Science.gov

Sample records for law enforcement standards

  1. [Law Enforcement Standards of Decency and Fairness].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxbe, William B.

    Effective policemen need to have as much knowledge as possible about society; they need to be fair, like the criminal justice system they represent. Society cannot be protected unless there is full accordance with the law. Questions of concern are whether the poor man or the black man are receiving the same treatment as the rich or influential…

  2. The AFSP Standard - a lesson for law enforcement agencies.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Sean; Doyle, Dianne

    2012-03-01

    Compliance with the AFSP (Association of Forensic Science Providers) Standard [1] which concerns the formulation of an evaluative opinion requires consideration of the defence case. This can be problematic for forensic scientists working with or for law enforcement agencies. Among the aims of law enforcement agencies is to secure a conviction while in many jurisdictions the forensic scientist owes an overriding duty to the Court. This casework report demonstrates that early consideration of the defence case by a forensic scientist complying with the AFSP Standard may help rather than hinder the prosecution. The dichotomy as to a conflict of interest for the scientist between supporting the police/prosecutors and being scientifically objective is shown to be a false dichotomy. Compliance with the Standard ensures that science is a better servant of justice.

  3. 75 FR 22162 - Draft NIJ Duty Holster Retention Standard for Law Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... of Justice Programs Draft NIJ Duty Holster Retention Standard for Law Enforcement AGENCY: National... Law Enforcement and Certification Program Requirements. SUMMARY: In an effort to obtain comments from... Duty Holster Retention Standard for Law Enforcement'' and (2) a draft companion document entitled...

  4. 25 CFR 12.31 - Are there any minimum employment standards for Indian country law enforcement personnel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... standards, for all BIA law enforcement, detention, and conservation enforcement occupational series. The... country law enforcement personnel? 12.31 Section 12.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Qualifications and Training Requirements § 12.31...

  5. Toward a Common Standard: The Role of Law Enforcement at WMD Incidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    York City model, and the U.S. Bomb Squad and United Kingdom law enforcement chemical/biological/ radiological /nuclear training programs are examined as...City model, and the U.S. Bomb Squad and United Kingdom law enforcement chemical/biological/ radiological /nuclear training programs are examined as...14 D. THE LACK OF MANDATORY FEDERAL CHEMICAL/BIOLOGICAL/ RADIOLOGICAL DETECTION EQUIPMENT STANDARDS

  6. 25 CFR 12.14 - Where can I find specific policies and standards for law enforcement functions in Indian country?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Policies and Standards § 12.14 Where can I find specific policies and standards for law enforcement functions in Indian country? BIA will ensure that all Indian country law enforcement programs are provided a copy of the most current policy manuals...

  7. 75 FR 78269 - Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System (VDMERS) Standard for Law Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... of Justice Programs Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System (VDMERS) Standard for Law... Standard for Law Enforcement. SUMMARY: In an effort to obtain comments from interested parties, the U.S... the general public the draft ``Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Standard for...

  8. 25 CFR 12.31 - Are there any minimum employment standards for Indian country law enforcement personnel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... country law enforcement personnel? 12.31 Section 12.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Qualifications and Training Requirements § 12.31 Are there any minimum employment standards for Indian country law enforcement personnel? The Director must...

  9. Technical Review of Law Enforcement Standards and Guides Relative to Incident Management

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.; Salter, R.; Stanton, J. R.; Fisher, D.

    2009-03-24

    In an effort to locate potential law enforcement-related standards that support incident management, a team from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contacted representatives from the National Institute of Standards-Office of Law Enforcement Standards (NIST-OLES), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Secret Service, ASTM International committees that have a law enforcement focus, and a variety of individuals from local and regional law enforcement organizations. Discussions were held with various state and local law enforcement organizations. The NIJ has published several specific equipment-related law enforcement standards that were included in the review, but it appears that law enforcement program and process-type standards are developed principally by organizations that operate at the state and local level. Input is provided from state regulations and codes and from external non-government organizations (NGOs) that provide national standards. The standards that are adopted from external organizations or developed independently by state authorities are available for use by local law enforcement agencies on a voluntary basis. The extent to which they are used depends on the respective jurisdictions involved. In some instances, use of state and local disseminated standards is mandatory, but in most cases, use is voluntary. Usually, the extent to which these standards are used appears to depend on whether or not jurisdictions receive certification from a “governing” entity due to their use and compliance with the standards. In some cases, these certification-based standards are used in principal but without certification or other compliance monitoring. In general, these standards appear to be routinely used for qualification, selection for employment, and training. In these standards, the term “Peace Officer” is frequently used to refer to law enforcement personnel. This technical review of national law

  10. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  11. Bicycle Law Enforcement Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William W.; Stutts, Jane C.

    This manual is an attempt to draw together relevant resources and information for localities interested in developing a bicycle law enforcement operation. It is divided into five major sections. Section I explains the need for and importance of bicycle law enforcement. In section II are presented examples of past and current bicycle law…

  12. Careers in Law Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Solomon J.

    1991-01-01

    Opportunities for blacks in law enforcement careers are detailed. Local and federal law enforcement agencies are hiring members of minority groups. In a climate in which so many young African Americans are involved in negative behaviors, others should take the opportunity to try to provide positive role models. (SLD)

  13. Bicycle Law Enforcement Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William W.; Stutts, Jane C.

    This manual is an attempt to draw together relevant resources and information for localities interested in developing a bicycle law enforcement operation. It is divided into five major sections. Section I explains the need for and importance of bicycle law enforcement. In section II are presented examples of past and current bicycle law…

  14. Lectures on Law Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettleship, Lois

    Three lectures on law enforcement are presented that were prepared for study purposes at Johnson County Community College. The first lecture examines the fundamental ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and discusses their influence on the American Revolution, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Major provisions of the Bill of…

  15. Enforcing pollution control laws

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.S.; Harrington, W.; Vaughan, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The heightened environmental consciousness of the 1970s prompted passage of a multitude of ambitious and unprecedented laws designed to clean up the environment and protect it for future generations. But beyond the mere passing of laws lay the difficult tasks of implementing, monitoring, and enforcing them. The authors of this book describe the current state of air and water pollution monitoring and enforcement activity a decade later, within the context of relevant legal, technological, and statistical developments. They mediate between the concerns of the theoretical literature-where it is generally assumed that violations are discovered and punished-and the real world-where violations are rarely discovered and almost never punished. Monitoring and enforcement procedures to date have been aimed at achieving initial rather than continuing compliance with regulations. The authors contend that it is time for a new approach focusing on the enduring problems of compliance. Economic models are used to show the extent of the difficulties involved in monitoring and enforcing pollution control laws on a continuous basis.

  16. Minimum Standards for Police Services. A Report of the Police Standards Committee to the Governor's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice, Cockeysville, MD.

    The publication enumerates the minimum standards for police services in Maryland which were developed by the Police Standards Committee of the Maryland Governor's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice. They are the result of intensive study after a series of public hearings held throughout the State at which testimony was…

  17. Videofile for Law Enforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Components of a videotape storage and retrieval system originally developed for NASA have been adapted as a tool for law enforcement agencies. Ampex Corp., Redwood City, Cal., built a unique system for NASA-Marshall. The first application of professional broadcast technology to computerized record-keeping, it incorporates new equipment for transporting tapes within the system. After completing the NASA system, Ampex continued development, primarily to improve image resolution. The resulting advanced system, known as the Ampex Videofile, offers advantages over microfilm for filing, storing, retrieving, and distributing large volumes of information. The system's computer stores information in digital code rather than in pictorial form. While microfilm allows visual storage of whole documents, it requires a step before usage--developing the film. With Videofile, the actual document is recorded, complete with photos and graphic material, and a picture of the document is available instantly.

  18. Facilitation for law enforcement technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David A.

    1997-02-01

    In todays world of rapid technology development, emerging technologies present to law enforcement agencies, one of a very limited number of legal responses to criminal initiatives. Yet in spite of the existence of very sophisticated enforcement technologies, many law enforcement organizations seem to lag behind in several important areas of technology response and adaptation. This paper will propose the idea that what is needed is a closer partnership between private industry`technology adaptors' and government officials who are the problem `identifiers'. This marriage of necessity would produce immediate operational results focussed on todays enforcement problems and tomorrows emerging solutions. The paper will also present the concept of the establishment of an independent body tasked with the creation of an enforcement technology `adaptor' registry for authorized and innovative, enforcement technology applications specialists. This registry would be created to assist enforcement agencies with the location and/or creation of new law enforcement technologies/products. These persons would locate and/or create quick response technology innovations developed to provide operational `fixes' and technologies designed to address emerging enforcement problems. The presentation will conclude by providing examples of up to 12 different existing technologies devices currently available (but not generally known by government agencies).

  19. 45 CFR 164.412 - Law enforcement delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement delay. 164.412 Section 164.412 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED... § 164.412 Law enforcement delay. If a law enforcement official states to a covered entity or...

  20. 49 CFR 1544.217 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1544.217 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.217 Law enforcement personnel. (a) The following applies to... for law enforcement personnel meeting the qualifications and standards specified in §§ 1542.215...

  1. 49 CFR 1544.217 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1544.217 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.217 Law enforcement personnel. (a) The following applies to... for law enforcement personnel meeting the qualifications and standards specified in §§ 1542.215 and...

  2. 45 CFR 164.412 - Law enforcement delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Law enforcement delay. 164.412 Section 164.412 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED... § 164.412 Law enforcement delay. If a law enforcement official states to a covered entity or business...

  3. 45 CFR 164.412 - Law enforcement delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Law enforcement delay. 164.412 Section 164.412 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED... § 164.412 Law enforcement delay. If a law enforcement official states to a covered entity or...

  4. International law and law enforcement firearms.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Normia, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition, transforming firearms into weapons with less-lethal and even humanitarian options, require new interpretations of the legislation. A division into lethal and non-lethal weapons is an oversimplification and the separation of international humanitarian law into military and law enforcement provisions can be questioned from the technical aspect. The type of technology acceptable for law enforcement use of firearms should be defined. An assessment for weapon injury should not be based on lethality, but rather on the potential for tissue damage and its reversibility.

  5. 25 CFR 12.22 - Can Bureau of Indian Affairs law enforcement officers enforce tribal laws?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can Bureau of Indian Affairs law enforcement officers... AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Authority and Jurisdiction § 12.22 Can Bureau of Indian Affairs law enforcement officers enforce tribal laws? BIA officers will enforce tribal laws only with the...

  6. Innovative telecommunications for law enforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of computer-aided dispatch, mobile digital communications, and automatic vehicle location systems used in law enforcement is discussed, and characteristics of systems used by different agencies are compared. With reference to computer-aided dispatch systems, the data base components, dispatcher work load, extent of usage, and design trends are surveyed. The capabilities, levels of communication, and traffic load of mobile digital communications systems are examined. Different automatic vehicle location systems are distinguished, and two systems are evaluated. Other aspects of the application of innovative technology to operational command, control, and communications systems for law enforcement agencies are described.

  7. Innovative telecommunications for law enforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of computer-aided dispatch, mobile digital communications, and automatic vehicle location systems used in law enforcement is discussed, and characteristics of systems used by different agencies are compared. With reference to computer-aided dispatch systems, the data base components, dispatcher work load, extent of usage, and design trends are surveyed. The capabilities, levels of communication, and traffic load of mobile digital communications systems are examined. Different automatic vehicle location systems are distinguished, and two systems are evaluated. Other aspects of the application of innovative technology to operational command, control, and communications systems for law enforcement agencies are described.

  8. Marsupial robots for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.

    2001-02-01

    Marsupial robots are a type of heterogeneous mobile robot team. A mother robot transports, supports, and recovers one or more daughter robots. This paper will cover the marsupial robot concept, the application of law enforcement, and recent results in collaborative teleoperation for the related task of urban search and rescue.

  9. Law Enforcement and the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poelvoorde, Rose; And Others

    The training program examines the relationship between law enforcement personnel and persons with disabilities. The curriculum is organized into four sections dealing with specific concerns of people with hearing impairments, visual impairments, mental retardation, and mobility impairments. Background information is presented for each disability…

  10. Can Immigration Laws Be Enforced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Edwin

    1983-01-01

    Current immigration law contains loopholes that make it difficult to restrict illegal immigration. Needed are enforcement strategies that maximize benefits from limited resources and are politically acceptable to American citizens. Such strategies might include increasing cost of entry, and focusing post entry operations on aliens involved in…

  11. Employee perceptions of protected area law enforcement

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. Wynveen; Robert D. Bixler; William E. Hammitt

    2006-01-01

    It is widely accepted that criminal activity negatively impacts visitors? recreation experiences in the nation?s parks and forests (Fletcher 1983). To further understand how law enforcement can effectively manage criminal activity in protected areas, this study was designed to describe law enforcement and non-law enforcement rangers? perceptions of a range of law...

  12. A 27-locus STR assay to meet all United States and European law enforcement agency standards.

    PubMed

    Schumm, James W; Gutierrez-Mateo, Cristina; Tan, Eugene; Selden, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Different national and international agencies have selected specific STR sets for forensic database use. To enhance database comparison across national and international borders, a 27-locus multiplex system was developed comprising all 15 STR loci of the European standard set, the current 13 STR loci of the CODIS core, the proposed 22 STR loci of the expanded CODIS core, 4 additional commonly used STR loci, and the amelogenin locus. Development required iterative primer design to resolve primer-related artifacts, amplicon sizing, and locus-to-locus balance issues. The 19.5-min assay incorporated newly developed six-dye chemistry analyzed using a novel microfluidic electrophoresis instrument capable of simultaneous detection and discrimination of 8 or more fluorescent dyes. The 27-locus multiplex offers the potential for a new international STR standard permitting laboratories in any jurisdiction to use a single reaction to determine profiles for loci they typically generate plus an expanded common STR profiling set of global interest.

  13. Ergonomics Evaluation of Law Enforcement Chemical/Biological (CB) Personal Protective Equipment for the Law Enforcement Advanced Protection (LEAP) CB Standards Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    had similar completion times, although the latex gloves were worn over bare hands with the duty uniform and over butyl gloves with Ensembles A and C...on the CB garment manufacturers’ recommendations for CB ensemble component configuration. Standard 14 mil2 butyl rubber gloves were worn with Suits...manufacturers’ recommendations for CB ensemble component configuration. Standard butyl overboots were worn with Suits A and C. This overboot was secured

  14. National law enforcement telecommunications network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, N. B.; Garrison, G. W.; Sohn, R. L.; Gallop, D. L.; Goldstein, B. L.

    1975-01-01

    Alternative approaches are analyzed to a National Law Enforcement Telecommunications Network (NALECOM) designed to service all state-to-state and state-to-national criminal justice communications traffic needs in the United States. Network topology options were analyzed, and equipment and personnel requirements for each option were defined in accordance with NALECOM functional specifications and design guidelines. Evaluation criteria were developed and applied to each of the options leading to specific conclusions. Detailed treatments of methods for determining traffic requirements, communication line costs, switcher configurations and costs, microwave costs, satellite system configurations and costs, facilities, operations and engineering costs, network delay analysis and network availability analysis are presented. It is concluded that a single regional switcher configuration is the optimum choice based on cost and technical factors. A two-region configuration is competitive. Multiple-region configurations are less competitive due to increasing costs without attending benefits.

  15. Law Enforcement School Programs. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Safe Schools Initiative Division, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The school shooting incidents during the decade of the 1990's prompted an increase of law enforcement presence in schools. The School Violence Resource Center (SVRC) at the Criminal Justice Institute (CJI) University of Arkansas System undertook a project to determine what programs law enforcement agencies currently provide in their local schools…

  16. Perspectives on law enforcement in recreation areas

    Treesearch

    Lawrence C. Hadley

    1971-01-01

    The nature and scope of law-enforcement problems in the National Park System are of increasing concern to park and recreation area managers. A positive response by management in terms of formulating and executing a fully professional and effective enforcement program is vital for sustaining public confidence that Parks are safe for individual and family use. Law...

  17. Firearm deaths by law enforcement.

    PubMed

    Gill, James R; Pasquale-Styles, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The use of deadly force during law enforcement is a matter that compels public scrutiny. There were 42 gunshot deaths caused by police over a 4-year period in New York City. The decedents' average age was 31 years and ranged from 17 to 64 years. There were 41 males and one female; and 26 Black, nine Hispanic, and seven White decedents. Ethanol and/or drugs of abuse were detected in 78% (31/40) of the decedents. The vast majority of shootings occurred with the police responding to a crime and 90% of the decedents were armed (26 handguns, six knives, one axe, one metal pipe, and one toy gun). Vehicles were used as weapons in two incidents. A total of 177 bullets struck the 42 decedents. Fourteen decedents sustained single gunshot wounds (GSWs), and the remainder had multiple GSWs ranging from 2 to 21. In the majority of the cases in this study, the number of GSWs of the body was three or fewer. Thirteen decedents had at least one GSW of the back or buttocks, accounting for 25 of the total 177 wounds, and four of the 13 had GSWs of only the back. With the exception of the upper extremities, GSWs of all locations were more likely to penetrate than perforate. Although these deaths may be high profile, the certification is typically straightforward and the cause (i.e., GSW) and manner of death (homicide) are readily apparent. Although police shootings in which the decedent was unarmed and/or sustained numerous GSWs are widely reported by the lay press, these types of shootings were not typical in our study.

  18. Military Dog Training for Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Lou E.

    1977-01-01

    Describes five courses involved in the intensive training that dogs and their handlers go through in the Military Dog Studies Branch at Lackland Air Force Base (San Antonio, Texas) in preparation for duties in law enforcement. (HD)

  19. Humanizing Law Enforcement: A New Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolpert, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the recent literature on the humanization of law enforcement policy. Crisis intervention training programs, human relations training for police recruits, neighborhood team policing, and organization development approaches to management exemplify the humanistic perspective on police policy. (Author)

  20. Humanizing Law Enforcement: A New Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolpert, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the recent literature on the humanization of law enforcement policy. Crisis intervention training programs, human relations training for police recruits, neighborhood team policing, and organization development approaches to management exemplify the humanistic perspective on police policy. (Author)

  1. 7 CFR 501.14 - Non-Federal law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-Federal law enforcement. 501.14 Section 501.14...-Federal law enforcement. Research Center special policemen may be deputized by State or local law... State or local law enforcement agency, the facilities or services of such State or local law enforcement...

  2. Software radio technology and applications to law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitola, Joseph, III

    1997-02-01

    Law enforcement use of radio includes the rapid creation of networks for the dozens of law enforcement organizations who come together in situations as diverse as the TWA 800 disaster in New York or the SunFest celebration in Palm Beach. The software radio is a proven technology for rapidly building such interoperable networks, including seamless bridging cross sub-networks of different frequency bands, channel modulations and information formats. In addition, law enforcement must manage the costs of related radio base station infrastructure, mobile units and handsets. The software radio is a collection of engineering techniques for creating radio infrastructure that can be programmed for new standards and that can be dynamically updated with new software personalities even 'over the air,' reducing the need to purchase new hardware to remain current with emerging radio interface standards. Although relatively expensive today, continuing DoD, federal and commercial investment in software radio technology will bring products within the reach of law enforcement applications within the next few years. The Modular Multifunction Information Transfer Systems (MMITS) Forum provides further impetus for cost reductions through the market efficiencies of open architecture. This article summarizes software radio technology and key trends in the marketplace including the progress of the MMITS forum. Expanded law enforcement participation in this forum would accelerate the availability of low cost products for law enforcement.

  3. Sexual Harassment in the Law Enforcement Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irons, Nicholas H.

    Considerable confusion exists over male/female relationships in the work place, especially in such male-dominated professions as law enforcement. The laws governing sexual harassment offer unclear guidelines regarding the definition of harm that results from such harassment. This paper addresses the special problems of sexual harassment in the…

  4. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3 Reclamation law enforcement policy. The law enforcement policy of Reclamation is: (a) To maintain an accountable...

  5. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3 Reclamation law enforcement policy. The law enforcement policy of Reclamation is: (a) To maintain an accountable...

  6. 46 CFR 4.03-55 - Law enforcement officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Law enforcement officer. 4.03-55 Section 4.03-55... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-55 Law enforcement officer. Law enforcement officer means a Coast Guard commissioned, warrant or petty officer; or any other law enforcement officer authorized to...

  7. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3 Reclamation law enforcement policy. The law enforcement policy of Reclamation is: (a) To maintain an accountable...

  8. 46 CFR 4.03-55 - Law enforcement officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Law enforcement officer. 4.03-55 Section 4.03-55... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-55 Law enforcement officer. Law enforcement officer means a Coast Guard commissioned, warrant or petty officer; or any other law enforcement officer authorized to...

  9. 50 CFR 10.22 - Law enforcement offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Law enforcement offices. 10.22 Section 10... GENERAL PROVISIONS Addresses § 10.22 Law enforcement offices. (a) Service law enforcement offices are... addressed to “Special Agent in Charge, Office of Law Enforcement, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service” at the...

  10. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3 Reclamation law enforcement policy. The law enforcement policy of Reclamation is: (a) To maintain an accountable...

  11. 46 CFR 4.03-55 - Law enforcement officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement officer. 4.03-55 Section 4.03-55... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-55 Law enforcement officer. Law enforcement officer means a Coast Guard commissioned, warrant or petty officer; or any other law enforcement officer authorized to...

  12. 25 CFR 11.909 - Law enforcement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law enforcement records. 11.909 Section 11.909 Indians... ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.909 Law enforcement records. (a) Law enforcement records and files concerning a minor shall be kept separate from the records and files of adults. (b) All law enforcement...

  13. 46 CFR 4.03-55 - Law enforcement officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Law enforcement officer. 4.03-55 Section 4.03-55... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-55 Law enforcement officer. Law enforcement officer means a Coast Guard commissioned, warrant or petty officer; or any other law enforcement officer authorized...

  14. 33 CFR 88.11 - Law enforcement vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Law enforcement vessels. 88.11... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.11 Law enforcement vessels. (a) Law enforcement vessels may display a flashing blue light when engaged in direct law enforcement or public safety activities....

  15. 46 CFR 4.03-55 - Law enforcement officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Law enforcement officer. 4.03-55 Section 4.03-55... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-55 Law enforcement officer. Law enforcement officer means a Coast Guard commissioned, warrant or petty officer; or any other law enforcement officer authorized...

  16. Optics and images in Law Enforcement II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakey, G. R.; Corbett, Francis J.; Hecht, Avron S.; Richards, Gerald B.; Stevens, Richard J.

    1983-06-01

    A. Hecht. Welcome to the panel session of the ''Optics and Images in Law Enforcement II 7 ' conference entitled 'Technology in Law Enforcement. 7 ' We will try to relate technology and its application in the real world of public and public courts. The panel discussion will be moderated by G. Robert Blakey. He is currently associated with the Notre Dame Law School where he is a Professor of Law. He was formerly chief counsel of the Senate Subcommittee on Criminal Law and Procedures in 1969 and 1972. Professor Blakey was chief counselor and staff director on the House Select Committee on Assasinations from 1977 to 1979. He received his JD in 1960 from the University of Notre Dame Law School. He was given by the American Academy of Forensic Sciences its 1979 Award of Merit for outstanding service to the Academy in advocacy of public recognition and appreciation of the forensic sciences.

  17. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    PubMed

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Psychiatric Disability in Law Enforcement Officers.

    PubMed

    Price, Marilyn

    2017-03-01

    Law enforcement officers all across the world are exposed to violence, confrontation, and traumatic incidents. They regularly witness death and suffering and are at risk of personal injury. Psychiatric sequelae include an increased risk for trauma-related symptoms, depression, alcohol-use disorders, and stress-related medical conditions. Law enforcement officers have been applying for early disability retirement pensions at an increased rate for stress-related psychiatric and medical conditions. As a result, law enforcement agencies are prematurely losing valuable resources, officers with training and experience. Departments have become proactive in trying to address mental health issues to prevent psychiatric disability by implementing employee wellness plans and stress reduction interventions. Programs have been developed to mitigate the effects of stress on law enforcement personnel. Many law enforcement agencies have developed strategies to encourage early confidential referral for psychiatric treatment. They utilize peer support groups and employee assistance programs and develop alliances with mental health professionals. When these approaches fail, a fitness for duty process can be used to identify impairment in work functioning due to psychiatric factors with the prospect of later returning the officer to full duty. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Remote, wireless stakeout surveillance for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Mike; Klein, Allen; Smith, Stan; Jones, John Paul

    2005-05-01

    Inflation combined with the added burden of homeland security requirements, is increasing pressure on local law enforcement budgets and manpower resources. The problem is: how can law enforcement agencies fulfill all of their requirements? How can they respond to these requirements, including homeland security, with limited manpower? Civil Rights considerations also place constraints on law enforcement. One possible solution is the Remote Law Enforcement Surveillance System (RLESS) concept. RLESS makes more efficient use of existing manpower while avoiding infringement on civil liberties. RLESS provides the capability for unattended stakeout and surveillance. Many stakeout or surveillance operations are conducted by vice, homicide, organized crime or other task forces. Lasting from days to weeks. Many large drug stings last months involving many persons of interest. A single surveillance mission usually involves a minimum of two persons X 3 shifts per day conducting active observation, equating to 48 man-hours per day. Their tasks include watching, listening, and documenting with photography. Recent military developments have included new technologies and techniques that enable remote unattended observation of areas or points of interest. This capability is now available to support law enforcement stakeouts, thereby significantly minimizes the stresses on manpower.

  20. University Researcher and Law Enforcement Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Brett C; Akins, Scott; Sassaman, Jon; Jackson, Scott; Elwer, Ken; Lanfear, Charles; Amorim, Mariana; Stevens, Katelyn

    2017-04-01

    In 2012, heads of local law enforcement agencies in Benton County, Oregon, contacted researchers at Oregon State University to discuss a problem: a sharp rise in the number of contacts between police and suspects displaying symptoms of mental illness. This initial inquiry led to an ongoing collaborative examination of the nature, causes, and consequences of the rise in police contacts. In this article, the authors describe this collaboration between researchers and law enforcement officials from the perspective of both parties, situating it within the context of mental illness in the U.S. criminal justice system. The collaborators draw on firsthand experiences and prior collaborations to discuss the benefits of, challenges in, and recommendations for university-police research collaborations. Although such collaborations may pose challenges (related to relationship definition, data collection and analysis, outputs, and relationship maintenance), the potential benefits-for researchers and law enforcement agencies-are substantial.

  1. Overview of advanced law enforcement electronic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, W. R.

    1995-05-01

    Law enforcement and security management are using advanced electronic equipment to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the budget restricted police officer force. Currently there is also significant national attention concerning the possible utilization of 'military' electronic hardware to implement the much sought after 'force multiplier' which can help to alleviate each jurisdictions economic restrictions. However, as we are now finding, the transfer of 'military' hardware for utilization by law enforcement personnel is not as economically viable as hoped. This paper will address some of the recent advances in electronic technology that are being derived from the military technology base. Additionally, comments are given concerning the economic impact as the technology is transferred to the law enforcement community.

  2. 25 CFR 11.909 - Law enforcement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Law enforcement records. 11.909 Section 11.909 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.909 Law enforcement records. (a) Law enforcement records and...

  3. 36 CFR 1270.50 - Consultation with law enforcement agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Enforcement Purposes § 1270.50 Consultation with law enforcement agencies. (a) For the processing of Presidential records compiled for law enforcement purposes that may be subject to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(7), the... for law enforcement purposes and may be subject to the exemption provided by 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(7) for...

  4. 20 CFR 638.805 - Security and law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... jurisdiction with the appropriate State and locality with respect to criminal law enforcement as long as a... jurisdiction establish agreements with federal, State and local law enforcement agencies to enforce criminal... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security and law enforcement. 638.805...

  5. 32 CFR 634.26 - Traffic law enforcement principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... suspended or revoked. (5) Using sound discretion and judgment in deciding when to apprehend, issue citations..., and violations that cause accidents. Law enforcement personnel use selective enforcement because...

  6. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  7. Guidelines for Working with Law Enforcement Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corn, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Many security professionals choose the career because of an interest in the technology of security. Few realize the degree to which a contemporary security office interacts with law enforcement agencies (LEAs) such as the FBI and state, local, and campus police. As the field of information security has matured, the language of risk management is…

  8. 76 FR 4369 - Special Law Enforcement Commissions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... and the Interim Domestic Violence Waiver that will be used by the Office of Justice Services following... Special Law Enforcement Commission Protocols and the Interim Domestic Violence Waiver are effective on... Interim Domestic Violence Waiver. The documents are being published for interim use on the Indian Affairs...

  9. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  10. Guidelines for Working with Law Enforcement Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corn, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Many security professionals choose the career because of an interest in the technology of security. Few realize the degree to which a contemporary security office interacts with law enforcement agencies (LEAs) such as the FBI and state, local, and campus police. As the field of information security has matured, the language of risk management is…

  11. Law Enforcement Careers. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John F.S.

    Intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are presented for each of six terminal objectives for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course designed to provide high school juniors and seniors with basic law enforcement skills and knowledge. Titles of the six terminal objectives are State Criminal Code, Patrol Methods and…

  12. Enforcing women's rights through law.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J

    1995-06-01

    Because women have to be equal partners in development to insure its sustainability, the human rights of women must be foremost on development agendas. Ratification of and adherence to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (the Women's Convention) would be a powerful international tool in this regard. In various countries, progress towards legalizing rights for women is passing through a first stage which focusses on the protection of specific rights to a second stage in which sex is included as a prohibited ground of discrimination to a third stage which addresses the pervasive and structural nature of the violation of women's rights. It is expected that governments will renew their commitment to the Women's Convention at the Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW) and, thus, take more seriously their obligations to report progress and remove reservations. Regional initiatives, such as the Organization of American States' 1994 Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence Against Women, can also be used to protect women's rights, and the application of national constitutions and domestic laws remains the first line of defence for women. Particular attention must be paid to laws which apply to property rights, nationality, equality within the family, reproductive and other health issues, and violence against women. The Draft Plan of Action prepared for the WCW challenges states to specify their plans to eliminate discrimination. While this Plan may prove to lack vision, women's nongovernmental organizations are playing a major role in accelerating the movement of international and domestic law towards justice for women.

  13. 49 CFR 1542.217 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1542.217 Section 1542... Law enforcement personnel. (a) Each airport operator must ensure that law enforcement personnel used... the criminal laws of the State and local jurisdictions in which the airport is located— (1) A...

  14. 49 CFR 1542.217 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1542.217 Section 1542... Law enforcement personnel. (a) Each airport operator must ensure that law enforcement personnel used... the criminal laws of the State and local jurisdictions in which the airport is located— (1) A crime...

  15. 24 CFR 291.520 - Eligible law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible law enforcement officers... Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.520 Eligible law enforcement officers. A person qualifies as a law... law enforcement agency of the federal government, a state, a unit of general local government, or an...

  16. 21 CFR 1309.26 - Exemption of law enforcement officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of law enforcement officials. 1309.26... Exemption of law enforcement officials. (a) The requirement of registration is waived for the following... Administration, any other Federal officer who is lawfully engaged in the enforcement of any Federal law relating...

  17. 24 CFR 291.520 - Eligible law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligible law enforcement officers... Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.520 Eligible law enforcement officers. A person qualifies as a law... law enforcement agency of the federal government, a state, a unit of general local government, or...

  18. 32 CFR 634.26 - Traffic law enforcement principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic law enforcement principles. 634.26 Section 634.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... law enforcement principles. (a) Traffic law enforcement should motivate drivers to operate vehicles...

  19. Evaluation of Courses of Fire for Law Enforcement Firearms Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    ABSTRACT Unclassified 18. THIS PAGE Unclassified ABSTRACT Unlimited Unclassified OF PAGES 19 Dorothy Young 703-545-2316...A-1 APPENDIX B. U.S. ARMY LAW ENFORCEMENT FIREARMS DAY 2 PILOT PISTOL PRELIMINARY...The training pilot lasted a total of three days . On Day 1, participants completed standard unit Preliminary Marksmanship Instruction (PMI

  20. 25 CFR 12.33 - Are Indian country law enforcement officers paid less than other law enforcement officers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are Indian country law enforcement officers paid less than other law enforcement officers? 12.33 Section 12.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Qualifications and Training Requirements...

  1. 28 CFR 97.18 - Notification of local law enforcement prior to scheduled stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of local law enforcement... companies are required to notify local law enforcement officials 24 hours in advance of any scheduled stops...) STANDARDS FOR PRIVATE ENTITIES PROVIDING PRISONER OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.18 Notification of local law...

  2. Law enforcement suicide: a national analysis.

    PubMed

    Violanti, John M; Robinson, Cynthia F; Shen, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that there is an elevated risk of suicide among workers within law enforcement occupations. The present study examined the proportionate mortality for suicide in law enforcement in comparison to the US working population during 1999, 2003-2004, and 2007, based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Mortality Surveillance data. We analyzed data for all law enforcement occupations and focused on two specific law enforcement occupational categories-detectives/criminal investigators/ police and corrections officers. Suicides were also explored by race, gender and ethnicity. The results of the study showed proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) for suicide were significantly high for all races and sexes combined (all law enforcement--PMR = 169, 95% CI = 150-191, p < 0.01, 264 deaths; detectives/criminal investigators/police--PMR = 182, 95% CI = 150-218, p < 0.01, 115 deaths; and corrections officers-PMR = 141, 95% CI = 111-178, p < 0.01, 73 deaths). Detectives/criminal investigators/police had the higher suicide risk (an 82% increase) compared to corrections officers (a 41% increase). When analyzed by race and sex, suicide PMRs for Caucasian males were significantly high for both occupations-detectives/ criminal investigators/police (PMR = 133; 95% CI = 108-162, p < 0.01; corrections officers--PMR = 134, 95% CI = 102-173, p < 0.01). A significantly high (PMR = 244, p < 0.01, 95% CI = 147-380) ratio was found among Hispanic males in the law enforcement combined category, and a similarly high PMR was found among Hispanic detectives/criminal investigators/police (PMR = 388, p < 0.01, 95% CI = 168-765). There were small numbers of deaths among female and African American officers. The results included significantly increased risk for suicide among detectives/criminal investigators/police and corrections officers, which suggests that additional study could provide

  3. Human reliability assessment: tools for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Overlin, Trudy K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper suggests ways in which human reliability analysis (HRA) can assist the United State Justice System, and more specifically law enforcement, in enhancing the reliability of the process from evidence gathering through adjudication. HRA is an analytic process identifying, describing, quantifying, and interpreting the state of human performance, and developing and recommending enhancements based on the results of individual HRA. It also draws on lessons learned from compilations of several HRA. Given the high legal standards the Justice System is bound to, human errors that might appear to be trivial in other venues can make the difference between a successful and unsuccessful prosecution. HRA has made a major contribution to the efficiency, favorable cost-benefit ratio, and overall success of many enterprises where humans interface with sophisticated technologies, such as the military, ground transportation, chemical and oil production, nuclear power generation, commercial aviation and space flight. Each of these enterprises presents similar challenges to the humans responsible for executing action and action sequences, especially where problem solving and decision making are concerned. Nowhere are humans confronted, to a greater degree, with problem solving and decision making than are the diverse individuals and teams responsible for arrest and adjudication of criminal proceedings. This paper concludes that because of the parallels between the aforementioned technologies and the adjudication process, especially crime scene evidence gathering, there is reason to believe that the HRA technology, developed and enhanced in other applications, can be transferred to the Justice System with minimal cost and with significant payoff.

  4. Forensic imaging tools for law enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    SMITHPETER,COLIN L.; SANDISON,DAVID R.; VARGO,TIMOTHY D.

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods of gathering forensic evidence at crime scenes are encumbered by difficulties that limit local law enforcement efforts to apprehend offenders and bring them to justice. Working with a local law-enforcement agency, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a prototype multispectral imaging system that can speed up the investigative search task and provide additional and more accurate evidence. The system, called the Criminalistics Light-imaging Unit (CLU), has demonstrated the capabilities of locating fluorescing evidence at crime scenes under normal lighting conditions and of imaging other types of evidence, such as untreated fingerprints, by direct white-light reflectance. CLU employs state of the art technology that provides for viewing and recording of the entire search process on videotape. This report describes the work performed by Sandia to design, build, evaluate, and commercialize CLU.

  5. 50 CFR 10.22 - Law enforcement offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement offices. 10.22 Section 10... GENERAL PROVISIONS Addresses § 10.22 Law enforcement offices. Service law enforcement offices and their areas of responsibility follow. Mail should be addressed: “Assistant Regional Director, Division of...

  6. 20 CFR 638.805 - Security and law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and law enforcement. 638.805 Section... and law enforcement. (a) The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines to protect the security of... jurisdiction with the appropriate State and locality with respect to criminal law enforcement as long as...

  7. 49 CFR 1542.219 - Supplementing law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplementing law enforcement personnel. 1542.219... Operations § 1542.219 Supplementing law enforcement personnel. (a) When TSA decides, after being notified by... private law enforcement personnel are available to carry out the requirements of § 1542.215, TSA...

  8. 49 CFR 1542.219 - Supplementing law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplementing law enforcement personnel. 1542.219... Operations § 1542.219 Supplementing law enforcement personnel. (a) When TSA decides, after being notified by... private law enforcement personnel are available to carry out the requirements of § 1542.215, TSA may...

  9. 49 CFR 1546.211 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1546.211 Section 1546... § 1546.211 Law enforcement personnel. (a) At airports within the United States not governed by part 1542...) When using a screening system required by § 1546.101(a), (b), or (c), provide for law enforcement...

  10. 32 CFR 806b.8 - Obtaining law enforcement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining law enforcement records. 806b.8... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.8 Obtaining law enforcement records. The Commander, Air Force Office of Special Investigation; the Commander...

  11. 20 CFR 401.155 - Law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law enforcement purposes. 401.155 Section 401... INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.155 Law enforcement purposes. (a) General. The Privacy Act allows us to disclose information for law enforcement purposes under certain...

  12. 28 CFR 29.5 - Notification of law enforcement officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of law enforcement officials... REGULATIONS § 29.5 Notification of law enforcement officials. In addition to the actions enumerated in § 29.4... reasonable steps to ensure that law enforcement officials under its jurisdiction are familiar with the...

  13. LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICER TRAINING, BASIC COURSE, UNIT I, INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REESE, ROBERT M.; STOVER, WILBUR F.

    INSTRUCTORS MAY USE THIS MANUAL IN CONDUCTING A LAW ENFORCEMENT TRAINING PROGRAM FOR INSERVICE LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS AND RECRUITS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A STATEWIDE COMMITTEE OF STATE LAW ENFORCEMENT CONSULTANTS, SPECIALISTS, AND AN ADVISORY COMMITTE AND WAS TESTED BY A SUBJECT-MATTER SPECIALIST IN A PILOT-CLASS STUDY. THE TRAINING PROGRAM IS…

  14. 20 CFR 401.155 - Law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for criminal law enforcement purposes where a violent crime such as murder or kidnapping has been... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Law enforcement purposes. 401.155 Section 401... INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.155 Law enforcement purposes. (a)...

  15. 20 CFR 401.155 - Law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for criminal law enforcement purposes where a violent crime such as murder or kidnapping has been... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Law enforcement purposes. 401.155 Section 401... INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.155 Law enforcement purposes. (a)...

  16. 20 CFR 401.155 - Law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for criminal law enforcement purposes where a violent crime such as murder or kidnapping has been... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Law enforcement purposes. 401.155 Section 401... INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.155 Law enforcement purposes. (a)...

  17. 45 CFR 5.68 - Exemption seven: Law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INFORMATION REGULATIONS Reasons for Withholding Some Records § 5.68 Exemption seven: Law enforcement. We are not required to disclose information or records that the government has compiled for law enforcement... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exemption seven: Law enforcement. 5.68 Section 5...

  18. 32 CFR 806b.8 - Obtaining law enforcement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining law enforcement records. 806b.8... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.8 Obtaining law enforcement records. The Commander, Air Force Office of Special Investigation; the...

  19. 20 CFR 638.805 - Security and law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Security and law enforcement. 638.805 Section... and law enforcement. (a) The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines to protect the security of... jurisdiction with the appropriate State and locality with respect to criminal law enforcement as long as...

  20. 25 CFR 11.1003 - Law enforcement officer's duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law enforcement officer's duties. 11.1003 Section 11.1003 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1003 Law enforcement officer's duties. A law...

  1. Equalizing Military and Civilian Law Enforcement Certification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    developed for training modern, common police tactics and operations. On-the-job or advanced police training and operations becomes the...skills, attributes, and behaviors that define us as a profession.‖4 Due to ever-changing and developing twenty-first century policing requirements...law enforcement agencies began work to collaboratively conduct research to establish a premier training accreditation model. In the development of

  2. Audio processing technology for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Cofano, Maria; Ratley, Roy J.

    1999-01-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory Multi-Sensor Exploitation Branch (AFRL/IFEC) has been a Department of Defense leader in research and development (R&D) in speech and audio processing for over 25 years. Their primary thrust in these R&D areas has focused on developing technology to improve the collection, handling, identification, and intelligibility of military communication signals. The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center for the Northeast (NLECTC-NE) is collocated with the AFRL Rome Research Sited at the Griffiss Technology park in upstate New York. The NLECTC-NE supports sixteen (16) states in the northeast sector of the United States, and is funded and supported by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). Since the inception of the NLECTC-NE in 1995, the AFRL Rome Research Site has expanded the military applications of their expertise to address law enforcement and corrections requirements. AFRL/IFEC's speech and audio processing technology is unique and particularly appropriate for application to law enforcement requirements. It addresses the similar military need for time-critical decisions and actions, operation within noisy environments, and use by uncooperative speakers in tactical, real-time applications. Audio and speech processing technology for both application domains must also often deal with short utterance communications (less than five seconds of speech) and transmission-to-transmission channel variability.

  3. The effects of standard enforcement on Michigan safety belt use.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Vivoda, Jonathon M; Fordyce, Tiffani A

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of standard enforcement legislation on safety belt use in Michigan through a series of seven statewide direct observation surveys. A secondary purpose of the study was to compare the results in Michigan to the results in other states that have changed the provision of their mandatory safety belt use law from secondary to standard enforcement. The study found that standard enforcement has been effective in increasing safety belt use in Michigan. Immediately following the implementation of standard enforcement, Michigan's belt use rate increased to 83.5%, 13.4 percentage points higher than the highest rate previously observed. One year after the change, safety belt use in Michigan was still nearly 10 percentage points greater than the highest observed rate before standard enforcement legislation was enacted. Results indicated that safety belt use decreased slightly in the year following the implementation of standard enforcement. This appears to be an overall trend across all observed groups, and not due to any single demographic category. The results also suggest that standard enforcement legislation appears to have a greater effect on groups with historically low belt use, such as young people, males, passengers, and Black/African-Americans. When compared with other states that have made the change from secondary to standard enforcement, the increase in the safety belt use rate in Michigan was comparable to the increase seen in states with relatively high safety belt use prior to standard enforcement. However, states that had low safety belt use rates prior to adopting standard enforcement legislation observed a larger percentage point increase in the year following their change to standard enforcement.

  4. LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICER TRAINING, BASIC COURSE, UNIT II, A UNIT OF THE OHIO LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS' TRAINING PROGRAM, LEARNER'S MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REESE, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    STUDENTS MAY USE THIS MANUAL IN A LAW ENFORCEMENT TRAINING PROGRAM FOR INSERVICE LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS AND RECRUITS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A STATEWIDE COMMITTEE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT TRAINING CONSULTANTS, SPECIALISTS, AND AN ADVISORY COMMITTEE AND WAS TESTED BY A SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALIST IN A PILOT-CLASS STUDY. THE PROGRAM IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE…

  5. Retractable spiked barrier strip for law enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.

    1995-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has designed an laboratory tested a prototype retractable spiked barrier strip for law enforcement. The proposed system, which is ready for controlled field testing, expands the functionality of existing spiked barrier strips. A retractable barrier strip, one that can place the spikes in either the active (vertical) or passive (horizontal) position, would allow law enforcement personnel to lay the unobtrusive strip across a road far in advance of a fleeing vehicle. No damage occurs to passing vehicles until the spikes are activated, and that can be done from a safe distance and at a strategic location when the offending vehicle is close to the strip. The concept also allows the strips to be place safely across several roadways that are potential paths of a fleeing vehicle. Since they are not activated until needed, they are harmless to nonoffending vehicles. The laboratory tests conducted on the system indicate that it will puncture tires only when the spikes are rotated to the active position and is safe to travel over when the spikes are in the down position. The strip itself will not cause instability to a vehicle driving over it, nor is the strip disturbed or adversely affected by vehicles driving over it. The spikes can be quickly rotated between the active (vertical) and passive (horizontal) position. However, the laboratory tests have only demonstrated that the retractable spiked barrier strip can perform its intended function in a laboratory environment. Field tests are needed to finalize the design and develop the system into a functional law enforcement tool.

  6. Computational infrastructure for law enforcement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lades, M.; Kunz, C.; Strikos, I.

    1997-02-01

    This project planned to demonstrate the leverage of enhanced computational infrastructure for law enforcement by demonstrating the face recognition capability at LLNL. The project implemented a face finder module extending the segmentation capabilities of the current face recognition so it was capable of processing different image formats and sizes and create the pilot of a network-accessible image database for the demonstration of face recognition capabilities. The project was funded at $40k (2 man-months) for a feasibility study. It investigated several essential components of a networked face recognition system which could help identify, apprehend, and convict criminals.

  7. 78 FR 21826 - Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 182 Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies AGENCY... assigns responsibilities with respect to DoD support provided to Federal, State, and local civilian law... statutory requirements for the Department of Defense support of civilian law enforcement agencies. This...

  8. 45 CFR 5.68 - Exemption seven: Law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption seven: Law enforcement. 5.68 Section 5... INFORMATION REGULATIONS Reasons for Withholding Some Records § 5.68 Exemption seven: Law enforcement. We are not required to disclose information or records that the government has compiled for law...

  9. 49 CFR 1542.215 - Law enforcement support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement support. 1542.215 Section 1542.215..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.215 Law... program under § 1542.103(a) or (b) must provide: (1) Law enforcement personnel in the number and...

  10. 49 CFR 1546.211 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1546.211 Section 1546... § 1546.211 Law enforcement personnel. (a) At airports within the United States not governed by part 1542...) When using a screening system required by § 1546.101(a), (b), or (c), provide for law...

  11. 75 FR 81547 - Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 182 Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies AGENCY... civilian law enforcement efforts, including responses to civil disturbances. DATES: Comments must be... priorities, or the principles set forth in this Executive Order. Section 202, Public Law 104-4,...

  12. 49 CFR 1542.215 - Law enforcement support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Law enforcement support. 1542.215 Section 1542.215..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.215 Law... program under § 1542.103(a) or (b) must provide: (1) Law enforcement personnel in the number and manner...

  13. 28 CFR 0.29j - Law enforcement authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law enforcement authority. 0.29j Section...-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29j Law enforcement authority. Subject to guidelines promulgated by...) Detect and assist in the prosecution of crimes in violation of the laws of the United States and to...

  14. 45 CFR 5.68 - Exemption seven: Law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... purposes. The records may apply to actual or potential violations of either criminal or civil laws or... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exemption seven: Law enforcement. 5.68 Section 5... INFORMATION REGULATIONS Reasons for Withholding Some Records § 5.68 Exemption seven: Law enforcement. We...

  15. 28 CFR 0.29j - Law enforcement authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Law enforcement authority. 0.29j Section...-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29j Law enforcement authority. Subject to guidelines promulgated by...) Detect and assist in the prosecution of crimes in violation of the laws of the United States and...

  16. 45 CFR 5.68 - Exemption seven: Law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exemption seven: Law enforcement. 5.68 Section 5... INFORMATION REGULATIONS Reasons for Withholding Some Records § 5.68 Exemption seven: Law enforcement. We are not required to disclose information or records that the government has compiled for law...

  17. 28 CFR 0.29j - Law enforcement authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Law enforcement authority. 0.29j Section...-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29j Law enforcement authority. Subject to guidelines promulgated by...) Detect and assist in the prosecution of crimes in violation of the laws of the United States and...

  18. Symptoms experienced by law enforcement personnel during methamphetamine lab investigations.

    PubMed

    Witter, Roxana Z; Martyny, John W; Mueller, Kathryn; Gottschall, Bibi; Newman, Lee S

    2007-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine if law enforcement personnel experience symptoms associated with methamphetamine lab investigation and to assess those factors that may result in more symptoms. A total of 258 standardized, self-administered surveys were distributed to law enforcement personnel attending national/regional training classes, between June 2004-February 2005. Ninety-three percent of the surveys were returned and used to determine symptoms experienced while investigating clandestine methamphetamine labs, as well as the job duties of the respondent and the personal protective equipment used. More than 70% of respondents reported headaches, central nervous system symptoms, respiratory symptoms, sore throat, and other symptoms. Unadjusted and adjusted risk of symptoms was higher for those who investigated more than 30 labs. Other significant risk factors included time spent in the lab, phase of investigation, presence of active chemical processes, and coexistent disease. Respirator use was not independently associated with the likelihood of reporting symptoms. It was concluded that methamphetamine lab investigation is positively associated with symptom reporting in a high percentage of law enforcement personnel involved in these tasks. For most individuals, the reported symptoms were transitory and diminished in a short time, but some individuals reported needing to seek medical attention with symptoms that persisted.

  19. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Program has been developed to provide the alcohol enforcement officer trainee with working knowledge and skills which will enable him to effectively carry out his alcohol enforcement tasks. The instructor's manual has been prepared to serve as a text to assist the instructor in…

  20. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3 Section 422.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3 Reclamation...

  1. 29 CFR 553.211 - Law enforcement activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meet these tests are considered to be engaged in law enforcement activities regardless of their rank... tests described above. If so, they will also qualify as law enforcement officers. Such employees might... claiming the section 13(b)(20) exemption. (e) Employees who do not meet each of the three tests described...

  2. 29 CFR 553.211 - Law enforcement activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meet these tests are considered to be engaged in law enforcement activities regardless of their rank... tests described above. If so, they will also qualify as law enforcement officers. Such employees might... claiming the section 13(b)(20) exemption. (e) Employees who do not meet each of the three tests described...

  3. 29 CFR 553.211 - Law enforcement activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meet these tests are considered to be engaged in law enforcement activities regardless of their rank... tests described above. If so, they will also qualify as law enforcement officers. Such employees might... claiming the section 13(b)(20) exemption. (e) Employees who do not meet each of the three tests described...

  4. 29 CFR 553.211 - Law enforcement activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meet these tests are considered to be engaged in law enforcement activities regardless of their rank... tests described above. If so, they will also qualify as law enforcement officers. Such employees might... claiming the section 13(b)(20) exemption. (e) Employees who do not meet each of the three tests described...

  5. Improving Law Enforcement Cross Cultural Competencies through Continued Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sereni-Massinger, Christine; Wood, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Over the last thirty years Community Oriented Policing (COP) has spawned advancements in creating community partnerships with law enforcement agencies. Agencies that focus on such partnerships have served to reduce crime and resolve conflict. However, community opinions towards law enforcement have become increasingly negative due to recent civil…

  6. Randomized Trial of Law Enforcement Training on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teagardin, Jill; Dixon, Dennis R.; Smith, Marlena N.; Granpeesheh, Doreen

    2012-01-01

    The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are likely to affect interactions between law enforcement officers and persons with ASD. If law enforcement officers are not trained to identify and appropriately respond to persons with ASD, it is possible that officers may exacerbate a situation, resulting in unnecessary trauma, injury, or…

  7. 33 CFR 88.11 - Law enforcement vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... display a flashing blue light when engaged in direct law enforcement or public safety activities. This light must be located so that it does not interfere with the visibility of the vessel's navigation lights. (b) The blue light described in this section may be displayed by law enforcement vessels of the...

  8. 33 CFR 88.11 - Law enforcement vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... display a flashing blue light when engaged in direct law enforcement or public safety activities. This light must be located so that it does not interfere with the visibility of the vessel's navigation lights. (b) The blue light described in this section may be displayed by law enforcement vessels of the...

  9. 33 CFR 88.11 - Law enforcement vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... display a flashing blue light when engaged in direct law enforcement or public safety activities. This light must be located so that it does not interfere with the visibility of the vessel's navigation lights. (b) The blue light described in this section may be displayed by law enforcement vessels of the...

  10. 33 CFR 88.11 - Law enforcement vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... display a flashing blue light when engaged in direct law enforcement or public safety activities. This light must be located so that it does not interfere with the visibility of the vessel's navigation lights. (b) The blue light described in this section may be displayed by law enforcement vessels of the...

  11. 45 CFR 5.68 - Exemption seven: Law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....68 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REGULATIONS Reasons for Withholding Some Records § 5.68 Exemption seven: Law enforcement. We are not required to disclose information or records that the government has compiled for law enforcement...

  12. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.

    The course guide has been designed as the basic planning document for the program director and instructional personnel in the organization and administration of a Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Course. It contains an explanation of the developmental effort of the DWI Law Enforcement Training Project and detailed…

  13. Higher Education Programs in Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenney, Charles W., Jr.

    In 1966 the Office of Law Enforcement Assistance undertook to encourage higher education for law enforcement through a series of curriculum development grants to 2- and 4-year institutions throughout the nation. Altogether, 28 colleges and universities received 48 grants totalling nearly $1 million. First priority was given to schools in states…

  14. School Administrators and Law Enforcement Officials. A Legal Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.

    A model policy and rules for maintaining a cooperative effort between school administrators and law enforcement officials are presented in this pamphlet. The policy and rules were developed by the Iowa State Department of Public Instruction. The model policy stresses cooperation between administrators and law enforcement officers and respect for…

  15. Forest Service law enforcement officer report: nationwide study

    Treesearch

    Deborah J. Chavez; Joanne F. Tynon

    2007-01-01

    This study is the first in a series of studies to evaluate perceptions of USDA Forest Service law enforcement personnel of the roles, responsibilities, and issues entailed in their jobs. An email survey was administered to 404 law enforcement officers (LEOs) in national forests across the United States. In all, 294 were completed and returned. In response to the safety...

  16. LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICER TRAINING, BASIC COURSE, UNIT II, INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REESE, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    INSTRUCTORS MAY USE THIS MANUAL IN CONDUCTING A TRAINING PROGRAM FOR INSERVICE LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS AND RECRUITS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A STATEWIDE COMMITTEE OF STATE LAW ENFORCEMENT CONSULTANTS, SPECIALISTS, AND AN ADVISORY COMMITTEE AND WAS TESTED BY A SUBJECT-MATTER SPECIALIST IN PILOT-CLASS STUDY. THE TRAINING PROGRAM IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE…

  17. Teen Drinking Prevention Program. Law Enforcement Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Law enforcement officials know the devastation that drinking can cause among the immature and the inexperienced. This guide is intended to be used by law enforcement agencies in cooperation with other segments of the community. It provides an overview of the problem of youth access to alcohol, a discussion of the legal and policy issues relating…

  18. Protecting those who Protect Us: Federal Law Enforcement Deconfliction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    of federal law enforcement deconfliction processes within the United States . An examination of these processes uncovered complex organizational issues...efforts could be formed. This thesis proposes that the Blue Diamond Deconfliction Division (BD3) should be established within the United States ...law enforcement deconfliction processes within the United States . An examination of these processes uncovered complex organizational issues and

  19. LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICER TRAINING, BASIC COURSE, UNIT I, A UNIT OF THE OHIO LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS' TRAINING PROGRAM, LEARNER'S MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REESE, ROBERT M.; STOVER, WILBUR F.

    STUDENTS MAY USE THIS MANUAL IN A TRAINING PROGRAM FOR INSERVICE LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS AND RECRUITS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A STATEWIDE COMMITTEE OF STATE LAW ENFORCEMENT TRAINING CONSULTANTS, SPECIALISTS, AND AN ADVISORY COMMITTEE AND WAS TESTED BY A SUBJECT-MATTER SPECIALIST IN A PILOT-CLASS STUDY. THE TRAINING PROGRAM IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE LAW…

  20. Timeline analysis tools for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucks, John

    1997-02-01

    The timeline analysis system (TAS) was developed by Rome Laboratory to assist intelligence analysts with the comprehension of large amounts of information. Under the TAS program data visualization, manipulation and reasoning tools were developed in close coordination with end users. The initial TAS prototype was developed for foreign command and control analysts at Space Command in Colorado Springs and was fielded there in 1989. The TAS prototype replaced manual paper timeline maintenance and analysis techniques and has become an integral part of Space Command's information infrastructure. TAS was designed to be domain independent and has been tailored and proliferated to a number of other users. The TAS program continues to evolve because of strong user support. User funded enhancements and Rome Lab funded technology upgrades have significantly enhanced TAS over the years and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. TAS was recently provided to the New York State Police (NYSP) for evaluation using actual case data. Timeline analysis it turns out is a popular methodology used in law enforcement. The evaluation has led to a more comprehensive application and evaluation project sponsored by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). This paper describes the capabilities of TAS, results of the initial NYSP evaluation and the plan for a more comprehensive NYSP evaluation.

  1. CORRECTIONS FOR RACIAL DISPARITIES IN LAW ENFORCEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Christopher L.; Sloan, Frank A.; Eldred, Lindsey M.

    2016-01-01

    Much empirical analysis has documented racial disparities at the beginning and end stages of a criminal case. However, our understanding about the perpetuation of — and even corrections for — differential outcomes as the process unfolds remains less than complete. This Article provides a comprehensive examination of criminal dispositions using all DWI cases in North Carolina during the period 2001–2011, focusing on several major decision points in the process. Starting with pretrial hearings and culminating in sentencing results, we track differences in outcomes by race and gender. Before sentencing, significant gaps emerge in the severity of pretrial release conditions that disadvantage black and Hispanic defendants. Yet when prosecutors decide whether to pursue charges, we observe an initial correction mechanism: Hispanic men are almost two-thirds more likely to have those charges dropped relative to white men. Although few cases survive after the plea bargaining stage, a second correction mechanism arises: Hispanic men are substantially less likely to receive harsher sentences and are sent to jail for significantly less time relative to white men. The first mechanism is based in part on prosecutors’ reviewing the strength of the evidence but much more on declining to invest scarce resources in the pursuit of defendants who fail to appear for trial. The second mechanism seems to follow more directly from judicial discretion to reverse decisions made by law enforcement. We discuss possible explanations for these novel empirical results and review methods for more precisely identifying causal mechanisms in criminal justice. PMID:28066033

  2. Genetically modified plants for law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the unique ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several law enforcement applications for this technology. One involves using tagging and perhaps modifying drug plants genetically. In one instance, we could tag them for destruction. In another, we could adulterate them directly. Another application is one that falls into the chemical terrorism and bioterrorism countermeasures category. We are developing plants to sense toxins and whole organisms covertly. Plants are well adapted to monitor large geographic areas; biosurveillance. Some examples of research being performed focus on plants with plant pathogen inducible promoters fused to GFP for disease sensing, and algae biosensors for chemicals.

  3. 76 FR 27355 - Law Enforcement Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Selection and Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... of Justice Programs Law Enforcement Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Selection... public, the ``Law Enforcement Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Selection and... representatives, law enforcement agencies and organizations, research, development and scientific communities,...

  4. 12 CFR 261.21 - Confidential information made available to law enforcement agencies and other nonfinancial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Financial Institution Supervisory Agencies, Law Enforcement Agencies, and Others in Certain Circumstances § 261.21 Confidential information made available to law enforcement agencies and other nonfinancial... available to appropriate law enforcement agencies and to other nonfinancial institution supervisory agencies...

  5. CASTLE: an advanced technology partnership serving law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoig, Thomas M.

    1997-01-01

    The Center for Applied Science and Technology for Law Enforcement (CASTLE) is supported by the National Institute of Justice Office of Science and Technology and is establishing partnerships with the National Law Enforcement Corrections and Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina. Additionally, CASTLE is working with the American Society of Crime Lab Directors (ASCLD) to direct effective interface with and support of state and local crime laboratories. Extremely sophisticated, often one-of-a-kind, equipment and very-capable scientific expertise are resident at U.S. federal government laboratories and, until recently, have not been applied often to law enforcement problems, particularly at the state and local level. While there have been a number of research and development programs at national laboratories sponsored by agencies such as the National Institute of Justice, most of these have been focused on long-term objectives to meet broad national needs. In discussions with local law enforcement personnel, it is apparent that there are much more immediate technology needs, which are not being addressed by nationwide programs, in fundamental areas including video and audio surveillance, trace and physical evidence sampling, and forensic laboratory analysis. In a pilot program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a significant component of the nation's science and technology resources located in Tennessee, recently made a commitment to support law enforcement where possible with advanced technology. ORNL formed the Center for Applied Science and Technology for Law Enforcement (CASTLE), a partnership of scientific, university, private sector, and law enforcement personnel. The goal of the CASTLE program is to apply technology at the grassroots working level to both solve crimes, to improve safety to law enforcement personnel, and to improve the overall quality of law enforcement services within the United States.

  6. Impaired driving enforcement practices among state and local law enforcement agencies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Eichelberger, Angela H; McCartt, Anne T

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol-impaired driving (DUI) persists as a substantial problem, yet detailed data on DUI enforcement practices are rarely collected. The present study surveyed state and local law enforcement agencies about their DUI enforcement activities. Telephone interviews were conducted with law enforcement liaisons in state highway safety offices. Officers from a nationally representative sample of municipal, county, and state law enforcement agencies were also interviewed about their agency's DUI enforcement activities, including the types of enforcement, frequency of use, and whether activities were publicized. Response rates were 100% among law enforcement liaisons, 86% among county agencies, 93% among municipal agencies, and 98% among state agencies. Based on the highway safety office survey, 38 states conducted sobriety checkpoints in 2011. Nationally, 58% of law enforcement agencies reported that they conducted or helped conduct sobriety checkpoints during 2011-12, with 14% of all agencies conducting them monthly or more frequently. The vast majority (87%) of agencies reported conducting dedicated DUI patrols. However, dedicated DUI patrols were less likely to be publicized than checkpoints. Less than a quarter of agencies reported using passive alcohol sensors to improve detection of alcohol-impaired drivers. Results show that 38 states conducted sobriety checkpoints in 2011, little changed from a previous survey in 2000. Despite evidence of effectiveness, many agencies do not conduct frequent, publicized DUI enforcement or use passive alcohol sensors. The survey suggests that there are several areas in which impaired driving enforcement could be improved: increasing the frequency of special enforcement, such as sobriety checkpoints and/or dedicated patrols; publicizing these efforts to maximize deterrent effects; and using passive alcohol sensors to improve detection of alcohol-impaired drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights

  7. Lip-reading enhancement for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, Barry J.; Harvey, Richard; Cox, Stephen J.; Lewis, Colin; Owen, Gari P.

    2006-09-01

    Accurate lip-reading techniques would be of enormous benefit for agencies involved in counter-terrorism and other law-enforcement areas. Unfortunately, there are very few skilled lip-readers, and it is apparently a difficult skill to transmit, so the area is under-resourced. In this paper we investigate the possibility of making the lip-reading task more amenable to a wider range of operators by enhancing lip movements in video sequences using active appearance models. These are generative, parametric models commonly used to track faces in images and video sequences. The parametric nature of the model allows a face in an image to be encoded in terms of a few tens of parameters, while the generative nature allows faces to be re-synthesised using the parameters. The aim of this study is to determine if exaggerating lip-motions in video sequences by amplifying the parameters of the model improves lip-reading ability. We also present results of lip-reading tests undertaken by experienced (but non-expert) adult subjects who claim to use lip-reading in their speech recognition process. The results, which are comparisons of word error-rates on unprocessed and processed video, are mixed. We find that there appears to be the potential to improve the word error rate but, for the method to improve the intelligibility there is need for more sophisticated tracking and visual modelling. Our technique can also act as an expression or visual gesture amplifier and so has applications to animation and the presentation of information via avatars or synthetic humans.

  8. Applications for mini VTOL UAV for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Douglas W.; Cycon, James

    1999-01-01

    Remotely operated vehicle systems, ground and air, have great potential for supporting law enforcement operations. These systems with their onboard sensors, can assist in collecting evidence, performing long-term surveillance or in assessing hazardous situations prior to committing personnel. Remote ground vehicles are presently used by many police departments for ordnance clearing missions. Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) typically offer long endurance, and are intuitive to operate, but can be severely limited in where they can go by terrain and obstacles. Unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) have 3-D mobility, but have landing and takeoff restrictions, mission time limitations, and typically are demanding to operate. A new capability has been demonstrated for the U.S. military that shows great promise for aiding police agencies. This concept uses a shrouded rotor, vertical take off and landing (VTOL), an unmanned air vehicle to provide mobility to sensors and other payloads. This system can either perform surveillance from the air or travel to a remote location and land to position onboard sensors to perform long-term surveillance from the ground. This mobility platform concept can also be used to position packages (e.g., communications repeaters) or deliver and deploy non-lethal agents. This paper presents the concept of a small, UAV, VTOL, sensor mobility system for support of law enforcement operations. It then discusses operational feasibility and briefly reviews demonstrations of surveillance and sensor placement operations in military urban terrain scenarios performed by the Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center San Diego (SSCSD) and Sikorsky Aircraft with their full-size Cypher UAV. We then discuss the practicality of reducing the size of this capability to a system small enough to be transported in standard police vehicles and which can be easily operated by law enforcement personnel.

  9. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The student manual has been prepared to serve as a workbook to assist the student officer in successfully completing the Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Course. It is organized under 16 subject headings (orientation, alcohol and highway safety, preparation for alcohol enforcement task, detection of the drinking…

  10. 29 CFR 553.211 - Law enforcement activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., investigative and law enforcement techniques, community relations, medical aid and ethics. (b) Employees who..., teaching, or in psychological, medical and paramedical services. This is so even though such employees may...

  11. The 1033 Program, Department of Defense Support to Law Enforcement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-28

    activities. General categories of equipment offered for transfer include office furniture, household goods (e.g., kitchen equipment), exercise equipment... portable electric generators, tents, and general law enforcement supplies (e.g., handcuffs, riot shields, holsters, binoculars, and digital cameras

  12. Patterns of Alcohol Policy Enforcement Activities among Local Law Enforcement Agencies: A Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Darin J; Rutledge, Patricia C; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L

    We assessed levels and patterns of alcohol policy enforcement activities among U.S. local law enforcement agencies. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1,631 local law enforcement agencies across the 50 states. We assessed 29 alcohol policy enforcement activities within each of five enforcement domains-underage alcohol possession/consumption, underage alcohol provision, underage alcohol sales, impaired driving, and overservice of alcohol-and conducted a series of latent class analyses to identify unique classes or patterns of enforcement activity for each domain. We identified three to four unique enforcement activity classes for each of the enforcement domains. In four of the domains, we identified a Uniformly Low class (i.e., little or no enforcement) and a Uniformly High enforcement activity class (i.e., relatively high levels of enforcement), with one or two middle classes where some but not all activities were conducted. The underage provision domain had a Uniformly Low class but not a Uniformly High class. The Uniformly Low class was the most prevalent class in three domains: underage provision (58%), underage sales (61%), and overservice (79%). In contrast, less than a quarter of agencies were in Uniformly High classes. We identified qualitatively distinct patterns of enforcement activity, with a large proportion of agencies in classes characterized by little or no enforcement and fewer agencies in high enforcement classes. An important next step is to determine if these patterns are associated with rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related injury and mortality.

  13. Patterns of Alcohol Policy Enforcement Activities among Local Law Enforcement Agencies: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Darin J.; Rutledge, Patricia C.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    Aims We assessed levels and patterns of alcohol policy enforcement activities among U.S. local law enforcement agencies. Design/Setting/Participants We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1,631 local law enforcement agencies across the 50 states. Measures/Methods We assessed 29 alcohol policy enforcement activities within each of five enforcement domains—underage alcohol possession/consumption, underage alcohol provision, underage alcohol sales, impaired driving, and overservice of alcohol—and conducted a series of latent class analyses to identify unique classes or patterns of enforcement activity for each domain. Findings We identified three to four unique enforcement activity classes for each of the enforcement domains. In four of the domains, we identified a Uniformly Low class (i.e., little or no enforcement) and a Uniformly High enforcement activity class (i.e., relatively high levels of enforcement), with one or two middle classes where some but not all activities were conducted. The underage provision domain had a Uniformly Low class but not a Uniformly High class. The Uniformly Low class was the most prevalent class in three domains: underage provision (58%), underage sales (61%), and overservice (79%). In contrast, less than a quarter of agencies were in Uniformly High classes. Conclusions We identified qualitatively distinct patterns of enforcement activity, with a large proportion of agencies in classes characterized by little or no enforcement and fewer agencies in high enforcement classes. An important next step is to determine if these patterns are associated with rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related injury and mortality. PMID:26877822

  14. 21 CFR 20.64 - Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... law enforcement purposes. (a) Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes may be... any other criminal law enforcement authority in the course of a criminal investigation or by an agency... procedures for law enforcement investigations or prosecutions or would disclose guidelines for law...

  15. Enforcement following 0.08% BAC law change: Sex-specific consequences of changing arrest practices?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jennifer; Davaran, Ardavan

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated effects of stricter 0.08% BAC drunken driving law on changes in sex-specific DUI arrest rates, controlling for increased law enforcement resources and shifts in DUI-related behaviors. Another main purpose, the study assessed female/male differences in arrest increases due to broader enforcement standards and efforts. Panel data was assembled for 24 states over 1990–2007 on DUI arrests, alcohol policy, law enforcement resources, drinking and drunken driving prevalence. Two-way fixed-effects seemingly unrelated regression models predicted female versus male changes in DUI arrests following implementation of lower legal limits of intoxication, net controls. Findings suggest, first, a broader legal definition of drunken driving intending to officially sanction less serious offenders (0.08% vs. 0.10% BAC) was associated with increased DUI arrests for both sexes. Second, growth in specialized DUI-enforcement units also was related to increased arrests. Whereas male and female arrest trends were equally affected by the direct net-widening effects of 0.08% BAC alcohol-policy, specialized DUI-enforcement efforts to dig deeper into the offender-pool had stronger arrest-producing effects on females, particularly prior to law change. Specifying how changes in law and enforcement resources affect arrest outcomes is an important precursor to alcohol-policy analyses of effectiveness. A potential unintended consequence, effects of law and enforcement may differ across population segments. PMID:23773958

  16. Enforcement following 0.08% BAC law change: sex-specific consequences of changing arrest practices?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jennifer; Davaran, Ardavan

    2013-10-01

    This research evaluated effects of stricter 0.08% BAC drunken driving law on changes in sex-specific DUI arrest rates, controlling for increased law enforcement resources and shifts in DUI-related behaviors. Another main purpose, the study assessed female/male differences in arrest increases due to broader enforcement standards and efforts. Panel data was assembled for 24 states over 1990-2007 on DUI arrests, alcohol policy, law enforcement resources, drinking and drunken driving prevalence. Two-way fixed-effects seemingly unrelated regression models predicted female versus male changes in DUI arrests following implementation of lower legal limits of intoxication, net controls. Findings suggest, first, that a broader legal definition of drunken driving intending to officially sanction less serious offenders (0.08% vs. 0.10% BAC) was associated with increased DUI arrests for both sexes. Second, growth in specialized DUI-enforcement units also was related to increased arrests. Whereas male and female arrest trends were equally affected by the direct net-widening effects of 0.08% BAC alcohol-policy, specialized DUI-enforcement efforts to dig deeper into the offender-pool had stronger arrest-producing effects on females, particularly prior to law change. Specifying how changes in law and enforcement resources affect arrest outcomes is an important pre-cursor to alcohol-policy analyses of effectiveness. A potential unintended consequence, effects of law and enforcement may differ across population segments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Increasing Capacity & Changing the Culture: Volunteer Management in Law Enforcement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    volunteer program. First, is their agency utilizing civilian volunteers? Second, are the agencies that presently engage volunteers capitalizing on this...human dignity, and social justice when those activities are not the source of one’s livelihood, require involvement beyond what is expected of all...law enforcement agency. This leads one to ask exactly why these circumstances exist and what is preventing law enforcement agencies from capitalizing

  18. Small power systems for law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Paul E.; Mauk, Michael G.; Sulima, Oleg V.

    2002-08-01

    Recent events have increased interest in the use of sensors by law enforcement and homeland defense related organizations. Autonomous sensors such as those under development for the Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) program are suitable for some of these applications. The operational lifetime of a UGS depends on the power consumption of the package and the space allocated for batteries. We survey and assess options for powering these devices ina long-term scenario. These alternatives are in various stages of development, and range from conventional batteries and solar cells that are ready for deployment and are now commercially available; to technologies developed for other applications (e.g., power for deep-space probes, man portable power for soldiers, or for sensors in oil drilling bore holes) that would need to be adapted to UGS's; to new and often speculative concepts that are in the laboratory or are still on the drawing board. Ideally, unattended ground sensors do not require servicing, re- energizing or refueling; and are capable of autonomous operation for weeks or even years. Further, UGS's may need to be used covertly, which restricts schemes that would provide a detectable signature. Reliability, ruggedness, cost, weight, size, camouflaging, use of toxic materials and other safety or disposal aspects, restrictions on their deployment (e.g., whether UGS's can be dropped form the air or whether they need to be uprighted or favorably oriented), storage and inventorying considerations, temperature ranges of operation, and complexity of associated electronics are also important issues. In this paper, we will limit the discussion to systems where operating power does not exceed 5 watts since larger systems are commercially available. Some subjectivity in comparisons is perhaps inevitable, but despite the disparate physics upon which these devices are based, a few common criteria can be invoked for discussing their suitability for energy storage and powering UGS

  19. Finding and applying new technologies to law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, David G.

    1994-03-01

    Law enforcement officials have long recognized that a wide and dangerous gap exists in the range of tools that are available to them. The most common law enforcement tools, the nightstick and the gun, may be either too weak or too strong a response to many police situations. In violent confrontations, officers may be obliged to choose an unnecessarily strong response for lack of an effective alternative weapon. These problems demand that we persevere in the development of less than lethal weapons, that is, weapons which are designed to provide effective enforcement while at the same time minimizing the risk of life.

  20. Law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response

    PubMed Central

    Green, Traci C.; Zaller, Nickolas; Palacios, Wilson R.; Bowman, Sarah E.; Ray, Madeline; Heimer, Robert; Case, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Law enforcement is often the first to respond to medical emergencies in the community, including overdose. Due to the nature of their job, officers have also witnessed first-hand the changing demographic of drug users and devastating effects on their community associated with the epidemic of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the United States. Despite this seminal role, little data exist on law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response. Methods We conducted key informant interviews as part of a 12-week Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) process that aimed to better understand and prevent nonmedical prescription opioid use and overdose deaths in locations in Connecticut and Rhode Island experiencing overdose “outbreaks.” Interviews with 13 law enforcement officials across three study sites were analyzed to uncover themes on overdose prevention and naloxone. Results Findings indicated support for law enforcement involvement in overdose prevention. Hesitancy around naloxone administration by laypersons was evident. Interview themes highlighted officers’ feelings of futility and frustration with their current overdose response options, the lack of accessible local drug treatment, the cycle of addiction, and the pervasiveness of easily accessible prescription opioid medications in their communities. Overdose prevention and response, which for some officers included law enforcement-administered naloxone, were viewed as components of community policing and good police-community relations. Conclusion Emerging trends, such as existing law enforcement medical interventions and Good Samaritan Laws, suggest the need for broader law enforcement engagement around this pressing public health crisis, even in suburban and small town locations, to promote public safety. PMID:24051061

  1. Law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response.

    PubMed

    Green, Traci C; Zaller, Nickolas; Palacios, Wilson R; Bowman, Sarah E; Ray, Madeline; Heimer, Robert; Case, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    Law enforcement is often the first to respond to medical emergencies in the community, including overdose. Due to the nature of their job, officers have also witnessed first-hand the changing demographic of drug users and devastating effects on their community associated with the epidemic of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the United States. Despite this seminal role, little data exist on law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response. We conducted key informant interviews as part of a 12-week Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) process that aimed to better understand and prevent nonmedical prescription opioid use and overdose deaths in locations in Connecticut and Rhode Island experiencing overdose "outbreaks." Interviews with 13 law enforcement officials across three study sites were analyzed to uncover themes on overdose prevention and naloxone. Findings indicated support for law enforcement involvement in overdose prevention. Hesitancy around naloxone administration by laypersons was evident. Interview themes highlighted officers' feelings of futility and frustration with their current overdose response options, the lack of accessible local drug treatment, the cycle of addiction, and the pervasiveness of easily accessible prescription opioid medications in their communities. Overdose prevention and response, which for some officers included law enforcement-administered naloxone, were viewed as components of community policing and good police-community relations. Emerging trends, such as existing law enforcement medical interventions and Good Samaritan Laws, suggest the need for broader law enforcement engagement around this pressing public health crisis, even in suburban and small town locations, to promote public safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 5 CFR 551.216 - Law enforcement activities and 7(k) coverage for FLSA pay and exemption determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.216 Law enforcement activities and 7(k) coverage for FLSA pay and... section 7(k) of the Act apply to certain categories of law enforcement employees based on appropriate...

  3. 7 CFR 501.14 - Non-Federal law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.14 Non-Federal law enforcement. Research Center special policemen may be deputized by State or local law...

  4. 7 CFR 501.14 - Non-Federal law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.14 Non-Federal law enforcement. Research Center special policemen may be deputized by State or local law...

  5. 7 CFR 501.14 - Non-Federal law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.14 Non-Federal law enforcement. Research Center special policemen may be deputized by State or local law...

  6. 7 CFR 501.14 - Non-Federal law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.14 Non-Federal law enforcement. Research Center special policemen may be deputized by State or local law...

  7. 25 CFR 12.63 - Do Indian country law enforcement officers perform other duties as well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do Indian country law enforcement officers perform other... ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Support Functions § 12.63 Do Indian country law enforcement officers perform other duties as well? Law enforcement commissions will only be issued by the Bureau of...

  8. 25 CFR 12.51 - Must Indian country law enforcement officers follow a code of conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Must Indian country law enforcement officers follow a... AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Conduct § 12.51 Must Indian country law enforcement officers follow a code of conduct? All law enforcement programs receiving Bureau of Indian Affairs funding or...

  9. 25 CFR 12.35 - Do Indian country law enforcement officers complete any special training?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do Indian country law enforcement officers complete any... ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Qualifications and Training Requirements § 12.35 Do Indian country law enforcement officers complete any special training? Law enforcement personnel of any program...

  10. Law enforcement attitudes towards naloxone following opioid overdose training.

    PubMed

    Purviance, Donna; Ray, Bradley; Tracy, Abigail; Southard, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Opioid intoxication and overdoses are life-threatening emergencies requiring rapid treatment. One response to this has been to train law enforcement to detect the signs of an opioid overdose and train them to administer naloxone to reverse the effects. Although not a new concept, few studies have attempted to examine this policy. At 4 different locations in Indiana, law enforcement personnel were trained to detect the signs of an opioid-related overdose and how to administer naloxone to reverse the effects of the overdose. Pre and post surveys were administered at each location (N = 97). To examine changes in attitudes following training, the authors included items from the Opioid Overdose Attitudes Scale (OOAS), which measures respondents' competency, concerns, and readiness to administer naloxone. Among the full sample, naloxone training resulted in significant increases in competency, concerns, and readiness. Examining changes in attitudes by each location revealed that the training had the greatest effect on competency to administer naloxone and in easing concerns that law enforcement personal might have in administering naloxone. This study adds to others in showing that law enforcement personnel are receptive to naloxone training and that the OOAS is able to capture these attitudes. This study advances this literature by examining pre-post changes across multiple locations. As the distribution of naloxone continues to proliferate, this study and the OOAS may be valuable towards the development of an evidence-based training model for law enforcement.

  11. Use of the Armed Forces for Domestic Law Enforcement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    enforcement efforts since the very beginning of the nation. From George Washington’s use of federalized state militia in 1794 to put down the Whiskey Rebellion ...call forth the militias of four states to quell the Whiskey Rebellion in Western Pennsylvania. In doing so, Washington relied exclusively upon the...a domestic law enforcement role.10 While this includes suppressing rebellion and quelling domestic violence, it also includes voter intimidation

  12. Liability: the complicated task of licensing law enforcement technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hops, Larry W.; Overlin, Trudy K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses a situation where a company (licensor) requires a liability policy as a condition of a license agreement, when licensing law enforcement technologies. The purpose of this discussion is to evaluate the reasons behind the need for extensive liability policies to protect licensors when marketing their law enforcement technologies to private industry. Finding a solution to the problem, therefore reducing the potential for high liability insurance costs, would be desirable. Since the risks associated with most technologies are virtually unknown, and because such technologies are used in very unpredictable legal environments, alternative ways of guaranteeing research and development enterprises that they will be covered against product liability are needed. Without such protection, licensors may require licensees to indemnify them beyond the usual guarantees provided in a licensing agreement, which may make the license too costly for smaller businesses. When the share of the market is limited to larger corporations, competition suffers and ultimately the cost to law enforcement agencies increases.

  13. Stress and resilience in law enforcement training and practice.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    For law enforcement and emergency services professionals, stress and resilience are not academic topics or luxuries; they are essential to the physical and mental health, as well as to optimum job functioning. This article traces the history of the stress and resilience concepts in psychology, the military, and law enforcement, outlines the major risk and protective factors for traumatic stress responses, and presents a general psychophysiological model of stress and coping. The article next applies these concepts to the proactive fostering of mental toughness and resilience, using lessons learned from sports psychology and the mental conditioning literature. It then describes psychological debriefing, mental health counseling, and psychotherapeutic strategies for facilitating resilient recovery from critical incidents and traumatic events. Although directed mainly to law enforcement, the principles set out in this article may be productively applied to emergency medicine, public safety, military, and civilian trauma counseling settings.

  14. Developing operational requirements for the design of law enforcement technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overlin, Trudy K.; Marts, Donna J.

    1995-05-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was awarded a two-year project to design and develop an air bag restraint for use in law enforcement patrol vehicles. The work has successfully proven the concept and is in the final stages of prototype development. The end product will be the design and delivery of one prototype unit to the National Institute of Justice for evaluation. The INEL also assessed possible technologies that could be used to halt suspects in fleeing vehicles and safely put an end to high-speed pursuits. During the assessment of these technologies, a set of operational requirements were developed that were useful in determining the appropriateness of the technologies for the law enforcement application. This paper discusses the importance of operational requirements in their application to the technologies assessment conducted in the laboratory. The paper discusses the law enforcement and pursuit environment in terms of liability, safety of operation, social acceptance, and effectiveness of technology.

  15. California law enforcement agencies and the mentally ill offender.

    PubMed

    Husted, J R; Charter, R A; Perrou, B

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a survey of California law enforcement agencies, designed to assess the experience of these agencies with mentally ill offenders (MIOs) and the training of their officers to interact with this population. The results suggest that most law enforcement officers are given insufficient training to identify, manage, and appropriately refer the MIOs they are increasingly likely to encounter. The data indicate that, in contrast to their training and expectations, peace officers are as likely to be called to a mental illness crisis as to a robbery. The MIO is likely to be arrested for nonviolent misdemeanors and to be screened by officers with little of the training or knowledge needed to divert them to appropriate mental health treatment. Respondents report that increased communication and cooperation between law enforcement and mental health professionals is the single greatest improvement needed for handling mental illness crises.

  16. Liability: the complicated task of licensing law enforcement technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hops, L.W.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses a situation where a company (licensor) requires a liability policy as a condition of a license agreement, when licensing law enforcement technologies. The purpose of this discussion is to evaluate the reasons behind the need for extensive liability policies to protect licensors when marketing their law enforcement technologies to private industry. Finding a solution to the problem, therefore reducing the potential for high liability insurance costs, would be desirable. Since the risks associated with most technologies are virtually unknown, and because such technologies are used in very unpredictable legal environments, alternative ways of guaranteeing research and development enterprises that they will be covered against product liability are needed. Without such protection, licensors may require licensees to indemnify them beyond the usual guarantees provided in a licensing agreement, which may make the license too costly for smaller businesses. When the share of the market is limited to larger corporations, competition suffers and ultimately the cost to law enforcement agencies increases.

  17. Medical support for law enforcement-extended operations incidents.

    PubMed

    Levy, Matthew J; Tang, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    As the complexity and frequency of law enforcement-extended operations incidents continue to increase, so do the opportunities for adverse health and well-being impacts on the responding officers. These types of clinical encounters have not been well characterized nor have the medical response strategies which have been developed to effectively manage these encounters been well described. The purpose of this article is to provide a descriptive epidemiology of the clinical encounters reported during extended law enforcement operations, as well as to describe a best practices approach for their effective management. This study retrospectively examined the clinical encounters of the Maryland State Police (MSP) Tactical Medical Unit (TMU) during law enforcement extended operations incidents lasting 8 or more hours. In addition, a qualitative analysis was performed on clinical data collected by federal law enforcement agencies during their extended operations. Forty-four percent of missions (455/1,047) supported by the MSP TMU lasted 8 or more hours. Twenty-six percent of these missions (117/455) resulted in at least one patient encounter. Nineteen percent of patient chief complaints (45/238) were related to heat illness/ dehydration. Fifteen percent of encounters (36/238) were for musculoskeletal injury/pain. Eight percent of patients (19/238) had nonspecific sick call (minor illness) complaints. The next most common occurring complaints were cold-related injuries, headache, sinus congestion, and wound/laceration, each of which accounted for 7 percent of patients (16/238), respectively. Analysis of federal law enforcement agencies' response to such events yielded similar clinical encounters. A wide range of health problems are reported by extended law enforcement operations personnel. Timely and effective treatment of these problems can help ensure that the broader operations mission is not compromised. An appropriate operational strategy for managing health complaints

  18. Distribution and integration of databases across law enforcement agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceno, Robin

    1997-02-01

    One of the biggest issues facing the law enforcement community today is the integration of multiple disparate legacy systems with new systems and Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) products. It is an inherent characteristic of the law enforcement process that multiple agencies and multiple systems are involved in the processing of a single individual from the time of booking to final incarceration, and eventual release. A standard life cycle could be described as follows: arrest/booking, court arraignment, court trial and/or warrant generation, jail/probation, and release/parole. The processing associated with each of these events is often the responsibility of different agencies using different systems but they all must maintain the same information about the individual and the arrest (including photographs, fingerprints, data about the individual, and data about the arrest). Today's difficult is that in many jurisdictions, the same data must be captured multiple times, as the individual passes through different agencies and phases. This replication of the data entry process introduces inaccuracies and inconsistencies into the databases, as well as, increases the manual labor associated with the processing of an individual through the criminal justice system. The challenge for the future is to capture this data once and disseminate this data to all `interested' parties. Interested parties could be other applications within the same agency, local court systems, local prosection systems, state systems, and Federal systems. The other challenge is to architect a solution where multiple disparate legacy systems, newly developed systems, and COTS systems can be integrated together into an architecture which will provide the ability to easily incorporate new technologies or new systems as they become available. This paper will present the integrated solution developed by SAIC where digital photographs, fingerprints, and identification and booking data are collected during

  19. Automated computer software development standards enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, H.P.; Formento, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Uniform Development Environment (UDE) is being investigated as a means of enforcing software engineering standards. For the programmer, it provides an environment containing the tools and utilities necessary for orderly and controlled development and maintenance of code according to requirements. In addition, it provides DoD management and developer management the tools needed for all phases of software life cycle management and control, from project planning and management, to code development, configuration management, version control, and change control. This paper reports the status of UDE development and field testing. 5 refs.

  20. 36 CFR 902.57 - Investigatory files compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for law enforcement purposes. 902.57 Section 902.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA... Records § 902.57 Investigatory files compiled for law enforcement purposes. (a) Files compiled by the Corporation for law enforcement purposes, including the enforcement of the regulations of the Corporation, are...

  1. 25 CFR 12.36 - Does other law enforcement training count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does other law enforcement training count? 12.36 Section... ENFORCEMENT Qualifications and Training Requirements § 12.36 Does other law enforcement training count? All... complete basic training requirements will result in removal from a law enforcement position. ...

  2. Restraint use law enforcement intervention in Latino communities.

    PubMed

    Schaechter, Judy; Uhlhorn, Susan B

    2011-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for U.S. Latinos aged 1 to 35 years. Restraint use is an effective means of prevention of motor vehicle crash injury. Effective interventions to raise restraint use include the following: legislation, law enforcement, education, and equipment distribution. The effects of law enforcement interventions in Latino immigrant communities are understudied. We measured the community-level effect of a combined intervention that included warnings and citations phase enforcement in Latino communities. We designed and implemented in two of three Latino-majority communities a multicomponent intervention consisting of a community awareness campaign, restraint use education with equipment distribution, and a two-staged law enforcement intervention. Restraint use observations were conducted in all three communities at baseline, after the warnings phase and again after the citations phase of the intervention were completed. The combined intervention of community awareness, education, child passenger restraint distribution, and law enforcement focused on educational traffic stops with incentives and warnings was associated with a significant increase in both driver and child passenger restraint use in one intervention community, but only driver restraint increased to a level of significance in the other intervention community; significant increase was also noted among nonintervention drivers. The citations phase of the intervention did not result in a significant increase in restraint use and was complicated by interruptions due to unlicensed drivers. The combined effort of community awareness, education, equipment distribution and law enforcement intervention that included incentives and warnings may be effective at increasing seat belt use in Latino communities without the need for citations.

  3. Injuries to law enforcement officers: the backface signature injury.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Marianne; Bir, Cynthia

    2008-01-15

    In today's law enforcement community, one of the most vital tools an officer can possess is personal body armor. However, a recent Department of Justice investigation has raised important questions regarding the protection actually afforded officers through the use of personal body armor, and the current test methods used to assess the armor. Test results show that most Zylon-containing vests showed deformations in excess of the 0101.04 Standard's 44 mm backface signature limit. Such increased deformation can lead to serious injuries, including backface signature injuries, which have occurred in the field. Although the vest is successful in containing the round, it is not effectively dissipating the energy enough to prevent large amounts of vest deformation at the area of impact. Therefore, open, penetrating wounds occur even though the bullet did not penetrate the vest. The objective of the current study was to further define the backface signature injury through the use of case studies and laboratory experiments. Following the case study investigation, backface signature testing was conducted using a clay medium based on the NIJ 0101.04 Standard. The final component of this research involved the use of post-mortem human specimens (PMHS) for further investigation of the backface signature injury. Although the underlying cause of backface signature injuries is unknown, energy density is likely to play a role in the mechanism. Energy density (E/a) is defined as the energy per unit area and has been previously used in less lethal skin penetration research. Further research into the underlying causes of backface signature injuries is necessary. In addition to armor testing, the study of law enforcement personnel who have been shot while wearing soft body armor is also a valuable tool for determining the effectiveness of certification standards. Finally, it is important for medical personnel to recognize the backface signature injury and document this as a type of

  4. Law enforcement tools available at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    2000-03-29

    A number of nuclear technologies developed and applied at the Savannah River Site in support of nuclear weapons material production and environmental remediation can be applied to problems in law enforcement. Techniques and equipment for high-sensitivity analyses of samples are available to identify and quantify trace elements and establish origins and histories of forensic evidence removed from crime scenes. While some of theses capabilities are available at local crime laboratories, state-of-the-art equipment and breakthroughs in analytical techniques are continually being developed at DOE laboratories. Extensive experience with the handling of radioactive samples at the DOE labs minimizes the chances of cross-contamination of evidence received from law enforcement. In addition to high-sensitivity analyses, many of the field techniques developed for use in a nuclear facility can assist law enforcement personnel in detecting illicit materials and operations, in retrieving of pertinent evidence and in surveying crime scenes. Some of these tools include chemical sniffers, hand-held detectors, thermal imaging, etc. In addition, mobile laboratories can be deployed to a crime scene to provide field screening of potential evidence. A variety of portable sensors can be deployed on vehicle, aerial, surface or submersible platforms to assist in the location of pertinent evidence or illicit operations. Several specific nuclear technologies available to law enforcement and their potential uses are discussed.

  5. Deployment of State Traffic Law Enforcement Officers for Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    terrorist and may actually enhance deterrence to terrorist acts . This thesis will examine deployment of state traffic law enforcement officers and...most efficient and effective use of resources. Charles Townshend in his introductory book on terrorism writes, On a dispassionate assessment of the...4 Charles Townshend , Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction, (Oxford University Press, New York, 2002), 115-116. 6 the

  6. Law enforcement officers in the USDA forest service

    Treesearch

    Deborah J. Chavez; Joanne F. Tynon

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports results fiom the first in a series of studies evaluating perceptions of law enforcement officers (LEOs) in the US Forest Service (USFS). It is a follow-up to previous qualitative studies conducted to learn more about crime and violence in national forests and the impacts on recreation visitation and management, and test key characteristics of success...

  7. Hiring & Retaining More Women: The Advantages to Law Enforcement Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonsway, Kimberly A.

    Hiring and retaining more women provides numerous important advantages to law enforcement agencies. Research conducted in the United States and internationally has clearly documented that following facts: (1) female officers are as competent as their male counterparts and even excel in certain areas of police performance; (2) female officers are…

  8. 50 CFR 10.22 - Law enforcement offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Law enforcement offices. 10.22 Section 10.22 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND...

  9. 50 CFR 10.22 - Law enforcement offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Law enforcement offices. 10.22 Section 10.22 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND...

  10. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  11. The Role of Law Enforcement in Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As campuses and communities across the country grapple with problems related to unruly house parties, neighborhood disruptions, and alcohol-fueled "celebratory" incidents, they are developing partnerships with law enforcement agencies to implement strategies to reduce such problems and protect the health and safety of students and residents alike.…

  12. Law Enforcement Use of Threat Assessments to Predict Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Tracey Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive multiple case study was to explore what process, policies and procedures, or set of empirically supported norms governed law enforcement officers in a selected county in the southwest region of the United States when threat assessments were conducted on potentially violent subjects threatening mass…

  13. 49 CFR 1542.215 - Law enforcement support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Law enforcement support. 1542.215 Section 1542.215 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.215...

  14. 49 CFR 1544.217 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1544.217 Section 1544.217 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR...

  15. 49 CFR 1546.211 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1546.211 Section 1546.211 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY...

  16. 49 CFR 1542.217 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1542.217 Section 1542.217 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations §...

  17. 49 CFR 1542.219 - Supplementing law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supplementing law enforcement personnel. 1542.219 Section 1542.219 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  18. 49 CFR 1542.219 - Supplementing law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supplementing law enforcement personnel. 1542.219 Section 1542.219 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  19. 49 CFR 1542.219 - Supplementing law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplementing law enforcement personnel. 1542.219 Section 1542.219 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  20. 49 CFR 1542.215 - Law enforcement support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Law enforcement support. 1542.215 Section 1542.215 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.215...

  1. 49 CFR 1542.221 - Records of law enforcement response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Records of law enforcement response. 1542.221 Section 1542.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  2. 49 CFR 1542.217 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1542.217 Section 1542.217 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations §...

  3. 49 CFR 1542.221 - Records of law enforcement response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Records of law enforcement response. 1542.221 Section 1542.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  4. 49 CFR 1542.221 - Records of law enforcement response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Records of law enforcement response. 1542.221 Section 1542.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  5. 49 CFR 1542.221 - Records of law enforcement response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records of law enforcement response. 1542.221 Section 1542.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  6. 49 CFR 1546.211 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1546.211 Section 1546.211 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY...

  7. 49 CFR 1546.211 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1546.211 Section 1546.211 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY...

  8. 49 CFR 1542.221 - Records of law enforcement response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Records of law enforcement response. 1542.221 Section 1542.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  9. 49 CFR 1544.217 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1544.217 Section 1544.217 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR...

  10. 49 CFR 1544.217 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1544.217 Section 1544.217 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR...

  11. 49 CFR 1542.217 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1542.217 Section 1542.217 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations §...

  12. 49 CFR 1542.215 - Law enforcement support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Law enforcement support. 1542.215 Section 1542.215 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.215...

  13. 32 CFR 806b.8 - Obtaining law enforcement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Obtaining law enforcement records. The Commander, Air Force Office of Special Investigation; the Commander, Air Force Security Forces Center; Major Command, Field Operating Agency, and base chiefs of security... Section 806b.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...

  14. Law Enforcement and Crisis Intervention Services: A Critical Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesnik, Bernard I.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Because of their traditional base as the primary available emergency "field" service in a community, a mental health emergency program must have a cooperative working relationship with law enforcement. Presented at the Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Association of Suicidology, Los Angeles, California, April 29-May 2, 1976. (Author)

  15. Law Enforcement Use of Threat Assessments to Predict Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Tracey Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive multiple case study was to explore what process, policies and procedures, or set of empirically supported norms governed law enforcement officers in a selected county in the southwest region of the United States when threat assessments were conducted on potentially violent subjects threatening mass…

  16. Working together: public law enforcement and private security.

    PubMed

    Jones, Harold T

    2010-01-01

    Private security forces, including hospital security professionals, provide a vast largely untapped resource for public law enforcement in a number of critical areas affecting society, the author points out. At the same time, police agencies in some communities have programs which can be used to provide additional training for private security officers.

  17. Enforcement of state indoor tanning laws in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Joni A; Hoerster, Katherine D; Pichon, Latrice C; Rubio, Debra A; Woodruff, Susan I; Forster, Jean L

    2008-10-01

    Twenty-eight US states have passed legislation for indoor tanning facilities. To our knowledge, whether these state laws are actually enforced has not been evaluated previously in all 28 states. Therefore, we interviewed key informants in these states to assess enforcement practices. Two trained interviewers used a structured survey instrument to interview 28 key informants who were knowledgeable about enforcement practices for laws regarding indoor tanning. Respondents provided information specific to the most populous city in their states. Licensure for indoor tanning businesses was required in 22 of the 28 cities. Slightly less than half of the cities gave citations to tanning facilities that violated state law. Approximately 32% of the cities did not inspect indoor tanning facilities for compliance with state law, and another 32% conducted inspections less than annually. Of those cities that inspected at all, most conducted unannounced inspections. The relatively low rates of annual inspections and citations are of concern. We recommend that future studies assess whether legislation, enforcement practices, or a combination of the 2 affects the practices of indoor tanning facilities or of consumers.

  18. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  19. Thermal-work strain in law enforcement personnel during chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) training

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, M; Karis, A J; Tharion, W J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thermal safety standards for the use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) ensembles have been established for various US occupations, but not for law enforcement personnel. Objectives: We examined thermal strain levels of 30 male US law enforcement personnel who participated in CBRN field training in Arizona, Florida, and Massachusetts. Methods: Physiological responses were examined using unobtrusive heart rate (HR) monitors and a simple thermoregulatory model to predict core temperature (Tc) using HR and environment. Results: Thermal strain levels varied by environments, activity levels, and type of CBRN ensemble. Arizona and Florida volunteers working in hot-dry and hot-humid environment indicated high heat strain (predicted max Tc>38.5°C). The cool environment of Massachusetts reduced thermal strain although thermal strains were occasionally moderate. Conclusions: The non-invasive method of using physiological monitoring and thermoregulatory modeling could improve law enforcement mission to reduce the risk of heat illness or injury. PMID:24999847

  20. Thermal-work strain in law enforcement personnel during chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) training.

    PubMed

    Yokota, M; Karis, A J; Tharion, W J

    2014-01-01

    Thermal safety standards for the use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) ensembles have been established for various US occupations, but not for law enforcement personnel. We examined thermal strain levels of 30 male US law enforcement personnel who participated in CBRN field training in Arizona, Florida, and Massachusetts. Physiological responses were examined using unobtrusive heart rate (HR) monitors and a simple thermoregulatory model to predict core temperature (Tc) using HR and environment. Thermal strain levels varied by environments, activity levels, and type of CBRN ensemble. Arizona and Florida volunteers working in hot-dry and hot-humid environment indicated high heat strain (predicted max Tc>38·5°C). The cool environment of Massachusetts reduced thermal strain although thermal strains were occasionally moderate. The non-invasive method of using physiological monitoring and thermoregulatory modeling could improve law enforcement mission to reduce the risk of heat illness or injury.

  1. The Role of Law Enforcement in Schools: The Virginia Experience--A Practitioner Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Although there has been little academic research on the impact of placing police officers in schools, this practice has grown substantially in response to school shootings and other violent crimes in schools. With a standardized training program since 1999, the state of Virginia has law enforcement officers working in approximately 88 percent of…

  2. The Role of Law Enforcement in Schools: The Virginia Experience--A Practitioner Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Although there has been little academic research on the impact of placing police officers in schools, this practice has grown substantially in response to school shootings and other violent crimes in schools. With a standardized training program since 1999, the state of Virginia has law enforcement officers working in approximately 88 percent of…

  3. 43 CFR 422.6 - Responsibilities of the Chief Law Enforcement Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... authorized under a contract or cooperative agreement meet training and fitness requirements established in this part and abide by standards of conduct and performance established in this part and in the contract or cooperative agreement; (c) Law enforcement officers are under the immediate supervision of...

  4. 43 CFR 422.6 - Responsibilities of the Chief Law Enforcement Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... authorized under a contract or cooperative agreement meet training and fitness requirements established in this part and abide by standards of conduct and performance established in this part and in the contract or cooperative agreement; (c) Law enforcement officers are under the immediate supervision of...

  5. 43 CFR 422.6 - Responsibilities of the Chief Law Enforcement Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... authorized under a contract or cooperative agreement meet training and fitness requirements established in this part and abide by standards of conduct and performance established in this part and in the contract or cooperative agreement; (c) Law enforcement officers are under the immediate supervision of...

  6. Uncooled infrared thermal imaging systems for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, Robert J. S.; Van Dover, Douglas K.

    1995-05-01

    For over 18 years, Texas Instruments (TI) has been developing low cost uncooled thermal imaging technology for night vision applications. Using technology developed with support from several government agencies, TI is offering this dual-use technology in a low cost system for police cruisers and other surveillance applications. TI has teamed with Highes Aircraft to provide NIGHTSIGHTTM, now being marketed jointly. Because NIGHSIGHT is a passive thermal image, it gives law enforcement officers the ability to see in total darkness. This capability gives the uncooled system distinct advantages over image intensifiers which require some degree of visible light. It also differs from typical cryogenic or cooled IR systems because it does not contain a cryogenic cooler mechanism or a scanner which lowers the complexity, costs, size, weight, and power consumption. Police across the US have tested prototype sensors with positive results. Police officers often praise the ability to see in total darkness and report the many advantages of the system and how it changes their perspective on law enforcement. Systems have also been provided to the Drug Enforcement Agency, INS border patrol, prison security staff, Baltimore-Washington International Airport security, Texas Parks and Wildlife Service and the Los Angeles Harbor Patrol and have been used in a variety of security and surveillance situations. The paper will address the implementation of the technology; discuss barriers to use such as cost, awareness, and system understanding, and examine the impact of the technology on the effectiveness of law enforcement at night.

  7. Mental health training for law enforcement professionals.

    PubMed

    Vermette, Heidi S; Pinals, Debra A; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine topics of interest and preferred modalities of training for police officers in their work with persons with mental illness. Police officers across Massachusetts attending in-service mental health training were asked to rate the importance of potential mental health topics and the effectiveness of potential training modalities on a Likert-type scale. Additional data collected included the officer's experience, level of education, motivation for attendance, previous attendance of post-academy mental health training, and preferences for length, frequency, training site, and trainer qualifications. A t test was used to determine if there were significant differences (p < .05) between those who volunteered and those who were mandated to attend the training. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine if there were significant differences (p < .05) between mental health topics and lecture formats and to determine the effect of education and experience on the results. Although all topics suggested were rated, primarily, as fairly important, the topics of Dangerousness, Suicide by Cop, Decreasing Suicide Risk, Mental Health Law, and Your Potential Liability for Bad Outcomes were given the highest ratings. Role-playing was rated significantly lower than other training modalities, while Videos and Small Group Discussion had the highest mean scores. Level of prior education had no significant effect on the ratings, but officers with more experience rated the importance of mental illness as a training topic significantly higher than officers with less experience. This survey suggests that police officers are interested in learning more about working with persons with mental illness and view it as an important aspect of the job.

  8. Constitutional aspects of economic law enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Tundermann, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Economic remedies for violations of environmental standards provide a better administrative approach than civil penalties based on more traditional discretionary criteria. Economic penalties are not subject to the constitutional requirements that limit the procedures for criminal penalties. Economic penalties also provide a constitutionally permissible way of accruing liability during litigation. These penalties are large enough to eliminate the benefits of delayed compliance and unnecessary litigation; however, they do not alter the rights of judicial review. Agencies can determine economic penalties with more objectivity and accuracy than under traditional penalty schemes.

  9. Liabilities and other potential ramifications from the adoption of trailblazing law enforcement technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cansler, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Law enforcement officers and their suppliers face greater potential liability from adoption of new trailblazing technologies than ordinary citizens. This paper contains advice and techniques on minimizing the exposure of providers of law enforcement technology.

  10. 28 CFR 513.20 - Release of information to law enforcement agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Release of information to law enforcement agencies. (a) The Bureau of Prisons will provide to the head of.... Law enforcement personnel interested in obtaining this information must forward a written request to...

  11. 28 CFR 513.20 - Release of information to law enforcement agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Release of information to law enforcement agencies. (a) The Bureau of Prisons will provide to the head of.... Law enforcement personnel interested in obtaining this information must forward a written request to...

  12. Attitudes of North Carolina law enforcement officers toward syringe decriminalization.

    PubMed

    Davis, Corey S; Johnston, Jill; de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; Clark, Katie; Castillo, Tessie; Childs, Robert

    2014-11-01

    North Carolina, like much of the U.S. South, is disproportionately affected by HIV and hepatitis. This persistently high disease burden may be driven in part by laws that criminalize the possession and distribution of syringes for illicit drug use. Legal change to decriminalize syringes may reduce infection rates in the state, but is unlikely absent support from law enforcement actors. We analyzed the responses of 350 North Carolina law enforcement officers to a confidential, anonymous survey. The survey instrument collected data regarding self-reported needle-stick injury (NSI), blood borne disease risk perception and attitudes toward syringe decriminalization. 82% of respondents reported that contracting HIV was a "big concern" for them. 3.8% of respondents reported ever receiving a job-related NSI, a rate of 36 NSI per 10,000 officer-years. Majorities of respondents reported positive views regarding syringe decriminalization, with approximately 63% agreeing that it would be "good for the community" and 60% agreeing that it would be "good for law enforcement." Black and female officers were significantly less likely to agree that on-the-job NSI was a "big concern" and significantly more likely to agree that it would be good for law enforcement. These findings suggest that many North Carolina LEOs understand the public health benefits of syringe access programs and may be inclined to support syringe decriminalization legislation. Further research is indicated to determine the causes of observed differences in perceptions of bloodborne disease risk and attitudes toward syringe decriminalization by race and sex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Attitudes of North Carolina law enforcement officers toward syringe decriminalization

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Corey S.; Johnston, Jill; Zerden, Lisa de Saxe; Clark, Katie; Castillo, Tessie; Childs, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background North Carolina, like much of the U.S. South, is disproportionately affected by HIV and hepatitis. This persistently high disease burden may be driven in part by laws that criminalize the possession and distribution of syringes for illicit drug use. Legal change to decriminalize syringes may reduce infection rates in the state, but is unlikely absent support from law enforcement actors. Methods We analyzed the responses of 350 North Carolina law enforcement officers to a confidential, anonymous survey. The survey instrument collected data regarding self-reported needle-stick injury (NSI), blood borne disease risk perception and attitudes toward syringe decriminalization. Results 82% of respondents reported that contracting HIV was a “big concern” for them. 3.8% of respondents reported ever receiving a job-related NSI, a rate of 36 NSI per 10,000 officer-years. Majorities of respondents reported positive views regarding syringe decriminalization, with approximately 63% agreeing that it would be “good for the community” and 60% agreeing that it would be “good for law enforcement.” Black and female officers were significantly less likely to agree that on-the-job NSI was a “big concern” and significantly more likely to agree that it would be good for law enforcement. Conclusions These findings suggest that many North Carolina LEOs understand the public health benefits of syringe access programs and may be inclined to support syringe decriminalization legislation. Further research is indicated to determine the causes of observed differences in perceptions of bloodborne disease risk and attitudes toward syringe decriminalization by race and sex. PMID:25193720

  14. 43 CFR 3809.421 - Enforcement of performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management Operations Conducted Under Plans of Operations § 3809.421 Enforcement of...

  15. 43 CFR 3809.421 - Enforcement of performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management Operations Conducted Under Plans of Operations § 3809.421 Enforcement...

  16. New law enforcement applications of millimeter-wave radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Nicholas C.; Ferris, David D., Jr.; McMillan, Robert W.; Wicks, Michael C.

    1997-06-01

    Recent advances in millimeter-wave (MMW) radar technologies provide new applications for law enforcement use over-and- above the venerable speed timing radar. These applications include the potential to detect weapons under clothing and to conduct surveillance through walls. Concealed Weapon Detection and covert surveillance are of high interest to both the Department of Defense in support of Small Unit Operations and the Justice Department for civilian law enforcement applications. MMW sensors are under development which should provide the needed capabilities including radiometric sensors at 95 GHz, active 95 GHz real aperture radars, active focal plane array (FPA) radars, and holographic radars. Radiometric sensors include 2D FPA systems, 1D FPA, scanned systems, and single element scanned sensors. Active FPA radars include illuminated radiometric systems and coherent radar systems. Real aperture MMW radar systems include raster scanned and conical scanned sensors. Holographic systems ruse mechanical scanners to collect coherent data over a significant solid angular sector.

  17. Educating law enforcement officers about mental illness: nurses as teachers.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Jeannine S

    2013-07-01

    With the advent of new psychotherapeutic agents, many individuals with mental illness are living successfully in communities. However, they may become involved in situations with law enforcement officers, which may lead to potentially negative experiences. During police academy training, new officers may receive training focused on optimizing interactions with people with physical/mental disabilities; however, this may be inadequate to enable effective communication between officers and individuals with mental illness. Given the growing prevalence of mental illness, it is increasingly likely that officers will encounter such individuals. An exemplar educational program geared to staff police officers in the city of Orange, California is described. This program provides law enforcement officers with training about psychiatric disorders and affected individuals, effective communication skills, and interventions that may assist in management of field contacts with individuals with mental illness.

  18. Infrared signature reduction of military and law enforcement uniforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emery, Than; Schwarz, René

    2013-06-01

    In late 2012 SSZ Camouflage Technology, AG, and Milliken and Company joined forces to bring apparel weight fabrics with infrared signature reduction to the US military, Homeland Security, and other law enforcement agencies. By significantly reducing the thermal infrared signature of soldiers wearing these fabrics, this technology goes beyond the current visual and near infrared range (NIR) to provide concealment in the mid wave infrared range (MWIR) and long wave infrared range (LWIR) thus reducing the risk of detection from thermal infrared imagers. This infrared camouflage technology can be incorporated into a variety of performance fabrics which can provide U.S. Military, Homeland Security, and law enforcement personnel with better concealment, adding yet another layer of protection to their uniforms.n late 2012 SSZ Camouflage Technology, AG, and Milliken and Company joined forces to bring apparel weight fabrics with

  19. Professional Development: A Six-Year Data Evaluation of HIDTA Law Enforcement Task Force Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    This is a nationwide six-year data study of law enforcement training and professional development in relationship to workplace productivity. Why do we care about law enforcement training and professional development? Because the law enforcement environment is not standing still. Unlawful activity, and in particular drug trafficking strategies,…

  20. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... law enforcement officers. 1544.221 Section 1544.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers. (a) This section applies as follows: (1) This section applies to the transport of prisoners under the escort of an armed law enforcement...

  1. 8 CFR 1003.47 - Identity, law enforcement, or security investigations or examinations relating to applications...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identity, law enforcement, or security... Procedure § 1003.47 Identity, law enforcement, or security investigations or examinations relating to... removal that is subject to the conduct of identity, law enforcement, or security investigations...

  2. 8 CFR 1003.47 - Identity, law enforcement, or security investigations or examinations relating to applications...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identity, law enforcement, or security... Procedure § 1003.47 Identity, law enforcement, or security investigations or examinations relating to... removal that is subject to the conduct of identity, law enforcement, or security investigations...

  3. 12 CFR 503.2 - Exemptions of records containing investigatory material compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... material compiled for law enforcement purposes. 503.2 Section 503.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT... material compiled for law enforcement purposes. (a) Scope. The Office has established a system of records... contains investigatory material compiled for law enforcement purposes. (2) Provisions of the Privacy Act of...

  4. 75 FR 69458 - Notice of Draft NIJ Law Enforcement Duty Holster Selection and Application Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... of Justice Programs Notice of Draft NIJ Law Enforcement Duty Holster Selection and Application Guide AGENCY: National Institute of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Law Enforcement Duty Holster Selection... the general public the draft ``NIJ Law Enforcement Duty Holster Selection and Application Guide.'' The...

  5. 31 CFR Appendix K to Subpart A of... - Federal Law Enforcement Training Center

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Law Enforcement Training... of Part 1—Federal Law Enforcement Training Center 1. In general. This apppendix applies to the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center. 2. Public reading room. The public reading room for the Federal...

  6. 49 CFR 801.57 - Records compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records compiled for law enforcement purposes. 801... compiled for law enforcement purposes. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(7), any records compiled for law or regulatory enforcement are exempt from public disclosure to the extent that disclosure would interfere with...

  7. School Administrators and Law Enforcement Officials. A Model Policy and Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Larry; And Others

    Districts should develop a procedure for the handling of their relations with law enforcement officials that balances students' and parents' rights with the responsibilities of law enforcement officials. This balance can be maintained only through a good working relationship between the school and law enforcement personnel in which each recognizes…

  8. 12 CFR 503.2 - Exemptions of records containing investigatory material compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with enforcing criminal or civil laws. (d) Documents exempted. Exemptions will be applied only when... material compiled for law enforcement purposes. 503.2 Section 503.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT... material compiled for law enforcement purposes. (a) Scope. The Office has established a system of...

  9. 12 CFR 503.2 - Exemptions of records containing investigatory material compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with enforcing criminal or civil laws. (d) Documents exempted. Exemptions will be applied only when... material compiled for law enforcement purposes. 503.2 Section 503.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT... material compiled for law enforcement purposes. (a) Scope. The Office has established a system of...

  10. Professional Development: A Six-Year Data Evaluation of HIDTA Law Enforcement Task Force Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    This is a nationwide six-year data study of law enforcement training and professional development in relationship to workplace productivity. Why do we care about law enforcement training and professional development? Because the law enforcement environment is not standing still. Unlawful activity, and in particular drug trafficking strategies,…

  11. Law Enforcement Efforts to Control Domestically Grown Marijuana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-25

    the Reform of Marijuana Laws RISS Regional Information Sharing Systems SDEA State Drug Enforcement Alliance THC delta- 9 - tetrahydrocannabinol WSIN...delta- 9 - tetrahydrocannabinol , or THC. It is the THC con- tent, found at various concentrations in different parts of the plant, which determines the...the total amount of marijuana available in the United States S in 1982 compared with an estimated 9 per- cent in 1981. The estimated total amount

  12. New uses of remote vehicles for law enforcement operations

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, L. )

    1992-01-01

    The use of teleoperated robotic devices for law enforcement operations has risen dramatically in recent years. The typical device is a portable, teleoperated vehicle with a manipulator. The availability of reliable, affordable equipment and emphasis on personnel safety are some of the primary driving forces. The primary use of these robots is for investigation and handling of explosive devices. The Kentucky State Police (KSP) have been using a remote vehicle since December 1988.

  13. Requirements Development for Interoperability Simulation Capability for Law Enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, Gregory M.

    2004-05-19

    The National Counterdrug Center (NCC) was initially authorized by Congress in FY 1999 appropriations to create a simulation-based counterdrug interoperability training capability. As the lead organization for Research and Analysis to support the NCC, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was responsible for developing the requirements for this interoperability simulation capability. These requirements were structured to address the hardware and software components of the system, as well as the deployment and use of the system. The original set of requirements was developed through a process of conducting a user-based survey of requirements for the simulation capability, coupled with an analysis of similar development efforts. The user-based approach ensured that existing concerns with respect to interoperability within the law enforcement community would be addressed. Law enforcement agencies within the designated pilot area of Cochise County, Arizona, were surveyed using interviews and ride-alongs during actual operations. The results of this survey were then accumulated, organized, and validated with the agencies to ensure the accuracy of the results. These requirements were then supplemented by adapting operational requirements from existing systems to ensure system reliability and operability. The NCC adopted a development approach providing incremental capability through the fielding of a phased series of progressively more capable versions of the system. This allowed for feedback from system users to be incorporated into subsequent revisions of the system requirements, and also allowed the addition of new elements as needed to adapt the system to broader geographic and geopolitical areas, including areas along the southwest and northwest U.S. borders. This paper addresses the processes used to develop and refine requirements for the NCC interoperability simulation capability, as well as the response of the law enforcement community to the use of

  14. Sharing Law Enforcement and Intelligence Information: The Congressional Role

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-13

    intelligence” agencies). They include the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the National Security Agency (NSA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA...National Security Act of 1947 requiring that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) “have no police, subpoena, or law enforcement powers or internal security...Committee on Intelligence, The Intelligence Community’s Involvement in the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (BNL) Affair, S. Prt. 103-12, February 1993, p. 27

  15. Microbolometer uncooled thermal imaging sensors for law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figler, Burton D.

    2001-02-01

    In this paper we will describe advances in microbolometer uncooled thermal imaging sensor technology as they apply to law enforcement applications. Improvements in sensor performance that will be described include: (1) reduced pixel pitch, (2) increased spatial resolution, (3) increased thermal sensitivity, (4) reduced electrical power, and (5) reduced size. Since cost considerations dominate many, if not most, potential law enforcement applications, microbolometer sensor cost issues will be addressed in terms of current and projected cost trends. In addition to the use of theoretical considerations in describing microbolometer technology advancements currently being made or planned, examples of actual improvements, in the form of real imagery and/or actual performance measurements, will be provided in the paper. Finally, we will look at those areas of law enforcement that are most likely to benefit from the application of microbolometer uncooled thermal imaging sensor technology. These include: (1) surveillance sensor systems, (2) unattended sensor systems, (3) mobile sensor systems and platforms, and (4) gunfire localization and counter sniper systems.

  16. Stress and law enforcers: testing the relationship between law enforcement work stressors and health-related issues.

    PubMed

    Avdija, Avdi S

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between law enforcement work-related stressors and health issues. Specifically, this study attempts to determine the effects of stress-producing factors (e.g. vigorous activities at work, shift change, perceived danger associated with police work, etc.) on physiological health-related issues (e.g. the number of reported health issues, high blood pressure, back pain, and headaches) and psychosocial behavior problems (e.g. alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking) among police officers. The analyses are based on a total 1632 law enforcement officers, who represent 51 police agencies in the three major cities, New York City, Dallas Texas, and Minneapolis, USA. The research findings that emerged from this study show that the number of days in vigorous activities and perceived physiological demands have the strongest influence on the number of health-related issues. Working without a partner and frequent shift changes had the strongest influence on alcohol consumption by police officers.

  17. 48 CFR 622.406-10 - Disposition of disputes concerning construction contract labor standards enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... concerning construction contract labor standards enforcement. 622.406-10 Section 622.406-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 622.406-10 Disposition of...

  18. 48 CFR 622.406-10 - Disposition of disputes concerning construction contract labor standards enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... concerning construction contract labor standards enforcement. 622.406-10 Section 622.406-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 622.406-10 Disposition of...

  19. 48 CFR 622.406-10 - Disposition of disputes concerning construction contract labor standards enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... concerning construction contract labor standards enforcement. 622.406-10 Section 622.406-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 622.406-10 Disposition of...

  20. 48 CFR 622.406-10 - Disposition of disputes concerning construction contract labor standards enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... concerning construction contract labor standards enforcement. 622.406-10 Section 622.406-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 622.406-10 Disposition of...

  1. 48 CFR 22.406-10 - Disposition of disputes concerning construction contract labor standards enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... concerning construction contract labor standards enforcement. 22.406-10 Section 22.406-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 22.406-10 Disposition of...

  2. Law Enforcement and Emergency Medicine: An Ethical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Baker, Eileen F; Moskop, John C; Geiderman, Joel M; Iserson, Kenneth V; Marco, Catherine A; Derse, Arthur R

    2016-11-01

    Emergency physicians frequently interact with law enforcement officers and patients in their custody. As always, the emergency physician's primary professional responsibility is to promote patient welfare, and his or her first duty is to the patient. Emergency physicians should treat criminals, suspects, and prisoners with the same respect and attention they afford other patients while ensuring the safety of staff, visitors, and other patients. Respect for patient privacy and protection of confidentiality are of paramount importance to the patient-physician relationship. Simultaneously, emergency physicians should attempt to accommodate law enforcement personnel in a professional manner, enlisting their aid when necessary. Often this relates to the emergency physician's socially imposed duties, governed by state laws, to report infectious diseases, suspicion of abuse or neglect, and threats of harm. It is the emergency physician's duty to maintain patient confidentiality while complying with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations and state law. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 25 CFR 12.21 - What authority is given to Indian country law enforcement officers to perform their duties?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What authority is given to Indian country law enforcement... INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Authority and Jurisdiction § 12.21 What authority is given to Indian country law enforcement officers to perform their duties? BIA law enforcement officers...

  4. 25 CFR 166.103 - How will tribal laws be enforced on Indian agricultural land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will tribal laws be enforced on Indian agricultural... enforced on Indian agricultural land? (a) Unless prohibited by federal law, we will recognize and comply with tribal laws regulating activities on Indian agricultural land, including tribal laws relating to...

  5. 25 CFR 166.103 - How will tribal laws be enforced on Indian agricultural land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How will tribal laws be enforced on Indian agricultural... enforced on Indian agricultural land? (a) Unless prohibited by federal law, we will recognize and comply with tribal laws regulating activities on Indian agricultural land, including tribal laws relating to...

  6. 25 CFR 162.202 - How will tribal laws be enforced on agricultural land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will tribal laws be enforced on agricultural land... LEASES AND PERMITS Agricultural Leases General Provisions § 162.202 How will tribal laws be enforced on agricultural land? (a) Unless prohibited by federal law, we will recognize and comply with tribal laws...

  7. 25 CFR 162.202 - How will tribal laws be enforced on agricultural land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will tribal laws be enforced on agricultural land... LEASES AND PERMITS Agricultural Leases General Provisions § 162.202 How will tribal laws be enforced on agricultural land? (a) Unless prohibited by federal law, we will recognize and comply with tribal laws...

  8. 25 CFR 166.103 - How will tribal laws be enforced on Indian agricultural land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will tribal laws be enforced on Indian agricultural... enforced on Indian agricultural land? (a) Unless prohibited by federal law, we will recognize and comply with tribal laws regulating activities on Indian agricultural land, including tribal laws relating to...

  9. 25 CFR 162.202 - How will tribal laws be enforced on agricultural land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How will tribal laws be enforced on agricultural land... LEASES AND PERMITS Agricultural Leases General Provisions § 162.202 How will tribal laws be enforced on agricultural land? (a) Unless prohibited by federal law, we will recognize and comply with tribal laws...

  10. 25 CFR 166.103 - How will tribal laws be enforced on Indian agricultural land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will tribal laws be enforced on Indian agricultural... enforced on Indian agricultural land? (a) Unless prohibited by federal law, we will recognize and comply with tribal laws regulating activities on Indian agricultural land, including tribal laws relating to...

  11. 25 CFR 162.202 - How will tribal laws be enforced on agricultural land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How will tribal laws be enforced on agricultural land? 162... AND PERMITS Agricultural Leases General Provisions § 162.202 How will tribal laws be enforced on agricultural land? (a) Unless prohibited by federal law, we will recognize and comply with tribal laws...

  12. 25 CFR 166.103 - How will tribal laws be enforced on Indian agricultural land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How will tribal laws be enforced on Indian agricultural... enforced on Indian agricultural land? (a) Unless prohibited by federal law, we will recognize and comply with tribal laws regulating activities on Indian agricultural land, including tribal laws relating to...

  13. 25 CFR 162.202 - How will tribal laws be enforced on agricultural land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will tribal laws be enforced on agricultural land... LEASES AND PERMITS Agricultural Leases General Provisions § 162.202 How will tribal laws be enforced on agricultural land? (a) Unless prohibited by federal law, we will recognize and comply with tribal laws...

  14. 25 CFR 161.101 - How will tribal laws be enforced on the Navajo Partitioned Lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Tribal Policies and Laws Pertaining to Permits § 161.101 How will tribal laws be enforced on the Navajo Partitioned Lands? (a) Unless prohibited by federal law... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How will tribal laws be enforced on the Navajo...

  15. 43 CFR 422.9 - Reclamation law enforcement contracts and cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement contracts and... PROJECTS Program Requirements § 422.9 Reclamation law enforcement contracts and cooperative agreements. (a... Federal laws. (b) Each contract and cooperative agreement authorizing the exercise of Reclamation law...

  16. A Phenomenological Exploration of Black Male Law Enforcement Officers' Perspectives of Racial Profiling and Their Law Enforcement Career Exploration and Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salters, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored Black male law enforcement officers' perspectives of how racial profiling shaped their decisions to explore and commit to a law enforcement career. Criterion and snow ball sampling was used to obtain the 17 participants for this study. Super's (1990) archway model was used as the theoretical…

  17. A Phenomenological Exploration of Black Male Law Enforcement Officers' Perspectives of Racial Profiling and Their Law Enforcement Career Exploration and Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salters, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored Black male law enforcement officers' perspectives of how racial profiling shaped their decisions to explore and commit to a law enforcement career. Criterion and snow ball sampling was used to obtain the 17 participants for this study. Super's (1990) archway model was used as the theoretical…

  18. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers.

    PubMed

    Wittink, Harriet; Takken, Tim; de Groot, Janke; Reneman, Michiel; Peters, Roelof; Vanhees, Luc

    2015-01-01

    To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report normative absolute and relative VO2peak values of a sample of law enforcement officers in the Netherlands. The peak rate of oxygen consumption (ml×kg-1×min-1) was measured using a maximal incremental bicycle test in 1530 subjects, including 1068 male and 461 female police officers. Validity of the prediction equations for groups was assessed by comparing predicted VO2peak with measured VO2peak using paired t-tests. For individual differences limits of agreement (LoA) were calculated. Equations were considered valid for individuals when the difference between measured and predicted VO2peak did not exceed ±1 metabolic equivalent (MET) in 95% of individuals. None of the equations met the validity criterion of 95% of individuals having ±1 MET difference or less than the measured value. Limits of agreement (LoAs) were large in all predictions. At the individual level, none of the equations were valid predictors of VO2peak (ml×kg-1×min-1). Normative values for Dutch law enforcement officers were presented. Substantial differences between measured and predicted VO2peak (ml×kg-1×min-1) were found. Most tested equations were invalid predictors of VO2peak at group level and all were invalid at individual levels. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  19. Fuzzy control and multimedia with examples from law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackwood, Susan

    1995-06-01

    We present an extension of fuzzy controllers to include multimedia rules, i.e., rules which do not include verbal or numerical descriptors. We describe the structure and construction of such a multimedia fuzzy controller. In particular, we describe an empirical but unbiased methodology to measure, from human subjects, distances in feature space and hence determine fuzzy memberships. We also propose a practical multimedia fuzzy controller and describe its application examples are given from the law enforcement field where man-machine interactions are important and applications of the methodology described in this paper appear promising.

  20. 20 CFR 10.735 - When is a non-Federal law enforcement officer (LEO) covered under the FECA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is a non-Federal law enforcement officer... EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Special Provisions Non-Federal Law Enforcement Officers § 10.735 When is a non-Federal law enforcement officer (LEO) covered under the FECA? (a) A law enforcement...

  1. What the Hell Do We Do Now? A Policy Options Analysis of State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Participation in Immigration Enforcement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    enforcement teams are fairly commonplace for narcotics enforcement , drunk - driving efforts, and even training efforts are shared regionally. In fact, a... police even when the victim or witness to crime; 2) local law enforcement lacks experience, training and resources to enforce immigration law; 3) local...participation in enforcement of immigration law drives “a wedge between immigrant communities and the police .”173

  2. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    SciTech Connect

    Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  3. LiveWall Operational Evaluation: Seattle Law Enforcement Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Stein, Steven L.

    2013-10-01

    The LiveWall concept envisioned as an outgrowth of the Precision Information Environment (PIE) project allows communications between separate groups using interactive video, audio, and a shared desktop environment; this allows everyone to participate and collaborate in real time, regardless of location. The LiveWall concept provides a virtual window to other locations, where all parties can interact and collaboratively work with each other. This functionality is intended to improve multi-site coordination amongst emergency operations centers (EOC), field operations sites and across organizations and jurisdictions to accommodate communications during routine and emergency events. For the initial LiveWall operational evaluation PNNL partnered with the Seattle Police Department (SPD). This partnership allowed for the creation of an excellent LiveWall test bed specific to law enforcement. This partnership made it possible to test the LiveWall concept with scenarios involving the many facets of the law enforcement work done by SPD. PNNL and SPD agreed that integrating the systems into operations for a real event would be the best test of the technology and give SPD staff greater visibility into the functionality and benefits offered by the LiveWall concept.

  4. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barshick, Stacy-Ann; Griest, Wayne H.; Vass, Arpad A.

    1997-02-01

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic 'fingerprint' pattern representative of the vapor-phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The result to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  5. Dealing with Law Enforcement Authorities. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 22. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, discusses dealing with law enforcement authorities. It is designed to teach immigrants the following: understand laws and consequences of breaking them; how the law enforcement agencies…

  6. 25 CFR 12.41 - Who keeps statistics for Indian country law enforcement activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who keeps statistics for Indian country law enforcement... INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Records and Information § 12.41 Who keeps statistics for Indian country... the same reporting format and submit the same statistical reports to the Office of Law...

  7. 25 CFR 12.41 - Who keeps statistics for Indian country law enforcement activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who keeps statistics for Indian country law enforcement... INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Records and Information § 12.41 Who keeps statistics for Indian country... the same reporting format and submit the same statistical reports to the Office of Law...

  8. 25 CFR 12.41 - Who keeps statistics for Indian country law enforcement activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who keeps statistics for Indian country law enforcement... INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Records and Information § 12.41 Who keeps statistics for Indian country... the same reporting format and submit the same statistical reports to the Office of Law...

  9. 25 CFR 12.41 - Who keeps statistics for Indian country law enforcement activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who keeps statistics for Indian country law enforcement... INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Records and Information § 12.41 Who keeps statistics for Indian country... the same reporting format and submit the same statistical reports to the Office of Law...

  10. 25 CFR 12.41 - Who keeps statistics for Indian country law enforcement activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who keeps statistics for Indian country law enforcement... INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Records and Information § 12.41 Who keeps statistics for Indian country... the same reporting format and submit the same statistical reports to the Office of Law...

  11. 25 CFR 161.101 - How will tribal laws be enforced on the Navajo Partitioned Lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Tribal Policies and Laws Pertaining to Permits § 161.101 How will tribal laws be enforced on the Navajo Partitioned Lands? (a) Unless prohibited by... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will tribal laws be enforced on the...

  12. 25 CFR 161.101 - How will tribal laws be enforced on the Navajo Partitioned Lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Tribal Policies and Laws Pertaining to Permits § 161.101 How will tribal laws be enforced on the Navajo Partitioned Lands? (a) Unless prohibited by... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How will tribal laws be enforced on the...

  13. 25 CFR 161.101 - How will tribal laws be enforced on the Navajo Partitioned Lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Tribal Policies and Laws Pertaining to Permits § 161.101 How will tribal laws be enforced on the Navajo Partitioned Lands? (a) Unless prohibited by... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will tribal laws be enforced on the...

  14. [Treasury Law Enforcement School. Course 14. "Evidence." Student Guide, Text, and Handout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC. Consolidated Law Enforcement Training Center.

    This packet of three booklets, which includes a student guide, textbook, and handbook, is illustrative of other booklets available from the Treasury Law Enforcement School designed for training law enforcement officers in Federal law. The material in this course, related primarily to criminal cases, focuses on presenting evidence to the court to…

  15. 36 CFR 902.57 - Investigatory files compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and in the case of a record compiled by a criminal law enforcement authority in the courts of a... not only of criminal statutes but all kinds of laws. ... for law enforcement purposes. 902.57 Section 902.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...

  16. 36 CFR 902.57 - Investigatory files compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and in the case of a record compiled by a criminal law enforcement authority in the courts of a... not only of criminal statutes but all kinds of laws. ... for law enforcement purposes. 902.57 Section 902.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...

  17. 36 CFR 902.57 - Investigatory files compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and in the case of a record compiled by a criminal law enforcement authority in the courts of a... not only of criminal statutes but all kinds of laws. ... for law enforcement purposes. 902.57 Section 902.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...

  18. 36 CFR 902.57 - Investigatory files compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and in the case of a record compiled by a criminal law enforcement authority in the courts of a... not only of criminal statutes but all kinds of laws. ... for law enforcement purposes. 902.57 Section 902.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...

  19. 20 CFR 402.105 - Exemption seven for withholding records: Law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... enforcement purposes. The records may apply to actual or potential violations of either criminal or civil laws... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption seven for withholding records: Law... INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC § 402.105 Exemption seven for withholding records: Law enforcement....

  20. 20 CFR 402.105 - Exemption seven for withholding records: Law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... enforcement purposes. The records may apply to actual or potential violations of either criminal or civil laws... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exemption seven for withholding records: Law... INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC § 402.105 Exemption seven for withholding records: Law enforcement....

  1. 20 CFR 402.105 - Exemption seven for withholding records: Law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... enforcement purposes. The records may apply to actual or potential violations of either criminal or civil laws... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption seven for withholding records: Law... INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC § 402.105 Exemption seven for withholding records: Law enforcement....

  2. Law Enforcement Training. Report to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. Senate Document No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Crime Commission, Richmond.

    Virginia Senate Joint Resolution (SJR) 53 directed the State Crime Commission to study law enforcement training, including current standards and technology, the need for improved delivery of training, and the costs of implementing new standards and erecting appropriate facilities. During the course of the study, commission staff conducted five…

  3. The role of law enforcement in schools: the Virginia experience--a practitioner report.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Although there has been little academic research on the impact of placing police officers in schools, this practice has grown substantially in response to school shootings and other violent crimes in schools. With a standardized training program since 1999, the state of Virginia has law enforcement officers working in approximately 88 percent of Virginia's 631 secondary schools. Based on this experience, the state training coordinator describes how police officers should be selected and prepared to work as school resource officers. The success of school-based law enforcement requires careful selection and specialized training of officers who can adapt to the school culture and work collaboratively with school authorities. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  4. Preparing the National Capital Region to Conduct a Multijurisdictional and Interdisciplinary Law Enforcement Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Military Education LE Law Enforcement LEO Law Enforcement Online LES Law Enforcement Sensitive MAA Mutual Aid Assistance MACS Multiagency...jurisdictions overlap, except that COG has two additional Maryland counties and two additional municipalities. There is ample data online and in the...there are a number of FEMA-sponsored online and classroom NIMS training programs (e.g., IS-100, IS-700, ICS-200, ICS-300, ICS-400). There are articles

  5. Improving effectiveness of protection efforts in tiger source sites: Developing a framework for law enforcement monitoring using MIST.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Emma J

    2010-12-01

    Wild tigers are in a critical state with an estimated population decline of more than 95% over the past century. Improving the capacity and effectiveness of law enforcement in reducing poaching of tigers is an immediate priority to secure remaining wild populations in source sites. From 2008-2010, standardized patrol-based law enforcement monitoring (LEM) was established under the Tigers Forever Program across 8 key tiger sites in order to improve and evaluate law enforcement interventions. Patrol-based monitoring has the distinct advantage of providing regular and rapid information on illegal activities and ranger performance, although, until recently, it has received relatively little scrutiny from the conservation community. The present paper outlines a framework for implementation of LEM in tiger source sites using MIST, a computerized management information system for ranger-based data collection. The framework addresses many of the technical, practical and institutional challenges involved in the design, implementation, sustainability and evaluation of LEM. Adoption of such a framework for LEM is a cost-effective strategy to improve the efficiency of law enforcement efforts, to increase the motivation of enforcement staff and to promote the accountability of law enforcement agencies in addressing threats to tigers. When combined with independent, systematic and science-based monitoring of tigers and their prey, LEM has great potential for evaluating the effectiveness of protection-based conservation investments. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  6. 25 CFR 12.2 - What is the role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Director of Law Enforcement Services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of Law Enforcement Services? 12.2 Section 12.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Responsibilities § 12.2 What is the role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Director of Law Enforcement Services? The Director of the Office of Law...

  7. Enforcing conservation laws in nonequilibrium cluster perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramsch, Christian; Potthoff, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Using the recently introduced time-local formulation of the nonequilibrium cluster perturbation theory (CPT), we construct a generalization of the approach such that macroscopic conservation laws are respected. This is achieved by exploiting the freedom for the choice of the starting point of the all-order perturbation theory in the intercluster hopping. The proposed conserving CPT is a self-consistent propagation scheme which respects the conservation of energy, particle number, and spin, which treats short-range correlations exactly up to the linear scale of the cluster, and which represents a mean-field-like approach on length scales beyond the cluster size. Using Green's functions, conservation laws are formulated as local constraints on the local spin-dependent particle and the doublon density. We consider them as conditional equations to self-consistently fix the time-dependent intracluster one-particle parameters. Thanks to the intrinsic causality of the CPT, this can be set up as a step-by-step time propagation scheme with a computational effort scaling linearly with the maximum propagation time and exponentially in the cluster size. As a proof of concept, we consider the dynamics of the two-dimensional, particle-hole-symmetric Hubbard model following a weak interaction quench by simply employing two-site clusters only. Conservation laws are satisfied by construction. We demonstrate that enforcing them has strong impact on the dynamics. While the doublon density is strongly oscillating within plain CPT, a monotonic relaxation is observed within the conserving CPT.

  8. New frontiers in the relationship between suicidology and law enforcement.

    PubMed

    Danto, B L

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews some historic ties between crisis intervention and the beginning of suicidology. It reviews the author's involvement in suicidology and law enforcement, in terms of crisis intervention, management of the man with a gun, studies of suicide among police, bereavement of widows of slain police officers, jailer stress, psychological aspects of kidnapping, kidnappers, victim survival in kidnapping, hostage negotiation, and application of the psychological autopsy to homicide investigation. In addition, the development of a program to offer survivor counseling for those whose loved ones have been killed and for those whose loved ones were the killers is described. Other new areas for suicidology application are outlined in terms of survivors, industry, and school.

  9. Pyrotechnic whistle technology enhancements to law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domanico, Joseph A.; Thomas, Terry E.

    1998-12-01

    In the past several years, there has been increasing interest in acoustic technology for less-than-lethal applications. Pyrotechnic whistles have been under study at the Edgewood Research, Development and engineering Center for several years for similar applications. Improvements in safety and handling, combined with increased levels of acoustic output, make the properly designed pyrotechnic whistle a valuable addition (read augmentation) to some current device designs. Either alone or in combination with other distraction effects, such as multiple concussion, strobing pyrotechnic, or microstarts, the pyrotechnic whistle family of devices provide a high level of target reaction with a minimum of collateral damage. This paper will summarize the recent research and development efforts in pyrotechnic whistle compositions, and the capabilities for the application of pyrotechnic whistles for typical law enforcement applications.

  10. Law enforcement and the long gun: do we need a new face in the fight?

    PubMed

    Cannon, Mark

    2013-11-01

    The threat of rifles in the hands of criminals is now well recognized within law enforcement. Current emergency response systems are not equipped to operate in this combat-like environment. Growing statistics indicate that of the peace officers that were killed in the line of duty in the United States nearly half died by gunfire evidence. As Emergency Medical Services ("EMS") training and standards evolve, the lessons learned from the Tactical Combat Casualty Care doctrine should be incorporated to improve the safety and outcomes of injured law enforcement officers. Statistics show that deaths by gunfire have the highest average percentage of all officer deaths. Although new weapons, armor, and tactics are continually evolving to meet the challenge of officer safety, in the past decade, little has changed in how our EMS system responds to a critically wounded officer. Combat data from the US military leads us to believe that to save a wounded officer, emergency care must start immediately, regardless of the ongoing gun battle. It is time for the emergency medical system to evolve to meet the critical needs of today's law enforcement environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Future Law Enforcement Officers and Social Workers: Perceptions of Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullan, Elizabeth C.; Carlan, Philip E.; Nored, Lisa S.

    2010-01-01

    This study compares perceptions of domestic violence for college students planning to work in law enforcement with students aspiring to careers in social work and non-law-enforcement criminal justice (N = 491). The study involves students attending four public universities across one Southern state who completed a survey (spring of 2006) measuring…

  12. Future Law Enforcement Officers and Social Workers: Perceptions of Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullan, Elizabeth C.; Carlan, Philip E.; Nored, Lisa S.

    2010-01-01

    This study compares perceptions of domestic violence for college students planning to work in law enforcement with students aspiring to careers in social work and non-law-enforcement criminal justice (N = 491). The study involves students attending four public universities across one Southern state who completed a survey (spring of 2006) measuring…

  13. Reducing Traffic Fatalities in the American States by Upgrading Seat Belt Use Laws to Primary Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, David J.; Richardson, Lilliard E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    A key component of crime deterrence is the certainty of detection, but in 2005 seat belt laws in 27 states prohibited law enforcement officers from ticketing an observed violation unless the driver is stopped for another offense, which is referred to as secondary enforcement. Thirteen states and the District of Columbia have upgraded from…

  14. 43 CFR 422.5 - Responsibilities of the Law Enforcement Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of the Law Enforcement Administrator. 422.5 Section 422.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION...

  15. 43 CFR 422.7 - Authorization to perform law enforcement duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorization to perform law enforcement duties. 422.7 Section 422.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS...

  16. 43 CFR 422.6 - Responsibilities of the Chief Law Enforcement Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of the Chief Law Enforcement Officer. 422.6 Section 422.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... facilities and on Federal project lands are duly authorized under § 422.7; (b) Law enforcement...

  17. 43 CFR 422.8 - Requirements for law enforcement functions and programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for law enforcement functions and programs. 422.8 Section 422.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF...

  18. Recruiting & Retaining Women: A Self-Assessment Guide for Law Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Penny E.

    This document presents information, guidelines, and resource materials to help law enforcement administrators address issues related to recruiting and retaining women in law enforcement. Its 14 chapters contain the following sections: statement of the problem; legal issues; possible solutions, model policies, and practices; expert assistance,…

  19. Third Annual Report of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA), Fiscal Year 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    The role of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) is to reduce crime and delinquency by encouraging and assisting states in developing comprehensive plans to fight crime, by providing massive Federal funding to carry out those plans, by undertaking research in law enforcement, and by providing leadership and guidance to state and…

  20. Three Essays on Law Enforcement and Emergency Response Information Sharing and Collaboration: An Insider Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treglia, Joseph V.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation identifies what may be done to overcome barriers to information sharing among federal, tribal, state, and local law enforcement agencies and emergency responders. Social, technical, and policy factors related to information sharing and collaboration in the law enforcement and emergency response communities are examined. This…

  1. Attitudes, Perceptions, and Aging Knowledge of Future Law Enforcement and Recreation Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Maria L.; Intrieri, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed knowledge of aging, ageism, and attitudes toward aging in undergraduate recreation and law enforcement majors. Past research with psychology, social work, and nursing majors showed that greater knowledge of aging was related to fewer ageist attitudes and beliefs. The results showed that law enforcement students possessed…

  2. Three Essays on Law Enforcement and Emergency Response Information Sharing and Collaboration: An Insider Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treglia, Joseph V.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation identifies what may be done to overcome barriers to information sharing among federal, tribal, state, and local law enforcement agencies and emergency responders. Social, technical, and policy factors related to information sharing and collaboration in the law enforcement and emergency response communities are examined. This…

  3. The Law Enforcement Officer Stress Survey (LEOSS): Evaluation of Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Sheehan, Donald C.; Malcolm, Abigail S.; Sellers, Alfred H.; Baker, Monty T.; Couwels, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This study establishes the reliability and validity of the Law Enforcement Officer Stress Survey (LEOSS), a short early-warning stress-screening measure for law enforcement officers. The initial phase of LEOSS development employed the behavioral-analytic model to construct a 25-item instrument specifically geared toward evaluation of stress in…

  4. 34 CFR 99.8 - What provisions apply to records of a law enforcement unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What provisions apply to records of a law enforcement unit? 99.8 Section 99.8 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education FAMILY EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY General § 99.8 What provisions apply to records of a law enforcement unit? (a)(1)...

  5. Reducing Traffic Fatalities in the American States by Upgrading Seat Belt Use Laws to Primary Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, David J.; Richardson, Lilliard E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    A key component of crime deterrence is the certainty of detection, but in 2005 seat belt laws in 27 states prohibited law enforcement officers from ticketing an observed violation unless the driver is stopped for another offense, which is referred to as secondary enforcement. Thirteen states and the District of Columbia have upgraded from…

  6. 75 FR 57049 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Office of Law Enforcement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    .... Form(s): TSA Form 1164. Affected Public: Law Enforcement Officers/Air Marshal Applicants. Abstract: TSA... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Office of Law Enforcement/Federal Air Marshal Service Mental Health Certification...

  7. 31 CFR Appendix K to Subpart A of... - Federal Law Enforcement Training Center

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, Glynco, GA 31524. 3. Requests for records. Initial determinations... Center, Department of the Treasury, Building 94, Glynco, GA 31524. Requests may be delivered personally to the Management Analysis Division, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, Building 94, Glynco,...

  8. Safer Schools: Strategies for Educators and Law Enforcement Seeking To Prevent Violence within Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC.

    Shootings in schools have alarmed parents, teachers, students, community leaders, administrators, and law-enforcement officials. Issues of violence and the presence of weapons in schools will surface as the new school year starts. Local news media will want to know what school and law-enforcement officials have done to ensure that school shootings…

  9. Priorities for the Coverage of Law Enforcement News: Perceptions of Citizens, Police, and Media Gatekeepers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielder, Virginia Dodge

    This study investigated the priorities for coverage of law enforcement news, of three groups: 146 citizens from the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area, 60 of the 68 police officers serving their communities, and 33 media personnel from the area. Subjects from all three groups were asked to rank stories about law enforcement in terms of their…

  10. 21 CFR 801.125 - Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Directions for Use § 801.125 Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 801.125 Section 801.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  11. 21 CFR 801.125 - Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Directions for Use § 801.125 Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 801.125 Section 801.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  12. 21 CFR 801.125 - Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Directions for Use § 801.125 Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 801.125 Section 801.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  13. 21 CFR 801.125 - Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Directions for Use § 801.125 Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 801.125 Section 801.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  14. 21 CFR 801.125 - Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Directions for Use § 801.125 Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 801.125 Section 801.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  15. Law Enforcement Technology (Police Science Technology). A Suggested Two-Year Post High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Research Corp., Bethesda, MD.

    The suggested curriculum guide for law enforcement (police science) programs was designed to assist those responsible for implementing a course of study that is becoming a job requirement prior to employment in police service. Law enforcement education programs are discussed in terms of background, police roles, employment opportunities, and…

  16. 21 CFR 201.125 - Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 201.125 Section 201.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 201.125 Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A drug subject to §...

  17. 21 CFR 201.125 - Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 201.125 Section 201.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 201.125 Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A drug subject to §...

  18. 21 CFR 201.125 - Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 201.125 Section 201.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 201.125 Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A drug subject to §...

  19. 21 CFR 201.125 - Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 201.125 Section 201.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 201.125 Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A drug subject to §...

  20. 21 CFR 201.125 - Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 201.125 Section 201.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 201.125 Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A drug subject to §...

  1. 43 CFR 422.10 - Requirements for authorizing officers to exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for authorizing officers to exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority. 422.10 Section 422.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority. (a) The CLEO must ensure that each officer receiving...

  2. 43 CFR 422.10 - Requirements for authorizing officers to exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for authorizing officers to exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority. 422.10 Section 422.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority. (a) The CLEO must ensure that each officer receiving...

  3. 43 CFR 422.10 - Requirements for authorizing officers to exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for authorizing officers to exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority. 422.10 Section 422.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority. (a) The CLEO must ensure that each officer receiving...

  4. 43 CFR 422.10 - Requirements for authorizing officers to exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for authorizing officers to exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority. 422.10 Section 422.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority. (a) The CLEO must ensure that each officer receiving...

  5. 43 CFR 422.10 - Requirements for authorizing officers to exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Requirements for authorizing officers to exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority. 422.10 Section 422.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority. (a) The CLEO must ensure that each officer receiving...

  6. The Linkage between Secondary Victimization by Law Enforcement and Rape Case Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that almost half of rape victims are treated by law enforcement in ways that they experience as upsetting (termed "secondary victimization"). However, it remains unknown why some victims have negative experiences with law enforcement and others do not. The purpose of this study is to explore victims' experiences with…

  7. 49 CFR 355.25 - Adopting and enforcing compatible laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adopting and enforcing compatible laws and regulations. 355.25 Section 355.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Requirements § 355.25 Adopting and enforcing compatible laws and regulations. (a) General. No State shall have...

  8. 49 CFR 355.25 - Adopting and enforcing compatible laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adopting and enforcing compatible laws and regulations. 355.25 Section 355.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Requirements § 355.25 Adopting and enforcing compatible laws and regulations. (a) General. No State shall have...

  9. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative... officers, and nuclear materials couriers. The annuity of an air traffic controller retiring under § 842.207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208 is...

  10. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative... officers, and nuclear materials couriers. The annuity of an air traffic controller retiring under § 842.207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208 is...

  11. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative... officers, and nuclear materials couriers. The annuity of an air traffic controller retiring under § 842.207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208 is...

  12. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative... officers, and nuclear materials couriers. The annuity of an air traffic controller retiring under § 842.207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208 is...

  13. Law Enforcement Information and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL.

    The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) pertains broadly to education records, though an institution can exempt its law enforcement records from FERPA coverage. The primary purpose of this report was to examine FERPA's effect on the flow of information between institutions of higher education and law enforcement agencies. Study…

  14. Priorities for the Coverage of Law Enforcement News: Perceptions of Citizens, Police, and Media Gatekeepers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielder, Virginia Dodge

    This study investigated the priorities for coverage of law enforcement news, of three groups: 146 citizens from the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area, 60 of the 68 police officers serving their communities, and 33 media personnel from the area. Subjects from all three groups were asked to rank stories about law enforcement in terms of their…

  15. 20 CFR 10.740 - In what situations will OWCP automatically presume that a law enforcement officer is covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... presume that a law enforcement officer is covered by the FECA? 10.740 Section 10.740 Employees' Benefits...-Federal Law Enforcement Officers § 10.740 In what situations will OWCP automatically presume that a law... authority to assist a Federal law enforcement authority in the protection of the President of the United...

  16. 25 CFR 12.42 - Do Indian country law enforcement programs share information with their own communities or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do Indian country law enforcement programs share..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Records and Information § 12.42 Do Indian country law enforcement programs share information with their own communities or other agencies...

  17. Critical incident stress debriefing for law enforcement: practical models and special applications.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    Critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) has evolved and diversified to address the needs of various subpopulations of public safety and emergency services personnel, including law enforcement. This article describes the concept of critical incident stress as it applies to police officers and other law enforcement agents. It then discusses the traditional debriefing models and the specialized modifications and applications that have been introduced to deal with the needs of law enforcement individuals and groups. Next, the role of peer-debriefing is described in addressing law enforcement critical incident stress, as well as specific examples of model programs within different types of law enforcement agencies. Finally, the as yet incompletely resolved legal and administrative issues surrounding the use of peers versus professional clinicians for critical incident intervention are addressed.

  18. Associations Between Sociodemographics and Safety Belt Use in States With and Without Primary Enforcement Laws

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Laurie F.; Shults, Ruth A.; Mack, Karin A.; Ryan, George W.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives.secondary enforcement laws (police may issue a safety belt citation only if the vehicle has been stopped for another reason). Methods. We analyzed 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 50 states and the District of Columbia. We performed multivariable, log-linear regression analyses to assess the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and safety belt laws on safety belt use. Analyses were stratified by the type of enforcement permitted by state laws. Results. Reported safety belt use was higher in states that had primary versus secondary enforcement laws, both overall and for each sociodemographic characteristic examined. Safety belt use was 85% in states that had primary enforcement laws and 74% in states that had secondary enforcement laws. Cross-sectional data suggested that primary enforcement laws may have the greatest effect on sociodemographic groups that reported lower levels of safety belt use. Conclusions. Primary enforcement laws are an effective population-based strategy for reducing disparities in safety belt use and may, therefore, reduce disparities in crash-related injuries and fatalities. PMID:17666699

  19. Age-progression technology and its application to law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heafner, Horace

    1996-02-01

    The application of recent computer technology of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) has provided the means to age progress faces of long term missing children. In the thousands of cases of missing children that have disappeared for two or more years, there is a particular priority to identify and recover these children. It is apparent that long term solutions to this problem lie in the realm of technology. One of the areas is the computerized aging of children's faces. Forensic artists working with this new technology help this goal become a reality. When imaging a child's face, the forensic artist must consider using photographs of the biological family at an age consistent with the age of the missing child. With these pictures, a reasonable likeness can be produced using computer technology. This image can aid law enforcement, child find and social service agencies and the public in their search for the missing child. Unique features of the system provide for the stretching, merging, pixelation and refining of a completed progression. A knowledge of the steps of facial growth and anatomy is necessary to achieve an accurate image. Future developments in age progression and facial reconstruction may be in the realm of morphing technology. Application of this technology is being tested to provide a more accurate image for investigative use.

  20. The impact of law enforcement activity on a heroin market.

    PubMed

    Weatherburn, D; Lind, B

    1997-05-01

    It may be argued that seizing large quantities of heroin being imported into the country should decrease its supply and hence increase its price, resulting in a reduction in the quantity of the drug being purchased or consumed. To date, however, there has been no empirical evidence that heroin seizures in Australia have any effect on the price of heroin at street level. This article describes a 2-year research study during which the price and purity of street-level heroin were regularly monitored. It was found that heroin seizures had no effect on the price, purity or perceived availability of heroin at street level. It was further found that admissions to methadone treatment were not affected by the price or perceived availability of heroin or by local arrests for heroin use/possession, nor was any relationship found between these arrests and the price of street-level heroin. Nevertheless, two-thirds of those who sought entry to local methadone programmes indicated the price as a reason for stopping using heroin. This paper argues that supply-side law enforcement should only be used as a strategy for maintaining high heroin prices if the demand for heroin can be shown to be price-elastic and, further, that the costs of such a strategy need to be weighted against the benefits.

  1. The Sandbox Strategy: The Why and How of Federal Law Enforcement Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    ICE, as DHS’ largest investigative agency, should be leading law enforcement’s fight against terror. However, ICE is unable to assume this role ...administration of federal law enforcement agencies, the import of his theory transcends the interagency law enforcement relationships and exposes the...regulation, was the principal manner in which social wrongs were righted. In this model, the judiciary assumed a primary role in “policing

  2. Prescription opioid forgery: reporting to law enforcement and protection of medical information.

    PubMed

    Singh, Naileshni; Fishman, Scott; Rich, Ben; Orlowski, Anna

    2013-06-01

    To review confidentiality requirements of prescribers who become aware of a forged prescription. A case is reviewed in which a prescriber believes that a prescription has been forged. The literature and law related to prescription forgery and confidentiality are reviewed. Although prescription forgery is a crime, the prescriber's responsibility for reporting to law enforcement is not clear under current state and federal law. Federal laws and regulations, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), do not permit prescribers in all circumstances to disclose prescription fraud to law enforcement. Under common circumstances, HIPAA may prohibit prescribers from reporting prescription forgery to law enforcement. However, collaborating with a dispensing pharmacist may offer a lawful pathway to reporting prescription forgery. State legislature may consider laws that clarify the reporting responsibilities of prescribers in cases of prescription forgery. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Future law enforcement officers and social workers: perceptions of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Elizabeth C; Carlan, Philip E; Nored, Lisa S

    2010-08-01

    This study compares perceptions of domestic violence for college students planning to work in law enforcement with students aspiring to careers in social work and non-law-enforcement criminal justice (N = 491). The study involves students attending four public universities across one Southern state who completed a survey (spring of 2006) measuring whether various scenarios were (1) related to domestic violence, and (2) worthy of being reported to law enforcement. Findings indicate that all student groups (law enforcement, non-law-enforcement criminal justice, and social work) tended to identify the various scenarios as domestic violence (and worthy of being reported) regardless of the person's sexual orientation, violence severity, and offender's or victim's gender. However, law enforcement students are less sensitive to domestic violence when compared with social work and non-law enforcement criminal justice students. Findings reveal that (1) graduate students, (2) female students, and (3) White students (compared with African American students in general) attending majority White universities were more likely to identify domestic violence and its worthiness of being reported.The data in this study indicate that criminal justice programs produce graduates who are reasonably sensitive toward the importance of appropriate domestic violence response but could still improve using the techniques employed within social work programs.

  4. Criminal Justice Education: Investigation of Retention, Self-Efficacy, and Teaching Style in College Based versus Law Enforcement Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate measures of retention, self-efficacy, and teaching style in a college based law enforcement program versus an agency based law enforcement academy on the west coast through survey methods. A total of 35 law enforcement based academy instructors (i.e., Modesto) and 30 college based academy instructors…

  5. Criminal Justice Education: Investigation of Retention, Self-Efficacy, and Teaching Style in College Based versus Law Enforcement Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate measures of retention, self-efficacy, and teaching style in a college based law enforcement program versus an agency based law enforcement academy on the west coast through survey methods. A total of 35 law enforcement based academy instructors (i.e., Modesto) and 30 college based academy instructors…

  6. 41 CFR 301-70.600 - What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to threatened law enforcement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and procedures must we establish related to threatened law enforcement/investigative employees? 301-70... Policies and Procedures Relating to Threatened Law Enforcement/Investigative Employees § 301-70.600 What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to threatened law enforcement/investigative...

  7. 41 CFR 105-64.209 - What special conditions apply to accessing law enforcement and security records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... apply to accessing law enforcement and security records? 105-64.209 Section 105-64.209 Public Contracts... § 105-64.209 What special conditions apply to accessing law enforcement and security records? Law enforcement and security records are generally exempt from disclosure to individuals except when the system...

  8. 24 CFR 2003.7 - Authority to make law enforcement-related requests for records maintained by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority to make law enforcement... make law enforcement-related requests for records maintained by other agencies. (a) The Inspector... agencies which are necessary to carry out an authorized law enforcement activity under the Inspector...

  9. 28 CFR 0.58 - Delegation respecting payment of benefits for disability or death of law enforcement officers not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for disability or death of law enforcement officers not employed by the United States. 0.58 Section 0... Division § 0.58 Delegation respecting payment of benefits for disability or death of law enforcement... functions or duties conferred upon the Attorney General by the Act to Compensate Law Enforcement Officers...

  10. 28 CFR 97.19 - Immediate notification of local law enforcement in the event of an escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... notification of local law enforcement in the event of an escape. Private prisoner transport companies must be sufficiently equipped to provide immediate notification to law enforcement in the event of a prisoner escape. Law enforcement officials must receive notification no later than 15 minutes after an escape is...

  11. 29 CFR 553.213 - Public agency employees engaged in both fire protection and law enforcement activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... law enforcement activities. 553.213 Section 553.213 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Exemption Requirements § 553.213 Public agency employees engaged in both fire protection and law enforcement...

  12. 25 CFR 12.1 - Who is responsible for the Bureau of Indian Affairs law enforcement function?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... enforcement function? 12.1 Section 12.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Responsibilities § 12.1 Who is responsible for the Bureau of Indian Affairs law enforcement function? The Commissioner of Indian Affairs, or in the absence of a Commissioner...

  13. 20 CFR 10.735 - When is a non-Federal law enforcement officer (LEO) covered under the FECA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When is a non-Federal law enforcement officer (LEO) covered under the FECA? 10.735 Section 10.735 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... When is a non-Federal law enforcement officer (LEO) covered under the FECA? (a) A law enforcement...

  14. 20 CFR 10.735 - When is a non-Federal law enforcement officer (LEO) covered under the FECA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true When is a non-Federal law enforcement officer (LEO) covered under the FECA? 10.735 Section 10.735 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... When is a non-Federal law enforcement officer (LEO) covered under the FECA? (a) A law enforcement...

  15. 20 CFR 10.735 - When is a non-Federal law enforcement officer (LEO) covered under the FECA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When is a non-Federal law enforcement officer (LEO) covered under the FECA? 10.735 Section 10.735 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... When is a non-Federal law enforcement officer (LEO) covered under the FECA? (a) A law enforcement...

  16. 20 CFR 10.735 - When is a non-Federal law enforcement officer (LEO) covered under the FECA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true When is a non-Federal law enforcement officer (LEO) covered under the FECA? 10.735 Section 10.735 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... When is a non-Federal law enforcement officer (LEO) covered under the FECA? (a) A law enforcement...

  17. 33 CFR 187.107 - What information must be made available to assist law enforcement officials and what information...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... available to assist law enforcement officials and what information may be made available? 187.107 Section... What information must be made available to assist law enforcement officials and what information may be... by law enforcement officials: (1) Vessel identifier(s), as required by § 187.9. (2) Notice of...

  18. Buried object remote detection technology for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Grande, Nancy K.; Clark, Gregory A.; Durbin, Philip F.; Fields, David J.; Hernandez, Jose E.; Sherwood, Robert J.

    1991-08-01

    A precise airborne temperature-sensing technology to detect buried objects for use by law enforcement is developed. Demonstrations have imaged the sites of buried foundations, walls and trenches; mapped underground waterways and aquifers; and been used to locate underground military objects. The methodology is incorporated in a commercially available, high signal-to-noise, dual-band infrared scanner with real-time, 12-bit digital image processing software and display. The method creates color-coded images based on surface temperature variations of 0.2 degree(s)C. Unlike other less-sensitive methods, it maps true (corrected) temperatures by removing the (decoupled) surface emissivity mask equivalent to 1 degree(s)C or 2 degree(s)C; this mask hinders interpretation of apparent (blackbody) temperatures. Once removed, it is possible to identify surface temperature patterns from small diffusivity changes at buried object sites which heat and cool differently from their surroundings. Objects made of different materials and buried at different depths are identified by their unique spectral, spatial, thermal, temporal, emissivity and diffusivity signatures. The authors have successfully located the sites of buried (inert) simulated land mines 0.1 to 0.2 m deep; sod-covered rock pathways alongside dry ditches, deeper than 0.2 m; pavement covered burial trenches and cemetery structures as deep as 0.8 m; and aquifers more than 6 m and less than 60 m deep. The technology could be adapted for drug interdiction and pollution control. For the former, buried tunnels, underground structures built beneath typical surface structures, roof-tops disguised by jungle canopies, and covered containers used for contraband would be located. For the latter, buried waste containers, sludge migration pathways from faulty containers, and the juxtaposition of groundwater channels, if present, nearby, would be depicted. The precise airborne temperature-sensing technology has a promising potential

  19. Retail price as an outcome measure for the effectiveness of drug law enforcement.

    PubMed

    Bright, David A; Ritter, Alison

    2010-09-01

    One outcome measure of law enforcement effectiveness is the reduction in drug consumption which occurs as a result of law enforcement interventions. A theoretical relationship between drug consumption and retail price has promoted the use of retail price as a surrogate measure for consumption. In the current article, retail price is examined as a potential outcome measure for the effectiveness of law enforcement. The predictions regarding the relationship between law enforcement intensity and price are only partially supported by research. Explanations for the disconnect between the drug law enforcement activity and retail price include: rapid adaptation by market players, enforcement swamping, assumptions of rational actors, short-run versus long-run effects, structure of the illicit market, simultaneous changes that affect price in perverse ways, the role of violence in markets, and data limitations. Researchers who use retail price as an outcome measure need to take into account the complex relationship between drug law enforcement interventions and the retail price of illicit drugs. Viable outcome measures which can be used as complements to retail price are worth investigation.

  20. 25 CFR 161.101 - How will tribal laws be enforced on the Navajo Partitioned Lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Tribal Policies and Laws Pertaining to Permits § 161.101 How will tribal laws be enforced on the Navajo Partitioned Lands? (a) Unless prohibited by... Partitioned Lands, including tribal laws relating to land use, environmental protection, and historic...

  1. Factors associated with law enforcement-related use-of-force injury.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Edward M; Prabhakar, Nitin; Luu, Bethi

    2012-05-01

    Use-of-force (UOF) techniques are used by law enforcement to gain control of noncompliant subjects. The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with subject and deputy injuries during law enforcement UOF. This is a retrospective study of nonlethal UOF events from January to June 2009 by a single law enforcement agency serving a population of 3 million. A standard data collection tool, which included basic demographic data, the type of force used, subject response, and if there were any injuries to the subject or deputies involved, was used by deputies for each UOF event. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the specific subject and incident details. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify factors potentially associated with subject and deputy injuries. There were 1174 UOF incidents recorded during the study period. A total of 282 incidents (24%) involved no physical force, 135 (11.5%) involved less lethal methods, 620 (52.8%) involved other physical restraint methods, and 137 (11.7%) involved both less lethal and other physical methods. Factors with the largest independent associations with subject injury were physical resistance by the subject (odds ratio [OR], 2.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-4.74) and force used to prevent a violent felony (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.24-3.71). When the subject had a weapon (OR, 4.15; 95% CI, 1.53-11.23) and physical resistance by the subject (OR, 4.15; 95% CI, 1.24-13.94) had the largest associations with deputy injury. This study identifies situational characteristics potentially associated with subject and deputy injuries during UOF events. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and nuclear materials couriers. 842.208 Section 842.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a... enforcement officer or nuclear materials courier totaling 25 years; or (2) After becoming age 50...

  3. 26 CFR 301.7624-1 - Reimbursement to State and local law enforcement agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... However, based on the information contained in this second set of books, the Service is able to collect... enforcement agencies. 301.7624-1 Section 301.7624-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... law enforcement agencies. (a) In general. The Internal Revenue Service may reimburse a State or...

  4. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and nuclear materials couriers. 842.208 Section 842.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a... enforcement officer or nuclear materials courier totaling 25 years; or (2) After becoming age 50...

  5. 31 CFR 103.100 - Information sharing between Federal law enforcement agencies and financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist... money laundering—(1) In general. A law enforcement agency investigating terrorist activity or money... suspected based on credible evidence of engaging in, terrorist activity or money laundering; include...

  6. Harnessing the power of multimedia in offender-based law enforcement information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Alan P.

    1997-02-01

    Criminal offenders are increasingly administratively processed by automated multimedia information systems. During this processing, case and offender biographical data, mugshot photos, fingerprints and other valuable information and media are collected by law enforcement officers. As part of their criminal investigations, law enforcement officers are routinely called to solve criminal cases based upon limited evidence . . . evidence increasingly comprised of human DNA, ballistic casings and projectiles, chemical residues, latent fingerprints, surveillance camera facial images and voices. As multimedia systems receive greater use in law enforcement, traditional approaches used to index text data are not appropriate for images and signal data which comprise a multimedia database. Multimedia systems with integrated advanced pattern matching tools will provide law enforcement the ability to effectively locate multimedia information based upon content, without reliance upon the accuracy or completeness of text-based indexing.

  7. Assessing the efficiency of priorities for traffic law enforcement in Norway.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune; Sogge, Céline Vallet; Lager, Lasse; Amundsen, Finn Harald; Pasnin, Live Tanum; Karlsen, Runar; Fosli, Knut

    2012-07-01

    This paper assesses the efficiency of priorities for traffic law enforcement in Norway. Priorities are regarded as efficient if: (1) enforcement ensures a sufficient level of deterrence to keep down the rate of violations; (2) selection of target violations for enforcement is based on the risk attributable to them; and (3) an optimal level of enforcement is selected, i.e. the marginal benefits of enforcement in terms of preventing accidents equal the marginal costs of enforcement. The efficiency of current traffic law enforcement in Norway is assessed in terms of these criteria. It is found that the risk of apprehension varies considerably between different traffic violations. These variations do not reflect the risk attributable to the violations, i.e. it is not the case that the risk of apprehension is higher for violations that make a large contribution to fatalities and injuries than for violations that make a smaller contribution. In principle, shifting priorities so as to increase the risk of apprehension for some violations and reduce it for other violations could make police enforcement slightly more efficient. The main finding, however, is that the current level of enforcement is too low. Cost-benefit analyses show that substantially increasing the amount of police enforcement is cost-effective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of computer-aided dispatch in law enforcement: An introductory planning guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.; Gurfield, R. M.; Garcia, E. A.; Fielding, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    A set of planning guidelines for the application of computer-aided dispatching (CAD) to law enforcement is presented. Some essential characteristics and applications of CAD are outlined; the results of a survey of systems in the operational or planning phases are summarized. Requirements analysis, system concept design, implementation planning, and performance and cost modeling are described and demonstrated with numerous examples. Detailed descriptions of typical law enforcement CAD systems, and a list of vendor sources, are given in appendixes.

  9. Application of automatic vehicle location in law enforcement: An introductory planning guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R.; Leflang, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    A set of planning guidelines for the application of automatic vehicle location (AVL) to law enforcement is presented. Some essential characteristics and applications of AVL are outlined; systems in the operational or planning phases are discussed. Requirements analysis, system concept design, implementation planning, and performance and cost modeling are described and demonstrated with numerous examples. A detailed description of a typical law enforcement AVL system, and a list of vendor sources are given in appendixes.

  10. Creating a Learning Organization for State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement to Combat Violent Extremism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Kindle location 559). Chermack’s contentions will enhance the creation of problem - solving strategies as time goes on and participants communicate ...extremism, 2) support local communities , and 3) support local law enforcement. Violent extremism is not a new threat to the United States, but it now...but it can foster partnerships to support communities through its connections to local government, law enforcement, Mayor’s offices, the private

  11. Application of mobile digital communications in law enforcement, an introductory planning guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.; Abraham, J. E.; Leflang, W. G.; Kennedy, R. D.; Wilson, J. H.; Gurfield, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A set of planning guidelines for the application of digital communications techniques to law enforcement use is presented. Some essential characteristics of digital techniques and their applications are outlined, as are some principles of system analysis, evaluation, and planning. Requirements analysis, system concept design, implementation planning, and performance and cost modeling are described and demonstrated with respect to this application problem. Information on law enforcement digital communications systems and equipment and a list of vendor sources are given in appendices.

  12. Ethics On The Fly: Toward A Drone - Specific Code Of Conduct For Law Enforcement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    TOWARD A DRONE -SPECIFIC CODE OF CONDUCT FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT by Brian T. Smith March 2016 Thesis Co-Advisors: Kathleen Kiernan Rob...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ETHICS ON THE FLY: TOWARD A DRONE -SPECIFIC CODE OF CONDUCT FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...creating a drone -specific code of conduct for policing. A case is made for publicly declaring an agency’s code of conduct in the interest of

  13. State and local law enforcement agency efforts to prevent sales to obviously intoxicated patrons

    PubMed Central

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons are illegal and may lead to public health issues such as traffic crashes and violence. Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been made to reduce alcohol sales to underage persons but less attention has been given to the issue of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Studies have found a high likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons (i.e., overservice), but little is known about efforts by enforcement agencies to reduce these sales. We conducted a survey of statewide alcohol enforcement agencies and local law enforcement agencies across the U.S. to assess their strategies for enforcing laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons at licensed alcohol establishments. We randomly sampled 1,631 local agencies (1082 participated), and surveyed all 49 statewide agencies that conduct alcohol enforcement. Sales to obviously intoxicated patrons were reported to be somewhat or very common in their jurisdiction by 55% of local agencies and 90% of state agencies. Twenty percent of local and 60% of state agencies reported conducting enforcement efforts to reduce sales to obviously intoxicated patrons in the past year. Among these agencies, fewer than half used specific enforcement strategies on at least a monthly basis to prevent overservice of alcohol. Among local agencies, enforcement efforts were more common among agencies that had a full-time officer specifically assigned to carry out alcohol enforcement efforts. Enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons is an underutilized strategy to reduce alcohol-related problems, especially among local law enforcement agencies. PMID:24068596

  14. State and local law enforcement agency efforts to prevent sales to obviously intoxicated patrons.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Toomey, Traci L; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons are illegal and may lead to public health issues such as traffic crashes and violence. Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been made to reduce alcohol sales to underage persons but less attention has been given to the issue of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Studies have found a high likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons (i.e., overservice), but little is known about efforts by enforcement agencies to reduce these sales. We conducted a survey of statewide alcohol enforcement agencies and local law enforcement agencies across the US to assess their strategies for enforcing laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons at licensed alcohol establishments. We randomly sampled 1,631 local agencies (1,082 participated), and surveyed all 49 statewide agencies that conduct alcohol enforcement. Sales to obviously intoxicated patrons were reported to be somewhat or very common in their jurisdiction by 55 % of local agencies and 90 % of state agencies. Twenty percent of local and 60 % of state agencies reported conducting enforcement efforts to reduce sales to obviously intoxicated patrons in the past year. Among these agencies, fewer than half used specific enforcement strategies on at least a monthly basis to prevent overservice of alcohol. Among local agencies, enforcement efforts were more common among agencies that had a full-time officer specifically assigned to carry out alcohol enforcement efforts. Enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons is an underutilized strategy to reduce alcohol-related problems, especially among local law enforcement agencies.

  15. The Legal and Law Enforcement Professional: Ideas for Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake Univ., Des Moines, IA. Iowa Center for Law-Related Education.

    Designed as a guide for law professionals involved in school guest presentations, the materials in this handbook are also useful to elementary and secondary teachers interested in incorporating law-related education into the course content. Part 1 defines law-related education and offers suggestions for introducing law-related issues at different…

  16. Qualitative assessment of take-home naloxone program participant and law enforcement interactions in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Deonarine, Andrew; Amlani, Ashraf; Ambrose, Graham; Buxton, Jane A

    2016-05-21

    The British Columbia take-home naloxone (BCTHN) program has been in operation since 2012 and has resulted in the successful reversal of over 581 opioid overdoses. The study aims to explore BCTHN program participant perspectives about the program, barriers to participants contacting emergency services (calling "911") during an overdose, and perspectives of law enforcement officials on naloxone administration by police officers. Two focus groups and four individual interviews were conducted with BCTHN program participants; interviews with two law enforcement officials were also conducted. Qualitative analysis of all transcripts was performed. Positive themes about the BCTHN program from participants included easy to understand training, correcting misperceptions in the community, and positive interactions with emergency services. Potential barriers to contacting emergency services during an overdose include concerns about being arrested for outstanding warrants or for other illegal activities (such as drug possession) and confiscation of kits. Law enforcement officials noted that warrants were complex situational issues, kits would normally not be confiscated, and admitted arrests for drug possession or other activities may not serve the public good in an overdose situation. Law enforcement officials were concerned about legal liability and jurisdictional/authorization issues if naloxone administration privileges were expanded to police. Program participants and law enforcement officials expressed differing perspectives about warrants, kit confiscation, and arrests. Facilitating communication between BCTHN program participants and other stakeholders may address some of the confusion and remove potential barriers to further improving program outcomes. Naloxone administration by law enforcement would require policies to address jurisdiction/authorization and liability issues.

  17. [Chemical, physical and biological risks in law enforcement].

    PubMed

    Magrini, Andrea; Grana, Mario; Vicentini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Chemical, physical and biological risks among public safety and security forces. Law enforcement personnel, involved in routine tasks and in emergency situations, are exposed to numerous and several occupational hazards (chemical, physical and biological) whith likely health and security consequences. These risks are particularly high when the organization and preparation are inadequate, there is a lacking or insufficient coordination, information, education and communication and safety and personal protective equipment are inadequate or insufficient. Despite the objective difficulties, caused by the actual special needs related to the service performed or the organizational peculiarities, the risk identification and assessment is essential for worker health and safety of personnel, as provided for by Legislative Decree no. 81/2008. Chemical risks include airborne pollutants due to vehicular traffic (carbon monoxide, ultrafine particles, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, lead), toxic gases generated by combustion process following fires (aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, dioxins and furans, biphenyls, formaldehyde, metals and cyanides), substances emitted in case of chemical accidents (solvents, pesticides, toxic gases, caustics), drugs (methylamphetamine), riot control agents and self-defence spray, lead at firing ranges, and several materials and reagents used in forensic laboratory. The physical hazards are often caused by activities that induce biomechanical overload aid the onset of musculoskeletal disorders, the use of visual display terminals and work environments that may expose to heat stress and discomfort, high and low pressure, noise, vibrations, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The main biological risks are blood-borne diseases (viral hepatitis, AIDS), airborne diseases (eg, tuberculosis, meningitis, SARS, anthrax), MRSA, and vector-borne diseases. Many of these risk factors are unavoidable or are not

  18. Innovation in Law Enforcement. Criminal Justice Monograph. Selections from National Symposium on Law Enforcement Science and Technology. (4th, May 1-3, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    This monograph presents a variety of approaches to the practical problem of introducing change into law enforcement agencies. The papers deal with changing the rhetoric of "professionalism," political factors affecting public safety communications consolidation, the climate for change in three police departments (college, suburban, and…

  19. Enforcing law on tobacco sales to minors: getting the question and action right.

    PubMed

    Tutt, Douglas C

    2008-01-01

    There is a substantial history of health-related law in Australia, but only recently has this included a significant amount of state regulation pertaining to tobacco promotion, sale and public use. The important question is: under what circumstances do regulation and law enforcement work? Rigorous, energetic, long-term local law enforcement on the supply of tobacco to minors demonstrates success in preventing uptake. A model for success combines education, enforcement and publicity; a model used to some effect in alcohol law. Future directions in regulation might include on-the-spot penalties; ensuring the law is simple and has community support; striving for sufficient resources, enthusiasm and skills; and making the tobacco retail industry pay some of the costs of regulating that industry.

  20. Targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth: results from a national survey of local law enforcement agencies.

    PubMed

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Erickson, Darin J

    2015-06-01

    We investigated what local enforcement agencies are doing to target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth; what types of enforcement activities are being conducted to target adult providers; and factors that encourage enforcement activities that target adult providers. We surveyed 1,056 local law enforcement agencies in the US and measured whether or not the agency conducted enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. We also measured whether certain agency and jurisdiction characteristics were associated with enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Less than half (42%) of local enforcement agencies conducted enforcement efforts targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Agencies that conducted the enforcement activities targeting adult providers were significantly more likely to have a full time officer specific to alcohol enforcement, a division specific to alcohol enforcement, a social host law, and to perceive underage drinking was very common. Results suggest that targeting social providers (i.e., adults over 21 years of age) will require greater law enforcement resources, implementation of underage drinking laws (e.g., social host policies), and changing perceptions among law enforcement regarding underage drinking. Future studies are needed to identify the most effective enforcement efforts and to examine how enforcement efforts are prospectively linked to alcohol consumption.

  1. Targeting Adults Who Provide Alcohol to Underage Youth: Results from a National Survey of Local Law Enforcement Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated what local enforcement agencies are doing to target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth; what types of enforcement activities are being conducted to target adult providers; and factors that encourage enforcement activities that target adult providers. Method We surveyed 1056 local law enforcement agencies in the U.S. and measured whether or not the agency conducted enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. We also measured whether certain agency and jurisdiction characteristics were associated with enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Results Less than half (42%) of local enforcement agencies conducted enforcement efforts targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Agencies that conducted the enforcement activities targeting adult providers were significantly more likely to have a full time officer specific to alcohol enforcement, a division specific to alcohol enforcement, a social host law, and to perceive underage drinking was very common. Conclusions Results suggest that targeting social providers (i.e., adults over 21 years of age) will require greater law enforcement resources, implementation of underage drinking laws (e.g., social host policies), and changing perceptions among law enforcement regarding underage drinking. Future studies are needed to identify the most effective enforcement efforts and to examine how enforcement efforts are prospectively linked to alcohol consumption. PMID:25466432

  2. 49 CFR 388.7 - Joint administrative activities related to enforcement of safety and hazardous materials laws and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... enforcement of safety and hazardous materials laws and regulations. 388.7 Section 388.7 Transportation Other... administrative activities related to enforcement of safety and hazardous materials laws and regulations. To... nature and extent of the authority and capabilities of the respective agencies to enforce the safety...

  3. A test bed for investigating and evaluating the use of biometric-encoded driver licenses and their impact on law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messner, Richard A.; Hludik, Frank; Crowley, Todd A.; Vidacic, Dragan; Stetson, Barrett; Nadel, Lawrence D.; Nichols, Linda J.; Harris, Carol

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a collaborative effort between the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and the Mitretek Systems (MTS) Center for Criminal Justice Technology (CCJT). Mitretek conducted an investigation into the impact of anticipated biometrically encoded driver licenses (DLs) on law enforcement. As part of this activity, Mitretek teamed with UNH to leverage the results of UNH's Project54 and develop a pilot Driver License Interoperability Test Bed to explore both implementation and operational aspects associated with reading and authenticating biometrically encoded DLs in law enforcement scenarios. The test bed enables the exploration of new methods, techniques (both hardware and software), and standards in a structured fashion. Spearheaded by the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and the International Committee for Information Technology Standards Technical Group M1 (INCITS-M1) initiatives, standards involving both DLs and biometrics, respectively, are evolving at a rapid pace. In order to ensure that the proposed standards will provide for interstate interoperability and proper functionality for the law enforcement community, it is critical to investigate the implementation and deployment issues surrounding biometrically encoded DLs. The test bed described in this paper addresses this and will provide valuable feedback to the standards organizations, the states, and law enforcement officials with respect to implementation and functional issues that are exposed through exploration of actual test systems. The knowledge gained was incorporated into a report prepared by MTS to describe the anticipated impact of biometrically encoded DLs on law enforcement practice.

  4. Enforcement of Federal Civil Rights Laws in the Reagan Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, William Bradford

    In this statement, William Bradford Reynolds, Assistant Attorney General, discusses the Federal government's enforcement policies and activities regarding equal employment opportunity, and defends the Reagan Administration and the Justice Department against charges cited in a report by the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights. Reynolds contends…

  5. 46 CFR 386.25 - Enforcement, penalties and other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GOVERNING PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.25 Enforcement... or on Academy property is subject to a fine of not more than $50 or imprisonment of not more than 30... the property is situated. These regulations shall be posted prominently throughout the Academy...

  6. Maritime Law Enforcement: A Critical Capability for the Navy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    50 5. Slave Trade and Trafficking in Persons (TIP) ................................51 6. Illegal Seaborne Migration ...Command USS United States Ship USSOUTHCOM U.S. Southern Command VBSS Visit, Board, Search, and Seizure WMD Weapons of Mass Destruction xix ...J52), USNORTHCOM, 2007) 13. 15 Naval Operations Concept 2010, 25. 5 enforcement activities. Even the United States’ neighbors, Canada and Mexico

  7. Cultural Competency, Education, and Training among Campus Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ashley; Hendricks, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Enforcement agencies have developed an acute understanding of the importance of cultural competency among officers given the historically diverse nature of societies and communities. However, it has only been in the recent past that departments have begun ongoing training in this area. Training in cultural competency benefits departments in many…

  8. 32 CFR 634.26 - Traffic law enforcement principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drivers and act promptly when driving behavior is improper or a defective vehicle is observed in operation... practice is the most effective use of resources. (c) Enforcement activities against intoxicated driving will include— (1) Detecting, apprehending, and testing persons suspected of driving under the...

  9. 32 CFR 634.26 - Traffic law enforcement principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drivers and act promptly when driving behavior is improper or a defective vehicle is observed in operation... practice is the most effective use of resources. (c) Enforcement activities against intoxicated driving will include— (1) Detecting, apprehending, and testing persons suspected of driving under the...

  10. 32 CFR 634.26 - Traffic law enforcement principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drivers and act promptly when driving behavior is improper or a defective vehicle is observed in operation... practice is the most effective use of resources. (c) Enforcement activities against intoxicated driving will include— (1) Detecting, apprehending, and testing persons suspected of driving under the...

  11. The Influence of Higher Education on Law Enforcement Entry Level Examination Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paprota, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Entry into a career in law enforcement is most often dependent upon the aspiring candidate's relative success on a competitive, written, multiple-choice examination. In the state of New Jersey, as in many states, civil service laws preclude consideration of formal educational attainment when establishing the ordinal, eligibles lists for law…

  12. The Influence of Higher Education on Law Enforcement Entry Level Examination Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paprota, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Entry into a career in law enforcement is most often dependent upon the aspiring candidate's relative success on a competitive, written, multiple-choice examination. In the state of New Jersey, as in many states, civil service laws preclude consideration of formal educational attainment when establishing the ordinal, eligibles lists for law…

  13. 21 CFR 20.64 - Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... any other criminal law enforcement authority in the course of a criminal investigation or by an agency conducting a lawful national security intelligence investigation; (5) Would disclose techniques and.... The Commissioner will exercise his discretion to disclose records relating to possible...

  14. 34 CFR 99.8 - What provisions apply to records of a law enforcement unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What provisions apply to records of a law enforcement unit? 99.8 Section 99.8 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education FAMILY EDUCATIONAL... local, State, or Federal law. (2) Education records, and personally identifiable information...

  15. Cooperation between law enforcement officers and forensic specialists. Diagnosis and possible improvements - a Lithuanian experience.

    PubMed

    Malewski, Henryk; Kurapka, Vidmantas Egidijus; Matulienė, Snieguolnė; Navickienė, Žaneta

    The article investigates the characteristics and forms of cooperation between criminal investigation officers* and forensic laboratory specialists in pre-trial proceedings, as well as practical problems in such cooperation. Recently there have been a number of particularly heated debates about the relationship between determining a person possessing special knowledge and his/her status in pre-trial proceedings. Other discussed aspects include cooperation between entities involved in pre-trial proceedings in international contexts. A less intensive (albeit equally important) discussion relates to the form and characteristics of cooperation between criminal investigation officers on the one hand and specialists and experts on the other in investigating criminal acts. Bearing in mind the high practical importance and the existing differences in scholarly approaches to these issues, the current study concentrates on the forms and content of cooperation between law enforcement officers and specialists (experts) from forensic laboratories, as well as on problems resulting from such cooperation and directions for improvement. The first part of the article presents selected views on the definition of a person possessing special knowledge currently used in Lithuania** and in a number of other states. In the authors' opinion, unification (harmonization) of various notions (definitions), terms and statuses of an expert, a specialist and special knowledge should be one of the objectives in implementing the vision of the joint European forensic science area 2020. Achieving this objective requires a comprehensive analysis of standards in law and management in using special knowledge of each state***. The second part, supported by empirical study results, discusses practical problems of cooperation between a law enforcement officer and a specialist (expert), analyzes three basic forms of their cooperation and presents the content of those forms: activities at the crime scene

  16. Post-crackdown effectiveness of field-based forest law enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Börner, Jan; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Hargrave, Jorge; König, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory enforcement of forest conservation laws is often dismissed as an ineffective approach to reducing tropical forest loss. Yet, effective enforcement is often a precondition for alternative conservation measures, such as payments for environmental services, to achieve desired outcomes. Fair and efficient policies to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) will thus crucially depend on understanding the determinants and requirements of enforcement effectiveness. Among potential REDD candidate countries, Brazil is considered to possess the most advanced deforestation monitoring and enforcement infrastructure. This study explores a unique dataset of over 15 thousand point coordinates of enforcement missions in the Brazilian Amazon during 2009 and 2010, after major reductions of deforestation in the region. We study whether local deforestation patterns have been affected by field-based enforcement and to what extent these effects vary across administrative boundaries. Spatial matching and regression techniques are applied at different spatial resolutions. We find that field-based enforcement operations have not been universally effective in deterring deforestation during our observation period. Inspections have been most effective in reducing large-scale deforestation in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, where average conservation effects were 4.0 and 9.9 hectares per inspection, respectively. Despite regional and actor-specific heterogeneity in inspection effectiveness, field-based law enforcement is highly cost-effective on average and might be enhanced by closer collaboration between national and state-level authorities.

  17. Post-Crackdown Effectiveness of Field-Based Forest Law Enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Börner, Jan; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Hargrave, Jorge; König, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory enforcement of forest conservation laws is often dismissed as an ineffective approach to reducing tropical forest loss. Yet, effective enforcement is often a precondition for alternative conservation measures, such as payments for environmental services, to achieve desired outcomes. Fair and efficient policies to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) will thus crucially depend on understanding the determinants and requirements of enforcement effectiveness. Among potential REDD candidate countries, Brazil is considered to possess the most advanced deforestation monitoring and enforcement infrastructure. This study explores a unique dataset of over 15 thousand point coordinates of enforcement missions in the Brazilian Amazon during 2009 and 2010, after major reductions of deforestation in the region. We study whether local deforestation patterns have been affected by field-based enforcement and to what extent these effects vary across administrative boundaries. Spatial matching and regression techniques are applied at different spatial resolutions. We find that field-based enforcement operations have not been universally effective in deterring deforestation during our observation period. Inspections have been most effective in reducing large-scale deforestation in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, where average conservation effects were 4.0 and 9.9 hectares per inspection, respectively. Despite regional and actor-specific heterogeneity in inspection effectiveness, field-based law enforcement is highly cost-effective on average and might be enhanced by closer collaboration between national and state-level authorities. PMID:25875656

  18. Enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws in the United States: A national survey of state and local agencies

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Darin J.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Toomey, Traci L.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Nelson, Toben F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws is an important component of efforts to prevent alcohol-involved motor-vehicle fatalities. Little is known about the use of drinking-driving enforcement strategies by state and local law enforcement agencies or whether the use of strategies differs by agency and jurisdiction characteristics. Methods We conducted two national surveys, with state patrol agencies (n=48) and with a sample of local law enforcement agencies (n=1,082) selected according to state and jurisdiction population size. We examined three primary enforcement strategies (sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws), and tested whether use of these strategies differed by jurisdiction and agency characteristics across state and local law enforcement agencies Results Most state patrol agencies reported conducting sobriety checkpoints (72.9%) and saturation patrols (95.8%), while less than half (43.8%) reported enforcing open container laws. In contrast, a lower proportion of local law enforcement agencies reported using these alcohol-impaired driving enforcement strategies (41.5%; 62.7%; 41.1% respectively). Sobriety checkpoint enforcement was more common in states in the dry South region (vs. wet and moderate regions). Among local law enforcement agencies, agencies with a full-time alcohol enforcement officer and agencies located in areas where drinking-driving was perceived to be very common (vs. not/somewhat common) were more likely to conduct multiple types of impaired driving enforcement. Conclusions Recommended enforcement strategies to detect and prevent alcohol-impaired driving are employed in some jurisdictions and underutilized in others. Future research should explore the relationship of enforcement with drinking and driving behavior and alcohol-involved motor-vehicle fatalities. PMID:25802970

  19. Enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws in the United States: a national survey of state and local agencies.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Darin J; Farbakhsh, Kian; Toomey, Traci L; Lenk, Kathleen M; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Nelson, Toben F

    2015-01-01

    Enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws is an important component of efforts to prevent alcohol-involved motor vehicle fatalities. Little is known about the use of drinking-driving enforcement strategies by state and local law enforcement agencies or whether the use of strategies differs by agency and jurisdiction characteristics. We conducted two national surveys, with state patrol agencies (n = 48) and with a sample of local law enforcement agencies (n = 1,082) selected according to state and jurisdiction population size. We examined 3 primary enforcement strategies (sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws) and tested whether use of these strategies differed by jurisdiction and agency characteristics across state and local law enforcement agencies Most state patrol agencies reported conducting sobriety checkpoints (72.9%) and saturation patrols (95.8%), whereas less than half (43.8%) reported enforcing open container laws. In contrast, a lower proportion of local law enforcement agencies reported using these alcohol-impaired driving enforcement strategies (41.5, 62.7, and 41.1%, respectively). Sobriety checkpoint enforcement was more common in states in the dry South region (vs. wet and moderate regions). Among local law enforcement agencies, agencies with a full-time alcohol enforcement officer and agencies located in areas where drinking-driving was perceived to be very common (vs. not/somewhat common) were more likely to conduct multiple types of impaired driving enforcement. Recommended enforcement strategies to detect and prevent alcohol-impaired driving are employed in some jurisdictions and underutilized in others. Future research should explore the relationship of enforcement with drinking and driving behavior and alcohol-involved motor vehicle fatalities.

  20. Examining the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters among people who inject drugs after implementation of Mexico's drug policy reform.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Tommi L; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime; Werb, Daniel; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly

    2015-04-01

    In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters provided by PWID (n = 461) recruited through targeted sampling, we identified hotspots of extra-judicial encounters (e.g., physical/sexual abuse, syringe confiscation, and money extortion by law enforcement) and routine authorized encounters (e.g., being arrested or stopped but not arrested) using point density maps and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic calculated at the neighborhood-level. Approximately half of the participants encountered law enforcement more than once in a calendar year and nearly one third of these encounters did not result in arrest but involved harassment or abuse by law enforcement. Statistically significant hotspots of law enforcement encounters were identified in a limited number of neighborhoods located in areas with known drug markets. At the local-level, law enforcement activities continue to target drug users despite a national drug policy that emphasizes drug treatment diversion rather than punitive enforcement. There is a need for law enforcement training and improved monitoring of policing tactics to better align policing with public health goals.

  1. Crowds As Complex Adaptive Systems: Strategic Implications For Law Enforcement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    ENFORCEMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert H. Leverone 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey...CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING...the myriad factors contributing to human behavior do not lend themselves to exploration within the rigid parameters of quantitative frameworks. While

  2. Building on mental health training for law enforcement: strengthening community partnerships.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jorien; Ahalt, Cyrus; Hagar, Randall; Arroyo, William

    2017-09-11

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the current state of law enforcement training related to the high number of interactions with persons with mental illness, and to recommend next steps in preparing law enforcement to effectively meet this challenge. Design/methodology/approach The authors reviewed the current literature on relevant law enforcement training programs, focusing primarily on crisis intervention team (CIT) training, and used the case example of California to identify opportunities to improve and enhance law enforcement preparedness for the challenge of responding to persons with mental illness. Findings Broad-based community partnerships working together to develop programs that meet the local needs of both those with mental illness and law enforcement, the availability of mental health treatment centers with no-refusal policies, and a coordinating person or agency to effectively liaise among stakeholders are critical enhancements to CIT training. Originality/value As increasing attention is paid to adverse interactions between police and vulnerable populations, this paper identifies policies that would build on existing training programs to improve police responses to persons with mental illness.

  3. Relationships Among Stress Measures, Risk Factors, and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Law Enforcement Officers

    PubMed Central

    Ramey, Sandra L.; Downing, Nancy R.; Franke, Warren D.; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Alasagheirin, Mohammad H.

    2011-01-01

    Law enforcement officers suffer higher morbidity and mortality rates from all causes than the general population. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for a significant portion of the excess illness, with a reported prevalence as high as 1.7 times that of the general population. To determine which occupational hazards cause this increased risk and morbidity, it is imperative to study law enforcement officers before they retire. The long-range goal of our research is to reduce the incidence of CVD-related illness and death among aging law enforcement officers. The purpose of the present study was to measure pro- and anti-atherogenic inflammatory markers in blood samples from law enforcement officers (n = 71) and determine what types of occupation-related stress correlate with differences in these markers. For each outcome variable of interest, we developed separate regression models. Two groups of potential predictors were examined for inclusion in the models. Selected measures of stress were examined for inclusion in the models, in addition to general covariates, such as gender, ethnicity, years in law enforcement, and body mass index. Our results revealed statistically significant relationships between several physiologic variables and measures of stress. PMID:21362637

  4. Review of Canine Deaths While in Service in US Civilian Law Enforcement (2002-2012).

    PubMed

    Stojsih, Sarah E; Baker, Janice L; Les, Clifford M; Bir, Cynthia A

    2014-01-01

    Working dogs have been proven effective in multiple military and law enforcement applications. Similar to their human counterparts, understanding mortality while still in service can help improve treatment of injuries, and improve equipment and training, to potentially reduce deaths. This is a retrospective study to characterize mortality of working dogs used in civilian law enforcement. Reported causes of death were gathered from two working dog and law enforcement officer memorial websites. Of the 867 civilian law enforcement dogs reported to these memorial websites from 2002 to 2012 with reported causes of death while in service, the deaths of 318 were categorized as traumatic. The leading reported causes of traumatic death or euthanasia include trauma as a result of a vehicle strike, 25.8% (n=82); heatstroke, 24.8% (n=79); and penetrating ballistic trauma, 23.0% (n=73). Although the information gathered was from online sources, this study casts some light on the risks that civilian law enforcement dogs undergo as part of the tasks to which they are assigned. These data underscore the need for a comprehensive database for this specialized population of working dogs to provide the robust, reliable data needed to develop prevention and treatment strategies for this valuable resource. 2014.

  5. 76 FR 71417 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Law Enforcement Agencies (LEA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/ Law Enforcement Agencies (LEA... General Counsel. Notice of Computer Matching Program, SSA With the Law Enforcement Agency (LEA) A... establish terms, conditions, and safeguards under which we will conduct a computer matching program with law...

  6. 20 CFR 670.940 - What are the requirements for criminal law enforcement jurisdiction on center property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the requirements for criminal law... Administrative and Management Provisions § 670.940 What are the requirements for criminal law enforcement... with respect to criminal law enforcement. Concurrent jurisdiction extends to all portions of...

  7. 20 CFR 670.940 - What are the requirements for criminal law enforcement jurisdiction on center property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for criminal law... Administrative and Management Provisions § 670.940 What are the requirements for criminal law enforcement... with respect to criminal law enforcement. Concurrent jurisdiction extends to all portions of the...

  8. An Initial evaluation of law enforcement overdose training in Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Saucier, Cory D; Zaller, Nickolas; Macmadu, Alexandria; Green, Traci C

    2016-05-01

    To assess initial change in knowledge, self-efficacy, and anticipated behaviors among Rhode Island law enforcement officers on drug overdose response and prevention. Law enforcement officers (N=316) voluntarily completed a pre-post evaluation immediately before and after taking part in overdose prevention and response trainings. Assessment items included measures of knowledge (Brief Overdose Recognition and Response Assessment (BORRA)), self-efficacy, attitudes toward drugs and overdose prevention, awareness of the Good Samaritan Law, and open-ended items pertaining to overdose knowledge and response behaviors. Non-parametric tests measured within-group and between-group differences. Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests evaluated changes in BORRA scores and self-efficacy items. McNemar's tests assessed changes regarding the Good Samaritan law and open-ended items. Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests measured post-training change in attitudes. Law enforcement officers demonstrated statistically significant improvements in self-efficacy (identifying signs of opioid overdose, naloxone indication, counseling witnesses in overdose prevention, and referring witnesses for more information), overdose identification knowledge (BORRA mean increased from 7.00 to 10.39), naloxone administration knowledge (BORRA mean increased from 10.15 to 12.59), Good Samaritan Law awareness (17.9% increase after training), and anticipated behaviors in response to future observed overdose (65.7% changed from passive to active response post training). Harm reduction programs can provide law enforcement officers with the knowledge and skills necessary to intervene and reduce overdose mortality. Given the statistically significant improvements in self-efficacy, attitudinal changes, and Good Samaritan law awareness, law enforcement officers are more prepared to actively interact with drug users during a drug-involved emergency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Clear Law Enforcement for Criminal Alien Removal Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Blackburn, Marsha [R-TN-7

    2009-05-14

    06/12/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Clear Law Enforcement for Criminal Alien Removal Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Blackburn, Marsha [R-TN-7

    2009-05-14

    06/12/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Clear Law Enforcement for Criminal Alien Removal Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Blackburn, Marsha [R-TN-7

    2009-05-14

    House - 06/12/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Pathways to Identity: Aiding Law Enforcement in Identification Tasks With Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, Joseph R.; Scholtz, Jean; Hodges, Duncan; Emanuel, Lia; Stanton-Fraser, Danae; Creese, Sadie; Love, Oriana J.

    2014-09-18

    The nature of identity has changed dramatically in recent years, and has grown in complexity. Identities are defined in multiple domains: biological and psychological elements strongly contribute, but also biographical and cyber elements are necessary to complete the picture. Law enforcement is beginning to adjust to these changes, recognizing its importance in criminal justice. The SuperIdentity project seeks to aid law enforcement officials in their identification tasks through research of techniques for discovering identity traits, generation of statistical models of identity and analysis of identity traits through visualization. We present use cases compiled through user interviews in multiple fields, including law enforcement, as well as the modeling and visualization tools design to aid in those use cases.

  13. Pathways to Identity. Using Visualization to Aid Law Enforcement in Identification Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, Joseph R.; Scholtz, Jean; Hodges, Duncan; Emanuel, Lia; Stanton Fraser, Danae; Creese, Sadie; Love, Oriana J.

    2014-09-18

    The nature of identity has changed dramatically in recent years and has grown in complexity. Identities are defined in multiple domains: biological and psychological elements strongly contribute, but biographical and cyber elements also are necessary to complete the picture. Law enforcement is beginning to adjust to these changes, recognizing identity’s importance in criminal justice. The SuperIdentity project seeks to aid law enforcement officials in their identification tasks through research of techniques for discovering identity traits, generation of statistical models of identity and analysis of identity traits through visualization. We present use cases compiled through user interviews in multiple fields, including law enforcement, and describe the modeling and visualization tools design to aid in those use cases.

  14. Collaboration between public health and law enforcement: new paradigms and partnerships for bioterrorism planning and response.

    PubMed

    Butler, Jay C; Cohen, Mitchell L; Friedman, Cindy R; Scripp, Robert M; Watz, Craig G

    2002-10-01

    The biological attacks with powders containing Bacillus anthracis sent through the mail during September and October 2001 led to unprecedented public health and law enforcement investigations, which involved thousands of investigators from federal, state, and local agencies. Following recognition of the first cases of anthrax in Florida in early October 2001, investigators from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) were mobilized to assist investigators from state and local public health and law enforcement agencies. Although public health and criminal investigations have been conducted in concert in the past, the response to the anthrax attacks required close collaboration because of the immediate and ongoing threat to public safety. We describe the collaborations between CDC and FBI during the investigation of the 2001 anthrax attacks and highlight the challenges and successes of public health and law enforcement collaborations in general.

  15. Energy standards and model codes development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides an overview of the energy standards and model codes process for the voluntary sector within the United States. The report was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Building Energy Standards Program and is intended to be used as a primer or reference on this process. Building standards and model codes that address energy have been developed by organizations in the voluntary sector since the early 1970s. These standards and model codes provide minimum energy-efficient design and construction requirements for new buildings and, in some instances, existing buildings. The first step in the process is developing new or revising existing standards or codes. There are two overall differences between standards and codes. Energy standards are developed by a consensus process and are revised as needed. Model codes are revised on a regular annual cycle through a public hearing process. In addition to these overall differences, the specific steps in developing/revising energy standards differ from model codes. These energy standards or model codes are then available for adoption by states and local governments. Typically, energy standards are adopted by or adopted into model codes. Model codes are in turn adopted by states through either legislation or regulation. Enforcement is essential to the implementation of energy standards and model codes. Low-rise residential construction is generally evaluated for compliance at the local level, whereas state agencies tend to be more involved with other types of buildings. Low-rise residential buildings also may be more easily evaluated for compliance because the governing requirements tend to be less complex than for commercial buildings.

  16. 25 CFR 12.62 - Who decides what uniform an Indian country law enforcement officer can wear and who pays for it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Support Functions § 12.62 Who decides what uniform an Indian country law enforcement officer can wear and who pays for it? Each local law... provide uniforms and related equipment to officers in lieu of this payment. All law enforcement officers...

  17. Analysis of illicit drugs in wastewater - Is there an added value for law enforcement?

    PubMed

    Been, F; Esseiva, P; Delémont, O

    2016-09-01

    Assessing illicit drug use through the analysis of wastewater is progressively being integrated into existing methods used to monitor the epidemiology of drug use. However, the approach's potential to deliver pertinent information for law enforcement has been discussed only limitedly. Thus, this work focuses on evaluating the added value of the approach from the perspective of law enforcement. Results from wastewater analysis carried out in two cities in Switzerland were scrutinised, taking into account intelligence derived from the work of drug enforcement in the area. Focus was set on three substances, namely cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine. Findings show that results from wastewater analysis can be used by law enforcement to assess the market share held by criminal groups. Combined with intelligence resulting from police work (e.g., investigations and informants), wastewater analysis can contribute to deciphering the structure of drug markets, as well as the local organisation of trafficking networks. The results presented here constitute valuable pieces of information, which can be used by law enforcement to guide decisions at strategic and/or operational levels. Furthermore, intelligence gathered through investigations and surveillance constitutes an alternative viewpoint to evaluate results of wastewater analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Law enforcement duties and sudden cardiac death among police officers in United States: case distribution study

    PubMed Central

    Varvarigou, Vasileia; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria; Sato, Sho; Dahabreh, Issa J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between risk of sudden cardiac death and stressful law enforcement duties compared with routine/non-emergency duties. Design Case distribution study (case series with survey information on referent exposures). Setting United States law enforcement. Participants Summaries of deaths of over 4500 US police officers provided by the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund and the Officer Down Memorial Page from 1984 to 2010. Main outcome measures Observed and expected sudden cardiac death counts and relative risks for sudden cardiac death events during specific strenuous duties versus routine/non-emergency activities. Independent estimates of the proportion of time that police officers spend across various law enforcement duties obtained from surveys of police chiefs and front line officers. Impact of varying exposure assessments, covariates, and missing cases in sensitivity and stability analyses. Results 441 sudden cardiac deaths were observed during the study period. Sudden cardiac death was associated with restraints/altercations (25%, n=108), physical training (20%, n=88), pursuits of suspects (12%, n=53), medical/rescue operations (8%, n=34), routine duties (23%, n=101), and other activities (11%, n=57). Compared with routine/non-emergency activities, the risk of sudden cardiac death was 34-69 times higher during restraints/altercations, 32-51 times higher during pursuits, 20-23 times higher during physical training, and 6-9 times higher during medical/rescue operations. Results were robust to all sensitivity and stability analyses. Conclusions Stressful law enforcement duties are associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death that is markedly higher than the risk during routine/non-emergency duties. Restraints/altercations and pursuits are associated with the greatest risk. Our findings have public health implications and suggest that primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention efforts are needed among law

  19. Law enforcement duties and sudden cardiac death among police officers in United States: case distribution study.

    PubMed

    Varvarigou, Vasileia; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria; Sato, Sho; Dahabreh, Issa J; Kales, Stefanos N

    2014-11-18

    To assess the association between risk of sudden cardiac death and stressful law enforcement duties compared with routine/non-emergency duties. Case distribution study (case series with survey information on referent exposures). United States law enforcement. Summaries of deaths of over 4500 US police officers provided by the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund and the Officer Down Memorial Page from 1984 to 2010. Observed and expected sudden cardiac death counts and relative risks for sudden cardiac death events during specific strenuous duties versus routine/non-emergency activities. Independent estimates of the proportion of time that police officers spend across various law enforcement duties obtained from surveys of police chiefs and front line officers. Impact of varying exposure assessments, covariates, and missing cases in sensitivity and stability analyses. 441 sudden cardiac deaths were observed during the study period. Sudden cardiac death was associated with restraints/altercations (25%, n=108), physical training (20%, n=88), pursuits of suspects (12%, n=53), medical/rescue operations (8%, n=34), routine duties (23%, n=101), and other activities (11%, n=57). Compared with routine/non-emergency activities, the risk of sudden cardiac death was 34-69 times higher during restraints/altercations, 32-51 times higher during pursuits, 20-23 times higher during physical training, and 6-9 times higher during medical/rescue operations. Results were robust to all sensitivity and stability analyses. Stressful law enforcement duties are associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death that is markedly higher than the risk during routine/non-emergency duties. Restraints/altercations and pursuits are associated with the greatest risk. Our findings have public health implications and suggest that primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention efforts are needed among law enforcement officers. © Varvarigou et al 2014.

  20. A policy perspective on elder justice through APS and law enforcement collaboration.

    PubMed

    Dubble, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The policy issues involved in the social problem of elder victimization could fill volumes. Even the policy issues involved in the new concept of elder justice are multi-faceted. Through the lens of a policy analysis perspective, the history, ideologies, politics, social movements, and economics of policies that promote the collaboration between adult protective services and law enforcement are examined. The analysis of state and local policies as well as a promising federal legislative initiative will, hopefully, help policy advocates understand from where the movement toward collaboration between adult protective services and law enforcement has come as well as where it may be headed.

  1. Enforcement of Ohio's Smoke Free Workplace Law through the lens of public health practice.

    PubMed

    Bruckman, David; Allan, Terry; Stefanak, Matthew; Chandran Pillai, Aiswarya; Drabousky, Aylin S; Borawski, Elaine A; Frank, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about whether public health (PH) enforcement of Ohio's 2007 Smoke Free Workplace Law (SFWPL) is associated with department (agency) characteristics, practice, or state reimbursement to local PH agencies for enforcement. We used mixed methods to determine practice patterns, perceptions, and opinions among the PH workforce involved in enforcement to identify agency and workforce associations. Focus groups and phone interviews (n=13) provided comments and identified issues in developing an online survey targeting PH workers through e-mail recruitment (433 addresses). A total of 171 PH workers responded to the survey. Of Ohio's 88 counties, 81 (43% rural and 57% urban) were represented. More urban than rural agencies agreed that SFWPL enforcement was worth the effort and cost (80% vs. 61%, p=0.021). The State Attorney General's collection of large outstanding fines was perceived as unreliable. An estimated 77% of agencies lose money on enforcement annually; 18% broke even, 56% attributed a financial loss to uncollected fines, and 63% occasionally or never fully recovered fines. About half of agency leaders (49%) felt that state reimbursements were inadequate to cover inspection costs. Rural agencies (59%) indicated they would be more likely than urban agencies (40%) to drop enforcement if reimbursements ended (p=0.0070). Prioritization of SFWPL vs. routine code enforcement differed between rural and urban agencies. These findings demonstrate the importance of increasing state health department financial support of local enforcement activities and improving collection of fines for noncompliance. Otherwise, many PH agencies, especially rural ones, will opt out, thereby increasing the state's burden to enforce SFWPL and challenging widespread public support for the law.

  2. Enforcement of Ohio's Smoke Free Workplace Law Through the Lens of Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Terry; Stefanak, Matthew; Chandran Pillai, Aiswarya; Drabousky, Aylin S.; Borawski, Elaine A.; Frank, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about whether public health (PH) enforcement of Ohio's 2007 Smoke Free Workplace Law (SFWPL) is associated with department (agency) characteristics, practice, or state reimbursement to local PH agencies for enforcement. We used mixed methods to determine practice patterns, perceptions, and opinions among the PH workforce involved in enforcement to identify agency and workforce associations. Methods Focus groups and phone interviews (n=13) provided comments and identified issues in developing an online survey targeting PH workers through e-mail recruitment (433 addresses). Results A total of 171 PH workers responded to the survey. Of Ohio's 88 counties, 81 (43% rural and 57% urban) were represented. More urban than rural agencies agreed that SFWPL enforcement was worth the effort and cost (80% vs. 61%, p=0.021). The State Attorney General's collection of large outstanding fines was perceived as unreliable. An estimated 77% of agencies lose money on enforcement annually; 18% broke even, 56% attributed a financial loss to uncollected fines, and 63% occasionally or never fully recovered fines. About half of agency leaders (49%) felt that state reimbursements were inadequate to cover inspection costs. Rural agencies (59%) indicated they would be more likely than urban agencies (40%) to drop enforcement if reimbursements ended (p=0.0070). Prioritization of SFWPL vs. routine code enforcement differed between rural and urban agencies. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the importance of increasing state health department financial support of local enforcement activities and improving collection of fines for noncompliance. Otherwise, many PH agencies, especially rural ones, will opt out, thereby increasing the state's burden to enforce SFWPL and challenging widespread public support for the law. PMID:23277660

  3. Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act Improvements Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Forbes, J. Randy [R-VA-4

    2009-10-07

    10/19/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.1132, which became Public Law 111-272 on 10/12/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act Improvements Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Forbes, J. Randy [R-VA-4

    2009-10-07

    House - 10/19/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.1132, which became Public Law 111-272 on 10/12/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act Improvements Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Forbes, J. Randy [R-VA-4

    2009-10-07

    10/19/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.1132, which became Public Law 111-272 on 10/12/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. A Conceptual Statement on the Enforcement of Child Day Care Licensing Standards: With Special Reference to Revocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Class, Norris E.; And Others

    This statement of the enforcement of child day care licensing standards identifies basic concepts of the enforcement process and operational procedures necessary to bring about this process. Two types of enforcement operations, negative and positive enforcement of standards, are identified and examined in detail. Positive enforcement is defined as…

  7. Promoting the Moral and Conceptual Development of Law Enforcement Trainees: A Deliberate Psychological Educational Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Barbara; Morgan, Franklyn; Foster, Victoria; Kolbert, Jered

    2000-01-01

    Describes a pilot program designed to incorporate a deliberate psychological educational framework into the training of law enforcement officers and criminal justice students. Finds that participants in the deliberate psychological education intervention achieved significant gains when compared to a control group of participants receiving ethics…

  8. Crash Injury Management for Traffic Law Enforcement Officers; Emergency Medical Services; Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleven, Arlene M.

    The course guide has been prepared to aid in planning and conducting a training program in emergency medical care for first responders to traffic accidents (expected to be patrolling law enforcement officers). This document contains a detailed description of the training program; suggestions for course planning including class size, scheduling…

  9. Government Expectations and the Role of Law Enforcement in a Biological Incident

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    disease-related events, especially without prophylactic medicines, such as Cipro for Anthrax. The workforce of many law enforcement agencies will be...position came from a real situation (the Anthrax attacks involving the different use of the drugs Cipro or Doxycycline). One of the officers expressed

  10. Effects of Virtual Reality on the Cognitive Memory and Handgun Accuracy Development of Law Enforcement Neophytes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of virtual reality training on the development of cognitive memory and handgun accuracy by law enforcement neophytes. One hundred and six academy students from 6 different academy classes were divided into two groups, experimental and control. The experimental group was exposed to virtual…

  11. Forest Service National Forest System perceptions of law enforcement and investigations: nationwide study

    Treesearch

    Deborah J. Chavez; Joanne F. Tynon

    2008-01-01

    This is the fifth in a series of studies to evaluate perceptions of the roles, responsibilities, and issues entailed in the jobs of U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service law enforcement and investigations (LEI) personnel. An e-mail survey was administered to the 537 Forest Service forest supervisors and district rangers (National Forest System [NFS] line...

  12. 20 CFR 402.105 - Exemption seven for withholding records: Law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption seven for withholding records: Law enforcement. 402.105 Section 402.105 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF... investigation, that person is likely to be vulnerable to innuendo, rumor, harassment, and retaliation. (d...

  13. 20 CFR 402.105 - Exemption seven for withholding records: Law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption seven for withholding records: Law enforcement. 402.105 Section 402.105 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF... investigation, that person is likely to be vulnerable to innuendo, rumor, harassment, and retaliation. (d...

  14. Integration of Environmental Education and Environmental Law Enforcement for Police Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovornkijprasert, Sravoot; Rawang, Wee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to establish an integrated model of environmental education (EE) and environmental law enforcement (ELE) to improve the efficiency of functional competency for police officers in Bangkok Metropolitan Police Division 9 (MBP Div. 9). The research design was mixed methods of quantitative and qualitative approaches…

  15. Fatal Injuries of Law Enforcement/Correctional Officers Attacked with Sharp-Edged Weapons().

    PubMed

    Chenpanas, Patsy; Bir, Cynthia

    2017-05-01

    According to the National Law Enforcement Memorial Fund, there were 117 law enforcement fatalities in the United States in 2015. Assaults with sharp-edged weapons have resulted in a total of over 400 fatalities in the United States. The goal of the current research was to examine sharp-edged weapon assaults against law enforcement and correctional agents that resulted in a fatal outcome. A total of twelve autopsy reports were reviewed from across the United States. Four cases involved law enforcement officers, seven involved correctional officers, and one was an off-duty border officer. The male-to-female ratio was 11:1. A total of 70.2% of the wounds analyzed were stab wounds (n = 85), and 29.8% of the wounds were slash wounds (n = 36). Based on this review, the neck, shoulder, and chest regions were the most vulnerable to single fatal stab/slash wounds. Multiple stab/slash wounds often resulted in exsanguination. The use of body armor was only noted in one case. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Crime in woods: role of law enforcement officers in national forests

    Treesearch

    Joanne F. Tynon; Deborah J. Chavez; Joshua W. R. Baur

    2010-01-01

    This first nationwide study of US Forest Service (USFS) law enforcement officers (LEOs) examined respondents’ roles in the USFS, what they perceived as their highest work priority, and what their relationship with the rest of the USFS should be. Results show that LEOs believe they have a high priority for protecting forest users and they believe that National Forest...

  17. Research in Brief: Motor Vehicle Safety for Law Enforcement Officers–Still a Priority

    PubMed Central

    Tiesman, Hope M.; Heick, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The IACP Research Advisory Committee is proud to offer the monthly Research in Brief column. This column features evidence-based research summaries that highlight actionable recommendations for Police Chief magazine readers to consider within their own agencies. The goal of the column is to feature research that is innovative, credible, and relevant to a diverse law enforcement audience. PMID:26705371

  18. The National Manpower Survey of the Criminal Justice System. Volume Two: Law Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Planning Association, Washington, DC.

    Focusing on law enforcement personnel at the city, county, and state levels (including police, sheriffs, and highway patrol agencies), this document is one in a series of six volumes reporting the results of the National Manpower Survey (NMS) of the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 1 of six chapters summarizes the major results of a national…

  19. Adult Educators' Perceptions of Their Organization Promoting Learning Practices and Culture: A Caribbean Law Enforcement Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne; Closson, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations, whether private or public, invest extensively in training and development. Such investment in training and development does not guarantee that the organization is perceived as a learning organization. This study examined law enforcement adult educators' (training facilitators') perceptions of their organization promoting…

  20. Opening ceremonies of the 2000 Law Enforcement Games held at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During opening ceremonies of the 2000 International Law Enforcement Games, astronaut Sam Durrance addresses an audience of 1,850 participants and their families. Held in the KSC Visitor Complex Rocket Garden, the ceremony included parades, torch lighting and a tug of war. The games feature officers from 15 countries and 37 United States in competitions around Brevard County, Fla.

  1. 27 CFR 478.134 - Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers. 478.134 Section 478.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND...

  2. 27 CFR 478.134 - Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers. 478.134 Section 478.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND...

  3. 27 CFR 478.134 - Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers. 478.134 Section 478.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND...

  4. 27 CFR 478.134 - Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers. 478.134 Section 478.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND...

  5. 27 CFR 478.134 - Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers. 478.134 Section 478.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND...

  6. Learning Styles of Law Enforcement Officers: Does Police Work Affect How Officers Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study utilized the VARK learning style preference assessment instrument to examine how full-time sworn law enforcement officers learn and attempted to identify a predominant learning style preference among the participants. The primary question was: Which is the dominant learning style preference of full-time sworn law…

  7. State and Local Law Enforcement Training Needs in the United States. Volume II: Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.

    In response to a request by the United States Department of Justice, the Institutional Research and Development Unit, Training Division, of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, undertook a long-term comprehensive analysis of state and local law enforcement training needs throughout the United States. A study was developed to: (1) determine the…

  8. State and Local Law Enforcement Training Needs in the United States. Volume I: Executive Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.

    In response to a request by the United States Department of Justice, the Institutional Research and Development Unit, Training Division, of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, undertook a long-term comprehensive analysis of state and local law enforcement training needs throughout the United States. A study was developed to: (1) determine the…

  9. 43 CFR 422.9 - Reclamation law enforcement contracts and cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... authority listed in § 422.10; (5) Must expressly state that the officer has completed the Federal Bureau of... cooperative agreements. 422.9 Section 422.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF...

  10. 43 CFR 422.9 - Reclamation law enforcement contracts and cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... authority listed in § 422.10; (5) Must expressly state that the officer has completed the Federal Bureau of... cooperative agreements. 422.9 Section 422.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF...

  11. 43 CFR 422.9 - Reclamation law enforcement contracts and cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... authority listed in § 422.10; (5) Must expressly state that the officer has completed the Federal Bureau of... cooperative agreements. 422.9 Section 422.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF...

  12. 43 CFR 422.9 - Reclamation law enforcement contracts and cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... authority listed in § 422.10; (5) Must expressly state that the officer has completed the Federal Bureau of... cooperative agreements. 422.9 Section 422.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF...

  13. 12 CFR 503.2 - Exemptions of records containing investigatory material compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY ACT § 503.2 Exemptions of records containing investigatory... supervision of savings associations. This system will be exempt from certain provisions of the Privacy Act of... with enforcing criminal or civil laws. (d) Documents exempted. Exemptions will be applied only...

  14. 12 CFR 503.2 - Exemptions of records containing investigatory material compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY ACT § 503.2 Exemptions of records containing investigatory... supervision of savings associations. This system will be exempt from certain provisions of the Privacy Act of... with enforcing criminal or civil laws. (d) Documents exempted. Exemptions will be applied only...

  15. 31 CFR Appendix K to Subpart A of... - Federal Law Enforcement Training Center

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, Glynco, GA 31524. 3. Requests for records. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(h) as to whether to grant requests for records will be made by the Chief, Management... Center, Department of the Treasury, Building 94, Glynco, GA 31524. Requests may be delivered...

  16. Campus Law Enforcement, 2004-05. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. NCJ 219374

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reaves, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    This publication reports on the first survey of campus law enforcement agencies conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics since 1994-1995. The report presents data covering the 2004-2005 school year. Agencies serving 4-year U.S. universities and colleges with a fall 2004 enrollment of 2,500 or more, and those serving 2-year public colleges…

  17. The Effectiveness of Individual Wellness Counseling on the Wellness of Law Enforcement Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanigoshi, Holly; Kontos, Anthony P.; Remley, Theodore P.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine the effectiveness of wellness counseling on increasing wellness among law enforcement officers. The study also examined whether position in the Transtheoretical Model (J. O. Prochaska & C. C. DiClemente, 1982) and self-efficacy influenced the effectiveness of counseling on wellness. These…

  18. The Use of Classroom Discussion at a Law Enforcement Training Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to solve problems, think critically, and communicate effectively are necessary traits in law enforcement officers (LEOs). Individuals responsible for instructing LEOs must employ adult learning strategies to provide LEOs the opportunity to share ideas, experiences, beliefs, and knowledge. Discussion is one learning strategy that…

  19. Nurse Home Visitors' Perceptions of Mandatory Reporting of Intimate Partner Violence to Law Enforcement Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidov, Danielle M.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Jack, Susan M.; Coben, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, there is an ongoing debate about requiring health care professionals to report intimate partner violence (IPV) to law enforcement agencies. A comprehensive examination of the perspectives of those required to report abuse is critical, as their roles as mandated reporters often pose legal, practical, moral, and ethical…

  20. A Quantitative Examination Whether Education Mitigates Stress Levels among Law Enforcement Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metts, Gary A.

    2012-01-01

    Stress is damaging if it is continual, overwhelming. and prolonged. Law enforcement officers face stressful events daily. A relationship exists between stress levels and the physical and psychological effects to the human body. Although there is a general understanding of the damage stress can do physically and psychologically, many elements that…

  1. The Art of Perception: Museums Breaking Ground in Law Enforcement Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The Art of Perception is a professional development program that uses the analysis of works of art to help participants re-examine their responsibilities in various agencies of law enforcement, refresh their sense of inquiry, and reinvigorate the language they use to communicate on the job. "The Art of Perception: Museums Breaking Ground in Law…

  2. Learning Styles of Law Enforcement Officers: Does Police Work Affect How Officers Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study utilized the VARK learning style preference assessment instrument to examine how full-time sworn law enforcement officers learn and attempted to identify a predominant learning style preference among the participants. The primary question was: Which is the dominant learning style preference of full-time sworn law…

  3. Magnetic Field Interactions of Military and Law Enforcement Bullets at 1.5 and 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Idris; Auffret, Mathieu; Attar, Lakdar; Bouvard, Elise; Rousset, Jean; Ben Salem, Douraied

    2016-07-01

    There are significant numbers of military and law enforcement bullets containing ferromagnetic materials. This study aimed to assess the magnetic field interactions for a representative sample of military and law enforcement ballistic objects at 1.5 and 3 tesla (T) to create a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibility database. Twenty-nine different bullets underwent MRI evaluation. The deflection angle method and a qualitative torque scale were used. The samples were representative of those commonly used in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) military forces (e.g., 5.56 mm NATO), law enforcement agencies (e.g., 9 mm Parabellum), and encountered in war injuries and crime-related trauma (e.g., 7.62 mm Kalashnikov). At all static magnetic field strengths, all non-nickel- and nonsteel-containing bullets exhibited no movement (deflection angle = 0°; torque = 0), whereas eight bullets containing steel core, steel jacket, or nickel jacket exhibited substantial magnetic field interactions over and above what might be regarded as safe in vivo (deflection angle = 90°; torque = 4+). Military and law enforcement non-nickel- or nonsteel-containing bullets appear to be safe for patients in MRI system at 1.5 and 3 T. On the other hand, nickel- and steel-containing bullets exhibit movements that are considered potentially unsafe for patients in an MRI environment. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Adult Educators' Perceptions of Their Organization Promoting Learning Practices and Culture: A Caribbean Law Enforcement Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne; Closson, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations, whether private or public, invest extensively in training and development. Such investment in training and development does not guarantee that the organization is perceived as a learning organization. This study examined law enforcement adult educators' (training facilitators') perceptions of their organization promoting…

  5. Warrior Spirit: Soul Wound and Coping among American Indians in Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Leah M. Rouse; Davis, Amileah R.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory study examined the role vocation played for American Indian non-Tribal law enforcement officers in adaptively coping with historical trauma, or "Soul Wound." Participants' views of career in relationship to its perceived congruence with their Nations' warrior societies and how this vocation may facilitate or constrain…

  6. Effective Response to School Violence: A Guide for Educators and Law Enforcement Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tony L.

    This guide is designed to meet the security response needs of educators and law-enforcement personnel by detailing how an effective response plan can be developed to deal with school violence. By implementing the guidelines detailed in this book, those in responsible positions can help prevent the incalculable costs of death and chaos these acts…

  7. Effects of Virtual Reality on the Cognitive Memory and Handgun Accuracy Development of Law Enforcement Neophytes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of virtual reality training on the development of cognitive memory and handgun accuracy by law enforcement neophytes. One hundred and six academy students from 6 different academy classes were divided into two groups, experimental and control. The experimental group was exposed to virtual…

  8. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers. 1544.221 Section 1544.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  9. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers. 1544.221 Section 1544.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  10. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers. 1544.221 Section 1544.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  11. Can’t We All Just Get Along? Improving the Law Enforcement-Intelligence Community Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Anacapa Sciences of Santa Barbara , California.5 Federal, state, and local law enforcement analysts took its courses; only in the past decade or two...Montgomery C. “Unorthodox Thoughts About Asymmetric Warfare.” Parameters 33, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 4-18. McClintock , Bruce H., Major, USAF. “Transformation

  12. Effective Response to School Violence: A Guide for Educators and Law Enforcement Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tony L.

    This guide is designed to meet the security response needs of educators and law-enforcement personnel by detailing how an effective response plan can be developed to deal with school violence. By implementing the guidelines detailed in this book, those in responsible positions can help prevent the incalculable costs of death and chaos these acts…

  13. A Quantitative Examination Whether Education Mitigates Stress Levels among Law Enforcement Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metts, Gary A.

    2012-01-01

    Stress is damaging if it is continual, overwhelming. and prolonged. Law enforcement officers face stressful events daily. A relationship exists between stress levels and the physical and psychological effects to the human body. Although there is a general understanding of the damage stress can do physically and psychologically, many elements that…

  14. The Spies We Trust: Third Party Service Providers and Law Enforcement Surveillance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soghoian, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Telecommunications carriers and service providers now play an essential role in facilitating modern surveillance by law enforcement agencies. The police merely select the individuals to be monitored, while the actual surveillance is performed by third parties: often the same email providers, search engines and telephone companies to whom consumers…

  15. The National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice: Annual Report FY 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Blair G.

    This fourth annual report of the National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice summarizes its programs and funding for research, evaluation, and research utilization for fiscal year 1977. Chapter 1 describes research agreements with various organizations to study the subjects of the habitual offender, white-collar crime, the economics…

  16. National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice. Program Plan. Fiscal Year, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    This program plan is offered as a guide to potential grantees and contractors. It outlines the National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice's priorities for research in fiscal year (FY) 1978 and beyond and spells out other Institute programs and projects to be carried out during the fiscal year. The guide is offered as a first step…

  17. The Spies We Trust: Third Party Service Providers and Law Enforcement Surveillance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soghoian, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Telecommunications carriers and service providers now play an essential role in facilitating modern surveillance by law enforcement agencies. The police merely select the individuals to be monitored, while the actual surveillance is performed by third parties: often the same email providers, search engines and telephone companies to whom consumers…

  18. Comparing Child Protective Investigation Performance between Law Enforcement Agencies and Child Welfare Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Neil; Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Gustafson, Mara; Armstrong, Mary; McNeish, Roxann; Vargo, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the comparative effectiveness of using law enforcement agencies for child protective investigation (CPI), in contrast with the traditional approach of CPI conducted by the public child welfare agency. The analysis uses 2006-2007 data from a natural experiment conducted in Florida to show modest differences in performance and…

  19. The Effectiveness of Individual Wellness Counseling on the Wellness of Law Enforcement Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanigoshi, Holly; Kontos, Anthony P.; Remley, Theodore P.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine the effectiveness of wellness counseling on increasing wellness among law enforcement officers. The study also examined whether position in the Transtheoretical Model (J. O. Prochaska & C. C. DiClemente, 1982) and self-efficacy influenced the effectiveness of counseling on wellness. These…

  20. The relationship between the forensic nurse in the emergency department and law enforcement officials.

    PubMed

    Pasqualone, Georgia A

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the need for a collaborative relationship between the advanced practice forensic nurse in the emergency department and critical care settings with law enforcement officials. The relationship is necessary when working with victims and/or perpetrators in the context of the 27 categories of forensic patients.