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Sample records for lavere emission og

  1. OGS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-22

    ISS020-E-012819 (22 June 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 20 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Oxygen Generator System (OGS) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  2. Allergenicity and allergens of amphipods found in nori (dried laver).

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Kanna; Hamada, Yuki; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2007-09-01

    Gammaridean and caprellid amphipods, crustaceans of the order Amphipoda, inhabit laver culture platforms and, hence, are occasionally found in nori (dried laver) sheets. Amphipods mixed in nori may cause allergic reactions in sensitized patients, as is the case with other crustaceans, such as shrimp and crab, members of the order Decapoda. In this study, dried samples of amphipods (unidentified) found in nori and fresh samples of gammaridean amphipod (Gammarus sp., not accurately identified) and caprellid amphipod (Caprella equilibra) were examined for allergenicity and allergens using two species of decapods (black tiger prawn and spiny lobster) as references. When analyzed by ELISA, sera from crustacean-allergic patients reacted to extracts from amphipod samples, although less potently than to the extracts from decapods. In IgE-immunoblotting, a 37-kDa protein was found to be the major allergen in amphipods. Based on the molecular mass and the cross-reactivity with decapod tropomyosin evidenced by inhibition ELISA and inhibition immunoblotting, the 37-kDa protein was identified as amphipod tropomyosin.

  3. Impact of laver treatment practices on the geoenvironmental properties of sediments in the Ariake Sea.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan Jun; Hayashi, Shigenori; Shen, Shui-Long

    2014-04-15

    Since the 1970s, the catch of Tairagi and Agemaki shellfish that inhabit the shallow sediments of the Ariake Sea of Japan has fallen dramatically. This is partly accounted for by the Isahaya land reclamation dike project and by the increasingly frequent local red tides. A recent survey of local fisherman suggested that the decline in the shellfish harvest may also be due to the practice of laver treatment in the tidal flats of the Ariake Sea. We carried out field and laboratory investigations to determine whether the practice changes the geoenvironmental properties of the fine-grained sediments in the tidal flats. There were notable changes in the salt concentration, pH, and sulfide content between the sediments exposed to a laver treating agent and those without laver treatment. Based on these differences, we identified potential mechanisms by which the laver treating agent was transported into the sediments and influenced the sulfide levels.

  4. Proximate Composition, Amino Acid, Mineral, and Heavy Metal Content of Dried Laver

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Ki, Kyung-Nam; Chung, Ha-Yull

    2013-01-01

    Laver, a red algae belonging to the genus Porphyra, is one of the most widely consumed edible seaweeds. The most popular commercial dried laver species, P. tenera and P. haitanensis, were collected from Korea and China, respectively, and evaluated for proximate composition, amino acids, minerals, trace heavy metals, and color. The moisture and ash contents of P. tenera and P. haitanensis ranged from 3.66~6.74% and 8.78~9.07%, respectively; crude lipid and protein contents were 1.96~2.25% and 32.16~36.88%, respectively. Dried lavers were found to be a good source of amino acids, such as asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, and taurine, and γ-aminobutyric acid. K, Ca, Mg, Na, P, I, Fe, and Se minerals were selected for analysis. A clear regional variation existed in the amino acid, mineral, and trace metal contents of lavers. Regular consumption of lavers may have heath benefits because they are relatively low in fat and high in protein, and contain functional amino acids and minerals. PMID:24471123

  5. Effects of water activity on the lipid oxidation and antioxidants of dried laver (porphyra) during storage in the dark.

    PubMed

    Choe, Eunok; Oh, Soojung

    2013-08-01

    Lipid oxidation and antioxidant degradation in dried laver (Porphyra) were determined during storage at water activities (Aw ) of 0.11, 0.30, 0.51, 0.75, or 0.89 in the dark at 40 °C for 15 d. Lipid oxidation was evaluated by measuring peroxide value (POV) and conjugated dienoic acid (CDA) contents, and fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. Contents of polyphenols, tocopherols, and porphyran were determined by spectrophotometry, HPLC, and gravimetry, respectively. The POV and CDA contents of the dried laver lipids increased during storage as Aw increased from 0.11 to 0.30, 0.51, 0.75, and 0.89, whereas the relative content of eicosapentaenoic acid was decreased; however, the contents of polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and porphyran in dried laver showed the reverse phenomena. Lipid oxidation and antioxidant degradation in dried laver sharply increased at an Aw of 0.51. Polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and porphyran contributed to reduction of lipid oxidation in dried laver. The degree of lipid oxidation of dried laver was more dependent on the concentration of α-tocopherol than that of either polyphenols or porphyran during storage in the dark. The results strongly suggest that the quality of dried laver can be improved by preserving tocopherols as much as possible while decreasing A(w) during storage.

  6. Analytical approach to the discoloration of edible laver "nori" in the Ariake Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinghua; Nagahama, Toshiko; Ohwaki, Hiroki; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Yuji; Yamazaki, Sunao

    2004-01-01

    To understand the cause of discoloration of the sea laver "nori," which is found in the Ariake Sea, the concentrations of pigments and elements in the normal and discolored laver samples were determined. In the discolored samples, a decrease in all of the pigments, chlorophyll a and carotenoids, and proteinous pigments, phycobiliproteins, was clearly observed. This was accompanied by a decrease in the content of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, and P. Good correlations between these elements and chlorophyll a, as well as between these elements and phycobiliproteins, were confirmed, indicating that, in addition to the deficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus, the deficiency of trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu), which are specifically required for photosynthesis, could be a reason for the discoloration of nori. The cause of elemental deficiency is also discussed.

  7. Relationship between 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal contents and commercial grade by organoleptic judgement in Japanese dried laver Porphyra spp.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryusuke; Ishimaru, Mami; Hatate, Hideo; Sugiura, Yoshimasa; Matsushita, Teruo

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the correlation between the commercial grade determined by organoleptic judgment panel and chemical substances in dried laver Porphyra spp., we analyzed the contents of free amino acids, 5'-nucleotides, total lipids, fatty acids, α-tocopherol, lipophilic pigments, and aldehydes in several grades of laver that had been classified by an organoleptic judgment panel. Compared with the lower-grade laver samples, the excellent-grade laver samples contained higher concentrations of free amino acids, 5'-nucleotides, total lipids, α-tocopherol, chlorophyll a, and β-carotene and lower concentrations of aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE), propanal, butanal, and 1-hexanal, which are formed during lipid peroxidation of n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, the HHE content was strongly correlated with the propanal content in the analyzed laver (r(2)=0.9123). These results showed that the commercial grade assigned by an organoleptic judgment panel was correlated with chemical substances associated with color, taste, and the prevention of lipid oxidation.

  8. Microbiological quality of seasoned roasted laver and potential hazard control in a real processing line.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Sook; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Hye Won; Kim, Sun Ae; Jo, Jun Il; Kim, Soon Han; Lee, Soon Ho; Ha, Sang Do; Rhee, Min Suk

    2014-12-01

    Microbiological quality of laver, one of the edible seaweeds, has not been reported in a real processing line. Laver or supplements were collected from six manufacturers (A to F) to assess potential microbiological hazards and the critical control points in commercial processing lines. Aerobic plate counts (APC), coliform counts, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were enumerated, and the presence of B. cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, S. aureus, and V. parahaemolyticus were confirmed during processing. The raw material, i.e., dried laver, had a high initial APC level (4.4 to 7.8 log CFU/g), which decreased gradually during processing (final products, 1.3 to 5.9 log CFU/g). Coliforms and B. cereus were not detected in any of the final products, but they were present in some raw materials and semiprocessed products in quantitative analysis. After enrichment for recovery of stress-injured cells, E. coli and foodborne pathogens were not detected in any samples, with the exception of B. cereus. Heat-injured and spore-forming B. cereus isolates were occasionally obtained from some of the raw materials and products after enrichment, thus B. cereus may be a potential microbiological hazard that should be controlled using strategic intervention measures. Secondary roasting (260 to 400°C, 2 to 10 s) significantly reduced the APC (maximum log reduction, 4.7 log CFU/g), and this could be a key intervention step for controlling microbiological hazards during processing (critical control point). When this step was performed appropriately, according to the processing guide for each plant, the microorganisms were inactivated more successfully in the products. This study provides scientific evidence that may facilitate the development of strategies for microbiological hazard control and hygienic management guidelines for real manufacturing plants.

  9. Antiviral adhesion molecular mechanisms for influenza: W. G. Laver's lifetime obsession

    PubMed Central

    Garman, Elspeth F.

    2015-01-01

    Infection by the influenza virus depends firstly on cell adhesion via the sialic-acid-binding viral surface protein, haemagglutinin, and secondly on the successful escape of progeny viruses from the host cell to enable the virus to spread to other cells. To achieve the latter, influenza uses another glycoprotein, the enzyme neuraminidase (NA), to cleave the sialic acid receptors from the surface of the original host cell. This paper traces the development of anti-influenza drugs, from the initial suggestion by MacFarlane Burnet in 1948 that an effective ‘competitive poison’ of the virus' NA might be useful in controlling infection by the virus, through to the determination of the structure of NA by X-ray crystallography and the realization of Burnet's idea with the design of NA inhibitors. A focus is the contribution of the late William Graeme Laver, FRS, to this research. PMID:25533092

  10. HPLC determination of pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a in dried laver product implicated in food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Deng-Fwu; Tsai, Yu-Shia; Chou, Shin-Shoug; Liu, Shiu-Mei; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong; Lin, Shin-Jung; Tu, Wei-Chun

    2005-04-01

    In an outbreak of food poisoning involving a dried purple laver product (called nori), four persons had allergic-like symptoms such as inflammation and red rash on their face, mouth and belly. The causative nori was extracted and smeared on the arm-skin of five volunteers. Three out of five volunteers had a slight allergic reaction after 5 to 30 min when they were exposed to sunlight. The levels of the chlorophyll derivatives, pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a, measured by HPLC were 851-906 and 5,460-5,624 microg/g, respectively, in the causative samples. Judging from the high contents of pyropheophorbide a and pheophorbide a and the symptoms of patients and volunteers, the causative agents were concluded to be the photosensitizers pyropheophorbide a and pheophorbide a.

  11. Modulation of viability and apoptosis of UVB-exposed human keratinocyte HaCaT cells by aqueous methanol extract of laver (Porphyra yezoensis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Saerong; You, Dong Hun; Han, Taejun; Choi, Eun-Mi

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effect of 80% methanol extract of laver (Porphyra yezoensis) on the UVB-exposed HaCaT cells, human keratinocytes. The laver extract showed absorbance spectrum characteristic of porphyra-334 or shinorine, major mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in red algae, and contained phenolic compounds. UVB exposure decreased cell viability and increased apoptotic cell fractions, and it also decreased the ratio of reduced (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and the total glutathione content. Post-treatment with the laver extract significantly increased the net viability and also the apoptotic cell fractions of UVB-exposed cells. The extract caused increase in GSH/GSSG ratio, yet it exacerbated the decrease in glutathione content in the UVB-exposed cells. These effects of the laver extract were also manifested in the sham-exposed cells, suggesting that those effects might be general phenomena caused by the laver extract. The extract treatment enhanced the UVB-induced phosphorylation of JNK and ERK, affecting more the latter. Our results suggest that the post-treatment with laver extract may protect UVB-exposed skin cells not only by increasing overall cell proliferation but also by enhancing apoptosis of damaged cells, via activating JNK and ERK signaling pathways, in which modulation of the content and redox status of glutathione may take significant parts.

  12. High-speed separation and detection of amino acids in laver using a short capillary electrophoresis system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ma, Lihong; Yao, Fenzeng; Lin, Xiuli; Xu, Kaixuan

    2015-01-01

    A high-speed separation method of capillary MEKC with LIF detection had been developed for separation and determination of amino acids in laver. The CE system comprised a manual slotted-vial array (SVA) for sample introduction that could improve the separation efficiency by reducing injection volume. Using a capillary with 80 mm effective separation length, the separation conditions for amino acids were optimized. Applied with the separation electric field strength of 300 V/cm, the ten amino acids could be completely separated within 2.5 min with 10 mol/L Na2HPO4-NaOH buffer (pH = 11.5) including 30 mmol/L SDS. Theoretical plates for amino acids ranged from 72,000 to 40,000 (corresponding to 1.1-2.0 μm plate heights) and the detection limits were between 25 and 80 nmol/L. Finally, this method was applied to analyze the composition of amino acids in laver and eight known amino acids could be found in the sample. The contents of five amino acids, tyrosine, glutamic acid, glycine, lysine, and aspartic acid that could be completely separated in real sample were determined. The recoveries ranged from 82.3% to 123% that indicated the good reliability for this method in laver sample analysis.

  13. OGS Maintenance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-21

    ISS024-E-009246 (21 July 2010) --- NASA astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson, Expedition 24 flight engineer, is pictured during troubleshooting operations of the Oxygen Generator System (OGS) hardware and replacement of an H2 (hydrogen) Dome Orbit Replaceable Unit (ORU) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  14. Antimicrobial effects of vinegar against norovirus and Escherichia coli in the traditional Korean vinegared green laver (Enteromorpha intestinalis) salad during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin Young; Kang, Sujin; Ha, Sang-Do

    2016-12-05

    In Korea, edible seaweeds are potentially regarded as high-risk foods with respect to enteric norovirus (NoV) and non-pathogenic generic Escherichia coli. This study investigated the antimicrobial effects of 5%, 10%, and 15% vinegar (6% acetic acid) on the survival of murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), a human NoV surrogate, and E. coli, a fecal indicator in experimentally contaminated raw fresh green lavers (Enteromorpha intestinalis) during a 7-d storage period at 4°C. Both MNV-1 titers and E. coli counts significantly (p<0.05) decreased with stepwise increase in vinegar concentration and storage time, except in E. coli of the 0% vinegar-containing lavers; however, MNV-1 was more resistant to vinegar than E. coli. The overall average MNV-1 titers were significantly (p<0.05) higher in 0% vinegar-containing lavers (3.6log10PFU/ml) than in 5-15% vinegar-containing lavers (3.3-3.1log10PFU/ml) throughout the 7days of storage. A 1-log reduction in the MNV-1 titer was observed in 0% vinegar-containing laver samples after 5days of storage and 5-15% vinegar-containing laver samples after 3days of storage. The overall E. coli count was also significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the 15% (6.8log10CFU/g) vinegar-containing lavers than in the 10% (7.3log10CFU/g) and 5% (7.6log10CFU/g) vinegar-containing lavers. A >1-log reduction in the E. coli count was observed in 10-15% vinegar-containing laver samples just after 1day of storage. A 2-log reduction in the E. coli count was also observed in 10-15% vinegar-containing laver samples after 5days of storage. Using the non-linear Weibull model, this study showed that the dR-values (1-log reduction) of MNV-1 were 4.90days for 0%, 4.28days for 5%, 3.79days for 10%, and 2.88days for 15% vinegar-containing lavers, whereas those for E. coli were 1.12day for 5%, 1.03day for 10%, and 0.90day for 15% vinegar-containing lavers stored at 4°C. Vinegar with over the storage time can be used as an antimicrobial ingredient against NoV and E. coli in

  15. Estimation of temporal changes in oxidation rates of sulphides in copper mine tailings at Laver, Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Alakangas, Lena; Ohlander, Björn; Lundberg, Angela

    2010-02-15

    Tailings containing pyrrhotite were deposited in an impoundment at a copper mine at Laver, Northern Sweden, which operated between 1936 and 1946. Since then the oxidation of sulphides has acidified recipient water courses and contaminated them with metals. Measurements from surface water sampled in 1993, 2001 and 2004-05 from a brook into which the tailing impoundment drains indicate that the amounts of sulphide-associated elements such as Cu, S and Zn released into the brook have decreased over time, while pH has increased. The mass transport of S in the brook during 1993 and 2001 corresponded well with the amount of S estimated to be released from the tailings by oxidation. Secondary precipitates such as covellite and gypsum, which can trap sulphur, were shown in earlier studies to be present in only low amounts. The annual release of elements from the tailings was estimated from the volume of tailings assumed to oxidise each year, which depends on movement of the oxidation front with time. The results indicate that the oxidation rate in the tailings has decreased over time, which may be due to the increased distance over which oxygen needs to diffuse to reach unoxidised sulphide grains, or their cores, in the tailings.

  16. Experimental study on the deterioration and natural remediation of the Ariake Sea tidal mud caused by the sea laver treatment acid practice and the upward seepage of pore water liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yan-Jun; Liu, Song-Yu; Hayashi, Shigenori

    2008-08-01

    This study presents a laboratory study of the following two aspects: (1) the influence of sea laver treatment acid on the geoenvironmental properties of Ariake Sea tidal mud, and (2) the natural remediation effect on the sea laver treatment acid contaminated Ariake Sea tidal mud caused by the upward seepage of pore water liquid in the mud. Firstly, the mechanisms of the transport of sea laver treatment acid in the Ariake Sea tidal mud and the generation mechanisms of the upward seepage flow in the Ariake Sea tidal mud are discussed. Secondly, a series of one-dimensional laboratory infiltration tests were carried out to investigate the deterioration of the Ariake Sea tidal mud caused by the sea laver acid treatment practice. Test results reveal that the acid treatment practice caused considerable change in the geochemical properties of the mud in terms of increase in sulfide content and decrease in pH value. After the treatment by the sea laver treatment acid, the sulfide content of the mud even exceeded the safe limit value for the benthos, which represents undesirable living condition for benthos. Thirdly, series of laboratory fresh seawater infiltration tests for the deteriorated Iida site mud were conducted to illustrate this natural remediation efficiency. It is found that with the infiltration of the fresh seawater, the sulfide content of the Iida site mud was considerably reduced and pH value increased to an acceptable range for benthos living in the tidal flat mud. With the increase in the infiltration time and the hydraulic gradient, the remediation efficiency could be increased.

  17. OGS Water ORU R&R

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-21

    ISS020-E-033496 (21 Aug. 2009) --- Canadian Space Agency astronaut Robert Thirsk, Expedition 20 flight engineer, is pictured with the oxygen generator system (OGS) rack cover in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  18. Nyberg with OGS R&R

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-19

    ISS036-E-021797 (18 July 2013) --- NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg, Expedition 36 flight engineer, performs a remove and replace of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) Hydrogen (H2) Sensor in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  19. OGS Hydrogen Sensor ORU R&R

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-18

    ISS030-E-236919 (18 April 2012) --- NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, works with the Oxygen Generator System (OGS) rack in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Burbank unpowered the OGS, purged the hydrogen sensor Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) with the Hydrogen Sensor ORU Purge Adapter (HOPA) for return to Earth, and replaced the hydrogen sensor with a new spare, then cleaned the rack Avionics Air Assembly (AAA).

  20. Comparing Top-down and Bottom-up Estimates of Methane Emissions across Multiple U.S. Basins Provides Insights into National Oil and Gas Emissions and Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamburg, S.; Alvarez, R.; Lyon, D. R.; Zavala-Araiza, D.

    2016-12-01

    Several recent studies quantified regional methane emissions in U.S. oil and gas (O&G) basins using top-down approaches such as airborne mass balance measurements. These studies apportioned total methane emissions to O&G based on hydrocarbon ratios or subtracting bottom-up estimates of other sources. In most studies, top-down estimates of O&G methane emissions exceeded bottom-up emission inventories. An exception is the Barnett Shale Coordinated Campaign, which found agreement between aircraft mass balance estimates and a custom emission inventory. Reconciliation of Barnett Shale O&G emissions depended on two key features: 1) matching the spatial domains of top-down and bottom-up estimates, and 2) accounting for fat-tail sources in site-level emission factors. We construct spatially explicit custom emission inventories for domains with top-down O&G emission estimates in eight major U.S. oil and gas production basins using a variety of data sources including a spatially-allocated U.S. EPA Greenhouse Gas Inventory, the EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, state emission inventories, and recently published measurement studies. A comparison of top-down and our bottom-up estimates of O&G emissions constrains the gap between these approaches and elucidates regional variability in production-normalized loss rates. A comparison of component-level and site-level emission estimates of production sites in the Barnett Shale region - where comprehensive activity data and emissions estimates are available - indicates that abnormal process conditions contribute about 20% of regional O&G emissions. Combining these two analyses provides insights into the relative importance of different equipment, processes, and malfunctions to emissions in each basin. These data allow us to estimate the U.S. O&G supply chain loss rate, recommend mitigation strategies to reduce emissions from existing infrastructure, and discuss how a similar approach can be applied internationally.

  1. OGS Water ORU R&R

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-21

    ISS020-E-033472 (21 Aug. 2009) --- Canadian Space Agency astronaut Robert Thirsk, Expedition 20 flight engineer, prepares to perform in-flight maintenance (IFM) on the oxygen generator system (OGS) rack in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  2. Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David R; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A; Harriss, Robert; Palacios, Virginia; Lan, Xin; Talbot, Robert; Lavoie, Tegan; Shepson, Paul; Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Marchese, Anthony J; Zimmerle, Daniel; Robinson, Allen L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2015-07-07

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas industry (O&G) and other sources in the Barnett Shale region were estimated by constructing a spatially resolved emission inventory. Eighteen source categories were estimated using multiple data sets, including new empirical measurements at regional O&G sites and a national study of gathering and processing facilities. Spatially referenced activity data were compiled from federal and state databases and combined with O&G facility emission factors calculated using Monte Carlo simulations that account for high emission sites representing the very upper portion, or fat-tail, in the observed emissions distributions. Total methane emissions in the 25-county Barnett Shale region in October 2013 were estimated to be 72,300 (63,400-82,400) kg CH4 h(-1). O&G emissions were estimated to be 46,200 (40,000-54,100) kg CH4 h(-1) with 19% of emissions from fat-tail sites representing less than 2% of sites. Our estimate of O&G emissions in the Barnett Shale region was higher than alternative inventories based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research by factors of 1.5, 2.7, and 4.3, respectively. Gathering compressor stations, which accounted for 40% of O&G emissions in our inventory, had the largest difference from emission estimates based on EPA data sources. Our inventory's higher O&G emission estimate was due primarily to its more comprehensive activity factors and inclusion of emissions from fat-tail sites.

  3. Barrier Parameters and Current Transport Characteristics of Ti/p-InP Schottky Junction Modified Using Orange G (OG) Organic Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenu, K.; Venkata Prasad, C.; Rajagopal Reddy, V.

    2017-06-01

    A Ti/Orange G/p-InP metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) junction has been prepared with Orange G (OG) organic layer by electron beam evaporation and spin coating processes. The electrical properties of Ti/p-InP metal/semiconductor (MS) and Ti/OG/p-InP MIS junctions have been analyzed based on current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. The MIS junction exhibited higher rectifying behavior than the MS junction. The higher barrier height (BH) of the MIS junction compared with the MS junction indicates effective modification by the OG layer. Also, the BH, ideality factor, shunt resistance, and series resistance were extracted based on the I-V characteristic, Cheung's and Norde's methods, and the ΨS-V plot. The BH evaluated by Cheung's and Norde's methods and the ΨS-V plot was shown to be similar, confirming the reliability and validity of the methods applied. The extracted interface state density (N SS) of the MIS junction was less than for the MS junction, revealing that the OG organic layer reduced the N SS value. Analysis demonstrated that, in the lower bias region, the reverse current conduction mechanism was dominated by Poole-Frenkel emission for both the MS and MIS junction. Meanwhile, in the higher bias region, Schottky emission governed the reverse current conduction mechanism. The results suggest that such OG layers have potential for use in high-quality electronic devices.

  4. Barrier Parameters and Current Transport Characteristics of Ti/ p-InP Schottky Junction Modified Using Orange G (OG) Organic Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenu, K.; Venkata Prasad, C.; Rajagopal Reddy, V.

    2017-10-01

    A Ti/Orange G/ p-InP metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) junction has been prepared with Orange G (OG) organic layer by electron beam evaporation and spin coating processes. The electrical properties of Ti/ p-InP metal/semiconductor (MS) and Ti/OG/ p-InP MIS junctions have been analyzed based on current-voltage ( I- V) and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) characteristics. The MIS junction exhibited higher rectifying behavior than the MS junction. The higher barrier height (BH) of the MIS junction compared with the MS junction indicates effective modification by the OG layer. Also, the BH, ideality factor, shunt resistance, and series resistance were extracted based on the I- V characteristic, Cheung's and Norde's methods, and the ΨS- V plot. The BH evaluated by Cheung's and Norde's methods and the ΨS- V plot was shown to be similar, confirming the reliability and validity of the methods applied. The extracted interface state density ( N SS) of the MIS junction was less than for the MS junction, revealing that the OG organic layer reduced the N SS value. Analysis demonstrated that, in the lower bias region, the reverse current conduction mechanism was dominated by Poole-Frenkel emission for both the MS and MIS junction. Meanwhile, in the higher bias region, Schottky emission governed the reverse current conduction mechanism. The results suggest that such OG layers have potential for use in high-quality electronic devices.

  5. Infrared Observations of SO emission from Io's Atmosphere during Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.; Adamkovics, M.

    2013-12-01

    Io, the volcanic moon of Jupiter, hosts an atmosphere dominated by SO2 and SO, but the question of the direct source of these molecules is still debated. Many different approaches have been taken to establish a link between volcanic activity on Io and atmospheric effects, to distinguish whether the atmosphere is supplied by volcanic outgassing or ice sublimation. In the infrared, atmospheric emission lines are lost in reflected sunlight; observing Io in eclipse provides a unique opportunity to study infrared lines, during a time when most of Io's atmosphere may be frozen out in Jupiter's shadow. In 1999 the a1Δ → Χ3Σ- transition of SO at 1.707 μm was discovered by de Pater et al. (2002); Laver et al. (2007) made additional observations, which they fit with equilibrium models to infer a likely volcanic origin for the SO. Here we present additional high spectral resolution observations of the 1.707 μm SO line while Io is in eclipse. We model these observations with equilibrium and non-LTE models, and address implications for the origin of SO on Io.

  6. Integrating Oil and Gas Measurement Data to Estimate Spatially-Gridded Methane Emissions in the Barnett Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, D. R.; Zavala Araiza, D.; Alvarez, R.; Harriss, R. C.; Palacios, V.; Lan, X.; Talbot, R. W.; Shepson, P. B.; Lavoie, T. N.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Hamburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    In October 2013, a dozen research teams measured methane emissions from oil and gas (O&G) and other sources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas at multiple scales ranging from bottom-up component measurements to top-down regional emission measurements. This work integrates ground- and aircraft-based measurements of site-level emissions from the campaign and a recent national study of gathering and processing facilities to construct a spatially resolved emission inventory for the Barnett Shale. Spatially referenced activity data including O&G site locations were obtained from multiple databases. O&G site emission factors were estimated with two-step Monte Carlo simulations that integrated emission rates from unbiased datasets with higher measurements obtained with targeted sampling. Emissions from other fossil and biogenic sources were estimated from reported emissions data or published emission factors. We constructed a 4 km x 4 km gridded emission inventory to estimate emissions by source category in the 25-county Barnett region. Total methane emissions in October 2013 were estimated to be 72.3 (+10.1/-8.9) Mg CH4 h-1 with 46.2 (+7.9/-6.2) from O&G sources. Fat-tail sites, which were defined as emission rates above the unbiased sampling distributions, accounted for 19% of O&G emissions but less than 2% of sites. In comparison to alternative estimates of O&G emissions based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research, our custom inventory was higher by factors of 1.5, 2.7, and 4.3, respectively, similar to published ratios of top-down and bottom up estimates. Our custom inventory was higher than alternatives primarily due to more complete activity data and the inclusion of fat-tail site emissions. Gathering facilities, which accounted for 40% of our O&G emission estimate, had the largest difference from alternative inventories.

  7. [Academician O.G. Gazenko and aviation medicine].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Bednenko, V S; Khomenko, M N; Stepanov, V K

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes the contribution of O.G. Gazenko to the theory and practice of aviation medicine in the period of his service at the State Test and Research Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine under the USSR Ministry of Defense (1947-1969). O.G. Gazenko took the leadership and participated in personally in the broad investigations of the altitude effects on human organism, medical care of the staff of AF units and troops based in the Arctic, improvement of life and duty conditions for pilots and technicians in hot climate, ejection seat testing, development of methods modeling erroneous pilot's actions in order to understand their triggers.

  8. Pinunuuchi Po'og'ani: Southern Ute Indian Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberly, Stacey Inez (Wachimamachi [Antelope Woman])

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Pinunuuchi Po'og'ani, the Southern Ute Indian Academy, providing Montessori education for Southern Ute tribal members ages 6 weeks through 10 years and reviving the use of the Southern Ute language and culture among young students and their families. Describes how the program supports families, students, and staff, and incorporates…

  9. Quantifying, Assessing, and Mitigating Methane Emissions from Super-emitters in the Oil and Gas Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, David Richard

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas (O&G) supply chain reduce potential climate benefits of natural gas as a replacement for other fossil fuels that emit more carbon dioxide per energy produced. O&G facilities have skewed emission rate distributions with a small fraction of sites contributing the majority of emissions. Knowledge of the identity and cause of these high emission facilities, referred to as super-emitters or fat-tail sources, is critical for reducing supply chain emissions. This dissertation addresses the quantification of super-emitter emissions, assessment of their prevalence and relationship to site characteristics, and mitigation with continuous leak detection systems. Chapter 1 summarizes the state of the knowledge of O&G methane emissions. Chapter 2 constructs a spatially-resolved emission inventory to estimate total and O&G methane emissions in the Barnett Shale as part of a coordinated research campaign using multiple top-down and bottom-up methods to quantify emissions. The emission inventory accounts for super-emitters with two-phase Monte Carlo simulations that combine site measurements collected with two approaches: unbiased sampling and targeted sampling of super-emitters. More comprehensive activity data and the inclusion of super-emitters, which account for 19% of O&G emissions, produces a emission inventory that is not statistically different than top-down regional emission estimates. Chapter 3 describes a helicopter-based survey of over 8,000 well pads in seven basins with infrared optical gas imaging to assess high emission sources. Four percent of sites are observed to have high emissions with over 90% of observed sources from tanks. The occurrence of high emissions is weakly correlated to site parameters and the best statistical model explains only 14% of variance, which demonstrates that the occurrence of super-emitters is primarily stochastic. Chapter 4 presents a Gaussian dispersion model for optimizing the placement of

  10. LLCD operations using the Lunar Lasercom OGS Terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodnik, Zoran; Smit, Hans; Sans, Marc; Zayer, Igor; Lanucara, Marco; Montilla, Iciar; Alonso, Angel

    2014-03-01

    The paper describes the operations of ESA's Optical Ground Station (OGS) during the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) experiment, performed in October and November 2013 with NASA's Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environmental Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. First the transmitter and receiver designs at the OGS telescope are described, which are geometrically separated to prevent cross-talk. Problems encountered and the lesson learned will be explained. As it turned the chosen arrangement was not sufficiently stable in terms of alignment and the paper will describe the solution found. A new industrial contract has been placed for improvement of the design of two solutions will be presented, which will both be tested in a follow-up laser communication campaign, scheduled for end March 2014.

  11. Targeting the dengue β-OG with serotype-specific alkaloid virtual leads.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Aditi; Chakraborty, Hirak Jyoti; Datta, Abhijit

    2017-03-01

    The dengue envelope β-OG pocket is a crucial hinge for mediating virus-host fusion via conformational changes in the envelope to the fusion-competent form. The β-OG pocket is a small molecule target site for inhibition of virus-host fusion. As of date, the only structure of the β-OG pocket known is of serotype 2. Studies of β-OG inhibition by small molecules primarily target viral serotype 2. Envelope and β-OG sequence alignments, reveal dissimilarities across serotypes. In light of protein sequence-structure-function correlation, sequence variations suggest serotypic variations in β-OG druggability. This, together with the fact that dengue viral proteins do have serotype-specific variations of structure and function, lead to the study of the serotype-specificity of the dengue β-OG ligand binding behaviour. β-OG druggability was compared using comparative models of envelope proteins containing the β-OG pocket in four serotypes of the dengue virus. β-OG ligand binding was found to vary with respect to hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions with ligands and tightness of the binding site. The study also reports serotype-specific virtual leads identified from a library of 9175 alkaloids, using a consensus docking and scoring approach. The docking algorithms of Glide SP and XP, together with the Lamarckian genetic algorithm were employed for consensus docking. For consensus scoring, the Glide empirical score was employed along with the scoring function of AutoDock. A multi-dimensional lead optimisation approach was performed for optimising affinity, ligand efficiency, lipophilic ligand efficiency, ADMET and molecular torsional strains. The study proposes the serotype-specific inhibition of the β-OG for an effective inhibition of virus-host fusion, in contrast to a pan inhibitor.

  12. Emissions Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes the role of emission inventories in the air quality management process, a description of how emission inventories are developed, and where U.S. emission inventory information can be found.

  13. X-ray spectral models of Galactic bulge sources - The emission-line factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrtilek, S. D.; Swank, J. H.; Kallman, T. R.

    1988-01-01

    Current difficulties in finding unique and physically meaningful models for the X-ray spectra of Galactic bulge sources are exacerbated by the presence of strong, variable emission and absorption features that are not resolved by the instruments observing them. Nine Einstein solid state spectrometer (SSS) observations of five Galactic bulge sources are presented for which relatively high resolution objective grating spectrometer (OGS) data have been published. It is found that in every case the goodness of fit of simple models to SSS data is greatly improved by adding line features identified in the OGS that cannot be resolved by the SSS but nevertheless strongly influence the spectra observed by SSS.

  14. Aerial Surveys of Elevated Hydrocarbon Emissions from Oil and Gas Production Sites.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Brandt, Adam R; Jackson, Robert B; Hamburg, Steven P

    2016-05-03

    Oil and gas (O&G) well pads with high hydrocarbon emission rates may disproportionally contribute to total methane and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the production sector. In turn, these emissions may be missing from most bottom-up emission inventories. We performed helicopter-based infrared camera surveys of more than 8000 O&G well pads in seven U.S. basins to assess the prevalence and distribution of high-emitting hydrocarbon sources (detection threshold ∼ 1-3 g s(-1)). The proportion of sites with such high-emitting sources was 4% nationally but ranged from 1% in the Powder River (Wyoming) to 14% in the Bakken (North Dakota). Emissions were observed three times more frequently at sites in the oil-producing Bakken and oil-producing regions of mixed basins (p < 0.0001, χ(2) test). However, statistical models using basin and well pad characteristics explained 14% or less of the variance in observed emission patterns, indicating that stochastic processes dominate the occurrence of high emissions at individual sites. Over 90% of almost 500 detected sources were from tank vents and hatches. Although tank emissions may be partially attributable to flash gas, observed frequencies in most basins exceed those expected if emissions were effectively captured and controlled, demonstrating that tank emission control systems commonly underperform. Tanks represent a key mitigation opportunity for reducing methane and VOC emissions.

  15. 2008 OG19: a highly elongated Trans-Neptunian object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Valenzuela, E.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Morales, N.

    2016-03-01

    From two observing runs during the 2014 summer at the Calar Alto Observatory in Almería (Spain) and at the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Granada (Spain), we were able to derive CCD photometry of the Trans-Neptunian object 2008 OG19. We analysed the time series and obtained a double-peaked light curve with a peak-to-valley amplitude of 0.437 ± 0.011 mag and a rotational period of 8.727 ± 0.003 h. This implies that this object is very elongated, closely resembling the case of Varuna. The photometry also allowed us to obtain an absolute magnitude in the R band of 4.39 ± 0.07 mag. From this result, we estimated an equivalent diameter of 2008 OG19 of 619^{+56}_{-113} km using an average albedo for scattered disc objects. Finally, we interpreted the results under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium and found a lower limit for the density of 544^{+42}_{-4} kg m-3. However, a more likely density is 609 ± 4 kg m-3 using an aspect angle of 60°, which corresponds to the most likely configuration for the spin axis with respect to the observer assuming random orientations.

  16. BPhyOG: an interactive server for genome-wide inference of bacterial phylogenies based on overlapping genes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yingqin; Fu, Cong; Zhang, Da-Yong; Lin, Kui

    2007-07-25

    Overlapping genes (OGs) in bacterial genomes are pairs of adjacent genes of which the coding sequences overlap partly or entirely. With the rapid accumulation of sequence data, many OGs in bacterial genomes have now been identified. Indeed, these might prove a consistent feature across all microbial genomes. Our previous work suggests that OGs can be considered as robust markers at the whole genome level for the construction of phylogenies. An online, interactive web server for inferring phylogenies is needed for biologists to analyze phylogenetic relationships among a set of bacterial genomes of interest. BPhyOG is an online interactive server for reconstructing the phylogenies of completely sequenced bacterial genomes on the basis of their shared overlapping genes. It provides two tree-reconstruction methods: Neighbor Joining (NJ) and Unweighted Pair-Group Method using Arithmetic averages (UPGMA). Users can apply the desired method to generate phylogenetic trees, which are based on an evolutionary distance matrix for the selected genomes. The distance between two genomes is defined by the normalized number of their shared OG pairs. BPhyOG also allows users to browse the OGs that were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships. It provides detailed annotation for each OG pair and the features of the component genes through hyperlinks. Users can also retrieve each of the homologous OG pairs that have been determined among 177 genomes. It is a useful tool for analyzing the tree of life and overlapping genes from a genomic standpoint. BPhyOG is a useful interactive web server for genome-wide inference of any potential evolutionary relationship among the genomes selected by users. It currently includes 177 completely sequenced bacterial genomes containing 79,855 OG pairs, the annotation and homologous OG pairs of which are integrated comprehensively. The reliability of phylogenies complemented by annotations make BPhyOG a powerful web server for genomic and genetic

  17. Telomerase inhibition by sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol from edible purple laver (Porphyra yezoensis).

    PubMed

    Eitsuka, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Igarashi, Miki; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2004-08-20

    As high telomerase activity is detected in most cancer cells, telomerase represents a promising cancer therapeutic target. We investigated the inhibitory effect of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), distributed in plants and seaweeds, on human telomerase in a cell-free system. SQDG inhibited telomerase activity dose-dependently with 50% inhibition at 22 microM, whereas monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol did not, even at concentrations of 100 microM. Moreover, we confirmed that eicosapentaenoic acid, one of the fatty acid components of SQDG, is a potent telomerase inhibitor with 50% inhibition at 19 microM. We speculate that the structure of the sulfate group and fatty acid of SQDG is important for the potent telomerase-inhibitory effect. Our findings suggest that SQDG has potential use as a therapeutic dietary compound for telomerase inhibition.

  18. A new look at methane and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Colorado Denver-Julesburg Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétron, Gabrielle; Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Benjamin R.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Frost, Gregory J.; Trainer, Michael; Tans, Pieter; Andrews, Arlyn; Kofler, Jonathan; Helmig, Detlev; Guenther, Douglas; Dlugokencky, Ed; Lang, Patricia; Newberger, Tim; Wolter, Sonja; Hall, Bradley; Novelli, Paul; Brewer, Alan; Conley, Stephen; Hardesty, Mike; Banta, Robert; White, Allen; Noone, David; Wolfe, Dan; Schnell, Russ

    2014-06-01

    Emissions of methane (CH4) from oil and natural gas (O&G) operations in the most densely drilled area of the Denver-Julesburg Basin in Weld County located in northeastern Colorado are estimated for 2 days in May 2012 using aircraft-based CH4 observations and planetary boundary layer height and ground-based wind profile measurements. Total top-down CH4 emission estimates are 25.8 ± 8.4 and 26.2 ± 10.7 t CH4/h for the 29 and 31 May flights, respectively. Using inventory data, we estimate the total emissions of CH4 from non-O&G gas-related sources at 7.1 ± 1.7 and 6.3 ± 1.0 t CH4/h for these 2 days. The difference in emissions is attributed to O&G sources in the study region, and their total emission is on average 19.3 ± 6.9 t/h, close to 3 times higher than an hourly emission estimate based on Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program data for 2012. We derive top-down emissions estimates for propane, n-butane, i-pentane, n-pentane, and benzene from our total top-down CH4 emission estimate and the relative hydrocarbon abundances in aircraft-based discrete air samples. Emissions for these five nonmethane hydrocarbons alone total 25.4 ± 8.2 t/h. Assuming that these emissions are solely originating from O&G-related activities in the study region, our results show that the state inventory for total volatile organic compounds emitted by O&G activities is at least a factor of 2 too low for May 2012. Our top-down emission estimate of benzene emissions from O&G operations is 173 ± 64 kg/h, or 7 times larger than in the state inventory.

  19. Analysis of a long-term measurement of air pollutants (2007-2011) in North China Plain (NCP); Impact of emission reduction during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruiguang; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Yuesi; Tie, Xuexi

    2016-09-01

    Five years measurements were used to evaluate the effect of emission controls on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings in the NCP during 2008 Olympic Games (2008OG). The major challenge of this study was to filter out the effect of variability of meteorological conditions, when compared the air pollutants during the game to non-game period. We used four-year (2007, 2009-2011) average as the Non-2008OG to smooth the temporal variability caused by meteorological parameters. To study the spatial variability and regional transport, 6 sites (urban, rural, a mega city, a heavy industrial city, and a remote site) were selected. The result showed that the annually meteorological variability was significantly reduced. Such as, in BJ the differences between 2008OG and 5-years averaged values were 2.7% for relative humidity and 0.6% for wind speed. As a result, the anomaly of air pollutants between 2008OG and Non-2008OG can largely attribute to the emission control. The comparison showed that the major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO, NOx) at the 6 sites in 2008OG were consistently lowered. For example, PM2.5 in BJ decreased from 75 to 45 μg/m(3) (40% reduction). However, the emission controls had minor effect on O3 concentrations (1% reduction). In contrast, the O3 precursor (NOx) reduced from 19.7 to 13.2 ppb (33% reduction). The in-sensitivity between NOx and O3 suggested that the O3 formation was under VOCs control condition in NCP, showing that strong VOC emission control is needed in order to significantly reduce O3 concentration in the region.

  20. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. The topic areas covered in this volume include gamma ray bursts, gamma rays from point sources, and diffuse gamma ray emission.

  1. What Engages Students in MetaL-FrOG? A Triarchy Perspective on Meta-Cognitive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fa, Ng Sen; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the central ideas of a grounded theory research by the name of Triarchy Perspective on Metacognitive Learning in Free Online Groups, or "TriP on MetaL-FrOG" in short. The research setting was online learning community on the platform of Free Online Group web (FrOG) intended for post-graduate students. The research…

  2. Emissions Inventories

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides the details of emissions data processing done in support of the Environmental Protection Agency’s rulemaking effort for the Federal Transport Rule proposal (now known as the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule).

  3. Location Capability and Site Characterization Installing a Borehole VBB Seismometer: the OGS Experience in Ferrara (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Barnaba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 19 very sensitive broad band and 17 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS CRS data centre in Udine. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara and to the deployment of a temporary seismographic network consisting of eight portable seismological stations, to record the local earthquakes that occurred during the seismic sequence. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate seismic site responses in the area. We will introduce details of the Ferrara VBB borehole station and the OGS temporary seismographic network configuration and installation. We will then illustrate the location capability performances, and finally we will shortly describe seismic site characterization with surface/borehole comparisons in terms of seismic noise, site amplification and resonance frequencies.

  4. Modeling to Evaluate Contribution of Oil and Gas Emissions to Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Tammy M; Shepherd, Donald; Stacy, Andrea; Barna, Michael G; Schichtel, Bret A

    2017-04-01

    Oil and gas production in the Western United States has increased considerably over the past 10 years. While many of the still limited oil and gas impact assessments have focused on potential human health impacts, the typically remote locations of production in the Intermountain West suggests that the impacts of oil and gas production on national parks and wilderness areas (Class I and II areas) could also be important. To evaluate this, we utilize the Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) with a year-long modeling episode representing the best available representation of 2011 meteorology and emissions for the Western United States. The model inputs for the 2011 episodes were generated as part of the Three State Air Quality Study (3SAQS). The study includes a detailed assessment of oil and gas (O&G) emissions in Western States. The year-long modeling episode was run both with and without emissions from O&G production. The difference between these two runs provides an estimate of the contribution of the O&G production to air quality. These data were used to assess the contribution of O&G to the 8 hour average ozone concentrations, daily and annual fine particulate concentrations, annual nitrogen deposition totals and visibility in the modeling domain. We present the results for the Class I and II areas in the Western United States. Modeling results suggest that emissions from O&G activity are having a negative impact on air quality and ecosystem health in our National Parks and Class I areas. In this research, we use a modeling framework developed for oil and gas evaluation in the western United States to determine the modeled impacts of emissions associated with oil and gas production on air pollution metrics. We show that oil and gas production may have a significant negative impact on air quality and ecosystem health in some national parks and other Class I areas in the western United States. Our findings are of particular interest to federal

  5. From Black Power to Hip-Hop: Jeffrey O.G. Ogbar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin V.

    2005-01-01

    While history for most conjures up images of places and experiences far removed, for Dr. Jeffrey O.G. Ogbar, the field provides a "wonderful medium" to illuminate contemporary issues as well. Much of Ogbar's current research centers on events occurring in the latter half of the 20th century, such as the civil rights and Black power…

  6. Coleman works at the AR OGS Rack in the Node 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-08

    ISS026-E-025143 (8 Feb. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman, Expedition 26 flight engineer, works at the Atmosphere Revitalization / Oxygen Generation System (AR OGS) rack in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. Coleman collected recirculation loop samples for subsequent analysis for pH value.

  7. Coleman works at the AR OGS Rack in the Node 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-08

    ISS026-E-025142 (8 Feb. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman, Expedition 26 flight engineer, works at the Atmosphere Revitalization / Oxygen Generation System (AR OGS) rack in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. Coleman collected recirculation loop samples for subsequent analysis for pH value.

  8. OGS improvements in the year 2011 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, P. L.; Pesaresi, D.; Saraò, A.; Di Bartolomeo, P.; Durı, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 15 very sensitive broad band and 21 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. Since 2002 OGS-CRS is using the Antelope software suite on several workstations plus a SUN Cluster as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". SeisComP is also used as a real time data exchange server tool. In order to improve the seismological monitoring of the Northeastern Italy area, at OGS-CRS we tuned existing programs and created ad hoc ones like: a customized web server named PickServer to manually relocate earthquakes, a script for automatic moment tensor determination, scripts for web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveforms, state of health parameters and shaking maps, noise characterization by means of automatic spectra analysis, and last but not least scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting. The OGS-CRS Real Time Seismological website (RTS, http://rts.crs.inogs.it/) operative since several years was initially developed in the framework of the Italian DPC-INGV S3 Project: the RTS website shows classic earthquake locations

  9. Emission Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keliher, Peter N.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presented is a review of selected literature on emission spectrometry published during 1982 and 1983. The review is organized under these headings: books and reviews; spectral descriptions and classifications; instrumentation; standards, samples, nomenclature, calibration, calculations; excitation sources; selected applications; and meetings. (JN)

  10. Emissions Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohde, John

    2001-01-01

    The Emissions Reduction Project is working in close partnership with the U.S. aircraft engine manufacturers and academia to develop technologies to reduce NO, emissions by 70 percent over the LTO cycle from 1996 ICAO standards with no increase in other emission constituents (carbon monoxide, smoke, and unburned hydrocarbons) and with comparable NO, reduction during cruise operations. These technologies cannot impact the overall combustor and fuel delivery system operability, affordability or maintainability. These new combustion concepts and technologies will include lean burning combustors with higher operating gas temperatures and pressures, fuel staging, ceramic matrix composite material liners with reduced cooling air and possibly advanced controls. Improved physics-based analysis tool will be developed and validated and some longer term technologies that are more revolutionary will be assessed. These improved computational codes will provide improved design tools to increase design confidence and cut the development time to achieve major reductions in NO, emissions. Longer term, revolutionary technologies like active combustion controls, combustion from a large array of micro-injectors, electrostatic fuel injectors, fuel additives and others will be investigated and assessed through proof-of-concept testing.

  11. ogs6 - a new concept for porous-fractured media simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Dmitri; Bilke, Lars; Fischer, Thomas; Rink, Karsten; Wang, Wenqing; Watanabe, Norihiro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    OpenGeoSys (OGS) is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THMC) processes in porous and fractured media, continuously developed since the mid-eighties. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework for solving coupled multi-field problems. OGS is targeting mainly on applications in environmental geoscience, e.g. in the fields of contaminant hydrology, water resources management, waste deposits, or geothermal energy systems, but it has also been successfully applied to new topics in energy storage recently. OGS is actively participating several international benchmarking initiatives, e.g. DECOVALEX (waste management), CO2BENCH (CO2 storage and sequestration), SeSBENCH (reactive transport processes) and HM-Intercomp (coupled hydrosystems). Despite the broad applicability of OGS in geo-, hydro- and energy-sciences, several shortcomings became obvious concerning the computational efficiency as well as the code structure became too sophisticated for further efficient development. OGS-5 was designed for object-oriented FEM applications. However, in many multi-field problems a certain flexibility of tailored numerical schemes is essential. Therefore, a new concept was designed to overcome existing bottlenecks. The paradigms for ogs6 are: - Flexibility of numerical schemes (FEM#FVM#FDM), - Computational efficiency (PetaScale ready), - Developer- and user-friendly. ogs6 has a module-oriented architecture based on thematic libraries (e.g. MeshLib, NumLib) on the large scale and uses object-oriented approach for the small scale interfaces. Usage of a linear algebra library (Eigen3) for the mathematical operations together with the ISO C++11 standard increases the expressiveness of the code and makes it more developer-friendly. The new C++ standard also makes the template meta-programming technique code used for compile-time optimizations more compact. We have transitioned the main code development to

  12. Management of gestational trophoblastic disease: a survey of New Zealand O&G practice.

    PubMed

    Kladnitski, Maria; Kenwright, Diane

    2016-03-11

    The aim of the study was to obtain information on pathways for diagnosis and management of molar pregnancy/gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) across New Zealand, the protocols used, and, in addition, to consider the view of O&G Specialists on a national GTD reference centre. An electronic survey approved by the RANZCOG Continues Professional Development Committee was distributed amongst registered O&G Specialists currently working in New Zealand. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel 2011. Frequency distributions were used to determine the percentage of participants responding to the listed alternatives for each question. There were 234 potential responders, but only 68 complete questionnaires were received and available for analysis. The diagnosis of GTD requires histopathological analysis of pregnancy tissue, however only 79.7% of participants request this test routinely. Sixty-five percent of Fellows thought that a number of molar pregnancies can be missed with increasing proportion of medically-managed miscarriages, reliance on ultrasound and appearance of the tissue being contributing factors. Sixty-six percent of specialists were directly involved in the management of patients with GTD to various degrees. Follow-up responsibilities were divided between designated O&G specialists (52.3%), specialised gynaecology clinics (29.2%), acute assessment units (13.8%), nurse specialists (12%), O&G registrars (10.8%), GPs (6.2%), and others (6.2%). NZGCG guidelines were used by the majority of responders (54.8%), followed by local (29%) and RCOG (27.4%) guidelines. Seventy-two percent of specialists felt that some form of centralisation in the management of GTD is needed. In spite of the low response rate, our research demonstrates existing practice heterogeneity at every level of care. It also confirms that there is a desire for some form of centralisation in diagnosis and management of GTD, and a definite need for data collection in the form of a national

  13. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Durì, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of the Ferrara VBB

  14. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Shin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung; Oh, Boung-Jun; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  15. Postoperative Quality of Life after Total Gastrectomy Compared with Partial Gastrectomy: Longitudinal Evaluation by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-OG25 and STO22.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Choi, Yun Suk; Kim, Tae Han; Huh, Yeon-Ju; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Kong, Seong-Ho; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-12-01

    The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire-OG25 was developed to evaluate the quality of life in patients with stomach and esophageal cancer. The following are included in the OG25 but not in the STO22: odynophagia, choked when swallowing, weight loss, trouble eating with others, trouble swallowing saliva, trouble talking, and trouble with coughing. In this study, we evaluated the quality of life of gastrectomized patients using both, the OG25 and the STO22. A total of 138 patients with partial gastrectomy (PG) (distal gastrectomy=91; pylorus-preserving gastrectomy= 47) and 44 patients with total gastrectomy (TG) were prospectively evaluated. Body weight and scores from the OG25 and STO22 were evaluated preoperatively and at 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. Patients with TG had significant weight loss compared to patients with PG. At 3 months, TG was associated with worse scores for dysphagia, eating, odynophagia, trouble eating with others, trouble with taste, and weight loss on the OG25. TG was also associated with dysphagia, eating restrictions, and anxiety on the STO22. The OG25 helped differentiate between the groups with respect to weight loss, odynophagia, choked when swallowing, and trouble eating with others. The OG25 scores changed over time and were significantly different. The OG25 is a more sensitive and useful scale than the STO22 for evaluating the quality of life of gastrectomized patients, especially those with total gastrectomy.

  16. Og4C3 circulating antigen: a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, N L; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-07-01

    Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen was detected in the sera of 94.5% (259/274) of microfilaremic patients, 32% (239/751) of persons with presumption of filariasis, and 23% (11/48) of chronic filariasis patients. The antigen level was correlated with the microfilariae (Mf) density and patient age (P < .01). It remained stable in patients treated with microfilaricidal drugs. Og4C3 antigen, undetectable in Mf culture media, was demonstrated to be a rare somatic Mf antigen. It appears to be an excreted or secreted antigen from adult filaria. It could be used as a marker of infection and an indicator of adult worm burden.

  17. U.S. CH4 emissions from oil and gas production: Have recent large increases been detected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhwiler, L. M.; Basu, S.; Bergamaschi, P.; Bousquet, P.; Dlugokencky, E.; Houweling, S.; Ishizawa, M.; Kim, H.-S.; Locatelli, R.; Maksyutov, S.; Montzka, S.; Pandey, S.; Patra, P. K.; Petron, G.; Saunois, M.; Sweeney, C.; Schwietzke, S.; Tans, P.; Weatherhead, E. C.

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have proposed significant increases in CH4 emissions possibly from oil and gas (O&G) production, especially for the U.S. where O&G production has reached historically high levels over the past decade. In this study, we show that an ensemble of time-dependent atmospheric inversions constrained by calibrated atmospheric observations of surface CH4 mole fraction, with some including space-based retrievals of column average CH4 mole fractions, suggests that North American CH4 emissions have been flat over years spanning 2000 through 2012. Estimates of emission trends using zonal gradients of column average CH4 calculated relative to an upstream background are not easy to make due to atmospheric variability, relative insensitivity of column average CH4 to surface emissions at regional scales, and fast zonal synoptic transport. In addition, any trends in continental enhancements of column average CH4 are sensitive to how the upstream background is chosen, and model simulations imply that short-term (4 years or less) trends in column average CH4 horizontal gradients of up to 1.5 ppb/yr can occur just from interannual transport variability acting on a strong latitudinal CH4 gradient. Finally, trends in spatial gradients calculated from space-based column average CH4 can be significantly biased (>2-3 ppb/yr) due to the nonuniform and seasonally varying temporal coverage of satellite retrievals.

  18. Screening Analogs of β-OG Pocket Binder as Fusion Inhibitor of Dengue Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Tambunan, Usman SF; Zahroh, Hilyatuz; Parikesit, Arli A; Idrus, Syarifuddin; Kerami, Djati

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) and transmitted between human hosts by mosquitoes. Recently, Indonesia was listed as a country with the highest cases of dengue by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The current treatment for dengue disease is supportive therapy; there is no antiviral drug available in the market against dengue. Therefore, a research on antiviral drug against dengue is very important, especially to prevent outbreak explosion. In this research, the development of dengue antiviral is performed through the inhibition of n-octyl-β-D-glucoside (β-OG) binding pocket on envelope protein of DENV by using analogs of β-OG pocket binder. There are 828 compounds used in this study, and all of them were screened based on the analysis of molecular docking, pharmacological character prediction of the compounds, and molecular dynamics simulation. The result of these analyses revealed that the compound that can be used as an antiviral candidate against DENV is 5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-[2-(p-tolyl) benzotriazol-5-yl]furan-2-carboxamide. PMID:26617459

  19. Probing Millisecond Pulsar Emission Geometry Using Light Curves From the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venter, Christo; Harding, Alice; Guillemot, L.

    2009-01-01

    An interesting new high-energy pulsar sub-population is emerging following early discoveries of gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We present results from 3D emission modeling, including the Special Relativistic effects of aberration and time-of-flight delays and also rotational sweepback of 13-field lines, in the geometric context of polar cap (PC), slot gap (SG), outer gap (OG), and two-pole caustic (TPC) pulsar models. In contrast to the general belief that these very old, rapidly-rotating neutron stars (NSs) should have largely pair-starved magnetospheres due to the absence of significant pair production, we find that most of the light curves are best fit by SG and OG models, which indicates the presence of narrow accelerating gaps limited by robust pair production -- even in these pulsars with very low spin-down luminosities. The gamma-ray pulse shapes and relative phase lags with respect to the radio pulses point to high-altitude emission being dominant for all geometries. We also find exclusive differentiation of the current gamma-ray MSP population into two MSP sub-classes: light curve shapes and lags across wavebands impose either pair-starved PC (PSPC) or SG / OG-type geometries. In the first case, the radio pulse has a small lag with respect to the single gamma-ray pulse, while the (first) gamma-ray peak usually trails the radio by a large phase offset in the latter case. Finally, we find that the flux correction factor as a function of magnetic inclination and observer angles is typically of order unity for all models. Our calculation of light curves and flux correction factor f(_, _, P) for the case of MSPs is therefore complementary to the "ATLAS paper" of Watters et al. for younger pulsars.

  20. Probing Millisecond Pulsar Emission Geometry Using Light Curves From the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venter, Christo; Harding, Alice; Guillemot, L.

    2009-01-01

    An interesting new high-energy pulsar sub-population is emerging following early discoveries of gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We present results from 3D emission modeling, including the Special Relativistic effects of aberration and time-of-flight delays and also rotational sweepback of 13-field lines, in the geometric context of polar cap (PC), slot gap (SG), outer gap (OG), and two-pole caustic (TPC) pulsar models. In contrast to the general belief that these very old, rapidly-rotating neutron stars (NSs) should have largely pair-starved magnetospheres due to the absence of significant pair production, we find that most of the light curves are best fit by SG and OG models, which indicates the presence of narrow accelerating gaps limited by robust pair production -- even in these pulsars with very low spin-down luminosities. The gamma-ray pulse shapes and relative phase lags with respect to the radio pulses point to high-altitude emission being dominant for all geometries. We also find exclusive differentiation of the current gamma-ray MSP population into two MSP sub-classes: light curve shapes and lags across wavebands impose either pair-starved PC (PSPC) or SG / OG-type geometries. In the first case, the radio pulse has a small lag with respect to the single gamma-ray pulse, while the (first) gamma-ray peak usually trails the radio by a large phase offset in the latter case. Finally, we find that the flux correction factor as a function of magnetic inclination and observer angles is typically of order unity for all models. Our calculation of light curves and flux correction factor f(_, _, P) for the case of MSPs is therefore complementary to the "ATLAS paper" of Watters et al. for younger pulsars.

  1. Students' Decision Steps in Meta-Cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG): A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen Fa, Kinsley Ng; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2011-01-01

    What prompts the students to respond in online dialogic discussion? Why some students chose to fall out? This case study through the lens of phenomenography observation attempts to explain the five decision steps of students to respond in Meta-cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG) discussion. It presents a part of a research…

  2. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Romanelli, M.; Barnaba, C.; Bragato, P. L.; Durì, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of North-eastern Italy. The south-western edge of the OGS seismic network (Fig. 1) stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML = 5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on 20 May 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of

  3. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Airborne Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, T.; Beer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an instrument being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System Chemistry Platform. TES will measure the distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) is an aircraft precursor to TES. Applicable descriptions are given of instrument design, technology challenges, implementation and operations for both.

  4. Reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Shao, H.; Wang, W.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  5. Reactive transport modeling in the subsurface environment with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenkui; Beyer, Christof; Fleckenstein, Jan; Jang, Eunseon; Kalbacher, Thomas; Naumov, Dimitri; Shao, Haibing; Wang, Wenqing; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  6. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near sour...

  7. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near sour...

  8. Biodiesel Emissions Analysis Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Using existing data, the EPA's biodiesel emissions analysis program sought to quantify the air pollution emission effects of biodiesel for diesel engines that have not been specifically modified to operate on biodiesel.

  9. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  10. What Is Emissions Trading?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  11. Control of Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, Landy (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx emissions, as well as SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions, from combustion flue gas streams.

  12. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  13. Emissions Trading Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about emissions trading programs, also known as cap and trade programs, which are market-based policy tools for protecting human health and the environment by controlling emissions from a group of sources.

  14. Emission scenarios: Explaining differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Gokul; Edmonds, James

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emission scenarios rely on a number of assumptions about how societies will develop in the future, creating uncertainty in projections. Now, research reveals the sensitivity of emission estimates to some of these assumptions.

  15. Acoustic emission frequency discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, Frank E. (Inventor); Graham, Lloyd J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In acoustic emission nondestructive testing, broadband frequency noise is distinguished from narrow banded acoustic emission signals, since the latter are valid events indicative of structural flaws in the material being examined. This is accomplished by separating out those signals which contain frequency components both within and beyond (either above or below) the range of valid acoustic emission events. Application to acoustic emission monitoring during nondestructive bond verification and proof loading of undensified tiles on the Space Shuttle Orbiter is considered.

  16. Rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa OG1 using waste frying oil and ram horn peptone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdal, Murat; Gürkök, Sümeyra; Özdal, Özlem Gür; Kurbanoǧlu, Esabi Başaran

    2017-04-01

    Agro-industrial by-products are being explored as alternative low-cost nutrients for various bioprocesses. In this work, the applicability of ram horn peptone (RHP) and waste frying oil were investigated for rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the sole nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. The rhamnolipid yield was considerably influenced by the type of organic nitrogen source. Among the tested organic nitrogen sources, RHP proved to be the best nitrogen source for both biomass and rhamnolipid production. RHP was also tested at different concentrations and 10 g/L RHP resulted in the greatest yield of rhamnolipid (12.1 g/L) in the presence of waste frying oil as the sole carbon source. These results revealed that rhamnolipid could be produced efficiently and cost effectively by P. aeruginosa OG1 using RHP and waste frying oil.

  17. RsaOG, a new staphylococcal family of highly transcribed non-coding RNA.

    PubMed

    Marchais, Antonin; Bohn, Chantal; Bouloc, Philippe; Gautheret, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The expression of trans-acting small RNAs in firmicutes has been poorly documented to date. This gap is being filled quickly in the genus Staphylococcus, which is both a model firmicute and an important human pathogen. Here we analyze RsaOG, a novel small RNA family specific to Staphylococcus and highly transcribed. This well conserved element, first discovered in a computational screen, was precisely mapped in the genome by RACE mapping and the identification of a putative transcriptional promoter. The proposed secondary structure presents two highly conserved unpaired sequences, part of which can form a pseudoknot. We suggest a possible involvement of the remaining conserved single stranded region in trans regulatory interactions.

  18. Galactic Diffuse Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Digel, Seth W.; /SLAC

    2007-10-25

    Interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar nucleons and photons make the Milky Way a bright, diffuse source of high-energy {gamma}-rays. Observationally, the results from EGRET, COMPTEL, and OSSE have now been extended to higher energies by ground-based experiments, with detections of diffuse emission in the Galactic center reported by H.E.S.S. in the range above 100 GeV and of diffuse emission in Cygnus by MILAGRO in the TeV range. In the range above 100 keV, INTEGRAL SPI has found that diffuse emission remains after point sources are accounted for. I will summarize current knowledge of diffuse {gamma}-ray emission from the Milky Way and review some open issues related to the diffuse emission -- some old, like the distribution of cosmic-ray sources and the origin of the 'excess' of GeV emission observed by EGRET, and some recently recognized, like the amount and distribution of molecular hydrogen not traced by CO emission -- and anticipate some of the advances that will be possible with the Large Area Telescope on GLAST. We plan to develop an accurate physical model for the diffuse emission, which will be useful for detecting and accurately characterizing emission from Galactic point sources as well as any Galactic diffuse emission from exotic processes, and for studying the unresolved extragalactic emission.

  19. Air Emissions Factors and Quantification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions factors are used in developing air emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies. This area provides technical information on and support for the use of emissions factors.

  20. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature

  1. PET2OGS: Algorithms to link the static model of Petrel with the dynamic model of OpenGeoSys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.-H.; Shinn, Y. J.; Park, Y.-C.; Huh, D.-G.; Lee, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    A set of three algorithms named PET2OGS is developed to integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys). PET2OGS consists of three sub-algorithms that convert finite difference methods (FDMs) grids to finite element methods (FEMs) grids. The algorithms and the workflow of the integration procedures are described in detail. After the proposed algorithms are tested on a variety of grids both in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, the integrated platform of the static and dynamic models is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. A successful demonstration of the proposed algorithms proved a robust integration of the platform. With some minor modifications of the algorithms in the part of input and output, the proposed algorithms can be extended to integrate different combinations of FDM-based static models and FEM-based dynamic models beyond the example combination in the paper.

  2. National Emission Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Emission Inventory contains measured, modeled, and estimated data for emissions of all known source categories in the US (stationary sources, fires, light duty vehicles and trucks, Heavy duty engines, Motorcycles, ATVs, non-road engines and equipment, locomotives, aircraft, and marine vessels). The statutory authority leading to the collection of this information comes from Title II, Part A of the Clean Air Act.Substance classes include CAPs, HAPs, and some GHG data.Data included in the National Emission Inventory is collected annually, Air Pollutant Trends Data is made available annually, and an National Emissions Inventory of air emissions of both Criteria and Hazardous air pollutants from all air emissions sources is prepared every three years.

  3. High Altitude Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics Project is presented. The overview includes project objectives, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Technical challenges include: 1) Environmental impact of supersonic cruise emissions is greater due to higher flight altitudes which makes emissions reduction increasingly important. 2) Accurate prediction tools to enable combustor designs that reduce emissions at supersonic cruise are needed as well as intelligent systems to minimize emissions. 3) Combustor operating conditions at supersonic cruise are different than at subsonic cruise since inlet fuel and air temperatures are considerably increased.

  4. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional properties of the product were determined. The growth of Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 was supported by the cereal-mix containing 1% salt and 0.2% red chili powder to counts of between 7.46 and 8.22 Log10 cfu/mL within 24 h. Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 increased the viscosity of cereal-mix with the highest inoculum size (1.84x105cfu/ml) giving the highest viscosity of 1793.6 mPa.S. An inoculum size of 1.98 × 10(4) cfu/mL gave the most acceptable product based on the sensory evaluation by the panelist. Forty volatile compounds were identified in the fermented product, while acids (32.21%) and esters (32.37%) accounted for the largest proportions. The cereal-based fermented product scavenged DPPH from 200 μmol/L methanolic solution by 55.71%. Probiotic yeast improved the sensory and some functional properties of cereal-based substrate during fermentation. This is one of the first reports on the volatile composition of cereal-based functional food produced with probiotic yeast.

  5. Global Seabird Ammonia Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F. H.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Trathan, P.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Seabird colonies represent a major source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote coastal and marine systems in temperate, tropical and polar regions. Previous studies have shown that NH3 emissions from Scottish seabird colonies were substantial - of similar magnitude to the most intensive agricultural point source emissions. The UK data were used to model global seabird NH3 emissions and suggested that penguins are a major source of emissions on and around the Antarctic continent. The largest seabird colonies are in the order of millions of seabirds. Due to the isolation of these colonies from anthropogenic nitrogen sources, they may play a major role in the nitrogen cycle within these ecosystems. A global seabird database was constructed and used in conjunction with a species-specific seabird bioenergetics model to map the locations of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies. The accuracy of the modelled emissions was validated with field data of NH3 emissions measured at key seabird colonies in different climatic regions of the world: temperate (Isle of May, Scotland), tropical (Ascension Island) and polar (Signy Island, South Georgia). The field data indicated good agreement between modelled and measured NH3 emissions. The measured NH3 emissions also showed the variability of emission with climate. Climate dependence of seabird NH3 emissions may have further implications under a changing global climate. Seabird colonies represent NH3 emission ‘hotspots’, often far from anthropogenic sources, and are likely to be the major source of nitrogen input to these remote coastal ecosystems. The direct manuring by seabirds at colony locations may strongly influence species richness and biodiversity. The subsequent volatilisation and deposition of NH3 increases the spatial extent of seabird influence on nitrogen cycling in their local ecosystem. As many seabird populations are fluctuating due to changing food supply, climate change or anthropogenic pressures, these factors

  6. Toluene emissions from plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiden, A. C.; Kobel, K.; Komenda, M.; Koppmann, R.; Shao, M.; Wildt, J.

    The emission of toluene from different plants was observed in continuously stirred tank reactors and in field measurements. For plants growing without stress, emission rates were low and ranged from the detection limit up to 2·10-16 mol·cm-2·s-1. Under conditions of stress, the emission rates exceeded 10-14 mol·cm-2·s-1. Exposure of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Gigantheus) to 13CO2 resulted in 13C-labeling of the emitted toluene on a time scale of hours. Although no biochemical pathway for the production of toluene is known, these results indicate that toluene is synthesized by the plants. The emission rates of toluene from sunflower are dependent on nutrient supply and wounding. Since α-pinene emission rates are also influenced by these factors, toluene and α-pinene emissions show a high correlation. During pathogen attack on Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) significant toluene emissions were observed. In this case emissions of toluene and α-pinene also show a good correlation. Toluene emissions were also found in field experiments with pines using branch enclosures.

  7. Managing Refrigerant Emissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion by reducing emissions of refrigerants from stationary refrigeration and air conditioning systems and motor vehicle air conditioning systems.

  8. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  9. An emissions mission

    SciTech Connect

    Van Slyke, S. ); Card, T. ); Rumpf, M. ); Ellington, L. )

    1993-10-01

    Air quality permit requirements for a Seattle, Washington waste water treatment plant were reviewed for both existing and future plant emissions when the plant was modified to include secondary treatment. While criteria pollutant emissions were an important consideration, volatile organic compound emissions were a crucial factor in the permit approval process. The difference between potential and existing emissions is presented, and specific alternatives for any increases are required. Chloroform control measures were required by the regulators, and a list of additional issues which were reconciled is presented. 1 tab.

  10. Seismicity of North East Italy and data quality of the broadband network managed by OGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranaba, C.; Saraò, A.; Plasencia Linares, M.

    2012-04-01

    Seismicity of North-East Italy demarcates the boundary between the Adria microplate and the Eurasian plate. It is characterized by a complex tectonic pattern, resulting from the superposition of several Cenozoic-age tectonic phases. The actual state of stress is a consequence of the Adria microplates progressive motion and its anti-clockwise rotation with respect to the Eurasian plate. The seismotectonic characteristics of the region are not homogeneous, and the contemporary seismic deformation pattern is quite complex, being the results of the superimposition of several distinct strain fields related to different Alpine phases. Although this area is one of the most tectonically active in the Alpine Chain, it is characterized by moderate seismicity mainly concentrated in the piedmont belt in the central Friuli, with extension in Veneto to the west and in Slovenia. The focal mechanisms are mainly of thrust type but different nodal plane orientations are found related to the complexity of the region. In 1977, after the 1976 Ms=6.5 Friuli earthquake an integrated seismic network was installed to monitor the regional seismicity of NE Italy and surroundings as well as to provide high quality data for research projects in regional and global broadband seismology. The network currently comprises 21 short period stations and 15 stations equipped with broadband and accelerometer sensors all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS seismological data center in Udine. The data quality is routinely investigated on the broadband seismic network through standard seismological tools using Power Spectral Densities for frequencies ranging from 0.01 to 16 Hz and a study on the seismic background noise spectra for the Northeastern Italy (NI) stations has been recently carried out in order to quantify the quality of stations from 0.01 to 16 Hz. Our analysis indicates in general the goodness and consistency of our installations that have been improved in the years. Since

  11. Kinetics of microfilaraemia & antigenaemia status by Og(4)C(3) ELISA in bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Malla, Nancy; Elango, A; Pani, S P; Mahajan, R C

    2007-12-01

    Bancroftian filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is endemic in many parts of India. In recent years diagnosis of W. bancrofti infection has been revolutionized with the availability of filarial antigen tests, which is important in monitoring success of chemotherapy. We carried out this study to measure microfilariaemia and antigenemia levels in bancroftian microfilariae (mf) carriers at 1 yr follow up after chemotherapy, in lymphoedema patients and in endemic controls from a filariasis endemic area in Tamil Nadu State using Og(4)C(3) ELISA to identify the best marker to assess success of chemotherapy. Serum samples were collected from 30 bancroftian microfilaremic (Mf) carriers pre-treatment and at sequential intervals (7,30,60,90,180 and 365 days) following treatment with diethylcarbamazine (DEC:6mg/kg body weight, single dose), 30 lymphoedema patients (without treatment) at periodic intervals, and 68 control subjects (24 endemic normal subjects in filariasis endemic area in Tamil Nadu State, 24 non-endemic normal subjects residing in Chandigarh, India; 5 brugian filariasis, 5 endemic control subject in brugian filariasis endemic area and 10 other disease controls). The circulating antigen of W. bancrofti was measured quantitatively using Og(4)C(3) ELISA kit. In Mf carriers, there was no significant difference in microfilariae count in pre- and post-treatment (PT) samples till day 30 while significant differences were observed in pre- and sequentially collected post-treatment (PT) samples day 60 to 180 (P<0.001), day 365 (P<0.005). However, there was no significant difference in antigenaemia levels between pre-treatment (day 0) and PT samples collected on day 7 onwards till day 365. Though of the 19 patients who could be followed up till 365 days PT, 4 (21%) were amicrofilaraemic, none became antigen negative. No significant difference was found in antigenaemia levels in sequentially collected samples from lymphoedema patients. Significant differences were

  12. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  13. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  14. Emission properties of explosive field emission cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava; Patel, Ankur; Menon, Rakhee; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D. P.; Patil, D. S.

    2011-10-15

    The research results of the explosive field emission cathode plasma expansion velocity and the initial emission area in the planar diode configuration with cathodes made of graphite, stainless steel, polymer velvet, carbon coated, and carbon fiber (needle type) cathodes are presented. The experiments have been performed at the electron accelerator LIA-200 (200 kV, 100 ns, and 4 kA). The diode voltage has been varied from 28-225 kV, whereas the current density has been varied from 86-928 A/cm{sup 2} with 100 ns pulse duration. The experimentally obtained electron beam diode perveance has been compared with the 1 dimensional Child-Langmuir- law. It was found that initially only a part of the cathode take part in the emission process. The plasma expands at 1.7-5.2 cm/{mu}s for 4 mm anode-cathode gap for various cathode materials. It was found that the plasma expansion velocity increases with the decrease in the cathode diameter. At the beginning of the accelerating pulse, the entire cathode area participates in the electron emission process only for the multiple needle type carbon fiber cathode.

  15. Emission Standards for Particulates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, George W.

    1974-01-01

    Promulgation of standards of performance under Section 111 and national emission standards for hazardous pollutants under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act is the responsibility of the Emission Standards and Engineering Division of the Environmental Protection Agency. The problems encountered and the bases used are examined. (Author/BT)

  16. Database of emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  17. Emission Standards for Particulates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, George W.

    1974-01-01

    Promulgation of standards of performance under Section 111 and national emission standards for hazardous pollutants under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act is the responsibility of the Emission Standards and Engineering Division of the Environmental Protection Agency. The problems encountered and the bases used are examined. (Author/BT)

  18. Diesel Emissions Quantifier (DEQ)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    .The Diesel Emissions Quantifier (Quantifier) is an interactive tool to estimate emission reductions and cost effectiveness. Publications EPA-420-F-13-008a (420f13008a), EPA-420-B-10-035 (420b10023), EPA-420-B-10-034 (420b10034)

  19. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  20. Graphene field emission devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S. Raghavan, S.; Duesberg, G. S.; Pratap, R.

    2014-09-08

    Graphene field emission devices are fabricated using a scalable process. The field enhancement factors, determined from the Fowler-Nordheim plots, are within few hundreds and match the theoretical predictions. The devices show high emission current density of ∼10 nA μm{sup −1} at modest voltages of tens of volts. The emission is stable with time and repeatable over long term, whereas the noise in the emission current is comparable to that from individual carbon nanotubes emitting under similar conditions. We demonstrate a power law dependence of emission current on pressure which can be utilized for sensing. The excellent characteristics and relative ease of making the devices promise their great potential for sensing and electronic applications.

  1. Auto Emission Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The photos show automobile engines being tested for nitrous oxide emissions, as required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), at the Research and Engineering Division of Ford Motor Company, Dearborn. Michigan. NASA technical information helped the company develop a means of calculating emissions test results. Nitrous oxide emission readings vary with relative humidity in the test facility. EPA uses a standard humidity measurement, but the agency allows manufacturers to test under different humidity conditions, then apply a correction factor to adjust the results to the EPA standard. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center developed analytic equations which provide a simple, computer-programmable method of correcting for humidity variations. A Ford engineer read a NASA Tech Brief describing the Dryden development and requested more detailed information in the form of a technical support package, which NASA routinely supplies to industry on request. Ford's Emissions Test Laboratory now uses the Dryden equations for humidity-adjusted emissions data reported to EPA.

  2. Physical Characteristics of Asteroid-like Comet Nucleus C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Pravec, P.; French, L. M.; Farnham, T. L.; Gaffey, M. J.; Hardersen, P. S.; Kusnirak, P.; Sarounova, L.; Sheppard, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    For many years several investigators have suggested that some portion of the near-Earth asteroid population may actually be extinct cometary nuclei. Evidence used to support these hypotheses was based on: observations of asteroid orbits and associated meteor showers (e.g. 3200 Phaethon and the Geminid meteor shower); low activity of short period comet nuclei, which implied nonvolatile surface crusts (e.g. Neujmin 1, Arend-Rigaux); and detections of transient cometary activity in some near-Earth asteroids (e.g. 4015 Wilson-Harrington). Recent investigations have suggested that approximately 5-10% of the near- Earth asteroid population may be extinct comets. However if members of the near-Earth asteroid population are extinct cometary nuclei, then there should be some objects within this population that are near their final stages of evolution and so should demonstrate only low levels of activity. The recent detections of coma from near-Earth object 2001 OG108 have renewed interest in this possible comet-asteroid connection. This paper presents the first high quality ground-based near-infrared reflectance spectrum of a comet nucleus combined with detailed lightcurve and albedo measurements.

  3. Physical Characteristics of Asteroid-like Comet Nucleus C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Pravec, P.; French, L. M.; Farnham, T. L.; Gaffey, M. J.; Hardersen, P. S.; Kusnirak, P.; Sarounova, L.; Sheppard, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    For many years several investigators have suggested that some portion of the near-Earth asteroid population may actually be extinct cometary nuclei. Evidence used to support these hypotheses was based on: observations of asteroid orbits and associated meteor showers (e.g. 3200 Phaethon and the Geminid meteor shower); low activity of short period comet nuclei, which implied nonvolatile surface crusts (e.g. Neujmin 1, Arend-Rigaux); and detections of transient cometary activity in some near-Earth asteroids (e.g. 4015 Wilson-Harrington). Recent investigations have suggested that approximately 5-10% of the near- Earth asteroid population may be extinct comets. However if members of the near-Earth asteroid population are extinct cometary nuclei, then there should be some objects within this population that are near their final stages of evolution and so should demonstrate only low levels of activity. The recent detections of coma from near-Earth object 2001 OG108 have renewed interest in this possible comet-asteroid connection. This paper presents the first high quality ground-based near-infrared reflectance spectrum of a comet nucleus combined with detailed lightcurve and albedo measurements.

  4. Synchrotron emission in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafat, M. Z.; Melrose, D. B.

    2015-05-01

    A conventional astrophysical treatment of synchrotron emission is modified to include the refractive index of air, written as n = 1 + 1/(2γ 02), with γ0 ≫ 1. The angular distribution of emission by an electron with Lorentz factor γ is broadened, from a range of |θ - α| ≈ 1/γ in vacuo (θ = emission angle, α = pitch angle) to |θ - α| ≈ max{1/γ, 1/γ0} in air. The emission spectrum in air is almost unchanged from that in vacuo at sufficiently low frequencies and it is modified by extending to higher frequencies with increasing γ/γ0 < 1, and to arbitrarily high frequencies for γ/γ0 ≥ 1. We estimate the frequency at which this enhancement starts, and show that it decreases with increasing γ/γ0 > 1. We interpret the enhanced high-frequency emission as Cerenkov-like, and attribute it to the formation of caustic surfaces that sweep across the observer; we use a geometric model based on Huygens construction to support this interpretation. The geometric model predicts that the so-called Cerenkov ring present at high frequencies may be circular, elliptical, or crescent shaped. In the astrophysical treatment of synchrotron emission, the dependence on azimuthal angle is lost in the expression for emissivity. A motivation for this investigation is the application to extensive air showers, and for this purpose the loss of azimuthal dependence is a limitation. We comment on methods to overcome this limitation. We show that when an observer can see emission from inside the Cerenkov cone, emission from outside the Cerenkov cone, on either side of it, arrives simultaneously; there are three emission times for a given observation time.

  5. India Co2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    Is there a way to find a balance between improving living conditions for the people on the margins and also reducing emissions while limiting our negative impacts on the climate? This is a critical question today because there are many arguments between developed and developing countries about who is responsible for global warming. Developed countries believe that it is the poor countries because they are not educated enough to know about how they are affecting the climate. While the developing countries hold wealthy nations responsible because they are using the most resources. However it is important to acknowledge the fact that if there was no gap in between the developed and developing countries our emissions total would be much higher. This “gap” has been a natural controlling factor in climate change. This is why I wanted to see if I could plot what it would look like if a developing country such as India were to produce emissions that the US or Switzerland or Norway are producing as developed countries. India has a population total of 1.1 billion compared to the US with only 298 million, Switzerland with 7.5 million, and Norway with 4.6 million people. When the population is compared to the emissions output in metric tons, per capita, India produced the least emissions out of these countries, 1.4 tons per person while having the second largest population in the world, while the US produced 19 tons per capita, Switzerland produced 5.6 and Norway produced 8.7 tons per capita in 2006. The emissions rate is growing every year and increases widely and globally. If India was producing emissions that equal Norway, Switzerland and the US the total emissions it would be producing annually would be 9 billion for Norway, 6 billion for Switzerland and 20 billion emissions for the US, all in the year 2006 alone. This shows how the balance between countries with huge populations and very little emission output and average population and high emission out put has

  6. Locating the Vehicle Emissions Label

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA vehicle emissions label is entitled Vehicle Emission Control Information and contains the name and trademark of the manufacturer and an unconditional statement of compliance with EPA emission regulations.

  7. Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegetation and nitric oxide (NO) emission from soils. Recent BEIS development has been restricted to the SMOKE system

  8. Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Testing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory's primary responsibilities include: evaluating emission control technology; testing vehicles, engines and fuels; and determining compliance with federal emissions and fuel economy standards.

  9. Managing Air Quality - Emissions Inventories

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes the role of emission inventories in the air quality management process, a description of how emission inventories are developed, and where U.S. emission inventory information can be found.

  10. MOVES2014: Evaporative Emissions Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicle evaporative emissions are now modeled in EPA’s MOVES according to physical processes, permeation, tank vapor venting, liquid leaks, and refueling emissions. With this update, the following improvements are being incorporated into MOVES evaporative emissions methodology, a...

  11. MOVES2014: Evaporative Emissions Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicle evaporative emissions are now modeled in EPA’s MOVES according to physical processes, permeation, tank vapor venting, liquid leaks, and refueling emissions. With this update, the following improvements are being incorporated into MOVES evaporative emissions methodology, a...

  12. Emission Abatement System

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  13. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  14. Biogenic Emission Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biogenic emissions sources come from natural sources and need to accounted for in photochemical grid models. They are computed using a model which utilizes spatial information on vegetation and land use.

  15. Fugitive emissions monitoring trends

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.H.

    1997-02-01

    New Clean Air Act requirements are pushing facilities to reevaluate their monitoring programs. A description of the fugitive emission guidelines is included in this article, along with ideas about monitoring.

  16. ROANOKE WOODSTOVE EMISSION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a project, part of the Integrated Air Cancer Project Roanoke study, that characterizes and quantifies emissions generated by burning authentic Roanoke cordwood. The burning occurred in a controlled laboratory setting using two woodstoves, each operated at two...

  17. Air Emissions Inventories

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides access to emissions data, regulations and guidance, electronic system access, resources and tools to support trends analysis, regional, and local scale air quality modeling, regulatory impact assessments.

  18. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    DOEpatents

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  19. ROANOKE WOODSTOVE EMISSION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a project, part of the Integrated Air Cancer Project Roanoke study, that characterizes and quantifies emissions generated by burning authentic Roanoke cordwood. The burning occurred in a controlled laboratory setting using two woodstoves, each operated at two...

  20. IR Plasma Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    a current mailing list. Do not return copies of this report unless contractural obligations or notices on a specific document requires that it be...of the relatively cold 0? gas surrounding the fireball (i.e. 02(cold) + hv --> 20*) and the broad emission arises from shock heating of the emission...experimental data and calculations 14 and 0 data from other work35 ,36. Experimental spectra were acquired by Assous 33 in an inductively- heated

  1. Field emission electron source

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  2. Spatial analysis of undernutrition of children in léogâne Commune, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Spray, Andrea L; Eddy, Brittany; Hipp, James Aaron; Iannotti, Lora

    2013-12-01

    Over a fifth (21.9%) of children under 5 years of age in Haiti suffer from chronic malnutrition, 11.4% are underweight, and 5.1% suffer from acute malnutrition. Léogâne Commune has one of the highest under-five mortality rates in the country. Ordinary least squares regression conducted using data from household surveys to assess the impact of causal factors on child undernutrition may mask important local variations. To characterize the nutrition and health situation of children 6 to 35 months of age in LLogdne Commune, Haiti, using geographically weighted regression. In July 2008, the Children's Nutrition Program of Haiti conducted a representative cross-sectional household survey (N = 150) using a modified 33 x 6 alternative sampling design. Household questionnaires were administered to caregivers of children 6 to 35 months of age and anthropometric measurements were collected. Geographically weighted regression was employed to evaluate how undernutrition (weight-forage) and its household determinants vary across the region. Geographically weighted regression and ordinary least squares regression models were compared. The residuals of the ordinary least squares regression model were spatially autocorrelated (Moran's I = 0.08, z = 1.90, p = .058), indicating that undernutrition occurs in pockets rather than being evenly distributed throughout the population. There was no improvement in performance from the ordinary least squares regression model to the geographically weighted regression model. Despite some limitations, this study illustrates a promising approach for using geospatial data to improve the understanding of how a nutrition situation varies across a region and provide deeper insight into its underlying causes.

  3. Emission Characterization and Emission Inventories for the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission inventories are the foundation of cost-effective air quality management strategies. A goal of the emissions community is to develop the ultimate emission inventory which would include all significant emissions from all sources, time periods and areas, with quantified un...

  4. Emission Characterization and Emission Inventories for the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission inventories are the foundation of cost-effective air quality management strategies. A goal of the emissions community is to develop the ultimate emission inventory which would include all significant emissions from all sources, time periods and areas, with quantified un...

  5. 47 CFR 78.103 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emissions and emission limitations. 78.103 Section 78.103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.103 Emissions and emission limitations. (a)...

  6. 47 CFR 78.103 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emissions and emission limitations. 78.103 Section 78.103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.103 Emissions and emission limitations. (a)...

  7. 47 CFR 78.103 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emissions and emission limitations. 78.103 Section 78.103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.103 Emissions and emission limitations. (a)...

  8. 47 CFR 78.103 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emissions and emission limitations. 78.103 Section 78.103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.103 Emissions and emission limitations. (a)...

  9. Formaldehyde surface emission monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T.G.; Hawthorne, A.R.; Daffron, C.R.; Corey, M.D.; Reed, T.J.; Schrimsher, J.M.

    1984-03-01

    A passive surface emission monitor has been developed for nondestructive measurement of formaldehyde (CH/sub 2/O) emission rates from CH/sub 2/O resin-containing materials such as urea-formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) and pressed-wood products. Emitted CH/sub 2/O is sorbed by a planar distribution of 13X molecular sleve supported inside the monitor and analyzed by using a water-rinse desorption, colorimetric analysis procedure. A detection limit of similarly ordered 0.025 mg of CH/sub 2/O/(M/sup 2/ h) is achieved with a 20.3 cm diameter monitor and a 2-h collection period. Measurements of CH/sub 2/O emission rates from pressed-wood products and UFFI encased in simulated wall panels show a strong correlation with reference chamber techniques. The surface monitor has been used to measure the CH/sub 2/O emission rate from interior walls and floors in one UFFI and two non-UFFI homes. By application of a simple single compartment model to predict indoor CH/sub 2/O concentrations from in situ CH/sub 2/O emission rate and tracer gas infiltration rate measurements, a good correlation between the predicted and measured CH/sub 2/O concentrations was achieved. 22 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Magnesium, Potassium and Phosphorus in Available Forms in Luvisols in the Vicinity of Głogów Copper Smelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, H.; Dąbkowska-Naskręt, H.; Różański, S.

    2016-02-01

    Region near Głogów is characterized as industrial—agricultural area, intensively used. Presented study was undertaken to estimate the impact of agricultural land use and the vicinity of Głogów copper smelter on the contents of available forms of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium in selected profiles of Luvisols. The following analysis were performed: soil particle-size distribution, pH, organic carbon contents, CaCO3 contents. The contents of available forms of phosphorus and potassium were determined by Egner- Riehm method and that of magnesium using Schachtschabel's method. The results of the study showed that the contents of available P is medium (III class of abundance), very low in K (V class) and for available Mg very low (V class) to medium for surface horizons and very high (I class of abundance) in other soil horizons. The soils, in spite of the elevated copper content in humus horizons, according to IUNG, were classified as uncontaminated soils, therefore, can be used in plant production for all types of crops.

  11. Emissions from combustion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports that environmental pollution from combustion processes is an important area of concern. Attention has recently been focused on the emissions from municipal wate incineration, although the issue is much more complex. Other sources such as rotary kilns, steel mills, pulp and paper plants, and natural sources must also be assessed. Great concern over the emission of trace levels of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans has been expressed by some, but other pollutants such as acid rain precursors, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and others should not be ignored. Solutions to the environmental problems, caused by emissions from combustion processes will be based, in part, on the science and technology that is described here.

  12. Sins of emission

    SciTech Connect

    Keough, J.

    1986-01-01

    Air pollution from the burning of wood fuels has become a concern to the wood stove industry and to the EPA. Wood smoke contains a mixture of carbon monoxide, volatile organic gases, and polycyclic organic matter which reduces the air quality and exposes increasing numbers of residential neighborhoods to heavy levels of these hazardous pollutants. Two states and numerous municipalities have developed emission standards for new stoves or have banned wood-burning during certain weather conditions. The EPA plans to propose national emission standards during January 1987 and promulgate final rules by January 1988. Catalytic converters for wood stoves have been tested with good results: reduction of particulate emissions by as much as 86%; increase in thermal efficiency of 20 to 30%; and elimination of 85 to 90% of the creosote accumulation in the flue.

  13. Oceanic emissions of ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulot, F.; Jacob, D. J.; Johnson, M.; Bell, T. G.; Stock, C. A.; Doney, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Half of natural ammonia (NH3) emissions is thought to originate from the oceans. Such large emissions have implications for the global budget of N and the acidity of marine aerosols. We develop two new inventories of oceanic NH3 emissions based on simulated monthly NH3 seawater concentrations from the GFDL-COBALT and the CESM-BEC ocean models. These new inventories explicitly account for the effect of temperature on the water-atmosphere exchange of NH3. We evaluate these inventory using cruise observations of gas-phase ammonia (AMT cruises) and ammonium (NOAA cruises) as well as seawater measurement of NHx. Implications of atmospheric NHx observations for the exchange of N between ocean and land and ocean N/P limitations are discussed.

  14. Sensors reduce car emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Paula, G.

    1996-11-01

    Advanced control and diagnostic sensors play a key role in antipollution devices such as catalytic converters, electronic fuel injection, and exhaust-gas recirculation systems. Technologies such as catalytic converters, electronic fuel injection, and exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) systems have decreased automobile emissions approximately 90 percent from their 1960 levels. The cornerstone of many of these emissions-control technologies are sensors that provide feedback and control. Any sensor--particularly those installed under an automobile hood--must withstand harsh conditions, such as intense heat, shock, continual vibration, corrosive gases, and electromagnetic fields. As a result microelectromechanical-system sensors, though widely used in automobiles, have not been applied to emissions monitoring and pollution control because they are not rugged enough to survive inside an engine. Most automobile sensors use mature technologies, but newer technologies such as fiber-optic sensors will be installed in vehicles within the next few years.

  15. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, J. Landy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. The methods and apparatus may further be modified to reduce NOx emissions. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals. Where removal of NOx emissions is included, nitric acid may also be isolated for use in fertilizer or other industrial applications.

  16. Unidentified Infrared Emission Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joblin, Christine

    2015-03-01

    When referring to unidentified infrared emission features, one has in mind the series of aromatic IR bands (AIBs) between 3.3 and 15 μm that are observed in emission in many environments where UV photons irradiate interstellar matter. These bands are now used by astronomers to classify objects and characterize local physical conditions. However, a deep analysis cannot proceed without understanding the properties of the band carriers. Large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules are attractive candidates but interstellar species are still poorly characterized. Various studies emphasize the need for tackling the link between molecular aromatic species, aliphatic material and very small carbonaceous grains. Other unidentified emission features such as the 6.9, 21 and 30 μm bands could be involved in the evolutionary scenario.

  17. Ultraviolet atomic emission detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, W.; Peterson, N. C.; Bass, A. M.; Kurylo, M. J., III (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A device and method are provided for performing qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis through the utilization of a vacuum UV chromatographic detector. The method involves the use of a carrier gas at low pressure. The gas carries a sample to a gas chromatograph column; the column output is directed to a microwave cavity. In this cavity, a low pressure microwave discharge produces fragmentation of the compounds present and generates intense atomic emissions in the vacuum ultraviolet. These emissions are isolated by a monochromator and measured by photometer to establish absolute concentration for the elements.

  18. Mercury emission from crematoria.

    PubMed

    Santarsiero, Anna; Settimo, Gaetano; Dell'andrea, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study, undertaken at a cremator representing an example of current equipment and cremation practices in use in Italy, is to assess the possible mercury emitted during cremation and substantiate the current data available. This paper reports some preliminary results concerning mercury and total particulate matter emissions during three cremation processes. The obtained results gave a mercury concentration ranging from 0.005 to 0.300 mg/m3 and a mercury emission factor ranging from 0.036 to 2.140 g/corpse cremated. The total particulate matter concentration range was 1.0 to 2.4 mg/m3.

  19. 1992 Carbon emissions data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This article reports on the global total of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel burning and cement manufacture in 1992. The total estimate of 6097 million metric tons of carbon is essentially the same for 1990 and down slightly from 1991, but 7 of 9 geographical regions had increases.

  20. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; Ragazzi, Ronald

    This guide designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in the area of automotive emission control curriculum includes four areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  1. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; And Others

    This publication contains instructional materials for both teachers and students for a course in automotive emission control. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes 16 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the basic components of a…

  2. Emissions versus climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change is likely to offset some of the improvements in air quality expected from reductions in pollutant emissions. A comprehensive analysis of future air quality over North America suggests that, on balance, the air will still be cleaner in coming decades.

  3. Automotive sulfate emission data.

    PubMed Central

    Somers, J H

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses automotive sulfate emission results obtained by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, and Esso. This work has been directed towards obtaining sulfate emission factors for cars with and without catalyst. While the EPA and Chrysler investigations have found significant sulfate formation in noncatalyst cars, GM, Ford, and Esso have found only trace levels from noncatalyst cars. All of these investigators agree that much higher quantities of sulfate are emitted from catalyst cars. The work done to date shows pelleted catalysts to have much lower sulfate emissions over the low speed-EPA Federal Test Procedures than monolith catalysts. This is probably due to temporary storage of sulfates on the catalyst due to chemical interaction with the alumina pellets. The sulfate compounds are, to a large degree, emitted later under higher speed conditions which result in higher catalyst temperatures which decompose the alumina salt. Future work will be directed towards further elucidation of this storage mechanism as well as determining in detail how factors such as air injection rate and catalyst location affect sulfate emissions. PMID:50932

  4. Coke oven emissions

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Coke oven emissions ; CASRN NA Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  5. Reaching peak emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Robert B.; Canadell, Josep G.; Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2016-01-01

    Rapid growth in global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry ceased in the past two years, despite continued economic growth. Decreased coal use in China was largely responsible, coupled with slower global growth in petroleum and faster growth in renewables.

  6. Emissions versus climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change is likely to offset some of the improvements in air quality expected from reductions in pollutant emissions. A comprehensive analysis of future air quality over North America suggests that, on balance, the air will still be cleaner in coming decades.

  7. Diesel emissions in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, H.; Kreiner, I.; Norek, C.; Preining, O.; Georgi, B.

    The aerosol in a non-industrial town normally is dominated by emissions from vehicles. Whereas gasoline-powered cars normally only emit a small amount of particulates, the emission by diesel-powered cars is considerable. The aerosol particles produced by diesel engines consist of graphitic carbon (GC) with attached hydrocarbons (HCs) including also polyaromatic HCs. Therefore the diesel particles can be carcinogenic. Besides diesel vehicles, all other combustion processes are also a source for GC; thus source apportionment of diesel emissions to the GC in the town is difficult. A direct apportionment of diesel emissions has been made possible by marking all the diesel fuel used by the vehicles in Vienna by a normally not occurring and easily detectable substance. All emitted diesel particles thus were marked with the tracer and by analyzing the atmospheric samples for the marking substance we found that the mass concentrations of diesel particles in the atmosphere varied between 5 and 23 μg m -3. Busy streets and calm residential areas show less difference in mass concentration than expected. The deposition of diesel particles on the ground has been determined by collecting samples from the road surface. The concentration of the marking substance was below the detection limit before the marking period and a year after the period. During the period when marked diesel fuel was used, the concentrations of the diesel particles settling to the ground was 0.012-0.07 g g -1 of collected dust. A positive correlation between the diesel vehicle density and the sampled mass of diesel vehicles exists. In Vienna we have a background diesel particle concentration of 11 μg m -3. This value increases by 5.5 μg m -3 per 500 diesel vehicles h -1 passing near the sampling location. The mass fraction of diesel particles of the total aerosol mass varied between 12.2 and 33%; the higher values were found in more remote areas, since diesel particles apparently diffuse easily

  8. The Berlin Emissivity Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbert, Jorn

    Remote sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to the solar system bodies include in their payload instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. TES on Mars Global Surveyor and THEMIS on Mars Odyssey have in many ways changed our views of Mars. The PFS instrument on the ESA Mars Express mission has collected spectra since the beginning of 2004. In spring 2006 the VIRTIS experiment started its operation on the ESA Venus Express mission, allowing for the first time to map the surface of Venus using the 1 µm emission from the surface. The MERTIS spectrometer is included in the payload of the ESA BepiColombo mission to Mercury, scheduled for 2013. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analogue materials is needed. The Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) presented here is focused on relatively fine-grained size separates, providing a realistic basis for interpretation of thermal emission spectra of planetary regoliths. The BED is therefore complimentary to existing thermal emission libraries, like the ASU library for example. The BED contains currently entries for plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulphur, common martian analogues (JSC Mars-1, Salten Skov, palagonites, montmorillonite) and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 3 to 50 µm as a function of particle size. For each sample, the spectra of four well defined particle size separates (¡25 µm , 25-63 µm, 63-125 µm, 125-250 µm) are measured with a 4 cm-1 spectral resolution. These size separates have been selected as typical representations for most of the planetary surfaces. Following an ongoing upgrade of the Planetary Emmissivity Laboratory (PEL) at DLR in Berlin measurements can be obtained at temperatures up to 500° C - realistic for the dayside conditions

  9. Methane Emission by Camelids

    PubMed Central

    Dittmann, Marie T.; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A.; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg−1 d−1) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg−1 d−1). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg−1 in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg−1 in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels. PMID:24718604

  10. Negative Emissions Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Danny

    2006-04-01

    Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

  11. Methane emission by camelids.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg⁻¹ in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg⁻¹ in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels.

  12. Anthropogenic mercury emission inventory with emission factors and total emission in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hun; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Sang-Bo; Pudasainee, Deepak; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2010-07-01

    Mercury emissions concentrations, emission factors, and the total national emission from major anthropogenic sources in Korea for the year 2007 were estimated. Uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission factors and the total emission from each source types are presented. The annual national mercury emission from major anthropogenic sources for the year 2007, on average was 12.8 ton which ranged from 6.5 to 20.2 ton. Averaged emissions of elemental, oxidized, and particulate mercury were estimated at 8.25 ton, 3.69 ton, and 0.87 ton, respectively. Due to the removal of a major portion of particulate and oxidized mercury species, elemental mercury was dominant in stack emission. About 54.8% of mercury emission was contributed by industrial sources, 45.0% by stationary combustion sources and 0.02% by mobile sources. Thermal power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and incinerators (municipal, industrial, medical, sewage sludge) were the major mercury emitters, contributing about 26%, 25%, 21% and 20%, respectively to the total mercury emission. Other sources (crematory, pulp and paper manufacturing, nonferrous metals manufacturing, glass manufacturing) contributed about 8% of the total emission. Priority should be given in controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and waste incinerators. More measurements including natural and re-emission sources are to be carried out in the future in order to have a clear scenario of mercury emission from the country and to apply effective control measures.

  13. Emissions Models and Other Methods to Produce Emission Inventories

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An emissions inventory is a summary or forecast of the emissions produced by a group of sources in a given time period. Inventories of air pollution from mobile sources are often produced by models such as the MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES).

  14. 47 CFR 74.637 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Auxiliary Stations § 74.637 Emissions and emission limitations. (a) The mean power of emissions shall be attenuated below the mean transmitter power (PMEAN) in accordance with the following schedule: (1) When using... reference bandwidth. (2) When using transmissions employing digital modulation techniques: (i) For operating...

  15. 47 CFR 74.637 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Auxiliary Stations § 74.637 Emissions and emission limitations. (a) The mean power of emissions shall be attenuated below the mean transmitter power (PMEAN) in accordance with the following schedule: (1) When using... reference bandwidth. (2) When using transmissions employing digital modulation techniques: (i) For operating...

  16. 47 CFR 74.637 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Auxiliary Stations § 74.637 Emissions and emission limitations. (a) The mean power of emissions shall be attenuated below the mean transmitter power (PMEAN) in accordance with the following schedule: (1) When using... reference bandwidth. (2) When using transmissions employing digital modulation techniques: (i) For operating...

  17. Zero Emission Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziock, H.; Guthrie, G. D.; Lackner, K. S.; Harrison, D. P.; Johnson, A. A.

    2002-05-01

    Unless the economic development of the majority of the world's population is prohibited, thereby forcing thereby forcing them to remain in poverty, world energy consumption and therefore carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emission rates could easily increase by an order of magnitude during this century. Given that we have already increased global atmospheric concentrations by 30% compared to their pre-industrial age level, without massive intervention, we will completely overwhelm Nature's ability to cope. In order to stabilize atmospheric CO2 levels, while allowing desired world economic development, the future allowable US per capita CO2 emissions are only 3 % of today's value. This is effectively zero, and thus what is required is the development of technologies that aim for emission of zero CO2 as well as other pollutants. If we continue to rely on our lowest cost, readily available, and dominant energy source, this will involve both a separation of the energy from the fossil fuel carbon followed by a permanent disposal of the CO2. To set the scale, today's yearly global emissions are approaching 25 cubic kilometers of CO2 at liquid densities, and these could grow by an order of magnitude by the end of the century. We describe a zero emission coal technology that would be able to deal with both the scope of the problem and the emission goal. The energy production process is a chemical conversion of coal to electricity or hydrogen, which involves no combustion and thus no smoke stack. The process provides a pure stream of CO2 for disposal while simultaneously achieving fuel to electricity conversion efficiencies that are two times better than today's value. This high efficiency by itself extends cuts pollutant production by a factor of two while also extending the lifetime of our fossil fuel reserves by a factor of two to many hundreds of years. By concentrating on coal, we also lay the groundwork for energy security and complete independence for the US, given the

  18. Air Emissions Monitoring for Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Operating permits document how air pollution sources will demonstrate compliance with emission limits and also how air pollution sources will monitor, either periodically or continuously, their compliance with emission limits and all other requirements.

  19. Tanks Emissions for TRI Reporting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A presentation on overcoming the challenges of TRI reporting for and monitoring the hazardous air emissions from storage tanks, including a discussion on the most accurate and feasible methods of correctly reporting tank emissions to the TRI Program.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF TRANSIENT PUFF EMISSIONS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Symposium Paper Transient puff emissions were characterized from burning carpet charges that were fed to a pilotscale rotary kiln combustor to assess the potential impact on emissions of using post-consumer carpet as an alternative fuel in cement kilns.

  1. ELECTRON EMISSION REGULATING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Brenholdt, I.R.

    1957-11-19

    >An electronic regulating system is described for controlling the electron emission of a cathode, for example, the cathode in a mass spectrometer. The system incorporates a transformer having a first secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding load by grid controlled vacuum tubes. A portion of the electron current emitted by the cathode is passed through a network which develops a feedback signal. The system arrangement is completed by using the feedback signal to control the vacuum tubes in the second secondary winding through a regulator tube. When a change in cathode emission occurs, the feedback signal acts to correct this change by adjusting the load on the transformer.

  2. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Du, Ding

    2015-09-01

    This study extends the literature on forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by applying the reduced-form econometrics approach of Schmalensee et al. (1998) to a more recent sample period, the post-1997 period. Using the post-1997 period is motivated by the observation that the strengthening pace of global climate policy may have been accelerated since 1997. Based on our parameter estimates, we project 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 according to an economic and population growth scenario that is more consistent with recent global trends. Our forecasts are conservative due to that we do not have sufficient data to fully take into account recent developments in the global economy.

  3. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  4. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.; Dorsey, George F.; West, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  5. Global emissions inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Dignon, J.

    1995-07-01

    Atmospheric chemistry determines the concentrations of most of the important greenhouse gases except for carbon dioxide. The rate of removal of the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere is also controlled by atmospheric chemistry. The indirect effects of chemical forcing resulting from the chemical interactions of other species can also affect the concentrations of radiatively important gases such as ozone. In order to establish the contribution of any possible climatic change attributable to individual greenhouse gases, spatially and temporally resolved estimates of their emissions need to be established. Unfortunately, for most of the radiatively important species the global magnitudes of their individual fluxes are not known to better than a factor of two and their spatial distributions are even more poorly characterized. Efforts to estimate future projections of potential impacts and to monitor international agreements will require continued research to narrow the uncertainties of magnitude and geographical distribution of emissions.

  6. Noise Emission Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, G.; Schorer, E.

    The acoustical efficiency of machines varies in the range of 10-9 to 10-5. This means even high power machines generate sound powers of a few Watts only. Due to the high sensitivity of the human ear however, such low sound powers create close to the machine loudnesses higher than 100 phon (64 sone). Consequently, the assessment of machinery noise emission requires relations to these subjective properties.

  7. Modeling of Particulate Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    vaporization CxHy H H2 C2H2 Alkylated- aromatics naphthenes Gas-phase kinetics PAH C2H2 . .... CO inception Surface growth & coalescence ageing...coagulation oxidation.... carbonization 14 Modeling Particulate Emissions Soot Formation Kinetics 2 1016 1 ]HC[kdt dS = Inception: Dimerization of...pyrene (and other 202 amu species), after Appel, et al, 2000. (Full detailed kinetics required!) Surface Growth: Mass growth (via acetylene addition

  8. Methane emissions from cattle.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K A; Johnson, D E

    1995-08-01

    Increasing atmospheric concentrations of methane have led scientists to examine its sources of origin. Ruminant livestock can produce 250 to 500 L of methane per day. This level of production results in estimates of the contribution by cattle to global warming that may occur in the next 50 to 100 yr to be a little less than 2%. Many factors influence methane emissions from cattle and include the following: level of feed intake, type of carbohydrate in the diet, feed processing, addition of lipids or ionophores to the diet, and alterations in the ruminal microflora. Manipulation of these factors can reduce methane emissions from cattle. Many techniques exist to quantify methane emissions from individual or groups of animals. Enclosure techniques are precise but require trained animals and may limit animal movement. Isotopic and nonisotopic tracer techniques may also be used effectively. Prediction equations based on fermentation balance or feed characteristics have been used to estimate methane production. These equations are useful, but the assumptions and conditions that must be met for each equation limit their ability to accurately predict methane production. Methane production from groups of animals can be measured by mass balance, micrometeorological, or tracer methods. These techniques can measure methane emissions from animals in either indoor or outdoor enclosures. Use of these techniques and knowledge of the factors that impact methane production can result in the development of mitigation strategies to reduce methane losses by cattle. Implementation of these strategies should result in enhanced animal productivity and decreased contributions by cattle to the atmospheric methane budget.

  9. Power plant emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  10. PAH emission in XX Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, E.

    1994-08-01

    Infrared spectra of the ζ Aur/VV Cep system XX Oph are presented. Contrary to a suggestion of Evans et al. (1993) the 10 μm spectrum shows no silicate emission but instead shows evidence of PAH emission. The infrared emission and the extinction in the blue are consistent with PAH molecules containing ~30-50 carbon atoms.

  11. Quantification of Emission Factor Uncertainty

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions factors are important for estimating and characterizing emissions from sources of air pollution. There is no quantitative indication of uncertainty for these emission factors, most factors do not have an adequate data set to compute uncertainty, and it is very difficult...

  12. Quantification of Emission Factor Uncertainty

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions factors are important for estimating and characterizing emissions from sources of air pollution. There is no quantitative indication of uncertainty for these emission factors, most factors do not have an adequate data set to compute uncertainty, and it is very difficult...

  13. EPA'S NEW EMISSIONS MODELING FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is building a new Emissions Modeling Framework that will solve many of the long-standing difficulties of emissions modeling. The goals of the Framework are to (1) prevent bottlenecks and errors caused by emissions modeling activi...

  14. CORONAL EMISSION LINES AS THERMOMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, Philip G.

    2010-01-10

    Coronal emission-line intensities are commonly used to measure electron temperatures using emission measure and/or line ratio methods. In the presence of systematic errors in atomic excitation calculations and data noise, the information on underlying temperature distributions is fundamentally limited. Increasing the number of emission lines used does not necessarily improve the ability to discriminate between different kinds of temperature distributions.

  15. Acoustic emission monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-07-05

    Methods and apparatus for identifying the source location of acoustic emissions generated within an acoustically conductive medium. A plurality of acoustic receivers are communicably coupled to the surface of the medium at a corresponding number of spaced locations. The differences in the reception time of the respective sensors in response to a given acoustic event are measured among various sensor combinations prescribed by the monitoring mode employed. Acoustic reception response encountered subsequent to the reception by a predetermined number of the prescribed sensor combinations are inhibited from being communicated to the processing circuitry, while the time measurements obtained from the prescribed sensor combinations are translated into a position measurement representative of the location on the surface most proximate the source of the emission. The apparatus is programmable to function in six separate and five distinct operating modes employing either two, three or four sensory locations. In its preferred arrangement the apparatus of this invention will re-initiate a monitoring interval if the predetermined number of sensors do not respond to a particular emission within a given time period.

  16. Microgravity Emissions Laboratory Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodnight, Thomas W.; McNelis, Anne M.

    2001-01-01

    The Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL) was developed for the support, simulation, and verification of the International Space Station microgravity environment. The MEL utilizes an inertial measurement system using acceleration emissions generated by various operating components of the space station. These emissions, if too large, could hinder the science performed on the space station by disturbing the microgravity environment. Typical test components are disk drives, pumps, motors, solenoids, fans, and cameras. These components will produce inertial forces, which disturb the microgravity on-orbit station environment. These components, usually housed within a station rack, must meet acceleration limits imposed at the rack interface for minimizing the onboard station-operating environment. The NASA Glenn Research Center developed this one-of-a-kind laboratory for testing components and, eventually, rack-level configurations. The MEL approach is to measure the component's generated inertial forces. This force is a product of the full diagonal mass matrix including the test setup (the center of gravity, mass moment of inertia, and weight) and the resolved diagonal rigid-body acceleration determined from measurements using the 10 apparatus accelerometers. The mass matrix can be test derived. The bifilar torsional pendulum method is used to measure the moment of inertia for the test component.

  17. Optimization of rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa OG1 using waste frying oil and chicken feather peptone.

    PubMed

    Ozdal, Murat; Gurkok, Sumeyra; Ozdal, Ozlem Gur

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa OG1 was statistically optimized by response surface methodology. Box-Behnken design was applied to determine the optimal concentrations of 52, 9.2, and 4.5 g/L for carbon source (waste frying oil), nitrogen source (chicken feather peptone), and KH2PO4, respectively, in production medium. Under the optimized cultivation conditions, rhamnolipid production reached up to 13.31 g/L (with an emulsification activity of 80%), which is approximately twofold higher than the yield obtained from preliminary cultivations. Hence, rhamnolipid production, noteworthy in the literature, was achieved with the use of statistical optimization on inexpensive waste materials for the first time in the present study.

  18. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICAL EMISSIONS FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES: DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS AND DOMESTIC WASTE OPEN BURN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from combustion sources are poorly characterized due to the large number of compounds present in the emissions, the complexity of the analytical separations required, and the uncertainty regarding identification of chemicals with...

  19. Analysis of x-ray emission in charge-exchange collisions of C6+ ions with He and H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Anthony C. K.; Kirchner, T.

    2016-05-01

    Charge exchange in C6+-He and - H2 collisions followed by x-ray emission is examined using the two-center basis generator method within the independent electron model. The analysis examines the two collision systems for low to intermediate projectile energies. We perform capture cross section and radiative cascade calculations to obtain Lyman line emission ratios which can be compared to measurements that were carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Multicharged Ion Research Facility. Single-electron capture is considered for the C6+-He system while both single and autoionizing double capture are considered for the C6+- H2 system. We also examine the effects of a time-dependent screening potential that models target response on the l distribution of the capture cross sections and the emission ratios. Calculated line emission ratios based on the no-response approximation are found to be in satisfactory agreement with the measurements. Work supported by SHARCNET, OGS, and NSERC, Canada

  20. Improving Emission Estimates With The Community Emissions Data System (CEDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S.; Hoesly, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Inventory data is a key component of scientific and regulatory efforts focused on air pollution, climate and global change and also a critical compliment for observational emission efforts. The Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) project aims to provide consistent estimates of historical anthropogenic emissions using an open-source data system. The first product from this system was anthropogenic emissions over 1750-2014 of reactive gases, aerosols, and carbon dioxide, for use in CMIP6. These data are annually resolved, have monthly seasonality, were estimated at a moderately detailed level of 50+ sectors and 8 fuel types, and were mapped to spatial grids. CEDS combines bottom-up default emissions estimates that are calibrated to country-level inventories where these are deemed reliable. Outside of years where inventories are available, driver data and emission factors are extended using user-defined rules. The system is designed to facilitate annual updates (so the most recent inventory data is available). The software and most input data are being released as open source software in order to provide access to assumptions, improve emission estimates, and allow access to fundamental emissions data for research purposes. We report on our efforts to expand the spatial resolution by estimating emission trends by state/province for large countries. This will allow spatial shifts in emissions over time to be better represented and make the data more useful for research such as that discussed in this session. As part of these improvements we will add support for use of regionally-specific emission proxies and point sources. A key focus of ongoing research is better quantification of emissions uncertainty. Our goal is consistent estimation of uncertainty over time, sector, and country. We will also report on results estimating the additional uncertainty associated with extending emissions data over recent years. http://www.globalchange.umd.edu/CEDS/

  1. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall not...

  2. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall not...

  3. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall not...

  4. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall not...

  5. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall not...

  6. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  7. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  8. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Donald W.; Whittaker, Jerry W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  9. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx, SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of NOx, SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid and nitric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals.

  10. Solar radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, M. V.; Smith, D. F.

    1981-01-01

    Active areas of both observational and theoretical research in which rapid progress is being made are discussed. These include: (1) the dynamic spectrum or frequency versus time plot; (2) physical mechanisms in the development of various types of bursts; (3) microwave type 1, 2, 3, and moving type 4 bursts; (4) bursts caused by trapped electrons; (5) physics of type 3bursts; (6) the physics of type 2 bursts and their related shocks; (7) the physics of both stationary and moving traps and associated type 1 and moving type 4 bursts; and (8) the status of the field of solar radio emission.

  11. Improve emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vining, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Marathon`s Texas City refinery was subject to five separate EPA regulations in addition to a state program for monitoring and repairing fugitive leaks. In this case history, the refinery sought an organizational solution that reduced monitoring costs and kept the facility fully compliant with current state and federal regulations. Equally important, the new monitoring program incorporated flexibility for future emission-reduction requirements. The paper describes the solution, regulatory background, the previous system, leak-threshold consolidation, operator ownership, and projects benefits.

  12. Infrared Atmospheric Emission. I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    contract. They are (i) "The 5g Levels of Atomic Nitrogen" AO)YA ii Edward S. Chang and Hajime Sakai J. Phys. B 14, L391 (1981) (ii) "Infrared Emission...At. Idol. Phys. 14 (1981) L391 -L395. printed in Great Bjritain LETTER TO THE EDITOR INC 5g levels of atomic nitrogent Edward S Chang and Hajime Sakai...81/120391 +05$01.30 C) 1981 The Institute of Physics L391 The U.S. Qovermnt is authoried to repoduce and sem tns report. Parmb@a- or ur Uther

  13. Emissions From the Terrestrial Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Guenther, A.; Belote, A.; Klos, K.

    2004-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere plays a critical role in the functioning of the earth system. Vegetation emits significant amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and aerosols to the atmosphere through several pathways that include physiological and biochemical processes and disturbances such as wildfire and herbivory. Biogenic VOC emissions can affect chemical processes that determine air quality and control the lifetimes of longer lived chemical species. Direct aerosol emissions from vegetation and wildfires and secondary aerosols formed by biogenic VOC can impact public health, change cloud properties, and control climate processes. Biogenic emissions play a critical role in many atmospheric and biogeochemical processes. Therefore, to realistically simulate the earth system, including air quality and climate, reasonable estimates of biogenic emissions must be included in those simulations. This paper presents an overview of biogenic emissions from undisturbed vegetation and from wildfire. Models that simulate these emissions have been developed to create inputs for regional and global chemical transport models and for climate models. Despite the success in biogenic emission model development, technical challenges for such modeling still exist. Biogenic emission models use a variety of input information, including satellite data, field observations, and output from other models (e.g. NCEP, MM5, WRF). These inputs have a variety of spatial and temporal resolutions and are available in many different formats. Several of the challenges encountered when modeling biogenic emissions will be addressed, including difficulties in applying different input datasets due to format, size, and spatial resolution and limitations in software that hinder the processing of emission estimates.

  14. Black carbon emissions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streets, David G.; Gupta, Shalini; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Wang, Michael Q.; Bond, Tami C.; Yiyun, Bo

    Black carbon (BC) is an important aerosol species because of its global and regional influence on radiative forcing and its local effects on the environment and human health. We have estimated the emissions of BC in China, where roughly one-fourth of global anthropogenic emissions is believed to originate. China's high rates of usage of coal and biofuels are primarily responsible for high BC emissions. This paper pays particular attention to the application of appropriate emission factors for China and the attenuation of these emissions where control devices are used. Nevertheless, because of the high degree of uncertainty associated with BC emission factors, we provide ranges of uncertainty for our emission estimates, which are approximately a factor of eight. In our central case, we calculate that BC emissions in China in 1995 were 1342 Gg, about 83% being generated by the residential combustion of coal and biofuels. We estimate that BC emissions could fall to 1224 Gg by 2020. This 9% decrease in BC emissions can be contrasted with the expected increase of 50% in energy use; the reduction will be obtained because of a transition to more advanced technology, including greater use of coal briquettes in place of raw coal in cities and towns. The increased use of diesel vehicles in the future will result in a greater share of the transport sector in total BC emissions. Spatially, BC emissions are predominantly distributed in an east-west swath across China's heartland, where the rural use of coal and biofuels for cooking and heating is widespread. This is in contrast to the emissions of most other anthropogenically derived air pollutants, which are closely tied to population and industrial centers.

  15. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  16. Acoustical emission from bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longuet-Higgins, Michael S.

    1991-12-01

    The scientific objectives of this report are to investigate the dynamics of bubbles formed from a free surface (particularly the upper surface of the ocean) by breaking waves, and the resulting emission of underwater sound. The chief natural source of underwater sound in the ocean at frequencies from 0.5 to 50 kHz is known to be the acoustical emission from newly-formed bubbles and bubble clouds, particularly those created by breaking waves and rain. Attention has been drawn to the occurrence of high-speed jets directed into the bubble just after bubble closure. They have been observed both in rain-drop impacts and in the release of bubbles from an underwater nozzle. Qualitatively they are similar to the inward jets seen in the collapse of a cavitation bubble. There is also a similarity to the highly-accelerated upward jets in standing water waves (accelerations greater than 20g) or in bubbles bursting at a free surface. We have adopted a theoretical approach based on the dynamics of incompressible fluids with a free surface.

  17. Elastic emission polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  18. Ion photon emission microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, P.; Doyle, B. L.; Banks, J. C.; Battistella, A.; Gennaro, G.; McDaniel, F. D.; Mellon, M.; Vittone, E.; Vizkelethy, G.; Wing, N. D.

    2003-09-01

    A new ion-induced emission microscopy has been invented and demonstrated, which is called ion photon emission microscopy (IPEM). It employs a low current, broad ion beam impinging on a sample, previously coated or simply covered with a few microns of a fast, highly efficient phosphor layer. The light produced at the single ion impact point is collected with an optical microscope and projected at high magnification onto a single photon position sensitive detector (PSD). This allows maps of the ion strike effects to be produced, effectively removing the need for a microbeam. Irradiation in air and even the use of alpha particle sources with no accelerator are possible. Potential applications include ion beam induced charge collection studies of semiconducting and insulating materials, single event upset studies on microchips and even biological cells in radiobiological effectiveness experiments. We describe the IPEM setup, including a 60× OM-40 microscope with a 1.5 mm hole for the beam transmission and a Quantar PSD with 60 μm pixel. Bicron plastic scintillator blades of 10 μm were chosen as a phosphor for their nanosecond time resolution, homogeneity, utility and commercial availability. The results given in this paper are for a prototype IPEM system. They indicate a resolution of ˜12 μm, the presence of a spatial halo and a He-ion efficiency of ˜20%. This marks the first time that nuclear microscopy has been performed with a radioactive source.

  19. Emissions from modern passenger cars with malfunctioning emissions controls

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, T.; Ross, M.

    1996-09-01

    Malfunctioning emission controls continue to be a major source of emissions from in-use vehicles. The authors analyze two sources of data on cars with malfunctioning emissions controls: remote sensing surveys and dynamometer tests of cars in the condition they were received. The analysis indicates that roughly 8% of relatively new (2- to 5-year old), modern technology (fuel-injected) cars have malfunctioning emission controls. There is a wide range in the probability of malfunction of specific models, from zero to over 20%. Possible causes of high model-specific malfunction probability are poor initial design and/or manufacture.

  20. Biomass burning - Combustion emissions, satellite imagery, and biogenic emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Winstead, Edward L.; Rhinehart, Robert P.; Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Sebacher, Shirley; Stocks, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    After detailing a technique for the estimation of the instantaneous emission of trace gases produced by biomass burning, using satellite imagery, attention is given to the recent discovery that burning results in significant enhancement of biogenic emissions of N2O, NO, and CH4. Biomass burning accordingly has an immediate and long-term impact on the production of atmospheric trace gases. It is presently demonstrated that satellite imagery of fires may be used to estimate combustion emissions, and could be used to estimate long-term postburn biogenic emission of trace gases to the atmosphere.

  1. A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Zhou, Yuyu; Kyle, G. Page; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Hongbin

    2015-04-21

    Historical emission estimates for anthropogenic aerosol and precursor compounds are key data needed for Earth system models, climate models, and atmospheric chemistry and transport models; both for general analysis and assessment and also for model validation through comparisons with observations. Current global emission data sets have a number of shortcomings, including timeliness and transparency. Satellite and other earth-system data are increasingly available in near real-time, but global emission estimates lag by 5-10 years. The CEDS project will construct a data-driven, open source framework to produce annually updated emission estimates. The basic methodologies to be used for this system have been used for SO2 (Smith et al. 2011, Klimont, Smith and Cofala 2013), and are designed to complement existing inventory efforts. The goal of this system is to consistently extend current emission estimates both forward in time to recent years and also back over the entire industrial era. The project will produce improved datasets for global and (potentially) regional model, allow analysis of trends across time, countries, and sectors of emissions and emission factors, and facilitate improved scientific analysis in general. Consistent estimation of uncertainty will be an integral part of this system. This effort will facilitate community evaluation of emissions and further emission-related research more generally.

  2. Carbon Emission Flow in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chongqing; Zhou, Tianrui; Chen, Qixin; Xu, Qianyao; Xia, Qing; Ji, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    As the human population increases and production expands, energy demand and anthropogenic carbon emission rates have been growing rapidly, and the need to decrease carbon emission levels has drawn increasing attention. The link between energy production and consumption has required the large-scale transport of energy within energy transmission networks. Within this energy flow, there is a virtual circulation of carbon emissions. To understand this circulation and account for the relationship between energy consumption and carbon emissions, this paper introduces the concept of “carbon emission flow in networks” and establishes a method to calculate carbon emission flow in networks. Using an actual analysis of China's energy pattern, the authors discuss the significance of this new concept, not only as a feasible approach but also as an innovative theoretical perspective. PMID:22761988

  3. Emission impacts of electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Quanlu Wang; DeLuchi, M.A.; Sperling, D. )

    1990-09-01

    Alternative vehicular fuels are proposed as a strategy to reduce urban air pollution. In this paper, the authors analyze the emission impacts of electric vehicles in California for two target years, 1995 and 2010. They consider a range of assumptions regarding electricity consumption of electric vehicles, emission control technologies for power plants, and the mix of primary energy sources for electricity generation. They find that, relative to continued use of gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of electric vehicles would dramatically and unequivocally reduce carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Under most conditions, nitrogen oxide emissions would decrease moderately. Sulfur oxide and particulate emissions would increase or slightly decrease. Because other areas of the United States tend to use more coal in electricity generation and have less stringent emission controls on power plants, electric vehicles may have less emission reduction benefits outside California.

  4. Emission impacts of electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; DeLuchi, M.A.; Sperling, D. )

    1990-08-01

    Alternative vehicular fuels are proposed as a strategy to reduce urban air pollution. In this paper, we analyze the emission impacts of electric vehicles in Califormia for two target years, 1995 and 2010. We consider a range of assumptions regarding electricity consumption of electric vehicles, emission control technologies for power plants, and the mix of primary energy sources for electricity generation. We find that, relative to continued use of gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of electric vehicles would dramatically and unequivocally reduce carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Under most conditions, nitrogen oxide emissions would decrease moderately. Sulfur oxide and particulate emissions would increase or slightly decrease. Because other areas of the US tend to use more coal in electricity generation and have less stringent emission controls on power plants, electric vehicles may have less emission reduction benefits outside California.

  5. Extragalactic diffuse (C II) emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Suzanne C.; Geis, Norbert; Townes, Charles H.; Genzel, R.; Herrmann, F.; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Stacey, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    The 158 micro m (CII) line has been mapped in the galaxies Centaurus A, M83, NGC 6946, and NGC 891. The emission exists over very large scales, peaking in the nuclei and extending beyond the spiral arms and molecular disks. While most of the (CII) emission from the nuclei and spiral arms originates in photodissociated gas, the diffuse atomic gas can account for much of the (CII) emission in the extended regions.

  6. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  7. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  8. [Spectral emissivity of thin films].

    PubMed

    Zhong, D

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, the contribution of multiple reflections in thin film to the spectral emissivity of thin films of low absorption is discussed. The expression of emissivity of thin films derived here is related to the thin film thickness d and the optical constants n(lambda) and k(lambda). It is shown that in the special case d-->infinity the emissivity of thin films is equivalent to that of the bulk material. Realistic numerical and more precise general numerical results for the dependence of the emissivity on d, n(lambda) and k(lambda) are given.

  9. Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wieneke, R.E.; Bowser, R.P.; Hedley, W.H.; Kissner, T.J.; Lamberger, P.H.; Morgan, F.G.; Van Patten, J.F.; Williams, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) will be a system for the continuous processing of tritium containing gases collected from various operations at Mound. The basis of the system operation will be the oxidation of elemental hydrogen isotopes and organic molecules at elevated temperatures on precious metal catalyst beds, and the adsorption of the resulting oxide (water) on molecular sieve dryers. The TERF will be expected to handle from 400,000 to 1,000,000 curies of tritium per year in the process gas stream and release no more than 200 curies per year to the atmosphere. Consequently, the TERF will need to convert and capture tritium at low concentrations in gas efficiently and reliably. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Aviation Particle Emissions Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The Aviation Particle Emissions Workshop was held on November 18 19, 2003, in Cleveland, Ohio. It was sponsored by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) under the Vehicle Systems Program (VSP) and the Ultra- Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project. The objectives were to build a sound foundation for a comprehensive particulate research roadmap and to provide a forum for discussion among U.S. stakeholders and researchers. Presentations included perspectives from the Federal Aviation Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA, and United States airports. There were five interactive technical sessions: sampling methodology, measurement methodology, particle modeling, database, inventory and test venue, and air quality. Each group presented technical issues which generated excellent discussion. The five session leads collaborated with their members to present summaries and conclusions to each content area.

  11. Positron emission mammography imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    2003-10-02

    This paper examines current trends in Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) instrumentation and the performance tradeoffs inherent in them. The most common geometry is a pair of parallel planes of detector modules. They subtend a larger solid angle around the breast than conventional PET cameras, and so have both higher efficiency and lower cost. Extensions to this geometry include encircling the breast, measuring the depth of interaction (DOI), and dual-modality imaging (PEM and x-ray mammography, as well as PEM and x-ray guided biopsy). The ultimate utility of PEM may not be decided by instrument performance, but by biological and medical factors, such as the patient to patient variation in radiotracer uptake or the as yet undetermined role of PEM in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Blom, Hans; Widengren, Jerker

    2017-06-14

    Despite its short history, diffraction-unlimited fluorescence microscopy techniques have already made a substantial imprint in the biological sciences. In this review, we describe how stimulated emission depletion (STED) imaging originally evolved, how it compares to other optical super-resolution imaging techniques, and what advantages it provides compared to previous golden-standards for biological microscopy, such as diffraction-limited optical microscopy and electron microscopy. We outline the prerequisites for successful STED imaging experiments, emphasizing the equally critical roles of instrumentation, sample preparation, and photophysics, and describe major evolving strategies for how to push the borders of STED imaging even further in life science. Finally, we provide examples of how STED nanoscopy can be applied, within three different fields with particular potential for STED imaging experiments: neuroscience, plasma membrane biophysics, and subcellular clinical diagnostics. In these areas, and in many more, STED imaging can be expected to play an increasingly important role in the future.

  13. Cardiac positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Geltman, E.M.

    1985-12-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a new technique for noninvasively assessing myocardial metabolism and perfusion. It has provided new insight into the dynamics of myocardial fatty acid and glucose metabolism in normal subjects, patients with ischemic heart disease and those with cardiomyopathies, documenting regionally depressed fatty acid metabolism during myocardial ischemia and infarction and spatial heterogeneity of fatty acid metabolism in patients with cardiomyopathy. Regional myocardial perfusion has been studied with PET using water, ammonia and rubidium labeled with positron emitters, permitting the noninvasive detection of hypoperfused zones at rest and during vasodilator stress. With these techniques the relationship between perfusion and the metabolism of a variety of substrates has been studied. The great strides that have been made in developing faster high-resolution instruments and producing new labeled intermediates indicate the promise of this technique for facilitating an increase in the understanding of regional metabolism and blood flow under normal and pathophysiologic conditions. 16 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Thermoluminescence emission spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Prescott, J R; Fox, P J; Akber, R A; Jensen, H E

    1988-08-15

    A sensitive thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectrometer based on Fourier transform spectroscopy is described. It employs a modified scanning Twyman-Green interferometer with photomultiplier detection in a photon-counting mode. The etendue is 180pi mm(2), and it covers the 350-600-nm wavelength range. The output can be displayed either as a 3-D isometric plot of intensity vs temperature and wavelength, as a contour diagram, or as a conventional TL glow curve of intensity vs temperature. It is sufficiently sensitive to record thermoluminescence spectra of dosimeter phosphors and minerals for thermoluminescence dating at levels corresponding to those found during actual use as radiation monitors or in dating. Examples of actual spectra are given.

  15. Acoustic emission signature analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, O.; Pardee, J. W.

    1981-03-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) in plate glass and steel was studied as a function of angle. The low frequency AE in glass was studied in detail, and contributions from P, S, and Rayleigh waves identified. These results were isotropic, as expected theoretically. Limited high frequency (5 to 20 MHz) results were obtained in glass. The measurement of AE on transgranular crack growth in steel during fatigue crack growth was accomplished by use of a low noise manual hydraulic loading system and an electronic gate to reject grip noise. The concept of the wave momentum of an AE was elaborated and a measurement technique suggested. The theoretical study of this problem led to the discovery of an infinite family of elastic surface (Rayleigh-like) waves, and to further cylindrical, radially propagating plate waves.

  16. Lead in candle emissions.

    PubMed

    Wasson, Shirley J; Guo, Zhishi; McBrian, Jenia A; Beach, Laura O

    2002-09-16

    The candle-using public should be made aware that the core of candle wicks may contain lead. Used as a stiffening agent to keep the wick out of the molten wax, lead can be emitted as particulates to the air and then deposited on indoor surfaces. To define the problem, 100 sets of candles (two or more identical candles) were purchased locally. The criterion for purchase was that the candles must appear to contain a metal-cored wick or be covered by a metallic pigment. Of the candles purchased, 8% contained lead wicks. The wicks were 39-74% lead (the remainder was fabric or paper) and the lead cores (approx. 100% lead) had linear densities of 13-27 mg/cm. Candles were burned to completion in a closed chamber to capture the air emissions, and the candle residue was extracted to assess the lead mass balance. It was found that individual candles emitted lead to the air at average rates that ranged from 100 to 1700 microg/h. Assuming realistic indoor conditions, these emission rates were modeled to project room air concentration, child exposure by inhalation, and indoor deposition. Results showed that burning single candles can easily raise the source room concentration above the ambient air lead concentration limit of 1.5 microg/m3 set by EPA. Burning multiple candles can elevate it above OSHA permissible exposure limits of 50 microg/m3. Although blood lead levels have dropped precipitously in the United States since lead was phased out of gasoline in 1986, nearly 900,000 children still had levels above 10 microg/dl during NHANES III. Considering that candle sales in the US are estimated at $1-2 billion per year, and that children may spend as much as 88% of their time indoors, it is reasonable to suspect that some blood lead elevation in children arises from indoor micro-environments where lead-wick candles are burned.

  17. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; Cohen, Seth; Belini, Andrea; Holwerda, Benne W.; Straughn, Amber; Mechtley, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allOW8 us to detect the presence of multiple emission line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. 1162 [OII], [OIII] and/or H-alpha emission lines have been identified in the PEARS sample of approx 906 galaxies down to a limiting flux of approx 10 - 18 erg/s/sq cm . The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis we find three key results: 1) The computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; 2) The star forming systems show evidence of disturbed morphologies, with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass; and 3) The number density of star forming galaxies with M(*) >= 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  18. Microbially mediated phosphine emission.

    PubMed

    Roels, Joris; Huyghe, Gwen; Verstraete, Willy

    2005-02-15

    There is still a lot of controversy in literature concerning the question whether a biochemical system exists enabling micro-organisms to reduce phosphate to phosphine gas. The search for so-called 'de novo synthesised' phosphine is complicated by the fact that soils, slurries, sludges, etc., which are often used as inocula, usually contain matrix bound phosphine (MBP). Matrix bound phosphine is a general term used to indicate non-gaseous reduced phosphorus compounds that are transformed into phosphine gas upon reaction with bases or acids. A study was carried out to compare the different digestion methods, used to transform matrix bound phosphine into phosphine gas. It was demonstrated that caustic and acidic digestion methods should be used to measure the matrix bound phosphine of the inoculum prior to inoculation to avoid false positive results concerning de novo synthesis. This is especially true if anthropogenically influenced inocula possibly containing minute steel or aluminium particles are used. The comparative study on different digestion methods also revealed that the fraction of phosphorus in mild steel, converted to phosphine during acid corrosion depended on the temperature. Following these preliminary studies, anaerobic growth experiments were set up using different inocula and media to study the emission of phosphine gas. Phosphine was detected in the headspace gases and its quantity and timeframe of emission depended on the medium composition, suggesting microbially mediated formation of the gas. The amount of phosphine emitted during the growth experiments never exceeded the bound phosphine present in inocula, prior to inoculation. Hence, de novo synthesis of phosphine from phosphate could not be demonstrated. Yet, microbially mediated conversion to phosphine of hitherto unknown reduced phosphorus compounds in the inoculum was evidenced.

  19. Seismic Resonant Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, V. A.

    2007-12-01

    There are several classes of underground objects which can produce resonant emission after being hit by incident seismic waves. Those objects include tunnels, pipes, buried containers, ground-filled excavations, unexploded ordinances, fluid-filled fractures, mine shafts, and the like. Being high contrast scatterers, these objects are capable of generating strong scattered waves where primary PP, PS, SS waves carry away most of the energy which was brought by incident waves. For both high- and low- velocity objects the primary scattered waves have the same order of magnitude as incident waves. The main difference between these groups of objects is in later arrivals of multiple scattered waves. While high-velocity objects effectively radiate most of the energy soon after impact, the low-velocity objects trap some fraction of incident wave energy in the form of circumferential waves which propagate rotating along the interface between the object and the embedding medium. Circumferential waves include surface Rayleigh-type waves (propagating mostly in the embedding medium), Stoneley waves (propagating mostly in the fluid, if present), and Frantz waves (body waves trapped in the object because of its curvature). Strong impedance contrast ensures small radiation loss for circumferential waves and they slowly decay in amplitude while rotating inside/around the object. Some circumferential waves exist in the high-velocity objects but their amplitudes decay very fast because of strong radiation in outer medium. Most of the secondary (multiply reflected from an object's boundaries or multiply circled around the object) resonant-scattered energy radiates in the embedding medium as shear waves. The possibility of neglecting P- waves in late scattering arrivals simplifies imaging as is demonstrated for the field and modeled data of the example. Resonant emission phenomenon provides an effective tool for active monitoring for a number of applications such as tunnel detection

  20. UPDATE OF EPA'S EMISSION FACTORS FOR LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes an effort to collect updated data and determine if changes are needed to AP-42, a document that provides emission factors characterizing landfill gas (LFG) emissions from sites with and without LFG controls. The work underway includes the types of measurement ...

  1. Photo Field Emission and Field Emission Energy Distributions from Silicon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-13

    Devices. London: Prentice- Hall, International, Inc., 1979. 8. Blakemore , J. Semiconductor Statistics . New York: Pergammon Press. 1962. 9. Boltaks, B. I...Continue on reverse side if necessary and identify by block nmber) thesis, silicon, semiconductors , electron, field, emission 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on...reverse side It necessary and Identify by block number) Electron field emission from semiconductors is investigated both theoreti- cally and

  2. UPDATE OF EPA'S EMISSION FACTORS FOR LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes an effort to collect updated data and determine if changes are needed to AP-42, a document that provides emission factors characterizing landfill gas (LFG) emissions from sites with and without LFG controls. The work underway includes the types of measurement ...

  3. CN-18RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DOSE INTENSITY, TOXICITY, AND OUTCOME IN OLIGODENDROGLIAL TUMORS (OG) TREATED WITH PCV REGIMEN

    PubMed Central

    Tabouret, Emeline; Reyes-Botero, German; Dehais, Caroline; Daros, Marine; Barrie, Maryline; Matta, Mona; Petrirena, Gregorio; Autran, Didier; Duran, Alberto; Boucard, Celine; Delattre, Jean Yves; Chinot, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In grade II and codeleted grade III gliomas, the procarbazine-CCNU-vincristine (PCV) combination increase survival when added to radiotherapy as first line treatment, despite the important toxicity of this treatment schedule. Our objective was to analyze the tolerance, feasibility and impact of dose intensity of the PCV regimen on outcome for patients with OG. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all grade III OG patients receiving PCV (CCNU:110mg/m2) who were referred to our two institutions. The total dose and dose adaptation, cycle delay, dose intensity, toxicity and premature discontinuation of CCNU were analyzed. Impact of these factors on patient outcome was evaluated. RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2011, 89 patients received PCV. Only 37% completed 6 cycles, whereas 13.4% prematurely discontinued PCV because of toxicity. Cycle delay and dose reduction were observed for 62% and 70% patients, respectively. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were observed in 38% and 8% patients, respectively. Among patients who did not progress under PCV regimen, by multivariate analysis, premature discontinuation for toxicity was significantly correlated with poor PFS (p = 0.023, Hazard ratio (HR):2.354) and OS (p = 0.021, HR:5.093). By univariate analyses, absence of CCNU dose adaptation was correlated to poor PFS (p = 0.032). For OS, pejorative factors were high total CCNU dose (p = 0.029), absence of cycle delay (p = 0.009), absence of CCNU dose adaptation (p = 0.020) and grade 3/4 toxicities (p = 0.013). High CCNU dose-intensity tended to poorly impact PFS (p = 0.053) and OS (p = 0.112). By multivariate analysis, absence of CCNU dose adaptation remained significant for PFS (p = 0.001), while OS was negatively impacted by the absence of cycle delay (p = 0.049) and grade 3/4 toxicities (p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: Despite the efficacy of the PCV regimen, significant toxicity is associated with this schedule, which appears to impact its feasibility and efficacy. The optimal PCV

  4. Smooth radio emission and a new emission at Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, C.; Warwick, J. W.; Romig, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    The Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) experiment Warwick et al., (1977) on the spacecraft Voyager 2 observed three types of smooth emission: (1) numerous recurrent episodes are modeled by filled emission cones from midlatitude conjugate sources; (2) an 'equatorial' feature seen soon after closest approach includes electron cyclotron harmonic emission above the upper hybrid resonance, as well as smooth recurrent emission, its strange appearance is a result of rapid change in Voyager's magnetic latitude and; (3) unique 'high-latitude' emission is seen near closest approach during Voyager's single excursion to high north (+) magnetic latitude when fc, the electron cyclotron frequency at the spacecraft, lies in the observable range. The stronger component covers a broad band of frequencies above 2fc; its sensitivity to magnetic field identifies it as extraordinary (X) mode. The weaker component extends smoothly through f = fc and is identified as ordinary (O) mode. At each frequency f the observed sense of polarization reverses when f = 2fc.

  5. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from housed Holstein steers fed different levels of diet crude protein.

    PubMed

    Chiavegato, M B; Powers, W; Palumbo, N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of diet CP levels on nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), and methane (CH4) emissions from 1) cattle housed in confined settings and 2) cattle manure following surface application to incubated soils. Twelve 500-kg Holstein steers were fed diets containing 10% CP (10CP) and 13% CP (13CP). The experimental design was a 2 × 2 Latin square conducted during two 20-d periods. Diets were fed for 14 d before each measurement period to allow for diet acclimation. Steers were housed in environmentally controlled rooms allowing for continuous emission measures of N2O, NH3, and CH4. At the end of the second period, manure was collected and surface applied to incubated soils to verify potential NH3 and N2O emissions. To assess emissions from incubated soils, 2 experiments were set up with 3 replicates each: Exp. 1, in which soil fertilization was based on manure mass (496 g of manure), and Exp. 2, in which soil fertilization was based on manure N content (targeted at 170 kg N/ha). Manure emissions were monitored for 7 d. Steers fed 13CP diets had increased daily NH3 emissions when compared to steers fed 10CP diets (32.36 vs. 11.82 ± 1.10 g NH3/d, respectively; P < 0.01). Daily N2O emissions from steers fed 13CP and 10CP diets were significantly different only during Period 1 (0.82 vs. 0.31 ± 0.24 g N2O/d; P = 0.04). Steers fed the 10CP diet had greater N2O emissions per unit of N consumed than steers fed the 13CP diet (9.73 vs. 4.26 ± 1.71 mg N2O/g N intake; P = 0.01). Diet CP levels did not affect enteric CH4 production from steers. In terms of soil emissions, different CP levels did not affect NH3, N2O, or CH4 emissions when soil fertilization was based on manure mass. However, NH3 emissions were reduced when manure from steers fed the 10CP diet was applied to soil based on N content. Ammonia emissions decreased during the 7-d incubation period. Conversely, N2O emissions increased over the period. Our results

  6. Anthropogenic mercury emissions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streets, David G.; Hao, Jiming; Wu, Ye; Jiang, Jingkun; Chan, Melissa; Tian, Hezhong; Feng, Xinbin

    An inventory of mercury emissions from anthropogenic activities in China is compiled for the year 1999 from official statistical data. We estimate that China's emissions were 536 (±236) t of total mercury. This value includes open biomass burning, but does not include natural sources or re-emission of previously deposited mercury. Approximately 45% of the Hg comes from non-ferrous metals smelting, 38% from coal combustion, and 17% from miscellaneous activities, of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest. Emissions are heaviest in Liaoning and Guangdong Provinces, where extensive smelting occurs, and in Guizhou Province, where there is much small-scale combustion of high-Hg coal without emission control devices. Emissions are gridded at 30×30 min spatial resolution. We estimate that 56% of the Hg in China is released as Hg 0, 32% as Hg 2+, and 12% as Hg p. Particulate mercury emissions are high in China due to heavy burning of coal in residential and small industrial settings without PM controls. Emissions of Hg 2+ from coal-fired power plants are high due to the absence of flue-gas desulfurization units, which tend to dissolve the soluble divalent mercury. Metals smelting operations favor the production of elemental mercury. Much of the Hg is released from small-scale activities in rather remote areas, and therefore the activity levels are quite uncertain. Also, emissions test data for Chinese sources are lacking, causing uncertainties in Hg emission factors and removal efficiencies. Overall, we calculate an uncertainty level of ±44% (95% confidence interval) in the estimate of total emissions. We recommend field testing of coal combustors and smelters in China to improve the accuracy of these estimates.

  7. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY WORKSHOP & ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes the NARSTO activities related to emission inventories in 2003-2005. The NARSTO Particulate Matter Assessment, issued in 2003, identified emission inventories as one of the critical elements of the air quality program which needs improvement if it i...

  8. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  9. Ammonia emissions from biomass burning

    Treesearch

    Dean A. Hegg; Lawrence F. Radke; Peter V. Hobbs; Philip J. Riggan

    1988-01-01

    Measurements in the plumes from seven forest fires show that the concentrations of NH3 were considerably in excess of ambient values. Calculation of NH3 emissions from the fires, based on the ratio of NH3/CO in the plumes and emissions of CO from biomass burning, suggest that biomass burning may be a...

  10. GLOBAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM VEGETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter discusses several aspects of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from vegetation. It begins with a section on emission measurements that includes a brief history of enclosure and above-canopy flux measurements as well as a discussion of existing d...

  11. Estimates of wildland fire emissions

    Treesearch

    Yongqiang Liu; John J. Qu; Wanting Wang; Xianjun Hao

    2013-01-01

    Wildland fire missions can significantly affect regional and global air quality, radiation, climate, and the carbon cycle. A fundamental and yet challenging prerequisite to understanding the environmental effects is to accurately estimate fire emissions. This chapter describes and analyzes fire emission calculations. Various techniques (field measurements, empirical...

  12. Tactical Vehicle Engine Emissions Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    diesel fuel (DF-2) were examined and tabulated (2). 3. Groupings for Army wheeled and tracked vehicles were made to which a single emission...Investigation of Possible Test Cycles for Determining Army Diesel Engine Emission Factors...4 2. High Density Army Diesel Equipment .................................................................... 6 3. Information on on the Steady

  13. GLOBAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM VEGETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter discusses several aspects of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from vegetation. It begins with a section on emission measurements that includes a brief history of enclosure and above-canopy flux measurements as well as a discussion of existing d...

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Pasture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are the primary greenhouse gases associated with global climate change. Livestock production’s contribution to carbon dioxide emissions is minimal, but it is a substantial contributor to both nitrous oxide and methane emissions. In both grazing and confin...

  15. Hormesis, hotspots and emissions trading.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Jonathan B

    2004-06-01

    Instrument choice--the comparison of technology standards, performance standards, taxes and tradable permits--has been a major topic in environmental law and environmental economics. Most analyses assume that emissions and health effects are positively and linearly related. If they are not, this complicates the instrument choice analysis. This article analyses the effects of a nonlinear dose-response function on instrument choice. In particular, it examines the effects of hormesis (high-dose harm but low-dose benefit) on the choice between fixed performance standards and tradable emissions permits. First, the article distinguishes the effects of hormesis from the effects of local emissions. Hormesis is an attribute of the dose-response or exposure-response relationship. Hotspots are an attribute of the emissions-exposure relationship. Some pollutants may be hormetic and cause local emissions-exposure effects; others may be hormetic without causing local emissions-exposure effects. It is only the local exposure effects of emissions that pose a problem for emissions trading. Secondly, the article shows that the conditions under which emissions trading would perform less well or even perversely under hormesis, depend on how stringent a level of protection is set. Only when the regulatory standard is set at the nadir of the hormetic curve would emissions trading be seriously perverse (assuming other restrictive conditions as well), and such a standard is unlikely. Moreover, the benefits of the overall programme may justify the risk of small perverse effects around this nadir. Thirdly, the article argues that hotspots can be of concern for two distinct reasons, harmfulness and fairness. Lastly, the paper argues that the solution to these problems may not be to abandon market-based incentive instruments and their cost-effectiveness gains, but to improve them further by moving from emissions trading and emissions taxes to risk trading and risk taxes. In short, the article

  16. Update on CO2 emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Friedingstein, P.; Houghton, R.A.; Marland, Gregg; Hackler, J.; Boden, Thomas A; Conway, T.J.; Canadell, J.G.; Raupach, Mike; Ciais, Philippe; Le Quere, Corrine

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of CO2 are the main contributor to anthropogenic climate change. Here we present updated information on their present and near-future estimates. We calculate that global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning decreased by 1.3% in 2009 owing to the global financial and economic crisis that started in 2008; this is half the decrease anticipated a year ago1. If economic growth proceeds as expected2, emissions are projected to increase by more than 3% in 2010, approaching the high emissions growth rates that were observed from 2000 to 20081, 3, 4. We estimate that recent CO2 emissions from deforestation and other land-use changes (LUCs) have declined compared with the 1990s, primarily because of reduced rates of deforestation in the tropics5 and a smaller contribution owing to forest regrowth elsewhere.

  17. Emissions of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane from Chicago.

    PubMed

    Buser, Andreas M; Bogdal, Christian; MacLeod, Matthew; Scheringer, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) is a high-production-volume chemical that is emitted to air in tens of thousands of tonnes each year globally. However, specific information about emission rates to air is still limited. Here we present an estimate of D5 emissions from the city of Chicago based on measurements that have recently been published. We used a multimedia environmental fate model parameterized for Chicago to back-calculate the emission rate of D5 from the measurements. Our estimated average emission rate for D5 is 500 (2.5-to-97.5-percentile interval: 260-1100) kg d(-1). The corresponding per-capita emissions of 190 (100-420) mg capita(-1)d(-1) agree well with previous estimates for Europe and North America. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxic emissions from open burning.

    PubMed

    Estrellan, Carl Renan; Iino, Fukuya

    2010-06-01

    This review compiled the data from recent actual and simulation studies on toxic emissions from open burning and categorized into sources, broadly as biomass and anthropogenic fuels. Emission factors, in mass of pollutant per mass of material being burned, and actual concentrations, in mass of pollutant per unit volume have been compared based on source classifications. In addition to gaseous emissions, this review presents the updated data on emissions to air in the form of particulate matter, and emissions to soil and water environment. Data from forest fires, accidental fires such as vehicle fires, house fires, and unintentional landfill fires are included in this review as well as combustion involving traditional and recreational activities.

  19. Seals cap rotary kiln emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Gunkle, D.W. )

    1993-09-01

    The possibility of producing fugitive emissions is one of the most critical aspects of an incineration system. Whether such a system processes hazardous, medical, mixed or municipal waste, fugitive emissions are of special concern to system operators and the public alike. Effectively designed rotary-kiln seals can reduce fugitive emissions to acceptable, minimal levels. Modern air monitoring systems track incineration site emissions. Possible emissions sources include excavation and transfer sites, storage areas, material-feed systems, rotary kiln seals, and exhaust stacks. Several options are available for rotary-kiln seals. Six are discussed here: labyrinth; overlapping spring plate; graphite block; pneumatic; shrouded; and overpressure. Kiln seals are used to prevent process gases from escaping or ambient air from entering a rotary kiln uncontrolled. They are not designed to function as material seals, or prevent spills of solids or liquids. Seal design involves considering differential pressure produced by a kiln's internal-to-external temperature, pressure excursions (explosions) and material spills.

  20. The Venus Emissivity Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbert, Joern; Marcq, Emmanuel; Widemann, Thomas; Mueller, Nils; Kappel, David; Tsang, Constantine; Maturilli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Sabrina; D'Amore, Mario; Dyar, Melinda; Smrekar, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    The permanent cloud cover of Venus prohibits observations of the surface with traditional imaging techniques over the entire visible spectral range. Fortunately, Venus' atmospheric gases are largely transparent in narrow spectral windows near 1 mm. Ground observers were the first to successfully use these windows, followed by spacecraft observations during the flyby of the Galileo mission on its way to Jupiter and most recently from Venus orbit by ESA's Venus Express with the VMC and VIRTIS instruments. Analyses of VIRTIS measurements have successfully demonstrated that surface information can be extracted from these windows, but the design of the instrument limited its use for more in-depth surface investigations.Based on experience gained from using VIRTIS to observe the surface of Venus and new high temperature laboratory experiments currently performed at the Planetary Spectroscopy Laboratory of DLR, we have designed the multi-spectral Venus Emissivity Mapper (VEM). Observations from VIRTIS have revealed surface emissivity variations correlated with geological features, but existing data sets contain only three spectral channels. VEM is optimized to map the surface composition and texture, and to search for active volcanism using the narrow atmospheric windows, building on lessons from prior instrumentation and methodology. It offers an opportunity to gain important information about surface mineralogy and texture by virtue of having six different channels for surface mapping.VEM is focused mainly on observing the surface, mapping in all near-IR atmospheric windows using filters with spectral characteristics optimized for the wavelengths and widths of those windows. It also observes bands necessary for correcting atmospheric effects; these bands also provide valuable scientific data on composition as well as altitude and size distribution of the cloud particles, and on H2O vapor abundance variations in the lowest 15 km of the atmosphere.In combination with a

  1. The Two-Component System GrvRS (EtaRS) Regulates ace Expression in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavindra V.; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Cohen, Ana Luisa V.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of ace (adhesin to collagen of Enterococcus faecalis), encoding a virulence factor in endocarditis and urinary tract infection models, has been shown to increase under certain conditions, such as in the presence of serum, bile salts, urine, and collagen and at 46°C. However, the mechanism of ace/Ace regulation under different conditions is still unknown. In this study, we identified a two-component regulatory system GrvRS as the main regulator of ace expression under these stress conditions. Using Northern hybridization and β-galactosidase assays of an ace promoter-lacZ fusion, we found transcription of ace to be virtually absent in a grvR deletion mutant under the conditions that increase ace expression in wild-type OG1RF and in the complemented strain. Moreover, a grvR mutant revealed decreased collagen binding and biofilm formation as well as attenuation in a murine urinary tract infection model. Here we show that GrvR plays a major role in control of ace expression and E. faecalis virulence. PMID:25385790

  2. Application of PET2OGS to CO2 storage in a saline aquifer of the CO2CRC Otway project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Shinn, Young Jae

    2014-05-01

    PET2OGS, a set of algorithms that integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys), is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. The Otway Basin is the first demonstration site of the deep geological storage of carbon dioxide as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in Australia. During Stage 2 of the CO2CRC Otway project, CO2 was injected into a saline aquifer along the injection interval of 1435 - 1450 m in a well. Upon conversion and adaption of the geological model into the dynamic model, the simulation of CO2 injection at 159 tone/day for 5 months is carried out for a hypothetical scenario. CO2 storage in each facies are analyzed for storage capacities. The discrete nature of CO2 plume behaviors known in multiphase flow in heterogeneous media is observed in the numerical simulation of CO2 storage. Sensitivity analysis of the storage capacity with respect to facies, porosity, and permeability is provided.

  3. Evidence for regulation of columnar habit in apple by a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pieter J; Schouten, Henk J; Velasco, Riccardo; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Baldi, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms controlling columnar-type growth in the apple mutant 'Wijcik' will provide insights on how tree architecture and growth are regulated in fruit trees. In apple, columnar-type growth is controlled by a single major gene at the Columnar (Co) locus. By comparing the genomic sequence of the Co region of 'Wijcik' with its wild-type 'McIntosh', a novel non-coding DNA element of 1956 bp specific to Pyreae was found to be inserted in an intergenic region of 'Wijcik'. Expression analysis of selected genes located in the vicinity of the insertion revealed the upregulation of the MdCo31 gene encoding a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase in axillary buds of 'Wijcik'. Constitutive expression of MdCo31 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in compact plants with shortened floral internodes, a phenotype reminiscent of the one observed in columnar apple trees. We conclude that MdCo31 is a strong candidate gene for the control of columnar growth in 'Wijcik'.

  4. Particulate emission reduction using additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rising, B.

    1998-07-01

    A particulate emission reduction study using a large industrial combustion turbine was undertaken. With heavy oil, both the mass particulate rate and smoke emissions exceeded original emission projections. Extensive particulate (gravimetric) emission tests were conducted to define the problem, and to assess specific corrective actions. Physical characterization of the particulate emissions revealed that the particulates from heavy oil were much larger than those found from lighter distillates. A review of the available literature on the subject was undertaken. Methods that were found to be effective at reducing smoke emissions were selected as a starting point. From this information, various techniques, including water injection, emulsification, and additive injection were evaluated to address both the visible smoke emissions and the particulate emission. Only the use of metal based fuel additives was found to be effective in reducing both visible smoke emissions and particulates. From vendor information, different additive time was selected for evaluation. Because of the complex chemistry of the fuel and additive mixtures, the vendor was required to optimize the additive carrier. Additives reduced particulates produced from the burning of heavy oil, but were found to be relatively ineffective with lighter distillate oils. Extensive chemical and physical characterization of the particulates were undertaken. From heavy oil, the particulates were found to be physically larger, greater than 5 microns. The additive was most effective on the heavy oils, but did not appear to alter the particulate size distribution. Additives did not appear to have any impact on the conversion of fuel bond sulfur into sulfuric acid mist. Additive dosage ratios were found which reduced the total particulate emission signature to meet current environmental requirements, while also nearly eliminating the plume visibility issues.

  5. Photophysics of fullerenes: Thermionic emission

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, R.N. |; Tuinman, A.A.; Huang, J.

    1996-09-01

    Multiphoton ionization of fullerenes using long-pulse length lasers occurs mainly through vibrational autoionization. In many cases the laser ionization can be described as thermionic in analogy to the boiling off of electrons from a filament. Thermionic emission manifests itself as a delayed emission of electrons following pulsed laser excitation. Klots has employed quasiequilibrium theory to calculate rate constants for thermionic emission from fullerenes which seem to quantitatively account for the observed delayed emission times and the measured electron energy distributions. The theory of Klots also accounts for the thermionic emission of C{sub 60} excited by a low power CW Argon Ion laser. Recently Klots and Compton have reviewed the evidence for thermionic emission from small aggregates where mention was also made of experiments designed to determine the effects of externally applied electric fields on thermionic emission rates. The authors have measured the fullerene ion intensity as a function of the applied electric field and normalized this signal to that produced by single photon ionization of an atom in order to correct for all collection efficiency artifacts. The increase in fullerene ion signal relative to that of Cs{sup +} is attributed to field enhanced thermionic emission. From the slope of the Schottky plot they obtain a temperature of approximately 1,000 K. This temperature is comparable to but smaller than that estimated from measurements of the electron kinetic energies. This result for field enhanced thermionic emission is discussed further by Klots and Compton. Thermionic emission from neutral clusters has long been known for autodetachment from highly excited negative ions. Similarly, electron attachment to C{sub 60} in the energy range from 8 to 12 eV results in C{sub 60} anions with lifetimes in the range of microseconds. Quasiequilibrium theory (QET) calculations are in reasonable accord with these measurements.

  6. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring. (a... arsenic trioxide and metallic arsenic process emission stream that exits from a control device. (b) The...

  7. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring. (a... arsenic trioxide and metallic arsenic process emission stream that exits from a control device. (b) The...

  8. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device and...

  9. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device and...

  10. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring. (a... arsenic trioxide and metallic arsenic process emission stream that exits from a control device. (b) The...

  11. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device and...

  12. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device and...

  13. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring. (a... arsenic trioxide and metallic arsenic process emission stream that exits from a control device. (b) The...

  14. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring. (a... arsenic trioxide and metallic arsenic process emission stream that exits from a control device. (b) The...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1313 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1313 Emission standards....

  16. 40 CFR 63.483 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.483 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.483 Emission standards. (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1313 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1313 Emission standards....

  18. 40 CFR 63.483 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.483 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.483 Emission standards. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1424 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1424 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1424 Emission...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1424 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1424 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1424 Emission...

  1. 40 CFR 63.483 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.483 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.483 Emission standards. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1313 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1313 Emission standards....

  3. 40 CFR 63.1424 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1424 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1424 Emission...

  4. Emission Inventories and Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.; van Aardenne, John; Battye, Bill; Garivait, Savitri; Grano, D.; Guenther, Alex; Klimont, Z.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lu, Zifeng; Maenhout, Greet; Ohara, Toshimasa; Parrish, David J.; Smith, Steven J.; Vallack, Harry

    2011-04-21

    When the Executive Body to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution took the decision to establish the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) in December 2004, it was on the basis of a growing understanding of the issues surrounding the hemispheric and intercontinental transport of air pollutants. It was recognised that whilst current regional emissions on their own created pollution levels that exceeded internationally-agreed air quality objectives, hemispheric transport could exacerbate local and regional air quality problems.Two particular pollutants of concern, and the focus of this report, are ozone and particulate matter (PM), known for their detrimental impacts on human health (these impacts and others are described in Chapter 5). There was well-documented evidence for the intercontinental transport of ozone and PM but, at that time, the significance of this intercontinental influence on the design of air pollution control policies was not well understood. The European Union, in drawing up its Thematic Strategy on Clean Air for Europe during 2004, became aware of the significance of intercontinental transport and the importance of sources of pollution beyond its borders and sphere of influence, in meeting its air quality goals.

  5. Generalized local emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Katsevich, Alexander J.

    1998-01-01

    Emission tomography enables locations and values of internal isotope density distributions to be determined from radiation emitted from the whole object. In the method for locating the values of discontinuities, the intensities of radiation emitted from either the whole object or a region of the object containing the discontinuities are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the isotope density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) knowing pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object. In the method for determining the location of the discontinuity, the intensities of radiation emitted from an object are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the density discontinuity and the location .GAMMA. of the attenuation coefficient discontinuity. Pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object need not be known in this case.

  6. Methane emission from sewers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sharma, Keshab R; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-08-15

    Recent studies have shown that sewer systems produce and emit a significant amount of methane. Methanogens produce methane under anaerobic conditions in sewer biofilms and sediments, and the stratification of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria may explain the simultaneous production of methane and sulfide in sewers. No significant methane sinks or methanotrophic activities have been identified in sewers to date. Therefore, most of the methane would be emitted at the interface between sewage and atmosphere in gravity sewers, pumping stations, and inlets of wastewater treatment plants, although oxidation of methane in the aeration basin of a wastewater treatment plant has been reported recently. Online measurements have also revealed highly dynamic temporal and spatial variations in methane production caused by factors such as hydraulic retention time, area-to-volume ratio, temperature, and concentration of organic matter in sewage. Both mechanistic and empirical models have been proposed to predict methane production in sewers. Due to the sensitivity of methanogens to environmental conditions, most of the chemicals effective in controlling sulfide in sewers also suppress or diminish methane production. In this paper, we review the recent studies on methane emission from sewers, including the production mechanisms, quantification, modeling, and mitigation.

  7. Smoothed Emission for IMC

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, N A

    2011-01-24

    Here is a review of the current way we handle source photons in Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC). A source photon is created with a randomly sampled position x{sub p} in the zone, a direction {Omega}{sub p}, a frequency v{sub p} sampled from the appropriate distribution, and a time t{sub p} uniformly sampled from [t{sup n}, t{sup n+1}]. The source photons each have an energy E{sub p}. The sum of E{sub p} over all of the photons equals the energy of the source for that time step. In the case of thermal emission in a zone with Volume V, they would have {Sigma}{sub p=1}{sup N} E{sub p} = {sigma} {sub p}acT{sup 4}V{Delta}t, where N is the number of thermal source photons for that time step, and {sigma}{sub p} is the Planck mean opacity. Census photons do not differ from source photons in any way, except that they all start the time step with t{sub p} = t{sup n}. Then they advance each photon until it reaches the end of the time step. When they are done with all of the photons, they update the matter temperature using the difference between the emitted and absorbed energy, and proceed to the next time step.

  8. Endocrine disrupting chemical emissions from combustion sources: diesel particulate emissions and domestic waste open burn emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Sukh; Gullett, Brian; Striebich, Richard; Klosterman, Joy; Contreras, Jesse; DeVito, Michael

    Emissions of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from combustion sources are poorly characterized due to the large number of compounds present in the emissions, the complexity of the analytical separations required, and the uncertainty regarding identification of chemicals with endocrine effects. In this work, multidimensional gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) was used to characterize emissions from both controlled (diesel engine) and uncontrolled (open burning of domestic waste) combustion sources. The results of this study suggest that, by using MDGC-MS, one can resolve a much greater percentage of the chromatogram and identify about 84% of these resolved compounds. This increase in resolution helped to identify and quantify various classes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the combustion emissions that had not been identified previously. Significant emissions (when compared to industrial sources) of known EDCs, dioctyl phthalate (over ˜2,500,000 kg year -1) and bisphenol A (over ˜75,000 kg year -1) were estimated from uncontrolled domestic waste burning. Emissions of several suspected EDCs (oxygenated PAHs) were observed in both diesel soot and the uncontrolled domestic waste burn samples. The emission rates of known and suspected EDCs estimated in this study suggest that combustion emissions need to be characterized for EDCs to further assess its importance as a source of EDC exposure.

  9. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  10. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2015-02-10

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d < 10 nm, antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  11. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, Michael S.; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C.

    2015-01-01

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35× corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼115×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼2,500× spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d2. Unfortunately, at d < 10 nm, antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, Io = qω|xo|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|xo| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency. PMID:25624503

  12. Updated emissions from ocean shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, James J.; Koehler, Horst W.

    2003-10-01

    Marine vessel inventories demonstrate that ship emissions cannot be neglected in assessing environmental impacts of air pollution, although significant uncertainty in these inventories remains. We address this uncertainty by employing a bottom-up estimate of fuel consumption and vessel activity for internationally registered fleets, including cargo vessels, other commercial vessels, and military vessels. We identify model bias in previous work, which assumed internationally registered ships primarily consume international marine fuels. Updated results suggest fuel consumption is ˜289 million metric tons per year, more than twice the quantity reported as international fuel. According to our analysis, fuel used by internationally registered fleets is apparently allocated to both international and domestic fuel statistics; this implies either that ships operate along domestic routes much of the time or that marine fuel sales to these ships may be misassigned. If the former is true, then allocation of emissions to international shipping routes may underestimate near-coastal emissions from ships. Our updated inventories increases previous ship emissions inventories for all pollutants; for example, global NOx emissions (˜6.87 Tg N) are more than doubled. This work also produces detailed sensitivity analyses of inputs to these estimates, identifying uncertainty in vessel duty-cycle as critical to overall emissions estimates. We discuss implications for assessing ship emissions impacts.

  13. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerdau, Manuel; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-08-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, α-pinene and β-pinene, but that Δ-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for α-pinene and β-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Δ-carene.

  14. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerdau, Manual; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, but that Delta-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Delta-carene.

  15. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission

    DOE PAGES

    Eggleston, Michael S.; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; ...

    2015-01-26

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ~200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ~115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ~2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ~10 nm, proportional to 1/d2. Unfortunately, at d emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Additionally, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.« less

  16. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerdau, Manual; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, but that Delta-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Delta-carene.

  17. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  18. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  19. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  20. Teleconsultations reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tiago Cravo; Barlow, James; Gonçalves, Luís; Bayer, Steffen

    2013-10-01

    Health services contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. New models of delivering care closer to patients have the potential to reduce travelling and associated emissions. We aimed to compare the emissions of patients attending a teleconsultation - an outpatient appointment using video-conferencing equipment - with those of patients attending a face-to-face appointment. We estimated the total distances travelled and the direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions for 20,824 teleconsultations performed between 2004 and 2011 in Alentejo, a Portuguese region. These were compared to the distances and emissions that would have resulted if teleconsultations were not available and patients had to attend face-to-face outpatient appointments. Estimates were calculated using survey data on mode of transport, and national aggregate data for car engine size and fuel. A sensitivity analysis using the lower and upper quartiles for survey distances was performed. Teleconsultations led to reductions in distances and emissions of 95%. 2,313,819 km of travelling and 455 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions were avoided (22 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per patient). The incorporation of modes of transport and car engine size and fuel in the analysis led to emission estimates which were 12% smaller than those assuming all patients used an average car. The availability of remote care services can significantly reduce road travel and associated emissions. At a time when many countries are committed to reducing their carbon footprint, it is desirable to explore how these reductions could be incorporated into technology assessments and economic evaluations.

  1. Radio emission in Mercury magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, J.; Reville, V.; Brun, A. S.; Pantellini, F.; Zarka, P.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Active stars possess magnetized wind that has a direct impact on planets that can lead to radio emission. Mercury is a good test case to study the effect of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on radio emission driven in the planet magnetosphere. Such studies could be used as proxies to characterize the magnetic field topology and intensity of exoplanets. Aims: The aim of this study is to quantify the radio emission in the Hermean magnetosphere. Methods: We use the magnetohydrodynamic code PLUTO in spherical coordinates with an axisymmetric multipolar expansion for the Hermean magnetic field, to analyze the effect of the IMF orientation and intensity, as well as the hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density and temperature), on the net power dissipated on the Hermean day and night side. We apply the formalism derived by Zarka et al. (2001, Astrophys. Space Sci., 277, 293), Zarka (2007, Planet. Space Sci., 55, 598) to infer the radio emission level from the net dissipated power. We perform a set of simulations with different hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind, IMF orientations and intensities, that allow us to calculate the dissipated power distribution and infer the existence of radio emission hot spots on the planet day side, and to calculate the integrated radio emission of the Hermean magnetosphere. Results: The obtained radio emission distribution of dissipated power is determined by the IMF orientation (associated with the reconnection regions in the magnetosphere), although the radio emission strength is dependent on the IMF intensity and solar wind hydro parameters. The calculated total radio emission level is in agreement with the one estimated in Zarka et al. (2001, Astrophys. Space Sci., 277, 293) , between 5 × 105 and 2 × 106 W.

  2. Optimal Renewable Energy Integration into Refinery with CO2 Emissions Consideration: An Economic Feasibility Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnifro, M.; Taqvi, S. T.; Ahmad, M. S.; Bensaida, K.; Elkamel, A.

    2017-08-01

    With increasing global energy demand and declining energy return on energy invested (EROEI) of crude oil, global energy consumption by the O&G industry has increased drastically over the past few years. In addition, this energy increase has led to an increase GHG emissions, resulting in adverse environmental effects. On the other hand, electricity generation through renewable resources have become relatively cost competitive to fossil based energy sources in a much ‘cleaner’ way. In this study, renewable energy is integrated optimally into a refinery considering costs and CO2 emissions. Using Aspen HYSYS, a refinery in the Middle East was simulated to estimate the energy demand by different processing units. An LP problem was formulated based on existing solar energy systems and wind potential in the region. The multi-objective function, minimizing cost as well as CO2 emissions, was solved using GAMS to determine optimal energy distribution from each energy source to units within the refinery. Additionally, an economic feasibility study was carried out to determine the viability of renewable energy technology project implementation to overcome energy requirement of the refinery. Electricity generation through all renewable energy sources considered (i.e. solar PV, solar CSP and wind) were found feasible based on their low levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The payback period for a Solar CSP project, with an annual capacity of about 411 GWh and a lifetime of 30 years, was found to be 10 years. In contrast, the payback period for Solar PV and Wind were calculated to be 7 and 6 years, respectively. This opens up possibilities for integrating renewables into the refining sector as well as optimizing multiple energy carrier systems within the crude oil industry

  3. Setting Emissions Standards Based on Technology Performance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In setting national emissions standards, EPA sets emissions performance levels rather than mandating use of a particular technology. The law mandates that EPA use numerical performance standards whenever feasible in setting national emissions standards.

  4. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following requirements...

  5. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the...

  6. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following requirements...

  7. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following requirements...

  8. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the...

  9. [Tau Positron Emission Tomography].

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Makoto

    2017-07-01

    Accumulation of fibrillar tau protein aggregates is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related neurodegenerative dementias, including a subgroup of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Visualization of tau lesions in the brains of living subjects enables a pathology-based diagnosis of dementing illnesses in the prodromal stage, and offers objective measures of disease progression and outcomes of disease-modifying therapies. With this rationale, diverse classes of low-molecular-weight chemicals capable of binding to a β-pleated sheet structure have been developed to be used for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) of tau pathologies. Clinical PET studies of AD patients with such tau probes have provided the following insights: (1) Tau fibrils accumulate in the hippocampal formation in an age-dependent manner that is independent of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) pathology; (2) The deposition of Aβ may trigger a spatial expansion of tau pathology, in transition from normal aging to advanced AD; and (3) Tau accumulation is intimately associated with local neuronal loss, leading to cortical atrophy and focal symptoms. In contrast, studies of FTLD have shown a limited performance of first-generation PET probes in capturing non-AD-type tau lesions. New compounds have accordingly been developed and clinically tested, proving to yield a high contrast for tau deposits with high specificity. These second-generation probes are being evaluated primarily by pharmaceutical companies, in line with their growing demands for neuroimaging-based biomarkers serving for clinical trials of anti-Aβ and anti-tau therapies. Meanwhile, a consortium flexibly linking academia and industry to facilitate the utilization of research tools, including tau PET probes, has been established in Japan, for the ultimate purpose of elucidating the molecular etiology of tauopathies and creating diagnostic and therapeutic agents based on such an understanding.

  10. Infrared emission from interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    The mid-IR absorption and Raman spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the mechanisms determining them are reviewed, and the implications for observations of similar emission spectra in interstellar clouds are considered. Topics addressed include the relationship between PAHs and amorphous C, the vibrational spectroscopy of PAHs, the molecular emission process, molecular anharmonicity, and the vibrational quasi-continuum. Extensive graphs, diagrams, and sample spectra are provided, and the interstellar emission bands are attributed to PAHs with 20-30 C atoms on the basis of the observed 3.3/3.4-micron intensity ratios.

  11. Turbojet emissions, hydrogen versus JP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.; Norgren, C. T.; Anderson, D.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary data from an experimental combustor show that the NOx emission index, g(NO2)/Kg fuel, is about three times greater for hydrogen than for JP at simulated cruise conditions. However, if these results are applied to aircraft designed for a given mission, hydrogen's higher heating value enables the aircraft to have a lower gross weight and a lower fuel flow rate so that the NOx emission rate, Kg (NO2)/hr may be reduced about 30 percent compared to JP. Theoretical kinetics calculations indicate that combustors may be designed for hydrogen that could further decrease NOx emissions by taking advantage of hydrogen's wide flammable limits and high burning velocity.

  12. Venus - Global surface radio emissivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, P. G.; Pettengill, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of thermal radio emission from the surface of Venus, made by the Pioneer Venus radar mapper at a wavelength of 17 cm, show variations that are dominated by changes in surface emissivity. The regions of lowest emissivity (0.54 + or - 0.05 for the highland areas of Aphrodite Terra and Theia Mons) correspond closely to regions of high radar reflectivity reported earlier. These results support the inference of inclusions of material with high electrical conductivity in the surface rock of these areas.

  13. Microwave emission and crop residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to determine the significance of crop residues or stubble in estimating the emission of the underlying soil. Observations using truck-mounted L and C band passive microwave radiometers showed that for dry wheat and soybeans the dry residue caused negligible attenuation of the background emission. Green residues, with water contents typical of standing crops, did have a significant effect on the background emission. Results for these green residues also indicated that extremes in plant structure, as created using parallel and perpendicular stalk orientations, can cause very large differences in the degree of attenuation.

  14. Emissivity of layered fibrous materials.

    PubMed

    Golombok, M; Shirvill, L C

    1988-09-15

    The radiant energy properties of fibrous materials may be described by an effective surface emissivity, which is a function of the material construction. The important parameters are porosity and the emissivity of the solid component. The layered construction leads to a unit cell model determining radiant heat transfer through the material to the environment. Geometric absorption cross sections are used as radiation view factors in a pseudoenclosed configuration. The emissivities are obtained by comparison to a material made from black fibers and are in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements.

  15. Infrared emission from interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    The mid-IR absorption and Raman spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the mechanisms determining them are reviewed, and the implications for observations of similar emission spectra in interstellar clouds are considered. Topics addressed include the relationship between PAHs and amorphous C, the vibrational spectroscopy of PAHs, the molecular emission process, molecular anharmonicity, and the vibrational quasi-continuum. Extensive graphs, diagrams, and sample spectra are provided, and the interstellar emission bands are attributed to PAHs with 20-30 C atoms on the basis of the observed 3.3/3.4-micron intensity ratios.

  16. Microwave emission and crop residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to determine the significance of crop residues or stubble in estimating the emission of the underlying soil. Observations using truck-mounted L and C band passive microwave radiometers showed that for dry wheat and soybeans the dry residue caused negligible attenuation of the background emission. Green residues, with water contents typical of standing crops, did have a significant effect on the background emission. Results for these green residues also indicated that extremes in plant structure, as created using parallel and perpendicular stalk orientations, can cause very large differences in the degree of attenuation.

  17. 40 CFR 65.102 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... means of emission limitation. (ii) The Administrator will compare test data for the means of emission... of emission limitation. (iii) The Administrator will compare the demonstrated emission reduction...

  18. Analysis of Carbon Emission Characteristics of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng

    Since the opening-up, our economy develops fastly with the energy consume and the carbon emission increasing year by year. At present, China is the biggest country of the carbon emission in the world. We face the huge pressure to control the green house gases emissions. So, the text analyses the feature of carbon emission applying the indexs of the carbon emission aggregate, per captial carbon emission and the carbon emission elasticity efficient, and puts forward the countermeasures of lessoning the carbon emission.

  19. Basic Information about Air Emissions Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site is about types of air emissions monitoring and the Clean Air Act regulations, including Ambient Air Quality Monitoring, Stationary Source Emissions Monitoring, and Continuous Monitoring Systems.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: TCS-CAIN : Galactic plane NIR survey (Cabrera-Lavers+, 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Garzon, F.; Hammersley, P. L.; Vicente, B.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.

    2006-03-01

    Point sources detections in J, H and K obtained along the TCS-CAIN survey in the 530 recorded Galactic fields. Individual magnitudes for each point source in the three bands, their coordinates (both equatorial and galactic ones), and cross-matching with 2MASS sources is provided in each catalogue file. Each file corresponds to a single field observed along the survey and it is named using the central galactic coordinates as reference (see Section 6 in the paper for details). At the beginning of each field astrometric transformation coefficients, photometric zero-points, extinction coefficients, and photometric uncertainties are enumerated (as they are obtained for each single catalogue field as a whole). (2 data files).

  1. Mercury Emissions: The Global Context

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mercury emissions are a global problem that knows no national or continental boundaries. Mercury that is emitted to the air can travel thousands of miles in the atmosphere before it is eventually deposited back to the earth.

  2. Stratospheric emissions effects database development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Henderson, Stephen C.; Hertel, Peter S.; Maggiora, Debra R.; Oncina, Carlos A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the development of a stratospheric emissions effects database (SEED) of aircraft fuel burn and emissions from projected Year 2015 subsonic aircraft fleets and from projected fleets of high-speed civil transports (HSCT's). This report also describes the development of a similar database of emissions from Year 1990 scheduled commercial passenger airline and air cargo traffic. The objective of this work was to initiate, develop, and maintain an engineering database for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burn and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons (as CH4) have been calculated on a 1-degree latitude x 1-degree longitude x 1-kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files. This report describes the assumptions and methodology for the calculations and summarizes the results of these calculations.

  3. Stratospheric emissions effects database development

    SciTech Connect

    Baughcum, S.L.; Henderson, S.C.; Hertel, P.S.; Maggiora, D.R.; Oncina, C.A.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the development of a stratospheric emissions effects database (SEED) of aircraft fuel burn and emissions from projected Year 2015 subsonic aircraft fleets and from projected fleets of high-speed civil transports (HSCT's). This report also describes the development of a similar database of emissions from Year 1990 scheduled commercial passenger airline and air cargo traffic. The objective of this work was to initiate, develop, and maintain an engineering database for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burn and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons (as CH4) have been calculated on a 1-degree latitude x 1-degree longitude x 1-kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files. This report describes the assumptions and methodology for the calculations and summarizes the results of these calculations.

  4. Emissions Inventory Final Rule TSD

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This technical support document (TSD) provides the details of emissions data processing done in support of EPA's final rulemaking effort for the Federal Transport Rule, now known as the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule.

  5. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  6. Photon upconversion with directed emission

    PubMed Central

    Börjesson, K.; Rudquist, P.; Gray, V.; Moth-Poulsen, K.

    2016-01-01

    Photon upconversion has the potential to increase the efficiency of single bandgap solar cells beyond the Shockley Queisser limit. Efficient light management is an important point in this context. Here we demonstrate that the direction of upconverted emission can be controlled in a reversible way, by embedding anthracene derivatives together with palladium porphyrin in a liquid crystalline matrix. The system is employed in a triplet-triplet annihilation photon upconversion scheme demonstrating controlled switching of directional anti Stokes emission. Using this approach an emission ratio of 0.37 between the axial and longitudinal emission directions and a directivity of 1.52 is achieved, reasonably close to the theoretical maximal value of 2 obtained from a perfectly oriented sample. The system can be switched for multiple cycles without any visible degradation and the speed of switching is only limited by the intrinsic rate of alignment of the liquid crystalline matrix. PMID:27573539

  7. Photon upconversion with directed emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, K.; Rudquist, P.; Gray, V.; Moth-Poulsen, K.

    2016-08-01

    Photon upconversion has the potential to increase the efficiency of single bandgap solar cells beyond the Shockley Queisser limit. Efficient light management is an important point in this context. Here we demonstrate that the direction of upconverted emission can be controlled in a reversible way, by embedding anthracene derivatives together with palladium porphyrin in a liquid crystalline matrix. The system is employed in a triplet-triplet annihilation photon upconversion scheme demonstrating controlled switching of directional anti Stokes emission. Using this approach an emission ratio of 0.37 between the axial and longitudinal emission directions and a directivity of 1.52 is achieved, reasonably close to the theoretical maximal value of 2 obtained from a perfectly oriented sample. The system can be switched for multiple cycles without any visible degradation and the speed of switching is only limited by the intrinsic rate of alignment of the liquid crystalline matrix.

  8. Mobile fiber optic emission spectrograph

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, W.A.; Coleman, C.J.; McCarty, J.E.; Beck, R.S.

    1997-05-01

    Technical Assistance Request HLW/DWPF-TAR-970064 asked SRTC to evaluate the use of a fiber optic coupled emission spectrometer. The spectrometer would provide additional ICP analyses in the DWPF laboratory.

  9. Emission tomography of the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Teates, C.D.; Croft, B.Y.; Brenbridge, N.A.; Bray, S.T.; Williamson, B.R.

    1983-12-01

    Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) was done on two patients with suspected renal masses. Nuclear scintigraphy was equivocal on two tumors readily identified by SPECT. Single photon tomography is cost effective and increases the reliability of nuclear scintigraphy.

  10. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  11. Energy and Emissions at EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To demonstrate its leadership in energy and environmental stewardship, EPA is committed to managing its own facilities and operations in a way that minimizes greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use.

  12. Nonthermal Emission from Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Emma

    Galaxy clusters are the most massive gravitationally-bound objects in the universe. The bulk of the mass in a cluster is dark matter, while the dominant baryonic component is a thermal, X-ray emitting plasma. Radio observations of diffuse synchrotron emission indicate that galaxy clusters host a population of cosmic rays; however, the nature of this nonthermal component is not well-understood. In this dissertation, I investigate three sources of nonthermal emission in galaxy clusters. The first is star formation in galaxies, which is correlated to gamma-ray emission. I derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission for nearby clusters by considering the emission from star formation in cluster galaxies. These lower limits sit about an order of magnitude below current upper limits on gamma rays in clusters and will be an important contributor to gamma-ray emission as upper limits improve over time. Dark matter annihilation, which produces relativistic particles that can result in a broad spectrum of emission in cluster environments, is another source of nonthermal emission. I use nondetections and marginal detections of diffuse radio emission in clusters to constrain dark matter annihilation. I derive limits on the annihilation cross section that are competitive with limits from the nondetection of gamma rays in clusters and show that the best objects for study in the radio are different than those in gamma rays, indicating that dark matter searches in the radio can be complementary to searches in other energy bands. I also investigate the cosmic ray population in the merging cluster A2319, which hosts a previously detected radio halo. I present new observations which reveal a two-component radio halo: a 2 Mpc region that extends far past the observable X-ray emission, and an 800 kpc "core" that is bounded by the X-ray cold front. I speculate on the origins of this structure, and show that a hadronic origin for this radio halo is disfavored. Finally, I discuss current

  13. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.

    PubMed

    Björn, Lars Olof; Bengtson, Sven-Axel; Li, Shaoshan; Hecker, Christoph; Ullah, Saleem; Roos, Arne; Nilsson, Annica M

    2016-04-01

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16μm. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259μm the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3μm due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs.

  14. Methane Emissions from Upland Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megonigal, Patrick; Pitz, Scott; Wang, Zhi-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Global budgets ascribe 4-10% of atmospheric methane sinks to upland soils and assume that soils are the sole surface for methane exchange between upland forests and the atmosphere. The dogma that upland forests are uniformly atmospheric methane sinks was challenged a decade ago by the discovery of abiotic methane production from plant tissue. Subsequently a variety of relatively cryptic microbial and non-microbial methane sources have been proposed that have the potential to emit methane in upland forests. Despite the accumulating evidence of potential methane sources, there are few data demonstrating actual emissions of methane from a plant surface in an upland forest. We report direct observations of methane emissions from upland tree stems in two temperate forests. Stem methane emissions were observed from several tree species that dominate a forest located on the mid-Atlantic coast of North America (Maryland, USA). Stem emissions occurred throughout the growing season while soils adjacent to the trees simultaneously consumed methane. Scaling fluxes by stem surface area suggested the forest was a net methane source during a wet period in June, and that stem emissions offset 5% of the soil methane sink on an annual basis. High frequency measurements revealed diurnal cycles in stem methane emission rates, pointing to soils as the methane source and transpiration as the most likely pathway for gas transport. Similar observations were made in an upland forest in Beijing, China. However, in this case the evidence suggested the methane was not produced in soils, but in the heartwood by microbial or non-microbial processes. These data challenge the concept that forests are uniform sinks of methane, and suggest that upland forests are smaller methane sinks than previously estimated due to stem emissions. Tree emissions may be particularly important in upland tropical forests characterized by high rainfall and transpiration.

  15. Study Acoustic Emissions from Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James; Workman,Gary

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work will be to develop techniques for monitoring the acoustic emissions from carbon epoxy composite structures at cryogenic temperatures. Performance of transducers at temperatures ranging from ambient to cryogenic and the characteristics of acoustic emission from composite structures will be studied and documented. This entire effort is directed towards characterization of structures used in NASA propulsion programs such as the X-33.

  16. Magnetomechanical Acoustic Emission - A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Nickel Alloys Ferromagnetic Materials LA Acoustic Emission Barkhausen noise O-A Residual Stress ’~20 ABSTWA 7- ontinue reverse ad. Ii nedceeory and...also called magneto-acoustic emission [13], or acoustic Barkhausen effect [1]. When a ferromagnetic sample is placed in an alternating magnetic field...transducer, which should be insensitive to a magnetic field, was attached to a sample. A flux sensing coil and a Barkhausen noise (BN) probe are also

  17. Radio emission from binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the radio emission from binary star systems - the emission processes that occur, the characteristics of the binary systems inferred from the radio observations, and the reasons for the activity. Several classes of binary stars are described including those with two main sequence stars, those with one normal star and a white dwarf, and those containing a neutron star or a black hole.

  18. SU-D-9A-01: Listmode-Driven Optimal Gating (OG) Respiratory Motion Management: Potential Impact On Quantitative PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K; Hristov, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential impact of listmode-driven amplitude based optimal gating (OG) respiratory motion management technique on quantitative PET imaging. Methods: During the PET acquisitions, an optical camera tracked and recorded the motion of a tool placed on top of patients' torso. PET event data were utilized to detect and derive a motion signal that is directly coupled with a specific internal organ. A radioactivity-trace was generated from listmode data by accumulating all prompt counts in temporal bins matching the sampling rate of the external tracking device. Decay correction for 18F was performed. The image reconstructions using OG respiratory motion management technique that uses 35% of total radioactivity counts within limited motion amplitudes were performed with external motion and radioactivity traces separately with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) with 2 iterations and 21 subsets. Standard uptake values (SUVs) in a tumor region were calculated to measure the effect of using radioactivity trace for motion compensation. Motion-blurred 3D static PET image was also reconstructed with all counts and the SUVs derived from OG images were compared with SUVs from 3D images. Results: A 5.7 % increase of the maximum SUV in the lesion was found for optimal gating image reconstruction with radioactivity trace when compared to a static 3D image. The mean and maximum SUVs on the image that was reconstructed with radioactivity trace were found comparable (0.4 % and 4.5 % increase, respectively) to the values derived from the image that was reconstructed with external trace. Conclusion: The image reconstructed using radioactivity trace showed that the blurring due to the motion was reduced with impact on derived SUVs. The resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with radioactivity trace were comparable to the resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with external respiratory traces. Research supported by Siemens.

  19. Effects of music and art education in early life and oral functions on the QOL of the Takarazuka Revue Company OG compared with general elderly females.

    PubMed

    Masutani, Takiko; Yamamoto, Yasuji; Konishi, Junya; Maeda, Kiyoshi

    2010-03-01

    Today, Japan is becoming a super-aged society, with senior citizens already constituting over 21% of the population. In this situation, the question of how elderly people can extend their lives and enjoy independent lifestyles is becoming more important. The present study aims to clarify the relationship between the Quality of Life (QOL) of elderly females and their current oral functions and experiences of music and art education in early life. We carried out a survey study focusing on elderly females (Takarazuka Revue Company OG group and general female group) by carrying out a questionnaire survey and comparing cognitive function, oral examinations, cerebral atrophy in magnetic resonance imaging, and other characteristics. It was shown that the Takarazuka Revue Company OG group had greater hippocampal volumes and significantly higher cognitive functions than the general female group. In addition, in the general female group, there was a significant correlation between a decrease in the number of remaining teeth and a decrease in activities in daily living, but in the Takarazuka Revue Company OG group, no such correlation was observed. The results showed that those who have received art education as part of their careers over an extensive period since early life have higher levels of cognitive function, QOL, physical activity, social activity and life satisfaction compared with the general female group; showing that they sense a purpose in life and live with a positive attitude. In contrast, in the general female group, those who have continued to enjoy hobbies have higher levels of cognitive function, QOL, physical activity, social activity and life satisfaction than those who have not, thus showing that they live with a positive attitude.

  20. Circulating filarial antigen in the hydrocele fluid from individuals living in a bancroftian filariasis area - Recife, Brazil: detected by the monoclonal antibody Og4C3-assay.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Abraham; Lima, Guilherme; Medeiros, Zulma; Aguiar-Santos, Ana; Alves, Sandra; Montarroyos, Ulisses; Oliveira, Paula; Béliz, Fátima; Netto, Maria José; Furtado, André

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the circulating filarial antigen (CFA) detected by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) Og4C3-ELISA in paired samples of serum and hydrocele fluid from 104 men with hydrocele, living in an endemic area of Wuchereria bancrofti. Nocturnal blood specimens were filtered and examined for microfilariae (MF) and ultrasound was used in order to identify the presence of adult worms (the filaria dance sign - FDS) in the lymphatic vessels of the scrotal area. Four groups were selected according to their parasitological status: group I - 71 MF- and FDS-; group II - 21 MF+ and FDS+; group III - 10 MF- and FDS+ and group IV- 2 MF+ and FDS-. CFA was identified simultaneously (fluid and serum) in 11 (15.5%), 21 (100%), 3 (30%), and 1 (50%) in groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. In despite of high CFA+ level (antigen Og4C3) units/ml, the Geometrical Mean (GM) = 2696) in the sera of these 36/104 paired samples, when compared to the hydrocele fluid, (GM = 1079), showed a very good correlation between the CFA level in the serum and CFA level in the fluid (r = 0.731). CFA level in the serum of the 23 microfilaremics (groups II and IV) was extremely high (GM = 4189) and was correlated with MF density (r = 0.442). These findings report for the first time the potential alternative use of the hydrocele fluid to investigate CFA using the mAb Og4C3-ELISA.

  1. Offsetting Ongoing Methane Emissions --- An Alternative to Emission Equivalence Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clisby, N.; Enting, I. G.; Lauder, A.; Carter, J.; Cowie, A.; Henry, B.; Raupach, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Warming Potential (GWP) has been widely adopted as a metric for comparing the climate impact of different greenhouse gases. As has been frequently noted, there are many problems with using GWPs to define emission equivalence in spite of the use of GWPs for this purpose in contexts such as the Kyoto Protocol. We propose that for methane, rather than define emission equivalence, the appropriate comparison is between ongoing emissions of 0.9 to 1.0 kg of CH4 per year and one-off emissions of 1 tonne of carbon. This approach represents an approximate solution to the inverse problem of defining a forcing equivalent index (FEI) that gives exact equivalence of radiative forcing over a range of timescales. In our approach, if ongoing methane emissions are offset by a one-off carbon removal that is built up with 40-year e-folding time, then the result is close to radiatively neutral over periods from years to centuries. In contrast, the GWP provides radiative equivalence (in integrated terms) only at a single time, with large discrepancies at other times. Our approach also follows from consideration of greenhouse gas stabilisation, since stabilising atmospheric CO2 requires an approximate cap on total emissions, while stabilising methane requires stabilisation of ongoing emissions. Our quantitative treatment recognises that, on time scales of centuries, removal of 1 tonne of carbon only lowers the atmospheric carbon content by 0.3 to 0.35 tonnes. We discuss the implications for rangeland grazing systems. In the absence of effective mitigation techniques for methane from rangeland systems, this approach may provide an attractive offset mechanism in spite of requiring that woody vegetation be established and maintained over about 15% of the landscape, or an equivalent amount of carbon storage in soil.

  2. The North East Italy (NI) broadband seismic network run by OGS: experience in improving the long period performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.

    2009-04-01

    experimented and routinely used by the world wide GEOFON seismic network and the German regional seismic network: examples and performances of a typical OGS installation will be shown.

  3. OGS#PETSc approach for robust and efficient simulations of strongly coupled hydrothermal processes in EGS reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Norihiro; Blucher, Guido; Cacace, Mauro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    A robust and computationally efficient solution is important for 3D modelling of EGS reservoirs. This is particularly the case when the reservoir model includes hydraulic conduits such as induced or natural fractures, fault zones, and wellbore open-hole sections. The existence of such hydraulic conduits results in heterogeneous flow fields and in a strengthened coupling between fluid flow and heat transport processes via temperature dependent fluid properties (e.g. density and viscosity). A commonly employed partitioned solution (or operator-splitting solution) may not robustly work for such strongly coupled problems its applicability being limited by small time step sizes (e.g. 5-10 days) whereas the processes have to be simulated for 10-100 years. To overcome this limitation, an alternative approach is desired which can guarantee a robust solution of the coupled problem with minor constraints on time step sizes. In this work, we present a Newton-Raphson based monolithic coupling approach implemented in the OpenGeoSys simulator (OGS) combined with the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) library. The PETSc library is used for both linear and nonlinear solvers as well as MPI-based parallel computations. The suggested method has been tested by application to the 3D reservoir site of Groß Schönebeck, in northern Germany. Results show that the exact Newton-Raphson approach can also be limited to small time step sizes (e.g. one day) due to slight oscillations in the temperature field. The usage of a line search technique and modification of the Jacobian matrix were necessary to achieve robust convergence of the nonlinear solution. For the studied example, the proposed monolithic approach worked even with a very large time step size of 3.5 years.

  4. Portuguese Version of the EORTC QLQ-OES18 and QLQ-OG25 for Health-Related Quality of Life Assessment.

    PubMed

    Relvas-Silva, Miguel; Silva, Rui Almeida; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

    2017-01-31

    Health-related quality of life assessment is increasingly important as it can help both clinical research and care for patients, particularly among oncological patients. Quality of Life Questionnaire - OES18 (esophageal module) and Quality of Life Questionnaire - OG25 (esophagogastric module) are the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer modules for the evaluation of quality of life in patients with esophageal and esophagogastric cancers, respectively. The aim of our study was to translate, to culturally adapt and to perform a pilot testing to create the Portuguese version of both questionnaires. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines were followed for translation, cultural adaptation and pilot testing of Quality of Life Questionnaire - OES18 (esophageal module) and Quality of Life Questionnaire - OG25 (esophagogastric module). The Quality of Life Questionnaire - OG25 (esophagogastric module) went through a process of forward (English → Portuguese) and backward (Portuguese → English) translation, by independent native speaker translators. After review, a preliminary version was created to be pilot tested among Portuguese patients. As a Brazilian version was already available for Quality of Life Questionnaire - OES18 (esophageal module), the questionnaire was simply culturally adapted and pilot tested. Both cancer and non-cancer patients were included. Overall, 30 patients completed the Portuguese version of each questionnaire. Afterwards, a structured interview was conducted to find and report any problematic items. Troublesome items and wording were changed according to the pilot testing results. The final versions were sent to the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Group and approved. The Portuguese versions of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire - OES18 (esophageal module) and OG25

  5. Mining Hazards Analysis with Simultaneous Mining Copper Ores and Salt Deposits in LGOM (Legnica-Głogów Copper Belt) Mines with Regard to Dynamic Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłeczek, Zdzisław; Niedojadło, Zygmunt; Popiołek, Edward; Skobliński, Wojciech; Sopata, Paweł; Stoch, Tomasz; Wójcik, Artur; Zeljaś, Dagmara

    2016-09-01

    In the case of locating two bedded deposits of different mineral resources in a small vertical distance, additional or increased mining hazards can occur (deformations of the rock mass, crumps and mining shocks, hazards to the land surface). This paper has thoroughly examined the impact of exploitation of the lower-located deposit of copper ore on the higher-located deposit of salt as well as the reverse situation as regards the dynamic phenomena, being the greatest lithospheric hazard in LGOM. At the same time theoretical models of processes were applied, verified by previous observations in situ in mines of Legnica-Głogów Copper Belt.

  6. Toward an accurate description of solid-state properties of superheavy elements. A case study for the element Og (Z=118)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2016-12-01

    In the last two decades cold and hot fusion experiments lead to the production of new elements for the Periodic Table up to nuclear charge 118. Recent developments in relativistic quantum theory have made it possible to obtain accurate electronic properties for the trans-actinide elements with the aim to predict their potential chemical and physical behaviour. Here we report on first results of solid-state calculations for Og (element 118) to support future atom-at-a-time gas-phase adsorption experiments on surfaces such as gold or quartz.

  7. Martian Analogues Emissivity Spectra From the Berlin Emissivity Database (BED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Moroz, L.

    2006-12-01

    Remote sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to bodies in the solar system include in their payload instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analog materials is needed. The Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) currently contains emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulphur, and Martian analogue minerals, measured in the wavelength range from 7 to 22 microns as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from 0 to 250 microns. The device we used is built at DLR (Berlin) and is coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Bruker IFS 88), purged with dry air and equipped with a cooled detector (MCT). All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm-1. We present here the results of our analysis on well knew and characterized Martian analogue minerals: JSC Mars-1, Salten Skov, and Palagonite from Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We are currently working to upgrade our emissivity facility. A new spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80v) and new detectors will allow us to measure the emissivity of samples in the wavelength range from 1 to 50 microns, even in a vacuum environment.

  8. Methane emissions on large scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beswick, K. M.; Simpson, T. W.; Fowler, D.; Choularton, T. W.; Gallagher, M. W.; Hargreaves, K. J.; Sutton, M. A.; Kaye, A.

    Two separate studies have been undertaken to improve estimates of methane emissions on a landscape scale. The first study took place over a palsa mire in northern Finland in August 1995. A tethered balloon and a tunable diode laser were used to measure profiles of methane in the nocturnal boundary layer. Using a simple box method or the flux gradient technique fluxes ranging from 18.5 to 658 μmol m -2 h -1 were calculated. The large fluxes may be caused by advection of methane pockets across the measurement site, reflecting the heterogeneous nature of methane source strengths in the surrounding area. Under suitable conditions, comparison with nearby ground-based eddy-correlation results suggested that the balloon techniques could successfully measure fluxes on field scales. The second study was carried out by the NERC Scientific Services Atmospheric Research Airborne Support Facility using the Hercules C130 operated by the United Kingdom Meteorological Research Flight. A flight path around the northern coastline of Britain under steady West-East wind conditions enabled the measurement of methane concentrations up- and down-wind of northern Britain. Using a simple one-dimensional, constant-source diffusion model, the difference between the upwind and downwind concentrations was accounted for by methane emission from the surface. The contribution to methane emissions from livestock was also modelled. Modelled non-agricultural methane emissions decreased with increasing latitude with fluxes in northern England being a factor of 4 greater than those in northern Scotland. Since the only major methane source in northern Scotland was peat bogs, these results indicated that emissions over northern England were dominated by anthropogenic sources. Emissions from livestock accounted for 12% of the total flux over northern England, decreasing to 4% in southern Scotland and becoming negligible in northern Scotland. The total methane flux over northern Scotland was consistent

  9. Particulate emissions from construction activities.

    PubMed

    Muleski, Gregory E; Cowherd, Chatten; Kinsey, John S

    2005-06-01

    Although it has long been recognized that road and building construction activity constitutes an important source of particulate matter (PM) emissions throughout the United States, until recently only limited research has been directed to its characterization. This paper presents the results of PM10 and PM2.5 (particles < or = 10 microm and < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter, respectively) emission factor development from the onsite testing of component operations at actual construction sites during the period 1998-2001. Much of the testing effort was directed at earthmoving operations with scrapers, because earthmoving is the most important contributor of PM emissions across the construction industry. Other sources tested were truck loading and dumping of crushed rock and mud and dirt carryout from construction site access points onto adjacent public paved roads. Also tested were the effects of watering for control of scraper travel routes and the use of paved and graveled aprons at construction site access points for reducing mud and dirt carryout. The PM10 emissions from earthmoving were found to be up to an order of magnitude greater than predicted by AP-42 emission factors drawn from other industries. As expected, the observed PM2.5:PM10 emission factor ratios reflected the relative importance of the vehicle exhaust and the resuspended dust components of each type of construction activity. An unexpected finding was that PM2.5 emissions from mud and dirt carryout were much less than anticipated. Finally, the control efficiency of watering of scraper travel routes was found to closely follow a bilinear moisture model.

  10. The Berlin emissivity database (BED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Moroz, L.

    2008-03-01

    Remote-sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to the solar system bodies include in their payload, instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. Apart from measuring the reflected radiance, more and more spacecrafts are equipped with instruments measuring directly the emitted radiation from the planetary surface. The emitted radiation is not only a function of the composition of the material but also of its texture and especially the grain size distribution. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analogue materials in grain size fractions appropriate for planetary surfaces is needed. The Berlin emissivity database (BED) presented here is focused on relatively fine-grained size separates, providing thereby a realistic basis for the interpretation of thermal emission spectra of planetary regoliths. The BED is therefore complimentary to existing thermal emission libraries, like the ASU library for example. BED currently contains emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulfur, Martian analogue minerals and volcanic soils, and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 7 to 22 μm as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from <25 to 250 μm. The device we used is built at DLR (Berlin) and is coupled to a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer Bruker IFS 88 purged with dry air and equipped with a nitrogen-cooled MCT detector. All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm -1. We are currently working on upgrading our emissivity facility. A new spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80 V) and new detectors will allow us to measure the emissivity of samples in the wavelength range from 1 to 50 μm in a vacuum environment. This will be

  11. Gaseous Emissions from Aircraft Engines. A Handbook for the Calculation of Emission Indexes and Gaseous Emissions from Aircraft Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    corresponded to intervals of stable engine operation, as specified by the operators of the engine. Each laboratory reported emission indexes for the read ...period. The test established 50 read periods for gaseous emissions. Tabl, 5-1 gives the emission indexes at idle, high idle, approach, cruise and...emission indexes from a T58-GE-8F engine Test Cell - 12 Location - Naval Air Rework Facility, North Island IDLE Date Time Reading Prior Emission index

  12. Pisces field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 117 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 117. Site 117 is a 1 MW selective catalytic reduction (SCR) pilot plant. The host boiler is an 850 MW boiler which burned a residual fuel oil. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts - as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites. An assessment of data from all plants that have been tested is presented in the Electric Utility Trace Substances Synthesis Report.

  13. 40 CFR 61.123 - Emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., at its option, observe the test. (c) An emission test shall be conducted at each operational calciner or nodulizing kiln. If emissions from a calciner or nodulizing kiln are discharged through more than... calciner or kiln shall be the sum of the emission rates from each of the stacks. (d) Each emission...

  14. 40 CFR 61.123 - Emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., at its option, observe the test. (c) An emission test shall be conducted at each operational calciner or nodulizing kiln. If emissions from a calciner or nodulizing kiln are discharged through more than... calciner or kiln shall be the sum of the emission rates from each of the stacks. (d) Each emission...

  15. 40 CFR 61.123 - Emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., at its option, observe the test. (c) An emission test shall be conducted at each operational calciner or nodulizing kiln. If emissions from a calciner or nodulizing kiln are discharged through more than... calciner or kiln shall be the sum of the emission rates from each of the stacks. (d) Each emission...

  16. 40 CFR 61.123 - Emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., at its option, observe the test. (c) An emission test shall be conducted at each operational calciner or nodulizing kiln. If emissions from a calciner or nodulizing kiln are discharged through more than... calciner or kiln shall be the sum of the emission rates from each of the stacks. (d) Each emission...

  17. 40 CFR 61.271 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.271 Emission standard. The owner or operator of each storage vessel... vent system shall be designed to collect all benzene vapors and gases discharged from the...

  18. 40 CFR 61.271 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.271 Emission standard. The owner or operator of each storage vessel... vent system shall be designed to collect all benzene vapors and gases discharged from the...

  19. 40 CFR 61.271 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.271 Emission standard. The owner or operator of each storage vessel... vent system shall be designed to collect all benzene vapors and gases discharged from the...

  20. 40 CFR 61.271 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.271 Emission standard. The owner or operator of each storage vessel... vent system shall be designed to collect all benzene vapors and gases discharged from the...

  1. Thermodynamic Laws of Neutrino and Photon Emission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, P. J.; Gallo, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    Compares neutrino and photon emissions, develops the thermodynamic blackbody laws of neutrino emission analogous to laws governing photon emission, points out that combined radiation from a "true blackbody" consists of both photon and neutrino emissions of comparable magnitude, and speculates upon the existence of blackbody neutrino…

  2. 40 CFR 61.67 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission tests. 61.67 Section 61.67... Emission tests. (a) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under § 61.13, the owner or operator of a source to which this subpart applies shall test emissions from the source, (1) Within 90 days...

  3. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM emissions...

  4. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM emissions...

  5. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM emissions...

  6. Measurement of In-Flight Aircraft Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokoloski, M.; Arnold, C.; Rider, D.; Beer, R.; Worden, H.; Glavich, T.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft engine emission and their chemical and physical evolution can be measured in flight using high resolution infrared spectroscopy. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES), designed for remote measure- ments of atmosphere emissions from an airborne platform, is an ideal tool for the evaluation of aircraft emissions and their evolution. Capabilities of AES will be discussed. Ground data will be given.

  7. Thermodynamic Laws of Neutrino and Photon Emission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, P. J.; Gallo, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    Compares neutrino and photon emissions, develops the thermodynamic blackbody laws of neutrino emission analogous to laws governing photon emission, points out that combined radiation from a "true blackbody" consists of both photon and neutrino emissions of comparable magnitude, and speculates upon the existence of blackbody neutrino…

  8. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1313 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1313...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1403 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1403 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins § 63.1403...

  10. 47 CFR 80.211 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission limitations. 80.211 Section 80.211... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.211 Emission limitations. The emissions must be attenuated according to the following schedule. (a) The mean power when using emissions H3E, J3E and R3E:...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1403 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1403 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins §...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.940 - Emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission calculations. 1065.940... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065.940 Emission calculations. (a) Perform emission calculations as described in § 1065.650 to calculate...

  13. 47 CFR 80.211 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emission limitations. 80.211 Section 80.211... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.211 Emission limitations. The emissions must be attenuated according to the following schedule. (a) The mean power when using emissions H3E, J3E and R3E:...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1652 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1652 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards... Emission standards. (a) New and reconstructed submerged arc furnaces. No owner or operator shall cause...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1424 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1424 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production §...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.940 - Emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission calculations. 1065.940... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065.940 Emission calculations. (a) Perform emission calculations as described in § 1065.650 to calculate...

  17. 47 CFR 80.211 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emission limitations. 80.211 Section 80.211... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.211 Emission limitations. The emissions must be attenuated according to the following schedule. (a) The mean power when using emissions H3E, J3E and R3E:...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.940 - Emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission calculations. 1065.940... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065.940 Emission calculations. (a) Perform emission calculations as described in § 1065.650 to calculate...

  19. 47 CFR 80.211 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emission limitations. 80.211 Section 80.211... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.211 Emission limitations. The emissions must be attenuated according to the following schedule. (a) The mean power when using emissions H3E, J3E and R3E:...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1403 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1403 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins §...

  1. 40 CFR 89.119 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission tests. 89.119 Section 89.119... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.119 Emission tests. (a) Manufacturer testing. (1) Upon completion of service...

  2. 40 CFR 89.119 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission tests. 89.119 Section 89.119... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.119 Emission tests. (a) Manufacturer testing. (1) Upon completion of service...

  3. 47 CFR 80.211 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emission limitations. 80.211 Section 80.211... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.211 Emission limitations. The emissions must be attenuated according to the following schedule. (a) The mean power when using emissions H3E, J3E and R3E:...

  4. 40 CFR 89.119 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission tests. 89.119 Section 89.119... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.119 Emission tests. (a) Manufacturer testing. (1) Upon completion of service...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.940 - Emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission calculations. 1065.940... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065.940 Emission calculations. (a) Perform emission calculations as described in § 1065.650 to calculate...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1313 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1313...

  7. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Holmes

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  8. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  9. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A P

    1998-12-03

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W's new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  10. Advanced Emission Control Development Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1997-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  11. PAHFIT: Properties of PAH Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. D.; Draine, Bruce

    2012-10-01

    PAHFIT is an IDL tool for decomposing Spitzer IRS spectra of PAH emission sources, with a special emphasis on the careful recovery of ambiguous silicate absorption, and weak, blended dust emission features. PAHFIT is primarily designed for use with full 5-35 micron Spitzer low-resolution IRS spectra. PAHFIT is a flexible tool for fitting spectra, and you can add or disable features, compute combined flux bands, change fitting limits, etc., without changing the code. PAHFIT uses a simple, physically-motivated model, consisting of starlight, thermal dust continuum in a small number of fixed temperature bins, resolved dust features and feature blends, prominent emission lines (which themselves can be blended with dust features), as well as simple fully-mixed or screen dust extinction, dominated by the silicate absorption bands at 9.7 and 18 microns. Most model components are held fixed or are tightly constrained. PAHFIT uses Drude profiles to recover the full strength of dust emission features and blends, including the significant power in the wings of the broad emission profiles. This means the resulting feature strengths are larger (by factors of 2-4) than are recovered by methods which estimate the underlying continuum using line segments or spline curves fit through fiducial wavelength anchors.

  12. Emission Market Opportunities for Federal Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Shah, C.

    2005-06-01

    This document assists federal agencies in incorporating emissions market opportunities in their energy projects, including emission reduction credit markets and cap and trade. It looks at how potential emissions costs/revenues can be incorporated into project proposals, how groups can apply for emissions allowances, and how agencies can sell emissions allowances and receive the financial benefit. The fact sheet also outlines how FEMP can provide assistance throughout the process.

  13. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2'-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Morandini, Piero; Murgia, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe) homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analyzed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s) of cellular plant "Fe status" triggering the long-distance shoot-root signaling and leading to the root Fe deficiency responses is (are) still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2'-OG-dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II) as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl 4-hydroxylase), is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2'-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells.

  14. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Morandini, Piero; Murgia, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe) homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analyzed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s) of cellular plant “Fe status” triggering the long-distance shoot–root signaling and leading to the root Fe deficiency responses is (are) still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II) as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl 4-hydroxylase), is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2′-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells. PMID:23755060

  15. The effects of detergents DDM and beta-OG on the singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a in cytochrome b6f complex from spinach chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Chen, XiaoBo; Zhao, XiaoHui; Zhang, JianPing; Li, LiangBi; Kuang, TingYun

    2007-08-01

    The singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a (Chl a) in cytochrome b(6)f (Cyt b(6)f) complex was reported to be shorter than that of free Chl a in methanol, but the value was different for Cyt b(6)f complexes from different sources ( approximately 200 and approximately 600 ps are the two measured results). The present study demonstrated that the singlet excited state lifetime is associated with the detergents n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside (DDM) and n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (beta-OG), but has nothing to do with the different sources of Cyt b(6)f complexes. Compared with the Cyt b(6)f dissolved in beta-OG, the Cyt b(6)f in DDM had a lower fluorescence yield, a lower photodegradation rate of Chl a, and a shorter lifetime of Chl a excited state. In short, the singlet excited state lifetime, approximately 200 ps, of the Chl a in Cyt b(6)f complex in DDM is closer to the true in vivo.

  16. Spontaneous emission and absorber theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, David T.

    1997-01-01

    One of the long term interests of George Series was the construction of a theory of spontaneous emission which does not involve field quantisation. His approach was written in terms of atomic operators only and he drew a parallel with the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory of radiation. By making a particular extra postulate, he was able to obtain the correct spontaneous emission rate and the Lamb shift reasonably simply and directly. An examination of his approach indicates that this postulate is physically reasonable and the need for it arises because quantisation in his theory occurs after the response of the absorber has been accounted for by means of the radiative reaction field. We review briefly an alternative absorber theory approach to spontaneous emission based on the direct action between the emitting atom and a quantised absorber, and outline some applications to more recent effects of interest in quantum optics.

  17. New double soft emission theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachazo, Freddy; He, Song; Yuan, Ellis Ye

    2015-09-01

    We study the behavior of the tree-level S-matrix of a variety of theories as two particles become soft. By analogy with the recently found subleading soft theorems for gravitons and gluons, we explore subleading terms in double soft emissions. We first consider double soft scalar emissions and find subleading terms that are controlled by the angular momentum operator acting on hard particles. The order of the subleading theorems depends on the presence or not of color structures. Next we obtain a compact formula for the leading term in a double soft photon emission. The theories studied are a special Galileon, Dirac-Born-Infeld, Einstein-Maxwell-Scalar, nonlinear sigma model and Yang-Mills-Scalar. We use the recently found Cachazo-He-Yuan representation of these theories in order to give a simple proof of the leading order part of all these theorems.

  18. Diffuse Interstellar Bands in Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. B.; Sarre, P.; Marshall, C. C. M.; Spekkens, K.; de Naray, R. Kuzio

    Recent Fabry-Pérot observations towards the galaxy NGC 1325 with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) led to the serendipitous discovery of an emission feature centered at 661.3 nm arising from material in the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy; this emission feature lies at the wavelength of one of the sharper and stronger diffuse bands normally seen in absorption. The flux of the feature is 4.2 +/- 0.5 × 10-18 es-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. It appears that this is the first observation of emission from a diffuse band carrier in the ISM, excited in this case by the interstellar radiation field. We present the discovery spectra and describe follow-up measurements proposed for SALT.

  19. High mobility emissive organic semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hantang; Dong, Huanli; Meng, Lingqiang; Jiang, Longfeng; Jiang, Lang; Wang, Ying; Yu, Junsheng; Sun, Yanming; Hu, Wenping; Heeger, Alan J

    2015-12-01

    The integration of high charge carrier mobility and high luminescence in an organic semiconductor is challenging. However, there is need of such materials for organic light-emitting transistors and organic electrically pumped lasers. Here we show a novel organic semiconductor, 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA), which exhibits not only high emission with single crystal absolute florescence quantum yield of 41.2% but also high charge carrier mobility with single crystal mobility of 34 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on DPA give pure blue emission with brightness up to 6,627 cd m(-2) and turn-on voltage of 2.8 V. 2,6-Diphenylanthracene OLED arrays are successfully driven by DPA field-effect transistor arrays, demonstrating that DPA is a high mobility emissive organic semiconductor with potential in organic optoelectronics.

  20. High mobility emissive organic semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hantang; Dong, Huanli; Meng, Lingqiang; Jiang, Longfeng; Jiang, Lang; Wang, Ying; Yu, Junsheng; Sun, Yanming; Hu, Wenping; Heeger, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of high charge carrier mobility and high luminescence in an organic semiconductor is challenging. However, there is need of such materials for organic light-emitting transistors and organic electrically pumped lasers. Here we show a novel organic semiconductor, 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA), which exhibits not only high emission with single crystal absolute florescence quantum yield of 41.2% but also high charge carrier mobility with single crystal mobility of 34 cm2 V−1 s−1. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on DPA give pure blue emission with brightness up to 6,627 cd m−2 and turn-on voltage of 2.8 V. 2,6-Diphenylanthracene OLED arrays are successfully driven by DPA field-effect transistor arrays, demonstrating that DPA is a high mobility emissive organic semiconductor with potential in organic optoelectronics. PMID:26620323

  1. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  2. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  3. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  4. Isoprene emission from wetland sedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekberg, A.; Arneth, A.; Hakola, H.; Hayward, S.; Holst, T.

    2009-04-01

    High latitude wetlands play an important role for the surface-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), but fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) in these ecosystems have to date not been extensively studied. This is despite BVOC representing a measurable proportion of the total gaseous C fluxes at northern locations and in the face of the high temperature sensitivity of these systems that requires a much improved process understanding to interpret and project possible changes in response to climate warming. We measured emission of isoprene and photosynthetic gas exchange over two growing seasons (2005-2006) in a subarctic wetland in northern Sweden with the objective to identify the physiological and environmental controls of these fluxes on the leaf scale. The sedge species Eriophorum angustifolium and Carex rostrata were both emitters of isoprene. Springtime emissions were first detected after an accumulated diurnal mean temperature above 0°C of about 100 degree days. Maximum measured growing season standardized (basal) emission rates (20°C, 1000 μmol m-2 s-1) were 1075 (2005) and 1118 (2006) μg C m-2 (leaf area) h-1 in E. angustifolium, and 489 (2005) and 396 (2006) μg C m-2 h-1 in C. rostrata. Over the growing season, basal isoprene emission varied in response to the temperature history of the last 48 h. Seasonal basal isoprene emission rates decreased with leaf nitrogen (N), which may be explained by the typical growth and resource allocation pattern of clonal sedges as the leaves age. The observations were used to model emissions over the growing season, accounting for effects of temperature history, links to leaf assimilation rate and the light and temperature dependencies of the cold-adapted sedges.

  5. Isoprene emission from Indian trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, C. K.; Singh, Abhai Pratap

    2003-12-01

    Isoprene is the most dominant non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emitted by plants. NMVOCs play an important role in regulating the composition of atmospheric trace gases including global concentration of tropospheric ozone. Our present knowledge about NMVOCs emission is mainly from studies on temperate tree species. So far information on biogenic NMVOCs emission from tropical tree species is limited. In this study, isoprene emission rates from 40 tropical Indian tree species belonging to 33 genera and 17 families were measured for the first time using a dynamic flow through enclosure chamber technique. The isoprene emission rate from plants (30°C and PAR 1000 μmolm-2s-1) ranged from undetectable to 81.5 μg g-1 h-1 and values were found to be comparable with other studies on tropical tree species. Tree species screened for isoprene emission in the present study may be grouped into the four categories, proposed by [2001], namely, 18 species were negligible or BDL isoprene emitting (<1 μg g-1 h-1), 6 species were low emitting (1 ≤ to <10 μg g-1 h-1), 5 species were moderate emitting (10≤ to <25 μg g-1 h-1), and 11 species were high isoprene emitting (≥25 μg g-1 h-1). Maximum isoprene emission rate (81.5 μg g-1 h-1) was observed in the case of Dalbergia sissoo Linn. It was interesting to find that Citrus limon Linn., Citrus reticulata Linn., Citrus sinensis Linn., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn., and Morus alba Linn., which were earlier reported as BDL or non isoprene emitters in US [, 1998; , 2001] were found to be appreciably high isoprene emitters (0.61-21.60 μg g-1 h-1) in the present study.

  6. Methane Emissions from Upland Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz, S.; Megonigal, P.; Schile, L. M.; Szlavecz, K. A.; King, K.

    2013-12-01

    Most work on methane (CH4) emissions from natural ecosystems has focused on wetlands and wetland soils because they are predictable emitters and relatively simple to quantify. Less attention has been directed toward upland ecosystems that cover far larger areas, but are assumed to be too dry to emit CH4. There is abundant evidence that upland ecosystems emit small amounts of CH4 during hot moments that collectively constitute a significant source in the global budget of this potent greenhouse gas. We have established two transects across natural moisture gradients in two forests near Annapolis, Maryland. Both tree and soil methane fluxes were measured using chamber methods. Each tree chamber was custom fit to the stem near the base. In addition, porewater methane concentrations were collected at multiple depths near trees. Abiotic parameters such as soil temperature, soil moisture, water potential, and depth to groundwater were monitored using a wireless sensor network. Upland emissions from tree stems were as high as 14.6 umoles CH4 m-2 hr-1 while the soil uptake was -1.5 umoles CH4 m-2 hr-1. These results demonstrate that tree methane emissions and soil methane uptake can occur simultaneously in a mesic forest. Factors controlling methane emissions were soil temperature, soil moisture, and depth to groundwater. Based on our preliminary data, tree mediated methane emissions may be offsetting the soil methane sink of upland forests by 20 to 30%. Future methane budgets and climate models will need to include tree fluxes and the parameters that control methane emissions for accurate accounting and predictions.

  7. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  8. Measurement of Fugitive Dust Emissions and Visible Emissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Herbert C.

    The method of measuring fugitive dust emission utilized by the Texas Air Control Board is described in this presentation for the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. The measuring procedure, precautions, expected results, and legal acceptance of the method are…

  9. WOODSTOVE EMISSION MEASUREMENT METHODS COMPARISON AND EMISSION FACTORS UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper compares various field and laboratory woodstove emission measurement methods. n 1988, the U.S. EPA promulgated performance standards for residential wood heaters (woodstoves). ver the past several years, a number of field studies have been undertaken to determine the a...

  10. Measurement of Fugitive Dust Emissions and Visible Emissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Herbert C.

    The method of measuring fugitive dust emission utilized by the Texas Air Control Board is described in this presentation for the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. The measuring procedure, precautions, expected results, and legal acceptance of the method are…

  11. WOODSTOVE EMISSION MEASUREMENT METHODS COMPARISON AND EMISSION FACTORS UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper compares various field and laboratory woodstove emission measurement methods. n 1988, the U.S. EPA promulgated performance standards for residential wood heaters (woodstoves). ver the past several years, a number of field studies have been undertaken to determine the a...

  12. Emission current from a single micropoint of explosive emission cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ping; Sun, Jun

    2016-01-15

    Explosive emission cathodes (EECs) are widely used due to their large current. There has been much research on the explosive electron emission mechanism demonstrating that a current density of 10{sup 8}–10{sup 9 }A/cm{sup 2} is necessary for a micropoint to explode in several nanoseconds and the micropoint size is in micron-scale according to the observation of the cathode surface. This paper, however, makes an effort to research the current density and the micropoint size in another way which considers the space charge screening effect. Our model demonstrates that the relativistic effect is insignificant for the micropoint emission due to the small size of the micropoint and uncovers that the micron-scale size is an intrinsic demand for the micropoint to reach a space charge limited current density of 10{sup 8}–10{sup 9 }A/cm{sup 2}. Meanwhile, our analysis shows that as the voltage increases, the micropoint emission will turn from a field limited state to a space charge limited state, which makes the steady-state micropoint current density independent of the cathode work function and much less dependent on the electric field and the field enhancement factor than that predicted by the Fowler-Nordheim formula.

  13. Emission current from a single micropoint of explosive emission cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ping; Sun, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Explosive emission cathodes (EECs) are widely used due to their large current. There has been much research on the explosive electron emission mechanism demonstrating that a current density of 108-109 A/cm2 is necessary for a micropoint to explode in several nanoseconds and the micropoint size is in micron-scale according to the observation of the cathode surface. This paper, however, makes an effort to research the current density and the micropoint size in another way which considers the space charge screening effect. Our model demonstrates that the relativistic effect is insignificant for the micropoint emission due to the small size of the micropoint and uncovers that the micron-scale size is an intrinsic demand for the micropoint to reach a space charge limited current density of 108-109 A/cm2. Meanwhile, our analysis shows that as the voltage increases, the micropoint emission will turn from a field limited state to a space charge limited state, which makes the steady-state micropoint current density independent of the cathode work function and much less dependent on the electric field and the field enhancement factor than that predicted by the Fowler-Nordheim formula.

  14. Search of Uranian decametric emission

    SciTech Connect

    Lebo, G.R.; Roth, L.T.

    1985-02-01

    An experiment to detect decametric radiation from Uranus is described. It is argued that in light of recent discoveries of a magnetic field on Uranus, it may be possible to detect low-frequency radio emission similar to the decametric emission from Jupiter. The experiment consisted of 106 hours of monitoring using the 26.3 MHz array of the University of Florida Dixie County Radio Observatory. No radiation from Uranus was detected. An upper flux density limit of 400 Jy was obtained. 19 references.

  15. Sonification of acoustic emission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raith, Manuel; Große, Christian

    2014-05-01

    While loading different specimens, acoustic emissions appear due to micro crack formation or friction of already existing crack edges. These acoustic emissions can be recorded using suitable ultrasonic transducers and transient recorders. The analysis of acoustic emissions can be used to investigate the mechanical behavior of different specimens under load. Our working group has undertaken several experiments, monitored with acoustic emission techniques. Different materials such as natural stone, concrete, wood, steel, carbon composites and bone were investigated. Also the experimental setup has been varied. Fire-spalling experiments on ultrahigh performance concrete and pullout experiments on bonded anchors have been carried out. Furthermore uniaxial compression tests on natural stone and animal bone had been conducted. The analysis tools include not only the counting of events but the analysis of full waveforms. Powerful localization algorithms and automatic onset picking techniques (based on Akaikes Information Criterion) were established to handle the huge amount of data. Up to several thousand events were recorded during experiments of a few minutes. More sophisticated techniques like moment tensor inversion have been established on this relatively small scale as well. Problems are related to the amount of data but also to signal-to-noise quality, boundary conditions (reflections) sensor characteristics and unknown and changing Greens functions of the media. Some of the acoustic emissions recorded during these experiments had been transferred into audio range. The transformation into the audio range was done using Matlab. It is the aim of the sonification to establish a tool that is on one hand able to help controlling the experiment in-situ and probably adjust the load parameters according to the number and intensity of the acoustic emissions. On the other hand sonification can help to improve the understanding of acoustic emission techniques for training

  16. Luciferases with tunable emission wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Kai; Hiblot, Julien; Yu, Qiluiyang; Sabbadini, Marina; Reymond, Luc; Xue, Lin; Sallin, Olivier; Schena, Alberto; Griss, Rudolf; Hill, Nicholas

    2017-09-22

    We introduce luciferases whose emission maxima can be tuned to different wavelengths by chemical labeling. These tunable luciferases are generated by inserting the small luciferase NanoLuc into the structures of the self-labeling proteins SNAP-tag or HaloTag7 near their active sites. Labeling of the tags with a fluorophore shifts the emission maximum of NanoLuc to that of the fluorophore. Luciferases with tunable colors have applications as reporter genes, for the construction of biosensors and in bioimaging. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Radiation emission from small particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, W. G.; Hilgeman, T. W.

    1984-04-01

    Measurements have been made of the IR radiation from monodisperse optically absorbing spherical particles of di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate. The purpose was to validate the Mie emission theory for particles that are small compared with the radiation wavelength. In contradiction to the Mie theory, McGregor has theoretically concluded that radiation absorption or emission is not possible at wavelengths longer than pi times the square root of 2 times the particle diameter for spherical particles. The present results on monodisperse spherical particles of 3, 1, and 0.5 microns emitting at a wavelength of 3.4 microns support the Mie theory predictions.

  18. BP pledges to cut emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    British Petroleum (BP), one of the world's biggest oil companies that could become even bigger if a merger with Amoco is approved, announced on September 18 that it will cut its emissions of greenhouse gases by 10% from a 1990 baseline of 40 million tons of carbon dioxide between now and the year 2010.The target, which is double the amount of emissions reductions that industrialized nations agreed to under the Kyoto protocol on climate change, will now stand next to BP's financial targets, said John Browne, group chief executive of BP.

  19. Hot Electron Emission in Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    Second Interim Report Hot Electron Emission in Semiconductors Jan. 85 - June 85 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a...KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side Jf necessary and identify by block number) " -novel tunable FIR sources) • hot electron emission in GaAs/GaAlAs...heterostructures)" -,/ " streaming of hot carriers in crossed electric and magnetic fields ABST’AACr C-rrhmus- m .wr. efe it rewo-- .rv d identify by

  20. Ordering Multiple Soft Gluon Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángeles Martínez, René; Forshaw, Jeffrey R.; Seymour, Michael H.

    2016-05-01

    We present an expression for the QCD amplitude for a general hard scattering process with any number of soft gluon emissions, to one-loop accuracy. The amplitude is written in two different but equivalent ways: as a product of operators ordered in dipole transverse momentum and as a product of loop-expanded currents. We hope that these results will help in the development of an all-orders algorithm for multiple emissions that includes the full color structure and both the real and imaginary contributions to the amplitude.

  1. Infrared emission spectroscopy of HBr

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, V. . Centre for Molecular Beams and Laser Chemistry); Bernath, P.F. . Centre for Molecular Beams and Laser Chemistry Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-10-01

    The vibration-rotation emission spectrum of HBr was recorded with a Fourier transform spectrometer. Line positions for the 1-0 and 2-1 bands were measured for both H[sup 79]Br and H[sup 81]Br. A pure rotation emission spectrum of HBr was also obtained, and rotational lines for v = 0 were measured. The two sets of data, when combined with previously measured submillimeter-wave pure rotational transitions, yielded a set of improved rotational constants for H[sup 79]Br and H[sup 81]Br.

  2. Low emission internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  3. The Role of Global Emission Inventory of Carbonaceous Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, H.; Sharma, O. P.; Updhyaya, H.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosols - liquid or solid particles suspended in the air - are important constituents of the global atmosphere. They have a direct effect on climate by scattering and/or absorbing solar radiation modifying the radiative balance of the atmosphere and indirect effect by acting as condensation nuclei, their increase in number concentration may give rise to increased number of cloud condensation nuclei, which might increase the droplet concentration with relatively smaller size droplets for fixed liquid water content, making clouds more reflective (Twomey, 1977). Recent measurements show that atmospheric black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosol particles frequently contribute significantly to the total aerosol mass (Novakov et al. 1997). BC is emitted as primary particles from incomplete combustion process, such as fossil fuel and biomass burning, and therefore much atmospheric BC is of anthropogenic origin. OC is emitted as both primary particles and by secondary production from gaseous compounds via condensation or gas phase oxidation of hydrocarbons. Primary organic aerosols come from both anthropogenic sources (fossil fuel and biomass burning) and from natural sources (such as debris, pollen, spores, and algae). Carbonaceous aerosols make up a large but highly variable fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. Black carbon aerosols absorb the solar radiation and induce positive forcing whereas organic matter aerosols reflect solar radiation and produce negative forcing. Various emission inventories have been developed for carbonaceous aerosols. Detailed emission inventories for both BC and OC have been developed (e.g., Penner et al., 1993; Cooke and Wilson, 1996; Liousse et al., 1996; Cooke et al., 1999, Bond et al. 2004) that consider both fossil fuel and biomass components. The inventories of biomass- burning BC and OC particles are more difficult to constrain than fossil fuel emissions, owing to the paucity of data. In the present study we have compared the

  4. Cholera in Pregnancy: Outcomes from a Specialized Cholera Treatment Unit for Pregnant Women in Léogâne, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Ciglenecki, Iza; Bichet, Mathieu; Tena, Javier; Mondesir, Erneau; Bastard, Mathieu; Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Antierens, Annick; Staderini, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between cholera in pregnancy and negative fetal outcome has been described since the 19th century. However, there is limited published literature on the subject. We describe pregnancy outcomes from a specialized multidisciplinary hospital unit at the onset of a large cholera outbreak in Haiti in 2010 and 2011. Methods Pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized in a specialized unit within the MSF hospital compound in Léogâne and treated using standard cholera treatment guidelines but with earlier, more intense fluid replacement. All women had intravenous access established at admission regardless of their hydration status, and all received antibiotic treatment. Data were collected on patient demographics, pregnancy and cholera status, and pregnancy outcome. In this analysis we calculated risk ratios for fetal death and performed logistic regression analysis to control for confounding factors. Results 263 pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized between December 2010 and July 2011. None died during hospitalization, 226 (86%) were discharged with a preserved pregnancy and 16 (6%) had live fullterm singleton births, of whom 2 died within the first 5 days postpartum. The remaining 21 pregnancies (8%) resulted in intrauterine fetal death. The risk of fetal death was associated with factors reflecting severity of the cholera episode: after adjusting for confounding factors, the strongest risk factor for fetal death was severe maternal dehydration (adjusted risk ratio for severe vs. mild dehydration was 9.4, 95% CI 2.5–35.3, p = 0.005), followed by severe vomiting (adjusted risk ratio 5.1, 95% 1.1–23.8, p = 0.041). Conclusion This is the largest cohort of pregnant women with cholera described to date. The main risk factor identified for fetal death was severity of dehydration. Our experience suggests that establishing specialized multidisciplinary units which facilitate close follow-up of both pregnancy and dehydration

  5. Models of Uranium continuum radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romig, Joseph H.; Evans, David R.; Sawyer, Constance B.; Schweitzer, Andrea E.; Warwick, James W.

    1987-01-01

    Uranium continuum radio emission detected by the Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment during the January 1986 encounter is considered. The continuum emissions comprised four components (equatorial emissions, anomaly emissions, strong nightside emissions, and weak nightside emissions) associated with different sources. The equatorial emissions appeared most prominently during the days before closest approach and extended from 40 kHz or below to about 120 kHz. The anomaly emissions were seen about 12 hours before closest approach and extended to about 250 kHz. The agreement found between Miranda's phase and strong radio emission at 20.4 kHz, just after closest approach, suggests intense dynamic activity on the Miranda L shell.

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF AMMONIA EMISSION FACTORS FOR THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, prepared for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), identifies the most appropriate ammonia (NH3) emission factors available for inclusion in the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory. H3 emission factors developed for several new NAPAP source categories...

  7. Methane emissions from Carex rostrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelverton, C. A.; Varner, R. K.; Roddy, S.; Noyce, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    Peatlands, especially in northern regions, are known for their contribution to the increase of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Methane emissions from peatlands are strongly correlated with water table, temperature, and species composition. Sedges, in particular, are a conduit for the release of CH4 directly to the atmosphere. This study examines the impact of clipping and sealing sedges (Carex rostrata) on CH4 emissions from a temperate peatland (Sallie's Fen, Barrington, NH, USA). Measurements of CH4 fluxes, dissolved CH4, and environmental conditions were made over a six-year period. Data from 2008 to 2013 show that the presence of Carex rostrata in this peatland increases CH4 emissions. Clipped plots have both lower seasonal and annual CH4 emissions, compared to control plots. By studying the type of environment associated with C. rostrata through measurements of water-table depth, pore water characteristics, and the peat, surface, and air temperature of each surrounding location, further studies will show how these factors affect the rate at which CH4 is emitted into the atmosphere.

  8. Carbon emissions of infrastructure development.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel B; Liu, Gang; Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Pauliuk, Stefan; Steinhoff, Franciska S; Brattebø, Helge

    2013-10-15

    Identifying strategies for reconciling human development and climate change mitigation requires an adequate understanding of how infrastructures contribute to well-being and greenhouse gas emissions. While direct emissions from infrastructure use are well-known, information about indirect emissions from their construction is highly fragmented. Here, we estimated the carbon footprint of the existing global infrastructure stock in 2008, assuming current technologies, to be 122 (-20/+15) Gt CO2. The average per-capita carbon footprint of infrastructures in industrialized countries (53 (± 6) t CO2) was approximately 5 times larger that that of developing countries (10 (± 1) t CO2). A globalization of Western infrastructure stocks using current technologies would cause approximately 350 Gt CO2 from materials production, which corresponds to about 35-60% of the remaining carbon budget available until 2050 if the average temperature increase is to be limited to 2 °C, and could thus compromise the 2 °C target. A promising but poorly explored mitigation option is to build new settlements using less emissions-intensive materials, for example by urban design; however, this strategy is constrained by a lack of bottom-up data on material stocks in infrastructures. Infrastructure development must be considered in post-Kyoto climate change agreements if developing countries are to participate on a fair basis.

  9. Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors

    DOEpatents

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Olsen, Khris B.

    1992-01-01

    A method of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis and optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis.

  10. Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors

    DOEpatents

    Griffin, J.W.; Olsen, K.B.

    1992-02-04

    A method is described of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species. The method uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having an electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has an optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited in the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis. Optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis. 18 figs.

  11. PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although it has long been recognized that road and building construction activity constitutes an important source of PM emissions throughout the United States, until recently only limited research has been directed to its characterization. This paper presents the results of PM10...

  12. INDOOR EMISSIONS FROM CONVERSION VARNISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conversion varnishes are two-component, acid-catalyzed varnishes that are commonly used to finish cabinets. They are valued for their water- and stain-resistance, as well as their appearance. They have been found, however, to contribute to indoor emissions of organic compounds. F...

  13. Clinical Applications of Otoacoustic Emissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This tutorial paper examines the potential of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) in diagnostic audiology. It discusses classification of OAEs, basic properties of various types of OAEs, and clinical applications. It concludes that both transiently evoked and distortion product OAEs have beneficial clinical application resulting from their objectivity,…

  14. Temporal Characteristics of Otoacoustic Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withnell, R. H.; Dhar, S.; Talmadge, C. L.; Shaffer, L. A.; de Boer, E.; Roberts, R.; McPherson, D.

    2003-02-01

    The recent work of Talmadge et al. [1] and Shera and Guinan [2] argues for two distinct mechanisms for the production of otoacoustic emissions: i) a retrograde traveling wave produced by the amplifier induced pressure gradient across the basilar membrane due primarily to the nonlinearities inherent in the amplifier, and ii) linear coherent reflections encompassing intracochlear standing waves. It would appear that for emissions arising from their characteristic frequency (CF) place, the dominant mechanism of production is one of reflection [2,3]. Inherent in a reflection mechanism is that the incident energy propagates to the CF place and then is reflected back to the stapes (i.e., two distinct delays, an anterograde delay and a retrograde delay). For emissions arising significantly basal to the CF place the dominant mechanism of production is non-linear, but it is not clear if such emissions are a result of reflection or energy injected into the basilar membrane by the active process. Estimates of delay to date have been largely based on phase-gradients of steady-state signals and not true time delays [4]. In this study, we report signal-front delays measured in the human from DPOAEs (2f1-f2) using a pulsed-tone paradigm. In particular, we examine whether all DPOAEs arise from reflection, albeit via different mechanisms.

  15. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near source concentrations of air pollutants. They also support integrated Agency research programs (e.g., source to health outcomes) and the development of databases and inventories that assist Federal, state, and local air quality managers and industry implement and comply with air pollution standards. EM research underway in NRMRL supports the Agency's efforts to accurately characterize, analyze, measure and manage sources of air pollution. This pamphlet focuses on the EM research that NRMRL researchers conduct related to black carbon (BC). Black Carbon is a pollutant of concern to EPA due to its potential impact on human health and climate change. There are extensive uncertainties in emissions of BC from stationary and mobile sources. Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD)

  16. Exploiting dual otoacoustic emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdala, Carolina; Kalluri, Radha

    2015-12-01

    Two distinct processes generate otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Reflection-source emissions, here recorded as stimulus frequency OAEs, are optimally informative at low sound levels and are more sensitive to slight hearing loss; they have been linked to cochlear amplifier gain and tuning. Distortion-source emissions are strongest at moderate-high sound levels and persist despite mild hearing loss; they likely originate in the nonlinear process of hair cell transduction. In this preliminary study, we exploit the unique features of each by generating a combined reflection-distortion OAE profile in normal hearing and hearing-impaired ears. Distortion-product (DP) and stimulus-frequency (SF) OAEs were recorded over a broad range of stimulus levels and frequencies. Individual I/O and transfer functions were generated for both emission types in each ear, and OAE peak strength, compression threshold, and rate of compression were calculated. These combined SFOAE and DPOAE features in normal and hearing-impaired ears may provide a potentially informative and novel index of hearing loss. This is an initial step toward utilizing OAE source in characterizing cochlear function and dysfunction.

  17. Model assessment of fumigant emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Simulation models are useful for estimating the environmental fate and transport of pesticides. Soil fumigants such as methyl bromide are a special group of pesticides with high vapor pressure values. A main concern with fumigants is the large potential for atmospheric emissions. Because of the l...

  18. INDOOR EMISSIONS FROM CONVERSION VARNISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conversion varnishes are two-component, acid-catalyzed varnishes that are commonly used to finish cabinets. They are valued for their water- and stain-resistance, as well as their appearance. They have been found, however, to contribute to indoor emissions of organic compounds. F...

  19. Primary particles in ship emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridell, Erik; Steen, Erica; Peterson, Kjell

    There is not much data available regarding particle emissions from ships. In this study the size distributions of particles in ship exhaust from three different ships in normal operational conditions were studied using a cascade impactor. The ships were equipped with slow- or medium-speed main engines and medium-speed auxiliary engines. The fuel was residual oil except for the auxiliary engines on one ship which used marine diesel. Large emissions and a dependence of the sulfur content in the fuel were observed. High amounts of relatively large particles (around 8 μm) were observed. These are attributed to re-entrained soot particles from walls in the engine systems. A strong variation between different ships was observed for the particle-size distribution and for the dependence on engine load. The particle emissions were found to be reduced to about half, over the whole size range, by an SCR system. The total particle emission, measured after dilution, varied between 0.3 and 3 g kW h -1 depending on load, fuel and engine.

  20. Estimating Agricultural Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrous oxide emissions are highly variable in space and time and different methodologies have not agreed closely, especially at small scales. However, as scale increases, so does the agreement between estimates based on soil surface measurements (bottom up approach) and estimates derived from chang...

  1. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-12-31

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  2. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multiple waste types in a 7-day period at the Kilauea Military Camp in Hawai’i. The emissions characterized were chosen based on regulatory emissions limits as well as their ability to cause adverse health effects on humans: particulate matter (PM), mercury, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Three military waste feedstock compositions reflecting the variety of wastes to be encountered in theatre were investigated: standard waste (SW), standard waste with increased plastic content (HP), standard waste without SW food components but added first strike ration (FSR) food and packaging material (termed FSR). A fourth waste was collected from the Kilauea dumpster that served the dining facility and room lodging (KMC). Limited scrubber water and solid ash residue samples were collected to obtain a preliminary characterization of these effluents/residues.Gasifying SW, HP, and KMC resulted in similar PCDD/PCDF stack concentrations, 0.26-0.27 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2, while FSR waste generated a notably higher stack concentration of 0.68 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2. The PM emission

  3. Transport emissions: All hail robocabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Austin

    2015-09-01

    Connected and automated vehicles enable new business models, such as self-driving taxis, that could transform transportation. These models have the potential to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions, but only if they are developed with energy use in mind.

  4. PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although it has long been recognized that road and building construction activity constitutes an important source of PM emissions throughout the United States, until recently only limited research has been directed to its characterization. This paper presents the results of PM10...

  5. National emissions report, 1981: national emissions data system of the aerometric and emissions reporting system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes annual cumulative estimates of source emissions of five criteria pollutants: particulates, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide. Source emissions data are reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under provisions of Section 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977, and of EPA Regulations, Title 40. Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51.321. Summary data are presented for the nation as a whole, for individual states, for intrastate and individual interstate portions of Air Quality Control Regions, and for total interstate Air Quality Control Regions.

  6. Keep the focus on emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clack, C.; Benson, S. M.; Peterson, P.; Long, J. C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Most think that the major battle over climate is between those that want to solve the climate problem and the climate deniers. But there is another conflict, perhaps equally significant between people who all agree climate is a problem but who disagree radically about what they think the solution is. The imperative for stopping further climate change is to stop GHG emissions and the first energy sector of importance is electricity. Every major plan to eliminate emmissions from energy requires a carbon-free electricity system. The most popular idea about how to do this is to use all renewable energy, i.e. solar and wind power. But no one has ever built a large scale 100% renewable energy system and the few examples we have about regions that have tried are not encouraging. As the percentage of renewable energy goes up, ensuring a reliable supply often requires a fossil-based back-up system, so emissions can actually increase. Also, 100% renewable systems rely on massive deployment rates, far beyond any historical precident and often assume that adequate energy storage will "happen" through a combination of currently unavailable technologies. This approach is about adding renewable capacity, not about reducing emissions. Sweden provides a counter example that relies entirely on nuclear power and hydro and has an emission-free, reliable energy system. Likewise, biofuel is often cited as a climate-friendly substitute for petroleum-based fuels. Life-cycle analsyis indicates biofuels are often worse than petroleum-based fuels. We focus efficiency measures on buildings, but efficiency in transportation is even more important because we don't really have the fuel that is carbon neutral. Vehicle efficiency and reductions in vehicle miles traveled does better to address emissions. As mitigation is so important, climate advocates used to think discussion of adaptation was a distraction that should be avoided. But losing track of the need to eliminate emissions is the real

  7. Evolution of Emission Line Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Irwin K.

    1995-02-01

    This thesis compares two samples of emission line galaxies, selected on the basis of the strength of their O III and/or H-beta emission lines. The distant sample has been drawn from the 4-Shooter transit survey undertaken by Schmidt, Schneider and Gunn (1994, AJ, 107, 1245 and references therein), and consists of 370 galaxies with emission line equivalent widths in excess of 50A and fluxes above well-defined wavelength-dependent limits. This survey the moderate resolution spectra taken to identify the emission line. The nearby sample has been taken from the first CfA Northern Sky Redshift Survey, and consists of 81 galaxies from Burg (1987, Ph.D. thesis, MIT, Cambridge, MA) with O III EW >= 23.75A and an additional 26 Seyfert galaxies fbeen observed on the 1.5m Oscar Meyer telescope using the Echelle Spectrograph in a low-resolution, long slit mode (McCarthy, 1988, Ph.D. thesis, Caltech, Pascovers the emission lines of interest such as H-beta, O II. These data have been used both to classify the 107 galaxies from their line ratio diagnostics as well as to model the spatial and spectral light distributions on the plane of the sky for a comparison of how each would appear in the distant survey as a function of redshift. Maximum redshifts in both the nearby and the distant survey have been determined for each CfA galaxy, and predicted number counts, based on both a no-evolution model as well as a model incorporating density evolution, have been made from the corresponding ratio of accessible volumes in the two surveys. Corrections were made to the predicted counts to account for sample incompletenesses and the overdensity of the CfA survey relative to the average density of galaxies in the "local" universe. These predicted counts were comclass. The results from this cono-evolution model for emission line galaxies out to z~0.5, and do not support the conjecture (Broadhurst et al., 1988, MNRAS, 235, 827; Colless et al., 1990, MNRAS, 244, 408) that there is an evolving

  8. Evolution of emission line galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Irwin Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    This thesis compares two samples of emission line galaxies, selected on the basis of the strength of their (OIII)lambda lambda 4959, 5007 and/or H beta lambda 4861 emission lines. The distant sample is drawn from the 4 Shooter transit survey undertaken by Schmidt, Schneider and Gunn (1994 and references therein) and consists of 370 galaxies with emission line equivalent widths in excess of 50A and fluxes above well-defined wavelength-dependent limits. This survey consists of 6 narrow strips of the sky covering approximately 62 square degrees. Each of these galaxies is classified by using line ratio diagnostics from the moderate resolution spectra taken to identify the emission line. The nearby sample is taken from the first CfA Northern Sky Redshift Survey, and consists of 81 galaxies from Burg (1987) with (OIII)lambda lambda 4959, 5007 EW is greater than or equal to 23.75A and an additional 26 Seyfert galaxies from Edelson (1987). This sample is observed on the 1.5m Oscar Meyer telescope using the Echelle Spectrograph in a low-resolution, long slit mode (McCarthy, 1988). Each of the 107 galaxies is observed twice, along per pendicular axes over a wavelength range from 4350A to 7200A, which covers the emission lines of interest such as H beta lambda 4861, (Olll)lambda lambda 4959, 5007 and H alpha lambda 6563. These data are used both to classify the 107 galaxies from their line ratio diagnostics as well as to model the spatial and spectral light distribution on the plane of the sky for a comparison of how each would appear in the distant survey as a function of redshift. Maximum redshifts in both the nearby and the distant survey are determined for each CfA galaxy, and predicted number counts, based on both a no-evolution model as well as a model incorporating density evolution, are made from the corresponding ratio of accessible volumes in the two surveys. Corrections are made to the predicted counts to account for sample incompletenesses and the overdensity of

  9. Ionic emission from Taylor cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Reina, Sergio

    Electrified Taylor cones have been seen as an efficient way to generate thrust for space propulsion. Especially the pure ionic regime (PIR) combines a very high specific impulse (thrust per unit mass) and efficiency, which is very important to reduce fuel transportation costs. The PIR has been primarily based on electrosprays of liquid metals [Swatik and Hendricks 1968, Swatik 1969]. However, emissions dominated by or containing exclusively ions have also been observed from nonmetallic purely ionic substances, initially sulfuric acid [Perel et al. 1969], and more recently room temperature molten salts referred to as ionic liquids (ILs) [Romero-Sanz et al. 2003]. The recent use of the liquid metal ion source (LMIS) with ILs, becoming this "new" source to be known as ionic liquid ion source (ILIS) [Lozano and Martinez-Sanchez 2005], has shown important differences on the emission from Taylor cones with the traditional hollow capillary. This new source seems to be more flexible than the capillary [Paulo, Sergio, carlos], although its low emission level (low thrust) is an important drawback from the space propulsion point of view. Throughout the thesis I have studied some aspects of the ionic emission from ionic liquid Taylor cones and the influence of the properties of the liquids and the characteristic of source on the emission. I have unraveled the reason why ILIS emits such low currents (˜200 nA) and found a way to solve this problem increasing the current up to capillary levels (˜1000 nA) [Castro and Fernandez de la Mora 2009]. I have also tried to reduce ion evaporation while reducing the emitted droplet size in order to increase the thrust generated while keeping the efficiency relatively high and I have measured the energy of evaporation of several cations composing ionic liquids, mandatory step to understand ionic evaporation.

  10. Variable Emissivity Through MEMS Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darrin, Ann Garrison; Osiander, Robert; Champion, John; Swanson, Ted; Douglas, Donya; Grob, Lisa M.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses a new technology for variable emissivity (vari-e) radiator surfaces, which has significant advantages over traditional radiators and promises an alternative design technique for future spacecraft thermal control systems. All spacecraft rely on radiative surfaces to dissipate waste heat. These radiators have special coatings, typically with a low solar absorptivity and a high infrared-red emissivity, that are intended to optimize performance under the expected heat load and thermal sink environment. The dynamics of the heat loads and thermal environment make it a challenge to properly size the radiator and often require some means of regulating the heat rejection rate of the radiators in order to achieve proper thermal balance. Specialized thermal control coatings, which can passively or actively adjust their emissivity offer an attractive solution to these design challenges. Such systems would allow intelligent control of the rate of heat loss from a radiator in response to heat load and thermal environmental variations. Intelligent thermal control through variable emissivity systems is well suited for nano and pico spacecraft applications where large thermal fluctuations are expected due to the small thermal mass and limited electric resources. Presently there are three different types of vari-e technologies under development: Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) louvers, Electrochromic devices, and Electrophoretic devices. This paper will describe several prototypes of micromachined (MEMS) louvers and experimental results for the emissivity variations measured on theses prototypes. It will further discuss possible actuation mechanisms and space reliability aspects for different designs. Finally, for comparison parametric evaluations of the thermal performances of the new vari-e technology and standard thermal control systems are presented in this paper.

  11. Gaseous emissions from waste combustion.

    PubMed

    Werther, Joachim

    2007-06-18

    An overview is given on methods and technologies for limiting the gaseous emissions from waste combustion. With the guideline 2000/76/EC recent European legislation has set stringent limits not only for the mono-combustion of waste in specialized incineration plants but also for co-combustion in coal-fired power plants. With increased awareness of environmental issues and stepwise decrease of emission limits and inclusion of more and more substances into the network of regulations a multitude of emission abatement methods and technologies have been developed over the last decades. The result is the state-of-the-art waste incinerator with a number of specialized process steps for the individual components in the flue gas. The present work highlights some new developments which can be summarized under the common goal of reducing the costs of flue gas treatment by applying systems which combine the treatment of several noxious substances in one reactor or by taking new, simpler routes instead of the previously used complicated ones or - in the case of flue gas desulphurisation - by reducing the amount of limestone consumption. Cost reduction is also the driving force for new processes of conditioning of nonhomogenous waste before combustion. Pyrolysis or gasification is used for chemical conditioning whereas physical conditioning means comminution, classification and sorting processes. Conditioning yields a fuel which can be used in power plants either as a co-fuel or a mono-fuel and which will burn there under much better controlled conditions and therefore with less emissions than the nonhomogeneous waste in a conventional waste incinerator. Also for cost reasons, co-combustion of wastes in coal-fired power stations is strongly pressing into the market. Recent investigations reveal that the co-firing of waste can also have beneficial effects on the operating behavior of the boiler and on the gaseous emissions.

  12. Volatile Emissions from Compressed Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Francesca; Capuano, Rosamaria; Strand, Tillan; Ek, Anna-Christina; Lindgren, Margareta; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; Lundström, Ingemar

    2013-01-01

    Since almost every fifth patient treated in hospital care develops pressure ulcers, early identification of risk is important. A non-invasive method for the elucidation of endogenous biomarkers related to pressure ulcers could be an excellent tool for this purpose. We therefore found it of interest to determine if there is a difference in the emissions of volatiles from compressed and uncompressed tissue. The ultimate goal is to find a non-invasive method to obtain an early warning for the risk of developing pressure ulcers for bed-ridden persons. Chemical analysis of the emissions, collected in compresses, was made with gas-chromatography – mass spectrometry and with a chemical sensor array, the so called electronic nose. It was found that the emissions from healthy and hospitalized persons differed significantly irrespective of the site. Within each group there was a clear difference between the compressed and uncompressed site. Peaks that could be certainly deemed as markers of the compression were, however, not identified. Nonetheless, different compounds connected to the application of local mechanical pressure were found. The results obtained with GC-MS reveal the complexity of VOC composition, thus an array of non-selective chemical sensors seems to be a suitable choice for the analysis of skin emission from compressed tissues; it may represent a practical instrument for bed side diagnostics. Results show that the adopted electronic noses are likely sensitive to the total amount of the emission rather than to its composition. The development of a gas sensor-based device requires then the design of sensor receptors adequate to detect the VOCs bouquet typical of pressure. This preliminary experiment evidences the necessity of studies where each given person is followed for a long time in a ward in order to detect the insurgence of specific VOCs pattern changes signalling the occurrence of ulcers. PMID:23874929

  13. Emissions by Uncontrolled Coal Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terschure, A. F.; Engle, M.; Heffern, E.; Hower, J.; Kolker, A.; Prakash, A.; Radke, L.

    2010-12-01

    Thousands of self-ignited coal fires, naturally occurring coal fires, and coal fires resulting from human activities persist for decades in underground coal mines, coal waste piles, and un-mined coal beds. These uncontrolled coal fires occur in all coal-bearing parts of the world and pose multiple threats to the global environment due to emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, CO, CH4, and other toxic substances such as mercury (Hg). Estimates of the amount of coal that is involved globally range between 20 and 600 Mt sing simple calculations, the only published peer-reviewed estimate of CO2 and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the United States (U.S.) are between 14 to 290 Mt/yr and 0.1 to 11.5 t/yr, respectively. In comparison, the U.S. coal-fired power plant fleet -the largest known anthropogenic source of CO2 and Hg to the atmosphere in the U.S.- emits ~2.4 Gt, and ~45 t annually, respectively. This paper builds on these results and will present result of a first-of-a-kind U.S.-based field campaign combining airborne remote sensing using thermal infrared technique and ground based measurements as a first step to constraining and scaling-up the emission factors, nature and extent of coal-fire emissions of CO2 and Hg to a global scale, which will allow for these emission sources to be better accounted for in global atmospheric models.

  14. Modeling line emission in PDRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bourlot, J.

    2000-11-01

    The formation of emission lines in a diluted medium results from a large number of conspiring physical processes. When trying to compute a line intensity or (harder) a line profile from first principles, one has to take into account at least three different kind of processes: Atomic or molecular physics data. An accurate knowledge of radiative and collisional transition probabilities is required to determine the population of excited levels which rules the formation of emission lines. Thermodynamical equilibrium is almost never established, so that detailed balance equations need to be solved. Unfortunately many important data are still badly known. Structure and dynamics of the emitting medium. Local emissivities at a specific point depend at least on the local temperature and density of the gas, but often also on other less accessible parameters such as the turbulence state of the gas, a magnetic field or the existence of rapidly evolving transients such as shocks. Self consistent models which would include all relevant processes are out of reach numerically, and choices must be made among the more relevant physical processes to include. Radiative transfer effects. For a few relevant interstellar lines, the opacity is small enough that the emergent emissivity is just the sum of all local emissivities along the line of sight. Unfortunately, most lines are not so easy to cope with and a minimal radiative transfer formalism must be included. Various degrees of sophistication are possible, from a simple escape probability theory to full wavelength dependent line transfer. On the whole, line modelling is still more an art than a science. One should be well aware of the various assumptions made in a model before applying it to some particular observational result.

  15. Output tube emission characteristics of operational radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, R. J.; Smilley, J. D.; Falcon, G. D.; Lawrence, V. S.

    1982-01-01

    Measurement of the emission spectra and other characteristics of many radars operating in the government frequency bands is described. The emission spectra of 19 different types of radars, selected to show the different emission spectrum characteristics produced by a variety of radar output tube technologies are presented. The radars include examples of ground based search, airport surveillance, weather, and height finding radars operating in L band, S band, or C band. The RSMS, contained within a mobile van, is described, along with the measurement techniques used for obtaining radar emission characteristics. The emission limits imposed by the Radar Spectrum Engineering Criteria (RSEC) are displayed with each emission spectrum.

  16. Photon Emission from Ice during Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Yukiko; Mizuno, Tadahiko

    2002-02-01

    We performed the first demonstration of photon emission from ice during deformation and fracture. Emission of visible photons was confirmed in accordance with crack generation and fracture. Time-resolved photon emission signals are presented along with load changing. Emission intensity roughly increased with increasing strain energy released by fracture, while scattering in the intensity data showed that emission intensity was strongly dependent on thc characteristics of an individual crack. Experimental evidence indicates that the generated electric charge on crack surfaces and at crack tips should have higher energy than that of electromagnetic emissions reported by Fifolt, Petrenko and Schulson. 23

  17. Junction-based field emission structure for field emission display

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, Long N.; Balooch, Mehdi; McLean, II, William; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2002-01-01

    A junction-based field emission display, wherein the junctions are formed by depositing a semiconducting or dielectric, low work function, negative electron affinity (NEA) silicon-based compound film (SBCF) onto a metal or n-type semiconductor substrate. The SBCF can be doped to become a p-type semiconductor. A small forward bias voltage is applied across the junction so that electron transport is from the substrate into the SBCF region. Upon entering into this NEA region, many electrons are released into the vacuum level above the SBCF surface and accelerated toward a positively biased phosphor screen anode, hence lighting up the phosphor screen for display. To turn off, simply switch off the applied potential across the SBCF/substrate. May be used for field emission flat panel displays.

  18. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors

    Treesearch

    Shawn Urbanski

    2014-01-01

    While the vast majority of carbon emitted by wildland fires is released as CO2, CO, and CH4, wildland fire smoke is nonetheless a rich and complex mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include significant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic aerosol and black carbon), which are short-lived climate forcers. In addition to CO2 and short-lived climate forcers,...

  19. Photo Field Emission and Field Emission Energy Distributions from Silicon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Michael H.

    Electron field emission from semiconductors is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical predictions of the general Stratton theory are calculated specifically for silicon, in the {100 }, {110}, and {111} directions. A method of simplifying the calculation of the energy distribution for arbitrary semiconductor bands is obtained, utilizing the effective mass approximation. Experimental field emission energy distributions (FEEDs) are reported for both n- and p-type samples of low resistivity. The experimental distributions are characterized by a high intensity single peak, of energy 0.4 eV or more below the Fermi level, with subsidiary peak of lower intensity, rising from just below the Fermi level. The larger peak drops in energy with increasing field. Presented data demonstrates that this peak lowering is not attributable to sample resistance. Observation of the subsidiary peak is linked to either low sample temperature or low doping, implying that the carrier concentration affects its presence. Experimental FEEDs are compared to those expected theoretically. It is concluded that they are not similar. Comparison with photoemission work indicates that the large peak is due to a band of surface acceptor states. The subsidiary peak is tentatively ascribed to conduction band electrons. Finally, a phenomenological model of photo-field emission (PFE) is proposed. Based upon both FEED and PFE experiments, this model assumes that emission occurs primarily from surface states. A second component of the current is due to tunnelling of photogenerated electrons. In addition to photoconductivity, a self-regulating breakdown mechanism is necessary for qualitative agreement with experimental data. One such mechanism, avalanche, is investigated for the dielectric emitter model. Qualitative agreement is obtained with the characteristic non-linear Fowler-Nordheim behavior observed experimentally.

  20. Nanophotonic Devices - Spontaneous Emission Faster than Stimulated Emission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-04

    emission, light emitting diode . 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...important threshold is 200× enhancement, in which case a light emitting diode becomes faster than a directly modulated semiconductor laser. 200...131109. 25. Fattal D, et al. (2008) Design of an efficient light - emitting diode with 10 GHz modulation bandwidth. Applied Physics Letters 93(24

  1. Nanophotonic Devices; Spontaneous Emission Faster than Stimulated Emission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-02

    antenna enhanced Light Emitting Diodes , can enable short distance optical communication, including possibly on-chip optical interconnect. One of the...approved for public release We believe that these new types of spontaneous emission optical sources, acting as antenna enhanced Light Emitting Diodes ...Conferences, San Jose, CA, October 2015 3. Royal Swedish Academy at the Light in the Service of Mankind conference, Lund, Sweden, October 2015

  2. PISCES field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 112 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 112. Site 112 is a tangentially fired boiler firing residual oil. Site 112 employs electrostatic precipitators and a flue gas desulfurization system for particulate and SO{sub 2} control. Sampling at Site 112 was performed in July and August of 1992 for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and mercury. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts - as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites. An assessment of data from all plants that have been tested is presented in the Electric Utility Trace Substances Synthesis Report (EPRI TR-104614).

  3. PISCES field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 21 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 21. Site 21 is a pilot-scale electrostatic precipitator and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The flue gas for the pilot unit is provided by an adjacent power plant boiler which bums a medium-sulfur bituminous, coal. The primary objective in the Site 21 sampling and analytical program was to quantify the various components of variance in the measurement of trace chemical species. In addition to the replicate sample trains typically conducted at previous PISCES field measurements, duplicate analyses and duplicate (simultaneous) sample trains were also conducted. This enabled the variance due to sampling, analytical, and process conditions to be estimated. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts - as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites. An assessment of data from all plants that have been tested is presented in the Electric Utility Trace Substances Synthesis Report.

  4. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Heyer, K.-U. Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD

  5. FIR Emission From Rich Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Caroline

    1994-12-01

    Previous searches for far infrared (FIR) emission from dominant cluster galaxies using small, X-ray selected samples have found 20% to 50% of clusters to have significant FIR emission. In a new study, I have analyzed the 60microns and 100microns emission properties of cD galaxies in a complete sample of 163 Abell Clusters. For comparison, a control sample of 207 blank fields was analyzed to determine the distribution of spurious detections, which is greater than expected from Gaussian statistics. The contribution of Galactic cirrus at 60 microns and 100 microns to non-Gaussian noise is clearly demonstrated by the correspondence of a 98% confidence level to a signal to noise of 4 or 4.5 rather than to a signal to noise of 2 as expected from Gaussian statistics. After correcting for contaminated fields and spurious signals, I find that about 10% of cD galaxies in rich clusters are sources of FIR emission. Typical detected cDs have FIR luminosities of about 3 times 10(44) erg sec(-1) , which is comparable to the blue luminosities from these objects and an order of magnitude greater than the X-ray luminosities produced in the cores of clusters. Dust masses derived from the 60microns and 100 microns fluxes are ~ 10(7) M _sun. Because only about 10% of the clusters have high FIR luminosities, such strong emission is probably a transient state for an individual cluster. It has been suggested that this FIR emission is due to dust heated by electron collisions from the hot gas that dominates the intra-cluster medium. Study of the optical and X-ray properties of these clusters allows us to test models for the heating process of the dust, the origin of the dust, and its importance as a mechanism for cooling the hot gas. The central electron density and the temperature distribution for the hot gas are determined from analysis of ROSAT PSPC observations of four of these clusters. My program of UBVI imaging is designed to identify dust lanes and morphology that might indicate

  6. Light emission from porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penczek, John

    The continuous evolution of silicon microelectronics has produced significant gains in electronic information processing. However, greater improvements in performance are expected by utilizing optoelectronic techniques. But these techniques have been severely limited in silicon- based optoelectronics due to the lack of an efficient silicon light emitter. The recent observation of efficient light emission from porous silicon offer a promising opportunity to develop a suitable silicon light source that is compatible with silicon microelectronics. This dissertation examined the porous silicon emission mechanism via photoluminescence, and by a novel device structure for porous silicon emitters. The investigation first examined the correlation between porous silicon formation conditions (and subsequent morphology) with the resulting photoluminescence properties. The quantum confinement theory for porous silicon light emission contends that the morphology changes induced by the different formation conditions determine the optical properties of porous silicon. The photoluminescence spectral shifts measured in this study, in conjunction with TEM analysis and published morphological data, lend support to this theory. However, the photoluminescence spectral broadening was attributed to electronic wavefunction coupling between adjacent silicon nanocrystals. An novel device structure was also investigated in an effort to improve current injection into the porous silicon layer. The selective etching properties of porous silicon were used to create a p-i-n structure with crystalline silicon contacts to the porous silicon layer. The resulting device was found to have unique characteristics, with a negative differential resistance region and current-induced emission that spanned from 400 nm to 5500 nm. The negative differential resistance was correlated to resistive heating effects in the device. A numerical analysis of thermal emission spectra from silicon films, in addition to

  7. CHP Energy and Emissions Savings Calculator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Download the CHP Emissions Calculator, a tool that calculates the difference between the anticipated carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions from a CHP system to those of a separate heat and power system.

  8. Ports Primer: 7.2 Air Emissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Near-port communities are often disproportionately impacted by air emissions due to port operations, goods movement operations and other industries that may be co-located with ports. Air emissions at ports also impact regional air quality.

  9. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  10. National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NVFEL is the primary EPA research laboratory used for fuel and emissions testing. The laboratory supports emission standards for motor vehicles, engines, and fuels, as well as the development of automotive technology.

  11. IMPROVING BIOGENIC EMISSION ESTIMATES WITH SATELLITE IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review how existing and future applications of satellite imagery can improve the accuracy of biogenic emission estimates. Existing applications of satellite imagery to biogenic emission estimates have focused on characterizing land cover. Vegetation dat...

  12. Dust Emission from the Perseus Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnee, S.; Li, J.; Goodman, A. A.; Sargent, A. I.

    2008-09-01

    Using far-infrared emission maps taken by IRAS and Spitzer and a near-infrared extinction map derived from 2MASS data, we have made dust temperature and column density maps of the Perseus molecular cloud. We show that the emission from transiently heated very small grains (VSGs) and the big grain dust emissivity vary as a function of extinction and dust temperature, with higher dust emissivities for colder grains. This variable emissivity cannot be explained by temperature gradients along the line of sight or by noise in the emission maps, but it is consistent with grain growth in the higher density and lower temperature regions. By accounting for the variations in the dust emissivity and VSG emission, we are able to map the temperature and column density of a nearby molecular cloud with better accuracy than has previously been possible.

  13. 47 CFR 22.861 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... emission or technology that complies with the technical rules in this subpart. (a) Out of band emissions... from a transmitter operating in this service results in interference to users of another radio service...

  14. 47 CFR 22.861 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... emission or technology that complies with the technical rules in this subpart. (a) Out of band emissions... from a transmitter operating in this service results in interference to users of another radio service...

  15. 47 CFR 22.861 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... emission or technology that complies with the technical rules in this subpart. (a) Out of band emissions... from a transmitter operating in this service results in interference to users of another radio service...

  16. 47 CFR 22.861 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... emission or technology that complies with the technical rules in this subpart. (a) Out of band emissions... from a transmitter operating in this service results in interference to users of another radio service...

  17. Other Production Emissions Sources- September 2012 Workshop

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View a presentation on other production emissions sources, presented at the Stakeholder Workshop on Natural Gas in the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions and Sinks on Thursday September, 13, 2012.

  18. IMPROVING BIOGENIC EMISSION ESTIMATES WITH SATELLITE IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review how existing and future applications of satellite imagery can improve the accuracy of biogenic emission estimates. Existing applications of satellite imagery to biogenic emission estimates have focused on characterizing land cover. Vegetation dat...

  19. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  20. Development of Evaporative Emissions Calculations for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes methodology for developing evaporative emissions calculations for MOVES2009 Model. To describe development of inputs and calculations used in the MOVES2009 model to calculate on-highway emissions inventories.

  1. The evolution of automobile exhaust emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.C.

    1993-12-31

    Automobile catalytic converters have progressed from oxidation-only systems in the mid 1970`s to the current three-way catalytic converters which control emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxide to very low levels. New exhaust emission regulations adopted Federally and in California which come into effect during the 1990`s once again demand new emission control system technology. A new generation of catalytic converter systems coupled with attention to fuel composition characterizes this third phase of exhaust emission control.

  2. MOVES (MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSION SIMULATOR) MODEL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A computer model, intended to eventually replace the MOBILE model and to incorporate the NONROAD model, that will provide the ability to estimate criteria and toxic air pollutant emission factors and emission inventories that are specific to the areas and time periods of interest, at scales ranging from local to national. Development of a new emission factor and inventory model for mobile source emissions. The model will be used by air pollution modelers within EPA, and at the State and local levels.

  3. Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Horner, J M

    2000-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, nonirritating, odorless and tasteless gas. Carbon monoxide combines with hemoglobin far more readily than does oxygen, leading to tissue hypoxia. Thousands of people die annually from CO poisoning, and those recovering from acute exposure commonly suffer brain damage. Chronic poisoning is of particular concern to sufferers of coronary heart disease, pregnant women, and people with certain hematological disorders. Indoor emission sources, notably fuel-burning heating appliances, cause most unintentional deaths and cases of illness and should be the main focus of concern. Motor vehicle emissions pose a chronic health risk for occupationally exposed groups. Smoking is a major source of personal exposure. Recent exposure to CO is commonly evaluated by measuring blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, which are related to the concentration of atmospheric CO. Monitoring methods are reviewed here, and monitoring is considered in relation to air quality standards and guidelines. Finally, control measures for motor vehicles and indoor heating appliances are suggested.

  4. Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der A, R.; Temis Team

    The Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS) will produce and deliver global concentrations of tropospheric trace gases. The resulting data base of trace gas concentrations will be important input for subsequent emission estimates of NOx, CH4, CO, aerosols, BrO and hydrocarbons. Potential users and user require- ments have been identified for the trace gas products O3, NO2, HCHO, BrO, SO2, H2O, CO and CH4, and for the UV index, clouds and aerosols. Based on the re- quirements of these users, the trace gas products to be delivered are selected and de- fined. The Service will be based on data from the UV-visible instruments GOME and SCIAMACHY, which have the unique ability to monitor these trace gases in the tro- posphere. The retrieval of tropospheric products will be based on several techniques, such as DOAS and Optimal Estimation, in combination with data assimilation tech- niques.

  5. Laser cooling without spontaneous emission.

    PubMed

    Corder, Christopher; Arnold, Brian; Metcalf, Harold

    2015-01-30

    This Letter reports the demonstration of laser cooling without spontaneous emission, and thereby addresses a significant controversy. It works by restricting the atom-light interaction to a time short compared to a cycle of absorption followed by natural decay. It is achieved by using the bichromatic force on an atomic transition with a relatively long excited state lifetime and a relatively short cooling time so that spontaneous emission effects are minimized. The observed width of the one-dimensional velocity distribution is reduced by ×2 thereby reducing the "temperature" by ×4. Moreover, our results comprise a compression in phase space because the spatial expansion of the atomic sample is limited. This accomplishment is of interest to direct laser cooling of molecules or in experiments where working space or time is limited.

  6. Spectral emission of corona discharges.

    PubMed

    Grum, F; Costa, L F

    1976-01-01

    Corona-discharge devices are commonly used in a variety of research and development applications. They are known to produce a considerable amount of electromagnetic radiation, mainly in the uv region of the spectrum. The mechanism involved is presumed to be the ionization and radiative recombination of the gases surrounding the high-voltage terminal of the device. A series of high-resolution emission spectra of corona discharge has been measured in atmospheres of nitrogen, helium, and air. (The nitrogen and helium are Air Products 99.995% purity, total hydrocarbons less than 0.5 ppm.) These data are presented here and are compared with published spectroscopic reference data. All the emission lines reported in the spectroscopic reference literature were detected, as well as other lines, which may conceivably be due to impurities.

  7. Bremsstrahlung emission from quark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Caron, Jean-Francois; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2009-12-15

    We calculate numerically the emissivity and surface flux of electron-electron bremsstrahlung radiation from the surface of a bare quark star. The restricted electronic phase space due to the presence of an effective photon mass results in a strong suppression. The emissivity and surface flux are found to be substantially smaller than those found in previous work, to the point where electron-positron pair production would remain the dominant mechanism at all temperatures in the relativistic regime. As a consequence, e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production remains a dominant process even at low surface temperatures T{approx}10{sup 9} K as originally suggested by Usov [V. V. Usov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 230 (1998).].

  8. Biophoton emission of human body.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S; Popp, F A

    2003-05-01

    For the first time systematic measurements of the "ultraweak" photon emission of the human body (biophotons) have been performed by means of a photon detector device set up in darkness. About 200 persons have been investigated. In a particular case one person has been examined daily over several months. It turned out that this biophoton emission reflects, (i) the left-right symmetry of the human body; (ii) biological rhythms such as 14 days, 1 month, 3 months and 9 months; (iii) disease in terms of broken symmetry between left and right side; and (iv) light channels in the body, which regulate energy and information transfer between different parts. The results show that besides a deeper understanding of health, disease and body field, this method provides a new powerful tool of non-invasive medical diagnosis in terms of basic regulatory functions of the body.

  9. Microwave emission of sonoluminescing bubbles.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Dominik; Frommhold, Lothar

    2002-07-01

    Kordomenos et al. have attempted to measure single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) emission in the microwave window of water in a band of frequencies ranging from 1.65 GHz to 2.35 GHz [Phys. Rev. E 59, 1781 (1999)]. The sensitivity of the experiment was such that signals greater than 1 nW would have been detected. We show here that this upper bound is compatible with the radiation processes that we think generate significant emission at optical frequencies, electron-neutral and electron-ion bremsstrahlung. In fact, we argue that, almost independently of the specific assumptions concerning the hydrodynamics or the nature of the radiative processes, SBSL intensities exceeding that upper bound can hardly be expected.

  10. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOEpatents

    Poulsen, Peter

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  11. Radio emission from binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, George A.

    1986-01-01

    Radio emission from binary star systems; characteristics of the binary systems inferred from the radio observations; and the reasons for the activity are reviewed. Binary stars with two main sequence stars, with one normal star and a white dwarf, and those containing a neutron star or a black hole are described. Energy may be directly available as matter falls into the potential well of a compact object. Electromagnetic induction effects may occur due to relative motions of magnetic fields and matter. By enforcing rapid rotation, binaries can induce strong dynamo action and hence generate free energy in the form of intense, complex, evolving magnetic fields. Whatever the source of energy, the observations at radio and X-ray wavelengths demonstrate that electrons are accelerated to high energies (mildly relativistic and, ultrarelativistic). Observed or inferred radio brightness temperatures range up to 10 to the 15th power K or more, implying coherent emission for sources brighter than 10 billion K.

  12. Laser Cooling by Stimulated Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Robinjeet; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Anisimov, Petr; Metcalf, Harold; Dowling, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    We present a laser cooling schemes based on the stimulated emission of the two level atoms, by the bichromatic field. The improved efficiency of the scheme is suggested by the Carnot-like thermal cycle. The controllability of the stimulated and the cooling of the internal degrees of freedom of the atom are the strong candidates for enabling us to expand the scheme to more complex atoms as well as the molecules.

  13. Radio Emission from Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjellming, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Stellar radio emission is most common in double star systems where each star provides something essential in producing the large amounts of radio radiation needed for it to be detectable by RADIO TELESCOPES. They transfer mass, supply energy or, when one of the stars is a NEUTRON STAR or BLACK HOLE, have the strong gravitational fields needed for the energetic particles and magnetic fields needed...

  14. Fracto-Emission from Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-21

    1510 (1984). 5. J. T. Dickinson, L. C. Jensen, and S. K. Bhattacharya, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A,. 1398 (1985). ., .*~6. J. T. Dickinson, L. B. Brix ...Film Emulsion Type ISO Coating (Polaroid) (ASA) ." 146 200 Uncoated 47 3000 Gelatin 1 07C 3000 Gelatin 612 20000 Proprietary These films are all...Interfaces, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 1398 (1985). 6. J. T. Dickinson, L. B. Brix , and L. C. Jensen, "Electron and Positive Ion Emission Accompanying

  15. Fracto-Emission from Polymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    studies of single-crystal sucrose and Lifesavers was an undergraduate project carried out by L. B. Brix . Section VI: FRACTO-EMISSION FROM RDX SINGLE...University of Akron Institute of Polymer Science for contributing the BR samples and Lydia Brix , a Washington State University physics undergraduate...20 cm) for 24 hours. The I-radiation was from a calibrated 3000 Curie 60Co source and exposures were again for 24 hours. The cross-link density was

  16. Fracto-Emission from Polymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-15

    filled with gas molecules and a localized electric field exists. The possibility of these particles leading to the " avalanche effect " 8- 1 is quite likely...field. Obviously, if this response is a surface current it is not leading to a surface avalanche current. Instead we observe breakdown at 1.5 ms after...emission) which subsequently contributes to an avalanche in the voltage gap. The time relations between dynamic crack propagation (catastrophic failure

  17. Anisotropic Lyman-alpha emission

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zheng; Wallace, Joshua

    2014-10-20

    As a result of resonant scatterings off hydrogen atoms, Lyα emission from star-forming galaxies provides a probe of the (hardly isotropic) neutral gas environment around them. We study the effect of the environmental anisotropy on the observed Lyα emission by performing radiative transfer calculations for models of neutral hydrogen clouds with prescriptions of spatial and kinematic anisotropies. The environmental anisotropy leads to corresponding anisotropy in the Lyα flux and spectral properties and induces correlations among them. The Lyα flux (or observed luminosity) depends on the viewing angle and shows an approximate correlation with the initial Lyα optical depth in the viewing direction relative to those in all other directions. The distribution of Lyα flux from a set of randomly oriented clouds is skewed to high values, providing a natural contribution to the Lyα equivalent width (EW) distribution seen in observation. A narrower EW distribution is found at a larger peak offset of the Lyα line, similar to the trend suggested in observation. The peak offset appears to correlate with the line shape (full width at half-maximum and asymmetry), pointing to a possibility of using Lyα line features alone to determine the systemic redshifts of galaxies. The study suggests that anisotropies in the spatial and kinematic distributions of neutral hydrogen can be an important ingredient in shaping the observed properties of Lyα emission from star-forming galaxies. We discuss the implications of using Lyα emission to probe the circumgalactic and intergalactic environments of galaxies.

  18. Emissions from the Bena Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, C.; Blake, D. R.; Hughes, S.

    2016-12-01

    In 2013, Americans generated 254 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW). The gas generated from the decomposition of MSW is composed of approximately 50% methane, 50% carbon dioxide, and a small proportion of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs). NMOCs constitute less than 1% of landfill emissions, but they can have a disproportionate environmental impact as they are highly reactive ozone precursors. During the 2016 Student Airborne Research Program (SARP), whole air samples were collected at the Bena landfill outside of Bakersfield, CA and throughout Bakersfield and analyzed using gas chromatography in order to quantify NMOC emissions. This area was determined to have elevated concentrations of benzene, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which are categorized by the EPA as hazardous to human health. Benzene was found to have a concentration of 145 ± 4 pptv, four times higher than the background levels in Bakersfield (36 ± 1 pptv). Trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene had concentrations of 18 ± 1 pptv and 31 ± 1 pptv which were 18 and 10 times greater than background concentrations, respectively. In addition, hydroxyl radical reactivity (ROH) was calculated to determine the potential for tropospheric ozone formation. The total ROH of the landfill was 7.5 ± 0.2 s-1 compared to total background ROH of 1.0 ± 0.1 s-1 . NMOCs only made up 0.6% of total emissions, but accounted for 67% of total ROH.These results can help to shape future landfill emission policies by highlighting the importance of NMOCs in addition to methane. More research is needed to investigate the ozone forming potential of these compounds at landfills across the country.

  19. Modeling Ultraviolet Emissions Near Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linker, Jon A.

    2000-01-01

    In this report, we describe work awarded to Science Applications International Corporation, for the period 6/l/99 to 5/31/00. During this time period, we have investigated the interaction of Io, Jupiter's innermost Galilean satellite, with the Io plasma torus, and the role this interaction plays in producing ultraviolet (UV) emissions from neutral oxygen and sulfur. Io, the innermost of Jupiter's Galilean satellites, plays a unique role in the jovian magnetosphere. Neutral material that escapes from Io is ionized to form the lo torus, a dense, heavy-ion plasma that corotates with Jupiter and interacts with Io. Io supplies not only the torus, but is a major source of plasma for the entire magnetosphere. Ionization and charge-exchange of neutrals near lo strongly influences the plasma interaction, and Io's neutral atmosphere plays an important role in the generation of currents that couple Io to Jupiter. There have been no in situ measurements of the neutral density near Io, but remote observations of neutrals near lo have been performed for many years. Recent observations from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have shown detailed structure in UV emissions from neutral species near Io. Electron-impact of the neutrals by the Io torus plasma is the primary mechanism responsible for exciting these emissions. Previously, we have modeled the Io plasma environment using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, and we have shown that the interaction between Io and the plasma torus plays an important role in producing the morphology of the observed emissions. In the past year, we have extended these studies to use both UV observations and Galileo particle and field measurements to investigate the Io interaction.

  20. Tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, Jennifer A.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Calloway, Clifton P.; Jones, Bradley T.

    2006-02-01

    A tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometer is described and evaluated. The system employs a single tungsten coil as a combined atomizer and excitation source for the determination of metals by atomic emission spectrometry. The tungsten coil is extracted from a 150 W, 15 V commercial slide projector light bulb. A simple, laboratory constructed, computer-controlled power supply provides a constant current to the coil. A high-resolution Czerny-Turner monochromator with a charge coupled device detector completes the system. Simultaneous, multi-element analyses are possible within a 4 nm spectral window. Eleven test elements are used to characterize the system: Al (396.1 nm), Co (353.0 nm), Cr (427.1 nm), Dy (404.6 nm), Ga (403.3 nm), K (404.4 nm), Mn (403.1 nm), Pb (405.8 nm), Rb (420.2 nm), Sc (404.8 nm), and Yb (398.7 nm). Tungsten coil atomic emission detection limits are reported for these elements for the first time: 0.02 ng Al, 0.7 ng Co, 0.003 ng Cr, 0.01 ng Dy, 0.7 ng Ga, 0.3 ng K, 0.04 ng Mn, 10 ng Pb, 0.07 ng Rb, 1 ng Sc, and 0.003 ng Yb. The precision for the new technique is better than 13% relative standard deviation for all metals at concentrations two orders of magnitude above the detection limit. Aluminum, Cr, Mn, and K are determined in a standard reference material (trace elements in water) after simple dilution with water, and found values varied from certified values by up to 26%. The average tungsten coil lifetime was found to be 265 heating cycles. The elimination of the external radiation source needed for atomic absorption measurements results in an emission system that could be quite portable.

  1. Reports related to Emissions Control Areas for Marine Vessels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Reports related to Marine Emissions Control Areas including Global Trade and Fuels Assessment, Modeling Sulfur Oxides Emissions Transport From Ships at Sea, Commercial Marine Emission Inventory Development

  2. 40 CFR 63.1424 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1424... for process vents; (2) Section 63.1432 for storage vessels; (3) Section 63.1433 for wastewater; (4...) Section 63.1439 for general reporting and recordkeeping requirements. (b) When emissions of different...

  3. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  4. Seasonal variability in anthropogenic halocarbon emissions.

    PubMed

    Gentner, Drew R; Miller, Angela M; Goldstein, Allen H

    2010-07-15

    Ambient concentrations of eight predominantly anthropogenic halocarbons were measured via in situ gas chromatography in California's South Coast air basin for both summer and fall during the 2005 Study of Organic Aerosols at Riverside (SOAR). Ongoing emissions of the banned halocarbons methylchloroform and CFC-11 were observed in the South Coast air basin, whereas CFC-113 emissions have effectively ceased. We estimate anthropogenic emissions in the South Coast air basin for methylchloroform, CFC-11, HCFC-141b, chloroform, tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and dichloromethane based on regressions of halocarbon to carbon monoxide mixing ratios and carbon monoxide emission inventories. We estimate per capita methylchloroform and chloroform emissions in the South Coast air basin for the year 2005 to be 6.6 +/- 0.4 g/(person.year) and 19 +/- 1 g/(person.year), respectively. We compare our results to national emission estimates calculated from previous work; for several compounds, emissions in the South Coast air basin are significantly lower than national per capita emissions. We observed strong seasonal differences in anthropogenic emissions of methylchloroform and chloroform; emissions were 4.5 and 2.5 times greater in summer than in fall, respectively. Possible seasonal sources include landfills and water chlorination. We conclude that seasonal variability in methylchloroform emissions has not been included in previous inventories and may cause errors in methylchloroform emission estimates after the year 2000 and seasonally resolved inversion calculations of hydroxyl radical abundance.

  5. GEIA's Vision for Improved Emissions Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. J.; Granier, C.; Tarrason, L.; Middleton, P.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate, timely, and accessible emissions information is critical for understanding and making predictions about the atmosphere. We will present recent progress of the Global Emissions InitiAtive (GEIA, http://www.geiacenter.org/), a community-driven joint activity of IGAC, iLEAPS, and AIMES within the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme. Since 1990, GEIA has served as a forum for the exchange of expertise and information on anthropogenic and natural emissions of trace gases and aerosols. GEIA supports a worldwide network of emissions data developers and users, providing a solid scientific foundation for atmospheric chemistry research. By the year 2020, GEIA envisions being a bridge between the environmental science, regulatory, assessment, policy, and operational communities. GEIA's core activities include 1) facilitating analysis that improves the scientific basis for emissions data, 2) enhancing access to emissions information, and 3) strengthening linkages within the international emissions community. We will highlight GEIA's current work distributing emissions data, organizing the development of new emissions datasets, facilitating regional emissions studies, and initiating analyses aimed at improving emissions information. GEIA welcomes new partnerships that advance emissions knowledge for the future.

  6. 40 CFR 52.1036 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1036 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1036 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Maine submitted 1990 base year emission inventories for the Knox and...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1036 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1036 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1036 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Maine submitted 1990 base year emission inventories for the Knox and...

  8. 47 CFR 101.111 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission limitations. 101.111 Section 101.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.111 Emission limitations. (a) The mean power of emissions must...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1036 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The 2002 base year emission inventory requirement of 40 CFR 51.915 has been satisfied... Governor's designee for the State of Maine submitted 1990 base year emission inventories for the Knox and... base year emission inventory for the Portland area was submitted on June 9, 2005. The 1990 base...

  10. Emission coordinates in Minkowski space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Coll, Bartolome; Ferrando, Joan J.; Morales, Juan A.

    2009-05-01

    The theory of relativistic positioning systems and their natural associated emission coordinates are essential ingredients in the analysis of navigation systems and astrometry. Here we study emission coordinates in Minkowski space-time. For any choice of the four emitters (arbitrary space-time trajectories) the relation between the corresponding emission coordinates and the inertial ones are explicitly given.

  11. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.163 Section 61.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic...

  12. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.163 Section 61.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic...

  13. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.163 Section 61.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic...

  14. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.163 Section 61.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic...

  15. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.163 Section 61.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic...

  16. CARBON EMISSIONS ECONOMIC INTENSITY INDEX (CEEII)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The core concept of the CEEII is to understand, at the state level, the carbon emissions from energy consumption in relation to the value of the activity that generates the emissions. The CEEII treats carbon emissions as an input to producing the activity’s value and assesses th...

  17. 47 CFR 95.633 - Emission bandwidth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.633 Emission bandwidth. (a) The authorized... frequencies 151.820 MHz, 151.880 MHz, and 151.940 MHz are limited to 11.25 kHz. (2) Emissions on frequencies... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission bandwidth. 95.633 Section...

  18. Dairy gas emissions model: reference manual

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Dairy Gas Emissions Model (DairyGEM) is a software tool for estimating ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of dairy production systems as influenced by climate and farm management. A production system is defined to include emissions during the production of all feeds wh...

  19. 40 CFR 61.122 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions From Elemental Phosphorus Plants § 61.122 Emission standard. Emissions of polonium-210 to the ambient air from all calciners and nodulizing kilns at an elemental phosphorus plant shall not exceed a... elemental phosphorus plant: (a) Installs a Hydro-Sonic ® Tandem Nozzle Fixed Throat Free-Jet Scrubber System...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM BURNING INCENSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the characterization of particulate matter emissions from burning incense. Emissions of particulate matter were measured for 23 different types of incense using a cyclone/filter method. Emission rates for PM2.5 (particulate matte...