation of unsaturated fatty acids in soybean sprout of high oleic acid accessions.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Krishna Hari; Jung, Ki-Hwal; Chae, Jong-Hyun; Shannon, J Grover; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Oleic acid and oleic acid rich foods may have beneficial health effects in humans. Soybeans with high oleic acid (around 80% in seed oil) have been developed. Soybean sprouts are an important vegetable in Korea, Japan and China. The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids, in sprouts from soybeans with normal and high oleic acid concentration. Twelve soybean accessions with six high oleic acid lines, three parents of high oleic acid lines, and three checks with normal and high oleic acid concentration were used in this study. The unsaturated fatty acid concentration in sprouts from each genotype was similar to the concentration in the ungerminated seed. The oleic acid concentration in the sprouts of high oleic acid lines (up to 80%) was still high (>70%) compared to the ungerminated seed. Thus, high oleic soybean varieties developed for sprout production could add valuable health benefits to sprouts and the individuals who consume this vegetable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial agents from Licaria puchuri-major and their synergistic effect with polygodial.

    PubMed

    Himejima, M; Kubo, I

    1992-05-01

    The resistance of the seeds of Licaria puchuri-major (Lauraceae) to decomposition in nature seems to be due largely to chemical defense, since its n-hexane extract contains antimicrobial principles in quantity, with a broad antimicrobial spectrum. In order to identify the active principles, the n-hexane extract was steam-distilled to yield a distillate and a residue. Subsequent bioassay indicated that the distillate retained the original broad antimicrobial activity, while the residue exhibited almost no activity. Gc-ms analysis showed that the distillate contained four phenolic compounds, seven monoterpenes, and one sesquiterpene. In contrast, the residue contained, almost exclusively, lauric acid. In the detailed antimicrobial assay with the pure compounds identified, most of them showed broad, but moderate, antimicrobial activity. Some of the components identified in the distillate were combined with polygodial [1] in order to enhance their antifungal activity. Unexpectedly, while polygodial did not synergize the antifungal activity of any of the compounds tested, the antifungal activity of polygodial was significantly increased when combined with aromatic substances such as anethole, safrole, or methyleugenol.

  12. Altered concentrate to forage ratio in cows ration enhanced bioproduction of specific size subpopulation of milk fat globules.

    PubMed

    Mesilati-Stahy, Ronit; Moallem, Uzi; Magen, Yogev; Argov-Argaman, Nurit

    2015-07-15

    The mechanism underlying the shift in milk-fat-globule (MFG) mean diameter upon changing the concentrate-to-forage ratio in dairy cow rations was investigated. Cows were fed high-concentrate low-forage (HCLF) or high-forage low-concentrate (LCHF) rations for 4 weeks. Mean diameter of MFG, determined in raw whole milk, was 0.4 μm larger in the LCHF-fed vs. HCLF-fed group. The main compositional differences between treatments were found in a specific MFG subgroup with the diameter of 3.3 μm (F1), with higher capric, lauric, myristic and lower oleic acid concentrations in HCLF vs. LCHF milk. Similarly, lipid concentration differences between treatments were only found in F1, with higher triglyceride and phosphatidylethanolamine, and lower sphingomyelin concentrations in LCHF vs. HCLF milk. The higher MFG mean diameter in whole raw LCHF milk might therefore be attributed to increased secretion of F1-group MFG, while fat content and composition in the other MFG size groups remains unchanged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High color rendering index WLED based on YAG:Ce phosphor and CdS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Changyu; Li, Ke

    2009-08-01

    White LED combining of blue chip and YAG:Ce phosphor suffers from a red spectral deficiency, resulting in a relatively low value of color rendering index (CRI). In our study, for an effort to improve color rendering properties of YAG:Ce phosphor-based white LEDs, highly luminescent red-orange emitting CdS/ZnS QDs were blended with YAG:Ce phosphors. Core/shell CdS/ZnS quantum dots with the emission wavelength of 618nm, was synthesized by thermal deposition using cadmium oxide and selenium as precursors in a hot lauric acid and hexadecylamine trioctylphosphine oxide hybrid. YAG:Ce phosphor was synthesized by high-temperature solid state reaction at 900-1200°C in a slightly reducing atmosphere for 4 hours. Blends of phosphors and QDs exhibited the prominent spectral evolution with an increasing content of QDs. A hybrid white LED, which combines a blue LED with the blend of YAG phosphor and QDs with a weight ratio of 1.5:1,was demonstrated with an improved CRI value of 86.

  14. Pentadecanoic and Heptadecanoic Acids: Multifaceted Odd-Chain Fatty Acids12

    PubMed Central

    Pfeuffer, Maria; Jaudszus, Anke

    2016-01-01

    The odd-chain fatty acids (OCFAs) pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0), which account for only a small proportion of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat and ruminant meat, are accepted biomarkers of dairy fat intake. However, they can also be synthesized endogenously, for example, from gut-derived propionic acid (3:0). A number of studies have shown an inverse association between OCFA concentrations in human plasma phospholipids or RBCs and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We propose a possible involvement in metabolic regulation from the assumption that there is a link between 15:0 and 17:0 and the metabolism of other short-chain, medium-chain, and longer-chain OCFAs. The OCFAs 15:0 and 17:0 can be elongated to very-long-chain FAs (VLCFAs) such as tricosanoic acid (23:0) and pentacosanoic acid (25:0) in glycosphingolipids, particularly found in brain tissue, or can be derived from these VLCFAs. Their chains can be shortened, yielding propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Propionyl-CoA, by succinyl-CoA, can replenish the citric acid cycle (CAC) with anaplerotic intermediates and, thus, improve mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mitochondrial function is compromised in a number of disorders and may be impaired with increasing age. Optimizing anaplerotic intermediate availability for the CAC may help to cope with demands in times of increased metabolic stress and with aging. OCFAs may serve as substrates for synthesis of both odd-numbered VLCFAs and propionyl-CoA or store away excess propionic acid. PMID:27422507

  15. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chlorogenic acid versus amaranth's caffeoylisocitric acid - Gut microbial degradation of caffeic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Maren; Schröter, David; Esders, Selma; Neugart, Susanne; Farquharson, Freda M; Duncan, Sylvia H; Schreiner, Monika; Louis, Petra; Maul, Ronald; Rohn, Sascha

    2017-10-01

    The almost forgotten crop amaranth has gained renewed interest in recent years due to its immense nutritive potential. Health beneficial effects of certain plants are often attributed to secondary plant metabolites such as phenolic compounds. As these compounds undergo significant metabolism after consumption and are in most cases not absorbed very well, it is important to gain knowledge about absorption, biotransformation, and further metabolism in the human body. Whilst being hardly found in other edible plants, caffeoylisocitric acid represents the most abundant low molecular weight phenolic compound in many leafy amaranth species. Given that this may be a potentially bioactive compound, gastrointestinal microbial degradation of this substance was investigated in the present study by performing in vitro fermentation tests using three different fecal samples as inocula. The (phenolic) metabolites were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Furthermore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses were carried out to study the influence on the microbiome and its composition. The in vitro fermentations led to different metabolite profiles depending on the specific donor. For example, the metabolite 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was observed in one fermentation as the main metabolite, whereas 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was identified in the other fermentations as important. A significant change in selected microorganisms of the gut microbiota however was not detected. In conclusion, caffeoylisocitric acid from amaranth, which is a source of several esterified phenolic acids in addition to chlorogenic acid, can be metabolized by the human gut microbiota, but the metabolites produced vary between individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular complexes of alprazolam with carboxylic acids, boric acid, boronic acids, and phenols. Evaluation of supramolecular heterosynthons mediated by a triazole ring.

    PubMed

    Varughese, Sunil; Azim, Yasser; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2010-09-01

    A series of molecular complexes, both co-crystals and salts, of a triazole drug-alprazolam-with carboxylic acids, boric acid, boronic acids, and phenols have been analyzed with respect to heterosynthons present in the crystal structures. In all cases, the triazole ring behaves as an efficient hydrogen bond acceptor with the acidic coformers. The hydrogen bond patterns exhibited with aromatic carboxylic acids were found to depend on the nature and position of the substituents. Being a strong acid, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid forms a salt with alprazolam. With aliphatic dicarboxylic acids alprazolam forms hydrates and the water molecules play a central role in synthon formation and crystal packing. The triazole ring makes two distinct heterosynthons in the molecular complex with boric acid. Boronic acids and phenols form consistent hydrogen bond patterns, and these are seemingly independent of the substitutional effects. Boronic acids form noncentrosymmetric cyclic synthons, while phenols form O--H...N hydrogen bonds with the triazole ring.

  18. Nucleic Acid Immunity.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, G

    2017-01-01

    Organisms throughout biology need to maintain the integrity of their genome. From bacteria to vertebrates, life has established sophisticated mechanisms to detect and eliminate foreign genetic material or to restrict its function and replication. Tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of these mechanisms which keep foreign or unwanted nucleic acids from viruses or phages in check. Mechanisms reach from restriction-modification systems and CRISPR/Cas in bacteria and archaea to RNA interference and immune sensing of nucleic acids, altogether integral parts of a system which is now appreciated as nucleic acid immunity. With inherited receptors and acquired sequence information, nucleic acid immunity comprises innate and adaptive components. Effector functions include diverse nuclease systems, intrinsic activities to directly restrict the function of foreign nucleic acids (e.g., PKR, ADAR1, IFIT1), and extrinsic pathways to alert the immune system and to elicit cytotoxic immune responses. These effects act in concert to restrict viral replication and to eliminate virus-infected cells. The principles of nucleic acid immunity are highly relevant for human disease. Besides its essential contribution to antiviral defense and restriction of endogenous retroelements, dysregulation of nucleic acid immunity can also lead to erroneous detection and response to self nucleic acids then causing sterile inflammation and autoimmunity. Even mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which are not established in vertebrates are relevant for human disease when they are present in pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, or helminths or in pathogen-transmitting organisms such as insects. This review aims to provide an overview of the diverse mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which mostly have been looked at separately in the past and to integrate them under the framework nucleic acid immunity as a basic principle of life, the understanding of which has great potential to

  19. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  20. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tgoto@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University; Kim, Young-Il

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increasedmore » adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis.« less

  1. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils.

  2. Withdrawal from high-carbohydrate, high-saturated-fat diet changes saturated fat distribution and improves hepatic low-density-lipoprotein receptor expression to ameliorate metabolic syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Ankita; Kalita, Himadri; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2017-06-01

    The "lipid hypothesis" determined that saturated fatty acid (SFA) raises low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thereby increasing the risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic withdrawal from a high-carbohydrate, high-saturated fat (HCHF) diet during MetS with reference to changes in deleterious SFA (C12:0, lauric acid; C14:0, myristic acid; C16:0, palmitic acid; C18:0, stearic acid) distribution in liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), and feces. MetS induced by prolonged feeding of an HCHF diet in Wistar albino rat is used as a model of human MetS. The MetS-induced rats were withdrawn from the HCHF diet and changed to a basal diet for final 4 wk of the total experimental duration of 16 wk. SFA distribution in target tissues and hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) expression were analyzed. Analyses of changes in SFA concentration of target tissues indicate that C16:0 and C18:0 reduced in WAT and liver after withdrawal of the HCHF diet. There was a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in fecal C12:0 with HCHF feeding, which significantly (P < 0.01) increased after withdrawal of this diet. Also, an improvement in expression of hepatic LDLr was observed after withdrawal of HCHF diet. The prolonged consumption of an HCHF diet leads to increased SFA accumulation in liver and WAT, decreased SFA excretion, and reduced hepatic LDLr expression during MetS, which is prominently reversed after subchronic withdrawal of the HCHF diet. This can contribute to better understanding of the metabolic fate of dietary SFA during MetS and may apply to the potential reversal of complications by the simple approach of nutritional modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antifungal Attributes of Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 against Fumonisin Producing Fusarium proliferatum Associated with Poultry Feeds

    PubMed Central

    Deepthi, B. V.; Poornachandra Rao, K.; Chennapa, G.; Naik, M. K.; Chandrashekara, K. T.; Sreenivasa, M. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fumonisins, being common in occurrence in maize-based feeds, pose a great threat to animal and human health. The present study is aimed at determining the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 against a fumonisin producing fungus, Fusarium proliferatum MYS9. The isolate was subjected to standard tests for determining its probiotic attributes and antifungal properties. L. plantarum MYS6 thrived well at pH 3.0 and 6.0, and exhibited strong resistance up to 3% bile. The isolate showed a high degree of cell surface hydrophobicity corresponding to its strong adhesion to chicken crop epithelial cells. Co-inoculation with the fungus on modified de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium revealed the inhibitory effect of L. plantarum MYS6 on fungal growth and biomass. Observation using scanning electron microscopy showed distortion of hyphal structures, swollen tips and disrupted conidia. Conidia germination inhibition assay restrained germination and showed deformed hyphae. The bioprotective feature of the isolate was evident by the inhibition of fungal development in maize-kernel treated with the cell free supernatant of L. plantarum MYS6. Both the isolate and its extracellular metabolites lowered fumonisin content in feed model up to 0.505 mg/Kg of feed and 0.3125 mg/Kg of feed respectively when compared to the level of 0.870 mg/Kg of feed in control. The major antifungal compounds produced by the isolate were 10-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester; palmitic acid, methyl ester; heptadecanoic acid, 16-methyl ester; stearic acid and lauric acid. L. plantarum MYS6 reduced 61.7% of fumonisin possibly by a binding mechanism. These findings suggest the application of L. plantarum MYS6 as an efficient probiotic additive and biocontrol agent in feed used in poultry industry. Additionally, the antifungal metabolites pose a conspicuous inhibition of Fusarium growth and fumonisin production. PMID:27285317

  4. Antifungal Attributes of Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 against Fumonisin Producing Fusarium proliferatum Associated with Poultry Feeds.

    PubMed

    Deepthi, B V; Poornachandra Rao, K; Chennapa, G; Naik, M K; Chandrashekara, K T; Sreenivasa, M Y

    2016-01-01

    Fumonisins, being common in occurrence in maize-based feeds, pose a great threat to animal and human health. The present study is aimed at determining the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 against a fumonisin producing fungus, Fusarium proliferatum MYS9. The isolate was subjected to standard tests for determining its probiotic attributes and antifungal properties. L. plantarum MYS6 thrived well at pH 3.0 and 6.0, and exhibited strong resistance up to 3% bile. The isolate showed a high degree of cell surface hydrophobicity corresponding to its strong adhesion to chicken crop epithelial cells. Co-inoculation with the fungus on modified de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium revealed the inhibitory effect of L. plantarum MYS6 on fungal growth and biomass. Observation using scanning electron microscopy showed distortion of hyphal structures, swollen tips and disrupted conidia. Conidia germination inhibition assay restrained germination and showed deformed hyphae. The bioprotective feature of the isolate was evident by the inhibition of fungal development in maize-kernel treated with the cell free supernatant of L. plantarum MYS6. Both the isolate and its extracellular metabolites lowered fumonisin content in feed model up to 0.505 mg/Kg of feed and 0.3125 mg/Kg of feed respectively when compared to the level of 0.870 mg/Kg of feed in control. The major antifungal compounds produced by the isolate were 10-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester; palmitic acid, methyl ester; heptadecanoic acid, 16-methyl ester; stearic acid and lauric acid. L. plantarum MYS6 reduced 61.7% of fumonisin possibly by a binding mechanism. These findings suggest the application of L. plantarum MYS6 as an efficient probiotic additive and biocontrol agent in feed used in poultry industry. Additionally, the antifungal metabolites pose a conspicuous inhibition of Fusarium growth and fumonisin production.

  5. Bile acids: regulation of apoptosis by ursodeoxycholic acid

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Joana D.; Viana, Ricardo J. S.; Ramalho, Rita M.; Steer, Clifford J.; Rodrigues, Cecília M. P.

    2009-01-01

    Bile acids are a group of molecular species of acidic steroids with peculiar physical-chemical and biological characteristics. At high concentrations they become toxic to mammalian cells, and their presence is pertinent in the pathogenesis of several liver diseases and colon cancer. Bile acid cytoxicity has been related to membrane damage, but also to nondetergent effects, such as oxidative stress and apoptosis. Strikingly, hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), and its taurine-conjugated form (TUDCA), show profound cytoprotective properties. Indeed, these molecules have been described as potent inhibitors of classic pathways of apoptosis, although their precise mode of action remains to be clarified. UDCA, originally used for cholesterol gallstone dissolution, is currently considered the first choice therapy for several forms of cholestatic syndromes. However, the beneficial effects of both UDCA and TUDCA have been tested in other experimental pathological conditions with deregulated levels of apoptosis, including neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Here, we review the role of bile acids in modulating the apoptosis process, emphasizing the anti-apoptotic effects of UDCA and TUDCA, as well as their potential use as novel and alternate therapeutic agents for the treatment of apoptosis-related diseases. PMID:19417220

  6. Bile acids: regulation of apoptosis by ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Joana D; Viana, Ricardo J S; Ramalho, Rita M; Steer, Clifford J; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2009-09-01

    Bile acids are a group of molecular species of acidic steroids with peculiar physical-chemical and biological characteristics. At high concentrations they become toxic to mammalian cells, and their presence is pertinent in the pathogenesis of several liver diseases and colon cancer. Bile acid cytoxicity has been related to membrane damage, but also to nondetergent effects, such as oxidative stress and apoptosis. Strikingly, hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), and its taurine-conjugated form (TUDCA), show profound cytoprotective properties. Indeed, these molecules have been described as potent inhibitors of classic pathways of apoptosis, although their precise mode of action remains to be clarified. UDCA, originally used for cholesterol gallstone dissolution, is currently considered the first choice therapy for several forms of cholestatic syndromes. However, the beneficial effects of both UDCA and TUDCA have been tested in other experimental pathological conditions with deregulated levels of apoptosis, including neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Here, we review the role of bile acids in modulating the apoptosis process, emphasizing the anti-apoptotic effects of UDCA and TUDCA, as well as their potential use as novel and alternate therapeutic agents for the treatment of apoptosis-related diseases.

  7. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  8. Oxidative cleavage of erucic acid for the synthesis of brassylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed J. Nasrullah; Pooja Thapliyal; Erica N. Pfarr

    2010-10-29

    The main focus of this work is to synthesize Brassylic Acid (BA) using oxidative cleavage of Erucic Acid (EA). Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is an industrial oilseed grown in North Dakota. Crambe has potential as an industrial fatty acid feedstock as a source of Erucic acid (EA). It has approximately 50-60 % of EA, a C{sub 22} monounsaturated fatty acid. Oxidative cleavage of unsaturated fatty acids derived from oilseeds produces long chain (9, 11, and 13 carbon atoms) dibasic and monobasic acids. These acids are known commercial feedstocks for the preparation of nylons, polyesters, waxes, surfactants, and perfumes. Other sources ofmore » EA are Rapeseed seed oil which 50-60 % of EA. Rapeseed is grown outside USA. The oxidative cleavage of EA was done using a high throughput parallel pressure reactor system. Kinetics of the reaction shows that BA yields reach a saturation at 12 hours. H{sub 2}WO{sub 4} was found to be the best catalyst for the oxidative cleavage of EA. High yields of BA were obtained at 80 C with bubbling of O{sub 2} or 10 bar of O{sub 2} for 12 hours.« less

  9. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  10. PlsX deletion impacts fatty acid synthesis and acid adaptation in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Cross, Benjamin; Garcia, Ariana; Faustoferri, Roberta; Quivey, Robert G

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus mutans, one of the primary causative agents of dental caries in humans, ferments dietary sugars in the mouth to produce organic acids. These acids lower local pH values, resulting in demineralization of the tooth enamel, leading to caries. To survive acidic environments, Strep. mutans employs several adaptive mechanisms, including a shift from saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids. PlsX is an acyl-ACP : phosphate transacylase that links the fatty acid synthase II (FASII) pathway to the phospholipid synthesis pathway, and is therefore central to the movement of unsaturated fatty acids into the membrane. Recently, we discovered that plsX is not essential in Strep. mutans. A plsX deletion mutant was not a fatty acid or phospholipid auxotroph. Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters indicated that membrane fatty acid chain length in the plsX deletion strain differed from those detected in the parent strain, UA159. The deletion strain displayed a fatty acid shift similar to WT, but had a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids at low pH. The deletion strain survived significantly longer than the parent strain when cultures were subjected to an acid challenge of pH 2.5.The ΔplsX strain also exhibited elevated F-ATPase activity at pH 5.2, compared with the parent. These results indicate that the loss of plsX affects both the fatty acid synthesis pathway and the acid-adaptive response of Strep. mutans.

  11. Production of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid by Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 containing cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xuewei; He, Qingfang; Peng, Zhenying; Yu, Jinhui; Bian, Fei; Li, Youzhi; Bi, Yuping

    2016-07-01

    Genetic modification is useful for improving the nutritional qualities of cyanobacteria. To increase the total unsaturated fatty acid content, along with the ratio of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids, genetic engineering can be used to modify fatty acid metabolism. Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, a fast-growing cyanobacterium, does not contain a Δ6 desaturase gene and is therefore unable to synthesize γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are important in human health. In this work, we constructed recombinant vectors Syd6D, Syd15D and Syd6Dd15D to express the Δ15 desaturase and Δ6 desaturase genes from Synechocystis PCC6803 in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, with the aim of expressing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Overexpression of the Δ15 desaturase gene in Synechococcus resulted in 5.4 times greater accumulation of α-linolenic acid compared with the wild-type while Δ6 desaturase gene expression produced both GLA and SDA. Co-expression of the two genes resulted in low-level accumulation of GLA but much larger amounts of SDA, accounting for as much to 11.64% of the total fatty acid content.

  12. Utilization of acidic α-amino acids as acyl donors: an effective stereo-controllable synthesis of aryl-keto α-amino acids and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Murai, Yuta; Yoshida, Takuma; Okamoto, Masashi; Tachrim, Zetryana Puteri; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2014-05-16

    Aryl-keto-containing α-amino acids are of great importance in organic chemistry and biochemistry. They are valuable intermediates for the construction of hydroxyl α-amino acids, nonproteinogenic α-amino acids, as well as other biofunctional components. Friedel-Crafts acylation is an effective method to prepare aryl-keto derivatives. In this review, we summarize the preparation of aryl-keto containing α-amino acids by Friedel-Crafts acylation using acidic α-amino acids as acyl-donors and Lewis acids or Brönsted acids as catalysts.

  13. Dicarboxylic acids generated by thermal alteration of kerogen and humic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kaplan, I. R.

    1987-01-01

    Significant amounts (up to 2 percent of organic geopolymers) of low-molecular-weight (LMW) dicarboxylic acids (C2-C10) have been detected during thermal alteration (270 C, 2 h) of kerogens and humic acids isolated from young or ancient lithified sediments. Their distribution is characterized by the predominance of oxalic acid followed by succinic, fumaric, and methylsuccinic acids. These acids are probably released by the breakdown of macromolecular structures, which have incorporated biogenic organic compounds, including diacids, during early digenesis in sediments. Because of their reactivity, LMW diacids may play geochemically important roles under natural conditions.

  14. Glutamic Acid as a Precursor to N-Terminal Pyroglutamic Acid in Mouse Plasmacytoma Protein

    PubMed Central

    Twardzik, Daniel R.; Peterkofsky, Alan

    1972-01-01

    Cell suspensions derived from a mouse plasmacytoma (RPC-20) that secretes an immunoglobulin light chain containing N-terminal pyroglutamic acid can synthesize protein in vitro. Chromatographic examination of an enzymatic digest of protein labeled with glutamic acid shows only labeled glutamic acid and pyroglutamic acid; hydrolysis of protein from cells labeled with glutamine, however, yields substantial amounts of glutamic acid in addition to glutamine and pyroglutamic acid. The absence of glutamine synthetase and presence of glutaminase in plasmacytoma homogenates is consistent with these findings. These data indicate that N-terminal pyroglutamic acid can be derived from glutamic acid without prior conversion of glutamic acid to glutamine. Since free or bound forms of glutamine cyclize nonezymatically to pyroglutamate with ease, while glutamic acid does not, the data suggest that N-terminal pyroglutamic acid formation from glutamic acid is enzymatic rather than spontaneous. Images PMID:4400295

  15. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  16. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  17. Manipulating Membrane Fatty Acid Compositions of Whole Plants with Tween-Fatty Acid Esters 1

    PubMed Central

    Terzaghi, William B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a method for manipulating plant membrane fatty acid compositions without altering growth temperature or other conditions. Tween-fatty acid esters carrying specific fatty acids were synthesized and applied to various organs of plants growing axenically in glass jars. Treated plants incorporated large amounts of exogenous fatty acids into all acylated membrane lipids detected. Fatty acids were taken up by both roots and leaves. Fatty acids applied to roots were found in leaves, while fatty acids applied to leaves appeared in both leaves higher on the plant and in roots, indicating translocation (probably in the phloem). Foliar application was most effective; up to 20% of membrane fatty acids of leaves above the treated leaf and up to 40% of root membrane fatty acids were exogenously derived. Plants which took up exogenous fatty acids changed their patterns of fatty acid synthesis such that ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids remained essentially unaltered. Fatty acid uptake was most extensively studied in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), but was also observed in other species, including maize (Zea mays L.), mung beans (Vigna radiata L.), peas (Pisum sativum L.), petunia (Petunia hybrida L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Potential applications of this system include studying internal transport of fatty acids, regulation of fatty acid and membrane synthesis, and influences of membrane fatty acid composition on plant physiology. Images Figure 2 PMID:16666997

  18. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  19. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  20. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid from Ligustrum lucidum Ait

    PubMed Central

    Xia, En-Qin; Wang, Bo-Wei; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhu, Li; Song, Yang; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are the main active components in fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait, and possess anticancer, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiprotozoal activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum was investigated with HPLC-photodiode array detection. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and concentration of extraction solvent, ratio of liquid to material, microwave power, extraction temperature and microwave time, on the extraction efficiencies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum were evaluated. The influence of experimental parameters on the extraction efficiency of ursolic acid was more significant than that of oleanolic acid (p < 0.05). The optimal extraction conditions were 80% ethanol aqueous solution, the ratio of material to liquid was 1:15, and extraction for 30 min at 70 °C under microwave irradiation of 500 W. Under optimal conditions, the yields of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were 4.4 ± 0.20 mg/g and 5.8 ± 0.15 mg/g, respectively. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of Ligustrum lucidum, which also indicated that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from plant materials. PMID:21954361

  1. Chlorogenic acids and the acyl-quinic acids: discovery, biosynthesis, bioavailability and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Michael N; Jaganath, Indu B; Ludwig, Iziar A; Crozier, Alan

    2017-12-13

    Covering: 2000 up to late 2017This review is focussed upon the acyl-quinic acids, the most studied group within the ca. 400 chlorogenic acids so far reported. The acyl-quinic acids, the first of which was characterised in 1846, are a diverse group of plant-derived compounds produced principally through esterification of an hydroxycinnamic acid and 1l-(-)-quinic acid. Topics addressed in this review include the confusing nomenclature, quantification and characterisation by NMR and MS, biosynthesis and role in planta, and the occurrence of acyl-quinic acids in coffee, their transformation during roasting and delivery to the beverage. Coffee is the major human dietary source world-wide of acyl-quinic acids and consideration is given to their absorption and metabolism in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and the colon where the microbiota play a key role in the formation of catabolites. Evidence on the potential of the in vivo metabolites and catabolites of acyl-quinic acids to promote the consumer's health is evaluated.

  2. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and P-90-1985...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and P-90-1985...

  4. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  5. Method for distinctive estimation of stored acidity forms in acid mine wastes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Fan, Rong; Schumann, Russell C; Gerson, Andrea R; Smart, Roger St C

    2014-10-07

    Jarosites and schwertmannite can be formed in the unsaturated oxidation zone of sulfide-containing mine waste rock and tailings together with ferrihydrite and goethite. They are also widely found in process wastes from electrometallurgical smelting and metal bioleaching and within drained coastal lowland soils (acid-sulfate soils). These secondary minerals can temporarily store acidity and metals or remove and immobilize contaminants through adsorption, coprecipitation, or structural incorporation, but release both acidity and toxic metals at pH above about 4. Therefore, they have significant relevance to environmental mineralogy through their role in controlling pollutant concentrations and dynamics in contaminated aqueous environments. Most importantly, they have widely different acid release rates at different pHs and strongly affect drainage water acidity dynamics. A procedure for estimation of the amounts of these different forms of nonsulfide stored acidity in mining wastes is required in order to predict acid release rates at any pH. A four-step extraction procedure to quantify jarosite and schwertmannite separately with various soluble sulfate salts has been developed and validated. Corrections to acid potentials and estimation of acid release rates can be reliably based on this method.

  6. Amino acid catabolism and generation of volatiles by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tavaria, F K; Dahl, S; Carballo, F J; Malcata, F X

    2002-10-01

    Twelve isolates of lactic acid bacteria, belonging to the Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Enterococcus genera, were previously isolated from 180-d-old Serra da Estrela cheese, a traditional Portuguese cheese manufactured from raw milk and coagulated with a plant rennet. These isolates were subsequently tested for their ability to catabolize free amino acids, when incubated independently with each amino acid in free form or with a mixture thereof. Attempts were made in both situations to correlate the rates of free amino acid uptake with the numbers of viable cells. When incubated individually, leucine, valine, glycine, aspartic acid, serine, threonine, lysine, glutamic acid, and alanine were degraded by all strains considered; arginine tended to build up, probably because of transamination of other amino acids. When incubated together, the degradation of free amino acids by each strain was dependent on pH (with an optimum pH around 6.0). The volatiles detected in ripened Serra da Estrela cheese originated mainly from leucine, phenylalanine, alanine, and valine, whereas in vitro they originated mainly from valine, phenylalanine, serine, leucine, alanine, and threonine. The wild strains tested offer a great potential for flavor generation, which might justify their inclusion in a tentative starter/nonstarter culture for that and similar cheeses.

  7. Analysis of processing contaminants in edible oils. Part 1. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the direct detection of 3-monochloropropanediol monoesters and glycidyl esters.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, Shaun; Mazzola, Eugene; Begley, Timothy H; Diachenko, Gregory W

    2013-05-22

    A new analytical method has been developed and validated for the detection of glycidyl esters (GEs) and 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) monoesters in edible oils. The target compounds represent two classes of potentially carcinogenic chemical contaminants formed during the processing of edible oils. Target analytes are separated from edible oil matrices using a two-step solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The extracts are then analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI). Chromatographic conditions that separate sn-1 and sn-2 monoesters of 3-MCPD have been developed for the first time. The method has been validated for GEs, sn-1 3-MCPD monoesters of lauric, myristic, linolenic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids, and sn-2 3-MCPD monoesters of oleic and palmitic acids in coconut, olive, and palm oils using an external calibration curve. The range of average recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) across the three oil matrices at three spiking concentrations are 84-115% (3-16% RSD) for the GEs, 95-113% (1-10% RSD) for the sn-1 3-MCPD monoesters, and 76.8-103% (5.1-11.2% RSD) for the sn-2 3-MCPD monoesters, with limits of quantitation at or below 30 ng/g for the GEs, 60 ng/g for sn-1 3-MCPD monoesters, and 180 ng/g for sn-2 3-MCPD monoesters.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Babassu Oil and Development of a Microemulsion System for Topical Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Mysrayn Y. F. A.; dos Santos, Simone M.; Silva, Danielle R.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. Ferraz; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Hallwass, Fernando; Bianchi, Otávio; Silva, Alexandre G.; Melo, Janaína V.; Machado, Giovanna; Saraiva, Karina L. A.

    2017-01-01

    Babassu oil extraction is the main income source in nut breakers communities in northeast of Brazil. Among these communities, babassu oil is used for cooking but also medically to treat skin wounds and inflammation, and vulvovaginitis. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of babassu oil and develop a microemulsion system with babassu oil for topical delivery. Topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in mice ear edema using PMA, arachidonic acid, ethyl phenylpropiolate, phenol, and capsaicin as phlogistic agents. A microemulsion system was successfully developed using a Span® 80/Kolliphor® EL ratio of 6 : 4 as the surfactant system (S), propylene glycol and water (3 : 1) as the aqueous phase (A), and babassu oil as the oil phase (O), and analyzed through conductivity, SAXS, DSC, TEM, and rheological assays. Babassu oil and lauric acid showed anti-inflammatory activity in mice ear edema, through inhibition of eicosanoid pathway and bioactive amines. The developed formulation (39% A, 12.2% O, and 48.8% S) was classified as a bicontinuous to o/w transition microemulsion that showed a Newtonian profile. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of microemulsified babassu oil was markedly increased. A new delivery system of babassu microemulsion droplet clusters was designed to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of vegetable oil. PMID:29430254

  9. Combination of aspartic acid and glutamic acid inhibits tumor cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Yamamoto, Katsunori; Sato, Yoshinori; Inoue, Shinjiro; Morinaga, Tetsuo; Hirano, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Placental extract contains several biologically active compounds, and pharmacological induction of placental extract has therapeutic effects, such as improving liver function in patients with hepatitis or cirrhosis. Here, we searched for novel molecules with an anti-tumor activity in placental extracts. Active molecules were separated by chromatographic analysis, and their antiproliferative activities were determined by a colorimetric assay. We identified aspartic acid and glutamic acid to possess the antiproliferative activity against human hepatoma cells. Furthermore, we showed that the combination of aspartic acid and glutamic acid exhibited enhanced antiproliferative activity, and inhibited Akt phosphorylation. We also examined in vivo tumor inhibition activity using the rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. The treatment mixture (emulsion of the amino acids with Lipiodol) administered by hepatic artery injection inhibited tumor cell growth of the rabbit VX2 liver. These results suggest that the combination of aspartic acid and glutamic acid may be useful for induction of tumor cell death, and has the potential for clinical use as a cancer therapeutic agent.

  10. Health benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Siriwardhana, Nalin; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2012-01-01

    Marine-based fish and fish oil are the most popular and well-known sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These n-3 PUFAs are known to have variety of health benefits against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including well-established hypotriglyceridemic and anti-inflammatory effects. Also, various studies indicate promising antihypertensive, anticancer, antioxidant, antidepression, antiaging, and antiarthritis effects. Moreover, recent studies also indicate anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of these fatty acids in metabolic disorders. Classically, n-3 PUFAs mediate some of these effects by antagonizing n-6 PUFA (arachidonic acid)-induced proinflammatory prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) formation. Another well-known mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs impart their anti-inflammatory effects is via reduction of nuclear factor-κB activation. This transcription factor is a potent inducer of proinflammatory cytokine production, including interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, both of which are decreased by EPA and DHA. Other evidence also demonstrates that n-3 PUFAs repress lipogenesis and increase resolvins and protectin generation, ultimately leading to reduced inflammation. Finally, beneficial effects of EPA and DHA in insulin resistance include their ability to increase secretion of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine. In summary, n-3 PUFAs have multiple health benefits mediated at least in part by their anti-inflammatory actions; thus their consumption, especially from dietary sources, should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Free lactic acid production under acidic conditions by lactic acid bacteria strains: challenges and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Singhvi, Mamata; Zendo, Takeshi; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2018-05-26

    Lactic acid (LA) is an important platform chemical due to its significant applications in various fields and its use as a monomer for the production of biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA). Free LA production is required to get rid of CaSO 4 , a waste material produced during fermentation at neutral pH which will lead to easy purification of LA required for the production of biodegradable PLA. Additionally, there is no need to use corrosive acids to release free LA from the calcium lactate produced during neutral fermentation. To date, several attempts have been made to improve the acid tolerance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by using both genome-shuffling approaches and rational design based on known mechanisms of LA tolerance and gene deletion in yeast strains. However, the lack of knowledge and the complexity of acid-tolerance mechanisms have made it challenging to generate LA-tolerant strains by simply modifying few target genes. Currently, adaptive evolution has proven an efficient strategy to improve the LA tolerance of individual/engineered strains. The main objectives of this article are to summarize the conventional biotechnological LA fermentation processes to date, assess their overall economic and environmental cost, and to introduce modern LA fermentation strategies for free LA production. In this review, we provide a broad overview of free LA fermentation processes using robust LAB that can ferment in acidic environments, the obstacles to these processes and their possible solutions, and the impact on future development of free LA fermentation processes commercially.

  12. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and spinal cord and can also cause lower intelligence in babies exposed to valproic acid before birth. ... acid. Talk to your doctor about birth control methods that will work for you. If you become ...

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from n-3 fatty acid precursors in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kaduce, Terry L; Chen, Yucui; Hell, Johannes W; Spector, Arthur A

    2008-05-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain, has important functions in the hippocampus. To better understand essential fatty acid homeostasis in this region of the brain, we investigated the contributions of n-3 fatty acid precursors in supplying hippocampal neurons with DHA. Primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons incorporated radiolabeled 18-, 20-, 22-, and 24-carbon n-3 fatty acid and converted some of the uptake to DHA, but the amounts produced from either [1-14C]alpha-linolenic or [1-14C]eicosapentaenoic acid were considerably less than the amounts incorporated when the cultures were incubated with [1-14C]22:6n-3. Most of the [1-14C]22:6n-3 uptake was incorporated into phospholipids, primarily ethanolamine phosphoglycerides. Additional studies demonstrated that the neurons converted [1-14C]linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, the main n-6 fatty acid in the brain. These findings differ from previous results indicating that cerebral and cerebellar neurons cannot convert polyunsaturated fatty acid precursors to DHA or arachidonic acid. Fatty acid compositional analysis demonstrated that the hippocampal neurons contained only 1.1-2.5 mol% DHA under the usual low-DHA culture conditions. The relatively low-DHA content suggests that some responses obtained with these cultures may not be representative of neuronal function in the brain.

  14. Kinetics of browning and correlations between browning degree and pyrazine compounds in l-ascorbic acid/acidic amino acid model systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ai-Nong; Zhou, Yong-Yan; Yang, Yi-Ni

    2017-04-15

    The kinetics of browning and the correlation between browning products (BPs) and pyrazine compounds were investigated by heating equimolar l-ascorbic acid (ASA)/acidic amino acids under weak alkaline conditions at 120-150°C for 10-120min. The formations of BPs and pyrazine compounds from the reaction were monitored by UV-vis and SPME-GC-FID, respectively. The formation of BPs in both ASA/l-glutamic acid and ASA/l-aspartic acid model reaction systems followed zero order reaction kinetics with activation energies (E a ) of 90.13 and 93.38kJ/mol, respectively. ASA/l-aspartic acid browned at a slightly higher rate than ASA/l-glutamic acid. The total concentration of pyrazine compounds was highly and positively correlated with that of BPs. Based on the observed kinetic data, the formation mechanisms of BPs and pyrazine compounds were proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Method of increasing conversion of a fatty acid to its corresponding dicarboxylic acid

    DOEpatents

    Craft, David L.; Wilson, C. Ron; Eirich, Dudley; Zhang, Yeyan

    2004-09-14

    A nucleic acid sequence including a CYP promoter operably linked to nucleic acid encoding a heterologous protein is provided to increase transcription of the nucleic acid. Expression vectors and host cells containing the nucleic acid sequence are also provided. The methods and compositions described herein are especially useful in the production of polycarboxylic acids by yeast cells.

  16. The interaction of albumin and fatty-acid-binding protein with membranes: oleic acid dissociation.

    PubMed

    Catalá, A

    1984-10-01

    Bovine serum albumin or fatty-acid-binding protein rapidly lose oleic acid when incubated in the presence of dimyristoyl lecithin liposomes. The phenomenon is dependent on vesicle concentration and no measurable quantities of protein are found associated with liposomes. Upon gel filtration on Sepharose CL-2B of incubated mixtures of microsomes containing [1-14C] oleic acid and albumin or fatty-acid-binding protein, association of fatty acid with the soluble proteins could be demonstrated. Both albumin and fatty-acid-binding protein stimulated the transfer of oleic acid from rat liver microsomes to egg lecithin liposomes. These results indicate that albumin is more effective in the binding of oleic acid than fatty-acid-binding protein, which allows a selective oleic acid dissociation during its interaction with membranes.

  17. Reciprocal effects of 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid on fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Otto, D A; Chatzidakis, C; Kasziba, E; Cook, G A

    1985-10-01

    Under certain incubation conditions 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) stimulated the oxidation of palmitate by hepatocytes, as observed by others. A decrease in malonyl-CoA concentration accompanied the stimulation of oxidation. Under other conditions, however, TOFA inhibited fatty acid oxidation. The observed effects of TOFA depended on the TOFA and fatty acid concentrations, the cell concentration, the time of TOFA addition relative to the addition of fatty acid, and the nutritional state of the animal (fed or starved). The data indicate that only under limited incubation conditions may TOFA be used as an inhibitor of fatty acid synthesis without inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. When rat liver mitochondria were preincubated with TOFA, ketogenesis from palmitate was slightly inhibited (up to 20%) at TOFA concentrations that were less than that of CoA, but the inhibition became almost complete (up to 90%) when TOFA was greater than or equal to the CoA concentration. TOFA had only slight or no inhibitory effects on the oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA, palmitoyl(-)carnitine, or butyrate. Since TOFA can be converted to TOFyl-CoA, the data suggest that the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation from palmitate results from the decreased availability of CoA for extramitochondrial activation of fatty acids. These data, along with previous data of others, indicate that inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by CoA sequestration is a common mechanism of a group of carboxylic acid inhibitors. A general caution is appropriate with regard to the interpretation of results when using TOFA in studies of fatty acid oxidation.

  18. Structure-activity relationship investigation of tertiary amine derivatives of cinnamic acid as acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors: compared with that of phenylpropionic acid, sorbic acid and hexanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaohui; Tang, Jingjing; Liu, Haoran; Liu, Linbo; Kang, Lu; Chen, Wen

    2018-12-01

    In the present investigation, 48 new tertiary amine derivatives of cinnamic acid, phenylpropionic acid, sorbic acid and hexanoic acid (4d-6g, 10d-12g, 16d-18g and 22d-24g) were designed, synthesized and evaluated for the effect on AChE and BChE in vitro. The results revealed that the alteration of aminoalkyl types and substituted positions markedly influences the effects in inhibiting AChE. Almost of all cinnamic acid derivatives had the most potent inhibitory activity than that of other acid derivatives with the same aminoalkyl side chain. Unsaturated bond and benzene ring in cinnamic acid scaffold seems important for the inhibitory activity against AChE. Among them, compound 6g revealed the most potent AChE inhibitory activity (IC 50 value: 3.64 µmol/L) and highest selectivity over BChE (ratio: 28.6). Enzyme kinetic study showed that it present a mixed-type inhibition against AChE. The molecular docking study suggested that it can bind with the catalytic site and peripheral site of AChE.

  19. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  20. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  1. Polydopamine-coated magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective solid-phase extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuli; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing; Luo, Ningjing

    2016-04-01

    We describe novel cinnamic acid polydopamine-coated magnetic imprinted polymers for the simultaneous selective extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample. The novel magnetic imprinted polymers were synthesized by surface imprinting polymerization using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the support material, cinnamic acid as the template and dopamine as the functional monomer. The magnetic imprinted polymers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results revealed that the magnetic imprinted polymers had outstanding magnetic properties, high adsorption capacity, selectivity and fast kinetic binding toward cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid. Coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography, the extraction conditions of the magnetic imprinted polymers as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent were investigated in detail. The proposed imprinted magnetic solid phase extraction procedure has been used for the purification and enrichment of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid successfully from radix scrophulariae extraction sample with recoveries of 92.4-115.0% for cinnamic acid, 89.4-103.0% for ferulic acid and 86.6-96.0% for caffeic acid. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... before the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  3. Fatty Acids of Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Judith C.; Dworkin, Martin

    1973-01-01

    Fatty acids were extracted from saponified vegetative cells and myxospores of Myxococcus xanthus and examined as the methyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography. The acids consisted mainly of C14 to C17 species. Branched acids predominated, and iso-pentadecanoic acid constituted half or more of the mixture. The other leading component (11–28%) was found to be 11-n-hexadecenoic acid. Among the unsaturated acids were two diunsaturated ones, an n-hexadecadienoic acid and an iso-heptadecadienoic acid. No significant differences between the fatty acid compositions of the vegetative cells and myxospores could be detected. The fatty acid composition of M. xanthus was found to be markedly similar to that of Stigmatella aurantiaca. It is suggested that a fatty acid pattern consisting of a large proportion of iso-branched C15 and C17 acids and a substantial amount of an n-16:1 acid is characteristic of myxobacteria. PMID:4197903

  4. Secular trend of serum docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid concentrations among Japanese-a 4- and 13-year descriptive epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Rei; Kato, Yuki; Imai, Tomoko; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown age-related increases in blood docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid and decreases in arachidonic acid. We describe serum docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic, and arachidonic acid concentrations over 13 years (1997-2012) across four study waves and serum fatty acid composition over 4 years (2006-2012) between two study waves according to age groups by sex in the same subjects. We included 443 men and 435 women aged 40-79 years at baseline. Serum arachidonic acid concentrations increased in all sex and age groups over 13 years, and eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acid concentrations increased in males and females who were younger and middle-aged at baseline. Only serum arachidonic acid composition increased over 4 years in men and women who were 40-69 years at baseline, even after adjustment for arachidonic acid intake. These findings suggest a secular increase trend in serum arachidonic acid levels over 13 years among randomly selected community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly Japanese. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of lactic acid-producing, malic acid-producing, or malic acid-degrading yeast strains for acidity adjustment in the wine industry.

    PubMed

    Su, Jing; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yun; Li, Ying-Ying; Li, Hua

    2014-03-01

    In an era of economic globalization, the competition among wine businesses is likely to get tougher. Biotechnological innovation permeates the entire world and intensifies the severity of the competition of the wine industry. Moreover, modern consumers preferred individualized, tailored, and healthy and top quality wine products. Consequently, these two facts induce large gaps between wine production and wine consumption. Market-orientated yeast strains are presently being selected or developed for enhancing the core competitiveness of wine enterprises. Reasonable biological acidity is critical to warrant a high-quality wine. Many wild-type acidity adjustment yeast strains have been selected all over the world. Moreover, mutation breeding, metabolic engineering, genetic engineering, and protoplast fusion methods are used to construct new acidity adjustment yeast strains to meet the demands of the market. In this paper, strategies and concepts for strain selection or improvement methods were discussed, and many examples based upon selected studies involving acidity adjustment yeast strains were reviewed. Furthermore, the development of acidity adjustment yeast strains with minimized resource inputs, improved fermentation, and enological capabilities for an environmentally friendly production of healthy, top quality wine is presented.

  6. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  7. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  8. Profile of preoperative fecal organic acids closely predicts the incidence of postoperative infectious complications after major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection: Importance of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Takashi; Sugawara, Gen; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Ebata, Tomoki; Nagino, Masato

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between preoperative fecal organic acid concentrations and the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The fecal samples of 44 patients were collected before undergoing hepatectomy with bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The concentrations of fecal organic acids, including acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and representative fecal bacteria were measured. The perioperative clinical characteristics and the concentrations of fecal organic acids were compared between patients with and without postoperative infectious complications. Among 44 patients, 13 (30%) developed postoperative infectious complications. Patient age and intraoperative bleeding were significantly greater in patients with postoperative infectious complications compared with those without postoperative infectious complications. The concentrations of fecal acetic acid and butyric acid were significantly less, whereas the concentration of fecal lactic acid tended to be greater in the patients with postoperative infectious complications. The calculated gap between the concentrations of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap was less in the patients with postoperative infectious complications (median 43.5 vs 76.1 μmol/g of feces, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that an acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap <60 μmol/g was an independent risk factor for postoperative infectious complications with an odds ratio of 15.6; 95% confidence interval 1.8-384.1. The preoperative fecal organic acid profile (especially low acetic acid, low butyric acid, and high lactic acid) had a clinically important impact on the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Highly Selective Deoxydehydration of Tartaric Acid over Supported and Unsupported Rhenium Catalysts with Modified Acidities.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiukai; Zhang, Yugen

    2016-10-06

    The deoxydehydration (DODH) of sugar acids to industrially important carboxylic acids is a very attractive topic. Oxorhenium complexes are the most-often employed DODH catalysts. Because of the acidity of the rhenium catalysts, the DODH products of sugar acids were usually in the form of mixture of free carboxylic acids and esters. Herein, we demonstrate strategies for the selective DODH of sugar acids to free carboxylic acids by tuning the Lewis acidity or the Brønsted acidity of the rhenium-based catalysts. Starting from tartaric acid, up to 97 % yield of free maleic acid was achieved. Based on our strategies, functional polymer immobilized heterogeneous rhenium catalysts were also developed for the selective DODH conversion of sugar acids. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. STIMULATION OF FUNDULUS BY HYDROCHLORIC AND FATTY ACIDS IN FRESH WATER, AND BY FATTY ACIDS, MINERAL ACIDS, AND THE SODIUM SALTS OF MINERAL ACIDS IN SEA WATER

    PubMed Central

    Allison, J. B.; Cole, William H.

    1934-01-01

    1. Fundulus heteroclitus was found to be a reliable experimental animal for studies on chemical stimulation in either fresh or sea water. 2. The response of Fundulus to hydrochloric, acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, and caproic acids was determined in fresh water, while the same acids plus sulfuric and nitric, as well as the sodium salts of the mineral acids, were tested in sea water. 3. Stimulation of Fundulus by hydrochloric acid in fresh water is correlated with the effective hydrogen ion concentration. Stimulation by the n-aliphatic acids in the same environment is correlated with two factors, the effective hydrogen ion concentration and the potential of the non-polar group in the molecule. However, as the number of CH2 groups increases the stimulating effect increases by smaller and smaller amounts, approaching a maximum value. 4. Stimulation of Fundulus by hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids in sea water is correlated with the forces of primary valence which in turn are correlated with the change in hydrogen ion concentration of the sea water. The n-aliphatic acids increase in stimulating efficiency in sea water as the length of the carbon chain increases, but a limiting value is not reached as soon as in fresh water. 5. Only a slight difference in stimulation by hydrochloric acid is found in sea water and in fresh water. However, there is a significant difference in stimulation by the fatty acids in fresh and in sea water, which is partly explained by the different buffering capacities of the two media. It is to be noted that in the same environment two different fish, Fundulus and Eupomotis, give different results, while the same fish (Fundulus) in two different environments responds similarly to mineral acids but differently to fatty acids. These results illustrate that stimulation is a function of the interaction between environment and receptors, and that each is important in determining the response. 6. Stimulation by sodium chloride, nitrate

  11. Bottlenecks in erucic acid accumulation in genetically engineered ultrahigh erucic acid Crambe abyssinica

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Rui; Lager, Ida; Li, Xueyuan; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Erucic acid is a valuable industrial fatty acid with many applications. The main producers of this acid are today high erucic rapeseed (Brassica napus) and mustard (Brassica juncea), which have 45%–50% of erucic acid in their seed oils. Crambe abyssinica is an alternative promising producer of this acid as it has 55%–60% of erucic acid in its oil. Through genetic modification (GM) of three genes, we have previously increased the level of erucic acid to 71% (68 mol%) in Crambe seed oil. In this study, we further investigated different aspects of oil biosynthesis in the developing GM Crambe seeds in comparison with wild-type (Wt) Crambe, rapeseed and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). We show that Crambe seeds have very low phosphatidylcholine-diacylglycerol interconversion, suggesting it to be the main reason why erucic acid is limited in the membrane lipids during oil biosynthesis. We further show that GM Crambe seeds have slower seed development than Wt, accompanied by slower oil accumulation during the first 20 days after flowering (DAF). Despite low accumulation of erucic acid during early stages of GM seed development, nearly 86 mol% of all fatty acids accumulated between 27 and 50 DAF was erucic acid, when 40% of the total oil is laid down. Likely bottlenecks in the accumulation of erucic acid during early stages of GM Crambe seed development are discussed. PMID:24119222

  12. Selective heterogeneous acid catalyzed esterification of N-terminal sulfyhdryl fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our interest in thiol fatty acids lies in their antioxidative, free radical scavenging, and metal ion scavenging capabilities as applied to cosmeceutical and skin care formulations. The retail market is filled with products containing the disulfide-containing free fatty acid, lipoic acid. These pr...

  13. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid].

    PubMed

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-10-01

    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

  14. Effects of aerosol formulation to amino acids and fatty acids contents in Haruan extract.

    PubMed

    Febriyenti; Bai-Baie, Saringat Bin; Laila, Lia

    2012-01-01

    Haruan (Channa striatus) extract was formulated to aerosol for wound and burn treatment. Haruan extract is containing amino acids and fatty acids that important for wound healing process. The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of formulation and other excipients in the formula to amino acids and fatty acids content in Haruan extract before and after formulated into aerosol. Precolumn derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) method is used for amino acids analysis. Fatty acids in Haruan extract were esterified using transesterification method to form FAMEs before analyzed using GC. Boron trifluoride-methanol reagent is used for transesterification. Tyrosine and methionine concentrations were different after formulated. The concentrations were decrease. There are six fatty acids have amount that significantly different after formulated into concentrate and aerosol. Contents of these fatty acids were increase. Generally, fatty acids which had content increased after formulated were the long-chain fatty acids. This might be happen because of chain extension process. Saponification and decarboxylation would give the chain extended product. Therefore contents of long-chain fatty acids were increase. Generally, the aerosol formulation did not affect the amino acids concentrations in Haruan extract while some long-chain fatty acids concentrations were increase after formulated into concentrate and aerosol.

  15. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  16. Expressional and functional interactions of two Apis cerana cerana olfactory receptors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lina; Zhao, Huiting; Jiang, Yusuo

    2018-01-01

    Apis cerana cerana relies on its sensitive olfactory system to perform foraging activities in the surrounding environment. Olfactory receptors (ORs) are a primary requirement for odorant recognition and coding. However, the molecular recognition of volatile compounds with ORs in A. cerana cerana is still not clear. Hence, in the present study, we achieved transient transfection and cell surface expression of A. cerana cerana ORs (AcerOr1 and AcerOr2; AcerOr2 is orthologous to the co-receptor) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. AcerOr2 narrowly responded to N-(4-ethylphenyl)-2-((4-ethyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl) thio) acetamide (VUAA1), whereas AcerOr1 was sensitive to eugenol, lauric acid, ocimene, 1-nonanol, linolenic acid, hexyl acetate, undecanoic acid, 1-octyl alcohol, and nerol. Of the compounds tested, AcerOr1 showed the highest sensitivity to these odorants with EC 50 values of 10 -7 and 10 -8 M, and AcerOr2 recognized VUAA1 with higher sensitivity [EC 50 = (6.621 ± 0.26) × 10 -8 ]. These results indicate that AcerOr2 is an essential gene for olfactory signaling, and AcerOr1 is a broadly tuned receptor. We discovered ligands that were useful for probing receptor activity during odor stimulation and validated three of them by electroantennography. The response increased with concentration of the odorant. The present study provides insight into the mechanism of olfactory discrimination in A. cerana cerana .

  17. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongbin; Yu, Xiaoyu; Fang, Jiaxing; Lu, Yunhao; Liu, Ping; Xing, Yage; Wang, Qin; Che, Zhenming; He, Qiang

    2018-05-29

    Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln), glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp) and asparagines (Asn) were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of boric acid mediated metal-organic frameworks based on trimesic acid and terephthalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Demet; Köse, Dursun A.; Şahin, Onur; Oztas, Nursen Altuntas

    2017-08-01

    The new metal-organic framework materials based on boric acid reported herein. Sodium and boron containing metal-organic frameworks were synthesized by one-pot self-assembly reaction in the presence of trimesic acid and terephthalic acid in water/ethanol solution. Boric acid is a relatively cheap boron source and boric acid mediated metal-organic framework prepared mild conditions compared to the other boron source based metal-organic framework. The synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, p-XRD, TGA/DTA, elemental analysis, 13C-MAS NMR, 11B-NMR and single crystal measurements. The molecular formulas of compounds were estimated as C18H33B2Na5O28 and C8H24B2Na2O17 according to the structural analysis. The obtained complexes were thermally stable. Surface properties of inorganic polymer complexes were investigated by BET analyses and hydrogen storage properties of compound were also calculated.

  19. Comparison of clinical characteristics of chronic cough due to non-acid and acid gastroesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianghuai; Yang, Zhongmin; Chen, Qiang; Yu, Li; Liang, Siwei; Lü, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about non-acid gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC). The purpose of the study is to explore the clinical characteristics of non-acid GERC. Clinical symptoms, cough symptom score, capsaicin cough sensitivity, gastroesophageal reflux diagnostic questionnaire (GerdQ) score, findings of multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring (MII-pH) and response to pharmacological anti-reflux therapy were retrospectively reviewed in 38 patients with non-acid GERC and compared with those of 49 patients with acid GERC. Non-acid GERC had the similar cough character, cough symptom score, and capsaicin cough sensitivity to acid GERC. However, non-acid GERC had less frequent regurgitation (15.8% vs 57.1%, χ(2)  = 13.346, P = 0.000) and heartburn (7.9% vs 32.7%, χ(2)  = 7.686, P  = 0.006), and lower GerdQ score (7.4 ± 1.4 vs 10.6 ± 2.1, t = -6.700, P = 0.003) than acid GERC. Moreover, MII-pH revealed more weakly acidic reflux episodes, gas reflux episodes and a higher symptom association probability (SAP) for non-acid reflux but lower DeMeester score, acidic reflux episodes and SAP for acid reflux in non-acid GERC than in acid GERC. Non-acid GERC usually responded to the standard anti-reflux therapy but with delayed cough resolution or attenuation when compared with acid GERC. Fewer patients with non-acid GERC needed an augmented acid suppressive therapy or treatment with baclofen. There are some differences in the clinical manifestations between non-acid and acid GERC, but MII-pH is essential to diagnose non-acid GERC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  1. Effects of phosphoric acid on the lead-acid battery reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Osamu; Iwakura, Chiaki; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Tamura, Hideo

    1986-10-01

    The addition of a small amount of phosphoric acid to 5 M H2SO4 (commercial electrolyte of lead-acid batteries) results in various positive effects on the lead-acid battery reactions: (1) depression of the corrosion rate of the lead substrate through a preferential formation of alpha-PbO2 on the substrate surface; (2) retardation of hard sulfate formation or of deactivation of active materials; and (3) change in the crystal morphology of PbSO2 formed on the discharge of PbO2. Most of these effects results from chemisorption of phosphoric acid on PbSO4 crystals produced in the discharge process of PbO2.

  2. Formation of pyroglutamic acid from N-terminal glutamic acid in immunoglobulin gamma antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chelius, Dirk; Jing, Kay; Lueras, Alexis; Rehder, Douglas S; Dillon, Thomas M; Vizel, Alona; Rajan, Rahul S; Li, Tiansheng; Treuheit, Michael J; Bondarenko, Pavel V

    2006-04-01

    The status of the N-terminus of proteins is important for amino acid sequencing by Edman degradation, protein identification by shotgun and top-down techniques, and to uncover biological functions, which may be associated with modifications. In this study, we investigated the pyroglutamic acid formation from N-terminal glutamic acid residues in recombinant monoclonal antibodies. Almost half the antibodies reported in the literature contain a glutamic acid residue at the N-terminus of the light or the heavy chain. Our reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method could separate the pyroglutamic acid-containing light chains from the native light chains of reduced and alkylated recombinant monoclonal antibodies. Tryptic peptide mapping and tandem mass spectrometry of the reduced and alkylated proteins was used for the identification of the pyroglutamic acid. We identified the formation of pyroglutamic acid from N-terminal glutamic acid in the heavy chains and light chains of several antibodies, indicating that this nonenzymatic reaction does occur very commonly and can be detected after a few weeks of incubation at 37 and 45 degrees C. The rate of this reaction was measured in several aqueous buffers with different pH values, showing minimal formation of pyroglutamic acid at pH 6.2 and increased formation of pyroglutamic acid at pH 4 and pH 8. The half-life of the N-terminal glutamic acid was approximately 9 months in a pH 4.1 buffer at 45 degrees C. To our knowledge, we showed for the first time that glutamic acid residues located at the N-terminus of proteins undergo pyroglutamic acid formation in vitro.

  3. Extractive Fermentation of Lactic Acid in Lactic Acid Bacteria Cultivation: A Review.

    PubMed

    Othman, Majdiah; Ariff, Arbakariya B; Rios-Solis, Leonardo; Halim, Murni

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are industrially important microorganisms recognized for their fermentative ability mostly in their probiotic benefits as well as lactic acid production for various applications. Nevertheless, lactic acid fermentation often suffers end-product inhibition which decreases the cell growth rate. The inhibition of lactic acid is due to the solubility of the undissociated lactic acid within the cytoplasmic membrane and insolubility of dissociated lactate, which causes acidification of cytoplasm and failure of proton motive forces. This phenomenon influences the transmembrane pH gradient and decreases the amount of energy available for cell growth. In general, the restriction imposed by lactic acid on its fermentation can be avoided by extractive fermentation techniques, which can also be exploited for product recovery.

  4. Extractive Fermentation of Lactic Acid in Lactic Acid Bacteria Cultivation: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Majdiah; Ariff, Arbakariya B.; Rios-Solis, Leonardo; Halim, Murni

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are industrially important microorganisms recognized for their fermentative ability mostly in their probiotic benefits as well as lactic acid production for various applications. Nevertheless, lactic acid fermentation often suffers end-product inhibition which decreases the cell growth rate. The inhibition of lactic acid is due to the solubility of the undissociated lactic acid within the cytoplasmic membrane and insolubility of dissociated lactate, which causes acidification of cytoplasm and failure of proton motive forces. This phenomenon influences the transmembrane pH gradient and decreases the amount of energy available for cell growth. In general, the restriction imposed by lactic acid on its fermentation can be avoided by extractive fermentation techniques, which can also be exploited for product recovery. PMID:29209295

  5. Cytotoxic effects of polybasic acids, poly(alkenoic acid)s, and the monomers with various functional groups on human pulp fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Shigeaki; Morishita, Kumiko; Kawase, Toshio; Umemoto, Kozo

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of various polybasic acids, poly(alkenoic acid)s, and the monomers with various acidic functional groups such as carboxyl, phosphoryl, and sulfo group. The cell growth of fibroblasts cultivated in medium containing polybasic acids and polymers up to the concentration to 5 mmol/L was not significantly different compared with that of control without their acids. On the other hand, the cell growth fibroblasts cultivated in medium containing 1 mmol/L of the monomers with acryloyloxy and phosphoryl or carboxyl group decreased remarkably compared with that of the control and the cells were probably lifeless. Those exposed to the monomers with a ether bond and a carboxyl group or a amide bond and a sulfo group was not significantly different compared with that of control.

  6. Experiment Comparison between Engineering Acid Dew Point and Thermodynamic Acid Dew Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jinghui; Yuan, Hui; Deng, Jianhua

    2018-06-01

    in order to realize the accurate prediction of acid dew point, a set of measurement system of acid dew point for the flue gas flue gas in the tail of the boiler was designed and built, And measured at the outlet of an air preheater of a power plant of 1 000 MW, The results show that: Under the same conditions, with the test temperature decreases, Nu of heat transfer tubes, fouling and corrosion of pipe wall and corrosion pieces gradually deepened. Then, the measured acid dew point is compared with the acid dew point obtained by using the existing empirical formula under the same coal type. The dew point of engineering acid is usually about 40 ° lower than the dew point of thermodynamic acid because of the coupling effect of fouling on the acid liquid, which can better reflect the actual operation of flue gas in engineering and has certain theoretical guidance for the design and operation of deep waste heat utilization system significance.

  7. The use of fatty acid esters to enhance free acid sophorolipid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Richard D; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Foglia, Thomas A

    2006-02-01

    Fatty acid esters were prepared by transesterification of soy oil with methanol (methyl-soyate, Me-Soy), ethanol (ethyl-soyate, Et-Soy) and propanol (propyl-soyate, Pro-Soy) and used with glycerol as fermentation substrates to enhance production of free-acid sophorolipids (SLs). Fed-batch fermentations of Candida bombicola resulted in SL yields of 46 +/- 4 g/l, 42 +/- 7 g/l and 18 +/- 6 g/l from Me-Soy, Et-Soy, and Pro-Soy, respectively. Liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (LC/API-MS) showed that Me-Soy resulted in 71% open-chain SLs with 59% of those molecules remaining esterified at the carboxyl end of the fatty acids. Et-Soy and Pro-Soy resulted in 43% and 80% open-chain free-acid SLs, respectively (containing linoleic acid and oleic acid as the principal fatty acid species linked to the sophorose sugar at the omega-1 position), with no evidence of residual esterification.

  8. Animal model of acid-reflux esophagitis: pathogenic roles of acid/pepsin, prostaglandins, and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Koji; Nagahama, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Esophagitis was induced in rats within 3 h by ligating both the pylorus and transitional region between the forestomach and glandular portion under ether anesthesia. This esophageal injury was prevented by the administration of acid suppressants and antipepsin drug and aggravated by exogenous pepsin. Damage was also aggravated by pretreatment with indomethacin and the selective COX-1 but not COX-2 inhibitor, whereas PGE2 showed a biphasic effect depending on the dose; a protection at low doses, and an aggravation at high doses, with both being mediated by EP1 receptors. Various amino acids also affected this esophagitis in different ways; L-alanine and L-glutamine had a deleterious effect, while L-arginine and glycine were highly protective, both due to yet unidentified mechanisms. It is assumed that acid/pepsin plays a major pathogenic role in this model of esophagitis; PGs derived from COX-1 are involved in mucosal defense of the esophagus; and some amino acids are protective against esophagitis. These findings also suggest a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of esophagitis, in addition to acid suppressant therapy. The model introduced may be useful to test the protective effects of drugs on esophagitis and investigate the mucosal defense mechanism in the esophagus.

  9. Bibliography for acid-rock drainage and selected acid-mine drainage issues related to acid-rock drainage from transportation activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Michael W.; Worland, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-rock drainage occurs through the interaction of rainfall on pyrite-bearing formations. When pyrite (FeS2) is exposed to oxygen and water in mine workings or roadcuts, the mineral decomposes and sulfur may react to form sulfuric acid, which often results in environmental problems and potential damage to the transportation infrastructure. The accelerated oxidation of pyrite and other sulfidic minerals generates low pH water with potentially high concentrations of trace metals. Much attention has been given to contamination arising from acid mine drainage, but studies related to acid-rock drainage from road construction are relatively limited. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, is conducting an investigation to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling acid-rock drainage and contaminant transport from roadcuts in Tennessee. The basic components of acid-rock drainage resulting from transportation activities are described and a bibliography, organized by relevant categories (remediation, geochemical, microbial, biological impact, and secondary mineralization) is presented.

  10. Arachidonic Acid Stress Impacts Pneumococcal Fatty Acid Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Eijkelkamp, Bart A.; Begg, Stephanie L.; Pederick, Victoria G.; Trapetti, Claudia; Gregory, Melissa K.; Whittall, Jonathan J.; Paton, James C.; McDevitt, Christopher A.

    2018-01-01

    Free fatty acids hold dual roles during infection, serving to modulate the host immune response while also functioning directly as antimicrobials. Of particular importance are the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are not commonly found in bacterial organisms, that have been proposed to have antibacterial roles. Arachidonic acid (AA) is a highly abundant long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and we examined its effect upon Streptococcus pneumoniae. Here, we observed that in a murine model of S. pneumoniae infection the concentration of AA significantly increases in the blood. The impact of AA stress upon the pathogen was then assessed by a combination of biochemical, biophysical and microbiological assays. In vitro bacterial growth and intra-macrophage survival assays revealed that AA has detrimental effects on pneumococcal fitness. Subsequent analyses demonstrated that AA exerts antimicrobial activity via insertion into the pneumococcal membrane, although this did not increase the susceptibility of the bacterium to antibiotic, oxidative or metal ion stress. Transcriptomic profiling showed that AA treatment also resulted in a dramatic down-regulation of the genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, in addition to impacts on other metabolic processes, such as carbon-source utilization. Hence, these data reveal that AA has two distinct mechanisms of perturbing the pneumococcal membrane composition. Collectively, this work provides a molecular basis for the antimicrobial contribution of AA to combat pneumococcal infections. PMID:29867785

  11. Pretreatment of corn stover by solid acid for d-lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiqing; Wang, Gang; Yu, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Huan; Sun, Yang; Chen, Guang

    2017-09-01

    Solid acid is a new acid that is safe and green, which has been widely used in the fields of acid pickling. In this study, we adopted solid acid to pretreat corn stover and used the pretreated corn stover in the fermentation of d-lactic acid. Finally, we obtained optimal conditions for the pretreatment of corn stover by solid acid: digestion temperature of 120°C, digestion time of 80min, and solid acid concentration of 1.5%. Then adding cellulase of 30FPU/g, the conversion rate of glucose reached 71.06% after enzymatic hydrolysis for 72h. In addition, the changes of corn stover structure after pretreatment were further represented by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). At the same time, we used the pretreated corn stover as fermentation substrate and Lactobacillus. delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus as the starting strain to produce d-lactic acid. The yield reached 18g/L, with the optical purity being 99%e.e. This research has provided a new way to comprehensively utilizae corn stover. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Urinary and plasma organic acids and amino acids in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mark G; Cooper, Elizabeth; Amjad, Saira; Goodwin, C Stewart; Barron, Jeffrey L; Chalmers, Ronald A

    2005-11-01

    Previous work by others have suggested the occurrence of one or more chemical or metabolic 'markers' for ME/CFS including specific amino acids and organic acids and a number of unidentified compounds (CFSUM1, CFSUM2). We have shown elsewhere that CFSUM1 is partially derivatised pyroglutamic acid and CFSUM2 partially derivatised serine and have suggested and demonstrated that the analytical methods used were unsuitable to identify or to accurately quantify urinary metabolites. We have now made a detailed analysis of plasma and urinary amino acids and of urinary organic acids from patients with ME/CFS and from three control groups. Fasting blood plasma and timed urine samples were obtained from 31 patients with CFS, 31 age and sex-matched healthy controls, 15 patients with depression and 22 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Plasma and urinary amino acids and urinary organic acids were determined using established and validated methods and data compared by statistical analysis. None of the previously reported abnormalities in urinary amino acids or of organic acids could be confirmed. Results however provide some evidence in patients with ME/CFS for underlying inflammatory disease and for reduced intramuscular collagen with a lowered threshold for muscle micro-injury. These factors in combination may provide a basis for the fatigue and muscle pain that are the major symptoms in these patients.

  13. The saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, induces anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Moon, Morgan L; Joesting, Jennifer J; Lawson, Marcus A; Chiu, Gabriel S; Blevins, Neil A; Kwakwa, Kristin A; Freund, Gregory G

    2014-09-01

    Excess fat in the diet can impact neuropsychiatric functions by negatively affecting cognition, mood and anxiety. We sought to show that the free fatty acid (FFA), palmitic acid, can cause adverse biobehaviors in mice that last beyond an acute elevation in plasma FFAs. Mice were administered palmitic acid or vehicle as a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Biobehaviors were profiled 2 and 24 h after palmitic acid treatment. Quantification of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT) and their major metabolites was performed in cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. FFA concentration was determined in plasma. Relative fold change in mRNA expression of unfolded protein response (UPR)-associated genes was determined in brain regions. In a dose-dependent fashion, palmitic acid rapidly reduced mouse locomotor activity by a mechanism that did not rely on TLR4, MyD88, IL-1, IL-6 or TNFα but was dependent on fatty acid chain length. Twenty-four hours after palmitic acid administration mice exhibited anxiety-like behavior without impairment in locomotion, food intake, depressive-like behavior or spatial memory. Additionally, the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA was increased by 33% in the amygdala 24h after palmitic acid treatment. Palmitic acid induces anxiety-like behavior in mice while increasing amygdala-based serotonin metabolism. These effects occur at a time point when plasma FFA levels are no longer elevated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. UNSATURATED AMINO ACIDS V.

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Jacob; Dittmer, Karl

    1961-01-01

    Shapira, Jacob (Department of Chemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee) and Karl Dittmer. Unsaturated amino acids. V. Microbiological properties of some halogenated olefinic amino acids. J. Bacteriol. 82:640–647. 1961.—It has been shown previously that several amino acid analogues containing unsaturated linkages were inhibitors of the growth of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This paper reports the results obtained when a series of unsaturated halogen-containing amino acids was examined. The cis isomer of ω-chloroallylglycine showed the greatest toxicity yet found in this series of unsaturated amino acids toward E. coli, whereas the trans-isomer was usually far less toxic. The major effect of cis-ω-chloroallylglycine in E. coli appeared to be to extend the lag phase before the normal rate of growth began. A wide variety of amino acids was capable of partially or completely preventing the toxicity of low levels of these compounds. At higher levels, relatively few amino acids (primarily valine, leucine, and glutamic acid) were effective. In E. coli, cis-ω-chloroallylglycine showed an unusual [Formula: see text] relationship with both glutamic acid and valine over a wide range in concentration. PMID:13911278

  15. Industrial production of L-ascorbic Acid (vitamin C) and D-isoascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Pappenberger, Günter; Hohmann, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was first isolated in 1928 and subsequently identified as the long-sought antiscorbutic factor. Industrially produced L-ascorbic acid is widely used in the feed, food, and pharmaceutical sector as nutritional supplement and preservative, making use of its antioxidative properties. Until recently, the Reichstein-Grüssner process, designed in 1933, was the main industrial route. Here, D-sorbitol is converted to L-ascorbic acid via 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2KGA) as key intermediate, using a bio-oxidation with Gluconobacter oxydans and several chemical steps. Today, industrial production processes use additional bio-oxidation steps with Ketogulonicigenium vulgare as biocatalyst to convert D-sorbitol to the intermediate 2KGA without chemical steps. The enzymes involved are characterized by a broad substrate range, but remarkable regiospecificity. This puzzling specificity pattern can be understood from the preferences of these enyzmes for certain of the many isomeric structures which the carbohydrate substrates adopt in aqueous solution. Recently, novel enzymes were identified that generate L-ascorbic acid directly via oxidation of L-sorbosone, an intermediate of the bio-oxidation of D-sorbitol to 2KGA. This opens the possibility for a direct route from D-sorbitol to L-ascorbic acid, obviating the need for chemical rearrangement of 2KGA. Similar concepts for industrial processes apply for the production of D-isoascorbic acid, the C5 epimer of L-ascorbic acid. D-isoascorbic acid has the same conformation at C5 as D-glucose and can be derived more directly than L-ascorbic acid from this common carbohydrate feed stock.

  16. Differential effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Brown, E R; Subbaiah, P V

    1994-12-01

    To better understand the mode of action of omega 3 fatty acids in cell membranes, human foreskin fibroblasts were grown in serum-free medium supplemented with 50 microM oleic acid linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the effects on membrane composition, fluorescence polarization and enzyme activities were followed. The cells were enriched with EPA and DHA up to 7 and 13% of total lipids, respectively, of which > 95% was associated with phospholipids. In addition, the concentration of 22:5n-3 increased with both EPA and DHA to 7.5, and 2.1% of the total fatty acids, respectively. When compared to controls (oleic acid), cells treated with DHA showed a decrease in cholesterol, phospholipids, arachidonic acid (AA) and free cholesterol/phospholipid ratio (P < 0.05). In the presence of EPA, only decreases in AA and cholesterol were significant (P < 0.05). Membrane fluidity, assessed by fluorescence anisotropy, was increased 16% in cells enriched with DHA (P < 0.05), but showed no change with EPA or linoleic acid. There was an increase in membrane-associated 5'-nucleotidase (+27%) and adenylate cyclase (+19%) activities (P < 0.05), in DHA-enriched, but not in EPA-enriched cells, when compared with oleate controls. The studies show that incorporation of DHA, but not EPA, into cell membranes of fibroblasts alters membrane biophysical characteristics and function. We suggest that these two major n-3 fatty acids of fish oils have differential effects on cell membranes, and this may be related to the known differences in their physiological effects.

  17. Effects of alkali or acid treatment on the isomerization of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Taketo; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-10-01

    The effect of alkali treatment on the isomerization of amino acids was investigated. The 100×D/(D+L) values of amino acids from peptide increased with increase in the number of constituent amino acid residues. Furthermore, the N-terminal amino acid of a dipeptide was isomerized to a greater extent than the C-terminal residue. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Bile acids deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid differentially regulate human β-defensin-1 and -2 secretion by colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lajczak, Natalia K; Saint-Criq, Vinciane; O'Dwyer, Aoife M; Perino, Alessia; Adorini, Luciano; Schoonjans, Kristina; Keely, Stephen J

    2017-09-01

    Bile acids and epithelial-derived human β-defensins (HβDs) are known to be important factors in the regulation of colonic mucosal barrier function and inflammation. We hypothesized that bile acids regulate colonic HβD expression and aimed to test this by investigating the effects of deoxycholic acid (DCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid on the expression and release of HβD1 and HβD2 from colonic epithelial cells and mucosal tissues. DCA (10-150 µM) stimulated the release of both HβD1 and HβD2 from epithelial cell monolayers and human colonic mucosal tissue in vitro In contrast, ursodeoxycholic acid (50-200 µM) inhibited both basal and DCA-induced defensin release. Effects of DCA were mimicked by the Takeda GPCR 5 agonist, INT-777 (50 μM), but not by the farnesoid X receptor agonist, GW4064 (10 μM). INT-777 also stimulated colonic HβD1 and HβD2 release from wild-type, but not Takeda GPCR 5 -/- , mice. DCA stimulated phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB, an effect that was attenuated by ursodeoxycholic acid, whereas an NF-κB inhibitor, BMS-345541 (25 μM), inhibited DCA-induced HβD2, but not HβD1, release. We conclude that bile acids can differentially regulate colonic epithelial HβD expression and secretion and discuss the implications of our findings for intestinal health and disease.-Lajczak, N. K., Saint-Criq, V., O'Dwyer, A. M., Perino, A., Adorini, L., Schoonjans, K., Keely, S. J. Bile acids deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid differentially regulate human β-defensin-1 and -2 secretion by colonic epithelial cells. © FASEB.

  19. Synthesis of novel lipoamino acid conjugates of sapienic acid and evaluation of their cytotoxicity activities.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Sanganamoni Chinna; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rao, Bhamidipati V S K; Poornachandra, Yedla; Kumar, Chityal Ganesh; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari

    2014-01-01

    Novel lipoamino acids were prepared with the coupling of sapienic acid [(Z)-6-hexadecenoic acid] with α - amino group of amino acids and the resulting N-sapienoyl amino acids were tested for their cytotoxicity activities against four cancer based cell lines. Initially, sapienic acid was synthesized by the Wittig coupling of triphenylphosphonium bromide salt of 6-bromohexanoic acid and decanal with a Z specific reagent. The prepared sapienic acid was subsequently converted to its acid chloride which was further coupled with amino acids by the Schotten-Baumann reaction to form N-sapienoyl amino acid conjugates. Structural characterization of the prepared N-sapienoyl amino acid derivatives was done by spectral data (IR, mass spectra and NMR). These lipoamino acid derivatives were screened for in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation. Cytotoxicity evaluation against four cancer cell lines showed that N-sapienoyl isoleucine was active against three cell lines whereas other derivatives either showed activity against only one or two cell lines with very moderate activity and two derivatives were observed to be inactive against the tested cell lines.

  20. Strong-acid, carboxyl-group structures in fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia. 1. Minor structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Wershaw, R. L.; Reddy, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of the strong-acid characteristics (pKa 3.0 or less) of fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia, was conducted. Quantitative determinations were made for amino acid and sulfur-containing acid structures, oxalate half-ester structures, malonic acid structures, keto acid structures, and aromatic carboxyl-group structures. These determinations were made by using a variety of spectrometric (13C-nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, and ultraviolet spectrometry) and titrimetric characterizations on fulvic acid or fulvic acid samples that were chemically derivatized to indicate certain functional groups. Only keto acid and aromatic carboxyl-group structures contributed significantly to the strong-acid characteristics of the fulvic acid; these structures accounted for 43% of the strong-acid acidity. The remaining 57% of the strong acids are aliphatic carboxyl groups in unusual and/or complex configurations for which limited model compound data are available.

  1. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-09-30

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer. Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02500

  2. Solubility limits of dibutyl phosphoric acid in uranium-nitric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    2000-01-04

    The Savannah River Site has enriched uranium (EU) solution that has been stored since being purified in its solvent extraction processes. The concentrations in solution are approximately 6 g/L U and 0.1 M nitric acid. Residual tributylphosphate in solution has slowly hydrolyzed to form dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP) at concentrations averaging 30--50 mg/L. Dibutyl phosphoric acid, in turn, is in equilibrium with (HDBP){sub 2} and DBP{sup {minus}}. Uranium can form compounds with the dibutylphosphate ion (DBP{sup {minus}}) which have limited solubility, thereby creating a nuclear criticality safety issue. Literature reports and earlier SRTC tests have shown that it is feasiblemore » to precipitate U-DBP solid during the storage and processing of EU solutions. As a result, a series of solubility experiments were run at nitric acid concentrations from 0--4.0 M HNO{sub 3}, uranium at 0--90 g/L, and temperatures from 0--30 C. The data shows temperature and nitric acid concentration dependence consistent with what would be expected. With respect to uranium concentration, U-DBP solubility passes through a minimum between 6 and 12 g/L U at the acid concentrations and temperatures studied. However, the minimum shows a slight shift toward lower uranium concentrations at lower nitric acid concentrations. The shifts in solubility are strongly dependent upon the overall ionic strength of the solution. The data also reveal a shift to higher DBP solubility above 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} for both 6 g/L and 12 g/L uranium solutions. Analysis of U-DBP solids from the tests identified distinct differences between precipitates from less than 0.5 M solutions and those from greater than 4 M acid. Analyses identified UO{sub 2}(DBP){sub 2} as the dominant compound present at low acid concentrations in accordance with literature reports. As the acid concentration increases, the crystalline UO{sub 2}(DBP){sub 2} shows molecular substitutions and an increase in amorphous content.« less

  3. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Ohlrogge, John B.; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Christopher R.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

  4. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the modification of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content including oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    An, W S; Lee, S M; Son, Y K; Kim, S E; Kim, K H; Han, J Y; Bae, H R; Park, Y

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA), such as oleic acid, are related to acute coronary syndrome. There is no report about the effect of omega-3 FA on oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We hypothesized that omega-3 FA can modify erythrocyte membrane FA, including oleic acid, in PD patients. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 18 patients who were treated with PD for at least 6 months were randomized to treatment for 12 weeks with omega-3 FA or placebo. Erythrocyte membrane FA content was measured by gas chromatography at baseline and after 12 weeks. The erythrocyte membrane content of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was significantly increased and saturated FA and oleic acid were significantly decreased in the omega-3 FA supplementation group after 12 weeks compared to baseline. In conclusion, erythrocyte membrane FA content, including oleic acid, was significantly modified by omega-3 FA supplementation for 12 weeks in PD patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  6. Automated protein hydrolysis delivering sample to a solid acid catalyst for amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akiko; Dohmae, Naoshi

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we developed an automatic protein hydrolysis system using strong cation-exchange resins as solid acid catalysts. Examining several kinds of inorganic solid acids and cation-exchange resins, we found that a few cation-exchange resins worked as acid catalysts for protein hydrolysis when heated in the presence of water. The most efficient resin yielded amounts of amino acids that were over 70% of those recovered after conventional hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid and resulted in amino acid compositions matching the theoretical values. The solid-acid hydrolysis was automated by packing the resin into columns, combining the columns with a high-performance liquid chromatography system, and heating them. The amino acids that constitute a protein can thereby be determined, minimizing contamination from the environment.

  7. Racemic resolution of some DL-amino acids using Aspergillus fumigatus L-amino acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Singh, Susmita; Gogoi, Binod K; Bezbaruah, Rajib L

    2011-07-01

    The ability of Aspergillus fumigatus L-amino acid oxidase (L-aao) to cause the resolution of racemic mixtures of DL-amino acids was investigated with DL-alanine, DL-phenylalanine, DL-tyrosine, and DL-aspartic acid. A chiral column, Crownpak CR+ was used for the analysis of the amino acids. The enzyme was able to cause the resolution of the three DL-amino acids resulting in the production of optically pure D-alanine (100% resolution), D-phenylalanine (80.2%), and D-tyrosine (84.1%), respectively. The optically pure D-amino acids have many uses and thus can be exploited industrially. This is the first report of the use of A. fumigatus L: -amino acid oxidase for racemic resolution of DL-amino acids.

  8. Blood-brain barrier transport of the alpha-keto acid analogs of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Steele, R D

    1986-06-01

    A number of alpha-keto acid analogs of amino acids have been found to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Pyruvate, alpha-ketobutyrate, alpha-ketoisocaproate, and alpha-keto-gamma-methiolbutyrate all cross the BBB by a carrier-mediated process and by simple diffusion. Under normal physiological conditions, diffusion accounts for roughly 15% or less of total transport. Aromatic alpha-keto acids, phenylpyruvate, and p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate do not penetrate the BBB, nor do they inhibit the transport of other alpha-keto acids. Evidence based primarily on inhibition studies indicates that the carrier-mediated transport of alpha-keto acids occurs via the same carrier demonstrated previously for propionate, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate transport, commonly referred to as the monocarboxylate carrier. As a group, the alpha-keto acid analogs of the amino acids have the highest affinity for the carrier, followed by propionate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Starvation for 4 days induces transport of alpha-keto acids, but transport is suppressed in rats fed commercial laboratory rations and subjected to portacaval shunts. The mitochondrial pyruvate translocator inhibitor alpha-cyanocinnamate has no effect on the BBB transport of alpha-keto acids.

  9. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  10. Development of a Controlled Release of Salicylic Acid Loaded Stearic Acid-Oleic Acid Nanoparticles in Cream for Topical Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J. O.; Misran, M.; Lee, P. F.; Tan, L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs) with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release. PMID:24578624

  11. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaopeng; Liu, Fei; Wang, Guangcai; Weng, Liping

    2012-12-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used in this study. Under the experimental conditions, the UV peaks of salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid were well separated from the peaks of humic acid in the chromatogram. Concentrations of the two small organic acids could be accurately determined from their peak areas. The concentration of humic acid in the mixture could then be derived from mass balance calculations. The measured results agreed well with the nominal concentrations. The detection limits are 0.05 mg/L and 0.01 mg/L for salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, respectively. Applicability of the method to natural samples was tested using groundwater, glacier, and river water samples (both original and spiked with salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid) with a total organic carbon concentration ranging from 2.1 to 179.5 mg C/L. The results obtained are promising, especially for groundwater samples and river water samples with a total organic carbon concentration below 9 mg C/L. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  13. Effect of amino acids on the interaction between cobalamin(II) and dehydroascorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dereven'kov, I. A.; Thi, Thu Thuy Bui; Salnikov, D. S.; Makarov, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    The kinetics of the reaction between one-electron-reduced cobalamin (cobalamin(II), Cb(II)) and the two-electron-oxidized form of vitamin C (dehydroascorbic acid, DHA) with amino acids in an acidic medium is studied by conventional UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is shown that the oxidation of Cbl(II) by dehydroascorbic acid proceeds only in the presence of sulfur-containing amino acids (cysteine, acetylcysteine). A proposed reaction mechanism includes the step of amino acid coordination on the Co(II)-center through the sulfur atom, along with that of the interaction between this complex and DHA molecules, which results in the formation of ascorbyl radical and the corresponding Co(III) thiolate complex.

  14. Oleic acid transfer from microsomes to egg lecithin liposomes: participation of fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Catalá, A; Avanzati, B

    1983-11-01

    Oleic acid transfer from microsomes or mitochondria to egg lecithin liposomes was stimulated by fatty acid binding protein. By gel filtration, it could be demonstrated that this protein incorporates oleic acid into liposomes. Fatty acid binding protein transfer activity was higher using microsomes rather than mitochondria, which suggests a selective interaction with different kinds of membranes. Transfer of oleic acid by this soluble protein is greater than that of stearic acid. The results indicate that fatty acid binding protein may participate in the intracellular transport of fatty acids.

  15. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.

    1995-07-04

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.

  16. Nitrosation and nitration of fulvic acid, peat and coal with nitric acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrohumic acids, produced from base extraction of coals and peats oxidized with nitric acid, have received considerable attention as soil ammendments in agriculture. The nitration chemistry however is incompletely understood. Moreover, there is a need to understand the reaction of nitric acid with natural organic matter (NOM) in general, in the context of a variety of environmental and biogeochemical processes. Suwannee River NOM, Suwannee River fulvic acid, and Pahokee Peat fulvic acid were treated with 15N-labeled nitric acid at concentrations ranging from 15% to 22% and analyzed by liquid and solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. Bulk Pahokee peat and Illinois #6 coal were also treated with nitric acid, at 29% and 40% respectively, and analyzed by solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. In addition to nitro groups from nitration of aromatic carbon, the 15N NMR spectra of all five samples exhibited peaks attributable to nitrosation reactions. These include nitrosophenol peaks in the peat fulvic acid and Suwannee River samples, from nitrosation of phenolic rings, and N-nitroso groups in the peat samples, from nitrosation of secondary amides or amines, the latter consistent with the peat samples having the highest naturally abundant nitrogen contents. Peaks attributable to Beckmann and secondary reactions of the initially formed oximes were present in all spectra, including primary amide, secondary amide, lactam, and nitrile nitrogens. The degree of secondary reaction product formation resulting from nitrosation reactions appeared to correlate inversely with the 13C aromaticities of the samples. The nitrosation reactions are most plausibly effected by nitrous acid formed from the reduction of nitric acid by oxidizable substrates in the NOM and coal samples.

  17. Nitrosation and Nitration of Fulvic Acid, Peat and Coal with Nitric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrohumic acids, produced from base extraction of coals and peats oxidized with nitric acid, have received considerable attention as soil ammendments in agriculture. The nitration chemistry however is incompletely understood. Moreover, there is a need to understand the reaction of nitric acid with natural organic matter (NOM) in general, in the context of a variety of environmental and biogeochemical processes. Suwannee River NOM, Suwannee River fulvic acid, and Pahokee Peat fulvic acid were treated with 15N-labeled nitric acid at concentrations ranging from 15% to 22% and analyzed by liquid and solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. Bulk Pahokee peat and Illinois #6 coal were also treated with nitric acid, at 29% and 40% respectively, and analyzed by solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. In addition to nitro groups from nitration of aromatic carbon, the 15N NMR spectra of all five samples exhibited peaks attributable to nitrosation reactions. These include nitrosophenol peaks in the peat fulvic acid and Suwannee River samples, from nitrosation of phenolic rings, and N-nitroso groups in the peat samples, from nitrosation of secondary amides or amines, the latter consistent with the peat samples having the highest naturally abundant nitrogen contents. Peaks attributable to Beckmann and secondary reactions of the initially formed oximes were present in all spectra, including primary amide, secondary amide, lactam, and nitrile nitrogens. The degree of secondary reaction product formation resulting from nitrosation reactions appeared to correlate inversely with the 13C aromaticities of the samples. The nitrosation reactions are most plausibly effected by nitrous acid formed from the reduction of nitric acid by oxidizable substrates in the NOM and coal samples. PMID:27175784

  18. Acid-base properties of 2-phenethyldithiocarbamoylacetic acid, an antitumor agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novozhilova, N. E.; Kutina, N. N.; Petukhova, O. A.; Kharitonov, Yu. Ya.

    2013-07-01

    The acid-base properties of the 2-phenethyldithiocarbamoylacetic acid (PET) substance belonging to the class of isothiocyanates and capable of inhibiting the development of tumors on many experimental models were studied. The acidity and hydrolysis constants of the PET substance in ethanol, acetone, aqueous ethanol, and aqueous acetone solutions were determined from the data of potentiometric (pH-metric) titration of ethanol and acetone solutions of PET with aqueous solidum hydroxide at room temperature.

  19. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  20. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  1. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  2. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  3. Thin-film sulfuric acid anodizing as a replacement for chromic acid anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallenborn, K. J.; Emmons, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Chromic acid has long been used to produce a thin, corrosion resistant (Type I) coating on aluminum. Following anodizing, the hardware was sealed using a sodium dichromate solution. Sealing closes up pores inherent in the anodized coating, thus improving corrosion resistance. The thinness of the brittle coating is desirable from a fatigue standpoint, and chromium was absorbed by the coating during the sealing process, further improving corrosion resistance. Unfortunately, both chromic acid and sodium dichromate contain carcinogenic hexavalent chromium. Sulfuric acid is being considered as a replacement for chromic acid. Sulfuric acid of 10-20 percent concentration has traditionally been used to produce relatively thick (Types II and III) or abrasion resistant (Type III) coatings. A more dilute, that is five weight percent, sulfuric acid anodizing process, which produces a thinner coating than Type II or III, with nickel acetate as the sealant has been developed. The process was evaluated in regard to corrosion resistance, throwing power, fatigue life, and processing variable sensitivity, and shows promise as a replacement for the chromic acid process.

  4. Identification of an itaconic acid degrading pathway in itaconic acid producing Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei; Huang, Xuenian; Zhong, Chengwei; Li, Jianjun; Lu, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    Itaconic acid, one of the most promising and flexible bio-based chemicals, is mainly produced by Aspergillus terreus. Previous studies to improve itaconic acid production in A. terreus through metabolic engineering were mainly focused on its biosynthesis pathway, while the itaconic acid-degrading pathway has largely been ignored. In this study, we used transcriptomic, proteomic, bioinformatic, and in vitro enzymatic analyses to identify three key enzymes, itaconyl-CoA transferase (IctA), itaconyl-CoA hydratase (IchA), and citramalyl-CoA lyase (CclA), that are involved in the catabolic pathway of itaconic acid in A. terreus. In the itaconic acid catabolic pathway in A. terreus, itaconic acid is first converted by IctA into itaconyl-CoA with succinyl-CoA as the CoA donor, and then itaconyl-CoA is hydrated into citramalyl-CoA by IchA. Finally, citramalyl-CoA is cleaved into acetyl-CoA and pyruvate by CclA. Moreover, IctA can also catalyze the reaction between citramalyl-CoA and succinate to generate succinyl-CoA and citramalate. These results, for the first time, identify the three key enzymes, IctA, IchA, and CclA, involved in the itaconic acid degrading pathway in itaconic acid producing A. terreus. The results will facilitate the improvement of itaconic acid production by metabolically engineering the catabolic pathway of itaconic acid in A. terreus.

  5. Strong activation of bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) by ursodeoxycholic acid

    PubMed Central

    Wiemuth, Dominik; Sahin, Hacer; Lefèvre, Cathérine M.T.; Wasmuth, Hermann E.; Gründer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the DEG/ENaC gene family of unknown function. Rat BASIC (rBASIC) is inactive at rest. We have recently shown that cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the bile ducts, are the main site of BASIC expression in the liver and identified bile acids, in particular hyo- and chenodeoxycholic acid, as agonists of rBASIC. Moreover, it seems that extracellular divalent cations stabilize the resting state of rBASIC, because removal of extracellular divalent cations opens the channel. In this addendum, we demonstrate that removal of extracellular divalent cations potentiates the activation of rBASIC by bile acids, suggesting an allosteric mechanism. Furthermore, we show that rBASIC is strongly activated by the anticholestatic bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), suggesting that BASIC might mediate part of the therapeutic effects of UDCA. PMID:23064163

  6. Solid-phase extraction of acidic herbicides.

    PubMed

    Wells, M J; Yu, L Z

    2000-07-14

    A discussion of solid-phase extraction method development for acidic herbicides is presented that reviews sample matrix modification, extraction sorbent selection, derivatization procedures for gas chromatographic analysis, and clean-up procedures for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Acidic herbicides are families of compounds that include derivatives of phenol (dinoseb, dinoterb and pentachlorophenol), benzoic acid (acifluorfen, chloramben, dicamba, 3,5-dichlorobenzoic acid and dacthal--a dibenzoic acid derivative), acetic acid [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)], propanoic acid [dichlorprop, fluazifop, haloxyfop, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (MCPP) and silvex], butanoic acid [4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butanoic acid (2,4-DB) and 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)butanoic acid (MCPB)], and other miscellaneous acids such as pyridinecarboxylic acid (picloram) and thiadiazine dioxide (bentazon).

  7. Cyclic phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid induce hyaluronic acid synthesis via CREB transcription factor regulation in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Maeda-Sano, Katsura; Gotoh, Mari; Morohoshi, Toshiro; Someya, Takao; Murofushi, Hiromu; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2014-09-01

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator and an analog of the growth factor-like phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). cPA has a unique cyclic phosphate ring at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of its glycerol backbone. We showed before that a metabolically stabilized cPA derivative, 2-carba-cPA, relieved osteoarthritis pathogenesis in vivo and induced hyaluronic acid synthesis in human osteoarthritis synoviocytes in vitro. This study focused on hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts, which retain moisture and maintain health in the dermis. We investigated the effects of cPA and LPA on hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts (NB1RGB cells). Using particle exclusion and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we found that both cPA and LPA dose-dependently induced hyaluronic acid synthesis. We revealed that the expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 messenger RNA and protein is up-regulated by cPA and LPA treatment time dependently. We then characterized the signaling pathways up-regulating hyaluronic acid synthesis mediated by cPA and LPA in NB1RGB cells. Pharmacological inhibition and reporter gene assays revealed that the activation of the LPA receptor LPAR1, Gi/o protein, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) but not nuclear factor κB induced hyaluronic acid synthesis by the treatment with cPA and LPA in NB1RGB cells. These results demonstrate for the first time that cPA and LPA induce hyaluronic acid synthesis in human skin fibroblasts mainly through the activation of LPAR1-Gi/o followed by the PI3K, ERK, and CREB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  9. Sleep disorders and the prevalence of asymptomatic nocturnal acid and non-acid reflux.

    PubMed

    Herdman, Christine; Marzio, Dina Halegoua-De; Shah, Paurush; Denuna-Rivera, Susie; Doghramji, Karl; Cohen, Sidney; Dimarino, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Nocturnal acid reflux is associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic sleep arousals, leading to fragmented sleep. The frequency and influence of acid reflux in patients with various forms of insomnia has not been reported. The aim of this study was to quantify nocturnal acid and nonacid reflux in patients with primary sleep disorders as previously diagnosed by polysomnography. THIRTY ONE SUBJECTS WERE STUDIED: (A) 9 subjects with a polysomnographically diagnosed sleep disorder (1 with restless legs syndrome, 4 with narcolepsy, 4 with periodic limb movement disorder); (B) 12 subjects with primary insomnia (PI) and unrevealing polysomnography; and (C) 10 controls without disturbed sleep. All subjects underwent a physical examination and 24 h transnasal pH and impedance monitoring to detect acid and non-acid reflux. The 21 subjects with fragmented sleep due to a primary sleep disorder had significantly more recumbent acid exposure (>1.2% of time) as compared with control subjects (33% versus 0%). When fragmented sleep subjects were divided into two groups, 17% of PI subjects and 55% of subjects with a diagnosed sleep disorder had significant recumbent acid exposure (P=0.009). Likewise, the median recumbent nonacid events were increased in the sleep disordered group (P=0.011). This study indicates that patients with primary sleep disorders have prominent nocturnal acid reflux without symptoms of daytime acid reflux. Acid reflux is most prominent in patients with polysomnographic findings of disturbed sleep as compared to patients with PI; while non acid reflux is increased minimally in these patients.

  10. Effect of aspartic acid and glutamate on metabolism and acid stress resistance of Acetobacter pasteurianus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haisong; Zhang, Renkuan; Xia, Menglei; Bai, Xiaolei; Mou, Jun; Zheng, Yu; Wang, Min

    2017-06-15

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are widely applied in food, bioengineering and medicine fields. However, the acid stress at low pH conditions limits acetic acid fermentation efficiency and high concentration of vinegar production with AAB. Therefore, how to enhance resistance ability of the AAB remains as the major challenge. Amino acids play an important role in cell growth and cell survival under severe environment. However, until now the effects of amino acids on acetic fermentation and acid stress resistance of AAB have not been fully studied. In the present work the effects of amino acids on metabolism and acid stress resistance of Acetobacter pasteurianus were investigated. Cell growth, culturable cell counts, acetic acid production, acetic acid production rate and specific production rate of acetic acid of A. pasteurianus revealed an increase of 1.04, 5.43, 1.45, 3.30 and 0.79-folds by adding aspartic acid (Asp), and cell growth, culturable cell counts, acetic acid production and acetic acid production rate revealed an increase of 0.51, 0.72, 0.60 and 0.94-folds by adding glutamate (Glu), respectively. For a fully understanding of the biological mechanism, proteomic technology was carried out. The results showed that the strengthening mechanism mainly came from the following four aspects: (1) Enhancing the generation of pentose phosphates and NADPH for the synthesis of nucleic acid, fatty acids and glutathione (GSH) throughout pentose phosphate pathway. And GSH could protect bacteria from low pH, halide, oxidative stress and osmotic stress by maintaining the viability of cells through intracellular redox equilibrium; (2) Reinforcing deamination of amino acids to increase intracellular ammonia concentration to maintain stability of intracellular pH; (3) Enhancing nucleic acid synthesis and reparation of impaired DNA caused by acid stress damage; (4) Promoting unsaturated fatty acids synthesis and lipid transport, which resulted in the improvement of cytomembrane

  11. An efficient synthesis of tetramic acid derivatives with extended conjugation from L-Ascorbic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Biswajit K; Bisht, Surendra S; Tripathi, Rama P

    2006-01-01

    Background Tetramic acids with polyenyl substituents are an important class of compounds in medicinal chemistry. Both solid and solution phase syntheses of such molecules have been reported recently. Thiolactomycin, a clinical candidate for treatment of tuberculosis has led to further explorations in this class. We have recently developed an efficient synthesis of tetramic acids derivatives from L- ascorbic acid. In continuation of this work, we have synthesised dienyl tetramic acid derivatives. Results 5,6-O-Isopropylidene-ascorbic acid on reaction with DBU led to the formation of tetronolactonyl allyl alcohol, which on oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate gave the respective tetranolactonyl allylic aldehydes. Wittig olefination followed by reaction of the resulting tetranolactonyl dienyl esters with different amines resulted in the respective 5-hydroxy lactams. Subsequent dehydration of the hydroxy lactams with p-toluene sulphonic acid afforded the dienyl tetramic acid derivatives. All reactions were performed at ambient temperature and the yields are good. Conclusion An efficient and practical method for the synthesis of dienyl tetramic acid derivatives from inexpensive and easily accessible ascorbic acid has been developed. The compounds bear structural similarities to the tetramic acid based polyenic antibiotics and thus this method offers a new and short route for the synthesis of tetramic acid derivatives of biological significance. PMID:17147830

  12. An efficient synthesis of tetramic acid derivatives with extended conjugation from L-ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Singh, Biswajit K; Bisht, Surendra S; Tripathi, Rama P

    2006-12-06

    Tetramic acids with polyenyl substituents are an important class of compounds in medicinal chemistry. Both solid and solution phase syntheses of such molecules have been reported recently. Thiolactomycin, a clinical candidate for treatment of tuberculosis has led to further explorations in this class. We have recently developed an efficient synthesis of tetramic acids derivatives from L-ascorbic acid. In continuation of this work, we have synthesised dienyl tetramic acid derivatives. 5,6-O-isopropylidene-ascorbic acid on reaction with DBU led to the formation of tetronolactonyl allyl alcohol, which on oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate gave the respective tetranolactonyl allylic aldehydes. Wittig olefination followed by reaction of the resulting tetranolactonyl dienyl esters with different amines resulted in the respective 5-hydroxy lactams. Subsequent dehydration of the hydroxy lactams with p-toluene sulphonic acid afforded the dienyl tetramic acid derivatives. All reactions were performed at ambient temperature and the yields are good. An efficient and practical method for the synthesis of dienyl tetramic acid derivatives from inexpensive and easily accessible ascorbic acid has been developed. The compounds bear structural similarities to the tetramic acid based polyenic antibiotics and thus this method offers a new and short route for the synthesis of tetramic acid derivatives of biological significance.

  13. Quantification of Lewis acid induced Brønsted acidity of protogenic Lewis bases.

    PubMed

    Lathem, A Paige; Heiden, Zachariah M

    2017-05-09

    Proton transfer promoted by the coordination of protogenic Lewis bases to a Lewis acid is a critical step in catalytic transformations. Although the acidification of water upon coordination to a Lewis acid has been known for decades, no attempts have been made to correlate the Brønsted acidity of the coordinated water molecule with Lewis acid strength. To probe this effect, the pK a 's (estimated error of 1.3 pK a units) in acetonitrile of ten protogenic Lewis bases coordinated to seven Lewis acids containing Lewis acidities varying 70 kcal mol -1 , were computed. To quantify Lewis acid strength, the ability to transfer a hydride (hydride donor ability) from the respective main group hydride was used. Coordination of a Lewis acid to water increased the acidity of the bound water molecule between 20 and 50 pK a units. A linear correlation exhibiting a 2.6 pK a unit change of the Lewis acid-water adduct per ten kcal mol -1 change in hydride donor ability of the respective main group hydride was obtained. For the ten protogenic Lewis bases studied, the coordinated protogenic Lewis bases were acidified between 10 and 50 pK a units. On average, a ten kcal mol -1 change in hydride donor ability of the respective main group hydride resulted in about a 2.8 pK a unit change in the Brønsted acidity of the Lewis acid-Lewis base adducts. Since attempts to computationally investigate the pK a of main group dihydrogen complexes were unsuccessful, experimental determination of the first reported pK a of a main group dihydrogen complex is described. The pK a of H 2 -B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 was determined to be 5.8 ± 0.2 in acetonitrile.

  14. Effects of sodium citrate, citric acid and lactic acid on human blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Scaravilli, Vittorio; Di Girolamo, Luca; Scotti, Eleonora; Busana, Mattia; Biancolilli, Osvaldo; Leonardi, Patrizia; Carlin, Andrea; Lonati, Caterina; Panigada, Mauro; Pesenti, Antonio; Zanella, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Citric acid infusion in extracorporeal blood may allow concurrent regional anticoagulation and enhancement of extracorporeal CO 2 removal. Effects of citric acid on human blood thromboelastography and aggregometry have never been tested before. In this in vitro study, citric acid, sodium citrate and lactic acid were added to venous blood from seven healthy donors, obtaining concentrations of 9 mEq/L, 12 mEq/L and 15 mEq/L. We measured gas analyses, ionized calcium (iCa ++ ) concentration, activated clotting time (ACT), thromboelastography and multiplate aggregometry. Repeated measure analysis of variance was used to compare the acidifying and anticoagulant properties of the three compounds. Sodium citrate did not affect the blood gas analysis. Increasing doses of citric and lactic acid progressively reduced pH and HCO 3 - and increased pCO 2 (p<0.001). Sodium citrate and citric acid similarly reduced iCa ++ , from 0.39 (0.36-0.39) and 0.35 (0.33-0.36) mmol/L, respectively, at 9 mEq/L to 0.20 (0.20-0.21) and 0.21 (0.20-0.23) mmol/L at 15 mEq/L (p<0.001). Lactic acid did not affect iCa ++ (p=0.07). Sodium citrate and citric acid similarly incremented the ACT, from 234 (208-296) and 202 (178-238) sec, respectively, at 9 mEq/L, to >600 sec at 15 mEq/L (p<0.001). Lactic acid did not affect the ACT values (p=0.486). Sodium citrate and citric acid similarly incremented R-time and reduced α-angle and maximum amplitude (MA) (p<0.001), leading to flat-line thromboelastograms at 15 mEq/L. Platelet aggregometry was not altered by any of the three compounds. Citric acid infusions determine acidification and anticoagulation of blood similar to lactic acid and sodium citrate, respectively.

  15. UV-induced solvent free synthesis of truxillic acid-bile acid conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivukorpi, Juha; Kolehmainen,