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Sample records for laws of physics

  1. Notions of Physical Laws in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Pfuhl Rodrigues, Dulce Madalena Autran

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an experiment investigating children's awareness of regularities in physical phenomena and their capacity for expressing these regularities. Hypothesized and confirmed is that children can use statements with the form and purpose of a physical law. Cartoons related to Archimedes' principle (and connected gravitation and fluid…

  2. Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feynman, Richard P.; Weinberg, Steven

    1987-11-01

    Developing a theory that seamlessly combines relativity and quantum mechanics, the most important conceptual breakthroughs in twentieth century physics, has proved to be a difficult and ongoing challenge. This book details how two distinguished physicists and Nobel laureates have explored this theme in two lectures given in Cambridge, England, in 1986 to commemorate the famous British physicist Paul Dirac. Given for nonspecialists and undergraduates, the talks transcribed in Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics focus on the fundamental problems of physics and the present state of our knowledge. Professor Feynman examines the nature of antiparticles, and in particular the relationship between quantum spin and statistics. Professor Weinberg speculates on how Einstein's theory of gravitation might be reconciled with quantum theory in the final law of physics. Highly accessible, deeply thought provoking, this book will appeal to all those interested in the development of modern physics.

  3. Laws of physics and the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashov, Yuri

    Are the laws of nature real? Do they belong to the world or merely reflect the way we speak about it? And if they are real, what sort of entity are they? In this paper, I argue that questions of this sort have played a significant role in the history of twentieth-century cosmology. They were, in particular, critically involved in the battle between the big bang and steady-state theories in 1948-65. As is well known, the steady-state cosmological model lost this battle. But a concern of the proponents of that model about the status of physical laws in a changing universe has survived the model itself. To set a case study in the steady-state theory in a relevant context, let me first indicate what sort of implications the cosmological perspective on laws may have in contemporary evolutionary cosmology.

  4. Quantum physics explains Newton's laws of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogborn, Jon; Taylor, Edwin F.

    2005-01-01

    Newton was obliged to give his laws of motion as fundamental axioms. But today we know that the quantum world is fundamental, and Newton’s laws can be seen as consequences of fundamental quantum laws. This article traces this transition from fundamental quantum mechanics to derived classical mechanics.

  5. Correlates of State Enactment of Elementary School Physical Education Laws

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A.F.; Smith, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe variation in U.S. state elementary school physical education (PE) policies and to assess associations between state PE policy enactment and education funding, academic achievement, sociodemographic disadvantage, and political characteristics. Methods U.S. state laws regarding school PE time, staffing, curriculum, fitness assessment, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in 2012 were classified as strong/specific, weak/nonspecific, or none based on codified law ratings within the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (C.L.A.S.S.). Laws were merged with state-level data from multiple sources. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between state characteristics and PE laws (N=51). Results Laws with specific PE and MVPA time requirements and evidence-based curriculum standards were more likely in states with low academic performance and in states with sociodemographically disadvantaged populations. School day length was positively associated with enacting a PE curriculum that referenced evidence-based standards. School funding and political characteristics were not associated with PE laws. Conclusions Limited time and high-stakes testing requirements force schools to prioritize academic programs, posing barriers to state passage of specific PE laws. To facilitate PE policy enactment, it may be necessary to provide evidence of how PE policies can be implemented within existing time and staffing structures. PMID:25230368

  6. Clock ambiguity and the emergence of physical laws

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Andreas; Iglesias, Alberto

    2008-03-15

    The process of identifying a time variable in time-reparameterization invariant theories results in great ambiguities about the actual laws of physics described by a given theory. A theory set up to describe one set of physical laws can equally well be interpreted as describing any other laws of physics by making a different choice of time variable or clock. In this article we demonstrate how this 'clock ambiguity' arises and then discuss how one might still hope to extract specific predictions about the laws of physics even when the clock ambiguity is present. We argue that a requirement of quasiseparability should play a critical role in such an analysis. As a step in this direction, we compare the Hamiltonian of a local quantum field theory with a completely random Hamiltonian. We find that any random Hamiltonian (constructed in a sufficiently large space) can yield a 'good enough' approximation to a local field theory. Based on this result we argue that theories that suffer from the clock ambiguity may in the end provide a viable fundamental framework for physics in which locality can be seen as a strongly favored (or predicted) emergent behavior. We also speculate on how other key aspects of known physics such as gauge symmetries and Poincare invariance might be predicted to emerge in this framework.

  7. Physical Laws for Mechanobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    2007-01-01

    Higher-level physical laws applicable to biological tissues are presented that will permit the modeling of metabolic activity at the cellular level, including variations in the mass of a tissue. Here the tissue is represented as a fluid/solid mixture, wherein molecular solutes transport within the fluid, and cells can migrate throughout the porous solid. Variations in mass can arise via exchanges in mass between the constituent phases within a control volume such that mass is conserved in the tissue overall. The governing balance laws for mass, momentum, energy, and entropy are a special case of those describing a chemically reacting mixture with diffusion. Thermodynamic constraints on the constitutive structure are addressed. Biophysics; Biomechanics; Brownian motion; Cell migration; Mixture theory; Thermodynamic laws; Tissue mechanics

  8. Information Networks Secured by the Laws of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Peper, Ferdinand

    In this paper, we survey the state of the art of the secure key exchange method that is secured by the laws of classical statistical physics, and involves the Kirchhoff's law and the generalized Johnson noise equation, too. We discuss the major characteristics and advantages of these schemes especially in comparison with quantum encryption, and analyze some of the technical challenges of its implementation, too. Finally, we outline some ideas about how to use already existing and currently used wire lines, such as power lines, phone lines, internet lines to implement unconditionally secure information networks.

  9. A Law of Physics in the Classroom: The Case of Ohm's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties in learning Ohm's Law suggest a need to refocus it from the law for a part of the circuit to the law for the whole circuit. Such a revision may improve understanding of Ohm's Law and its practical applications. This suggestion comes from an analysis of the history of the law's discovery and its teaching. The historical materials this…

  10. Physical consequences of action conservation laws and their applications.

    PubMed

    Vujanović, B D; Baclić, B S; Strauss, A M

    2008-11-01

    A class of conservation laws containing Hamilton's action integral is introduced for Lagrangian dynamical systems with a single degree of freedom and for the case when the Lagrangian function depends on the second time derivative of the coordinate. The action conservation laws are derived from the invariant properties of the Lagrange-D'Alembert differential variational principle with respect to infinitesimal transformations of the generalized coordinate and time by supposing that the generators of infinitesimal transformations depend on time, a generalized coordinate, and its first and second derivatives with respect to time. These action integral conservation laws are applied to the stability of columns, heat transfer, Thomas-Fermi problems, and other physical phenomena. A direct method for the approximate solution of these problems is combined with the Ritz variational method in order to obtain results of high accuracy.

  11. Principles of physics in surgery: the laws of flow dynamics physics for surgeons - Part 1.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anurag; Sood, Akshay; Joy, S Parijat; Woodcock, John

    2009-08-01

    In the field of medicine and surgery many principles of physics find numerous applications. In this article we have summarized some prominent applications of the laws of fluid mechanics and hydrodynamics in surgery. Poiseuille's law sets the limits of isovolaemic haemodilution, enumerates limiting factors during fluid resuscitation and is a guiding principle in surgery for vascular stenoses. The equation of continuity finds use in non-invasive measurement of blood flow. Bernoulli's theorem explains the formation of post-stenotic dilatation. Reynolds number explains the origin of murmurs, haemolysis and airflow disturbances. Various forms of oxygen therapy are a direct application of the gas laws. Doppler effect is used in ultrasonography to find the direction and velocity of blood flow. In this first part of a series of articles we describe some applications of the laws of hydrodynamics governing the flow of blood and other body fluids.

  12. The Physical Origin of Galaxy Morphologies and Scaling Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinmetz, Matthias; Navarro, Julio F.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a numerical study designed to interpret the origin and evolution of galaxy properties revealed by space- and ground-based imaging and spectroscopical surveys. Our aim is to unravel the physical processes responsible for the development of different galaxy morphologies and for the establishment of scaling laws such as the Tully-Fisher relation for spirals and the Fundamental Plane of ellipticals. In particular, we plan to address the following major topics: (1) The morphology and observability of protogalaxies, and in particular the relationship between primordial galaxies and the z approximately 3 'Ly-break' systems identified in the Hubble Deep Field and in ground-based searches; (2) The origin of the disk and spheroidal components in galaxies, the timing and mode of their assembly, the corresponding evolution in galaxy morphologies and its sensitivity to cosmological parameters; (3) The origin and redshift evolution of the scaling laws that link the mass, luminosity size, stellar content, and metal abundances of galaxies of different morphological types. This investigation will use state-of-the-art N-body/gasdynamical codes to provide a spatially resolved description of the galaxy formation process in hierarchically clustering universes. Coupled with population synthesis techniques. our models can be used to provide synthetic 'observations' that can be compared directly with observations of galaxies both nearby and at cosmologically significant distances. This study will thus provide insight into the nature of protogalaxies and into the formation process of galaxies like our own Milky Way. It will also help us to assess the cosmological significance of these observations within the context of hierarchical theories of galaxy formation and will supply a theoretical context within which current and future observations can be interpreted.

  13. Autonomous learning derived from experimental modeling of physical laws.

    PubMed

    Grabec, Igor

    2013-05-01

    This article deals with experimental description of physical laws by probability density function of measured data. The Gaussian mixture model specified by representative data and related probabilities is utilized for this purpose. The information cost function of the model is described in terms of information entropy by the sum of the estimation error and redundancy. A new method is proposed for searching the minimum of the cost function. The number of the resulting prototype data depends on the accuracy of measurement. Their adaptation resembles a self-organized, highly non-linear cooperation between neurons in an artificial NN. A prototype datum corresponds to the memorized content, while the related probability corresponds to the excitability of the neuron. The method does not include any free parameters except objectively determined accuracy of the measurement system and is therefore convenient for autonomous execution. Since representative data are generally less numerous than the measured ones, the method is applicable for a rather general and objective compression of overwhelming experimental data in automatic data-acquisition systems. Such compression is demonstrated on analytically determined random noise and measured traffic flow data. The flow over a day is described by a vector of 24 components. The set of 365 vectors measured over one year is compressed by autonomous learning to just 4 representative vectors and related probabilities. These vectors represent the flow in normal working days and weekends or holidays, while the related probabilities correspond to relative frequencies of these days. This example reveals that autonomous learning yields a new basis for interpretation of representative data and the optimal model structure.

  14. Teaching the Delightful Laws of Physics in a Survey Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    How physics can be made interesting is a question that needs no answer. That's because physics is interesting! It's a field of study jam-packed with fascination and wonder. The general public has an enormous thirst for physics knowledge, as indicated by the great numbers who purchase science magazines and books and watch "NOVA" and other…

  15. The Impact of Higher Education Law on Physical Plant Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, John M.

    This paper reviews the basic legal relationships and duties that affect higher education facility management with special emphasis on the relationships with students, faculty, and staff in both public and private colleges and universities. An introduction briefly reviews the development of higher education law beginning with a landmark case in…

  16. Teaching the Delightful Laws of Physics in a Survey Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2015-10-01

    How physics can be made interesting is a question that needs no answer. That's because physics is interesting! It's a field of study jam-packed with fascination and wonder. The general public has an enormous thirst for physics knowledge, as indicated by the great numbers who purchase science magazines and books and watch NOVA and other science specials. A related question, how to make a physics course interesting, is something that we can answer. All we have to do is present physics at a proper pace in the language of the learner. My adage has always been that if the first course in physics is delightful, the rigor of a follow-up course will be welcomed.

  17. Black rings and the physical process version of the first law of thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rogatko, Marek

    2005-10-01

    We consider the problem of the physical process version of the first law of black ring thermodynamics in n-dimensional Einstein gravity with additional (p+1)-form field strength and dilaton fields. The first order variations of mass, angular momentum and local charge for black ring are derived. From them we prove the physical process version of the first law of thermodynamic for stationary black rings.

  18. Law for the Welfare of Physically Disabled Persons, 1949 (The Latest Amendment Was in 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japanese Society for Rehabilitation of the Disabled, Tokyo.

    This document presents the text of the 1949 Japanese Law for the Welfare of Physically Disabled Persons and brief extracts of later amendments. Sections in Chapter 1 cover definitions, the Advisory Council on Welfare of Physically Disabled Persons, and service providers. Chapter II covers welfare measures such as the physically disabled person's…

  19. The emergence of time's arrows and special science laws from physics

    PubMed Central

    Loewer, Barry

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I will argue that there is an important connection between two questions concerning how certain features of the macro world emerge from the laws and processes of fundamental microphysics and suggest an approach to answering these questions. The approach involves a kind of emergence but quite different from ‘top-down’ emergence discussed at the conference, for which an earlier version of this paper was written. The two questions are (i) How do ‘the arrows of time’ emerge from microphysics? (ii) How do macroscopic special science laws and causation emerge from microphysics? Answering these questions is especially urgent for those, who like myself, think that a certain version of physicalism, which I call ‘micro-physical completeness’ (MC), is true. According to MC, there are fundamental dynamical laws that completely govern (deterministically or probabilistically), the evolution of all micro-physical events and there are no additional ontologically independent dynamical or causal special science laws. In other words, there is no ontologically independent ‘top-down’ causation. Of course, MC does not imply that physicists now or ever will know or propose the complete laws of physics. Or even if the complete laws were known we would know how special science properties and laws reduce to laws and properties of fundamental physics. Rather, MC is a contingent metaphysical claim about the laws of our world. After a discussion of the two questions, I will argue the key to showing how it is possible for the arrows of time and the special science laws to emerge from microphysics and a certain account of how thermodynamics is related to fundamental dynamical laws. PMID:23386956

  20. The emergence of time's arrows and special science laws from physics.

    PubMed

    Loewer, Barry

    2012-02-06

    In this paper, I will argue that there is an important connection between two questions concerning how certain features of the macro world emerge from the laws and processes of fundamental microphysics and suggest an approach to answering these questions. The approach involves a kind of emergence but quite different from 'top-down' emergence discussed at the conference, for which an earlier version of this paper was written. The two questions are (i) How do 'the arrows of time' emerge from microphysics? (ii) How do macroscopic special science laws and causation emerge from microphysics? Answering these questions is especially urgent for those, who like myself, think that a certain version of physicalism, which I call 'micro-physical completeness' (MC), is true. According to MC, there are fundamental dynamical laws that completely govern (deterministically or probabilistically), the evolution of all micro-physical events and there are no additional ontologically independent dynamical or causal special science laws. In other words, there is no ontologically independent 'top-down' causation. Of course, MC does not imply that physicists now or ever will know or propose the complete laws of physics. Or even if the complete laws were known we would know how special science properties and laws reduce to laws and properties of fundamental physics. Rather, MC is a contingent metaphysical claim about the laws of our world. After a discussion of the two questions, I will argue the key to showing how it is possible for the arrows of time and the special science laws to emerge from microphysics and a certain account of how thermodynamics is related to fundamental dynamical laws.

  1. Game simulates destruction according to the laws of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Video-game enthusiasts who are usually disappointed by unrealistic physical effects should be delighted with a new game that claims to take into account the actual mass and density of buildings for the first time.

  2. Constructal law of design and evolution: Physics, biology, technology, and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Adrian; Lorente, Sylvie

    2013-04-01

    This is a review of the theoretical and applied progress made based on the Constructal law of design and evolution in nature, with emphasis on the last decade. The Constructal law is the law of physics that accounts for the natural tendency of all flow systems (animate and inanimate) to change into configurations that offer progressively greater flow access over time. The progress made with the Constructal law covers the broadest range of science, from heat and fluid flow and geophysics, to animal design, technology evolution, and social organization (economics, government). This review presents the state of this fast growing field, and draws attention to newly opened directions for original research. The Constructal law places the concepts of life, design, and evolution in physics.

  3. What is a Physical Law?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Marc

    2008-10-01

    Laws of nature are distinguished from logical and mathematical truths, on the one hand, and from ``accidental facts'' (such as that every atom in some particular spatiotemporal region is lead), on the other hand. What is it for some fact to be a law? Roughly speaking, laws, unlike accidents, would still have held no matter what -- even if other things had been different. For instance, if Earth's axis had been tipped differently, then various accidental features of Earth's seasons would have been different, but the laws of nature would have been no different. However, this way of drawing the distinction between laws and accidents threatens to appeal to the very distinction that it is supposed to illuminate: some fact p is a law if and only if for any hypothetical state of affairs q that is logically consistent with the laws, p would still have held had q been the case. (The risk of circularity arises from the requirement that q be logically consistent with the laws.) In this talk, I will explain how to avoid referring to lawhood on the right side of this ``if and only if.'' The resulting account of the distinction between laws and accidents nicely explains the sense in which things ``cannot'' break the laws.

  4. Careers in Patent Law for Physics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    An important question that many undergraduate physics students ask is, "What can one do with a physics degree?" Of course there are many answers to this question. Often a general reference to becoming a lawyer is given as a possible answer. This paper is intended to explain the field of patent law and how a physics degree can lead to an…

  5. Applications of the First Law to Ecological Systems. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This report describes concepts presented in another module called "The First Law of…

  6. Risk relativism and physical law.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In two 1959 papers, one coauthored, Jerome Cornfield asserts that 'relative' measures are more useful for causal inference while 'absolute' measures are more useful for public health purposes. In one of these papers (the single-authored one), he asks how epidemiology should respond to the fact that its domain is not a highly 'articulated' one-it is not susceptible to being subsumed under general laws. What is the connection between these issues? There has recently been some backlash against 'risk relativism', and Charles Poole has recently dismantled the mathematical argument for the first claim. However the problem with 'Cornfield's Principle' seems to go much deeper. The whole attempt to partition measures into absolute and relative is fundamentally mistaken. Why, then, has it seemed so appealing? Perhaps one reason is the influence that early education in the physical sciences continues to exert on the way epidemiologists think, and their response to the low articulation of their domain of study.

  7. Relativistic Quantum Theory with a Physical State Vector and Hypothetical Laws of Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Bernd A.

    Evolution of a Physical State Vector (PSV) is described as governed by two distinct physical laws: Continuous, unitary time evolution and a relativistically covariant reduction process. Non-local measurements, proposed by Aharanov and Albert, are excluded when the reduction is attributed to measurement devices which are included in the PSV. The existence of a PSV allows to formulate phenomenological laws of reduction. A proposal ismade for which the collapse time is found tobe τc=bh/ΔE, where ΔE is a difference in energy distribution between alternative world branches. Experiments yield the bounds 1.35·1011

  8. Promoting Conceptual Development in Physics Teacher Education: Cognitive-Historical Reconstruction of Electromagnetic Induction Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäntylä, Terhi

    2013-06-01

    In teaching physics, the history of physics offers fruitful starting points for designing instruction. I introduce here an approach that uses historical cognitive processes to enhance the conceptual development of pre-service physics teachers' knowledge. It applies a method called cognitive-historical approach, introduced to the cognitive sciences by Nersessian (Cognitive Models of Science. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp. 3-45, 1992). The approach combines the analyses of actual scientific practices in the history of science with the analytical tools and theories of contemporary cognitive sciences in order to produce knowledge of how conceptual structures are constructed and changed in science. Hence, the cognitive-historical analysis indirectly produces knowledge about the human cognition. Here, a way to use the cognitive-historical approach for didactical purposes is introduced. In this application, the cognitive processes in the history of physics are combined with current physics knowledge in order to create a cognitive-historical reconstruction of a certain quantity or law for the needs of physics teacher education. A principal aim of developing the approach has been that pre-service physics teachers must know how the physical concepts and laws are or can be formed and justified. As a practical example of the developed approach, a cognitive-historical reconstruction of the electromagnetic induction law was produced. For evaluating the uses of the cognitive-historical reconstruction, a teaching sequence for pre-service physics teachers was conducted. The initial and final reports of twenty-four students were analyzed through a qualitative categorization of students' justifications of knowledge. The results show a conceptual development in the students' explanations and justifications of how the electromagnetic induction law can be formed.

  9. An Analysis of Florida Physical Educators' Knowledge of Bicycle Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel P.; Egberts, John B.; Spengler, J. O.; Zhang, James J.; Jin, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Bicycling among youth is a popular activity, but like all modes of travel it is not without risk. Florida has a particularly high rate of bicycle-related fatalities and injuries. To reduce such risks, the Florida Department of Transportation and Florida Department of Education have developed a youth bicycle safety educational program (Florida…

  10. Supergravity and the Unification of the Laws of Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Daniel Z.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Peter

    1978-01-01

    In this new theory the gravitational force arises from a symmetry relating particles with vastly different properties. The ultimate result may be a unified theory of all the basic forces in nature. (Author/BB)

  11. Preschoolers' Magical Explanations for Violations of Physical, Social, and Mental Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Cheryl A.; Woolley, Jacqueline D.

    2004-01-01

    In 2 experiments we explored young preschoolers' knowledge of constraints on human action by presenting them with violations of different types of law and asking whether the violations required magic. In Experiment 1, children responded that physical violations required magic more than did social violations. In Experiment 2, violations were…

  12. Learning, Retention, and Forgetting of Newton's Third Law throughout University Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.; Dymek, Stephanie; Clark, Jessica; Sun, Yifei

    2012-01-01

    We present data from a between-student study on student response to questions on Newton's third law given in two introductory calculus-based physics classes (Mechanics and Electromagnetism) at a large northeastern university. Construction of a response curve reveals subtle dynamics in student learning not capturable by pretesting and post-testing.…

  13. Reasons and Causes: Children's Understanding of Conformity to Social Rules and Physical Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Examined 3- to 5-year olds' justifications for conformity to physical laws and social rules. Found that children's justifications for social rule conformity involved consequences and permission/obligation, and for physical laws involved physical limitations or impossibility. Older preschoolers, but not 3-year olds, appreciated that social…

  14. Careers in Patent Law for Physics Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    2010-11-01

    An important question that many undergraduate physics students ask is, "What can one do with a physics degree?" Of course there are many answers to this question. Often a general reference to becoming a lawyer is given as a possible answer. This paper is intended to explain the field of patent law and how a physics degree can lead to an interesting and potentially lucrative career as a patent examiner, a patent agent, or a patent attorney. This information may be of interest to physics students as well as those who recruit or counsel physics students.

  15. Traditional and evaluative aspects of flexibility in gender roles, social conventions, moral rules, and physical laws.

    PubMed

    Levy, G D; Taylor, M G; Gelman, S A

    1995-04-01

    Traditional and evaluative aspects of flexibility regarding transgressions across several domains (masculine and feminine gender roles, moral rules, social etiquette, and physical law) were assessed in 24 4-year-olds, 40 8-year-olds, and 46 college undergraduates. Traditional and evaluative aspects of flexibility yielded distinctly different patterns of response. Data indicated an age-related increase in flexibility on traditional measures (i.e., traditional rule flexibility, cultural relativity) for transgressions in all domains, except physical laws. In contrast, subjects in all age groups were consistently negative in their evaluations of transgressions in moral rules, etiquette, and masculine gender roles. Female subjects viewed masculine gender role transgressions with greater flexibility and less negativity than did male subjects. Results demonstrate the multidimensional character of flexibility development in different social and physical domains. Results suggest that masculine and feminine gender roles and social etiquette may not fall within a common domain of social convention.

  16. Flight Physics for Beginners: Simple Examples of Applying Newton's Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spathopoulos, Vassilis

    2011-01-01

    Educators are constantly trying to find new ways of motivating their students. In subjects such as mechanics with a strong mathematical component, it is particularly important to devise real-life examples that can increase interest and student excitement. Aircraft flight is a topic that most young people find exciting. It therefore would seem…

  17. From Rational Numbers to Dirac's Bra and Ket: Symbolic Representation of Physical Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Salvo

    2002-05-01

    Beginning at least in the nineteenth century, symbols used by physicists in their equations interacted with their physical concepts. In the 1850s, Wilhelm Eduard Weber introduced a more rational order into symbolization by adopting an absolute system of units, and thus expressing electrodynamic laws in the form of algebraic equations instead of proportionality relationships, the formerly accepted representation of physical laws. In the 1860s, James Clerk Maxwell made a further advance by using dimensional quantities, and more complex symbolic forms such as gradient, convergence, rotor, and the like, in his electromagnetic and kinetic theories. In the twentieth century, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, Erwin Schrödinger, and others introduced new symbols for complex numbers, operators, and matrices, thus passing from the representation of metrical properties of physical systems to higher-level mathematical objects. This process was enhanced in modern theoretical physics through the introduction of matrices, creation and destruction operators, Paul A. M. Dirac's q and c numbers, and so on. In the 1930s, Dirac radicalized this transformation of symbols, being aware of the profound modification in the method and scope of the mathematical-physical relationship it entailed.

  18. The relevance of Newton's laws and selected principles of physics to dance techniques: Theory and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Li

    1999-07-01

    In this study the researcher develops and presents a new model, founded on the laws of physics, for analyzing dance technique. Based on a pilot study of four advanced dance techniques, she creates a new model for diagnosing, analyzing and describing basic, intermediate and advanced dance techniques. The name for this model is ``PED,'' which stands for Physics of Expressive Dance. The research design consists of five phases: (1) Conduct a pilot study to analyze several advanced dance techniques chosen from Chinese dance, modem dance, and ballet; (2) Based on learning obtained from the pilot study, create the PED Model for analyzing dance technique; (3) Apply this model to eight categories of dance technique; (4) Select two advanced dance techniques from each category and analyze these sample techniques to demonstrate how the model works; (5) Develop an evaluation framework and use it to evaluate the effectiveness of the model, taking into account both scientific and artistic aspects of dance training. In this study the researcher presents new solutions to three problems highly relevant to dance education: (1) Dancers attempting to learn difficult movements often fail because they are unaware of physics laws; (2) Even those who do master difficult movements can suffer injury due to incorrect training methods; (3) Even the best dancers can waste time learning by trial and error, without scientific instruction. In addition, the researcher discusses how the application of the PED model can benefit dancers, allowing them to avoid inefficient and ineffective movements and freeing them to focus on the artistic expression of dance performance. This study is unique, presenting the first comprehensive system for analyzing dance techniques in terms of physics laws. The results of this study are useful, allowing a new level of awareness about dance techniques that dance professionals can utilize for more effective and efficient teaching and learning. The approach utilized in

  19. Accurate physical laws can permit new standard units: The two laws F→=ma→ and the proportionality of weight to mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saslow, Wayne M.

    2014-04-01

    Three common approaches to F→=ma→ are: (1) as an exactly true definition of force F→ in terms of measured inertial mass m and measured acceleration a→; (2) as an exactly true axiom relating measured values of a→, F→ and m; and (3) as an imperfect but accurately true physical law relating measured a→ to measured F→, with m an experimentally determined, matter-dependent constant, in the spirit of the resistance R in Ohm's law. In the third case, the natural units are those of a→ and F→, where a→ is normally specified using distance and time as standard units, and F→ from a spring scale as a standard unit; thus mass units are derived from force, distance, and time units such as newtons, meters, and seconds. The present work develops the third approach when one includes a second physical law (again, imperfect but accurate)—that balance-scale weight W is proportional to m—and the fact that balance-scale measurements of relative weight are more accurate than those of absolute force. When distance and time also are more accurately measurable than absolute force, this second physical law permits a shift to standards of mass, distance, and time units, such as kilograms, meters, and seconds, with the unit of force—the newton—a derived unit. However, were force and distance more accurately measurable than time (e.g., time measured with an hourglass), this second physical law would permit a shift to standards of force, mass, and distance units such as newtons, kilograms, and meters, with the unit of time—the second—a derived unit. Therefore, the choice of the most accurate standard units depends both on what is most accurately measurable and on the accuracy of physical law.

  20. Didactical Reconstruction of Processes in Knowledge Construction: Pre-Service Physics Teachers Learning the Law of Electromagnetic Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantyla, Terhi

    2012-01-01

    In physics teacher education, two central goals are first to learn the structures of physics knowledge, and second the processes of its construction. To know the structure is to know the framework of concepts and laws; to know the processes is to know where the knowledge comes from, how the framework is constructed, and how it can be justified.…

  1. Principles of physics in surgery: the laws of mechanics and vectors physics for surgeons-part 2.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anurag; Sood, Akshay; Joy, Parijat S; Mandal, Shubhyan; Panwar, Rajesh; Ravichandran, Suresh; Sarangi, Sasmit; Woodcock, John

    2010-10-01

    In this sequel, to an earlier article, we discuss the laws of Mechanics, Thermodynamics and Vectors as they apply to soft and bony tissues. These include the Laplace's Law as applied to colonic perforation, compression therapy, parturition, variceal rupture, disc herniations etc. The Pascal's Law finds use in hernia repair and the Heimlich maneuver. Trigonometrically derived components of forces, acting after suturing, show ways to reduce cut-through; the thickness and the bite of suture determines the extent of tissue reaction. The heating effect of current explains the optimum gap between the prongs of a bipolar cautery and the use of law of transfer of heat in determining relation between healthy wound healing and ambient temperature.

  2. A Computational Unification of Scientific Law:. Spelling out a Universal Semantics for Physical Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The principal criteria Cn (n = 1 to 23) and grammatical production rules are set out of a universal computational rewrite language spelling out a semantic description of an emergent, self-organizing architecture for the cosmos. These language productions already predicate: (1) Einstein's conservation law of energy, momentum and mass and, subsequently, (2) with respect to gauge invariant relativistic space time (both Lorentz special & Einstein general); (3) Standard Model elementary particle physics; (4) the periodic table of the elements & chemical valence; and (5) the molecular biological basis of the DNA / RNA genetic code; so enabling the Cybernetic Machine specialist Groups Mission Statement premise;** (6) that natural semantic language thinking at the higher level of the self-organized emergent chemical molecular complexity of the human brain (only surpassed by that of the cosmos itself!) would be realized (7) by this same universal semantic language via (8) an architecture of a conscious human brain/mind and self which, it predicates consists of its neural / glia and microtubule substrates respectively, so as to endow it with; (9) the intelligent semantic capability to be able to specify, symbolize, spell out and understand the cosmos that conceived it; and (10) provide a quantum physical explanation of consciousness and of how (11) the dichotomy between first person subjectivity and third person objectivity or `hard problem' is resolved.

  3. Different Paths to Some Fundamental Physical Laws: Relativistic Polarization of a Moving Magnetic Dipole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kholmetskii, Alexander L.; Yarman, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider the relativistic polarization of a moving magnetic dipole and show that this effect can be understood via the relativistic generalization of Kirchhoff's first law to a moving closed circuit with a steady current. This approach allows us to better understand the law of relativistic transformation of four-current density…

  4. The Law of Inertia: How Understanding Its History Can Improve Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2007-01-01

    The law of inertia is a problem in teaching due to the impossibility of showing the proposition experimentally. As we cannot do an experiment to verify the law, we cannot know if it is correct. On the other hand, we know that the science based upon it is successful. A study in the history of mechanics has shown that there are different foundations…

  5. Particle-Physics Implications of a Recent Test of the Gravitational Inverse-Square Law

    SciTech Connect

    Adelberger, E. G.; Heckel, B. R.; Hoedl, S.; Hoyle, C. D.; Kapner, D. J.; Upadhye, A.

    2007-03-30

    We use data from our recent search for violations of the gravitational inverse-square law to constrain dilaton, radion, and chameleon exchange forces as well as arbitrary vector or scalar Yukawa interactions. We test the interpretation of the PVLAS Collaboration effect and a conjectured ''fat-graviton'' scenario and constrain the {gamma}{sub 5} couplings of pseuodscalar bosons and arbitrary power-law interactions.

  6. Using a Physics Experiment in a Lecture Setting to Engage Biology Students with the Concepts of Poiseuille's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckler, Jennifer L.; Christensen, Tina; Sun, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Biology students enrolled in a typical undergraduate physiology course encounter Poiseuille's law, a physics equation that describes the properties governing the flow of blood through the circulation. According to the equation, a small change in vessel radius has an exponential effect on resistance, resulting in a larger than expected change in…

  7. Charles' Law of Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses air to test Charles' law. Reinforces the student's intuitive feel for Charles' law with quantitative numbers they can see, introduces the idea of extrapolating experimental data to obtain a theoretical value, and gives a physical quantitative meaning to the concept of absolute zero. (JRH)

  8. Check the Lambert-Beer-Bouguer law: a simple trick to boost the confidence of students toward both exponential laws and the discrete approach to experimental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Capua, R.; Offi, F.; Fontana, F.

    2014-07-01

    Exponential decay is a prototypical functional behaviour for many physical phenomena, and therefore it deserves great attention in physics courses at an academic level. The absorption of the electromagnetic radiation that propagates in a dissipative medium provides an example of the decay of light intensity, as stated by the law of Lambert-Beer-Bourguer. We devised a very simple experiment to check this law. The experimental setup, its realization, and the data analysis of the experiment are definitely simple. Our main goal was to create an experiment that is accessible to all students, including those in their first year of academic courses and those with poorly equipped laboratories. As illustrated in this paper, our proposal allowed us to develop a deep discussion about some general mathematical and numerical features of exponential decay. Furthermore, the special setup of the absorbing medium (sliced in finite thickness slabs) and the experimental outcomes allow students to understand the transition from the discrete to the continuum approach in experimental physics.

  9. Geoethics: IPCC disgraced by violation of observational facts and physical laws in their sea level scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mörner, Nils-Axel

    2014-05-01

    Sea level may rise due to glacier melting, heat expansion of the oceanic water column, and redistribution of the waster masses - all these factors can be handled as to rates and amplitudes (provided one knows what one is talking about). In key areas over the entire Indian Ocean and in many Pacific Islands there are no traces of and sea level rise over the last 40-50 years. This is also the case for test-areas like Venice and the North Sea coasts. In the Kattegatt Sea one can fix the sea level factor to a maximum rise of 1.0-0.9 mm/year over the last century. The 204 tide gauges selected by NOAA for their global sea level monitoring provide a strong and sharp maximum (of 182 sites) in the range of 0.0-2.0 mm/yr. Satellite altimetry is said to give a rise of 3.2 mm/yr; this, however, is a value achieved after a quite subjective and surely erroneous "correction". The IPCC is talking about exceptionally much higher rates, and even worse are some "boy scouts" desperate try to launce real horror ratios. Physical laws set the frames of the rate and amount of ice melting, and so do records of events in the past (i.e. the geological records). During the Last Ice Age so much ice was accumulated on land, that the sea level dropped by about 120 m. When the process was reversed and ice melted under exceptionally strong climate forcing, sea level rose at a maximum rate of about 10 mm/yr (a meter per century). This can never happen under today's climate conditions. Even with IPCC's hypothetical scenarios, the true sea rise must be far less. When people like Rahmstorf (claiming 1 m or more by 2100) and Hansen (claiming a 4 m rise from 2080 to 2100) give their values, they exceed what is possible according to physical laws and accumulated geological knowledge. The expansion of the oceanic water column may reach amounts of sea level rise in the order of a few centimetres, at the most a decimetre. Old temperature measurements may record a temperature rise over the last 50 years in

  10. Using Photographs to Probe Students' Understanding of Physical Concepts: The Case of Newton's 3rd Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshach, Haim

    2010-08-01

    The starting point of the present research is the following question: since we live in an age that makes increasing use of visual representations of all sorts, is not the visual representation a learner constructs a window into his/her understanding of what is or is not being learned? Following this direction of inquiry, the present preliminary study introduces and evaluates a novel technique for pinpointing learners’ misconceptions, namely, one that has learners create and interpret their own photographs (CIP). 27 high-school students and 26 pre-service teacher trainees were asked to assume the role of textbook designers and create a display—photograph plus attached verbal explanation—which, in their opinion, best depicted Newton’s 3rd law. Subsequent analysis of the participants’ photographs yielded the following six misconception categories: 3rd law not depicted; 3rd law depicts a sequence of events; tendency to introduce irrelevant entities in explanations; the word ‘reaction’ used colloquially; tendency to restrict the application of the third law to dynamic situations; and informal explanations in which the word “force” is absent. The findings indicate that, indeed, the CIP method can be effectively employed to elicit, detect, and investigate learners’ misconceptions. The CIP method joins the growing efforts to utilize the yet relatively untapped potential of visual tools for science education purposes.

  11. The Role of Fisher Information Theory in the Development of Fundamental Laws in Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The unifying principle that involves rendering the Fisher information measure an extremum is reviewed. It is shown that with this principle, in conjunction with appropriate constraints, a large number of fundamental laws can be derived from a common source in a unified manner. The resulting economy of thought pertaining to fundamental principles…

  12. Obtaining Laws through Quantifying Experiments: Justifications of Pre-Service Physics Teachers in the Case of Electric Current, Voltage and Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäntylä, Terhi; Hämäläinen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    The language of physics is mathematics, and physics ideas, laws and models describing phenomena are usually represented in mathematical form. Therefore, an understanding of how to navigate between phenomena and the models representing them in mathematical form is important for a physics teacher so that the teacher can make physics understandable…

  13. Promoting Conceptual Development in Physics Teacher Education: Cognitive-Historical Reconstruction of Electromagnetic Induction Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantyla, Terhi

    2013-01-01

    In teaching physics, the history of physics offers fruitful starting points for designing instruction. I introduce here an approach that uses historical cognitive processes to enhance the conceptual development of pre-service physics teachers' knowledge. It applies a method called cognitive-historical approach, introduced to the cognitive sciences…

  14. Newton's First Law: Text, Translations, Interpretations and Physics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galili, Igal; Tzeitlin, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Considers the translation from Latin of Newton's First Law (NFL) in an historical perspective. Shows that Newton's original yields two versions of complimentary meanings, one temporal and the other quantitative. Reviews the presentation of NFL in physics textbooks and notes a decline in the status of NFL in the physics curriculum. (Contains 72…

  15. The Second Law and Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Charles H.

    2008-08-01

    In this talk, I discuss the mystery of the second law and its relation to quantum information. There are many explanations of the second law, mostly satisfactory and not mutually exclusive. Here, I advocate quantum mechanics and quantum information as something that, through entanglement, helps resolve the paradox or the puzzle of the origin of the second law. I will discuss the interpretation called quantum Darwinism and how it helps explain why our world seems so classical, and what it has to say about the permanence or transience of information. And I will discuss a simple model illustrating why systems away from thermal equilibrium tend to be more complicated.

  16. The role of mathematics in physics education as represented in high school and introductory level college physics textbooks: Using the law of Universal Gravitation as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozina, Inessa

    This thesis is concerned with the mode of presentation of the mathematical aspects of the teaching of high school physics. Eight recent high school and introductory level college physics textbooks were analyzed in this study. The topic of Universal Gravitation was chosen as the ideal context for the analysis of the mathematical component of physics in these textbooks. The research generated an instrument for the qualitative analysis of textbooks. The instrument was grounded on a historical inquiry into the relationship between mathematics and physics, and the history of gravity, mainly based on Newton's discovery of the universal law of gravitation. The study paid special attention to the ideas of contemporary learning theories and the requirements of scientific literacy. It was found that mathematical concepts engaged in the topic of universal gravitation were presented in various modes. However, graphical modes of presentation, which are necessary in visualizing functional relationships, were not used by many of the textbooks. The examined texts demonstrated different ways of establishing connections between mathematical concepts. For example, few of the analyzed textbooks used analogies for the connections between mathematical concepts. Moreover, the textbooks exhibited varying degrees of balance between the qualitative and the quantitative aspects of physics as found in example problems on the law of universal gravitation. The presentation of mathematical concepts through the history and philosophy of science (HPS) in the unit on universal gravitation in these textbooks mostly utilized a descriptive mode rather than both a descriptive and instructional approach. The findings from this study have several implications for educators and textbook writers. In order to facilitate effective learning, textbooks need to present physics concepts using a variety of modes. The study suggests that numerical data should be presented and used in a more interactive way. It is

  17. Symmetry, conservation laws, and theoretical particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumins, Andris Visvaldis

    In this work, we trace the role of symmetry throughout the history of theoretical particle physics, paying particular attention to the role of group theory, the formal mathematics of symmetry. After an analysis of the role of conservation laws and invariance in the theory of general relativity, we move on to Weyl's gauge theory of 1918, which was developed within the context of general relativity as an attempt to unify gravitation and electromagnetism. Weyl was trying to exploit an invariance of scale, and although his theory was experimentally refuted, it provided a formulation of the conservation of charge. After the advent of quantum mechanics, gauge theory was reinterpreted by London as an invariance of the wave-function. Weyl and Wigner studied group theory in the context of quantum mechanics, but the broadness of its application had yet to be appreciated. Symmetry was soon exploited in the nuclear interactions, however, and we examine the events leading to the discovery of SU(2) of isotopic spin. We analyze how the discovery of strangeness was linked to the generalization of SU(2) to SU(3), and also how it led to a differentiation between the strong interactions, which conserve isotopic spin and strangeness, and the weak interactions, which violate these conservation laws, along with the conservation of parity. Yang and Mills were impressed with gauge invariance, and in 1954, they took the bold step of imposing it upon the Lagrangian of the strong interactions, forcing the introduction of three new gauge fields. There was a problem, however, because although the short-range of the strong interactions implied that these gauge bosons should be massive, they needed to be massless in order to preserve gauge invariance. In addition, efforts were made to extend Yang-Mills theory to the weak interactions, but they also faced the same zero-mass problem. This problem was finally solved in 1967, when Weinberg and Salam showed how gauge boson masses could be generated

  18. Effect of Finite Computational Domain on Turbulence Scaling Law in Both Physical and Spectral Spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Thomas Y.; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Shiyi; Zhou, Ye

    1998-01-01

    The well-known translation between the power law of energy spectrum and that of the correlation function or the second order structure function has been widely used in analyzing random data. Here, we show that the translation is valid only in proper scaling regimes. The regimes of valid translation are different for the correlation function and the structure function. Indeed, they do not overlap. Furthermore, in practice, the power laws exist only for a finite range of scales. We show that this finite range makes the translation inexact even in the proper scaling regime. The error depends on the scaling exponent. The current findings are applicable to data analysis in fluid turbulence and other stochastic systems.

  19. Effect of finite computational domain on turbulence scaling law in both physical and spectral spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Thomas Y.; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Shiyi; Zhou, Ye

    1998-11-01

    The well-known translation between the power law of the energy spectrum and that of the correlation function or the second order structure function has been widely used in analyzing random data. Here, we show that the translation is valid only in proper scaling regimes. The regimes of valid translation are different for the correlation function and the structure function. Indeed, they do not overlap. Furthermore, in practice, the power laws exist only for a finite range of scales. We show that this finite range makes the translation inexact even in the proper scaling regime. The error depends on the scaling exponent. The current findings are applicable to data analysis in fluid turbulence and other stochastic systems.

  20. The First Law of Thermodynamics for Ecosystems. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module and a comparison module are concerned with elementary concepts of thermodynamics as…

  1. Obtaining Laws Through Quantifying Experiments: Justifications of Pre-service Physics Teachers in the Case of Electric Current, Voltage and Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäntylä, Terhi; Hämäläinen, Ari

    2015-07-01

    The language of physics is mathematics, and physics ideas, laws and models describing phenomena are usually represented in mathematical form. Therefore, an understanding of how to navigate between phenomena and the models representing them in mathematical form is important for a physics teacher so that the teacher can make physics understandable to students. Here, the focus is on the "experimental mathematization," how laws are established through quantifying experiments. A sequence from qualitative experiments to mathematical formulations through quantifying experiments on electric current, voltage and resistance in pre-service physics teachers' laboratory reports is examined. The way students reason and justify the mathematical formulation of the measurement results and how they combine the treatment and presentation of empirical data to their justifications is analyzed. The results show that pre-service physics teachers understand the basic idea of how quantifying experiments establish the quantities and laws but are not able to argue it in a justified manner.

  2. The Freezing Point Depression Law in Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzen, Hugo F.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests a change in physical chemistry courses to use a slightly more complicated but significantly more useful generalization of the simple freezing point depression law. Lists reasons for the change and presents the treatment of solid-liquid equilibria where solid-solution is allowed. Provides a mathematical treatment. (MVL)

  3. Discourse following award of Kepler Gold Medal. [Kepler Laws, planetary astronomy and physics, and Jupiter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    Kuiper briefly reviews Kepler's contributions to the field of planetary astronomy and physics, along with references to his own background in the study of stars, planets, and the solar system. He mentions his participation in NASA programs related to planetary astronomy. He concludes his remarks with thanks for being honored by the award of the Kepler Gold Medal.

  4. Success of a simulation approach for magnetic nanosystems: Power of physical laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.-S.; Sechovský, V.; Diviš, M.

    2014-05-01

    The new quantum simulation model and the self-consistent algorithm (SCA) for magnetic nanosystems, that we proposed 2 years ago, were extended to study the magnetic properties of a nanowire consisting of 3d ions which are coupled ferromagnetically. To test the applicability of the algorithm, our simulations in the present work were started from a magnetic structure in which all spins in the whole nanosample were randomly oriented (defined as the random magnetic configuration for later use) as other authors have been doing with Monte Carlo or micromagnetism method, and such calculated results were all reasonable. Especially, the free energies evaluated at the chosen temperatures were found to attenuate spontaneously and quickly, as the program ran, towards the minima according to the principle of lowest free energy as expected. This suggests that the computational algorithm is able to lead the code to converge rapidly to the equilibrium state automatically without the need to minimize the total (free) energy of the system elaborately that must be done if the Monte Carlo or micromagnetism method is used, demonstrating the great power of natural laws.

  5. An analysis of how electromagnetic induction and Faraday's law are presented in general physics textbooks, focusing on learning difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Zuza, Kristina; Almudi, José-Manuel

    2013-07-01

    Textbooks are a very important tool in the teaching-learning process and influence important aspects of the process. This paper presents an analysis of the chapter on electromagnetic induction and Faraday's law in 19 textbooks on general physics for first-year university courses for scientists and engineers. This analysis was based on criteria formulated from the theoretical framework of electromagnetic induction in classical physics and students' learning difficulties concerning these concepts. The aim of the work presented here is not to compare a textbook against the ideal book, but rather to try and find a series of explanations, examples, questions, etc that provide evidence on how the topic is presented in relation to the criteria above. It concludes that despite many aspects being covered properly, there are others that deserve greater attention.

  6. Stable laws and cosmic ray physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genolini, Y.; Salati, P.; Serpico, P. D.; Taillet, R.

    2017-03-01

    Context. In the new "precision era" for cosmic ray astrophysics, scientists making theoretical predictions cannot content themselves with average trends, but need to correctly take into account intrinsic uncertainties. The space-time discreteness of the cosmic ray sources, together with a substantial ignorance of their precise epochs and locations (with the possible exception of the most recent and close ones) play an important role in this sense. Aims: We elaborate a statistical theory to deal with this problem, relating the composite probability P(Ψ) to obtain a flux Ψ at the Earth and the single-source probability p(ψ) to contribute with a flux ψ. The main difficulty arises from the fact that p(ψ) is a "heavy tail" distribution, characterized by power-law or broken power-law behavior up to very large fluxes, for which the central limit theorem does not hold, and leading to distributions different from Gaussian. The functional form of the distribution for the aggregated flux is nonetheless unchanged by its own convolution, that is, it belongs to the so-called stable laws class. Methods: We analytically discuss the regime of validity of the stable laws associated with the distributions arising in cosmic ray astrophysics, as well as the limitations to the treatment imposed by causal considerations and partial source catalog knowledge. We validate our results with extensive Monte Carlo simulations, for different regimes of propagation parameters and energies. Results: We find that relatively simple recipes provide a satisfactory description of the probability P(Ψ). We also find that a naive Gaussian fit to simulation results would underestimate the probability of very large fluxes, that is, several times above the average, while overestimating the probability of relatively milder excursions. At large energies, large flux fluctuations are prevented by causal considerations, while at low energies, a partial knowledge of the recent and nearby population of

  7. Physical process first law for bifurcate Killing horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Amsel, Aaron J.; Marolf, Donald; Virmani, Amitabh

    2008-01-15

    The physical process version of the first law for black holes states that the passage of energy and angular momentum through the horizon results in a change in area ({kappa}/8{pi}){delta}A={delta}E-{omega}{delta}J, so long as this passage is quasistationary. A similar physical process first law can be derived for any bifurcate Killing horizon in any spacetime dimension d{>=}3 using much the same argument. However, to make this law nontrivial, one must show that sufficiently quasistationary processes do in fact occur. In particular, one must show that processes exist for which the shear and expansion remain small, and in which no new generators are added to the horizon. Thorne, MacDonald, and Price considered related issues when an object falls across a d=4 black hole horizon. By generalizing their argument to arbitrary d{>=}3 and to any bifurcate Killing horizon, we derive a condition under which these effects are controlled and the first law applies. In particular, by providing a nontrivial first law for Rindler horizons, our work completes the parallel between the mechanics of such horizons and those of black holes for d{>=}3. We also comment on the situation for d=2.

  8. The emperor's new mind. Concerning computers, minds and the laws of physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penrose, R.

    In his foreword M. Gardner writes that although Penrose's chapters range widely over relativity theory, quantum mechanics, and cosmology, their central concern is what philosophers call the "mind-body problem". For decades the proponents of "strong AI" (artificial intelligence) have tried to persuade us that it is only a matter of a century or two until electronic computers will be doing everything a human mind can do. Penrose's book is a powerful attack on AI. Contents: 1. Can a computer have a mind? 2. Algorithms and Turing machines. 3. Mathematics and reality. 4. Truth, proof, and insight. 5. The classical world. 6. Quantum magic and quantum mystery. 7. Cosmology and the arrow of time. 8. In search of quantum gravity. 9. Real brains and model brains. 10. Where lies the physics of mind?

  9. Making the universe safe for historians: Time travel and the laws of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, James F.

    1995-02-01

    The study of the hypothetical activities of arbitrarily advanced cultures, particularly in the area of space and time travel, as a means of investigating fundamental issues in physics is briefly discussed. Hawking's chronology protection conjecture as it applies to wormhole spacetimes is considered. The nature of time, especially regarding the viability of time travel, as it appears in several “interpretations” of quantum mechanics is investigated. A conjecture on the plausibility of theories of reality that admit relativistically invariant interactions and irreducibly stochastic processes is advanced. A transient inertial reaction effect that makes it technically feasible, fleetingly, to induce large concentrations of negative mass-energy is presented and discussed in the context of macroscopic wormhole formation. Other candidates for chronology protection are examined. It is pointed out that if the strong version of Mach's principle (the gravitational induction of mass) is correct, then wormhole formation employing negative mass-energy is impossible. But if the bare masses of elementary particles are large, finite and negative, as is suggested by a heuristic general relativistic model of elementary particles, then, using the transient effect, it is technically feasible to trigger a non-linear process that may lead to macroscopic wormhole formation. Such wormholes need not be destroyed by the Hawking protection mechanism.

  10. The First Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girill, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Boyle-Mariotte gas law was formulated in terms of pneumatic springs," subsumed by Hooke under his own stress-strain relation, and generally regarded as a law of elasticity. The subsequent development of Boyle's principle and elasticity provide thought-provoking test cases for Kuhn's notations of paradigm and puzzle solving in physics.…

  11. The Physical Basis of the LX = Lbol Empirical Law for O-Star X-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, S. P.; Sundqvist, J. O.; Cohen, D. H.; Gayley, K. G.

    2012-12-01

    X-ray satellites since Einstein have empirically established that the X-ray luminosity from single O-stars scales linearly with bolometric luminosity, LX = 10-7 Lbol. But straightforward forms of the most favored model, in which X-rays arise from instability-generated shocks embedded in the stellar wind, predict a steeper scaling, either with mass-loss rate LX = M = Lbol1.7 if the shocks are radiative, or with LX = M2 = Lbol3.4 if they are adiabatic. We present here a generalized formalism that bridges these radiative vs. adiabatic limits in terms of the ratio of the shock cooling length to the local radius. Noting that the thin-shell instability of radiative shocks should lead to extensive mixing of hot and cool material, we then propose that the associated softening and weakening of the X-ray emission can be parameterized by the cooling length ratio raised to a power m, the “mixing exponent". For physically reasonable values m ≍ 0.4, this leads to an X-ray luminosity LX = M0.6 = Lbol that matches the empirical scaling. We conclude by noting that such thin-shell mixing may also be important for X-rays from colliding wind binaries, and that future numerical simulation studies will be needed to test this thin-shell mixing ansatz for X-ray emission.

  12. On the Physical Basis of Rate Law Formulations for River Evolution, and their Applicability to the Simulation of Evolution after Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, C.; Parker, G.; Fu, X.

    2015-12-01

    River morphology evolves in response to trade-offs among a series of environmental forcing factors, and this evolution will be disturbed if such environmental factors change. One example of response to chronic disturbance is the intensive river evolution after earthquakes in southwest China's mountain areas. When simulating river morphological response to environmental disturbance, an exponential rate law with a specified characteristic response time is often regarded as a practical tool for quantification. As conceptual models, empirical rate law formulations can be used to describe broad brush morphological response, but their physically basis is not solid in that they do not consider the details of morphodynamic processes. Meanwhile, river evolution can also be simulated with physically-based morphodynamic models which conserve sediment via the Exner equation. Here we study the links between the rate law formalism and the Exner equation through solving the Exner equation mathematically and numerically. The results show that, when implementing a very simplified form of a relation for bedload transport, the Exner equation can be reduced to the diffusion equation, the solution of which is a Gaussian function. This solution coincides with the solution associated with rate laws, thus providing a physical basis for such formulations. However, when the complexities of a natural river are considered, the solution of the Exner equation will no longer be a simple Gaussian function. Under such circumstances, the rate law becomes invalid, and a full understanding of the response of rivers to earthquakes requires a complete morphodynamic model.

  13. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  14. Using a Physics Experiment in a Lecture Setting to Engage Biology Students with the Concepts of Poiseuille's Law

    PubMed Central

    Breckler, Jennifer L.; Christensen, Tina; Sun, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Biology students enrolled in a typical undergraduate physiology course encounter Poiseuille's law, a physics equation that describes the properties governing the flow of blood through the circulation. According to the equation, a small change in vessel radius has an exponential effect on resistance, resulting in a larger than expected change in blood flow. To help engage students in this important concept, we performed a physics experiment as a lecture demonstration to mimic the original research by the 19th-century French scientist. We tested its impact as a research project and found that students who viewed the demonstration reacted very positively and showed an immediate increase in test performance, while the control group was able to independently “catch up” at the fourth week posttest. We further examined whether students’ math skills mapped to learning gains. The students with lower math scores who viewed the demonstration had slightly more improvement in test performance than those students who did not view the demonstration. Our data suggest that watching a lecture demonstration may be of even greater benefit to biology students with lower math achievement. PMID:23737633

  15. Using a physics experiment in a lecture setting to engage biology students with the concepts of Poiseuille's law.

    PubMed

    Breckler, Jennifer L; Christensen, Tina; Sun, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    Biology students enrolled in a typical undergraduate physiology course encounter Poiseuille's law, a physics equation that describes the properties governing the flow of blood through the circulation. According to the equation, a small change in vessel radius has an exponential effect on resistance, resulting in a larger than expected change in blood flow. To help engage students in this important concept, we performed a physics experiment as a lecture demonstration to mimic the original research by the 19th-century French scientist. We tested its impact as a research project and found that students who viewed the demonstration reacted very positively and showed an immediate increase in test performance, while the control group was able to independently "catch up" at the fourth week posttest. We further examined whether students' math skills mapped to learning gains. The students with lower math scores who viewed the demonstration had slightly more improvement in test performance than those students who did not view the demonstration. Our data suggest that watching a lecture demonstration may be of even greater benefit to biology students with lower math achievement.

  16. Nonuniformity of the constitutive law parameters for shear rupture and quasistatic nucleation to dynamic rupture: a physical model of earthquake generation processes.

    PubMed

    Ohnaka, M

    1996-04-30

    Based on the recent high-resolution laboratory experiments on propagating shear rupture, the constitutive law that governs shear rupture processes is discussed in view of the physical principles and constraints, and a specific constitutive law is proposed for shear rupture. It is demonstrated that nonuniform distributions of the constitutive law parameters on the fault are necessary for creating the nucleation process, which consists of two phases: (i) a stable, quasistatic phase, and (ii) the subsequent accelerating phase. Physical models of the breakdown zone and the nucleation zone are presented for shear rupture in the brittle regime. The constitutive law for shear rupture explicitly includes a scaling parameter Dc that enables one to give a common interpretation to both small scale rupture in the laboratory and large scale rupture as earthquake source in the Earth. Both the breakdown zone size Xc and the nucleation zone size L are prescribed and scaled by Dc, which in turn is prescribed by a characteristic length lambda c representing geometrical irregularities of the fault. The models presented here make it possible to understand the earthquake generation process from nucleation to unstable, dynamic rupture propagation in terms of physics. Since the nucleation process itself is an immediate earthquake precursor, deep understanding of the nucleation process in terms of physics is crucial for the short-term (or immediate) earthquake prediction.

  17. Teaching physics with Hubble's law and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.

    2012-05-01

    Physics instructors can enrich, enliven, and enhance their courses with conceptually rich cosmology content. In this paper, we specifically discuss how instructors can integrate lessons on Hubble's law (as it relates to the expansion of the universe and dark energy) and spiral galaxies' rotation curves (as they relate to the presence of dark matter) into an introductory, college-level course on mechanics. These cosmology topics intersect with the content of introductory physics in a number of areas, such as students' abilities to read and interpret graphs and their conceptual understandings of both kinematics and dynamics. Throughout this paper, we draw upon the results from, and research-validated curricula informed by, physics and astronomy education research. In particular, we feature the results from a national study we recently completed with introductory college-level general education astronomy students on the teaching and learning of cosmology.

  18. Using Photographs to Probe Students' Understanding of Physical Concepts: The Case of Newton's 3rd Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshach, Haim

    2010-01-01

    The starting point of the present research is the following question: since we live in an age that makes increasing use of visual representations of all sorts, is not the visual representation a learner constructs a window into his/her understanding of what is or is not being learned? Following this direction of inquiry, the present preliminary…

  19. Advancing the state of the art without violating the laws of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    Recent suggestions that ``anomalous nuclear reactions'' be used for space power and propulsion recall the ``pathological science'' syndrome described by Nobel-Prize-winning chemist Irving Langmuir who identified six symptoms of pathological science caused by a loss of objectivity. Pathological science was described by Langmuir as the ``science'' of things that aren't so. Denis L. Rousseau has condensed Langmuir's six symptoms into two characteristics and added a third. The first characteristic of pathological science is that the effect being studied is often at the limits of detectability or has a very low statistical significance. The second characteristic is a readiness to disregard prevailing ideas and theories. The third identifying trait of pathological science is that the investigator finds it nearly impossible to carry out experiments designed to give a definitive answer.

  20. Relativistic covariance of Ohm's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, R.; Schober, G. A. H.

    2016-04-01

    The derivation of Lorentz-covariant generalizations of Ohm's law has been a long-term issue in theoretical physics with deep implications for the study of relativistic effects in optical and atomic physics. In this article, we propose an alternative route to this problem, which is motivated by the tremendous progress in first-principles materials physics in general and ab initio electronic structure theory in particular. We start from the most general, Lorentz-covariant first-order response law, which is written in terms of the fundamental response tensor χμ ν relating induced four-currents to external four-potentials. By showing the equivalence of this description to Ohm's law, we prove the validity of Ohm's law in every inertial frame. We further use the universal relation between χμ ν and the microscopic conductivity tensor σkℓ to derive a fully relativistic transformation law for the latter, which includes all effects of anisotropy and relativistic retardation. In the special case of a constant, scalar conductivity, this transformation law can be used to rederive a standard textbook generalization of Ohm's law.

  1. ARTICLES: Physical laws governing the interaction of pulse-periodic CO2 laser radiation with metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedenov, A. A.; Gladush, G. G.; Drobyazko, S. V.; Pavlovich, Yu V.; Senatorov, Yu M.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown theoretically and experimentally that the efficiency of welding metals with a pulse-periodic CO2 laser beam of low duty ratio, at low velocities, can exceed that of welding with cw lasers and with electron beams. For the first time an investigation was made of the influence of the laser radiation parameters (energy and frequency) and of the welding velocity on the characteristics of the weld and on the shape of the weldpool. The influence of the laser radiation polarization on the efficiency of deep penetration was analyzed.

  2. Physical analysis of the state- and rate-dependent friction law. II. Dynamic friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumberger, T.; Berthoud, P.; Caroli, C.

    1999-08-01

    We report an extensive study of dynamic friction at nonlubricated multicontact interfaces between nominally flat bodies, rough on the micrometer scale, made of identical polymer glasses. This work, which complements a previous study of static friction on the same systems, has been performed at temperatures ranging from 20 °C to close below the glass transitions. The data are analyzed within the framework of the Rice-Ruina state- and rate-dependent friction model. We show that this phenomenology is equivalent to a generalized Tabor decomposition of the friction force into the product of an age-dependent load-bearing area and of a velocity-strengthening interfacial shear stress. Quantitative analysis of this latter term leads to associate velocity strengthening with thermal activation of basic dynamical units of nanometer dimensions. We interpret our results with the help of a model due to Persson, in which shear is localized in a nanometer-thick interfacial adhesive layer, pinned elastically at a low shear level. Sliding proceeds via uncorrelated depinning of ``nanoblocks'' which constitute the layer. It is the competition between the drive-induced loading of these blocks up to their depinning stress and the thermally activated premature depinning events which leads to the velocity-strengthening contribution to the interfacial strength. In our interpretation, friction therefore appears as the localized elastoplastic response of a confined amorphous interfacial layer.

  3. Physical Mechanisms and Scaling Laws of K-Shell Double Photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Hoszowska, J.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Berset, M.; Cao, W.; Fennane, K.; Kayser, Y.; Szlachetko, J.; Szlachetko, M.; Kheifets, A. K.; Bray, I.; Kavcic, M.

    2009-02-20

    We report on the photon energy dependence of the K-shell double photoionization (DPI) of Mg, Al, and Si. The DPI cross sections were derived from high-resolution measurements of x-ray spectra following the radiative decay of the K-shell double vacancy states. Our data evince the relative importance of the final-state electron-electron interaction to the DPI. By comparing the double-to-single K-shell photoionization cross-section ratios for neutral atoms with convergent close-coupling calculations for He-like ions, the effect of outer shell electrons on the K-shell DPI process is assessed. Universal scaling of the DPI cross sections with the effective nuclear charge for neutral atoms is revealed.

  4. Physical Mechanisms and Scaling Laws of K-Shell Double Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoszowska, J.; Kheifets, A. K.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Berset, M.; Bray, I.; Cao, W.; Fennane, K.; Kayser, Y.; Kavčič, M.; Szlachetko, J.; Szlachetko, M.

    2009-02-01

    We report on the photon energy dependence of the K-shell double photoionization (DPI) of Mg, Al, and Si. The DPI cross sections were derived from high-resolution measurements of x-ray spectra following the radiative decay of the K-shell double vacancy states. Our data evince the relative importance of the final-state electron-electron interaction to the DPI. By comparing the double-to-single K-shell photoionization cross-section ratios for neutral atoms with convergent close-coupling calculations for He-like ions, the effect of outer shell electrons on the K-shell DPI process is assessed. Universal scaling of the DPI cross sections with the effective nuclear charge for neutral atoms is revealed.

  5. Extreme value laws in dynamical systems under physical observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Mark P.; Vitolo, Renato; Rabassa, Pau; Sterk, Alef E.; Broer, Henk W.

    2012-03-01

    Extreme value theory for chaotic deterministic dynamical systems is a rapidly expanding area of research. Given a system and a real function (observable) defined on its phase space, extreme value theory studies the limit probabilistic laws obeyed by large values attained by the observable along orbits of the system. Based on this theory, the so-called block maximum method is often used in applications for statistical prediction of large value occurrences. In this method, one performs statistical inference for the parameters of the Generalised Extreme Value (GEV) distribution, using maxima over blocks of regularly sampled observable values along an orbit of the system. The observables studied so far in the theory are expressed as functions of the distance with respect to a point, which is assumed to be a density point of the system’s invariant measure. However, at least with respect to the ambient (usually Euclidean) metric, this is not the structure of the observables typically encountered in physical applications, such as windspeed or vorticity in atmospheric models. In this paper we consider extreme value limit laws for observables which are not expressed as functions of the distance (in the ambient metric) from a density point of the dynamical system. In such cases, the limit laws are no longer determined by the functional form of the observable and the dimension of the invariant measure: they also depend on the specific geometry of the underlying attractor and of the observable’s level sets. We present a collection of analytical and numerical results, starting with a toral hyperbolic automorphism as a simple template to illustrate the main ideas. We then formulate our main results for a uniformly hyperbolic system, the solenoid map. We also discuss non-uniformly hyperbolic examples of maps (Hénon and Lozi maps) and of flows (the Lorenz63 and Lorenz84 models). Our purpose is to outline the main ideas and to highlight several serious problems found in the

  6. Do the Laws of Physics Allow us to Create a New Universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guth, Alan H.

    2014-03-01

    Essentially all modern particle theories suggest the possible existence of a false vacuum state -- a metastable state with an energy density that cannot be lowered except by means of a very slow phase transition. Inflationary cosmology makes use of such a state to drive the expansion of the big bang, allowing the entire observed universe to evolve from a very small initial mass. A sphere of false vacuum in our present universe, if larger than a certain critical mass, could inflate to form a new universe which would rapidly detach from its parent. A false vacuum bubble of this size, however, cannot be produced classically unless an initial singularity is present from the outset. E. Farhi, J. Guven, and I have therefore explored the possibility that a bubble of subcritical size, which classically would evolve to a maximum size and collapse, might instead tunnel through a barrier to produce a new universe. We estimated the tunneling rate using semiclassical quantum gravity, and discovered some interesting ambiguities in the formalism.

  7. Courtside: Coed Physical Education and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Linda Jean; Acosta, R. Vivian

    2001-01-01

    Title IX promotes sex fairness in education programs receiving federal funding, including physical education (PE). It states that PE classes may not be segregated by sex except under very specific conditions. This paper presents scenarios that examine what Title IX's PE requirements mean in practice, concluding that educators must understand its…

  8. Effectiveness in Learning Newton's Second Law of Motion in Secondary School Physics Using Three Methods of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, H. Bruce

    Compared were inductive programed, deductive programed, and conventional lecture-question methods of instruction related to Newton's Second Law of Motion on outcome gains including recall of factual information, ability to solve mathematical problems, and retention. Some 266 students in three schools participated and were compared for…

  9. School of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article explains how Street Law helps teachers to defuse tensions between students and police through a combination of education, empathy, and expertise. Street Law was born at Georgetown in 1972. Every year, it sends two dozen law students like Courtney Donovan into Washington, D.C., high schools to help teach the year long course. Street…

  10. Approximation of Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    Approximation of laws is an important theme in the philosophy of science. If we can make sense of the idea that two scientific laws are "close" to each other, then we can also analyze such methodological notions as approximate explanation of laws, approximate reduction of theories, approximate empirical success of theories, and approximate truth of laws. Proposals for measuring the distance between quantitative scientific laws were given in Niiniluoto (1982, 1987). In this paper, these definitions are reconsidered as a response to the interesting critical remarks by Liu (1999).

  11. A Unified Approach to Introductory Physics Based on the Conservation Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Bradley; Miller, Charles

    1970-01-01

    Describes a new, unified approach to introductory physics based on the conservation laws. classical and quantum physics are presented together as different levels of a unified and consistent description of the world. This approach has been used for the last 3 years as the first course in general physics for science and engineering students at…

  12. Teaching Newton's Laws with the iPod Touch in Conceptual Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in teaching physics is helping students achieve a conceptual understanding of Newton's laws. I find that students fresh from middle school can sometimes recite the laws verbatim ("An object in motion stays in motion..." and "For every action..."), but they rarely demonstrate a working knowledge of…

  13. Fluctuations and Gibbs-Thomson Law - the Simple Physics.

    SciTech Connect

    Chernov, A A; De Yoreo, J J; Rashkovich, L N

    2006-09-15

    Crystals of slightly soluble materials should be subject of relatively weak attachment/detachment fluctuations on their faces so that steps on that faces have low kink density. These steps are parallel to the most close packed lattice rows and form polygons on a crystal surface. The process responsible for implementation of the classical Gibbs-Thomson law (GTL) for the polygonal step (in two dimensions, 2D) is kink exchange between the step corners. For the 3D crystallites, this mechanism includes step exchange. If these mechanisms do not operate because of slow fluctuations the GTL is not applicable. Physics of these processes and conditions for the GTL applicability are discussed on a simple qualitative level.

  14. The Law of Information Inconservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Qi Quan

    1990-01-01

    Compares the notion of the conservation or inconservation of information with the laws of conservation of matter and energy. The theory of entropy in physics and its significance in information theory is discussed, and the essential nature of information is considered. (LRW)

  15. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 6 and 7: Work and Energy; Applications of Newton's Laws].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  16. Newton's Laws, Euler's Laws and the Speed of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Chemical engineering students begin their studies of mechanics in a department of physics where they are introduced to the mechanics of Newton. The approach presented by physicists differs in both perspective and substance from that encountered in chemical engineering courses where Euler's laws provide the foundation for studies of fluid and solid…

  17. Cartan's soldered spaces and conservation laws in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouneiher, Joseph; Barbachoux, Cécile

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we will introduce a generalized soldering p-forms geometry, which can be the right framework to describe many new approaches and concepts in modern physics. Here we will treat some aspects of the theory of local cohomology in fields theory or more precisely the theory of soldering-form conservation laws in physics. We provide some illustrative applications, primarily taken from the Einstein equations of general theory of relativity and Yang-Mills theory. This theory can be considered to be a generalization of Noether's theory of conserved current to differential forms of any degree. An essential result of this, is that the conservation of the energy-momentum in general relativity, is linked to the fact that the vacuum field equations are equivalent to the integrability conditions of a first-order system of differential equations. We also apply the idea of the soldered space and the integrability conditions to the case of Yang-Mills theory. The mathematical framework, where these intuitive considerations would fit naturally, can be used to describe also the dynamics of changing manifolds.

  18. Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics to the Adiabatic Processes of an Ideal Gas: Physics Teacher Candidates' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out with 46 teacher candidates taking the course of "Thermodynamics" in the Department of Physics Teaching. The purpose of the study was to determine the difficulties that teacher candidates experienced in explaining the heat, work and internal energy relationships in the processes of adiabatic compression…

  19. Experimental determination of physical processes in space, leading to deviations of radio synchrotron radiation spectra from the power law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men', A. V.

    2008-02-01

    We present universal formulas for spectral characteristics of cosmic radio sources of synchrotron radiation upon the presence of spectral density maxima at certain frequencies (spectra with negative curvature) taking into account most typical physical processes observed in space. On the basis of long-term observations of angular radiation structure of cosmic radio sources in the decameter wavelength range by the URAN radio interferometer system, we determine most probable physical processes resulting in spectra with extremum values for several quasars, radio galaxies, and their separate components. On the basis of these data, we estimate some parameters of cosmic medium, magnetic field, and angular sizes of compact radio sources and their components.

  20. The Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  1. Law of Empires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines…

  2. Physics' insights into pedestrian motion and crowd dynamics: reply to comments on "The emergence of design in pedestrian dynamic: locomotion, self-organization, walking paths and constructal law".

    PubMed

    Miguel, Antonio F

    2013-06-01

    Pedestrians' world is not a static one, but rather one which is constantly in flux. The pedestrian dynamics is subject to a wide range of influences and displays an interesting phenomenology. Along with collective self-organization phenomena (e.g., streams of people, rivers of people, collective synchronization), there are also a multitude of applications in the context of crowd management, design of pedestrian facilities and urban planning. Here, I address comments from the discussants of my review paper from the viewpoint of elementary physics laws paying particular attention to the self-organization phenomena in crowds.

  3. Anomalous law of cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  4. Anomalous law of cooling.

    PubMed

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  5. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  6. Notion of Control-Law Module and Modular Framework of Cooperative Transportation Using Multiple Nonholonomic Robotic Agents With Physical Rigid-Formation-Motion Constraints.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Consider cooperative manipulation and transportation of a rigid body by multiple two-wheeled nonholonomic robotic agents that attached to it, the agents are then physically constrained to maintain rigid-formation-motion (RFM); thus the system has two physical motion-constraints at two levels: 1) the nonholonomic constraint at the individual level and 2) the RFM constraint at the system level. First, we provide a novel notion: the encapsulation of a category of control with certain constraints for one motion-mode as a control-law module (CLM), any concrete control law with such constraints is called an instance of the CLM; here two CLMs are provided as the examples. Then we provide an RFM control framework by decomposing a feasible RFM configuration-path as a concatenation of partitions, with one type of CLMs for each partition; thus any instance for each partition can be designed separately and incorporated easily with the interchangeable property, which makes the framework modular, flexible, and adaptive, to satisfy different kinematics requirements. As a result, the transportation is achieved by RFM control of agents. Also, the RFM framework implies a valuable rigid-closure-method for accurate rigid body manipulation even when agents are not attached to the body.

  7. Origins of Newton's First Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2015-02-01

    Anyone who has taught introductory physics should know that roughly a third of the students initially believe that any object at rest will remain at rest, whereas any moving body not propelled by applied forces will promptly come to rest. Likewise, about half of those uninitiated students believe that any object moving at a constant speed must be continually pushed if it is to maintain its motion.1 That's essentially Aristotle's law of motion and it is so "obviously" borne out by experience that it was accepted by scholars for 2000 years, right through the Copernican Revolution. But, of course, it's fundamentally wrong. This paper tells the story of how the correct understanding, the law of inertia, evolved and how Newton came to make it his first law.

  8. Measuring Ultraviolet Radiation Underwater: A Practical Application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Law for High School Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schouten, Peter; Parisi, Alfio; Downs, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of solar UV under water is not a simple process. In the underwater environment the difficulty of obtaining useable data is greatly amplified due to the optically complicated and at times unpredictable nature of water itself. The following practical exercise designed for use in the Year 11 and Year 12 Physics classroom aims to…

  9. [Chemical, physical and biological risks in law enforcement].

    PubMed

    Magrini, Andrea; Grana, Mario; Vicentini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Chemical, physical and biological risks among public safety and security forces. Law enforcement personnel, involved in routine tasks and in emergency situations, are exposed to numerous and several occupational hazards (chemical, physical and biological) whith likely health and security consequences. These risks are particularly high when the organization and preparation are inadequate, there is a lacking or insufficient coordination, information, education and communication and safety and personal protective equipment are inadequate or insufficient. Despite the objective difficulties, caused by the actual special needs related to the service performed or the organizational peculiarities, the risk identification and assessment is essential for worker health and safety of personnel, as provided for by Legislative Decree no. 81/2008. Chemical risks include airborne pollutants due to vehicular traffic (carbon monoxide, ultrafine particles, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, lead), toxic gases generated by combustion process following fires (aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, dioxins and furans, biphenyls, formaldehyde, metals and cyanides), substances emitted in case of chemical accidents (solvents, pesticides, toxic gases, caustics), drugs (methylamphetamine), riot control agents and self-defence spray, lead at firing ranges, and several materials and reagents used in forensic laboratory. The physical hazards are often caused by activities that induce biomechanical overload aid the onset of musculoskeletal disorders, the use of visual display terminals and work environments that may expose to heat stress and discomfort, high and low pressure, noise, vibrations, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The main biological risks are blood-borne diseases (viral hepatitis, AIDS), airborne diseases (eg, tuberculosis, meningitis, SARS, anthrax), MRSA, and vector-borne diseases. Many of these risk factors are unavoidable or are not

  10. Quixotic medicine: physical and economic laws perilously disregarded in health care and medical education.

    PubMed

    Haburchak, David R; Mitchell, Bradford C; Boomer, Craig J

    2008-12-01

    Wise medical practice requires balancing the idealistic goals of medicine with the physical and economic realities of their application. Clinicians should know and employ the rules, maxims, and heuristics that summarize these goals and constraints. There has been little formal study of rules or laws pertaining to therapeutics and prognosis, so the authors postulate four physical and four economic laws that apply to health care: the laws of (1) finitude, (2) inertia, (3) entropy, and (4) the uncertainty principle; and the laws of (5) diminishing returns, (6) unintended consequences, (7) distribution, and (8) economizing. These laws manifest themselves in the absence of health, the pathogenesis of disease, prognosis, and the behaviors of participants in the health care enterprise. Physicians and the public perilously disregard these laws, frequently producing misdiagnoses, distraction, false expectations, unanticipated and undesirable outcomes, inequitable distribution of scarce resources, distrust, and cynicism: in short, quixotic medicine. The origins and public reinforcement of quixotic medicine make it deaf to calls for pragmatism. To achieve the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education competency of systems-based practice, the authors recommend that premedical education return to a broader liberal arts curriculum and that medical education and training foster didactic and experiential knowledge of these eight laws.

  11. Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, W. R.; Cox, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the legal issues relative to water quality covering publications of 1977. Consideration is given to federal laws, Supreme Court cases, and the impact of federal environmental laws on local government. A list of 47 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. The Tortured History of Gauss's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Ross

    2009-10-01

    American physics textbooks contain the following equation, which is called Gauss's law: E .d S = qenclosed ɛ0 It is odd, however, that biographies of Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) contain no mention of this law. A brief history of this important result will be presented in which it will be shown that what we call Gauss's law today was originally guessed at by Joseph Priestly (1733-1804) after he read a letter from Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), then was derived, forgotten, and re-derived several times in two different contexts by many of the luminaries of physics in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

  13. The reductionist paradox: are the laws of chemistry and physics sufficient for the discovery of new drugs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiora, Gerald M.

    2011-08-01

    Reductionism is alive and well in drug-discovery research. In that tradition, we continually improve experimental and computational methods for studying smaller and smaller aspects of biological systems. Although significant improvements continue to be made, are our efforts too narrowly focused? Suppose all error could be removed from these methods, would we then understand biological systems sufficiently well to design effective drugs? Currently, almost all drug research focuses on single targets. Should the process be expanded to include multiple targets? Recent efforts in this direction have lead to the emerging field of polypharmacology. This appears to be a move in the right direction, but how much polypharmacology is enough? As the complexity of the processes underlying polypharmacology increase will we be able to understand them and their inter-relationships? Is "new" mathematics unfamiliar in much of physics and chemistry research needed to accomplish this task? A number of these questions will be addressed in this paper, which focuses on issues and questions not answers to the drug-discovery conundrum.

  14. Teaching Newton's Laws with the iPod Touch in Conceptual Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2011-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges in teaching physics is helping students achieve a conceptual understanding of Newton's laws. I find that students fresh from middle school can sometimes recite the laws verbatim ("An object in motion stays in motion…" and "For every action…"), but they rarely demonstrate a working knowledge of how to apply them to observable phenomena. As a firm believer in inquiry-based teaching methods, I like to develop activities where students can experiment and construct understandings based on relevant personal experiences. Consequently, I am always looking for exciting new technologies that can readily demonstrate how physics affects everyday things. In a conceptual physics class designed for ninth-graders, I created a structured activity where students applied Newton's laws to a series of free applications downloaded on iPod Touches. The laws had been introduced during the prior class session with textual descriptions and graphical representations. The course is offered as part of the Enlace Latino Collegiate Society, a weekend enrichment program for middle and high school students in the Bronx. The majority of students had limited or no prior exposure to physics concepts, and many attended high schools where physics was not offered at all.

  15. The trespasses of property law.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify a limit to the appropriate application of property law to the use and storage of bodily material. I argue here that property law ought to be limited to protecting 'contingent rights' and that recent cases where property rights have been recognised in semen represent the application of property law beyond this limit. I also suggest how the law ought to develop in order to avoid the overextensive use of property law.

  16. Effects of infrared-A irradiation on skin: discrepancies in published data highlight the need for an exact consideration of physical and photobiological laws and appropriate experimental settings.

    PubMed

    Piazena, Helmut; Kelleher, Debra K

    2010-01-01

    Skin exposure to infrared (IR) radiation should be limited in terms of irradiance, exposure time and frequency in order to avoid acute or chronic damage. Recommendations aimed at protecting humans from the risks of skin exposure to IR (e.g. ICNIRP, ACGIH) are only defined in terms of acute effects (e.g. heat pain and cardiovascular collapse), whereas the actual exposure conditions (e.g. spectral distribution, exposure geometry, frequency and number of exposures, thermal exchange with the environment, metabolic energy production and regulatory responses) are not taken into consideration. Since the IR component of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface is mainly IR-A, and considering the increased use of devices emitting artificially generated IR-A radiation, this radiation band is of special interest. A number of in vitro and/or in vivo investigations assessing cellular or tissue damage caused by IR-A radiation have been undertaken. While such studies are necessary for the development of safety recommendations, the results of measurements undertaken to examine the interaction between skin and IR radiation emitted from different sources presented in this study, together with the detailed examination of the literature reveals a wide spectrum of contradictory findings, which in some instances may be related to methodological shortcomings or fundamental errors in the application of physical and photobiological laws, thus highlighting the need for physically and photobiologically appropriate experiments.

  17. Running to well-being: A comparative study on the impact of exercise on the physical and mental health of law and psychology students.

    PubMed

    Skead, Natalie K; Rogers, Shane L

    Research indicates that, in comparison to other university students, law students are at greater risk of experiencing high levels of psychological distress. There is also a large body of literature supporting a general negative association between exercise and stress, anxiety and depression. However, we are not aware of any studies exploring the impact of exercise on the mental health of law students specifically. This article reports evidence of a negative association between exercise and psychological distress in 206 law and psychology students. Compared to psychology students, the law students not only reported greater psychological distress, but, in addition, there was a stronger association between their levels of distress and their levels of exercise. Based on the results of this study, we suggest a simple yet effective way law schools might support the mental health of their students.

  18. The ICE hypothesis stands: How the dogma of late Cenozoic tectonic uplift can no longer be sustained in the light of data and physical laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. B.; Clausen, O. R.; Jacobsen, B. H.; Thomsen, E.; Huuse, M.; Gallagher, K.; Balling, N.; Egholm, D.

    2010-08-01

    In this reply, we address the issues raised by the comment of Chalmers et al. (2010) regarding our ICE hypothesis for the evolution of western Scandinavia. We reject their conjectures as based, uncritically and without consideration of physical mechanisms, on the long-standing dogma of late Cenozoic tectonic uplift. Our hypothesis, in contrast, honours well-documented physical laws and the present wealth of actual data constraints (as opposed to dogma-biased inferences). After careful consideration of the points raised by Chalmers et al. (2010) we maintain our simple explanation for the evolution of Scandinavian topography, as it honours well-documented actual data constraints, such as crustal structure (including its spatio-temporal variability), thermal history in the eastern North Sea, global and regional climatic change (including eustacy) and sedimentation in the adjacent basins. The inevitable conclusion is that, although more data constraints are desirable, the current best fit hypothesis, is that the Scandinavian topography is of Caledonide origin, and has been shaped by fluvial and glacial buzzsaw and periglacial processes, and most recently (last few Myr) been re-invigorated by extensive glacial erosion in the fjords and on the shelf.

  19. Patterns in Nature: Challenging Secondary Students to Learn about Physical Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching about the nature of science is seen as a priority within science education, and has also been highlighted as a suitable context for challenging the most able ("gifted") learners at secondary school level. This article discusses a practical session designed to introduce the idea of physical (natural) laws. The session asks…

  20. Laws of reflection and Snell's law revisited by video modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-07-01

    Video modelling is being used, nowadays, as a tool for teaching and learning several topics in Physics. Most of these topics are related to kinematics. In this work we show how video modelling can be used for demonstrations and experimental teaching in optics, namely the laws of reflection and the well-known Snell's Law of light. Videos were recorded with a photo camera at 30 frames/s, and analysed with the open source software Tracker. Data collected from several frames was treated with the Data Tool module, and graphs were built to obtain relations between incident, reflected and refraction angles, as well as to determine the refractive index of Perspex. These videos can be freely distributed in the web and explored with students within the classroom, or as a homework assignment to improve student's understanding on specific contents. They present a large didactic potential for teaching basic optics in high school with an interactive methodology.

  1. [Isn't the heart the source of energy for blood circulation? "The heart doesn't know the basic laws of physics"].

    PubMed

    Papp, Lajos

    2008-08-03

    For hundreds of years, universal medical practice has depicted the heart to be the central organ, showing the heart's function as the primary source of energy for blood circulation, paying particular importance to the role of the heart valves. At present the generally accepted paradigm: the main force component of blood circulation is the pressure-gradient generated by the working heart. In serious combined illnesses of heart valves, the function of the valve is almost nonexistent. Based on the value of pressure in the chambers of the heart and in the great arteries and veins, blood flows from a place of high pressure to lower pressure, and should work the other way around as well. It is a fact, however, that even in such cases the circulation of blood is directed from the main arteries towards the veins: without the function of the valves--seemingly opposing the basic laws of physics--it keeps its original direction. Therefore we can justifiably infer that it isn't the work of the heart muscle that provides the source of energy for blood circulation. The heart has an essential function in the maintenance of blood circulation: pulse generation. The principal role of the heart is to generate pulses and not pressure.

  2. Why is Ampère's law so hard? A look at middle-division physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manogue, Corinne A.; Browne, Kerry; Dray, Tevian; Edwards, Barbara

    2006-04-01

    Because mathematicians and physicists think differently about mathematics, they have different goals for their courses and teach different ways of thinking about the material. As a consequence, there are a number of capabilities that physics majors need in order to be successful that might not be addressed by any traditional course. The result is that the total cognitive load is too high for many students at the transition from the calculus and introductory physics sequences to upper-division courses for physics majors. We illustrate typical student difficulties in the context of an Ampère's law problem.

  3. Derivation of the Biot-Savart Law from Ampere's Law Using the Displacement Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschauer, Robert

    2013-12-01

    The equation describing the magnetic field due to a single, nonrelativistic charged particle moving at constant velocity is often referred to as the "Biot-Savart law for a point charge." Introductory calculus-based physics books usually state this law without proof.2 Advanced texts often present it either without proof or as a special case of a complicated mathematical formalism.3 Either way, little or no physical insight is provided to the student regarding the underlying physics. This paper presents a novel, basic, and transparent derivation of the Biot-Savart law for a point charge based only on Maxwell's displacement current term in Ampere's law. This derivation can serve many pedagogical purposes. For example, it can be used as lecture material at any academic level to obtain the Biot-Savart law for a point charge from simple principles. It can also serve as a practical example of the important fact that a changing electric flux produces a magnetic field.

  4. The Teaching of Constitutional Law in American Law Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haimbaugh, George D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the teaching of constitutional law used questionnaires sent to the dean of every law school approved by the Association of American Law Schools or the American Bar Association. Responses describe the basic course, advanced courses and seminars, teachers, goals, and examinations. (MLW)

  5. Law of the sea

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, E.L.

    1981-03-01

    The Law of the Sea Treaty is designed as an umbrella treaty to provide a general legal framework for dealing with sources of marine pollution, 85% of which are land-based. Unlike smaller bodies of water, the oceans may be too large to reverse the effects of pollution beyond a certain point. Besides land-based sources, the treaty addresses pollution from seabed activities, dumping, airborne pollutants, and vessels. Basic jurisdictional rights and duties are established that protect navigational freedoms as well as prevent pollution. (DCK)

  6. The Once and Future Second Law of Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth

    2008-08-01

    The second law of thermodynamics is a cornerstone of physics: together with its companion, the first law of thermodynamics, it is the support on which our scientific understanding of heat and the microscopic motion of atoms and molecules rests. Like Arthur, the once and future king (rex quondam, rex futurus), the second law is always with us, and always will be.

  7. Determination Instructions Efficiency of Teaching Methods in Teaching Physics in the Case of Teaching Unit "Viscosity. Newtonian and Stokes Law"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radulovic, Branka; Stojanovic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The use of different teaching methods has resulted in different quality and quantity of students' knowledge. For this reason, it is important to constantly review the teaching methods and applied most effectively. One way of determining instruction efficiency is by using cognitive load and student achievement. Cognitive load can be generally…

  8. Vermont Law School's Unique Master of Studies in Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suagee, Dean B.

    2003-01-01

    Vermont Law School offers a 1-year master of studies in environmental law for which the only prerequisite is a bachelor's degree. A fellowship program waives tuition and provides stipends for American Indians taking the program. Courses on federal Indian law complement the program. The Native community at nearby Dartmouth College provides social…

  9. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…

  10. Discussion on ``Foundations of the Second Law''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbey, Robert; Ao, Ping; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Cengel, Yunus; Foley, Andrew; Freedman, Steven; Graeff, Roderich; Keck, James C.; Lloyd, Seth; Maroney, Owen; Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Weissman, Michael

    2008-08-01

    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 4, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Seth Lloyd, Owen Maroney, Silviu Guiasu, Ping Ao, Jochen Gemmer, Bernard Guy, Gian Paolo Beretta, Speranta Gheorghiu-Svirschevski, and Dorion Sagan. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Why is the second law true? Is it an inviolable law of nature? If not, is it possible to develop a perpetual motion machine of the second kind? • Are second law limitations objective or subjective, real or apparent, due to the nature of physical states or the representation and manipulation of information? Is entropy a physical property in the same sense as energy is universally understood to be an intrinsic property of matter? • Does the second law conflict with quantum mechanics? Are the differences between mechanical and thermodynamic descriptions of physical phenomena reconcilable? Does the reversible law of motion of hamiltonian mechanics and quantum mechanics conflict with the empirical observation of irreversible phenomena?

  11. Large & Small: Exploring the Laws of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creutz, E.

    1976-01-01

    Illustrates how both large entities (such as stars and galaxies) and small entities (such as fundamental particles) obey the same physical laws. Discusses quantum mechanics, Newton's laws, and general relativity. (MLH)

  12. First law of black Saturn thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rogatko, Marek

    2007-06-15

    The physical process version and equilibrium state version of the first law of thermodynamics for a black object consisting of n-dimensional charged stationary axisymmetric black hole surrounded by a black rings, the so-called black Saturn, was derived. The general setting for our derivations is n-dimensional dilaton gravity with p+1 strength form fields.

  13. Teaching of Administrative Law in the New Grade of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domínguez Alonso, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of Administrative Law in the new grade of law poses numerous challenges and opportunities in the new model of Bologna. It's really important work of research and students in class presentations. It is also important to motivate students to study the issues and cases brought before classes and to use virtual platforms to interact with…

  14. First law of p-brane thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rogatko, Marek

    2009-08-15

    We study the physical process version and the equilibrium state version of the first law of thermodynamics for a charged p-brane. The general setting for our investigations is (n+p+1)-dimensional Einstein dilaton gravity with (p+2) strength form fields.

  15. Economics of mining law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  16. Human rights at work: Physical standards for employment and human rights law.

    PubMed

    Adams, Eric M

    2016-06-01

    This review focuses on the human rights dimensions of creating and implementing physical standards for employment for prospective and incumbent employees. The review argues that physical standards for employment engage two fundamental legal concepts of employment law: freedom of contract and workplace human rights. While the former promotes an employer's right to set workplace standards and make decisions of whom to hire and terminate, the latter prevents employers from discriminating against individuals contrary to human rights legislation. With reference to applicable human rights legislative regimes and their judicial interpretation in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, this review demonstrates the judicial preference for criterion validation in testing mechanisms in the finding of bona fide occupational requirements. With particular attention to the Supreme Court of Canada decision in Meiorin, this review argues that an effective balance between workplace safety and human rights concerns can be found, not in applying different standards to different groups of individuals, but in an approach that holds employers to demonstrating a sufficient connection between a uniform physical standard of employment and the actual minimum requirements to perform the job safety and efficiently. Combined with an employer's duty to accommodate, such an approach to lawful physical standards for employment conceives of worker and public safety and workplace diversity as emanating from a shared concern for human rights.

  17. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel, Mark Ya.

    2005-07-01

    Exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal- environment interactions (metabolism etc) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kind of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  18. Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov

    2007-01-01

    Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their…

  19. The law of attrition.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2005-03-31

    In an ongoing effort of this Journal to develop and further the theories, models, and best practices around eHealth research, this paper argues for the need for a "science of attrition", that is, a need to develop models for discontinuation of eHealth applications and the related phenomenon of participants dropping out of eHealth trials. What I call "law of attrition" here is the observation that in any eHealth trial a substantial proportion of users drop out before completion or stop using the application. This feature of eHealth trials is a distinct characteristic compared to, for example, drug trials. The traditional clinical trial and evidence-based medicine paradigm stipulates that high dropout rates make trials less believable. Consequently eHealth researchers tend to gloss over high dropout rates, or not to publish their study results at all, as they see their studies as failures. However, for many eHealth trials, in particular those conducted on the Internet and in particular with self-help applications, high dropout rates may be a natural and typical feature. Usage metrics and determinants of attrition should be highlighted, measured, analyzed, and discussed. This also includes analyzing and reporting the characteristics of the subpopulation for which the application eventually "works", ie, those who stay in the trial and use it. For the question of what works and what does not, such attrition measures are as important to report as pure efficacy measures from intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses. In cases of high dropout rates efficacy measures underestimate the impact of an application on a population which continues to use it. Methods of analyzing attrition curves can be drawn from survival analysis methods, eg, the Kaplan-Meier analysis and proportional hazards regression analysis (Cox model). Measures to be reported include the relative risk of dropping out or of stopping the use of an application, as well as a "usage half-life", and prediction models

  20. Further investigation of examining students understanding of Lenz's law and Faraday's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Casey W.; Loverude, Michael E.

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic induction has been known to be a particularly difficult concept in introductory physics. In this project, we build upon our previous research on probing the difficulties students have with magnetic flux in regards to Lenz's Law and Faraday's Law. This presentation will explore student responses when the format of the instrument was reversed, so that students had to use a flux vs. time graph to infer details of the physical situation. Although the newer version of the survey identifies other difficulties students have, the student responses suggest the value of this reverse process in both probing student thinking and in instruction on magnetic flux.

  1. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 18-20: Sound; Temperature, Heat, and Thermodynamics: First Law; and Kinetic Theory of Gases].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  2. Law of the Minimum paradoxes.

    PubMed

    Gorban, Alexander N; Pokidysheva, Lyudmila I; Smirnova, Elena V; Tyukina, Tatiana A

    2011-09-01

    The "Law of the Minimum" states that growth is controlled by the scarcest resource (limiting factor). This concept was originally applied to plant or crop growth (Justus von Liebig, 1840, Salisbury, Plant physiology, 4th edn., Wadsworth, Belmont, 1992) and quantitatively supported by many experiments. Some generalizations based on more complicated "dose-response" curves were proposed. Violations of this law in natural and experimental ecosystems were also reported. We study models of adaptation in ensembles of similar organisms under load of environmental factors and prove that violation of Liebig's law follows from adaptation effects. If the fitness of an organism in a fixed environment satisfies the Law of the Minimum then adaptation equalizes the pressure of essential factors and, therefore, acts against the Liebig's law. This is the the Law of the Minimum paradox: if for a randomly chosen pair "organism-environment" the Law of the Minimum typically holds, then in a well-adapted system, we have to expect violations of this law.For the opposite interaction of factors (a synergistic system of factors which amplify each other), adaptation leads from factor equivalence to limitations by a smaller number of factors.For analysis of adaptation, we develop a system of models based on Selye's idea of the universal adaptation resource (adaptation energy). These models predict that under the load of an environmental factor a population separates into two groups (phases): a less correlated, well adapted group and a highly correlated group with a larger variance of attributes, which experiences problems with adaptation. Some empirical data are presented and evidences of interdisciplinary applications to econometrics are discussed.

  3. Outer space law: A problem of astronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, V.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of space law is discussed from the point of view of similarities and differences between hypothetical space law and current (1932) aviation law. International legal aspects and economic and cultural effects are also addressed.

  4. International Megan's Law of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Christopher H. [R-NJ-4

    2009-03-19

    04/27/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel‧, Mark Ya.

    2005-08-01

    The exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal-environment interactions (metabolism, etc.) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single-cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such a law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kinds of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species-specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single-cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  6. The co-discovery of conservation laws and particle families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Oliver

    This paper presents an epistemological analysis of the search for new conservation laws in particle physics that was especially prominent in the 1950s and 1960s. Discovering conservation laws has posed various challenges concerning the underdetermination of theory by evidence, to which physicists have found various responses. These responses include an appeal to a plenitude principle, a maxim for inductive inference, looking for a parsimonious system of generalizations, and unifying particle ontology and particle dynamics. The connection between conservation laws and ontological categories is a major theme in my analysis: While there are infinitely many conservation law theories that are empirically equivalent to the laws physicists adopted for the fundamental standard model of particle physics, I show that the standard family laws are the only ones that determine and are determined by the simplest division of particles into families.

  7. A 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'? Poor Law, Lunacy Law and Scotland's parochial asylums.

    PubMed

    Farquharson, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    Scotland's parochial asylums are unfamiliar institutional spaces. Representing the concrete manifestation of the collision between two spheres of legislation, the Poor Law and the Lunacy Law, six such asylums were constructed in the latter half of the nineteenth century. These sites expressed the enduring mandate of the Scottish Poor Law 1845 over the domain of 'madness'. They were institutions whose very existence was fashioned at the directive of the local arm of the Poor Law, the parochial board, and they constituted a continuing 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'. Their origins and operation significantly subverted the intentions and objectives of the Lunacy Act 1857, the aim of which had been to institute a public district asylum network with nationwide coverage.

  8. Faraday's Law, Lenz's Law, and Conservation of Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Lowell; Rottmann, Ray; Barrera, Regina

    2003-03-01

    A magnet accelerates upward through a coil and generates an emf that is recorded by a data acquisition system and a computer. Simultaneously, the position of the magnet as a function of time is recorded using a photogate/pulley system. When the circuit is completed by adding an appropriate load resistor, a current that opposes the flux change is generated in the coil. This current causes a magnetic field in the coil that decreases the acceleration of the rising magnet, a fact that is evident from the position versus time data. The energy dissipated by the resistance in the circuit is shown experimentally to equal the loss in mechanical energy of the system to within a few percent, thus demonstrating conservation of energy. The graphs of speed squared versus displacement show the changes in acceleration produced by the interaction of the induced current and the magnet. Students in introductory physics laboratories have successfully performed this experiment and are able to see many relevant features of Faraday's law.

  9. The Physics of Juggling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Bengt; Tiemann, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Explores the basic physical laws of the juggling activity. Derives some equations involving height, angle, time, and distance for common juggling objects. Describes the relationships among height, length, mass, number of clubs, number of spins, angular velocity, time, and angle in club juggling. (YP)

  10. Student conception and perception of Newton's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handhika, Jeffry; Cari, C.; Soeparmi, A.; Sunarno, Widha

    2016-02-01

    This research aims to reveal the student's conception and perception of Newton's Law. Method of this research is qualitative with the sample is taken using purposive sampling consist of second semester (25 students), fourth semester (26 students), sixth semester VI (25 students), and eight semester (18 students) IKIP PGRI MADIUN, which have taken the first basic physics and mechanics courses The data was collected with essay questions, interview, and FCI test. It can be concluded that Mathematical language (symbol and visual) perception and intuition influence students conception. The results of analysis showed that an incorrect conception arises because students do not understand the language of physics and mathematics correctly.

  11. Laws of valley growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seybold, Hansjoerg; Yi, Robert; Willenbring, Jane; Kirchner, James; Rothman, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The question of how the channel heads advance has long been debated [1,2]. By studying a simplified setting - channels incised by re-emerging groundwater flow - we seek insight into the headward growth of channel networks, by combining theoretical modeling with field observations. A concept for how such seepage channel systems form was first proposed by T. Dunne in the early 1980s [2]. A small bulge in the sidewall of a stream focuses ground water flow. This results in a larger flux and therefore a higher erosion rate in this direction. Over time such small perturbations grow into newly formed streams, but how they do so and how erosion depends on the water flux is unclear. The theory of diffusive growth provides a theoretical framework to describe channelization in response to groundwater flow. For this system the underlying physical equations are well-defined, and numerical and analytical predictions can be obtained and tested in the field. If a stream advances at a rate v˜ q^η, where q is the discharge of ground water into the tip, theory predicts that η has to be smaller than a critical value η^star to obtain ramified networks [3]. We test this hypothesis by measuring erosion rates in a field site in the Florida Panhandle, which provides a natural laboratory to study channel incision by re-emerging groundwater flow [4]. Our theoretical network reconstruction yields tip growth rates which we can directly compare to observational rates obtained from cosmogenic 10Be measurements. This comparison of theory and observation allows us to verify the existence of a constitutive discharge-erosion relation, and to better characterize growth and competition of streams at the channel head. [1] Montgommery, D. R. and Dietrich, W. E. Where do channels begin?, Nature, 336, no. 6196 (1988): 232-234 [2] Dunne, T. Formation and controls of channel networks, Prog. Phys. Geogr., 4 (1980): 211-239 [3] Carleson, L. and Makarov, N. Laplacian path models, J. Anal. Math., 87, no. 1

  12. The Contingency of Laws of Nature in Science and Theology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Lydia

    2010-10-01

    The belief that laws of nature are contingent played an important role in the emergence of the empirical method of modern physics. During the scientific revolution, this belief was based on the idea of voluntary creation. Taking up Peter Mittelstaedt’s work on laws of nature, this article explores several alternative answers which do not overtly make use of metaphysics: some laws are laws of mathematics; macroscopic laws can emerge from the interplay of numerous subsystems without any specific microscopic nomic structures (John Wheeler’s “law without law”); laws are the preconditions of scientific experience (Kant); laws are theoretical abstractions which only apply in very limited circumstances (Nancy Cartwright). Whereas Cartwright’s approach is in tension with modern scientific methodology, the first three strategies count as illuminating, though partial answers. It is important for the empirical method of modern physics that these three strategies, even when taken together, do not provide a complete explanation of the order of nature. Thus the question of why laws are valid is still relevant. In the concluding section, I argue that the traditional answer, based on voluntary creation, provides the right balance of contingency and coherence which is in harmony with modern scientific method.

  13. Standard Model of Particle Physics--a health physics perspective.

    PubMed

    Bevelacqua, J J

    2010-11-01

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics is reviewed with an emphasis on its relationship to the physics supporting the health physics profession. Concepts important to health physics are emphasized and specific applications are presented. The capability of the Standard Model to provide health physics relevant information is illustrated with application of conservation laws to neutron and muon decay and in the calculation of the neutron mean lifetime.

  14. Empirical Scaling Laws of Rocket Exhaust Cratering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Carly M.; Metzger, Philip T.; Immer, Christopher D.

    2005-01-01

    When launching or landing a space craft on the regolith of a terrestrial surface, special attention needs to be paid to the rocket exhaust cratering effects. If the effects are not controlled, the rocket cratering could damage the spacecraft or other surrounding hardware. The cratering effects of a rocket landing on a planet's surface are not understood well, especially for the lunar case with the plume expanding in vacuum. As a result, the blast effects cannot be estimated sufficiently using analytical theories. It is necessary to develop physics-based simulation tools in order to calculate mission-essential parameters. In this work we test out the scaling laws of the physics in regard to growth rate of the crater depth. This will provide the physical insight necessary to begin the physics-based modeling.

  15. The physics of ice cream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Chris

    2003-05-01

    Almost everybody likes ice cream, so it can provide an excellent vehicle for discussing and demonstrating a variety of physical phenomena, such as Newton's law of cooling, Boyle's law and the relationship between microstructure and macroscopic properties (e.g. Young's modulus). Furthermore, a demonstration of freezing point depression can be used to make ice cream in the classroom!

  16. Derivation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics from Boltzmann's Distribution Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    Shows how the thermodynamic condition for equilibrium in an isolated system can be derived by the application of Boltzmann's law to a simple physical system. States that this derivation could be included in an introductory course on chemical equilibrium to help prepare students for a statistical mechanical treatment presented in the curriculum.…

  17. [Law-making "pioneers" of scientometrics].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András; Schubert, Gábor

    2016-01-10

    The three much cited laws of scientometrics are the laws of Bradford, Lotka and Zipf. The authors briefly review the scientific career of the men behind the names, and that how they discovered the laws named after them. An outline is also given of the scientific aftermath of the laws and of the oeuvre of their eponym.

  18. A new Newton's law of cooling?

    PubMed

    Kleiber, M

    1972-12-22

    Several physiologists confuse Fourier's law of animal heat flow with Newton's law of cooling. A critique of this error in 1932 remained ineffective. In 1969 Molnar tested Newton's cooling law. In 1971 Strunk found Newtonian cooling unrealistic for animals. Unfortunately, he called the Fourier formulation of animal heat flow, requiring post-Newtonian observations, a "contemporary Newtonian law of cooling."

  19. The Law of Higher Education 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplin, William A.

    Designed to be used either independently or as a companion to "The Law of Higher Education" (1978), this book serves as a reference to current legal issues, as well as to primary and secondary materials concerning higher education law. Part One, Overview of Postsecondary Education Law, examines the evolution of law relating to postsecondary…

  20. Intraspecific scaling laws of vascular trees.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yunlong; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2012-01-07

    A fundamental physics-based derivation of intraspecific scaling laws of vascular trees has not been previously realized. Here, we provide such a theoretical derivation for the volume-diameter and flow-length scaling laws of intraspecific vascular trees. In conjunction with the minimum energy hypothesis, this formulation also results in diameter-length, flow-diameter and flow-volume scaling laws. The intraspecific scaling predicts the volume-diameter power relation with a theoretical exponent of 3, which is validated by the experimental measurements for the three major coronary arterial trees in swine (where a least-squares fit of these measurements has exponents of 2.96, 3 and 2.98 for the left anterior descending artery, left circumflex artery and right coronary artery trees, respectively). This scaling law as well as others agrees very well with the measured morphometric data of vascular trees in various other organs and species. This study is fundamental to the understanding of morphological and haemodynamic features in a biological vascular tree and has implications for vascular disease.

  1. The laws of cell energetics.

    PubMed

    Skulachev, V P

    1992-09-01

    Recent progress in membrane bioenergetics studies has resulted in the important discovery that Na+ can effectively substitute for H+ as the energy coupling ion. This means that living cells can possess three convertible energy currencies, i.e. ATP, protonic and sodium potentials. Analysis of interrelations of these components in various types of living cells allows bioenergetic laws of universal applicability to be inferred.

  2. The Ambiguity of Bradford's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Elizabeth A.

    1972-01-01

    Recent discussion of Bradford's law of scatter has been founded on two formulations that are not mathematically equivalent. A method of comparing the two formulations against empirical data is developed, and the results using four sets of existing data are discussed. (12 references) (Author/NH)

  3. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-04-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold up to age 106. At that age the death rate is about 50%. Beyond 106 there is so far no convincing statistical evidence available because the number of survivors are too small even in large nations. However, assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis using historical data over a time period of almost two centuries. Another prediction arising from this fixed-point model, is that, above a given population threshold, the lifespan of the oldest persons is independent of the size of their national community. This prediction is also supported by empirical evidence.

  4. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  5. The Law of the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Jean-Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Recounts problems related to the law of the sea and suggests that these problems could be dealt with in the classroom in an interdisciplinary manner. Problems include pollution control, fishing rights, development of deep sea mineral deposits, and shore access. (Author/DB)

  6. Law of Conservation of Muons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Feinberg, G.; Weinberg, S.

    1961-02-01

    A multiplicative selection rule for mu meson-electron transitions is proposed. A "muon parity" = -1 is considered for the muon and its neutrino, while the "muon parity" for all other particles is +1. The selection rule then states that (-1) exp(no. of initial (-1) parity particles) = (-1) exp(no. of final (-1) parity particles). Several reactions that are forbidden by an additive law but allowed by the multiplicative law are suggested; these reactions include mu{sup +} .> e{sup +} + nu{sub mu} + {ovr nu}{sub e}, e{sup -} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + mu{sup -}, and muonium .> antimuonium (mu{sup +} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + e{sup +}). An intermediate-boson hypothesis is suggested. (T.F.H.)

  7. Pre-service Elementary School Teachers' Ability to Account for the Operation of Simple Physical Systems Using the Energy Conservation Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadouris, Nicos; Hadjigeorgiou, Angela; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2014-12-01

    Energy is recognized as a core idea in science and, hence, a significant learning objective of science education. The effective promotion of this learning objective posits that teachers themselves possess sound conceptual understanding. This is needed for enabling them to organize effective learning environments for their students. In this study, we report on the results of an empirical investigation of teachers' understanding of energy. In particular, the focus is placed on pre-service teachers' ability to employ energy as a framework for analyzing the operation of physical systems. We have collected data from 198 pre-service teachers through three open-ended tasks that involved the application of the energy conservation principle to simple physical systems. The results corroborate the claim made in the literature that teachers typically do not possess functional, coherent understanding of this principle. Most importantly, the data serve to identify and document specific difficulties that hamper attempts to use energy for the analysis of the operation of physical systems. The difficulties we were able to document lend support to the idea that it is important to introduce the idea of energy degradation alongside the conservation of energy principle. The findings of this study have implications for the design of preparation programs for teachers, about energy. The findings also provide insights into the limitations of conventional teaching of energy, to which the participants had been exposed as students, in fostering coherent understanding of energy conservation.

  8. Derivation of Jurin's Law Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Miranda, Maria Tirado

    2011-01-01

    The capillary rise/fall of a liquid within a thin capillary tube is described by the well-established Jurin's law. The liquid reaches an equilibrium height/depth as the capillary pressure is balanced by the hydrostatic pressure. When the adhesion force at the three-phase contact line is counteracted by the liquid weight, the liquid column also…

  9. The Action as Natural Force and the Origin of Time, Space, Dimensions, Natural Forces, and Laws of Logics, Geometry and Physics at the Origination of the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2011-02-01

    The Action World Model contains a plausible description of the origination of the World, according to which, starting from the most simple condition of an inside itself logically necessary affirmation of its own existence, everything will be effectuated successively, so that its logical, geometrical and physical properties are aspects of the realization or aftereffects of primordial facts, without that this would exclude any external creation. The first dimensions with their natural constants which characterize them formally and subjectively, are: Number of produced Facts and Action, with single events and elementary action; Time and Energy, with their elementary units; Speed or Extension and Impulse, with the light speed and elementary length; Curvature or two Spatial Directions with gravitational constant, and by their corresponding primary natural forces are constituted these familiar for us.

  10. From Universal Laws of Cognition to Specific Cognitive Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chater, Nick; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2008-01-01

    The remarkable successes of the physical sciences have been built on highly general quantitative laws, which serve as the basis for understanding an enormous variety of specific physical systems. How far is it possible to construct universal principles in the cognitive sciences, in terms of which specific aspects of perception, memory, or decision…

  11. Reviews Book: George's Cosmic Treasure Hunt Book: 50 Physics Ideas You Really Need to Know Book: Head First Physics Book: Force and Motion—An illustrated Guide to Newton's Laws Book: Froth! The Science of Beer Equipment: SEP Charge Indicator Book: How Mathematics Happened—The First 50,000 Years Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    WE RECOMMEND George's Cosmic Treasure Hunt Another science-based kids' adventure from the Hawkings 50 Physics Ideas You Really Need to Know Brief, accessible descriptions of some complex physics Head First Physics Mechanics-focused non-traditional textbook Force and Motion—An illustrated Guide to Newton's Laws An original text aimed at students Froth! The Science of Beer A tongue-in-cheek physics-heavy guide to brewery science SEP Charge Indicator Classroom equipment that is affordable, usable and works How Mathematics Happened—The First 50,000 Years An enjoyable read suitable for student or teacher WEB WATCH Simulators can be useful teaching aids, as long as you remain aware of their flaws

  12. The laws of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Martin

    2015-03-01

    150 years after the publication of James Clerk Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism, virtually all of our modern technological society is underpinned by electromagnetic phenomena - from microwave dinners to the Internet. And yet the essence of Maxwell's theory is captured by just four equations, explained here by Martin Hendry.

  13. The constructal law of design and evolution in nature.

    PubMed

    Bejan, Adrian; Lorente, Sylvie

    2010-05-12

    Constructal theory is the view that (i) the generation of images of design (pattern, rhythm) in nature is a phenomenon of physics and (ii) this phenomenon is covered by a principle (the constructal law): 'for a finite-size flow system to persist in time (to live) it must evolve such that it provides greater and greater access to the currents that flow through it'. This law is about the necessity of design to occur, and about the time direction of the phenomenon: the tape of the design evolution 'movie' runs such that existing configurations are replaced by globally easier flowing configurations. The constructal law has two useful sides: the prediction of natural phenomena and the strategic engineering of novel architectures, based on the constructal law, i.e. not by mimicking nature. We show that the emergence of scaling laws in inanimate (geophysical) flow systems is the same phenomenon as the emergence of allometric laws in animate (biological) flow systems. Examples are lung design, animal locomotion, vegetation, river basins, turbulent flow structure, self-lubrication and natural multi-scale porous media. This article outlines the place of the constructal law as a self-standing law in physics, which covers all the ad hoc (and contradictory) statements of optimality such as minimum entropy generation, maximum entropy generation, minimum flow resistance, maximum flow resistance, minimum time, minimum weight, uniform maximum stresses and characteristic organ sizes. Nature is configured to flow and move as a conglomerate of 'engine and brake' designs.

  14. Library Laws of Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Richard E., Comp.

    Compiled to provide a central reference point for all legislative information pertaining to libraries in the State of Texas, this publication includes all pertinent legislation as amended through the 71st Legislature, 1989, Regular Session. This update of the 1980 edition has been expanded to include statutes pertaining to the school and academic…

  15. Nicole's Law of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Christopher H. [R-NJ-4

    2013-11-14

    01/09/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law.

  17. Library Laws of Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidenberg, Ed, Ed.

    Compiled to provide a central reference point for all legislative information pertaining to libraries in the state of Texas, this publication includes all pertinent legislation as amended through the 66th Legislature, Regular Session, 1979. It contains articles dealing specifically with archives, buildings and property, city libraries, non-profit…

  18. Teaching Law to the Public: Catalogue of Law School Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    This catalog was developed to provide useful information about the many "Teaching Law to the Public" law school-based projects operating around the country in 1993-94. Aimed at law school project staff members, it is a handy reference to other law school programs. The catalog also is intended as a guide for everybody involved in…

  19. Law of Federal Employment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-08

    Cir. 1993); Afifi v. United States Dep’t of Interior, 924 F.2d 61, 62 (4th Cir. 1991); Manning v. MSPB, 742 F.2d 1424 (Fed. Cir. 1984); Long v. United...district court, and bifurcated proceedings are prohibited. See Afifi , 924 F.2d at 62-63; Williams, 715 F.2d at 1490-91. According to one court, the no

  20. Degenerate Systems of Conservation Laws.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    uI, ..., un ) u(x,t) , f " (fl’ "**’ fn) and x c R, t ) 0. Such equations arise in applications of gas dynamics, elasticity, oil reservoir ... simulation and other areas of engineering when diffusion is neglected. In solutions of (1), information travels at speeds Xi given by the eigenvalues of...laws which is not strictly hyperbolic", MRC Technical Summary Report #2184, December 29, 1980. [13] Peaceman, D. W., Fundamentals of Numerical Reservoir

  1. 21 CFR 1307.02 - Application of State law and other Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... authorized or permitted to do under other Federal laws or obligations under international treaties... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of State law and other Federal law... MISCELLANEOUS General Information § 1307.02 Application of State law and other Federal law. Nothing in...

  2. Suggested Courseware for the Non-Calculus Physics Student: Newton's Laws, Energy, and Momentum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Joyce; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates five courseware packages covering the topics of Newton's laws and seven courseware packages for work, energy, momentum, and conservation laws. Discusses the price, sub-topics, program type, interaction, time, calculus required, graphics, and comments of each courseware. Selects some packages based on the criteria. (YP)

  3. [The law of the land].

    PubMed

    Bustin, Julián

    2010-01-01

    The mental health legislation in England has two essential pillars: The Mental Health Act 2007 and The Capacity Act 2005. The Mental Health Act is the legislation governing the formal detention and care of mentally disordered people in english hospitals. The Mental Capacity Act provides a statutory framework to empower and protect vulnerable people who are not able to make their own decisions. This article reviews certain essential aspects of these laws and the impact they have in daily practice.

  4. The Symmetry of Natural Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Laurie M.

    This document is a monograph intended for advanced undergraduate students, or beginning graduate students, who have some knowledge of modern physics as well as classical physics, including the elementary quantum mechanical treatment of the hydrogen atom and angular momentum. The first chapter introduces symmetry and relates it to the mathematical…

  5. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are…

  6. Evidence, temperature, and the laws of thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Vieland, Veronica J

    2014-01-01

    A primary purpose of statistical analysis in genetics is the measurement of the strength of evidence for or against hypotheses. As with any type of measurement, a properly calibrated measurement scale is necessary if we want to be able to meaningfully compare degrees of evidence across genetic data sets, across different types of genetic studies and/or across distinct experimental modalities. In previous papers in this journal and elsewhere, my colleagues and I have argued that geneticists ought to care about the scale on which statistical evidence is measured, and we have proposed the Kelvin temperature scale as a template for a context-independent measurement scale for statistical evidence. Moreover, we have claimed that, mathematically speaking, evidence and temperature may be one and the same thing. On first blush, this might seem absurd. Temperature is a property of systems following certain laws of nature (in particular, the 1st and 2nd Law of Thermodynamics) involving very physical quantities (e.g., energy) and processes (e.g., mechanical work). But what do the laws of thermodynamics have to do with statistical systems? Here I address that question.

  7. Property Tax Laws of Texas. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jay D., Jr.

    This booklet is basically a summary of a law book on the same subject by the same author. Although the 25 chapters of the larger work correspond directly to the chapters of the summary, this publication is not a law book in the usual sense. Rather, it is intended primarily to provide a simplified view of the property tax laws of Texas for tax…

  8. A Test of Star Formation Laws in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jonathan C.

    2010-02-01

    We use observations of the radial profiles of the mass surface density of total, Σ g , and molecular, ΣH2, gas rotation velocity and star formation rate surface density, Σsfr, of the molecular dominated regions of 12 disk galaxies from Leroy et al. to test several star formation laws: a "Kennicutt-Schmidt power law," Σsfr = Ag Σ1.5 g,2; a "constant molecular law," Σsfr = A H2ΣH2,2 the "turbulence-regulated laws" of Krumholz & McKee (KM) and Krumholz, McKee, & Tumlinson (KMT), a "gas-Ω law," Σsfr = B ΩΣ g Ω and a shear-driven "giant molecular cloud (GMC) collisions law," Σsfr = B CCΣ g Ω(1 - 0.7β), where β ≡ d ln v circ/d ln r. We find the constant molecular law, KMT turbulence law, and GMC collision law are the most accurate, with an rms error of a factor of 1.5 if the normalization constants are allowed to vary between galaxies. Of these three laws, the GMC collision law does not require a change in physics to account for the full range of star formation activity seen from normal galaxies to circumnuclear starbursts. A single global GMC collision law with B CC = 8.0 × 10-3, i.e., a gas consumption time of 20 orbital times for β = 0, yields an rms error of a factor of 1.8.

  9. A TEST OF STAR FORMATION LAWS IN DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Jonathan C.

    2010-02-10

    We use observations of the radial profiles of the mass surface density of total, {sigma} {sub g}, and molecular, {sigma}{sub H2}, gas rotation velocity and star formation rate surface density, {sigma}{sub sfr}, of the molecular dominated regions of 12 disk galaxies from Leroy et al. to test several star formation laws: a 'Kennicutt-Schmidt power law', {sigma}{sub sfr} = A{sub g} {sigma}{sup 1.5} {sub g,2}; a 'constant molecular law', {sigma}{sub sfr} = A {sub H2}{sigma}{sub H2,2}; the 'turbulence-regulated laws' of Krumholz and McKee (KM) and Krumholz, McKee, and Tumlinson (KMT), a 'gas-{omega} law', {sigma}{sub sfr} = B {sub {omega}}{sigma} {sub g}{omega}; and a shear-driven 'giant molecular cloud (GMC) collisions law', {sigma}{sub sfr} = B {sub CC}{sigma} {sub g}{omega}(1 - 0.7{beta}), where {beta} {identical_to} d ln v {sub circ}/d ln r. We find the constant molecular law, KMT turbulence law, and GMC collision law are the most accurate, with an rms error of a factor of 1.5 if the normalization constants are allowed to vary between galaxies. Of these three laws, the GMC collision law does not require a change in physics to account for the full range of star formation activity seen from normal galaxies to circumnuclear starbursts. A single global GMC collision law with B {sub CC} = 8.0 x 10{sup -3}, i.e., a gas consumption time of 20 orbital times for {beta} = 0, yields an rms error of a factor of 1.8.

  10. A novel study on Kepler’s law and inverse square law of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bingzhan; Zhen, Shengchao; Zhao, Han; Huang, Kang; Deng, Bin; Chen, Ye-Hwa

    2015-05-01

    The Udwadia-Kalaba equation is a simple, aesthetic, and thought-provoking description of the world at a very fundamental level. It is about the way systems move. In this paper, we creatively apply the Udwadia-Kalaba approach to study heavenly bodies’ movements (especially on Kepler’s law and the inverse square law of gravitation). In an alternative way, we show that a heavenly body’s motion orbit can be an ellipse, a circle, a hyperbola, or a parabola and show the conservation of angular momentum. Furthermore, by applying the Udwadia-Kalaba approach, we use the constraint of motion orbit (ellipse, circle, hyperbola, or parabola) and the conservation of angular momentum constraint (or energy conservation constraint) and easily verify that any heavenly body’s motion complies with the inverse square law of gravitation. That is, we study Kepler’s law and Newton’s inverse square law in an analytical way, which makes the dynamicist more clear about the way heavenly bodies move and also makes the celestial mechanician more clear about the analytical mechanics (the Udwadia-Kalaba approach). Furthermore, for the students of dynamics and celestial physics, a different unique perspective is provided for them to study. At the end, we present the detailed process of applying the Udwadia-Kalaba approach to two imaginary cases to show its simplicity and efficiency.

  11. The second laws of quantum thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Fernando; Horodecki, Michał; Ng, Nelly; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Wehner, Stephanie

    2015-03-17

    The second law of thermodynamics places constraints on state transformations. It applies to systems composed of many particles, however, we are seeing that one can formulate laws of thermodynamics when only a small number of particles are interacting with a heat bath. Is there a second law of thermodynamics in this regime? Here, we find that for processes which are approximately cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a different form compared to the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on state transformations, but an entire family of constraints. We find a family of free energies which generalize the traditional one, and show that they can never increase. The ordinary second law relates to one of these, with the remainder imposing additional constraints on thermodynamic transitions. We find three regimes which determine which family of second laws govern state transitions, depending on how cyclic the process is. In one regime one can cause an apparent violation of the usual second law, through a process of embezzling work from a large system which remains arbitrarily close to its original state. These second laws are relevant for small systems, and also apply to individual macroscopic systems interacting via long-range interactions. By making precise the definition of thermal operations, the laws of thermodynamics are unified in this framework, with the first law defining the class of operations, the zeroth law emerging as an equivalence relation between thermal states, and the remaining laws being monotonicity of our generalized free energies.

  12. Student Understanding of the First Law of Thermodynamics: Relating Work to the Adiabatic Compression of an Ideal Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loverude, Michael E.; Kautz, Christian H.; Heron, Paula R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of student understanding of the first law of thermodynamics. Involves students from a first-year university physics course and a second-year thermal physics course. Focuses on the ability of students to relate the first law to the adiabatic physics course. Discusses implications for thermal physics and mechanics…

  13. Law Schools and the Construction of Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garth, Bryant G.; Martin, Joanne

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the role of law schools in developing professional competence in lawyers reports on two surveys of law firm partners and junior lawyers, looks at what law schools do and do not teach, and examines how the latter has changed since the late 1970s. (MSE)

  14. Evaluation of the Tennessee Child Restraint Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allan F.

    This paper reports on a study of the effects of a Tennessee law aimed at increasing the protection of children in cars. The law, which came into force January 1, 1978, requires parents to use child restraints properly when transporting their children who are less than 4 years old. Alternatively, the law permits children to be held in arms, a…

  15. An Exact Formulation of Bradford's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.

    1980-01-01

    Demonstrates, with an example, a relatively simple method for fitting Bradford's law to empirical data to estimate the number of journals and articles in a subject collection. An exact discrete formulation illustrates Bradford's law as a special case of the Zipf-Mandlebrot "rank frequency" law. (Author/RAA)

  16. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 21-23: Second Law and Entropy; Coulomb's Law and the Electric Field; and Flux and Gauss' Law].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  17. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  18. The Law Clerk's Duty of Confidentiality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Judges were surveyed for their views on their law clerks' responsibility for confidentiality. Background is outlined, results are presented, and guidelines for law clerk conduct are suggested. The questionnaire is appended. Available from: Executive Editor, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 3400 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104, $6.50.…

  19. Thresholded Power law Size Distributions of Instabilities in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2015-11-01

    Power-law-like size distributions are ubiquitous in astrophysical instabilities. There are at least four natural effects that cause deviations from ideal power law size distributions, which we model here in a generalized way: (1) a physical threshold of an instability; (2) incomplete sampling of the smallest events below a threshold x0; (3) contamination by an event-unrelated background xb; and (4) truncation effects at the largest events due to a finite system size. These effects can be modeled in the simplest terms with a “thresholded power law” distribution function (also called generalized Pareto [type II] or Lomax distribution), N(x){dx}\\propto {(x+{x}0)}-a{dx}, where x0 > 0 is positive for a threshold effect, while x0 < 0 is negative for background contamination. We analytically derive the functional shape of this thresholded power law distribution function from an exponential growth evolution model, which produces avalanches only when a disturbance exceeds a critical threshold x0. We apply the thresholded power law distribution function to terrestrial, solar (HXRBS, BATSE, RHESSI), and stellar flare (Kepler) data sets. We find that the thresholded power law model provides an adequate fit to most of the observed data. Major advantages of this model are the automated choice of the power law fitting range, diagnostics of background contamination, physical instability thresholds, instrumental detection thresholds, and finite system size limits. When testing self-organized criticality models that predict ideal power laws, we suggest including these natural truncation effects.

  20. UN adopts Law of Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    After more than 8 years of diplomatic wrangling, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was adopted on April 30 by a vote of 130 to 4. The United States, Israel, Turkey, and Venezuela voted against the treaty; 17 nations—including the Soviet Union, West Germany, and Britain—abstained.The treaty, which would give nations the exclusive rights to natural resources in the continental shelf up to approximately 650 km offshore, will be signed in December. The treaty becomes effective 1 year after at least 60 nations ratify it.

  1. Between disorder and order: A case study of power law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yong; Zhao, Youjie; Yue, Xiaoguang; Xiong, Fei; Sun, Yongke; He, Xin; Wang, Lichao

    2016-08-01

    Power law is an important feature of phenomena in long memory behaviors. Zipf ever found power law in the distribution of the word frequencies. In physics, the terms order and disorder are Thermodynamic or statistical physics concepts originally and a lot of research work has focused on self-organization of the disorder ingredients of simple physical systems. It is interesting what make disorder-order transition. We devise an experiment-based method about random symbolic sequences to research regular pattern between disorder and order. The experiment results reveal power law is indeed an important regularity in transition from disorder to order. About these results the preliminary study and analysis has been done to explain the reasons.

  2. Emergence of protocellular growth laws.

    PubMed

    Rocheleau, Tristan; Rasmussen, Steen; Nielsen, Peter E; Jacobi, Martin N; Ziock, Hans

    2007-10-29

    Template-directed replication is known to obey a parabolic growth law due to product inhibition (Sievers & Von Kiedrowski 1994 Nature 369, 221; Lee et al. 1996 Nature 382, 525; Varga & Szathmáry 1997 Bull. Math. Biol. 59, 1145). We investigate a template-directed replication with a coupled template catalysed lipid aggregate production as a model of a minimal protocell and show analytically that the autocatalytic template-container feedback ensures balanced exponential replication kinetics; both the genes and the container grow exponentially with the same exponent. The parabolic gene replication does not limit the protocellular growth, and a detailed stoichiometric control of the individual protocell components is not necessary to ensure a balanced gene-container growth as conjectured by various authors (Gánti 2004 Chemoton theory). Our analysis also suggests that the exponential growth of most modern biological systems emerges from the inherent spatial quality of the container replication process as we show analytically how the internal gene and metabolic kinetics determine the cell population's generation time and not the growth law (Burdett & Kirkwood 1983 J. Theor. Biol. 103, 11-20; Novak et al. 1998 Biophys. Chem. 72, 185-200; Tyson et al. 2003 Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 15, 221-231). Previous extensive replication reaction kinetic studies have mainly focused on template replication and have not included a coupling to metabolic container dynamics (Stadler et al. 2000 Bull. Math. Biol. 62, 1061-1086; Stadler & Stadler 2003 Adv. Comp. Syst. 6, 47). The reported results extend these investigations. Finally, the coordinated exponential gene-container growth law stemming from catalysis is an encouraging circumstance for the many experimental groups currently engaged in assembling self-replicating minimal artificial cells (Szostak 2001 et al. Nature 409, 387-390; Pohorille & Deamer 2002 Trends Biotech. 20 123-128; Rasmussen et al. 2004 Science 303, 963-965; Szathma ry

  3. Numerical simulation of conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; To, Wai-Ming

    1992-01-01

    A new numerical framework for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new approach differs substantially from the well established methods, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element and spectral methods, in both concept and methodology. The key features of the current scheme include: (1) direct discretization of the integral forms of conservation laws, (2) treating space and time on the same footing, (3) flux conservation in space and time, and (4) unified treatment of the convection and diffusion fluxes. The model equation considered in the initial study is the standard one dimensional unsteady constant-coefficient convection-diffusion equation. In a stability study, it is shown that the principal and spurious amplification factors of the current scheme, respectively, are structurally similar to those of the leapfrog/DuFort-Frankel scheme. As a result, the current scheme has no numerical diffusion in the special case of pure convection and is unconditionally stable in the special case of pure diffusion. Assuming smooth initial data, it will be shown theoretically and numerically that, by using an easily determined optimal time step, the accuracy of the current scheme may reach a level which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the MacCormack scheme, with virtually identical operation count.

  4. Conservation laws and exact solutions of system of Boussinesq-Burgers equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbulut, Arzu; Kaplan, Melike; Taşcan, Filiz

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we study conservation laws that is one of the applications of symmetries. Conservation laws has important place for differential equations and their solutions, also in all physics applications. This study deals with conservation laws of Boussinessq-Burgers equation. We used Noether approach and conservation theorem approach for finding conservation laws for this equation. Also finally, we found exact solutions of this equation by using the modified simple equation method.

  5. A Control Model: Interpretation of Fitts' Law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    The analytical results for several models are given: a first order model where it is assumed that the hand velocity can be directly controlled, and a second order model where it is assumed that the hand acceleration can be directly controlled. Two different types of control-laws are investigated. One is linear function of the hand error and error rate; the other is the time-optimal control law. Results show that the first and second order models with the linear control-law produce a movement time (MT) function with the exact form of the Fitts' Law. The control-law interpretation implies that the effect of target width on MT must be a result of the vertical motion which elevates the hand from the starting point and drops it on the target at the target edge. The time optimal control law did not produce a movement-time formula simular to Fitt's Law.

  6. A Review of Model Public Health Laws

    PubMed Central

    Hartsfield, DeKeely; Moulton, Anthony D.; McKie, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    Model public health laws (public health laws or private policies publicly recommended by at least 1 organization for adoption by government bodies or by specified private entities) are promoted as exemplary. We assessed the information sponsors of model public health laws provide on the methods used in developing their models and on their models’ adoption and effectiveness. Through a systematic search, we identified 107 model public health laws published from 1907 to 2004. As of our assessment in 2005, only 18 (44%) of the sponsors presented any information on the procedures and evidence used in developing their model public health laws; information on adoption was provided for only 7 (6.5%) model laws. No sponsors provided information on model effectiveness. We recommend sponsors improve their disclosure of information about the methods and evidence used in developing model public health laws and about their adoption and effectiveness. PMID:17413072

  7. The Future of Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, David

    2005-10-19

    In this talk I will discuss 25 questions that might guide physics, in the broadest sense, over the next 25 years. The 25 questions are: (1) The origin of the Universe; (2) The nature of Dark Matter; (3) The nature of Dark Energy; (4) The formation of structures in the Universe; (5) The validity of General Relativity; (6) The validity of Quantum Mechanics; (7) The problems not solved by the Standard Model of particles; (8) The existence of supersymmetry; (9) The solution of QCD; (10) The nature of string theory; (11) The nature of space and time; (12) Whether the laws of physics are unique; (13) Can kinematics, dynamics and initial conditions be separated; (14) Are there new states of condensed matter; (15) The understanding of complexity in computing; (16) The construction of a quantum computer; (17) The existence of a room-temperature superconductor; (18) The existence of a theory of biology; (19) Deducing physical form from genomics; (20) The physical basis of consciousness; (21) Could a computer become a creative physicist; (22) How to avoid the balkanization of physics; (23) The scope of reductionism; (24) The role of theory; and (25) How to avoid depending on unrealizable big physics projects.

  8. Are There Laws of Genome Evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Koonin, Eugene V.

    2011-01-01

    Research in quantitative evolutionary genomics and systems biology led to the discovery of several universal regularities connecting genomic and molecular phenomic variables. These universals include the log-normal distribution of the evolutionary rates of orthologous genes; the power law–like distributions of paralogous family size and node degree in various biological networks; the negative correlation between a gene's sequence evolution rate and expression level; and differential scaling of functional classes of genes with genome size. The universals of genome evolution can be accounted for by simple mathematical models similar to those used in statistical physics, such as the birth-death-innovation model. These models do not explicitly incorporate selection; therefore, the observed universal regularities do not appear to be shaped by selection but rather are emergent properties of gene ensembles. Although a complete physical theory of evolutionary biology is inconceivable, the universals of genome evolution might qualify as “laws of evolutionary genomics” in the same sense “law” is understood in modern physics. PMID:21901087

  9. A Comparison between the Knowledge Organization of University Physics Teachers and the Textbooks They Use for Their Teaching Purposes: Biot-Savart Law and Ampère's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majidi, Sharareh

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge is not simply a collection of facts, principles, and formulas; instead, meaningful knowledge is organized around core concepts that guide peoples' thinking about a subject. Therefore, knowledge organization is recognized as an important component of understanding learning and teaching. In this research, knowledge organization of two…

  10. Current state of US breastfeeding laws.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu T; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne

    2013-07-01

    This study systematically examined state-level laws protecting breastfeeding, including their current status and historical development, as well as identified gaps across US states and regions. The National Conference of State Legislatures summarised breastfeeding laws for 50 states and DC as of September 2010, which we updated through May 2011. We then searched LexisNexis and Westlaw to find the full text of laws, recording enactment dates and definitions. Laws were coded into five categories: (1) employers are encouraged or required to provide break time and private space for breastfeeding employees; (2) employers are prohibited from discriminating against breastfeeding employees; (3) breastfeeding is permitted in any public or private location; (4) breastfeeding is exempt from public indecency laws; and (5) breastfeeding women are exempt from jury duty. By May 2011, 1 state had enacted zero breastfeeding laws, 10 had one, 22 had two, 12 had three, 5 had four and 1 state had laws across all five categories. While 92% of states allowed mothers to breastfeed in any location and 57% exempted breastfeeding from indecency laws, 37% of states encouraged or required employers to provide break time and accommodations, 24% offered breastfeeding women exemption from jury duty and 16% prohibited employment discrimination. The Northeast had the highest proportion of states with breastfeeding laws and the Midwest had the lowest. Breastfeeding outside the home is protected to varying degrees depending on where women live; this suggests that many women are not covered by comprehensive laws that promote breastfeeding.

  11. Simulation of the Physics of Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, W. Brian

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulations continue to prove to be a valuable tool in physics education. Based on the needs of an Aviation Physics course, we developed the PHYSics of FLIght Simulator (PhysFliS), which numerically solves Newton's second law for an airplane in flight based on standard aerodynamics relationships. The simulation can be used to pique…

  12. Origins of Newton's First Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Anyone who has taught introductory physics should know that roughly a third of the students initially believe that any object at rest will remain at rest, whereas any moving body not propelled by applied forces will promptly come to rest. Likewise, about half of those uninitiated students believe that any object moving at a constant speed must be…

  13. The physical nature of information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landauer, Rolf

    1996-07-01

    Information is inevitably tied to a physical representation and therefore to restrictions and possibilities related to the laws of physics and the parts available in the universe. Quantum mechanical superpositions of information bearing states can be used, and the real utility of that needs to be understood. Quantum parallelism in computation is one possibility and will be assessed pessimistically. The energy dissipation requirements of computation, of measurement and of the communications link are discussed. The insights gained from the analysis of computation has caused a reappraisal of the perceived wisdom in the other two fields. A concluding section speculates about the nature of the laws of physics, which are algorithms for the handling of information, and must be executable in our real physical universe.

  14. The Second Law of Thermodynamics in a Historical Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strnad, J.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the development of thermodynamics in physics, focusing on a strategy which enables students to grasp in a limited time and by means of simple calculus the main implications of the second law essential for everyday life (understanding operation of heat engines, refrigerators, heat pumps, district heating, and energy degradation). (JN)

  15. Scaling laws of human interaction activity.

    PubMed

    Rybski, Diego; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Havlin, Shlomo; Liljeros, Fredrik; Makse, Hernán A

    2009-08-04

    Even though people in our contemporary technological society are depending on communication, our understanding of the underlying laws of human communicational behavior continues to be poorly understood. Here we investigate the communication patterns in 2 social Internet communities in search of statistical laws in human interaction activity. This research reveals that human communication networks dynamically follow scaling laws that may also explain the observed trends in economic growth. Specifically, we identify a generalized version of Gibrat's law of social activity expressed as a scaling law between the fluctuations in the number of messages sent by members and their level of activity. Gibrat's law has been essential in understanding economic growth patterns, yet without an underlying general principle for its origin. We attribute this scaling law to long-term correlation patterns in human activity, which surprisingly span from days to the entire period of the available data of more than 1 year. Further, we provide a mathematical framework that relates the generalized version of Gibrat's law to the long-term correlated dynamics, which suggests that the same underlying mechanism could be the source of Gibrat's law in economics, ranging from large firms, research and development expenditures, gross domestic product of countries, to city population growth. These findings are also of importance for designing communication networks and for the understanding of the dynamics of social systems in which communication plays a role, such as economic markets and political systems.

  16. Robust Statistical Detection of Power-Law Cross-Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blythe, Duncan A. J.; Nikulin, Vadim V.; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-06-01

    We show that widely used approaches in statistical physics incorrectly indicate the existence of power-law cross-correlations between financial stock market fluctuations measured over several years and the neuronal activity of the human brain lasting for only a few minutes. While such cross-correlations are nonsensical, no current methodology allows them to be reliably discarded, leaving researchers at greater risk when the spurious nature of cross-correlations is not clear from the unrelated origin of the time series and rather requires careful statistical estimation. Here we propose a theory and method (PLCC-test) which allows us to rigorously and robustly test for power-law cross-correlations, correctly detecting genuine and discarding spurious cross-correlations, thus establishing meaningful relationships between processes in complex physical systems. Our method reveals for the first time the presence of power-law cross-correlations between amplitudes of the alpha and beta frequency ranges of the human electroencephalogram.

  17. The constructal law of design and evolution in nature

    PubMed Central

    Bejan, Adrian; Lorente, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Constructal theory is the view that (i) the generation of images of design (pattern, rhythm) in nature is a phenomenon of physics and (ii) this phenomenon is covered by a principle (the constructal law): ‘for a finite-size flow system to persist in time (to live) it must evolve such that it provides greater and greater access to the currents that flow through it’. This law is about the necessity of design to occur, and about the time direction of the phenomenon: the tape of the design evolution ‘movie’ runs such that existing configurations are replaced by globally easier flowing configurations. The constructal law has two useful sides: the prediction of natural phenomena and the strategic engineering of novel architectures, based on the constructal law, i.e. not by mimicking nature. We show that the emergence of scaling laws in inanimate (geophysical) flow systems is the same phenomenon as the emergence of allometric laws in animate (biological) flow systems. Examples are lung design, animal locomotion, vegetation, river basins, turbulent flow structure, self-lubrication and natural multi-scale porous media. This article outlines the place of the constructal law as a self-standing law in physics, which covers all the ad hoc (and contradictory) statements of optimality such as minimum entropy generation, maximum entropy generation, minimum flow resistance, maximum flow resistance, minimum time, minimum weight, uniform maximum stresses and characteristic organ sizes. Nature is configured to flow and move as a conglomerate of ‘engine and brake’ designs. PMID:20368252

  18. Algebraic Proof of the Distributive Law for Vector Multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Courses in first year mechanics generally start with an introduction to vector methods which include scalar and vector multiplication1. While the demonstration of the validity of the distributive law for scalar multiplication is straightforward, this is not so for vector multiplication. The latter requires complicated geometrical visualization, so its proof is often skipped1. Neither the commutative nor associative law holds for vector multiplication, so there is no a priori reason that the distributive law should hold. In this paper we present an algebraic approach to the proof that requires no geometric visualization. It is based on two relations: (1) the distributive law for scalar multiplication and (2) a*(bxc) =c*(axb) =b*(cxa). 1. e.g. C. Kittlel, W.D. Knight, M.A. Ruderman, Mechanics, Berkeley Physics Course Vol. 1, 2nd ed. McGraw Hill, pp34-39.

  19. On the applicability of Benford's Law in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambridge, M.; Tkalcic, H.; Jackson, A.

    2009-12-01

    Benford's Law is a curious property of numerous datasets whereby the frequency distribution of the first digit (i.e. first non zero number from the left) follows a well defined logarithmic function, namely P_D = log_b(1+1/D), where D is the first digit and b is the base of the data. This was initially observed by Newcomb (1881) and later quantified and expanded by Benford (1938). The latter author first put forward a set of 20 distinct data sets with differing physical dimension and character which collectively obeyed this 1st digit law. The nature of each data is the most startling feature of all in that they range from physical properties of matter such as molecular weight and specific heat capacity through river areas and drainage rates to population numbers in the USA as well as American baseball league averages of 1936. A universal law of digits was proposed by Benford and in recent times has been widely accepted. Investigations into the nature and use of Benford's Law have continued in multiple fields. Mathematicians have more recently proven the correctness of this universal law of digits under general conditions and Nigrini (1992) has made use of it for uncovering anomalous data errors and fraud in accountancy practices. To date Benford's Law appears to have received no attention within the Geosciences. Here we demonstrate its widespread applicability for geophysical data sets as well as models derived from data of varying type and physical dimension. Specifically we verify Benford's Law holds for a geomagnetic Field model of the Earth (gufm1), Seismic models obtained from tomography (including mantle shear wave and regional body wave P and S models for various parts of the globe), and the GRACE gravity model up to degree 160. It would appear that Benford's Law has widespread applicability to geoscience data. Departures from Benford's Law are of interest as they seem to indicate changes in the local character of data, possibly due to fraud, error, or

  20. Informational laws of genome structures

    PubMed Central

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Manca, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the analysis of genomes by means of strings of length k occurring in the genomes, called k-mers, has provided important insights into the basic mechanisms and design principles of genome structures. In the present study, we focus on the proper choice of the value of k for applying information theoretic concepts that express intrinsic aspects of genomes. The value k = lg2(n), where n is the genome length, is determined to be the best choice in the definition of some genomic informational indexes that are studied and computed for seventy genomes. These indexes, which are based on information entropies and on suitable comparisons with random genomes, suggest five informational laws, to which all of the considered genomes obey. Moreover, an informational genome complexity measure is proposed, which is a generalized logistic map that balances entropic and anti-entropic components of genomes and is related to their evolutionary dynamics. Finally, applications to computational synthetic biology are briefly outlined. PMID:27354155

  1. Informational laws of genome structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Manca, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the analysis of genomes by means of strings of length k occurring in the genomes, called k-mers, has provided important insights into the basic mechanisms and design principles of genome structures. In the present study, we focus on the proper choice of the value of k for applying information theoretic concepts that express intrinsic aspects of genomes. The value k = lg2(n), where n is the genome length, is determined to be the best choice in the definition of some genomic informational indexes that are studied and computed for seventy genomes. These indexes, which are based on information entropies and on suitable comparisons with random genomes, suggest five informational laws, to which all of the considered genomes obey. Moreover, an informational genome complexity measure is proposed, which is a generalized logistic map that balances entropic and anti-entropic components of genomes and is related to their evolutionary dynamics. Finally, applications to computational synthetic biology are briefly outlined.

  2. Discovering Trigonometric Relationships Implied by the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skurnick, Ronald; Javadi, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    The Law of Sines and The Law of Cosines are of paramount importance in the field of trigonometry because these two theorems establish relationships satisfied by the three sides and the three angles of any triangle. In this article, the authors use these two laws to discover a host of other trigonometric relationships that exist within any…

  3. The Strange World of Classical Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David

    2010-01-01

    We have heard many times that the commonsense world of classical physics was shattered by Einstein's revelation of the laws of relativity. This is certainly true; the shift from our everyday notions of time and space to those revealed by relativity is one of the greatest stretches the mind can make. What is seldom appreciated is that the laws of…

  4. Get a Kick Out of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildreth, David P.; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a number of demonstrations for physics that employ techniques of the martial arts to illustrate Newton's second law of motion. Demonstrations focus on the breaking of wooden boards using weights. (DDR)

  5. Thermodynamic Laws of Neutrino and Photon Emission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, P. J.; Gallo, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    Compares neutrino and photon emissions, develops the thermodynamic blackbody laws of neutrino emission analogous to laws governing photon emission, points out that combined radiation from a "true blackbody" consists of both photon and neutrino emissions of comparable magnitude, and speculates upon the existence of blackbody neutrino…

  6. Evaluation of the Law Focus Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Patricia J.; Workman, Eva Mae

    1974-01-01

    This evaluation of the Law Focused Curriculum Project of the Oklahoma Public Schools analyzes the human and nonhuman resources utilized in the project, and the nature and extent of activities. The first part of the document examines the program and its objectives. School-age citizens are to become acquainted with the law, the functions and…

  7. The Physics of a Gymnastics Flight Element

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contakos, Jonas; Carlton, Les G.; Thompson, Bruce; Suddaby, Rick

    2009-01-01

    From its inception, performance in the sport of gymnastics has relied on the laws of physics to create movement patterns and static postures that appear almost impossible. In general, gymnastics is physics in motion and can provide an ideal framework for studying basic human modeling techniques and physical principles. Using low-end technology and…

  8. The Official Ideology of American Law Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dent, George W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the seemingly all-powerful Association of American Law Schools (AALS) and the negative effects of its single-minded obsession with "diversity." He suggests ways in which true diversity of viewpoint might be injected into law school education. The key is to raise awareness and apply the same standards to all…

  9. The Yearbook of School Law 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K., Ed.

    This book consists of seven chapters, each focusing on a different major area of school law. Each article offers a comprehensive summary and analysis of all state supreme court and federal court decisions as well as other significant court decisions relevant to one particular school law topic. The cases discussed are generally limited to those…

  10. The Yearbook of School Law--1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K., Ed.

    This book consists of seven chapters, each focusing on a different major area of school law. Each article presents a comprehensive summary and analysis of all recent state supreme court and federal court decisions relevant to one particular school law topic. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1975 and reported in the…

  11. An Empirical Examination of Lotka's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Miranda Lee

    1986-01-01

    Findings of empirical examination of author productivity data to determine conformity to Lotka's law indicate that: most data didn't fit inverse square function; two constants in Lotka's formulation (slope n, constant c) must be derived from observed distribution; inverse square law was special case of inverse exponential relationship. (37…

  12. The Yearbook of Education Law, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J., Ed.

    The Education Law Association's yearbook of education law provides lawyers, administrators, and professors with a comprehensive review and analysis of the previous year's state and federal court decisions and legislation affecting the operation, management, and governance of public elementary and secondary schools, higher education, and…

  13. Time as a dimension of medical law.

    PubMed

    Harrington, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the importance of temporal categories in medical law argumentation. Proceeding from a view of time as plural, rhetorical, and socially produced, it argues that decision making in areas such as the access of minors to contraception, abortion law, end of life care, and emergency caesarian sections can be usefully read as struggles over appropriate time frames. Judges, legislators, and commentators seek to establish the plausibility of a given legal development with reference to the common sense understanding of time which it embodies. Such understandings may be plausible because of their resonance with the diverse temporalities of the law itself. Alternatively, they may reproduce the temporal frames proper to medical science. Not only is time represented in medical law rhetoric, but deliberation in such cases is also subject to temporal pressures which may significantly affect their outcome. The paper concludes by considering the broader political stakes of intertemporal struggles in medical law.

  14. Newton and the Second Law of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    Deals generally with historical errors in science teaching and specifically with Newton's conception of his second law of motion. With reference to Newton's "Principia", the author concludes that Newton would not understand what we today refer to as "Newton's Second Law." (MLH)

  15. Regularities in Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the assumption that Spearman's law acts unsystematically and approximately uniformly for various subtests of cognitive ability in an IQ test battery when high- and low-ability IQ groups are selected. Data from national standardization samples for Wechsler adult and child IQ tests affirm regularities in Spearman's "Law of Diminishing…

  16. Ways of the Law. Lesson Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Jack C.

    Designed to acquaint high school students with those areas of the law that they are most likely to come in contact with, this series of 15 lessons can be used in government, citizenship, law, family living, and economics classes. Although originally developed to be used with a television series, the document can be adapted to other uses. Following…

  17. Application of Bradford's Law to Citation Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Gloria S.

    1981-01-01

    Indicates that Bradford's law may be applied with a relatively high degree of confidence to citations in library science periodicals. The study tests verbal and graphical formulations of the law using 5,628 citations to journal literature referenced in College and Research Libraries and Special Libraries between 1940 and 1974. (RAA)

  18. The constructal law and the evolution of design in nature.

    PubMed

    Bejan, Adrian; Lorente, Sylvie

    2011-10-01

    The constructal law accounts for the universal phenomenon of generation and evolution of design (configuration, shape, structure, pattern, rhythm). This phenomenon is observed across the board, in animate, inanimate and human systems. The constructal law states the time direction of the evolutionary design phenomenon. It defines the concept of design evolution in physics. Along with the first and second law, the constructal law elevates thermodynamics to a science of systems with configuration. In this article we review the more recent work of our group, with emphasis on the advances made with the constructal law in the natural sciences. Highlighted are the oneness of animate and inanimate designs, the origin of finite-size organs on animals and vehicles, the flow of stresses as the generator of design in solid structures (skeletons, vegetation), the universality and rigidity of hierarchy in all flow systems, and the global design of human flows. Noteworthy is the tapestry of distributed energy systems, which balances nodes of production with networks of distribution on the landscape, and serves as key to energy sustainability and empowerment. At the global level, the constructal law accounts for the geography and design of human movement, wealth and communications.

  19. 150 Years of the Mass Action Law

    PubMed Central

    Voit, Eberhard O.; Martens, Harald A.; Omholt, Stig W.

    2015-01-01

    This year we celebrate the 150th anniversary of the law of mass action. This law is often assumed to have been “there” forever, but it has its own history, background, and a definite starting point. The law has had an impact on chemistry, biochemistry, biomathematics, and systems biology that is difficult to overestimate. It is easily recognized that it is the direct basis for computational enzyme kinetics, ecological systems models, and models for the spread of diseases. The article reviews the explicit and implicit role of the law of mass action in systems biology and reveals how the original, more general formulation of the law emerged one hundred years later ab initio as a very general, canonical representation of biological processes. PMID:25569257

  20. Stories of Human Autonomy, Law, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tranter, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Considering the relationship between human autonomy, law and technology has deep origins. Both technology studies and legal theory tell origin stories about human autonomy as the prize from either a foundational technological or jurisprudential event. In these narratives either law is considered a second order consequence of technology or…

  1. Law School Intentions of Undergraduate Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Thomas; Flanagan, David J.; Palmer, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that influence business students' intentions to enroll in law school. Scant research has focused on factors that influence business students' decisions to enroll in law school. This paper attempts to fill that gap. Hypotheses about student intentions are based on Ajzen & Fishbein's (1977) Theory…

  2. The law of the mother.

    PubMed

    Kemf, E

    1992-01-01

    The Congress Workshop on People and Protected Areas convened to discuss the need to combine modern science and traditional knowledge to effect sustainable development among indigenous peoples in the world. The founder of the Fundacion Pro-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta talked about development of training programs for displaced farmers and rehabilitation of Indian lands and villages in the Sierra Nevada of northern Colombia. The 3 indigenous peoples (Kogi, Arsario, and Arhuaco Indians) have only recently regained title to their forebears' lands. In fact, in 1990, the government of Colombia gave about 25% of the country back to indigenous populations. The forebears of the Kogi, Arsario, and Arhuaco Indians constructed great stone cities and advanced systems of agriculture, terracing, and irrigation. The Indians have lived under the Law of the Mother for thousands of years. This code dictates human behavior so that humans are in unity with plant and animal cycles, star movements, climatic phenomena, and the sacred geography of the coastal mountains. They are so much an integral part of their ecosystem that they even limit their population size. Now they resurrect villages in 2 national parks and indigenous reservations. Farmers who colonized the area since the 1960s must now leave the reserves and begin anew in nearby buffer zones. Here they learn revitalized agricultural techniques to abandon their illegal marijuana, cocaine, and poppy farming. At the workshop, participants also learned about conservation activities of the Imgrauen in the Banc d'Arguin National Park in Mauritania who continue to use dolphins to catch mullet. In India, the Bisnoi people living in the Rajasthan desert have established their own unofficial protected areas to keep the fragile ecosystem. Other examples were in Niger and Central Europe. The workshop participants agreed that recognition of land tenure and intellectual property rights were high priorities.

  3. Increasing the Drive of Your Physics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Stanley

    2008-01-01

    First-year physics students often have a difficult time grasping Newton's laws of motion and recognizing the forces that these laws depend on. The "Paper Car" project is an experiential activity that is rich in application of force principles. It is also simple enough that students are able to integrate straightforward but non-trivial physics…

  4. Some of Indonesian Cyber Law Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machmuddin, D. D.; Pratama, B.

    2017-01-01

    Cyber regulation is very important to control human interaction within the Internet network in cyber space. On the surface, innovation development in science and technology facilitates human activity. But on the inside, innovation was controlled by new business model. In cyber business activities mingle with individual protection. By this condition, the law should keep the balance of the activities. Cyber law problems, were not particular country concern, but its global concern. This is a good opportunity for developing country to catch up with developed country. Beside this opportunity for talented people in law and technology is become necessity. This paper tries to describe cyber law in Indonesia. As a product of a developing country there are some of weakness that can be explained. Terminology and territory of cyber space is become interesting to discuss, because this two problems can give a broad view on cyber law in Indonesia.

  5. Sources of Legal Liability among Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, Alla Joseph; Alayode, Ajibua Michael

    2012-01-01

    Legal issues in Physical Education are very germane to sport and physical activity development. Consequently, Physical Education teachers should be involved in studying laws that relates to P.E in the course of their professional preparation. It is worth noting that today, people are becoming more aware of their rights under the law. This has…

  6. Evolution of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, V. V.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the history surrounding the evolution of the second law of thermodynamics. Discusses Sadi Carnot's contributions, but also refers to those by Clapeyron, Thomson, Joule, Clausius, and Boltzman among others. (RR)

  7. Covariant Formulation of Hooke's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gron, O.

    1981-01-01

    Introducing a four-vector strain and a four-force stress, Hooke's law is written as a four-vector equation. This formulation is shown to clarify seemingly paradoxical results in connection with uniformly accelerated motion, and rotational motion with angular acceleration. (Author/JN)

  8. Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers' Ability to Account for the Operation of Simple Physical Systems Using the Energy Conservation Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadouris, Nicos; Hadjigeorgiou, Angela; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is recognized as a core idea in science and, hence, a significant learning objective of science education. The effective promotion of this learning objective posits that teachers themselves possess sound conceptual understanding. This is needed for enabling them to organize effective learning environments for their students. In this study,…

  9. Changing the Order of Newton's Laws--Why & How the Third Law Should Be First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue; Rayner, John P.; Gore, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Newton's laws are difficult both for teachers and students at all levels. This is still the case despite a long history of critique of the laws as presented in the classroom. For example, more than 50 years ago Eisenbud and Weinstock proposed reformulations of the laws that put them on a sounder, more logically consistent base than is presented in…

  10. The Pattern of Indoor Smoking Restriction Law Transitions, 1970–2009: Laws Are Sticky

    PubMed Central

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Zerbe, Brandon; Song, Anna V.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the pattern of the passage of smoking laws across venues (government and private workplaces, restaurants, bars) and by strength (no law to 100% smoke-free). Methods. We conducted transition analyses of local and state smoking restrictions passed between 1970 and 2009, with data from the Americans for Nonsmokers’ Rights Ordinance Database. Results. Each decade, more laws were enacted, from 18 passed in the 1970s to 3172 in the first decade of this century, when 91% of existing state laws were passed. Most laws passed took states and localities from no law to some level of smoking restriction, and most new local (77%; 5148/6648) and state (73%; 115/158) laws passed in the study period did not change strength. Conclusions. Because these laws are “sticky”—once a law has passed, strength of the law and venues covered do not change often—policymakers and advocates should focus on passing strong laws the first time, rather than settling for less comprehensive laws with the hope of improving them in the future. PMID:23763408

  11. Bruno Rossi and the Racial Laws of Fascist Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonolis, Luisa

    2011-03-01

    Bruno Rossi (1905-1993), one of the giants of 20th-century physics, was a pioneer in cosmic-ray physics and virtually every other aspect of high-energy astrophysics. His scientific career began at the University of Florence in 1928 and continued at the University of Padua until 1938, when the Fascist anti-Semitic racial laws were passed in Italy. He was dismissed from his professorship and was forced to emigrate, as described in unpublished letters and documents that display the international character of physics and physicists. His young bride Nora Lombroso, his love of physics, and the solidarity of the physics community gave him the courage to begin a new life in Copenhagen, Manchester, and in the New World at the University of Chicago, Cornell University, Los Alamos, and after the Second World War at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he became the center of a worldwide research network.

  12. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  13. 29 CFR 18.302 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Applicability of state law. 18.302 Section 18.302 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Presumptions § 18.302 Applicability of state law... State law supplies the rule of decision is determined in accordance with State law. Relevancy and...

  14. 37 CFR 11.117 - Sale of law practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sale of law practice. 11.117... of Professional Conduct Client-Practitioner Relationship § 11.117 Sale of law practice. A practitioner or a law firm may sell or purchase a law practice, or an area of law practice, including good...

  15. NASA and the practice of space law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for increased awareness in space law due to advances in space technology and a trend toward commercialization of space. A list of national and international treaties, conventions, agreements, laws, and regulations relevant to space activities is presented. NASA lawyers specialize in international and municipal laws that affect the NASA space mission; an example of the lawyers working with insurance companies in negotiating the first Space Shuttle liability policy is provided. The increased participation of the public sector in space activities, for example, the commercialization of the Space Shuttle transportation system, is examined.

  16. Introducing the Notion of Bare and Effective Mass via Newton's Second Law of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Marcus Benghi

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of bare and effective mass are widely used within modern physics. Their meaning is discussed in advanced undergraduate and graduate courses such as solid state physics, nuclear physics and quantum field theory. Here I discuss how these concepts may be introduced together with the discussion of Newton's second law of motion. The…

  17. Physical Fitness Programs for Law Enforcement Officers: A Manual for Police Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Clifford S.; And Others

    This manual is the final report of a study on the development of methods and programs to promote physical fitness among police officers. In twelve chapters the following topics are covered: (1) principles of exercise; (2) research methodology used to compile this manual; (3) results of physical fitness evaluation of program volunteers; (4)…

  18. Modeling of body mass index by Newton's second law.

    PubMed

    Canessa, Enrique

    2007-10-21

    Since laws of physics exists in nature, their possible relationship to terrestrial growth is introduced. By considering the human body as a dynamic system of variable mass (and volume), growing under a gravity field, it is shown how natural laws may influence the vertical growth of humans. This approach makes sense because the non-linear percentile curves of different aspects of human physical growth from childhood to adolescence can be described in relation to physics laws independently of gender and nationality. Analytical relations for the dependence of stature, measured mass (weight), growth velocity (and their mix as the body mass index) on age are deduced with a set of common statistical parameters which could relate environmental, genetics and metabolism and different aspects of physical growth on earth. A relationship to the monotone smoothing using functional data analysis to estimate growth curves and its derivatives is established. A preliminary discussion is also presented on horizontal growth in an essentially weightless environment (i.e., aquatic) with a connection to the Laird-Gompertz formula for growth.

  19. 31 CFR 212.9 - Preemption of State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preemption of State law. 212.9 Section... PAYMENTS § 212.9 Preemption of State law. (a) Inconsistent law preempted. Any State or local government law... inconsistency. A State law or regulation is inconsistent with this part if it requires a financial...

  20. Threshold Laws for Two-Electron Ejection Processes: A Still Controversial Problem in Atomic Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temkin, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    This talk deals with collision processes of the following kind: (a) an ionizing collision of an electron with a neutral atom, (b) a photon incident of a negative ion resulting in two-electron ejection. In both cases the final state is a positive ion and two outgoing electrons, and in principle both processes should be governed by the same form of threshold law. It is generally conceded that this is one of the most difficult basic problems in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The standard treatment (due to Wannier) will be briefly reviewed in terms of the derivation of his well- known threshold law for the yield (Q) of positive ions vs. the excess energy (E): Q(sub w) varies as E(exp 1.127...). The derivation is a brilliant analysis based on Newton's equations, leading to the dominance of events in which the two electrons emerge on opposite sides of the residual ion with similar energies. In contrast, I will argue on the basis of quantum mechanical ideas that in the threshold limit the more likely outcome are events in which the electrons emerge with decidedly different energies, leading to a formally different (Coulomb-dipole) threshold law Q(sub CD) varies as E(1 + C sin(alpha ln(E)+mu)]/[ln(E)](exp 2). Additional aspects of that approach will be discussed . Some: experimental results will be presented, and more incisive predictions involving polarized projectiles and targets will be given.

  1. 29 CFR 458.80 - Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges. 458.80 Section... Administrative Law Judges. In the event the Administrative Law Judge designated to conduct the hearing becomes unavailable, the Chief Administrative Law Judge shall designate another Administrative Law Judge for...

  2. An Analysis of Juvenile Court Laws in Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Walter S., III

    Statutory laws, case laws, and model laws have been provided in this report as a basis for comparing Mississippi's juvenile laws with other juvenile laws. Since legislation concerning juvenile courts is vast, complete legislation is only provided for the State of Mississippi and two model juvenile court acts. Discussion, however, is provided which…

  3. Teaching Kepler's Laws as More than Empirical Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Ellis D.

    2002-01-01

    At the pre-college and first-year college level of physics instruction, Kepler's laws are generally taught as empirical laws of nature. Introductory physics textbooks only derive Kepler's Second law of areas. It is possible to derive all of Kepler's laws mathematically from the conservation laws, employing only high-school algebra and geometry.…

  4. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  5. The rectified second law of thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Ben-Amotz, Dor; Honig, J M

    2006-10-12

    Equilibrium thermodynamics is combined with Jarzynski's irreversible work theorem to quantify the excess entropy produced by irreversible processes. The resulting rectified form of the second law parallels the first law, in the sense that it facilitates the experimental measurement of excess entropy changes resulting from irreversible work and heat exchanges, just as the first law quantifies energy changes produced by either reversible or irreversible work and heat exchanges. The general form of the rectified second law is further applied to a broad class of quasi-static irreverisble (QSI) processes, for which all of the thermodynamic functions of both the system and surroundings remain continuously well-defined, thus facilitating excess entropy measurements by integrating exact differential functions along QSI paths. The results are illustrated by calculating the mechanical and thermal excess entropy produced by the irreversible unfolding of an RNA molecule.

  6. The gravitational law of social interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Moshe; Goldenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    While a great deal is known about the topology of social networks, there is much less agreement about the geographical structure of these networks. The fundamental question in this context is: how does the probability of a social link between two individuals depend on the physical distance between them? While it is clear that the probability decreases with the distance, various studies have found different functional forms for this dependence. The exact form of the distance dependence has crucial implications for network searchability and dynamics: Kleinberg (2000) [15] shows that the small-world property holds if the probability of a social link is a power-law function of the distance with power -2, but not with any other power. We investigate the distance dependence of link probability empirically by analyzing four very different sets of data: Facebook links, data from the electronic version of the Small-World experiment, email messages, and data from detailed personal interviews. All four datasets reveal the same empirical regularity: the probability of a social link is proportional to the inverse of the square of the distance between the two individuals, analogously to the distance dependence of the gravitational force. Thus, it seems that social networks spontaneously converge to the exact unique distance dependence that ensures the Small-World property.

  7. The Due-Able Process Could Happen to You! Physical Educators, Handicapped Students, and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Susan O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This article presents basic information for regular and special physical educators to help them better understand the procedural rights of parents as well as the schools, and to help them make appropriate judgments for the physical education placement and programing of students with handicaps. (IAH)

  8. The Role of Law in Adaptive Governance

    EPA Science Inventory

    The term “governance” encompasses both governmental and nongovernmental participation in collective choice and action. Law dictates the structure, boundaries, rules, and processes within which governmental action takes place, and in doing so becomes one of the focal p...

  9. Respect for the Law Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Gallegly, Elton [R-CA-24

    2009-01-06

    02/09/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. The neuroeconomic path of the law.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Morris B

    2004-01-01

    Advances in evolutionary biology, experimental economics and neuroscience are shedding new light on age-old questions about right and wrong, justice, freedom, the rule of law and the relationship between the individual and the state. Evidence is beginning to accumulate suggesting that humans evolved certain fundamental behavioural predispositions grounded in our intense social natures, that those predispositions are encoded in our brains as a distribution of probable behaviours, and therefore that there may be a core of universal human law. PMID:15590608

  11. World Peace Through the Rule of Law

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    primarily a European con- clave .1 0 In so limiting its participants the Conference delib- erately limited its possibilities of worldwide influence. This...Non- accessible law is nonexistent law. Philosophers may debate whether there is really a sound when a tree crashes in a wilder- ness and the sound is...floor debate on the adoption of the recommendation of the Foreign Relations Committee. It added the following eight words to the previously cited

  12. Point of View: Ethics in the Classroom--Morality and the Laws of Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperstein, Alvin M.

    1982-01-01

    The first/second laws of thermodynamics are usually presented as straight physics. Local problems (such as heat engines) may be assigned but seldom is any effort made to examine universal human problems. Considering moral implications of these laws makes them relevant to students, gaining their attention and easing instruction. (Author/JN)

  13. Vavilov's Paradox: On Paper, It's a Violation of the Energy Conservation Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrikant, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the energy flux-density of two beams of light of equal energy that are intersected at a given angle. Examines an apparent contradiction to the physics law of conservation of energy known as Vavilov's paradox. (MDH)

  14. CYBERWAR-2012/13: Siegel 2011 Predicted Cyberwar Via ACHILLES-HEEL DIGITS BEQS BEC ZERO-DIGIT BEC of/in ACHILLES-HEEL DIGITS Log-Law Algebraic-Inversion to ONLY BEQS BEC Digit-Physics U Barabasi Network/Graph-Physics BEQS BEC JAMMING Denial-of-Access(DOA) Attacks 2012-Instantiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffmann, Master; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2013-03-01

    Newcomb-Benford(NeWBe)-Siegel log-law BEC Digit-Physics Network/Graph-Physics Barabasi et.al. evolving-``complex''-networks/graphs BEC JAMMING DOA attacks: Amazon(weekends: Microsoft I.E.-7/8(vs. Firefox): Memorial-day, Labor-day,...), MANY U.S.-Banks:WF,BoA,UB,UBS,...instantiations AGAIN militate for MANDATORY CONVERSION to PARALLEL ANALOG FAULT-TOLERANT but slow(er) SECURITY-ASSURANCE networks/graphs in parallel with faster ``sexy'' DIGITAL-Networks/graphs:``Cloud'', telecomm: n-G,..., because of common ACHILLES-HEEL VULNERABILITY: DIGITS!!! ``In fast-hare versus slow-tortoise race, Slow-But-Steady ALWAYS WINS!!!'' (Zeno). {Euler [#s(1732)] ∑- ∏()-Riemann[Monats. Akad. Berlin (1859)] ∑- ∏()- Kummer-Bernoulli (#s)}-Newcomb [Am.J.Math.4(1),39 (81) discovery of the QUANTUM!!!]-{Planck (01)]}-{Einstein (05)]-Poincar e [Calcul Probabilités,313(12)]-Weyl[Goett. Nach.(14); Math.Ann.77,313(16)]-(Bose (24)-Einstein(25)]-VS. -Fermi (27)-Dirac(27))-Menger [Dimensiontheorie(29)]-Benford [J.Am. Phil.Soc.78,115(38)]-Kac[Maths Stats.-Reason. (55)]- Raimi [Sci.Am.221,109(69)]-Jech-Hill [Proc.AMS,123,3,887(95)] log-function

  15. Validity of Darcy's law under transient conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mongan, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Darcy 's Law, which describes fluid flow through porous materials, was developed for steady flow conditions. The validity of applying this law to transient flows has been mathematically verified for most ground-water flow conditions. The verification was accomplished through application of Hankel transforms to linearized Navier-Stokes equations which described flow in a small diameter cylindrical tube. The tube was chosen to represent a single pore in a porous medium. (USGS)

  16. Evaluation of New Zealand's bicycle helmet law.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Colin F

    2012-02-10

    The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect on 1 January 1994. It followed Australian helmet laws, introduced in 1990-1992. Pre-law (in 1990) cyclist deaths were nearly a quarter of pedestrians in number, but in 2006-09, the equivalent figure was near to 50% when adjusted for changes to hours cycled and walked. From 1988-91 to 2003-07, cyclists' overall injury rate per hour increased by 20%. Dr Hillman, from the UK's Policy Studies Institute, calculated that life years gained by cycling outweighed life years lost in accidents by 20 times. For the period 1989-1990 to 2006-2009, New Zealand survey data showed that average hours cycled per person reduced by 51%. This evaluation finds the helmet law has failed in aspects of promoting cycling, safety, health, accident compensation, environmental issues and civil liberties.

  17. Stochastic model of Zipf's law and the universality of the power-law exponent.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Ken

    2014-04-01

    We propose a stochastic model of Zipf's law, namely a power-law relation between rank and size, and clarify as to why a specific value of its power-law exponent is quite universal. We focus on the successive total of a multiplicative stochastic process. By employing properties of a well-known stochastic process, we concisely show that the successive total follows a stationary power-law distribution, which is directly related to Zipf's law. The formula of the power-law exponent is also derived. Finally, we conclude that the universality of the rank-size exponent is brought about by symmetry between an increase and a decrease in the random growth rate.

  18. Comparative study of ZnO optical dispersion laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzourâa, M.-B.; Battie, Y.; Dalmasso, S.; Zaïbi, M.-A.; Oueslati, M.; Naciri, A. En

    2017-04-01

    We report a comparative study between Forouhi-Bloomer, Tauc-Lorentz and Tanguy dispersion laws for determining the reliable dielectric function of crystallized ZnO. ZnO layers were prepared by sol-gel method and deposited on crystalline silicon (c-Si) by spin coating. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was performed on ZnO/c-Si and each dispersion law was considered in the physical model for fitting SE experimental data. A best agreement was found between measurements and model. This applies in particular to the Tanguy dispersion. The physical parameters such as excitonic energy, optical gap, damping factor, real and imaginary parts of dielectric function were determined and analyzed. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) measurements were also used to approve the adequate dispersion law for ZnO material. We found by SE and PL measurements that Tanguy law dispersion can be considered as the most appropriate one for a correct description of ZnO optical dielectric function and for the interpretation of the absorption tail band and for the excitonic band of crystallized ZnO. The band-gap energy, excitonic energy and damping factor parameter are determined and analyzed. Their values (3.37 eV, 48 meV and 39 meV, respectively) extracted from ellipsometry are in good agreement with those obtained by PL measurements.

  19. Power law models of stock indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Man Kit

    Viewing the stock market as a self-organized system, Sornette and Johansen introduced physics-based models to study the dynamics of stock market crashes from the perspective of complex systems. This involved modeling stock market Indices using a mathematical power law exhibiting log-periodicity as the system approaches a market crash, which acts like a critical point in a thermodynamic system. In this dissertation, I aim to investigate stock indices to determine whether or not they exhibit log-periodic oscillations, according to the models proposed by Sornette, as they approach a crash. In addition to analyzing stock market crashes in the frequency domain using the discrete Fourier transform and the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, I perform a detailed analysis of the stock market crash models through parameter estimation and model testing. I find that the probability landscapes have a complex topography and that there is very little evidence that these phase transition-based models accurately describe stock market crashes.

  20. Scaling laws of vascular trees: of form and function.

    PubMed

    Kassab, Ghassan S

    2006-02-01

    The branching pattern and vascular geometry of biological tree structure are complex. Here we show that the design of all vascular trees for which there exist morphometric data in the literature (e.g., coronary, pulmonary; vessels of various skeletal muscles, mesentery, omentum, and conjunctiva) obeys a set of scaling laws that are based on the hypothesis that the cost of construction of the tree structure and operation of fluid conduction is minimized. The laws consist of scaling relationships between 1) length and vascular volume of the tree, 2) lumen diameter and blood flow rate in each branch, and 3) diameter and length of vessel branches. The exponent of the diameter-flow rate relation is not necessarily equal to 3.0 as required by Murray's law but depends on the ratio of metabolic to viscous power dissipation of the tree of interest. The major significance of the present analysis is to show that the design of various vascular trees of different organs and species can be deduced on the basis of the minimum energy hypothesis and conservation of energy under steady-state conditions. The present study reveals the similarity of nature's scaling laws that dictate the design of various vascular trees and the underlying physical and physiological principles.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE HEALTH LAW: OVERVIEW AND SUGGESTIONS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Tang, Daolu

    2014-07-01

    Health law is a rapidly developing law specialty in China. This article examines the current overall framework and evolution of Chinese health law, as a background to an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of this legal regime. Research suggests that: 1) The independent status of Chinese health law as jurisprudence and a specialty ought to be assured altogether; 2) The convergence between health law and other laws should be strengthened; 3) The current Chinese health law framework ought to be completed. This suggests the necessity to find ways to improve the independence of health law in China by eliminating the convergence and completing the legal framework.

  2. The Physics of NASCAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra

    2008-10-01

    A group of racecars piloted by the best drivers in NASCAR are turning a corner. Without warning, one of the cars suddenly hits the outside wall. There were no engine failures, no flat tires, and none of the cars touched so what happened? Understanding and being able to apply physics is a necessary (but far from sufficient) condition for winning races.ootnotetextDiandra Leslie-Pelecky, The Physics of NASCAR (Dutton, New York City, 2008). Every competitive race team has a technical staff involved in everything from applied engineering to basic research and development. Aerodynamicists, chemical engineers, statisticians and physicists have become important participants in the high-stakes world of motorsports. Although some drivers have engineering degrees, even those without them have developed a highly intuitive understanding of physics -- you don't keep your job long without a working knowledge of Newton's Laws of Motion. The inherent science in NASCAR is of interest at many levels, from the fan who wants to understand changes made to the car at pit stops to nanomaterials researchers looking for new ways to make racing simultaneously faster and safer. This presentation will introduce some of the fascinating physics of NASCAR and give teachers some ideas to use in the classroom. I'll touch on a range of topics from: how computational fluid dynamics is used to address the aerodynamic changes that challenge the driver by making his car behave differently around every corner; how advanced materials such as energy-absorbing foams have made racing significantly safer; and how nanoparticles may be able to keep engines from overheating despite running at 9500 rpm for three or four hours. Finally, I'll explore NASCAR, its teams and its sponsors are helping address the challenge of getting people interest math and science.

  3. Astronomical reach of fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Adam S.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2014-02-01

    Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law.

  4. Astronomical reach of fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Adam S; Ostriker, Jeremiah P

    2014-02-18

    Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law.

  5. Astronomical reach of fundamental physics

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Adam S.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2014-01-01

    Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law. PMID:24477692

  6. Application of Hamilton's Law of Varying Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    The application of Hamilton's Law to the direct solution of nonstationary as well as stationary problems in mechanics of solids is discussed. Solutions are demonstrated for conservative and monconservative, stationary and/or nonstationary particle motion. Mathematical models are developed to establish the relationships of the parameters.

  7. Law as a tool of public health.

    PubMed

    Akintola, S O

    2009-06-01

    The preservation of the public's health is one of the most important goals of government. The enactment and enforcement of law is the primary means by which government can encourage as well as compel conditions for healthier and safer lifestyles. The Law creates and assigns functions for public health authorities. In this regard, law is a fundamental element of effective public health policy and practice. It has played a crucial role in many of public health's greatest achievements. In spite of its contribution to effective Public Health practice, the potential for the application of law to chronic disease prevention and control is yet to be fully recognized. The development and implementation of legal frameworks could broaden the range of effective public health strategies and provide valuable tools for the public health workforce. In order to expand the range of effective public health interventions, the government should use the law as a tool to achieve the goal of preventing chronic diseases and ameliorate the growing epidemic of obesity, heart disease, stroke, cancer and other chronic diseases and their risk factors.

  8. Australian tort law reform: statutory principles of causation and the common law.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Danuta

    2004-05-01

    By mid-2004, Parliaments in each Australian jurisdiction will either complete or will be in the process of partial codification of the law of torts. The reforms, including those to the law of negligence, are extensive. This article focuses on codification of the law of causation as an element of the cause of action in negligence. It examines the background to "tort reform", as the process has been labelled, and discusses the common law paradigm of negligence and various approaches to causation. It then analyses and compares the causation provisions in each jurisdiction.

  9. Infinity and Newton's Three Laws of Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chunghyoung

    2011-12-01

    It is shown that the following three common understandings of Newton's laws of motion do not hold for systems of infinitely many components. First, Newton's third law, or the law of action and reaction, is universally believed to imply that the total sum of internal forces in a system is always zero. Several examples are presented to show that this belief fails to hold for infinite systems. Second, two of these examples are of an infinitely divisible continuous body with finite mass and volume such that the sum of all the internal forces in the body is not zero and the body accelerates due to this non-null net internal force. So the two examples also demonstrate the breakdown of the common understanding that according to Newton's laws a body under no external force does not accelerate. Finally, these examples also make it clear that the expression `impressed force' in Newton's formulations of his first and second laws should be understood not as `external force' but as `exerted force' which is the sum of all the internal and external forces acting on a given body, if the body is infinitely divisible.

  10. Intuitive considerations clarifying the origin and applicability of the Benford law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyman, G.; Shulzinger, E.; Bormashenko, Ed.

    The diverse applications of the Benford law attract investigators working in various fields of physics, biology and sociology. At the same time, the groundings of the Benford law remain obscure. Our paper demonstrates that the Benford law arises from the positional (place-value) notation accepted for representing various sets of data. An alternative to Benford formulae to predict the distribution of digits in statistical data is derived. Application of these formulae to the statistical analysis of infrared spectra of polymers is presented. Violations of the Benford Law are discussed.

  11. Like Her Own: Ideals and Experiences of the Mother-in-law/Daughter-in-law Relationship.

    PubMed

    Allendorf, Keera

    2006-12-01

    This article explores ideals and experiences of the mother-in-law/daughter-in-law relationship using semi-structured interviews with 46 members of 22 families living in one Indian village. Ideally, the relationship is characterized by love and understanding, where one's mother-in-law or daughter-in-law is like one's own daughter or mother. In practice, the relationship varies in quality. Some women experienced affectionate, high quality relationships, while others' relationships were characterized by hurtful exchanges and not speaking. Previous literature portrays the relationship as negative, but these results point to the relevance of positive aspects as well. I also suggest that these ideals and experiences are shaped by the joint family system. The joint family system contributes to the strongly positive ideal, while the tensions that women experience arise from the contradictory family locations that they occupy within that system. Daughters-in-law and mothers-in-law are simultaneously strangers and close family members.

  12. On Common Ground: Jost's (1897) Law of Forgetting and Ribot's (1881) Law of Retrograde Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixted, John T.

    2004-01-01

    T. Ribot's (1881) law of retrograde amnesia states that brain damage impairs recently formed memories to a greater extent than older memories, which is generally taken to imply that memories need time to consolidate. A. Jost's (1897) law of forgetting states that if 2 memories are of the same strength but different ages, the older will decay more…

  13. Comparative study of flare control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadkarni, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a digital, three dimensional, automatic control law designed to achieve an optimal transition of a B-737 aircraft between glide slope conditions and the desired final touchdown condition is presented. The digital control law is a time invariant, state estimate feedback law, and the design is capable of using the microwave landing system. Major emphasis is placed on the reduction of aircraft noise in communities surroundings airports, the reduction of fuel consumption, the reduction of the effects of adverse weather conditions on aircraft operations, and the efficient use of airspace in congested terminal areas. Attention is also given to the development of the capability to perform automatic flares from steep glide slopes to precise touchdown locations.

  14. Developing the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Applications of Calculus to Work, Area, and Distance Problems. [and] Atmospheric Pressure in Relation to Height and Temperature. Applications of Calculus to Atmospheric Pressure. [and] The Gradient and Some of Its Applications. Applications of Multivariate Calculus to Physics. [and] Kepler's Laws and the Inverse Square Law. Applications of Calculus to Physics. UMAP Units 323, 426, 431, 473.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Peter A.; And Others

    This document consists of four units. The first of these views calculus applications to work, area, and distance problems. It is designed to help students gain experience in: 1) computing limits of Riemann sums; 2) computing definite integrals; and 3) solving elementary area, distance, and work problems by integration. The second module views…

  15. Law of corresponding states for open collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherardi, Marco; Bassetti, Federico; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    We study the relation between number of contributors and product size in Wikipedia and GitHub. In contrast to traditional production, this is strongly probabilistic, but is characterized by two quantitative nonlinear laws: a power-law bound to product size for increasing number of contributors, and the universal collapse of rescaled distributions. A variant of the random-energy model shows that both laws are due to the heterogeneity of contributors, and displays an intriguing finite-size scaling property with no equivalent in standard systems. The analysis uncovers the right intensive densities, enabling the comparison of projects with different numbers of contributors on equal grounds. We use this property to expose the detrimental effects of conflicting interactions in Wikipedia.

  16. Pre-Big Bang, fundamental Physics and noncyclic cosmologies. Possible alternatives to standard concepts and laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

    2014-04-01

    Detailed analyses of WMAP and Planck data can have significant implications for noncyclic pre-Big Bang approaches incorporating a new fundamental scale beyond the Planck scale and, potentially, new ultimate constituents of matter with unconventional basic properties as compared to standard particles. Cosmic-ray experiments at the highest energies can also yield relevant information. Hopefully, future studies will be able to deal with alternatives: i) to standard physics for the structure of the physical vacuum, the nature of space-time, the validity of quantum field theory and conventional symmetries, the interpretation of string-like theories...; ii) to standard cosmology concerning the origin and evolution of our Universe, unconventional solutions to the cosmological constant problem, the validity of inflationary scenarios, the need for dark matter and dark energy... Lorentz-like symmetries for the properties of matter can then be naturally stable space-time configurations resulting from more general primordial scenarios that incorporate physics beyond the Planck scale and describe the formation and evolution of the physical vacuum. A possible answer to the question of the origin of half-integer spins can be provided by a primordial spinorial space-time with two complex coordinates instead of the conventional four real ones, leading to a really new cosmology. We discuss basic questions and phenomenological topics concerning noncyclic pre-Big Bang cosmologies and potentially related physics.

  17. Domestic and International Law, and Transnational Terrorism: Can "Reasonable Apprehension of Physical Harm" and "Probable Cause" Elucidate Issues Concerning Imminence and Anticipatory Self-Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Chris Bordelon, “The Illegality of the U.S. Policy of Preemptive Self- Defense Under International Law,” 9 Chap. L. Rev. 111 (Fall 2005). 41 Cohen...This two- pronged test examines the quantum and nature of evidence that informs the finding of probable cause, and was applied in Spinelli v...sources are reliable. In Spinelli , Justice Harlan, writing for the majority, stated that reliability requires more than mere “casual rumor” or “an

  18. Teaching Law with Computers: A Collection of Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Russell; And Others

    The use of the computer in teaching law is examined in this collection of essays. Discussed are the development of law-related programmed workbooks, predecessors to computer aided instruction (CAI); research findings and their implications for the design of law-related CAI exercises; advantages and limitations of CAI programs in law; and attempts…

  19. 32 CFR 776.57 - Unauthorized practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unauthorized practice of law. 776.57 Section 776... Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.57 Unauthorized practice of law. (a) Unauthorized practice of law. A... law in a jurisdiction where doing so is prohibited by the regulations of the legal profession in...

  20. 10 CFR 1048.7 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 1048.7 Section 1048.7 Energy... PROPERTY § 1048.7 Applicability of other laws. Nothing in this part shall be construed to affect the applicability of the provisions of State law or of any other Federal law....

  1. 37 CFR 11.505 - Unauthorized practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unauthorized practice of law... Rules of Professional Conduct Law Firms and Associations § 11.505 Unauthorized practice of law. A practitioner shall not practice law in a jurisdiction in violation of the regulation of the legal profession...

  2. 14 CFR 1260.59 - Choice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Choice of law. 1260.59 Section 1260.59... Special Conditions § 1260.59 Choice of law. Choice of Law October 2000 The rights and obligations of the parties to the grant (or cooperative agreement) shall be ascertainable by recourse to the laws of...

  3. 14 CFR 1260.59 - Choice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Choice of law. 1260.59 Section 1260.59... Special Conditions § 1260.59 Choice of law. Choice of Law October 2000 The rights and obligations of the parties to the grant (or cooperative agreement) shall be ascertainable by recourse to the laws of...

  4. 10 CFR 1048.7 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 1048.7 Section 1048.7 Energy... PROPERTY § 1048.7 Applicability of other laws. Nothing in this part shall be construed to affect the applicability of the provisions of State law or of any other Federal law....

  5. 32 CFR 776.57 - Unauthorized practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unauthorized practice of law. 776.57 Section 776... Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.57 Unauthorized practice of law. (a) Unauthorized practice of law. A... law in a jurisdiction where doing so is prohibited by the regulations of the legal profession in...

  6. The Customary International Law of Cyberspace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    law. The law of war is driven almost entirely by the effect of actions rather than by some sort of “national mens rea.”46 The intent of an actor...international agreements and infertile soil for positive customary law—norms—to flourish. In this case, for better or worse, the default—permissive...46. Mens rea is a legal term referring to the intent element necessary to be convicted of a crime. 47. In a 2007 Department of Homeland Security

  7. 7 CFR 2.27 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Administrative Law Judges. 2.27 Section 2.27... Heads § 2.27 Office of Administrative Law Judges. (a) The following designations are made by the Secretary of Agriculture to the Office of Administrative Law Judges: (1) Administrative law judges...

  8. Overview of advanced law enforcement electronic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, W. R.

    1995-05-01

    Law enforcement and security management are using advanced electronic equipment to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the budget restricted police officer force. Currently there is also significant national attention concerning the possible utilization of 'military' electronic hardware to implement the much sought after 'force multiplier' which can help to alleviate each jurisdictions economic restrictions. However, as we are now finding, the transfer of 'military' hardware for utilization by law enforcement personnel is not as economically viable as hoped. This paper will address some of the recent advances in electronic technology that are being derived from the military technology base. Additionally, comments are given concerning the economic impact as the technology is transferred to the law enforcement community.

  9. Electrokinetically modulated peristaltic transport of power-law fluids.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Prakash; Chakraborty, Jeevanjyoti; Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-01-01

    The electrokinetically modulated peristaltic transport of power-law fluids through a narrow confinement in the form of a deformable tube is investigated. The fluid is considered to be divided into two regions - a non-Newtonian core region (described by the power-law behavior) which is surrounded by a thin wall-adhering layer of Newtonian fluid. This division mimics the occurrence of a wall-adjacent cell-free skimming layer in blood samples typically handled in microfluidic transport. The pumping characteristics and the trapping of the fluid bolus are studied by considering the effect of fluid viscosities, power-law index and electroosmosis. It is found that the zero-flow pressure rise is strongly dependent on the relative viscosity ratio of the near-wall depleted fluid and the core fluid as well as on the power-law index. The effect of electroosmosis on the pressure rise is strongly manifested at lower occlusion values, thereby indicating its importance in transport modulation for weakly peristaltic flow. It is also established that the phenomenon of trapping may be controlled on-the-fly by tuning the magnitude of the electric field: the trapping vanishes as the magnitude of the electric field is increased. Similarly, the phenomenon of reflux is shown to disappear due to the action of the applied electric field. These findings may be applied for the modulation of pumping in bio-physical environments by means of external electric fields.

  10. 42 CFR 422.402 - Federal preemption of State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal preemption of State law. 422.402 Section 422.402 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... State Law and Preemption by Federal Law § 422.402 Federal preemption of State law. The...

  11. 42 CFR 422.402 - Federal preemption of State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal preemption of State law. 422.402 Section 422.402 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... State Law and Preemption by Federal Law § 422.402 Federal preemption of State law. The...

  12. 42 CFR 422.402 - Federal preemption of State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal preemption of State law. 422.402 Section 422.402 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... State Law and Preemption by Federal Law § 422.402 Federal preemption of State law. The...

  13. 28 CFR 68.26 - Designation of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of Administrative Law Judge... PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF... Designation of Administrative Law Judge. Hearings shall be held before an Administrative Law Judge...

  14. 29 CFR 102.37 - Disqualification of administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disqualification of administrative law judge. 102.37... Hearings § 102.37 Disqualification of administrative law judge. An administrative law judge may withdraw.... If, in the opinion of the administrative law judge, such affidavit is filed with due diligence and...

  15. 47 CFR 0.341 - Authority of administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of administrative law judge. 0.341... Delegations of Authority Administrative Law Judges § 0.341 Authority of administrative law judge. (a) After an administrative law judge has been designated to preside at a hearing and until he has issued an initial...

  16. 29 CFR 18.29 - Authority of administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authority of administrative law judge. 18.29 Section 18.29... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.29 Authority of administrative law judge. (a) General powers. In any proceeding under this part, the administrative law judge shall have all...

  17. 29 CFR 18.25 - Designation of administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Designation of administrative law judge. 18.25 Section 18.25... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.25 Designation of administrative law judge. Hearings shall be held before an administrative law judge appointed under 5 U.S.C. 3105 and assigned to...

  18. 29 CFR 18.30 - Unavailability of administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unavailability of administrative law judge. 18.30 Section 18... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.30 Unavailability of administrative law judge. In the event the administrative law judge designated to conduct the hearing becomes unavailable,...

  19. 12 CFR 160.2 - Applicability of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability of law. 160.2 Section 160.2 Banks... Applicability of law. State law applies to the lending activities of Federal savings associations and their subsidiaries to the same extent and in the same manner that those laws apply to national banks and...

  20. The Trials of Culture--Law, Conflict, and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Pam, Ed.; Kaplan, Howard, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This magazine aims to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, and law and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This volume focuses on culture, law, conflict, and change. The first article, "Trying Beliefs: The Law of Cultural Orthodoxy and Dissent" (J. H. Landman), demonstrates…

  1. 27 CFR 71.95 - Responsibilities of administrative law judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative law judges. 71.95 Section 71.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... PERMIT PROCEEDINGS Administrative Law Judges § 71.95 Responsibilities of administrative law judges. Administrative law judges shall be under the administrative control of the Administrator. They shall...

  2. 17 CFR 12.305 - Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Administrative Law Judge. 12.305 Section 12.305 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. (a) At his own request. An Administrative Law Judge may withdraw from... of a party. Any party may request an Administrative Law Judge to disqualify himself on the grounds...

  3. 29 CFR 102.36 - Unavailability of administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unavailability of administrative law judge. 102.36 Section... Hearings § 102.36 Unavailability of administrative law judge. In the event the administrative law judge... chief administrative law judge, in Washington, DC, the associate chief judge, in San...

  4. 20 CFR 410.635 - Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge... Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. No Administrative Law Judge shall conduct a hearing in a case in... Administrative Law Judge shall consider such objection and shall, in his discretion, either proceed with...

  5. 17 CFR 200.14 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Organization § 200.14 Office of Administrative Law Judges. (a) Under the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 551-559) and the federal securities laws, the Office of Administrative Law Judges conducts hearings in proceedings instituted by the Commission. The Administrative Law Judges are responsible for the fair...

  6. 28 CFR 68.29 - Unavailability of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING... FRAUD § 68.29 Unavailability of Administrative Law Judge. In the event the Administrative Law Judge... another Administrative Law Judge for the purpose of further hearing or other appropriate action....

  7. Major Research Efforts of the Law School Admission Council. Law School Admission Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Frederick M.; Evans, Franklin R.

    Research conducted by the Law School Admission Council since the development of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) in 1948 is described. An overview of the research topics is provided, and relevant published reports are cited in 61 footnotes. The following topics of study are discussed: (1) use and validity of traditional predictors of law…

  8. Perish, then publish: Thomas Harriot and the sine law of refraction.

    PubMed

    Fishman, R S

    2000-03-01

    A talented young scientist, Thomas Harriot, wrote the first English account of the New World, "A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia," distinguished by its serious effort to describe and understand the American Indian. Harriot went on to make innovations in mathematics and was one of the first astronomers to use the telescope. His largely unappreciated contribution to the history of ophthalmology was the first formulation of the sine law of refraction of light, found in his unpublished papers long after his death in 1621. Willebrord Snell discovered the sine law in Holland in 1621 but also died without formally publishing it. Rene Descartes first published the sine law in 1637. The sine law of refraction became not only the prime law of all lens systems but ushered in a new world of physical laws.

  9. 14 CFR § 1260.59 - Choice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Choice of law. § 1260.59 Section § 1260... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.59 Choice of law. Choice of Law October 2000 The rights and... laws of the United States of America. However, it is understood that the laws of the...

  10. The Law of Entropy Increase - A Lab Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, William; Drosd, Robert; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2016-09-01

    The second law of thermodynamics has various formulations. There is the "Clausius formulation," which can be stated in a very intuitive way: "No process is possible whose sole result is the transfer of heat from a cooler to a hotter body." There is also the "Kelvin-Plank principle," which states that "no cyclic process exists whose sole result is the absorption of heat from a reservoir and the conversion of all this heat into work" [emphasis added] (since this would require perfect energy conversion efficiency). Both these statements can be presented to physics students in a conceptual manner, and students' "everyday" experiences will support either statement of the second law of thermodynamics. However, when the second law of thermodynamics is expressed using the concept of entropy (ΔS ≥ 0, for a closed system), most first-year physics students lack any direct experimental experience with this parameter. This paper describes a calculation of the increase in entropy that can be performed while completing three traditional thermodynamics experiments. These simple and quick calculations help students become familiar and comfortable with the concept of entropy. This paper is complementary to prior work where classroom activities were developed to provide insight into the statistical nature of entropy.

  11. A Simple Demonstration of Charles's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szczepanski, Nadine

    1994-01-01

    Describes a quick, inexpensive laboratory demonstration of Charles's Law. The opening of a large, round balloon is placed snugly over the mouth of a narrow-mouthed 750-mL Erlenmeyer flask, which is then heated in a strong flame. At end of the full procedure, students easily arrive at the conclusion that the volume of a gas is proportional to…

  12. 12 CFR 34.4 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... “crimes defined and punishable at common law or by the general statutes of a state and crimes and offences... legitimate power to define and punish crimes by general laws applicable to all persons within its jurisdiction * * *. But it is without lawful power to make such special laws applicable to banks organized...

  13. The Importance of Traditional Labor Law in the Legal Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Wilson

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that traditional labor law retain its current place in the legal curriculum, despite its limited applicability, but with emphasis on its theoretical importance rather than its technicalities. Traditional labor law is found to provide more rigorous inquiry into the nature of law than broader "employment law." (MSE)

  14. 24 CFR 1720.145 - Disqualification of administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative law judge. (a) When an administrative law judge feels disqualified from presiding in a particular proceeding, the administrative law judge shall withdraw therefrom by notice on the record and shall notify the Secretary of such withdrawal. (b) Whenever any party believes that the administrative law...

  15. 29 CFR 417.6 - Powers of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powers of Administrative Law Judge. 417.6 Section 417.6... Administrative Law Judge. The designated Administrative Law Judge shall have authority: (a) To give notice... other actions authorized by the regulations in this part. The Administrative Law Judge's authority...

  16. Relevance of collagen piezoelectricity to "Wolff's Law": a critical review.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Andrew C; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2009-09-01

    According to "Wolff's Law", bone is deposited and reinforced at areas of greatest stress. From a clinical perspective, this "law" is supported by the strong association between bone density and physical activity. From a mechanistic standpoint, however, the law presents a challenge to scientists seeking to understand how osteocytes and osteoblasts sense the mechanical load. In the 1960s, collagen piezoelectricity was invoked as a potential mechanism by which osteocytes could detect areas of greater stress but piezoelectricity diminished in importance as more compelling mechanisms, such as streaming potential, were identified. In addition, accumulating evidence for the role of fluid-related shear stress in osteocyte's mechanosensory function has made piezoelectricity seemingly more obsolete in bone physiology. This review critically evaluates the role of collagen piezoelectricity (if any) in Wolff's Law--specifically, the evidence regarding its involvement in strain-generated potentials, existing alternate mechanisms, the present understanding of bone mechanosensation, and whether piezoelectricity serves an influential role within the context of this newly proposed mechanism. In addition to reviewing the literature, this review generates several hypotheses and proposes future research to fully address the relevance of piezoelectricity in bone physiology.

  17. Application of Hamilton's law of varying action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    The law of varying action enunciated by Hamilton in 1834-1835 permits the direct analytical solution of the problems of mechanics, both stationary and nonstationary, without consideration of force equilibrium and the theory of differential equations associated therewith. It has not been possible to obtain direct analytical solutions to nonstationary systems through the use of energy theory, which has been limited for 140 years to the principle of least action and to Hamilton's principle. It is shown here that Hamilton's law permits the direct analytical solution to nonstationary, initial value systems in the mechanics of solids without any knowledge or use of the theory of differential equations. Solutions are demonstrated for nonconservative, nonstationary particle motion, both linear and nonlinear.

  18. The Decline of the American Law Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Peter Megargee

    1984-01-01

    Many factors, such as extreme economic pressures, greed, cut-throat competition, narrowing of lawyer's education, lawyer hucksterism, and floods of new lawyers, have caused the dreary metamorphosis of the American legal profession to a business. The objective of today's large law firm is essentially to make money. Changes are needed. (RM)

  19. Restoration of the third law in spin ice thin films.

    PubMed

    Bovo, L; Moya, X; Prabhakaran, D; Soh, Yeong-Ah; Boothroyd, A T; Mathur, N D; Aeppli, G; Bramwell, S T

    2014-03-12

    A characteristic feature of spin ice is its apparent violation of the third law of thermodynamics. This leads to a number of interesting properties including the emergence of an effective vacuum for magnetic monopoles and their currents - magnetricity. Here we add a new dimension to the experimental study of spin ice by fabricating thin epitaxial films of Dy2Ti2O7, varying between 5 and 60 monolayers on an inert substrate. The films show the distinctive characteristics of spin ice at temperatures >2 K, but at lower temperature we find evidence of a zero entropy state. This restoration of the third law in spin ice thin films is consistent with a predicted strain-induced ordering of a very unusual type, previously discussed for analogous electrical systems. Our results show how the physics of frustrated pyrochlore magnets such as spin ice may be significantly modified in thin-film samples.

  20. Robust Statistical Detection of Power-Law Cross-Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Blythe, Duncan A. J.; Nikulin, Vadim V.; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-01-01

    We show that widely used approaches in statistical physics incorrectly indicate the existence of power-law cross-correlations between financial stock market fluctuations measured over several years and the neuronal activity of the human brain lasting for only a few minutes. While such cross-correlations are nonsensical, no current methodology allows them to be reliably discarded, leaving researchers at greater risk when the spurious nature of cross-correlations is not clear from the unrelated origin of the time series and rather requires careful statistical estimation. Here we propose a theory and method (PLCC-test) which allows us to rigorously and robustly test for power-law cross-correlations, correctly detecting genuine and discarding spurious cross-correlations, thus establishing meaningful relationships between processes in complex physical systems. Our method reveals for the first time the presence of power-law cross-correlations between amplitudes of the alpha and beta frequency ranges of the human electroencephalogram. PMID:27250630

  1. The Yearbook of Education Law 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The Yearbook of Education Law contains analyses of the previous year's federal and state court decisions that affect private and public elementary and secondary schools and higher education. The Yearbook provides summaries and analyses of relevant state appellate and federal trial and appellate court cases. Contents include: (1) Employees; (2)…

  2. Law School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Law School is a winner in the AS&U 1977 College & University Architectural Competition. The jury commented on the strong recognition of energy conservation and the skillful integration of the building with the existing campus. (Author/MLF)

  3. The Enlightenment and Due Process of Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettleship, Lois

    The purpose of this module for college students is to describe the economic, social, intellectual, and political changes which took place during the Enlightenment period and to show the interrelationship between these changes and concepts behind due process of law. This resource contains an introduction to the module; a list of objectives for the…

  4. Toward a Sociology of Law School Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlanger, Howard S.

    1984-01-01

    The law school admission process plays a major role in determining the social class origins and ethnic composition of the bar, and perhaps also the nonlegal skills lawyers will have. Research is incomplete; consideration of admission criteria, the composition and processes of admissions committees, and applicant self-selection is advisable. (MSE)

  5. Walking the Labyrinth of Multimedia Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helyar, Pamela S.; Doudnikoff, Gregory M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes why developers of multimedia products face a more complex legal landscape than do developers of "few-media" products. Describes the laws that pertain to multimedia. Discusses how developers of multimedia products might walk the legal labyrinth and protect themselves and their companies from lawsuits. (SR)

  6. To Promote the General Welfare: The Purpose of Law. Law in Social Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Coral; Croddy, Marshall

    This student booklet is part of a curriculum designed for infusion into secondary U.S. history courses to help students explore the purposes of American law. The booklet contains student readings and discussion questions and suggests learning activities. There are five units. Unit 1, "Law in a New World," examines processes used to make…

  7. Globalization of public health law and ethics.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Myongsei

    2012-09-01

    The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African.

  8. An Overview of Multimedia and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Charles M.; Boelzner, David E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the areas of intellectual property law--patent, copyright, and trademark--and discusses how multimedia raises legal issues in each area. The scope of available protection and the concerns involved in negotiating licensing and publishing agreements for multimedia are discussed, as well as issues related to online material. (Author/LRW)

  9. The composition of heterogeneous control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin; Astrom, Karl

    1991-01-01

    The fuzzy control literature and industrial practice provide certain nonlinear methods for combining heterogeneous control laws, but these methods have been very difficult to analyze theoretically. An alternate formulation and extension of this approach is presented that has several practical and theoretical benefits. An example of heterogeneous control is given and two alternate analysis methods are presented.

  10. Second law of thermodynamics under control restrictions.

    PubMed

    Wilming, H; Gallego, R; Eisert, J

    2016-04-01

    The second law of thermodynamics, formulated as an ultimate bound on the maximum extractable work, has been rigorously derived in multiple scenarios. However, the unavoidable limitations that emerge due to the lack of control on small systems are often disregarded when deriving such bounds, which is specifically important in the context of quantum thermodynamics. Here we study the maximum extractable work with limited control over the working system and its interaction with the heat bath. We derive a general second law when the set of accessible Hamiltonians of the working system is arbitrarily restricted. We then apply our bound to particular scenarios that are important in realistic implementations: limitations on the maximum energy gap and local control over many-body systems. We hence demonstrate in what precise way the lack of control affects the second law. In particular, contrary to the unrestricted case, we show that the optimal work extraction is not achieved by simple thermal contacts. Our results not only generalize the second law to scenarios of practical relevance, but also take first steps in the direction of local thermodynamics.

  11. Normalization of First Year Law School Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunick, David C.; Schechter, Dan S.

    1983-01-01

    Loyola Law School's plan to normalize grading in sections of a given course involves separate calculations for students with and without statistical background. Examples of class and section distributions are provided, alternative normalization methods are discussed, and the reasons they were not used are noted. (MSE)

  12. On Both Sides of the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Brian; Larson, Scott

    2001-01-01

    On June 5, 2001, Brian Hancock graduated from law school. His story behind the story is significant to those concerned with reclaiming troubled teens. Ten years earlier at age fourteen, Brian was facing the prospect of spending the rest of his life in adult prison. This is his story as told to Scott Larson. (Author)

  13. The Changing Face of Immigration Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeConcini, Christina; Piller, Jeanine S.; Fisher, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Outlines historical legislation affecting immigration to the United States, explains current laws and how they affect immigration, summarizes the process for obtaining citizenship, describes the experience of immigrants with the legal system, introduces the work of pro bono (free) legal services for immigrants, and presents related teaching…

  14. Quantum law of rare events for systems with bosonic symmetry.

    PubMed

    Sokolovski, D

    2013-03-15

    In classical physics, the joint probability of a number of individually rare independent events is given by the Poisson distribution. It describes, for example, the unidirectional transfer of a population between the densely and sparsely populated states of a classical two-state system. We derive a quantum version of the law for a large number of noninteracting systems (particles) obeying Bose-Einstein statistics. The classical law is significantly modified by quantum interference, which allows, among other effects, for the counterflow of particles back into the densely populated state. The suggested observation of this classically forbidden counterflow effect can be achieved with modern laser-based techniques used for manipulating and trapping cold atoms.

  15. Law and the sources of morality.

    PubMed

    Hinde, Robert A

    2004-11-29

    This paper argues that morality is a product of basic human psychological characteristics shaped over prehistorical and historical time by diachronic dialectical transactions between what individuals do and what they are supposed to do in the culture in which they live. Some principles are pancultural: individuals are motivated to look after their own interests, to be cooperative and kind to other group members and to look after their children. The moral precepts of every society are based on these principles, but may differ according to the vicissitudes that the society has experienced. Thus the basic principles can be seen as absolute; the precepts based on them may be specific to particular societies. Moral precepts, and the laws derived from them, are mostly such as to maintain the cohesion of the society, but some have been formulated to further the interests of those in power. The evidence suggests that laws have been developed, by common consent or by rulers, from generally accepted moral intuitions. In general, legal systems have been formulated to deal with the more extreme infringements of moral codes. Morality prescribes how people should behave; the law is concerned with how they should not. New laws, if not imposed by force, must generally be in tune with public conceptions of morality.

  16. Law and the sources of morality.

    PubMed Central

    Hinde, Robert A

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that morality is a product of basic human psychological characteristics shaped over prehistorical and historical time by diachronic dialectical transactions between what individuals do and what they are supposed to do in the culture in which they live. Some principles are pancultural: individuals are motivated to look after their own interests, to be cooperative and kind to other group members and to look after their children. The moral precepts of every society are based on these principles, but may differ according to the vicissitudes that the society has experienced. Thus the basic principles can be seen as absolute; the precepts based on them may be specific to particular societies. Moral precepts, and the laws derived from them, are mostly such as to maintain the cohesion of the society, but some have been formulated to further the interests of those in power. The evidence suggests that laws have been developed, by common consent or by rulers, from generally accepted moral intuitions. In general, legal systems have been formulated to deal with the more extreme infringements of moral codes. Morality prescribes how people should behave; the law is concerned with how they should not. New laws, if not imposed by force, must generally be in tune with public conceptions of morality. PMID:15590610

  17. Laws of cognition and the cognition of law.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Dan M

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a compact synthesis of the study of cognition in legal decisionmaking. Featured dynamics include the story-telling model (Pennington & Hastie, 1986), lay prototypes (Smith, 1991), motivated cognition (Sood, 2012), and coherence-based reasoning (Simon, Pham, Le, & Holyoak, 2001). Unlike biases and heuristics understood to bound or constrain rationality, these dynamics identify how information shapes a variety of cognitive inputs-from prior beliefs to perceptions of events to the probative weight assigned new information-that rational decisionmaking presupposes. The operation of these mechanisms can be shown to radically alter the significance that jurors give to evidence, and hence the conclusions they reach, within a Bayesian framework of information processing. How these dynamics interact with the professional judgment of lawyers and judges, the paper notes, remains in need of investigation.

  18. Derivation of Archie's' law based on a fractal pore volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongtao; Liu, Tangyan

    2017-03-01

    The geometrical mechanism behind Archie's law has been extensively investigated for many years, but is as yet inadequately understood. In this research, we present a straight-forward theoretical derivation revealing that the geometrical mechanism behind Archie's law is well represented in terms of a fractal pore volume. This representation is verified by the results of numerical simulations of the electrical conductivity obtained from deterministic fractal models. The derivation naturally suggests some new physical interpretations for Archie's parameters. It is revealed that the fractal building process determines the values of the cementation exponent and the prefactor. In addition, the prefactor is also determined by the initial states of the porosity and formation factor, which together define the initial state of the fractal building process.

  19. Benjamin Banneker and the Law of Sines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Benjamin Banneker, a self-taught mathematician, surveyor and astronomer published annual almanacs containing his astronomical observations and predictions. Banneker who also used logarithms to apply the Law of Sines believed that the method used to solve a mathematical problem depends on the tools available.

  20. An Overview of Multimedia and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boelzner, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the areas of intellectual property law, including patent, copyright, and trademark, and discusses how multimedia raises legal issues in each area. Discusses trade secrets, issues raised by online technology, and issues for licensing and developing multimedia works. (Author/LRW)

  1. [Law Enforcement Standards of Decency and Fairness].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxbe, William B.

    Effective policemen need to have as much knowledge as possible about society; they need to be fair, like the criminal justice system they represent. Society cannot be protected unless there is full accordance with the law. Questions of concern are whether the poor man or the black man are receiving the same treatment as the rich or influential…

  2. Reflections on the Laws of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; Klein, Dena A.; DeLuca, Amy; Smith, David R.; Fattal, Laura F.; Bento, Angela; Leverett, Larry

    2006-01-01

    The Laws of Life is an international essay contest and social and emotional learning (SEL) initiative that many school districts use to build students' SEL and related abilities. In the contest, students reflect on their identities--who they are, who they want to become, and what they want their lives to stand for--by writing about the main values…

  3. The Yearbook of Higher Education Law 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, D. Parker, Ed.

    Seven experts in the law as it applies to postsecondary education have contributed six articles to this book-length discussion of relevant court cases decided in 1979. Topics addressed include governance and finance, property owned by educational institutions, tort liability cases affecting schools, litigation required in clarifying relations…

  4. The Yearbook of Education Law, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J., Ed.

    This yearbook presents legal precedents for a broad spectrum of education-related issues. Drawing on 25 experts' research in education and law, the book opens with legalities concerning school employees. It examines discrimination, constitutional rights, due process, dismissal, nonrenewal, demotion, and discipline; duty; involuntary leaves;…

  5. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. District of Columbia Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on District of Columbia state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators,…

  6. The Atomic Origin of the Reflection Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prytz, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    It will be demonstrated how the reflection law may be derived on an atomic basis using the plane wave approximation together with Huygens' principle. The model utilized is based on the electric dipole character of matter originating from its molecular constituents. This approach is not new but has, since it was first introduced by Ewald and Oseen…

  7. Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Lamar [R-TX-21

    2012-09-19

    09/19/2012 Referred to the House Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3486, which became Public Law 112-211 on 12/18/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Campbell's Law and the Ethics of Immensurability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidorkin, Alexander M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines "Campbell's Law": "The more any quantitative social indicator is used for social decision-making, the more subject it will be to corruption pressures and the more apt it will be to distort and corrupt the social processes it is intended to monitor." The examination of measurability leads to explaining the…

  9. Power law analysis of the human microbiome.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhanshan Sam

    2015-11-01

    Taylor's (1961, Nature, 189:732) power law, a power function (V = am(b) ) describing the scaling relationship between the mean and variance of population abundances of organisms, has been found to govern the population abundance distributions of single species in both space and time in macroecology. It is regarded as one of few generalities in ecology, and its parameter b has been widely applied to characterize spatial aggregation (i.e. heterogeneity) and temporal stability of single-species populations. Here, we test its applicability to bacterial populations in the human microbiome using extensive data sets generated by the US-NIH Human Microbiome Project (HMP). We further propose extending Taylor's power law from the population to the community level, and accordingly introduce four types of power-law extensions (PLEs): type I PLE for community spatial aggregation (heterogeneity), type II PLE for community temporal aggregation (stability), type III PLE for mixed-species population spatial aggregation (heterogeneity) and type IV PLE for mixed-species population temporal aggregation (stability). Our results show that fittings to the four PLEs with HMP data were statistically extremely significant and their parameters are ecologically sound, hence confirming the validity of the power law at both the population and community levels. These findings not only provide a powerful tool to characterize the aggregations of population and community in both time and space, offering important insights into community heterogeneity in space and/or stability in time, but also underscore the three general properties of power laws (scale invariance, no average and universality) and their specific manifestations in our four PLEs.

  10. Law of the Sea and Law of Naval Warfare.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    fiscal, imigration and sanitary regulations of coastal state - not security zone c. Hot pursuit 6. Resource zones • % a. Continental shelf (1) Truman...war crimes -- But jurisdictional issue for discharged servicemembers F. Judge advocate’s role 1. Legal advisor to military commanders 2. Review...personnel and property, but not protected persons or property F. War crimes trials 1. UCMJ 2. Nuremberg 3. Grave breaches 4. Command resoonsibilities

  11. Rehabilitating the regulative use of reason: Kant on empirical and chemical laws.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Michael Bennett

    2015-12-01

    In his Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Kant asserts that laws of nature "carry with them an expression of necessity" (A159/B198). There is, however, widespread interpretive disagreement regarding the nature and source of the necessity of empirical laws of natural sciences in Kant's system. It is especially unclear how chemistry-a science without a clear, straightforward connection to the a priori principles of the understanding-could contain such genuine, empirical laws. Existing accounts of the necessity of causal laws unfortunately fail to illuminate the possibility of non-physical laws. In this paper, I develop an alternative, 'ideational' account of natural laws, according to which ideas of reason necessitate the laws of some non-physical sciences. Chemical laws, for instance, are grounded on ideas of the elements, and the chemist aims to reduce her phenomena to these elements via experimentation. Although such ideas are beyond the possibility of experience, their postulation is necessary for the achievement of reason's theoretical ends: the unification and explanation of the cognitions of science.

  12. Physics of metabolic organization.

    PubMed

    Jusup, Marko; Sousa, Tânia; Domingos, Tiago; Labinac, Velimir; Marn, Nina; Wang, Zhen; Klanjšček, Tin

    2017-03-01

    We review the most comprehensive metabolic theory of life existing to date. A special focus is given to the thermodynamic roots of this theory and to implications that the laws of physics-such as the conservation of mass and energy-have on all life. Both the theoretical foundations and biological applications are covered. Hitherto, the foundations were more accessible to physicists or mathematicians, and the applications to biologists, causing a dichotomy in what always should have been a single body of work. To bridge the gap between the two aspects of the same theory, we (i) adhere to the theoretical formalism, (ii) try to minimize the amount of information that a reader needs to process, but also (iii) invoke examples from biology to motivate the introduction of new concepts and to justify the assumptions made, and (iv) show how the careful formalism of the general theory enables modular, self-consistent extensions that capture important features of the species and the problem in question. Perhaps the most difficult among the introduced concepts, the utilization (or mobilization) energy flow, is given particular attention in the form of an original and considerably simplified derivation. Specific examples illustrate a range of possible applications-from energy budgets of individual organisms, to population dynamics, to ecotoxicology.

  13. Physics of metabolic organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusup, Marko; Sousa, Tânia; Domingos, Tiago; Labinac, Velimir; Marn, Nina; Wang, Zhen; Klanjšček, Tin

    2017-03-01

    We review the most comprehensive metabolic theory of life existing to date. A special focus is given to the thermodynamic roots of this theory and to implications that the laws of physics-such as the conservation of mass and energy-have on all life. Both the theoretical foundations and biological applications are covered. Hitherto, the foundations were more accessible to physicists or mathematicians, and the applications to biologists, causing a dichotomy in what always should have been a single body of work. To bridge the gap between the two aspects of the same theory, we (i) adhere to the theoretical formalism, (ii) try to minimize the amount of information that a reader needs to process, but also (iii) invoke examples from biology to motivate the introduction of new concepts and to justify the assumptions made, and (iv) show how the careful formalism of the general theory enables modular, self-consistent extensions that capture important features of the species and the problem in question. Perhaps the most difficult among the introduced concepts, the utilization (or mobilization) energy flow, is given particular attention in the form of an original and considerably simplified derivation. Specific examples illustrate a range of possible applications-from energy budgets of individual organisms, to population dynamics, to ecotoxicology.

  14. Breaking the Laws of Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commoner, Barry

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the need for productive reforms to return the ecosphere to its proper balance. The author claims such reforms should deal with eliminating socially wasteful types of production and at the same time improving the quality of life. (AS)

  15. Law of Federal Employment. Revised

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    Merit Systems Protection Board Reporter (cite M.S.P.R. ). Board decisions are also available online at the MSPB’s web site, www.access.gpo.gov/mspb...Department of Defense grievance procedure ( adopted by 18 March 1994 memorandum and succeeding in the Army AR 690-700, Chapter 771-1). See also DeCleene v...various adjustments to this scheme of career progression; however, as of the date of publication of this text, no rules have been adopted . 2.4 Pay

  16. Demonstrations of the Action and Reaction Law and the Energy Conservation Law Using Fine Spherical Plastic Beads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khumaeni, A.; Tanaka, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Lee, Y. I.; Kurniawan, K. H.; Ishii, K.; Kagawa, K.

    2008-01-01

    Equipment for demonstrating Newton's third law and the energy conservation law in mechanics have successfully been constructed utilizing fine spherical plastic beads in place of metal ball bearings. To demonstrate Newton's third law, special magnetized Petri dishes were employed as objects, while to examine the energy conservation law, a…

  17. Law of Armed Conflict Deskbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    important to be aware of cultural issues, such as Islamic traditions regarding treatment and handling of the dead. b. No cremation (except for religious...Burial or cremation sites or graves; iv. Medical facilities, medical equipment, medical supplies or transportation; v. Children’s toys or other

  18. The Laws of Resonant Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopelowitz, Seymour B.

    2009-01-01

    The complex nature of a school district demands a unique relationship between the superintendent and the board president. Forging a positive relationship requires a special kind of navigational skill. The author draws lessons for doing so from David Hargreaves' classic 1975 book "Interpersonal Relations and Education". The author outlines some…

  19. Emergence of linguistic laws in human voice

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Iván González; Luque, Bartolo; Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Jordi; Hernández-Fernández, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic laws constitute one of the quantitative cornerstones of modern cognitive sciences and have been routinely investigated in written corpora, or in the equivalent transcription of oral corpora. This means that inferences of statistical patterns of language in acoustics are biased by the arbitrary, language-dependent segmentation of the signal, and virtually precludes the possibility of making comparative studies between human voice and other animal communication systems. Here we bridge this gap by proposing a method that allows to measure such patterns in acoustic signals of arbitrary origin, without needs to have access to the language corpus underneath. The method has been applied to sixteen different human languages, recovering successfully some well-known laws of human communication at timescales even below the phoneme and finding yet another link between complexity and criticality in a biological system. These methods further pave the way for new comparative studies in animal communication or the analysis of signals of unknown code. PMID:28272418

  20. Emergence of linguistic laws in human voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torre, Iván González; Luque, Bartolo; Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Jordi; Hernández-Fernández, Antoni

    2017-03-01

    Linguistic laws constitute one of the quantitative cornerstones of modern cognitive sciences and have been routinely investigated in written corpora, or in the equivalent transcription of oral corpora. This means that inferences of statistical patterns of language in acoustics are biased by the arbitrary, language-dependent segmentation of the signal, and virtually precludes the possibility of making comparative studies between human voice and other animal communication systems. Here we bridge this gap by proposing a method that allows to measure such patterns in acoustic signals of arbitrary origin, without needs to have access to the language corpus underneath. The method has been applied to sixteen different human languages, recovering successfully some well-known laws of human communication at timescales even below the phoneme and finding yet another link between complexity and criticality in a biological system. These methods further pave the way for new comparative studies in animal communication or the analysis of signals of unknown code.

  1. Aaron's Law Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Lofgren, Zoe [D-CA-19

    2013-06-20

    07/15/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Avonte's Law Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. King, Peter T. [R-NY-2

    2014-07-25

    09/26/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. History of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Albert E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the history of American physics, indicating that much effort has been on the atomic bond and high-energy physics, to the detriment of other topics and areas. To offset this tendency, significant research is going on in the history of solid-state physics, with glimmerings in the history of physics education. (JN)

  4. History of Medical Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, John S.

    1983-01-01

    Traces the development of basic radiation physics that underlies much of today's medical physics and looks separately at the historical development of two major subfields of medical physics: radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. Indicates that radiation physics has made important contributions to solving biomedical problems in medical…

  5. The Law of Federal Employment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    Court concludes that the appellants, except for George P. Poole, have not presented a justiciable controversy. The other appellants had alleged only...purpose. The presiding official instead concentrated on the justiciability of the agency’s and petitioner’s conduct and found fees not to be warranted

  6. Analyzing Collisions in Terms of Newton's Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, John L.

    2003-02-01

    Although the principle of momentum conservation is a consequence of Newton's second and third laws of motion, as recognized by Newton himself, this principle is typically applied in analyzing collisions as if it is a separate concept of its own. This year I sought to integrate my treatment of collisions with my coverage of Newton's laws by asking students to calculate the effect on the motion of two particles due to the forces they exerted for a specified time interval on each other. For example, "A 50-kg crate slides across the ice at 3 m/s and collides with a 25-kg crate at rest. During the collision process the 50-kg crate exerts a 500 N time-averaged force on the 25 kg for 0.1 s. What are the accelerations of the crates during the collision, and what are their velocities after the collision? What are the momenta of the crates before and after collision?"

  7. The Second Law of Thermodynamics in Bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Kemeny, Gabor

    1974-01-01

    Bioenergetic processes are viewed as processes of free energy transduction. The free energies of both local equilibrium and fluctuation states are being considered. It is shown that the exchange of thermal energy with the surrounding medium, acting as a reservoir, does not violate the second law of thermodynamics within broad limits. There is sufficient latitude for proteins to carry out their function of transduction utilizing thermal energy in the process. PMID:16592167

  8. A Quantitative Analysis of Arkansas Principals' Knowledge of School Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christy Lack

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify the legal knowledge of Arkansas public school principals in seven areas: Arkansas law, constitutional issues, discipline, employee relations, federal law, special education/504, and tort liability and determine if significant relationships existed between legal knowledge recency of school law training,…

  9. Mining law and regulations of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    The mining law and regulations of Mexico have been of considerable interest to mining lawyers in the united States. Recent wide-ranging changes in Mexican mining regulations have come at a time when the mining industry hopes to broaden its scope to contend with worldwide competition. Article 27 of the Federal Constitution of Mexico governs the mining of metallic, nonmetallic, and coal materials. New regulation implementing this law became effective on December 10, 1990. These regulations, generally regarded as providing far greater flexibility in the acquisition and maintenance of mineral rights, also provide substantial additional flexibility in the ability of non-Mexican companies to own concessions. The Laws section of this book includes: General Provision, ministry of National Patrimony, mining concession, beneficiating plant concessions, execution and proof of exploitation work oppositions, national mineral reserves, special concessions on National Mineral Reserves, Public/Registry of mining, mining promotion and of the assistance to small miners, Industrial Mining Reserves and violations and penalties. The regulations section includes: general dispositions, mineral reserves, mining assignments and concessions, right of mining concession holders, obligations of the holders of mining concessions, mining companies, mining public registry, mining experts, inspections, sanctions and remedies.

  10. Derivation of the Biot-Savart Law from Ampere's Law Using the Displacement Current

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschauer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The equation describing the magnetic field due to a single, nonrelativistic charged particle moving at constant velocity is often referred to as the "Biot-Savart law for a point charge." Introductory calculus-based physics books usually state this law without proof. Advanced texts often present it either without proof or as a special…

  11. Law of substitution for mixed arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Koudelka, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear safety justification of a mixed array of dissimilar fissile units of metal units and dilute solution units, according to Clayton, has been a persistent and nagging problem. Dissimilar uranium metal or dissimilar uranium solution units in a mixed array can also create a modeling nightmare for the nuclear criticality safety engineer. Now, a calculational method known as the Law of Substitution has been developed to ensure that the k/sub eff/ of an array of uranium metal and uranium solution units will satisfy any k/sub eff/ limit set by the nuclear safety engineer. The nuclear criticality safety engineer can utilize the Law of Substitution to safely mix or substitute different uranium metal units, different uranium solution units, and more importantly, uranium metal and dilute UO/sub 2/ solution units in an array. The Law of Substitution is as follows: (1) calculate the k/sub eff/ of each unit type in its own infinite planar array. (2) Determine the edge-to-edge spacing of the infinite planar array of each type of unit to satisfy a desired k/sub eff/. (3) Select the largest edge-to-edge spacing from among the similar units in their infinite planar arrays and use that spacing for the finite or infinite planar array of mixed units.

  12. "Mysteries" of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin

    2007-01-01

    The thermodynamic concepts of First and Second Laws with respect to the entropy function are described using atoms and molecules and probability as manifested in statistical mechanics. The First Law is conceptually understood as [Delta]U = Q + W and the Second Law of Thermodynamics and the entropy function have provided the probability and…

  13. Implications of Good Samaritan laws for physicians.

    PubMed

    Paterick, Timothy J; Paterick, Barbara B; Paterick, Timothy E

    2008-01-01

    Good Samaritan laws are designed to encourage individuals, including physicians, to gratuitously render medical care in emergency situations. Through these laws, immunity from civil liability is provided to physicians who act in good faith to provide emergency care gratis. Historically, emergency care involved medical assistance given to persons in motor vehicle crashes or other emergency situations in which bystanders were present. Protection of physicians from allegations of negligence was a tactic of the legislative and judicial systems to encourage active clinical participation, rather than cautious nonparticipation, in emergency care. In some states and under defined circumstances, the immunity may apply in the hospital setting, as well as in the physician's office. Legislatures have continued to amend the statutes to expand the protection provided to physicians who offer emergency care. Judicial construction of the nature and scope of physician immunity has similarly expanded.

  14. Uncertainty quantification for systems of conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Poette, Gael Despres, Bruno Lucor, Didier

    2009-04-20

    Uncertainty quantification through stochastic spectral methods has been recently applied to several kinds of non-linear stochastic PDEs. In this paper, we introduce a formalism based on kinetic theory to tackle uncertain hyperbolic systems of conservation laws with Polynomial Chaos (PC) methods. The idea is to introduce a new variable, the entropic variable, in bijection with our vector of unknowns, which we develop on the polynomial basis: by performing a Galerkin projection, we obtain a deterministic system of conservation laws. We state several properties of this deterministic system in the case of a general uncertain system of conservation laws. We then apply the method to the case of the inviscid Burgers' equation with random initial conditions and we present some preliminary results for the Euler system. We systematically compare results from our new approach to results from the stochastic Galerkin method. In the vicinity of discontinuities, the new method bounds the oscillations due to Gibbs phenomenon to a certain range through the entropy of the system without the use of any adaptative random space discretizations. It is found to be more precise than the stochastic Galerkin method for smooth cases but above all for discontinuous cases.

  15. Laws of trigonometry on SU(3)

    SciTech Connect

    Aslaksen, H.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we will study triangles in SU(3). The orbit space of congruence classes of triangles in SU(3) has dimension 8. Each corner is made up of a pair of tangent vectors (X,Y), and we consider the 8 functions trX{sup 2}, i trX{sup 3}, trY{sup 2}, i trY{sup 3}, trXY, i trY{sup 2}Y, i trXY{sup 2}, trX{sup 2}Y{sup 2} which are invariant under the full isometry group of SU(3). We show that these 8 corner invariants determine the isometry class of the triangle. We give relations (laws of trigonometry) between the invariants at the different corners, enabling us to determine the invariants at the remaining corners, including the values of the remaining side and angles, if we know one set of corner invariants. The invariants that only depend on one tangent vector we will call side invariants, while those that depend on two tangent vectors will be called angular invariants. For each triangle we then have 6 side invariants and 12 angular invariants. Hence we need 18 {minus} 8 = 10 laws of trigonometry. The basic tool for deriving these laws is a formula expressing tr(exp X exp Y) in terms of the corner invariants.

  16. The Physics of Shot Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipscombe, Trevor C.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-04-01

    In the late 18th and throughout the 19th century, lead shot for muskets was prepared by use of a shot tower. Molten lead was poured from the top of a tower and, during its fall, the drops became spherical under the action of surface tension. In this article, we ask and answer the question: How does the size of the lead shot depend on the height of the tower? In the process, we explain the basic technology underlying an important historical invention (the shot tower) and use simple physics (Newtonian mechanics and the thermodynamic laws of cooling) to model its operation.

  17. How I teach the second law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kincanon, Eric

    2013-07-01

    An alternative method of presenting the second law of thermodynamics in introductory courses is presented. The emphasis is on statistical approaches as developed by Atkins. This has the benefit of stressing the statistical nature of the law.

  18. How I Teach the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincanon, Eric

    2013-01-01

    An alternative method of presenting the second law of thermodynamics in introductory courses is presented. The emphasis is on statistical approaches as developed by Atkins. This has the benefit of stressing the statistical nature of the law.

  19. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 27-30: Direct-Current Circuits; Magnetic Forces; Ampere's Law; and Faraday's Law].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules indlude study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  20. Assassination and the Law of Armed Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    considered that to be entirely permissible. 8 Hugo Grotius considered "whether, according to the law of nations, it is permissible to kill an enemy by...Representative to the United Nations Security Council (April 14, 1986), reprinted in Leich , Contemporary Practice of the United States, 80 Am. J. Int’l...at 191. 90. Letter from Vernon A. Walters, United States Permanent Representative to the United Nations (April 15, 1986), reprinted in Leich , supra

  1. Polish Martial Law: The Crisis of Communism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Poland 1980–81 (Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1985), 59. 2 The imposition of Martial Law in 1981, as well as the military...Andrews, Poland 1980–81 (Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1985), 20. 5 Arthur Rachwald, In Search of Poland: the Superpowers...Poland 1980–81 (Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1985), 16–20. 7 impossible for workers to implement plans, or for planners to

  2. On the integral law of thermal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Y. V.

    2014-10-01

    The integral law of thermal radiation by finite-size emitters is studied. Two geometrical characteristics of a radiating body or a cavity, its volume and its boundary area, define two terms in its radiance. The term defined by the volume corresponds to the Stefan-Boltzmann law. The term defined by the boundary area is proportional to the third power of temperature and inversely proportional to emitter's effective size, which is defined as the ratio of its volume to its boundary area. This generalized law is valid for arbitrary temperature and effective size. It is shown that the cubic temperature contribution is observed in experiments. This term explains the intrinsic uncertainty of the NPL experiment on radiometric determination of the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. It is also quantitatively confirmed by data from the NIST calibration of cryogenic blackbodies. Its relevance to the size of source effect in optical radiometry is proposed and supported by the experiments on thermal emission from nano-heaters.

  3. The collaboration of grouping laws in vision.

    PubMed

    Grompone von Gioi, Rafael; Delon, Julie; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt theory gives a list of geometric grouping laws that could in principle give a complete account of human image perception. Based on an extensive thesaurus of clever graphical images, this theory discusses how grouping laws collaborate, and conflict toward a global image understanding. Unfortunately, as shown in the bibliographical analysis herewith, the attempts to formalize the grouping laws in computer vision and psychophysics have at best succeeded to compute individual partial structures (or partial gestalts), such as alignments or symmetries. Nevertheless, we show here that a never formalized clever Gestalt experimental procedure, the Nachzeichnung suggests a numerical set up to implement and test the collaboration of partial gestalts. The new computational procedure proposed here analyzes a digital image, and performs a numerical simulation that we call Nachtanz or Gestaltic dance. In this dance, the analyzed digital image is gradually deformed in a random way, but maintaining the detected partial gestalts. The resulting dancing images should be perceptually indistinguishable if and only if the grouping process was complete. Like the Nachzeichnung, the Nachtanz permits a visual exploration of the degrees of freedom still available to a figure after all partial groups (or gestalts) have been detected. In the new proposed procedure, instead of drawing themselves, subjects will be shown samples of the automatic Gestalt dances and required to evaluate if the figures are similar. Several numerical preliminary results with this new Gestaltic experimental setup are thoroughly discussed.

  4. International Comparison of Age Discrimination Laws

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Joanna N.

    2014-01-01

    European age discrimination legislation is discussed in the context of the US Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and related state laws. US law was originally introduced to protect productive older workers from age stereotypes, but more recently preventing age discrimination has become important as a means of keeping costs down on entitlement programs as the population ages. Changes in enforcement, penalties, exemptions, length of time to file, and burden of proof have changed the effects of the laws over time. The ADEA has had both positive effects on currently employed older workers and negative effects on the hiring of older workers. Enforcement and publicity are offered as possible explanations for the strength of these positive and negative effects. Age discrimination legislation in Europe, indicated in the Framework Directive 2000/78, is driven by economic and political considerations. European legislation calls for less enforcement and more exemptions than the corresponding US cases which could lead to smaller effects on employment. However, pensions, disability, unemployment, and social security potentially have a stronger effect on social norms for retirement age than does anti-discrimination legislation. PMID:25197154

  5. Lenz's Law Magic Trick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2006-02-01

    The demonstration of Lenz's law by dropping a powerful magnet down a nonmagnetic metal pipe has become a classic lecture-hall demonstration.1,2 An inexpensive version is packaged as a professional magic trick3 called "Newton's Nightmare." Combining sleight-of-hand with a demonstration of Lenz's law is a surefire way to heighten student interest. The subsequent student discussion motivated by a desire to understand the magic trick can lead to a memorable physics lesson. This paper will discuss Lenz's law magic and review literature that reveals the subtlety of the physics.

  6. The evolution of law in biopreparedness.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G

    2012-03-01

    The decade following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and ensuing anthrax exposures that same fall has seen significant legal reforms designed to improve biopreparedness nationally. Over the past 10 years, a transformative series of legal changes have effectively (1) rebuilt components of federal, state, and local governments to improve response efforts; (2) created an entire new legal classification known as "public health emergencies"; and (3) overhauled existing legal norms defining the roles and responsibilities of public and private actors in emergency response efforts. The back story as to how law plays an essential role in facilitating biopreparedness, however, is pocked with controversies and conflicts between law- and policymakers, public health officials, emergency managers, civil libertarians, scholars, and others. Significant legal challenges for the next decade remain. Issues related to interjurisdictional coordination; duplicative legal declarations of emergency, disaster, and public health emergency; real-time legal decision making; and liability protections for emergency responders and entities remain unresolved. This article explores the evolving tale underlying the rise and prominence of law as a pivotal tool in national biopreparedness and response efforts in the interests of preventing excess morbidity and mortality during public health emergencies.

  7. [Common law, civil law: thinking about the tools of the judge in bioethics].

    PubMed

    Baudouin, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    Civilian and common law judges differ substantially in their approach to the resolution of issues concerning bioethics and health sciences. Whereas the civilian judge will first take into account the legislative source, his common law counterpart will most probably first look at judicial precedents for guidance. In both systems, however, the legislative drafting technique differs substantially and has a direct impact on judicial interpretation of the law. Both systems also differ in the way that judicial decisions are drafted and rendered. In the common law tradition, judges draft their own opinion, leaving the possibility of dissent which, in turn, helps to better illustrate contentious issues and may have an influence on social awareness of difficult problems. Finally, in bioethics, legislation should be preferred if only for a question of social legitimacy, since decisions are then taken by elected representatives. However, this type of legislation should be subject to periodical review to better adapt its rules to the evolution of science and society.

  8. The significance of Bragg's law in electron diffraction and microscopy, and Bragg's second law.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, C J

    2013-01-01

    Bragg's second law, which deserves to be more widely known, is recounted. The significance of Bragg's law in electron diffraction and microscopy is then discussed, with particular emphasis on differences between X-ray and electron diffraction. As an example of such differences, the critical voltage effect in electron diffraction is described. It is then shown that the lattice imaging of crystals in high-resolution electron microscopy directly reveals the Bragg planes used for the imaging process, exactly as visualized by Bragg in his real-space law. Finally, it is shown how in 2012, for the first time, on the centennial anniversary of Bragg's law, single atoms have been identified in an electron microscope using X-rays emitted from the specimen. Hence atomic resolution X-ray maps of a crystal in real space can be formed which give the positions and identities of the different atoms in the crystal, or of a single impurity atom in the crystal.

  9. 12 CFR 560.2 - Applicability of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... public free from undue regulatory duplication and burden), OTS hereby occupies the entire field of... purposes of paragraph (a) of this section: (1) Contract and commercial law; (2) Real property law;...

  10. The gravitational analog of Faraday's induction law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zile, Daniel; Overduin, James

    2015-04-01

    Michael Faraday, the discoverer of electromagnetic induction, was convinced that there must also be a gravitational analog of this law, and he carried out drop-tower experiments in 1849 to look for the electric current induced in a coil by changes in gravitational flux through the coil. This work, now little remembered, was in some ways the first investigation of what we would now call a unified-field theory. We revisit Faraday's experiments in the light of current knowledge and ask what might be learned if they were to be performed today. We then review the gravitational analog for Faraday's law that arises within the vector (or gravito-electromagnetic) approximation to Einstein's theory of general relativity in the weak-field, low-velocity limit. This law relates spinning masses and induced ``mass currents'' rather than spinning charges and electric currents, but is otherwise remarkably similar to its electromagnetic counterpart. The predicted effects are completely unobservable in everyday settings like those envisioned by Faraday, but are thought to be relevant in astrophysical contexts like the accretion disks around collapsed stars, thus bearing out Faraday's remarkable intuition. Undergraduate student.

  11. Generating wind fields that honour point observations and physical conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlabing, Dirk; Bárdossy, András

    2015-04-01

    Wind exhibits a strong spatial and temporal variability. In the application of lake modelling, these features are important for simulating water flows and stratification correctly, as mean and variance of wind speed determine the input of momentum into the lake. This makes a mere interpolation of point measurements an unsuitable method for producing model input. Additionally to concrete point measurements, more subtle aspects of wind fields are to be reproduced. It follows from the fact that wind vectors represent moving air that a wind field has to be divergency-free in order to be mass-conservative. Further, a temporal sequence of wind fields has to comply with the Navier-Stokes equation in order to conserve momentum. All these constraints can be met by representing the conditioned wind field as a linear combination of unconditioned, normally distributed random fields that individually possess the same spatial covariance structuref as observed wind fields. The aim of having the same covariance structure in the conditioned wind field is formulated as an optimization problem with respect to the weights used in the linear combination. With the help of Quadratic Programming (QP) and exploiting the convexity of the problem, feasible solutions can easily be found. In this QP problem, observations become linear constraints. Conservation laws can be incorporated by introducing control volumes in a similar fashion as they are used in fluid mechanics. Budgets of flows through these control volumes become integral conditions in the QP problem. The applicability of the approach will be shown using an artificial example and real-world data measured on shore and on a moving boat on Lake Constance.

  12. First law of black ring thermodynamics in higher dimensional Chern-Simons gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Rogatko, Marek

    2007-01-15

    The physical process version and the equilibrium state version of the first law of black ring thermodynamics in n-dimensional Einstein gravity with Chern-Simons term were derived. This theory constitutes the simplest generalization of the five-dimensional one admitting a stationary black ring solution. The equilibrium state version of the first law of black ring mechanics was achieved by choosing any cross section of the event horizon to the future of the bifurcation surface.

  13. Inferring the rate-length law of protein folding.

    PubMed

    Lane, Thomas J; Pande, Vijay S

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the rate-length scaling law of protein folding, a key undetermined scaling law in the analytical theory of protein folding. Available data yield statistically significant evidence for the existence of a rate-length law capable of predicting folding times to within about two orders of magnitude (over 9 decades of variation). Unambiguous determination of the functional form of such a law could provide key mechanistic insight into folding. Four proposed laws from literature (power law, exponential, and two stretched exponentials) are tested against one another, and it is found that the power law best explains the data by a modest margin. We conclude that more data is necessary to unequivocally infer the rate-length law. Such data could be obtained through a small number of protein folding experiments on large protein domains.

  14. Law: protection of the unborn child.

    PubMed

    Finch, J

    1983-04-20

    Under the provisions of the UK's Congenital Disabilities (Civil Liability) Act 1976 a duty of care is owed to an unborn child via his/her mother, and, although not conclusively settled, a duty of care is probably owed to an unborn child in common law, that is independent of the statute. Thus, it is clear that the law protects the child before birth in the form of an action for damages brought on his/her behalf in respect of disabilities caused during the mother's pregnancy by someone's negligence. In certain cases the law also allows the lives of unborn children to be terminated at some time before birth, or, more precisely, until such time as the unborn child is capable of being born alive. The age at which a child can be born alive is a question of fact and "bona fide" medical evidence in each case. Children who are capable of a live birth are protected under a 1929 Act of Parliament which makes it a serious criminal offense to kill an unborn child who is capable of being born alive. The practice is often either ignored or overlooked, but this vitally important statute should not be forgotten. The offense referred to must be distinguished from the offense of abortion. Staff nurse Karen Smith needs to remember this if she becomes involved in abortions. There are circumstances in which abortion is permitted by law but this is not the same as saying that abortion is lawful. It is necessary to return to 1st principles relating to the law's protection of human life and its provision for the criminal punishment of those who offended against those principles. Subject to certain exceptions, it is murder by a deliberate act to cause or accelerate the death of a person who is "in being." From a legal perspective, this is distinguished as the deliberate ending of the life of someone before their birth. That it is not murder is not because of the fact that the unborn are not "human." Rather it is because they are not yet "in being." In the words of the Infant Life

  15. Discussion on ``Frontiers of the Second Law''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth; Bejan, Adrian; Bennett, Charles; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Butler, Howard; Gordon, Lyndsay; Grmela, Miroslav; Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Hatsopoulos, George N.; Jou, David; Kjelstrup, Signe; Lior, Noam; Miller, Sam; Rubi, Miguel; Schneider, Eric D.; Sekulic, Dusan P.; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2008-08-01

    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 4, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Adrian Bejan, Bjarne Andresen, Miguel Rubi, Signe Kjelstrup, David Jou, Miroslav Grmela, Lyndsay Gordon, and Eric Schneider. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Is the second law relevant when we trap single ions, prepare, manipulate and measure single photons, excite single atoms, induce spin echoes, measure quantum entanglement? Is it possible or impossible to build Maxwell demons that beat the second law by exploiting fluctuations? • Is the maximum entropy generation principle capable of unifying nonequilibrium molecular dynamics, chemical kinetics, nonlocal and nonequilibrium rheology, biological systems, natural structures, and cosmological evolution? • Research in quantum computation and quantum information has raised many fundamental questions about the foundations of quantum theory. Are any of these questions related to the second law?

  16. 10 CFR 861.7 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 861.7 Section 861.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.7 Applicability of other laws. Nothing in this part shall be construed to affect the applicability of the provisions of State laws or of...

  17. 10 CFR 861.7 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 861.7 Section 861.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.7 Applicability of other laws. Nothing in this part shall be construed to affect the applicability of the provisions of State laws or of...

  18. 10 CFR 861.7 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 861.7 Section 861.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.7 Applicability of other laws. Nothing in this part shall be construed to affect the applicability of the provisions of State laws or of...

  19. 10 CFR 861.7 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 861.7 Section 861.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.7 Applicability of other laws. Nothing in this part shall be construed to affect the applicability of the provisions of State laws or of...

  20. 10 CFR 861.7 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 861.7 Section 861.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.7 Applicability of other laws. Nothing in this part shall be construed to affect the applicability of the provisions of State laws or of...

  1. Streamlining Defense Acquisition Laws. Executive Summary: Report of the DoD Acquisition Law Advisory Panel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    15 Property vs. Services ................................................................................ 15 Ancillary Services ...64 iv Service Specific Laws...program executives from the uniformed services , defense industry, and other branches of the federal government. 2 Pub. L. No. 101-510, § 800,104 Stat

  2. Tests of the Gravitational Inverse-Square Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelberger, E. G.; Heckel, B. R.; Nelson, A. E.

    2003-12-01

    We review recent experimental tests of the gravitational inverse-square law and the wide variety of theoretical considerations that suggest the law may break down in experimentally accessible regions.

  3. The Conservation Principles and Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motz, Lloyd

    1975-01-01

    Derives Kepler's three laws of planetary motion algebraically from conservation principles without introducing Newton's law of force explicitly. This procedure can be presented to students who have had no more than high school algebra. (Author)

  4. Review of Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, K. A.; Particle Data Group; et al.

    2016-10-01

    The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,062 new measurements from 721 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as supersymmetric particles, heavy bosons, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Higgs Boson Physics, Supersymmetry, Grand Unified Theories, Neutrino Mixing, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Cosmology, Particle Detectors, Colliders, Probability and Statistics. Among the 117 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised, including those on Pentaquarks and Inflation. The complete Review is published online in a journal and on the website of the Particle Data Group (http://pdg.lbl.gov). The printed PDG Book contains the Summary Tables and all review articles but no longer includes the detailed tables from the Particle Listings. A Booklet with the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the review articles is also available. Contents Abstract, Contributors, Highlights and Table of ContentsAcrobat PDF (150 KB) IntroductionAcrobat PDF (456 KB) Particle Physics Summary Tables Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (155 KB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (134 KB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (84 KB) MesonsAcrobat PDF (871 KB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (300 KB) Searches (Supersymmetry, Compositeness, etc.)Acrobat PDF (91 KB) Tests of conservation lawsAcrobat PDF (330 KB) Reviews, Tables, and Plots Detailed contents for this sectionAcrobat PDF (37 KB) Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear PropertiesAcrobat PDF (278 KB) Standard Model and Related TopicsAcrobat PDF (7.3 MB) Astrophysics and CosmologyAcrobat PDF (2.7 MB) Experimental Methods and CollidersAcrobat PDF (3.8 MB) Mathematical Tools or Statistics, Monte Carlo, Group

  5. The economics of the law of effect.

    PubMed Central

    Collier, G H; Johnson, D F; Hill, W L; Kaufman, L W

    1986-01-01

    A corollary of the law of effect predicts that the larger the reinforcement, the greater the rate of responding. However, an animal must eat more small portions than large portions to obtain the same daily intake, and one would predict, therefore, that when eating smaller portions an efficient animal would eat less (conserving time and energy) and/or respond faster (conserving time). The latter of these predictions was supported by the present experiments with free-feeding rats for which portion size (pellet size or duration of feeder presentation) and portion price within meals were varied. Response rate was a function of the unit price (responses/g) of food: Rats responded faster when portions were smaller or when prices were higher. Meal size and frequency were relatively unaffected by unit price, but were influenced by the price of meal initiation. The results are discussed in relation to the economic differences between traditional operant and free-feeding paradigms and to both traditional and more recent formulations of the law of effect. PMID:3760748

  6. Educational Reform in Brazil. The Law of 1961.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William A.

    On December 21, 1961 the Brazilian Congress passed the Law of Directives and Bases of National Education, implementing the educational provisions of the Constitution of 1946. This Law of 1961 was Brazil's first general education law and was widely publicized as decentralizing the administration of and the responsibility for Brazilian education,…

  7. 33 CFR 114.40 - Violations of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Violations of law. 114.40 Section... § 114.40 Violations of law. The Coast Guard has the authority and responsibility for enforcement of the applicable provisions of law for the protection and preservation of navigable waters. It is the policy of...

  8. 30 CFR 44.20 - Designation of administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of administrative law judge. 44.20... STANDARDS Hearings § 44.20 Designation of administrative law judge. Within 5 days after receipt of a... Judge shall designate an administrative law judge appointed under section 3105 of Title 5 of the...

  9. 26 CFR 509.102 - Applicable provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2014-04-01 2010-04-01 true Applicable provisions of law. 509.102 Section... UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.102 Applicable provisions of law. (a) General... reason of any alteration of law in relation to internal revenue. (b) Retroactivity of regulations...

  10. 29 CFR 452.138 - Application of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of other laws. 452.138 Section 452.138 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Dates and Scope of Application § 452.138 Application of other laws. (a) Section 403 59 provides that no labor organization shall be required by law to conduct elections of officers with...

  11. Curriculum and Law: An Elaboration of the Analogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orpwood, Graham W. F.

    A new conceptualization of the curriculum field is offered that is based on an analogy with the field of law. The conceptualization is able to account for the existence in curriculum of a variety of differing normative curriculum theories. Two theories of law (natural law and legal positivism) are described and shown to have exact counterparts in…

  12. Students’ representation about Newton law: consequences of “zero intuition”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handhika, Jeffry; Cari, C.; Suparmi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Newton’s laws can represent in the language of verbal, mathematical, physical, and visual. Students who understood concept would express the concepts in various representations consistently. In this research, a mathematical presentation used to reveal the student’s concept understanding about Newton first law. The results showed that 21.87% of the students changed the mathematical presentation of Newton’s first law ≤ft( {\\sum {F = 0} } \\right) into verbal representation incorrectly. Changing the mathematical form of Newton’s first law into the form of ≤ft( {0 = \\sum {F} } \\right) caused the percentage of students who did not respond increased, further concluded that “zero intuition” in the equation of Newton first law caused misconceptions.

  13. "Atypical" Employment and the Failure of Labour Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Increased casual employment and contract labor challenge the protective nature of Australian labor law. Laws and social policies should not cause casual and self-employed workers to be denied benefits nor allow employers to evade standards. (SK)

  14. 29 CFR 541.304 - Practice of law or medicine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Practice of law or medicine. 541.304 Section 541.304 Labor... Professional Employees § 541.304 Practice of law or medicine. (a) The term “employee employed in a bona fide... valid license or certificate permitting the practice of law or medicine or any of their branches and...

  15. 29 CFR 541.304 - Practice of law or medicine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Practice of law or medicine. 541.304 Section 541.304 Labor... Professional Employees § 541.304 Practice of law or medicine. (a) The term “employee employed in a bona fide... valid license or certificate permitting the practice of law or medicine or any of their branches and...

  16. 29 CFR 541.304 - Practice of law or medicine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Practice of law or medicine. 541.304 Section 541.304 Labor... Professional Employees § 541.304 Practice of law or medicine. (a) The term “employee employed in a bona fide... valid license or certificate permitting the practice of law or medicine or any of their branches and...

  17. 19 CFR 111.45 - Revocation by operation of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation by operation of law. 111.45 Section 111... operation of law. (a) License. If a broker that is a partnership, association, or corporation fails to have... operation of law of the license and any permits issued to the partnership, association, or corporation....

  18. 29 CFR 541.304 - Practice of law or medicine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practice of law or medicine. 541.304 Section 541.304 Labor... Professional Employees § 541.304 Practice of law or medicine. (a) The term “employee employed in a bona fide... valid license or certificate permitting the practice of law or medicine or any of their branches and...

  19. 29 CFR 541.304 - Practice of law or medicine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Practice of law or medicine. 541.304 Section 541.304 Labor... Professional Employees § 541.304 Practice of law or medicine. (a) The term “employee employed in a bona fide... valid license or certificate permitting the practice of law or medicine or any of their branches and...

  20. 34 CFR 76.901 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Administrative Law Judges. 76.901 Section 76... Procedures Does the Secretary Use To Get Compliance? § 76.901 Office of Administrative Law Judges. (a) The Office of Administrative Law Judges, established under Part E of GEPA, has the following functions:...

  1. 43 CFR 4.1122 - Conduct of administrative law judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of administrative law judges. 4.1122 Section 4.1122 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS... Evidentiary Hearings § 4.1122 Conduct of administrative law judges. Administrative law judges shall adhere...

  2. 17 CFR 30.11 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability of state law. 30... FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS § 30.11 Applicability of state law. Pursuant to section 12(e)(2) of the Act, the provisions of any state law, including any rule or regulation thereunder, may...

  3. 12 CFR 560.2 - Applicability of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Applicability of law. 560.2 Section 560.2 Banks... Applicability of law. (a) Occupation of field. Pursuant to sections 4(a) and 5(a) of the HOLA, 12 U.S.C. 1463(a), 1464(a), OTS is authorized to promulgate regulations that preempt state laws affecting the...

  4. 32 CFR 700.705 - Observance of international law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Observance of international law. 700.705 Section... Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.705 Observance of international law. At all times, commanders shall observe, and require their commands to observe, the principles of international law....

  5. 10 CFR 860.8 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 860.8 Section 860.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRESPASSING ON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY § 860.8 Applicability of other laws... Federal laws....

  6. 17 CFR 30.11 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of state law. 30... FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS § 30.11 Applicability of state law. Pursuant to section 12(e)(2) of the Act, the provisions of any state law, including any rule or regulation thereunder, may...

  7. 10 CFR 860.8 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 860.8 Section 860.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRESPASSING ON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY § 860.8 Applicability of other laws... Federal laws....

  8. 43 CFR 2361.0-7 - Effect of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effect of law. 2361.0-7 Section 2361.0-7... and Protection of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska § 2361.0-7 Effect of law. (a) Subject to... withdrawn from all forms of entry and disposition under the public land laws, including the mining...

  9. 17 CFR 30.11 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of state law. 30... FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS § 30.11 Applicability of state law. Pursuant to section 12(e)(2) of the Act, the provisions of any state law, including any rule or regulation thereunder, may...

  10. 48 CFR 252.233-7001 - Choice of law (overseas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Choice of law (overseas... of Provisions And Clauses 252.233-7001 Choice of law (overseas). As prescribed in 233.215-70, use the following clause: Choice of Law (Overseas) (JUN 1997) This contract shall be construed and interpreted...

  11. 32 CFR 700.705 - Observance of international law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Observance of international law. 700.705 Section... Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.705 Observance of international law. At all times, commanders shall observe, and require their commands to observe, the principles of international law....

  12. The Common Law of the Academic Profession: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, David W.

    1987-01-01

    The academic common law may soon vanish, not as a result of court action but due to the American Association of University Professors's declining role in defending the common law of academic employment. The profession is challenged to maintain its independence from external control by reconsidering its own common law. (Author/MLW)

  13. Beyond Rio? The Evolution of International Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnee, Jutta

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the expansion and innovation in the use of international environmental law mechanisms to address the problems of global environmental protection. Presents initiatives involving customary international law, forms of international agreements, nonbinding "soft law," and an example involving Canada's biodiversity commitments. (MDH)

  14. 31 CFR 501.740 - Decision of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision of Administrative Law Judge... REGULATIONS Trading With the Enemy Act (TWEA) Penalties § 501.740 Decision of Administrative Law Judge. The Administrative Law Judge shall prepare a decision that constitutes his or her final disposition of...

  15. 31 CFR 8.68 - Decision of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision of Administrative Law Judge... Administrative Law Judge. As soon as practicable after the conclusion of a hearing and the receipt of any proposed findings and conclusions timely submitted by the parties, the Administrative Law Judge shall...

  16. 43 CFR 4.1121 - Powers of administrative law judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Powers of administrative law judges. 4... Evidentiary Hearings § 4.1121 Powers of administrative law judges. (a) Under the regulations of this part, an administrative law judge may— (1) Administer oaths and affirmations; (2) Issue subpoenas; (3) Issue...

  17. 28 CFR 68.28 - Authority of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of Administrative Law Judge. 68... PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF... Authority of Administrative Law Judge. (a) General powers. In any proceeding under this part,...

  18. 40 CFR 258.3 - Consideration of other Federal laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of other Federal laws... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS General § 258.3 Consideration of other Federal laws. The owner... rules, laws, regulations, or other requirements....

  19. 10 CFR 160.8 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 160.8 Section 160.8 Energy... other laws. Nothing in this part shall be construed to affect the applicability of the provisions of State or other Federal laws....

  20. 46 CFR 69.153 - Application of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of other laws. 69.153 Section 69.153... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.153 Application of other laws. (a) If a vessel is assigned... inspection, manning, and load line laws and regulations to the vessel. (b) Tonnage marks are not to...

  1. 31 CFR 10.32 - Practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Practice of law. 10.32 Section 10.32... of law. Nothing in the regulations in this part may be construed as authorizing persons not members of the bar to practice law....

  2. 46 CFR 69.153 - Application of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of other laws. 69.153 Section 69.153... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.153 Application of other laws. (a) If a vessel is assigned... inspection, manning, and load line laws and regulations to the vessel. (b) Tonnage marks are not to...

  3. 31 CFR 10.32 - Practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practice of law. 10.32 Section 10.32... of law. Nothing in the regulations in this part may be construed as authorizing persons not members of the bar to practice law....

  4. 46 CFR 69.153 - Application of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application of other laws. 69.153 Section 69.153... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.153 Application of other laws. (a) If a vessel is assigned... inspection, manning, and load line laws and regulations to the vessel. (b) Tonnage marks are not to...

  5. 48 CFR 352.233-70 - Choice of law (overseas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Choice of law (overseas... Choice of law (overseas). As prescribed in 333.215-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Choice of Law (Overseas) (January 2010) This contract shall be construed in...

  6. 46 CFR 69.153 - Application of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application of other laws. 69.153 Section 69.153... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.153 Application of other laws. (a) If a vessel is assigned... inspection, manning, and load line laws and regulations to the vessel. (b) Tonnage marks are not to...

  7. Toward a Social History of Law and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyack, David

    This exploratory essay suggests the contours of a social history of law and public education. The essay departs from two traditional approaches to educational law: the study of landmark cases, and textbooks that delimit legally approved practice. Instead the changing dialectic between statutory and court-decided law is analyzed, stressing how…

  8. Physical models of cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, Michail

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents and discusses physical models for simulating some aspects of neural intelligence, and, in particular, the process of cognition. The main departure from the classical approach here is in utilization of a terminal version of classical dynamics introduced by the author earlier. Based upon violations of the Lipschitz condition at equilibrium points, terminal dynamics attains two new fundamental properties: it is spontaneous and nondeterministic. Special attention is focused on terminal neurodynamics as a particular architecture of terminal dynamics which is suitable for modeling of information flows. Terminal neurodynamics possesses a well-organized probabilistic structure which can be analytically predicted, prescribed, and controlled, and therefore which presents a powerful tool for modeling real-life uncertainties. Two basic phenomena associated with random behavior of neurodynamic solutions are exploited. The first one is a stochastic attractor—a stable stationary stochastic process to which random solutions of a closed system converge. As a model of the cognition process, a stochastic attractor can be viewed as a universal tool for generalization and formation of classes of patterns. The concept of stochastic attractor is applied to model a collective brain paradigm explaining coordination between simple units of intelligence which perform a collective task without direct exchange of information. The second fundamental phenomenon discussed is terminal chaos which occurs in open systems. Applications of terminal chaos to information fusion as well as to explanation and modeling of coordination among neurons in biological systems are discussed. It should be emphasized that all the models of terminal neurodynamics are implementable in analog devices, which means that all the cognition processes discussed in the paper are reducible to the laws of Newtonian mechanics.

  9. Physical Models of Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses physical models for simulating some aspects of neural intelligence, and, in particular, the process of cognition. The main departure from the classical approach here is in utilization of a terminal version of classical dynamics introduced by the author earlier. Based upon violations of the Lipschitz condition at equilibrium points, terminal dynamics attains two new fundamental properties: it is spontaneous and nondeterministic. Special attention is focused on terminal neurodynamics as a particular architecture of terminal dynamics which is suitable for modeling of information flows. Terminal neurodynamics possesses a well-organized probabilistic structure which can be analytically predicted, prescribed, and controlled, and therefore which presents a powerful tool for modeling real-life uncertainties. Two basic phenomena associated with random behavior of neurodynamic solutions are exploited. The first one is a stochastic attractor ; a stable stationary stochastic process to which random solutions of a closed system converge. As a model of the cognition process, a stochastic attractor can be viewed as a universal tool for generalization and formation of classes of patterns. The concept of stochastic attractor is applied to model a collective brain paradigm explaining coordination between simple units of intelligence which perform a collective task without direct exchange of information. The second fundamental phenomenon discussed is terminal chaos which occurs in open systems. Applications of terminal chaos to information fusion as well as to explanation and modeling of coordination among neurons in biological systems are discussed. It should be emphasized that all the models of terminal neurodynamics are implementable in analog devices, which means that all the cognition processes discussed in the paper are reducible to the laws of Newtonian mechanics.

  10. Swept Away: Exploring the Physics of Curling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Liza

    2011-01-01

    Studying the Olympic sport of curling is a fun and engaging way to learn about the concepts of friction, forces, momentum, and Newton's laws. Each winter, the author takes her eighth-grade physical science class on a field trip to experience curling firsthand. This field trip has become a favorite of the eighth graders at Capitol Hill Day School…

  11. Black Residential Segregation: Impact of State Licensing Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Joe T.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the level of Black residential segregation among two groups of States: those whose real estate licensing laws contain explicit fair housing or anti-discrimination provisions, and those whose licensing laws contain no such provisions. Found that State licensing laws have no significant impact on Black residential discrimination. (GC)

  12. 31 CFR 10.76 - Decision of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision of Administrative Law Judge... Administrative Law Judge. (a) In general—(1) Hearings. Within 180 days after the conclusion of a hearing and the... adjudication. In the event that a motion for summary adjudication is filed, the Administrative Law Judge...

  13. 22 CFR 1423.20 - Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges... RELATIONS AUTHORITY UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS § 1423.20 Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges. In the event the Administrative Law Judge designated to conduct the hearing becomes unavailable,...

  14. 31 CFR 501.736 - Authority of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of Administrative Law Judge... REGULATIONS Trading With the Enemy Act (TWEA) Penalties § 501.736 Authority of Administrative Law Judge. The Administrative Law Judge shall have authority to do all things necessary and appropriate to discharge his or...

  15. 43 CFR 4.474 - Authority of administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of administrative law judge. 4... (inside and Outside Grazing Districts) § 4.474 Authority of administrative law judge. (a) The administrative law judge is vested with the duty and general authority to conduct the hearing in an...

  16. 50 CFR 20.71 - Violation of Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Violation of Federal law. 20.71 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Federal, State, and Foreign Law § 20.71 Violation of Federal law. No person shall at any time, by any means or in any manner, take, possess, transport,...

  17. 32 CFR 11.4 - Applicable principles of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable principles of law. 11.4 Section 11.4... ELEMENTS FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSION § 11.4 Applicable principles of law. (a) General intent. All... wrongful if it is done without justification or excuse cognizable under applicable law. The element...

  18. 50 CFR 20.72 - Violation of State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Violation of State law. 20.72 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Federal, State, and Foreign Law § 20.72 Violation of State law. No person shall at any time, by any means or in any manner, take, possess, transport,...

  19. 31 CFR 8.42 - Practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Practice of law. 8.42 Section 8.42... ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Duties and Restrictions Relating to Practice § 8.42 Practice of law. Nothing... practice law....

  20. 50 CFR 20.73 - Violation of foreign law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Violation of foreign law. 20.73 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Federal, State, and Foreign Law § 20.73 Violation of foreign law. No person shall at any time, by any means, or in any manner, import, possess, or...

  1. 32 CFR 11.4 - Applicable principles of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable principles of law. 11.4 Section 11.4... ELEMENTS FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSION § 11.4 Applicable principles of law. (a) General intent. All... wrongful if it is done without justification or excuse cognizable under applicable law. The element...

  2. 31 CFR 8.42 - Practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practice of law. 8.42 Section 8.42... ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Duties and Restrictions Relating to Practice § 8.42 Practice of law. Nothing... practice law....

  3. Homicide by fright: the intersection of cardiology and criminal law.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Frank T; Oetgen, Catherine C; Oetgen, William J

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing lay wisdom associates emotional stress with sudden death, and recent medical reports have linked massive catecholamine surges with demonstrable cardiac dysfunction that can be either reversible or fatal. This association does not strictly prove causality, and the question remains open for additional scientific investigation. From the legal viewpoint, however, the issue has been resolved, and case law clearly holds that sudden emotional stress can cause death. More significantly, case law also holds that if the sudden emotional stress is caused by criminal conduct, the resulting death of a victim of the criminal conduct can be prosecuted as homicide. Cardiologists are often called to testify in such circumstances. In the present study, we have reviewed 8 legal cases that are the basis of current opinions in these matters. These legal principles can be summarized as follows: emotional stress is sufficient, and physical abuse is not required for conviction; a time-lapse between the induction of emotional stress and death does not necessarily mitigate the charge of homicide; the criminal act must be the proximate cause of the victim's death; however, the accused does not always need to be physically present to commit the crime. In conclusion, although the pathophysiology of sudden death associated with massive emotional stress has not been fully elucidated from a scientific viewpoint, in the legal system, the association can be causative and can be the basis for a criminal prosecution. Cardiologists may be called on to provide expert opinions in the prosecution of these cases.

  4. Scaling law of Wolff cluster surface energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Pai-Yi; Monceau, Pascal

    2003-05-01

    We study the scaling properties of the clusters grown by the Wolff algorithm on seven different Sierpinski-type fractals of Hausdorff dimension 1of the Ising model. The mean absolute value of the surface energy of Wolff cluster follows a power law with respect to the lattice size. Moreover, we investigate the probability density distribution of the surface energy of the Wolff cluster and are able to establish a different scaling relation. It enables us to introduce an exponent that is associated to the surface energy of the Wolff cluster. Finally, this exponent is linked to a dynamical exponent via an inequality.

  5. Horizons of cybernetical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradkov, Alexander L.

    2017-03-01

    The subject and main areas of a new research field-cybernetical physics-are discussed. A brief history of cybernetical physics is outlined. The main areas of activity in cybernetical physics are briefly surveyed, such as control of oscillatory and chaotic behaviour, control of resonance and synchronization, control in thermodynamics, control of distributed systems and networks, quantum control. This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'.

  6. Physics and the Art of Dance - Understanding Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swope, Kenneth Laws

    2005-03-01

    Written by a physicist with professional dance training, Physics and the Art of Dance explains how dancers can achieve better, safer performances through an understanding of physics in motion. Using simple, non-technical terms, Kenneth Laws combines his knowledge of both physics and dance to describe how the laws of gravity, momentum, and energy affect dancing bodies. The book explores the natural laws that govern the subtleties of balance, the techniques of leaps and pirouettes, and the impressive lifts and turns executed by ballet partners. Finally, Laws offers insight into two current discussions in the dance world--the effect of body size on ballet technique, and the relationship between science and the art of dance. Beautiful, original stop-action photographs by Martha Swope, along with clear diagrams, illustrate the concepts described in the text. Plus, an intriguing "puzzler" at the beginning of each chapter provides an engaging entree into the topics presented. For those who want a more advanced understanding of the physics, extensive appendices are provided. This new book combines the best features of Laws's widely acclaimed The Physics of Dance and Physics, Dance, and the Pas de Deux by Laws and Cynthia Harvey. Its expert application of the basic principles of physics to the art of dance will be an invaluable resource for dancers and dance instructors and will open a new level of appreciation for lovers of the form. It will also appeal to physicists who seek to include the arts in their scientific pursuits.

  7. The Physics of a Walking Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guemez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2013-01-01

    The physics of walking is explored, using a toy as a concrete example and a "toy model" applied to it. Besides using Newton's second law, the problem is also discussed from the thermodynamical perspective. Once the steady state (constant velocity) is achieved, we show that the internal energy of the toy is dissipated as heat in the…

  8. The Physics of Physical Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, James D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are several topics on medical imaging including x-rays and Computer Assisted Tomography (CAT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging, fiber optics endoscopy, nuclear medicine and bone scans, positron-emission tomography, and ultrasound. The concepts of radiation dosage, electrocardiograms, and laser therapy are included. (YP)

  9. EXTENDED SCHMIDT LAW: ROLE OF EXISTING STARS IN CURRENT STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Yong; Helou, George; Yan Lin; Armus, Lee; Wu Yanling; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Papovich, Casey

    2011-06-01

    We propose an 'extended Schmidt law' with explicit dependence of the star formation efficiency (SFE = SFR/M{sub gas}) on the stellar mass surface density ({Sigma}{sub star}). This relation has a power-law index of 0.48 {+-} 0.04 and a 1{sigma} observed scatter on the SFE of 0.4 dex, which holds over five orders of magnitude in the stellar density for individual global galaxies, including various types and especially the low-surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies that deviate significantly from the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) law. When applying it to regions of a sample of 12 spiral galaxies at sub-kiloparsec resolution, the extended Schmidt law not only holds for LSB regions but also shows significantly smaller scatters both within and across galaxies compared with the KS law. We argue that this new relation points to the role of existing stars in regulating the SFE, thus better encoding the star formation physics. Comparison with physical models of star formation recipes shows that the extended Schmidt law can be reproduced by some models including gas free fall in a stellar-gravitational potential and pressure-supported star formation. By implementing this new law into the analytic model of gas accretion in {Lambda}CDM, we show that it can reproduce the observed main sequence of star-forming galaxies (a relation between the SFR and stellar mass) from z = 0 up to z = 2.

  10. Laws of Flow in Rough Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikuradse, J

    1950-01-01

    An experimental investigation is made of the turbulent flow of water in pipes with various degrees of relative roughness. The pipes range in size from 25 to 100 millimeters in diameter and from 1800 to 7050 millimeters in length. Flow velocities permitted Reynolds numbers from about 10 (sup. 4) to 10 (sup. 6). The laws of resistance and velocity distributions were obtained as a function of relative roughness and Reynolds number. Mixing length, as described by Prandtl's mixing-length formula, is discussed in relation to the experimental results.

  11. The Physics of Warfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  12. The Atomic Origin of the Reflection Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytz, Kjell

    2016-12-01

    It will be demonstrated how the reflection law may be derived on an atomic basis using the plane wave approximation together with Huygens' principle. The model utilized is based on the electric dipole character of matter originating from its molecular constituents. This approach is not new but has, since it was first introduced by Ewald and Oseen in 1915, been applied and analyzed many times before. Here we develop the Ewald-Oseen model of reflection adapted for high school and early undergraduate students with a basic knowledge of microscopic material structure.

  13. Field Theories from the Relativistic Law of Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Parampreet; Dadhich, Naresh

    From the relativistic law of motion we attempt to deduce the field theories corresponding to the force law being linear and quadratic in four-velocity of the particle. The linear law leads to the vector gauge theory which could be the Abelian Maxwell electrodynamics or the non-Abelian Yang-Mills theory. On the other hand, the quadratic law demands space-time metric as its potential which is equivalent to demanding the principle of equivalence. It leads to the tensor theory of gravitational field - general relativity. It is remarkable that a purely dynamical property of the force law leads uniquely to the corresponding field theories.

  14. The Phenomenal World of Physics. The Science Club. Ages 10-14. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This CD-ROM allows students to learn about physics principles and the scientists who discovered them through genius or luck. The simplicity of these physical laws and how the discovery of these laws has improved the daily lives of humans is discussed. The computer program explores the physics behind the earth's rotation, Archimedes' Principles,…

  15. Is violation of Newton's second law possible?

    PubMed

    Ignatiev, A Yu

    2007-03-09

    Astrophysical observations (usually explained by dark matter) suggest that classical mechanics could break down when the acceleration becomes extremely small [the approach known as modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND)]. I present the first analysis of MOND manifestations in terrestrial (rather than astrophysical) settings. A new effect is reported: around each equinox date, 2 spots emerge on the Earth where static bodies experience spontaneous acceleration due to the possible violation of Newton's second law. Preliminary estimates indicate that an experimental search for this effect can be feasible.

  16. Is Violation of Newton's Second Law Possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatiev, A. Yu.

    2007-03-01

    Astrophysical observations (usually explained by dark matter) suggest that classical mechanics could break down when the acceleration becomes extremely small [the approach known as modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND)]. I present the first analysis of MOND manifestations in terrestrial (rather than astrophysical) settings. A new effect is reported: around each equinox date, 2 spots emerge on the Earth where static bodies experience spontaneous acceleration due to the possible violation of Newton’s second law. Preliminary estimates indicate that an experimental search for this effect can be feasible.

  17. UK: impact of European human rights law.

    PubMed

    Brahams, D

    2000-10-21

    The UK's Human Rights Act 1998, which incorporates into that country's law the European Convention on Rights and Freedoms, came into full operation on Oct 2, 2000. The Act imposes duties on public authorities, who must now justify their position if that is in conflict with a Convention right. Four Articles in the Convention are potential flashpoints in respect of health cases, examples being patients' rights to receive expensive life-saving treatment and disciplinary procedures, including those of the General Medical Council and National Health Service trusts.

  18. Using Physics Principles in the Teaching of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulden, Warren

    1996-01-01

    Presents three examples that show how students can use traditional physics principles or laws for the purpose of understanding chemistry better. Examples include Coulomb's Law and melting points, the Faraday Constant, and the Rydberg Constant. Presents a list of some other traditional topics in a chemistry course that could be enhanced by the…

  19. Project Physics Tests 3, The Triumph of Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Test items relating to Project Physics Unit 3 are presented in this booklet. Included are 70 multiple-choice and 20 problem-and-essay questions. Concepts of mechanics are examined on energy, momentum, kinetic theory of gases, pulse analyses, "heat death," water waves, power, conservation laws, normal distribution, thermodynamic laws, and…

  20. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…