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Sample records for laxatives

  1. Laxative overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Below are specific laxative drugs, with some brand names: Bisacodyl (Dulcolax) Cascara sagrada Castor oil Docusate (Colace) Docusate and phenolphthalein (Correctol) Glycerin suppositories Lactulose (Duphalac) Magnesium ...

  2. Possibility as monosaccharide laxative of rare sugar alcohols.

    PubMed

    Oosaka, Kazumasa

    2009-05-01

    Allitol, D-talitol and L-iditol are sugar alcohols that are rare in nature. Due to their previous rarity, little is known about the laxative effects of these rare sugar alcohols. Therefore, reliable data on the laxative effect that these sugar alcohols cause in experimental animals could help to evaluate the effectiveness of new monosaccharide laxative drugs. To investigate the laxative effect of rare sugar alcohols, the study was designed to observe the diarrhea that occurred after oral administration of these sugar alcohols in mice. Moreover, to investigate the influence on intestinal function of rare sugar alcohols, the study was designed to examine small intestine transit and the luminal water content. Results indicated that rare sugar alcohols have a laxative effect in mice. Diarrhea started at a dose of 4.95 g/kg of rare sugar alcohols. There was a statistically significant laxative effect for D-talitol and L-iditol at a dose of 9.9 g/kg as compared to vehicle. Moreover, rare sugar alcohols significantly increased the small intestinal transit and the luminal water content of the small intestine and cecum in mice as compared to each vehicle. Overall, L-iditol greatly changes the function of intestine. In conclusion, rare sugar alcohols increase water content in small intestine and accelerate small intestine transit. These results support laxative effect of rare sugar alcohols. Therefore, rare sugar alcohols may be useful as monosaccharide laxatives and may be used to treat constipation.

  3. Review article: anthranoid laxatives and their potential carcinogenic effects.

    PubMed

    van Gorkom, B A; de Vries, E G; Karrenbeld, A; Kleibeuker, J H

    1999-04-01

    Anthranoid laxatives are widely used laxatives of natural origin. Because of their chemical structure they are carried unabsorbed to the large bowel, where metabolism to the active aglycones takes place. These aglycones exert their laxative effect by damaging epithelial cells, which leads directly and indirectly to changes in absorption, secretion and motility. Damaged epithelial cells can be found as apoptotic bodies in the pigmented colonic mucosa, characteristic for pseudomelanosis coli. Pseudomelanosis coli is a condition caused by chronic (ab)use of anthranoid laxatives and has recently been associated with an increased risk of colorectal carcinoma. In vitro and animal studies have shown a potential role of anthranoid laxatives in both the initiation and promotion of tumorigenesis. Studies in humans have also suggested tumour promoting activities for these laxatives. Although the short-term use of these substances is generally safe, long-term use cannot be recommended.

  4. Laxatives Do Not Improve Symptoms of Opioid-Induced Constipation: Results of a Patient Survey

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Anton; Johnson, Martin; McSkimming, Paula; Dickerson, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Laxatives are commonly used to treat opioid-induced constipation, the commonest and most bothersome complication of opioids. However, laxatives have a nonspecific action and do not target underlying mechanisms of opioid-induced constipation; their use is associated with abdominal symptoms that negatively impact quality of life. Objective To assess the effects of laxatives in patients taking opioids for chronic pain. Methods One hundred ninety-eight UK patients who had taken opioid analgesics for at least one month completed a cross-sectional online or telephone survey. Questions addressed their pain condition, medication, and laxative use (including efficacy and side effects). The survey also assessed bowel function using the Bowel Function Index. Results Since starting their current opioid, 134 of 184 patients (73%) had used laxatives at some point and 122 (91%) of these were currently taking them. The most common laxatives were osmotics and stimulants. Laxative side effects were reported in 75%, most commonly gas, bloating/fullness, and a sudden urge to defecate. Side effects were more common in patients less than 40 years of age. Approximately half of patients said laxatives interfered with work and social activities, and one-fifth needed an overnight hospital stay because of their pain condition and/or constipation. Laxatives did not improve the symptoms of constipation, as assessed by the Bowel Function Index. Constipation was not related to opioid strength, dose of opioid, or number of laxatives taken. Conclusions Use of laxatives to treat opioid-induced constipation is often ineffective and associated with side effects. Instead of relieving the burden of opioid-induced constipation, laxative use is associated with a negative impact. PMID:28339544

  5. Beverage intake preference and bowel preparation laxative taste preference for colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Burnside, Clinton; Laiyemo, Maryam A; Kwagyan, John; Williams, Carla D; Idowu, Kolapo A; Ashktorab, Hassan; Kibreab, Angesom; Scott, Victor F; Sanderson, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether non-alcoholic beverage intake preferences can guide polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based bowel laxative preparation selection for patients. METHODS: We conducted eight public taste test sessions using commercially procured (A) unflavored PEG, (B) citrus flavored PEG and (C) PEG with ascorbate (Moviprep). We collected characteristics of volunteers including their beverage intake preferences. The volunteers tasted the laxatives in randomly assigned orders and ranked the laxatives as 1st, 2nd, and 3rd based on their taste preferences. Our primary outcome is the number of 1st place rankings for each preparation. RESULTS: A total of 777 volunteers completed the study. Unflavored PEG was ranked as 1st by 70 (9.0%), flavored PEG by 534 (68.7%) and PEG with ascorbate by 173 (22.3%) volunteers. Demographic, lifestyle characteristics and beverage intake patterns for coffee, tea, and carbonated drinks did not predict PEG-based laxative preference. CONCLUSION: Beverage intake pattern was not a useful guide for PEG-based laxative preference. It is important to develop more tolerable and affordable bowel preparation laxatives for colonoscopy. Also, patients should taste their PEG solution with and without flavoring before flavoring the entire gallon as this may give them more opportunity to pick a pattern that may be more tolerable. PMID:26261736

  6. Beverage intake preference and bowel preparation laxative taste preference for colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Burnside, Clinton; Laiyemo, Maryam A; Kwagyan, John; Williams, Carla D; Idowu, Kolapo A; Ashktorab, Hassan; Kibreab, Angesom; Scott, Victor F; Sanderson, Andrew K

    2015-08-06

    To examine whether non-alcoholic beverage intake preferences can guide polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based bowel laxative preparation selection for patients. We conducted eight public taste test sessions using commercially procured (A) unflavored PEG, (B) citrus flavored PEG and (C) PEG with ascorbate (Moviprep). We collected characteristics of volunteers including their beverage intake preferences. The volunteers tasted the laxatives in randomly assigned orders and ranked the laxatives as 1(st), 2(nd), and 3(rd) based on their taste preferences. Our primary outcome is the number of 1(st) place rankings for each preparation. A total of 777 volunteers completed the study. Unflavored PEG was ranked as 1(st) by 70 (9.0%), flavored PEG by 534 (68.7%) and PEG with ascorbate by 173 (22.3%) volunteers. Demographic, lifestyle characteristics and beverage intake patterns for coffee, tea, and carbonated drinks did not predict PEG-based laxative preference. Beverage intake pattern was not a useful guide for PEG-based laxative preference. It is important to develop more tolerable and affordable bowel preparation laxatives for colonoscopy. Also, patients should taste their PEG solution with and without flavoring before flavoring the entire gallon as this may give them more opportunity to pick a pattern that may be more tolerable.

  7. Laxative use and clinical correlates in hospitalized patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a retrospective descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jianbo; Zhou, Weihua; Lu, Qiaoqiao; Huang, Tingting; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shaohua

    2018-01-01

    Constipation is a common clinical problem with insufficient attention. Medication-emergent constipation is a rarely studied adverse reaction in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this descriptive study, we retrospectively investigated the prevalence of laxative use and its relationship with clinical characteristics in hospitalized OCD patients. A total of 51 OCD patients were included in the final analysis. The proportion of patients using laxatives was 31.4%, and the commonly used laxatives were phenolphthalein tablet, lactulose and congrongtongbian oral liquid (a patent herbal medicine). In the laxative group, hospital stays were longer when compared to the nonlaxative group. Moreover, the dose of paroxetine was higher in patients treated with laxatives than in those without laxative use. Correlation analysis indicated that laxative use was positively associated with hospital stays, as well as the dose of paroxetine. The current study provided a preliminary picture of constipation and laxative use in hospitalized OCD patients. Close monitoring and treatment of constipation are recommended in OCD patients with pharmacotherapy.

  8. Opioid-induced constipation, use of laxatives, and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Helene Nordahl; Olsson, Urban; From, Jesper; Breivik, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Real-life data on laxative use in patients suffering from opioid-induced constipation (OIC) are very limited, and many OIC patients are only using over the counter laxatives to resolve their constipation. Our aim was to describe laxative utilization and quality of life in participants in Norway who ever experienced OIC. This was a cross-sectional online survey conducted between 27th of June and 3rd of July 2014 among participants above 18 years with self-reported OIC and who had agreed to receive information from the pharmacy chain (Boots A/S, Norway). The questionnaire comprised a series of multiple choice, close-ended, and free text questions on abdominal symptoms, laxative use and health-related quality of life. A total of 417 participants met the study eligibility criteria: (1) treated with opioid for a minimum of 4 weeks, (2) actively accepted participation, and (3) confirmed ever experiencing OIC and in addition completed the survey. Among the eligible participants, 86% were females, 85% were younger than 60 years of age, and 57% were currently suffering OIC. More than half of the currently constipated participants were experiencing moderate to very severe abdominal bloating (63%), abdominal pain (55%) and/or pain during bowel movement (50%). Less than every fourth participant (23%) had consulted health care professionals (HCPs) about their constipation. Up to 39% reported that they handled their OIC by self-management, e.g., bought laxative, reduced the dose and/or changed opioid without consulting HCP or pharmacy. Less than half (48%) of the laxative users were satisfied with the laxative they were using to relieve their constipation. The EQ-5D health-related quality of life score was mean (SD): 0.587 (0.272). Although not statistically significant (p=0.067), there was a tendency of lower quality of life among the participants who were currently constipated compared with those not currently constipated (difference of mean EQ-5D: 0.629-0.555=0.074). A

  9. Gender Conformity and Use of Laxatives and Muscle-Building Products in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Scherer, Emily A.; Jackson, Benita; Austin, S. Bryn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of laxatives for weight loss and drugs or supplements to build muscle (eg, steroids) differs by gender and sexual orientation; little is known about factors contributing to these disparities. Conformity to gender norms concerning appearance could underlie these differences. METHODS: This study examined associations between childhood gender conformity and laxative and muscle-building product use from ages 13 to 25 years in a sample of 13 683 males and females in the US prospective Growing Up Today Study. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression models of repeated measures estimated odds of past-year laxative and muscle-building product use by quartiles of greater childhood gender conformity in heterosexual and sexual minority (eg, bisexual, gay) participants. RESULTS: By age 23 years, ∼20% of sexual minority females reported past-year laxative use. By age 19 years, 12% of all males reported past-year muscle-building product use. Sexual minority females had twice the odds of heterosexual females of using laxatives (P < .0001). The most gender-conforming females had 50% greater odds than the least-conforming females of using laxatives (P < .01). Moderate (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.58–2.75) and highly (odds ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.38–2.33) gender-conforming males had higher odds than gender-nonconforming males of using muscle-building products. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual minority females are at high risk for laxative abuse. Regardless of sexual orientation, gender conformity increased the odds of laxative abuse among females and muscle-building product use among males. Findings can inform prevention efforts to target youth at risk for laxative or muscle-building product use. PMID:27418416

  10. Gender Conformity and Use of Laxatives and Muscle-Building Products in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Scherer, Emily A; Jackson, Benita; Austin, S Bryn

    2016-08-01

    Use of laxatives for weight loss and drugs or supplements to build muscle (eg, steroids) differs by gender and sexual orientation; little is known about factors contributing to these disparities. Conformity to gender norms concerning appearance could underlie these differences. This study examined associations between childhood gender conformity and laxative and muscle-building product use from ages 13 to 25 years in a sample of 13 683 males and females in the US prospective Growing Up Today Study. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression models of repeated measures estimated odds of past-year laxative and muscle-building product use by quartiles of greater childhood gender conformity in heterosexual and sexual minority (eg, bisexual, gay) participants. By age 23 years, ∼20% of sexual minority females reported past-year laxative use. By age 19 years, 12% of all males reported past-year muscle-building product use. Sexual minority females had twice the odds of heterosexual females of using laxatives (P < .0001). The most gender-conforming females had 50% greater odds than the least-conforming females of using laxatives (P < .01). Moderate (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.58-2.75) and highly (odds ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-2.33) gender-conforming males had higher odds than gender-nonconforming males of using muscle-building products. Sexual minority females are at high risk for laxative abuse. Regardless of sexual orientation, gender conformity increased the odds of laxative abuse among females and muscle-building product use among males. Findings can inform prevention efforts to target youth at risk for laxative or muscle-building product use. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Systematic review of stimulant and nonstimulant laxatives for the treatment of functional constipation

    PubMed Central

    Paré, Pierre; Fedorak, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Constipation is an uncomfortable and common condition that affects many, irrespective of age. Since 1500 BC and before, health care practitioners have provided treatments and prevention strategies to patients for chronic constipation despite the significant variation in both medical and personal perceptions of the condition. OBJECTIVE: To review relevant research evidence from clinical studies investigating the efficacy and safety of commercially available pharmacological laxatives in Canada, with emphasis on studies adopting the Rome criteria for defining functional constipation. SEARCH METHODS: PubMed, Medline, Embase and Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews databases were searched for blinded or randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses assessing the efficacy of nonstimulant and stimulant laxatives for the treatment of functional constipation. RESULTS: A total of 19 clinical studies and four meta-analyses were retrieved and abstracted regarding study design, participants, interventions and outcomes. The majority of studies focused on polyethylene glycol compared with placebo. Both nonstimulant and stimulant laxatives provided better relief of constipation symptoms than placebo according to both objective and subjective measures. Only one study compared the efficacy of a nonstimulant versus a stimulant laxative, while only two reported changes in quality of life. All studies reported minor side effects due to laxative use, regardless of treatment duration, which ranged from one week to one year. Laxatives were well tolerated by both adults and children. PMID:25390617

  12. Oligofructose Provides Laxation for Irregularity Associated with Low Fiber Intake.

    PubMed

    Buddington, Randal K; Kapadia, Cavita; Neumer, Franka; Theis, Stephan

    2017-12-18

    Inadequate dietary fiber intake contributes to the prevalent irregularity and constipation in Western countries. Although eating adequate amounts of fibers from fiber-rich foods, foods with added fibers and dietary fiber supplements is considered the first option for improving laxation, the efficacy can vary among types of fibers. The present study is a randomized control trial that included healthy adult participants with ≤3 bowel movements/week and a habitual low dietary fiber intake in a parallel design to evaluate the benefits for laxation by supplementing the daily diet with oligofructose (Orafti ® P95; OF), a fermentable source of fiber and established prebiotic ( n = 49); maltodextrin was the placebo ( n = 48). After a run-in phase, OF was initially provided at 5 g/day, then increased to 10 and 15 g/day with four weeks for each phase. Stool frequency (bowel movements per week) for the OF and maltodextrin (MD) groups were initially similar (3.98 ± 1.49 vs. 4.06 ± 1.48), did not change for the placebo group, but increased for the OF group with the difference significant at 15 g/day ( p = 0.023). Stool consistency was similar and remained unchanged at all doses for both groups. Gastrointestinal sensations were low for both groups. Laxation benefits were especially pronounced for participants with >13 g/day habitual dietary fiber intake, with significant laxation at 10 g and 15 g OF/day ( p = 0.04 and p = 0.004, respectively) A daily supplement with a short-chain inulin-type fructan derived from chicory roots, i.e., oligofructose (Orafti ® P95) provided a laxation effect without causing gastrointestinal (GI) distress for healthy participants with irregularity associated with low dietary fiber intake.

  13. Oligofructose Provides Laxation for Irregularity Associated with Low Fiber Intake

    PubMed Central

    Buddington, Randal K.; Kapadia, Cavita; Neumer, Franka

    2017-01-01

    Inadequate dietary fiber intake contributes to the prevalent irregularity and constipation in Western countries. Although eating adequate amounts of fibers from fiber-rich foods, foods with added fibers and dietary fiber supplements is considered the first option for improving laxation, the efficacy can vary among types of fibers. The present study is a randomized control trial that included healthy adult participants with ≤3 bowel movements/week and a habitual low dietary fiber intake in a parallel design to evaluate the benefits for laxation by supplementing the daily diet with oligofructose (Orafti® P95; OF), a fermentable source of fiber and established prebiotic (n = 49); maltodextrin was the placebo (n = 48). After a run-in phase, OF was initially provided at 5 g/day, then increased to 10 and 15 g/day with four weeks for each phase. Stool frequency (bowel movements per week) for the OF and maltodextrin (MD) groups were initially similar (3.98 ± 1.49 vs. 4.06 ± 1.48), did not change for the placebo group, but increased for the OF group with the difference significant at 15 g/day (p = 0.023). Stool consistency was similar and remained unchanged at all doses for both groups. Gastrointestinal sensations were low for both groups. Laxation benefits were especially pronounced for participants with >13 g/day habitual dietary fiber intake, with significant laxation at 10 g and 15 g OF/day (p = 0.04 and p = 0.004, respectively) A daily supplement with a short-chain inulin-type fructan derived from chicory roots, i.e., oligofructose (Orafti® P95) provided a laxation effect without causing gastrointestinal (GI) distress for healthy participants with irregularity associated with low dietary fiber intake. PMID:29258261

  14. Glycerin laxatives for prevention or treatment of feeding intolerance in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Anabrees, Jasim; Shah, Vibhuti S; AlOsaimi, Ahlam; AlFaleh, Khalid

    2015-09-30

    Feeding intolerance is a common clinical problem among preterm infants. It may be an early sign of necrotising enterocolitis, sepsis or other serious gastrointestinal conditions, or it may result from gut immaturity with delayed passage of meconium. Glycerin laxatives stimulate passage of meconium by acting as an osmotic dehydrating agent and increasing osmotic pressure in the gut; they stimulate rectal contraction, potentially reducing the incidence of feeding intolerance. To assess the effectiveness and safety of glycerin laxatives (enemas/suppositories) for prevention or treatment of feeding intolerance in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 4), MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). We restricted our search to all randomised controlled trials and applied no language restrictions. We searched the references of identified studies and reviews on this topic and handsearched for additional articles. We searched the database maintained by the US National Institutes of Health (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and European trial registries to identify ongoing trials. We considered only randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that enrolled preterm infants < 32 weeks' gestational age (GA) and/or < 1500 g birth weight. We included trials if they administered glycerin laxatives and measured at least one prespecified clinical outcome. We used standard methods of The Cochrane Collaboration and its Neonatal Group to assess methodological quality of trials, to collect data and to perform analyses. We identified three trials that evaluated use of prophylactic glycerin laxatives in preterm infants. We identified no trials that evaluated therapeutic use of glycerin laxatives for feeding intolerance. Our review showed that prophylactic administration of glycerin laxatives did not reduce the time required to achieve full enteral feeds and did

  15. Constipation prophylaxis reduces length of stay in elderly hospitalized heart failure patients with home laxative use.

    PubMed

    Staller, Kyle; Khalili, Hamed; Kuo, Braden

    2015-11-01

    Elderly, hospitalized patients suffer disproportionately from constipation; however, little data suggest that constipation prophylaxis reduces length of stay (LOS). We performed a retrospective analysis of elderly patients admitted to our hospital with congestive heart failure (CHF) to determine the effects of constipation prophylaxis on LOS. Patients ≥ 65 years old admitted with the diagnosis of CHF in 2012 were evaluated for home and hospital laxative use on admission. Our primary outcome was LOS. We used linear regression modeling to independently evaluate the impact of constipation prophylaxis on LOS. Among 618 patients who were eligible for our study, 201 (32.5%) were using laxatives at home, whereas 254 (41.1%) were started on a prophylactic laxative on admission. There was no significant difference in LOS between patients receiving prophylaxis versus those who did not (P = 0.32). Patients with home laxative use had a 1 day longer LOS compared to those without laxative use (6 vs 5, P = 0.03). Among patients with home laxative use, there were 2 days longer LOS in those who were not given constipation prophylaxis on admission (8 vs 6, P = 0.002). After multivariate adjustment, failure to use constipation prophylaxis in patients with home laxative use was the only independent predictor of increased LOS (P = 0.03). Among elderly patients admitted for CHF exacerbations, failure to use constipation prophylaxis in patients with home laxative use is associated with a significantly longer LOS. Our data suggest that routine use of bowel prophylaxis for elderly CHF patients with preexisting constipation may reduce LOS. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Is senna laxative use associated to cathartic colon, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity?

    PubMed

    Morales, M A; Hernández, D; Bustamante, S; Bachiller, I; Rojas, A

    2009-01-01

    Due to their natural origin, apparent low oral toxicity, effectiveness, and accessibility without a medical prescription, the anthranoid laxatives are a popular remedy for constipation and are frequently used abusively. Therefore, it is important to characterize its harmful and/or toxic effects. The sennosides, main active metabolites of senna, exhibit a very low toxicity in rats, and its genotoxic activity in bacterial strains as well as mammal cells was classified as weak in those cases where it was shown to be significant. The toxicological and mutagenic status of the crude extract of senna, however, is not as well characterized, and it is necessary to do so since it is frequently, and at the same time incorrectly, believed that the chronic use of anthranoid laxatives is a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer. The objective of this article was to review the information that arises in various scientific medical databases using key words such as senna, sen, Senna alexandrina, Cassia angustifolia, sennosides, laxative toxicity, mainly ISI and non-ISI articles of journals with an editorial committee. Web pages of products or companies that publicize or commercialize this type of laxative were not included. This analysis establishes that (1) there is no convincing evidence that the chronic use of senna has, as a consequence, a structural and/or functional alteration of the enteric nerves or the smooth intestinal muscle, (2) there is no relation between long-term administration of a senna extract and the appearance of gastrointestinal tumors or any other type in rats, (3) senna is not carcinogenic in rats even after a two-year daily dose of up to 300 mg/kg/day, and (4) the current evidence does not show that there is a genotoxic risk for patients who take laxatives containing senna extracts or sennosides.

  17. Is Senna Laxative Use Associated to Cathartic Colon, Genotoxicity, or Carcinogenicity?

    PubMed Central

    Morales, M. A.; Hernández, D.; Bustamante, S.; Bachiller, I.; Rojas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Due to their natural origin, apparent low oral toxicity, effectiveness, and accessibility without a medical prescription, the anthranoid laxatives are a popular remedy for constipation and are frequently used abusively. Therefore, it is important to characterize its harmful and/or toxic effects. The sennosides, main active metabolites of senna, exhibit a very low toxicity in rats, and its genotoxic activity in bacterial strains as well as mammal cells was classified as weak in those cases where it was shown to be significant. The toxicological and mutagenic status of the crude extract of senna, however, is not as well characterized, and it is necessary to do so since it is frequently, and at the same time incorrectly, believed that the chronic use of anthranoid laxatives is a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer. The objective of this article was to review the information that arises in various scientific medical databases using key words such as senna, sen, Senna alexandrina, Cassia angustifolia, sennosides, laxative toxicity, mainly ISI and non-ISI articles of journals with an editorial committee. Web pages of products or companies that publicize or commercialize this type of laxative were not included. This analysis establishes that (1) there is no convincing evidence that the chronic use of senna has, as a consequence, a structural and/or functional alteration of the enteric nerves or the smooth intestinal muscle, (2) there is no relation between long-term administration of a senna extract and the appearance of gastrointestinal tumors or any other type in rats, (3) senna is not carcinogenic in rats even after a two-year daily dose of up to 300 mg/kg/day, and (4) the current evidence does not show that there is a genotoxic risk for patients who take laxatives containing senna extracts or sennosides. PMID:20107583

  18. Skin breakdown and blisters from senna-containing laxatives in young children.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Henry A; Winter, Mark L; Weber, Julie A; Krenzelok, Edward P; Anderson, Deborah L; Ryan, Mark L

    2003-05-01

    At the direction of the Food and Drug Administration, phenolphthalein was removed from all over-the-counter laxatives in 1999. Phenolphthalein was then replaced in most laxative products with the natural product senna from Cassia acutifolia Delile, which contains various anthraquinones. No data are available on the safety of senna use in children <6 years of age. To describe the clinical outcomes of exposure to unintentional ingestion of senna-containing laxatives in young children. All ingestion exposures of senna-containing laxatives in children <5 years of age from 6 poison centers over a 9-month period were evaluated. Inclusion criteria required 24-hour follow-up and the presence of diarrhea to confirm ingestion. Parents were told routinely that severe diaper rash was possible and to protect the perianal area with frequent cleansing and a barrier ointment if the child was wearing diapers. During the study period, 111 cases were reported: 19 children experienced no diarrhea, 4 were lost to follow-up, and 88 exposures were evaluated. Fifty-two children (59%) were laxatives in young children may potentially cause severe diaper rash, blisters, and skin sloughing.

  19. Efficacy and safety of laxatives for chronic constipation in long-term care settings: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alsalimy, N; Madi, L; Awaisu, A

    2018-06-09

    Constipation is a common disorder among long-term care (LTC) patients due to several factors. However, there are no systematic reviews investigating the use of laxatives for chronic constipation in LTC settings. This study aims to explore the safety and efficacy of laxatives in LTC patients. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) describing the efficacy and safety of laxatives for chronic constipation in LTC patients was conducted using the following databases and search engines: MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ScienceDirect, ProQuest and Google Scholar. Two of the investigators independently performed the searches, and the data were extracted using a standardized data abstraction tool. Seven RCTs involving 444 patients were included in the review. These studies included senna (with or without fibre, ie Plantago ovata), lactulose, sodium picosulphate, docusate sodium, docusate calcium, isotonic and hypotonic polyethylene glycol and Chinese herbal medicine. Senna and lactulose were the most studied laxatives in LTC patients, and senna was found to be superior to or as effective as other laxatives. Generally, the frequency and severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were similar between the arms of the studies, and no serious ADRs were reported. Considering the short duration of the trials, the lack of trials including newer laxatives and the low quality of some of the included trials, the long-term efficacy and safety of these laxatives are not conclusive. There is a need to conduct more robust RCTs that include newer agents to evaluate long-term outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Therapeutic Response for Functional Abdominal Pain in Children with Occult Constipation: Laxatives versus Prokinetic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Ha, Eun Kyo; Jang, Homin; Jeong, Su Jin

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between functional abdominal pain (FAP) and occult constipation (OC) in children who did not meet the Rome III criteria for constipation has rarely been reported. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of OC in patients with FAP and to compare the effectiveness of prokinetic drugs and laxatives for FAP and OC. Pediatric outpatients (n = 212; aged 4-15 years) who satisfied the Rome III criteria for childhood FAP were divided into 2 groups based on Leech scores: group 1 < 8; group 2 ≥ 8. Group 2 received either prokinetic drugs or laxatives and pain severity was assessed after 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months. A total 52.4% (111/212) of patients had OC in this study. More patients who received laxatives had reduced pain scores compared with those who received prokinetic drugs. Those treated with laxatives in group 2 had a better response than those treated with prokinetic drugs throughout the study period (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.002 after 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months, respectively). OC was frequently encountered in children with FAP. Laxatives can be more effective than prokinetic drugs for relieving symptoms of FAP in children with a Leech score ≥ 8 and suspected OC.

  1. Over the Counter Laxatives for Constipation: Use with Caution

    MedlinePlus

    ... bowel movements Electrolyte imbalance with prolonged use Oral stimulants (Dulcolax, Senokot) Trigger rhythmic contractions of intestinal muscles ... combine different types of laxatives, such as a stimulant and a stool softener. But combination products don' ...

  2. Laxative effect of repeated Daiokanzoto is attributable to decrease in aquaporin-3 expression in the colon.

    PubMed

    Kon, Risako; Yamamura, Miho; Matsunaga, Yukari; Kimura, Hiroshi; Minami, Moe; Kato, Saki; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Daiokanzoto (DKT) exerts its laxative effect via colonic inflammation caused by sennoside A in Daio (rhubarb). Previously, we showed that the laxative effect of sennoside A is related to decreased aquaporin-3 (AQP3) expression in mucosal epithelial cells due to colonic inflammation. We also found that a combination of glycyrrhizin, an ingredient in Kanzo (glycyrrhiza), and sennoside A attenuates the inflammatory response induced by sennoside A and reduces its laxative effect. These findings indicate that DKT may be a long-term treatment for chronic constipation, but there is no evidence supporting this hypothesis. In this study, we analyzed the laxative effect of repeated DKT administration, focusing on AQP3 expression in the colon. After rats were treated for 7 days, decreased AQP3 expression and the onset of diarrhea were observed in the DKT group, but were not seen in the Daio group either. Although the relative abundance of gut microbiota after repeated DKT administration was similar to that after control treatment, Daio reduced Lactobacillaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, and Bacteroidaceae levels and markedly increased Lachnospiraceae levels. In this study, we show that DKT has a sustained laxative effect, even upon repeated use, probably because it maintains decreased AQP3 expression and gut microbiota homeostasis. This outcome therefore indicates that DKT can be used as a long-term treatment for chronic constipation.

  3. Factitious diarrhea induced by stimulant laxatives: accuracy of diagnosis by a clinical reference laboratory using thin layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Joseph H; Santa Ana, Carol A; Thompson, Donald R; Emmett, Michael; Fordtran, John S

    2007-01-01

    Surreptitious ingestion of laxatives can lead to serious factitious diseases that are difficult to diagnose. Most cases involve ingestion of bisacodyl or senna. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) of urine or stool is the only commercially available test for these laxatives. Such testing is considered highly reliable, but its accuracy in clinical practice is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the reliability of TLC laxative testing by a clinical reference laboratory in the United States. Diarrhea was induced in healthy volunteers by ingestion of bisacodyl, senna, or a control laxative (n = 11 for each laxative group). Samples of urine and diarrheal stool were sent in blinded fashion to the clinical reference laboratory for bisacodyl and senna analysis. TLC testing for bisacodyl-induced diarrhea revealed a sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 91% when urine was tested and sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 96%, respectively, when stool was analyzed. When diarrhea was induced by senna, the TLC assay for senna failed to identify even a single urine or stool specimen as positive (zero% sensitivity). Considering the expected prevalence of surreptitious laxative abuse in patients with chronic idiopathic diarrhea (2.4%-25%, depending on the clinical setting), TLC of urine or stool for bisacodyl by this reference laboratory would often produce misleading results, and testing for senna would have no clinical value. The major problems are false-positive tests for bisacodyl and false-negative tests for senna.

  4. Laxative use and incident falls, fractures and change in bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: results from the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Laxatives are among the most widely used over-the-counter medications in the United States but studies examining their potential hazardous side effects are sparse. Associations between laxative use and risk for fractures and change in bone mineral density [BMD] have not previously been investigated. Methods This prospective analysis included 161,808 postmenopausal women (8907 users and 151,497 nonusers of laxatives) enrolled in the WHI Observational Study and Clinical Trials. Women were recruited from October 1, 1993, to December 31, 1998, at 40 clinical centers in the United States and were eligible if they were 50 to 79 years old and were postmenopausal at the time of enrollment. Medication inventories were obtained during in-person interviews at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up visit on everyone. Data on self-reported falls (≥2), fractures (hip and total fractures) were used. BMD was determined at baseline and year 3 at 3 of the 40 clinical centers of the WHI. Results Age-adjusted rates of hip fractures and total fractures, but not for falls were similar between laxative users and non-users regardless of duration of laxative use. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for any laxative use were 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.10) for falls, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.85-1.22) for hip fractures and 1.01 (95% CI, 0.96-1.07) for total fractures. The BMD levels did not statistically differ between laxative users and nonusers at any skeletal site after 3-years intake. Conclusion These findings support a modest association between laxative use and increase in the risk of falls but not for fractures. Its use did not decrease bone mineral density levels in postmenopausal women. Maintaining physical functioning, and providing adequate treatment of comorbidities that predispose individuals for falls should be considered as first measures to avoid potential negative consequences associated with laxative use. PMID:23635086

  5. Use of methylnaltrexone to induce laxation in acutely injured patients with burns and necrotizing soft-tissue infections.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Kelly; Lin, Hsin; Faraklas, Iris; Morris, Stephen; Cochran, Amalia; Saffle, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The routine use of high-dose opioids for analgesia in patients with acute burns and soft-tissue injuries often leads to the development of opioid-induced constipation. The opioid antagonist methylnaltrexone (MLTX) reverses narcotic-related ileus without affecting systemic pain treatment. The authors' burn center developed a bowel protocol that included administration of MLTX for relief of opioid-induced constipation after other methods failed. The authors performed a retrospective review of patients with acute burns or necrotizing soft-tissue infections, who had been given subcutaneous MLTX to induce laxation. All patients who received MLTX were included and all administrations of the drug were included in the analysis. The primary outcome examined was time to laxation from drug administration. Forty-eight patients received MLTX a total of 112 times. Six patients were admitted with soft-tissue injuries and the rest suffered burns with an average TBSA of 17%. The median patient age was 41 years and the majority (75%) were men. Administration of a single dose of MLTX resulted in laxation within 4 hours in 38% of cases, and within 24 hours in 68%. Patients given MLTX received an average of 174 mg morphine equivalents daily for pain control. MLTX was given after an average of 52 hours since the last bowel movement. As this experience has evolved, it has been incorporated into an organized bowel protocol, which includes MLTX administration after other laxatives have failed. MLTX is an effective laxation agent in patients with burn and soft-tissue injuries, who have failed conventional agents.

  6. Overnight efficacy of polyethylene glycol laxative.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, Jack A; Smith, Julie R; Cleveland, Mark vB

    2002-07-01

    Clinical studies in constipated adult patients have shown that a 17- or 34-g daily dose of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 (MiraLax) is safe and effective for the treatment of constipation, with the best efficacy seen in wk 2 of treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine an optimal dose of PEG to provide satisfactory relief of constipation within 24 h. A total of 24 adult study subjects who met Rome II criteria for constipation were randomized in a double-blind, parallel pilot study to receive a single dose of placebo or PEG laxative at doses of 51, 68, or 85 g in 500 ml of flavored water. Over a 72-h period, subjects rated bowel movements (BM), completeness of evacuation, and satisfaction. The 68-g dose seemed to be most satisfactory. Five of six subjects had a BM within 24 h. The time to first BM was 14.8 h for 68 g versus 27.3 h for placebo (p = NS). The time to second BM was 19.2 h versus 47.2 h for 68 g and placebo, respectively (p = 0.003). Of the subjects receiving 68 g of PEG, 50% and 100% reported complete evacuation for the first and second BM, respectively. The average number of BMs in 24 h for placebo, 51 g, 68 g, and 84 g were 0.5, 2.2, 2.2, and 4.2, respectively (p = 0.004). There were no adverse reactions, and no patient reported incontinence or complained of cramps or diarrhea at any dose. There were no changes in measured electrolytes, calcium, glucose, BUN, creatinine, or serum osmolality. A 68-g dose of PEG laxative seems to provide safe and effective relief in constipated adults within a 24-h period.

  7. Hyperphosphatemia after sodium phosphate laxatives in low risk patients: Prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Casais, Marcela Noemi; Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Pérez, Susana; Mansilla, Elina Noemi; Bravo, Susana; Bonofiglio, Francisco Carlos

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To establish the frequency of hyperphosphatemia following the administration of sodium phosphate laxatives in low-risk patients. METHODS: One hundred consecutive ASA I-II individuals aged 35-74 years, who were undergoing colonic cleansing with oral sodium phosphate (OSP) before colonoscopy were recruited for this prospective study. Exclusion criteria: congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, liver cirrhosis, intestinal obstruction, decreased bowel motility, increased bowel permeability, and hyperparathyroidism. The day before colonoscopy, all the participants entered a 24-h period of diet that consisted of 4 L of clear fluids with sugar or honey and 90 mL (60 g) of OSP in two 45-mL doses, 5 h apart. Serum phosphate was measured before and after the administration of the laxative. RESULTS: The main demographic data (mean ± SD) were: age, 58.9 ± 8.4 years; height, 163.8 ± 8.6 cm; weight, 71 ± 13 kg; body mass index, 26 ± 4; women, 66%. Serum phosphate increased from 3.74 ± 0.56 to 5.58 ± 1.1 mg/dL, which surpassed the normal value (2.5-4.5 mg/dL) in 87% of the patients. The highest serum phosphate was 9.6 mg/dL. Urea and creatinine remained within normal limits. Post-treatment OSP serum phosphate concentration correlated inversely with glomerular filtration rate (P < 0.007, R2 = 0.0755), total body water (P < 0.001, R2 = 0.156) and weight (P < 0.013, R2 = 0.0635). CONCLUSION: In low-risk, well-hydrated patients, the standard dose of OSP-laxative-induced hyperphosphatemia is related to body weight. PMID:20014460

  8. Effect of Food Thickener on Dissolution and Laxative Activity of Magnesium Oxide Tablets in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Yuya; Kato, Kazushige; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Sumiya, Kenji; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the dissolution of magnesium oxide (MgO) from MgO tablets placed in a food thickening agent (food thickener) and its effects on laxative activity. We prepared mixtures of MgO tablets suspended in an aqueous suspension and food thickeners in order to evaluate the dissolution of MgO. The results of the dissolution tests revealed that agar-based food thickeners did not affect the MgO dissolution. In contrast, some xanthan gum-based food-thickener products show dissolution rates with certain mixtures containing disintegrated MgO tablets suspended in a food thickener that decrease over time. However, other xanthan gum-based food-thickener products show dissolution rates that decrease immediately after mixing, regardless of the time they were allowed to stand. In order to investigate the laxative activity of MgO, we orally administered a mixture of MgO suspension and food thickener to mice and observed their bowel movements. The animal experiments showed that when agar-based food thickeners were used, the laxative activity of MgO was not affected, but it decreased when xanthan gum-based food thickeners were used.

  9. Fermented Fiber Supplements Are No Better Than Placebo for a Laxative Effect.

    PubMed

    McRorie, Johnson W; Chey, William D

    2016-11-01

    Misconceptions about the effects of dietary fiber and 'functional' fiber on stool parameters and constipation persist in the literature. A comprehensive literature review was conducted with the use of the Scopus and PubMed scientific databases to identify and objectively assess well-controlled clinical studies that evaluated the effects of fiber on stool parameters and constipation. The totality of well-controlled randomized clinical studies show that, to exert a laxative effect, fiber must: (1) resist fermentation to remain intact throughout the large bowel and present in stool, and (2) significantly increase stool water content and stool output, resulting in soft/bulky/easy-to-pass stools. Poorly fermented insoluble fiber (e.g., wheat bran) remains as discreet particles which can mechanically irritate the gut mucosa, stimulating water & mucous secretion if the particles are sufficiently large/coarse. For soluble fibers, some have no effect on viscosity (e.g., inulin, wheat dextrin) while others form high viscosity gels (e.g., β-glucan, psyllium). If the soluble fiber is readily fermented, whether non-viscous or gel-forming, it has no effect on stool output or stool water content, and has no laxative effect. In contrast, a non-fermented, gel-forming soluble fiber (e.g., psyllium) retains its gelled nature and high water-holding capacity throughout the large bowel, resulting in soft/bulky/easy-to-pass stools. When considering a recommendation for a fiber supplement regimen to treat and/or prevent constipation, it is important to consider which fibers have the physical characteristics to exert a laxative effect, and which fiber supplements have rigorous clinical evidence of a significant benefit in patients with constipation.

  10. Granularity and Laxative Effect of Ultrafine Powder of Dendrobium officinale.

    PubMed

    Luo, DanDan; Qu, Chao; Zhang, ZhenBiao; Xie, JianHui; Xu, LieQiang; Yang, HongMei; Li, CaiLan; Lin, GuoSheng; Wang, HongFeng; Su, ZiRen

    2017-02-01

    Constipation is a common disorder that is a significant source of morbidity among people around the world ranging from 2% to 28%. Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo is a traditional herbal medicine and health food used for tonicity of the stomach and promotion of body fluid production in China. This study aimed to prepare the ultrafine powder of Dendrobium officinale (UDO) and investigate its laxative effect and potential mechanism in mice with diphenoxylate-induced constipation. Results indicated that the mean diameter (d 50 ) of UDO obtained by ball milling was 6.56 μm. UDO (62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg, p.o.) could significantly enhance the gastrointestinal transit ratio and promote fecal output. Moreover, UDO treatment resulted in significant increases in the serum levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), gastrin (Gas), motilin (MTL), and substance P (SP), and obviously decreased serum contents of somatostatin (SS). Taken together, UDO, which can be easily obtained through milling to a satisfactory particle size, exhibited obvious laxative effect in diphenoxylate-induced constipated mice, and the mechanism might be associated with elevated levels of AChE, Gas, MTL, SP, and reduced production of SS. UDO has the potential for further development into an alternative effective diet therapy for constipation.

  11. Laxative effects of agarwood on low-fiber diet-induced constipation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kakino, Mamoru; Tazawa, Shigemi; Maruyama, Hiroe; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Araki, Yoko; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2010-11-15

    Agarwood (Aquilaria sinensis), well known as incense in Southeast Asia, has been used as a digestive in traditional medicine. We investigated the laxative effects of an ethanol extract of agarwood leaves (EEA) in a rat model of low-fiber diet-induced constipation. A set of rats was bred on a normal diet while another set was placed on a low-fiber diet to induce constipation. The laxative effect of agarwood was then investigated on both sets of rats. Pretreatment of normal rats with single dose of EEA (600 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased frequency and weight of stools. Also, treatments with EEA (300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days caused a significant increase in stool frequency and weight. Feeding of the animals with a low-fiber diet resulted in a decrease in stool weight, frequency, and water content and also delayed carmine egestion. A single treatment with EEA (600 mg/kg) or senna (150 and 300 mg/kg) significantly increased stool frequency, weight, and water content and also accelerated carmine egestion in the model rats. Once daily administrations of EEA (150 mg/kg), for 14 days, caused a significant increase in water content of stools. The higher doses of EEA (300 and 600 mg/kg) significantly increased frequency, weight, and water content of the stools while accelerating carmine egestion in the constipated rats. Senna (150 and 300 mg/kg) produced similar effect as the higher doses of EEA but, in addition, induced severe diarrhea. These findings indicate that EEA has a laxative effect, without causing diarrhea, in a rat model of low-fiber diet-induced constipation. These findings suggest that EEA may be highly effective on constipation as a complementary medicine in humans suffering from life style-induced constipation.

  12. Combinations of laxatives and green banana biomass on the treatment of functional constipation in children and adolescents: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Cassettari, Vanessa Mello Granado; Machado, Nilton Carlos; Lourenção, Pedro Luiz Toledo de Arruda; Carvalho, Marry Assis; Ortolan, Erika Veruska Paiva

    2018-01-05

    Evaluate the effect of combinations of green banana biomass and laxatives in children and adolescents with chronic constipation. This was a randomized study of 80 children and adolescents with functional constipation according to the Rome IV Criteria, who were divided into five groups: (1) green banana biomass alone; (2) green banana biomass plus PEG 3350 with electrolytes; (3) green banana biomass plus sodium picosulfate; (4) PEG 3350 with electrolytes alone; and (5) sodium picosulfate alone. Primary outcome measure was the reduction of the proportion of patients with Bristol Stool Form Scale ratings 1 or 2. Secondary outcome measures were: increase of the proportion of >3 bowel movements/week and reduction of the proportion of fecal incontinence, straining on defecation, painful defecation, blood in stool, abdominal pain, and decreased laxative doses. On consumption of green banana biomass alone, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the proportion of children with Bristol Stool Form Scale rating 1 or 2, straining on defecation, painful defecation, and abdominal pain. Conversely, no reduction was observed in fecal incontinence episodes/week, blood in stool, and no increase was observed in the proportion of children with >3 bowel movements/week. The percentage of children who required decreased laxative dose was high when green banana biomass was associated with sodium picosulfate (87%), and PEG 3350 with electrolytes (63%). Green banana biomass alone and associated with laxatives was well tolerated, and no adverse effects were reported. Green banana biomass is advantageous as an adjunct therapy on functional constipation, mainly for reducing doses of laxatives. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of senna vs polyethylene glycol as laxative therapy in children with constipation related to anorectal malformation.

    PubMed

    Santos-Jasso, Karla Alejandra; Arredondo-García, José Luis; Maza-Vallejos, Jorge; Lezama-Del Valle, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Constipation is present in 80% of children with corrected anorectal malformations, usually associated to rectal dilation and hypomotility. Osmotic laxatives are routinely used for idiopathic constipation. Senna is a stimulant laxative that produces contractions improving colonic motility without affecting the stool consistency. We designed this trial to study the effectiveness of Senna versus polyethylene glycol for the treatment of constipation in children with anorectal malformation. A randomized controlled crossover design clinical trial, including a washout period, was conducted, including children with corrected anorectal malformations with fecal continence and constipation. The sample size was calculated for proportions (n=28) according to available data for Senna. Effectiveness of laxative therapy was measured with a three variable construct: 1) daily bowel movement, 2) fecal soiling, 3) a "clean" abdominal x-ray. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and a Fisher's exact test for the outcome variable (effectiveness). The study was terminated early because the interim analysis showed a clear benefit toward Senna (p = 0.026). The sample showed a normal statistical distribution for the variables age and presence of megarectum. The maximum daily dose of Senna (sennosides A and B) was 38.7mg and 17g for polyethylene glycol. No adverse effects were identified. Therapy with Senna should be the laxative treatment of choice as part of a bowel management program in children with repaired anorectal malformations and constipation, since the stimulation of colonic propulsion waves could lead to stool evacuation without modification of its consistency which can affect fecal continence. I - randomized controlled trial with adequate statistical power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Constipation in patients with quadriplegic cerebral palsy: intestinal reeducation using massage and a laxative diet].

    PubMed

    Faleiros-Castro, Fabiana Santana; de Paula, Elenice Dias Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Constipation affects 74% of individuals with cerebral palsy. This study aimed to evaluate the results of nursing interventions for treating intestinal constipation associated with cerebral palsy. This quantitative, prospective, comparative study included 50 patients with quadriplegic cerebral palsy and constipation. The main conservative measures included daily consumption of laxative foods and vegetable oils, increase in fluid intake, and daily intestinal massage. Total or partial constipation relief was observed in 90% of the patients, with improvement in quality-of-life aspects such as sleep, appetite, and irritability, and a significant decrease in rectal bleeding, anal fissure, voluntary retention of stools, crying, and pain on defecation. Only 10% of the patients required laxative medications. It is recommended that conservative measures be used for treating cerebral palsy-related constipation and medications be used solely as adjuvants, if needed.

  15. LIFELAX - diet and LIFEstyle versus LAXatives in the management of chronic constipation in older people: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Speed, C; Heaven, B; Adamson, A; Bond, J; Corbett, S; Lake, A A; May, C; Vanoli, A; McMeekin, P; Moynihan, P; Rubin, G; Steen, I N; McColl, E

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of laxatives versus dietary and lifestyle advice, and standardised versus personalised dietary and lifestyle advice. A prospective, pragmatic, three-armed cluster randomised trial with an economic evaluation. General practices in England and Scotland, UK. People aged ≥ 55 years with chronic constipation, living in private households. Participants were identified as those who had been prescribed laxatives three or more times in the previous 12 months, or with a recorded diagnosis of chronic functional constipation. Prescription of laxatives, with class of laxative and dose at the discretion of the GP and patient (standard care control arm); standardised, non-personalised dietary and lifestyle advice; and, personalised dietary and lifestyle advice, with reinforcement. The primary outcome was the constipation-specific Patient Assessment of Constipation-Symptoms (PAC-SYM)/Patient Assessment of Constipation-Quality of Life (PAC-QOL). The trial planned to recruit and retain 1425 patients from 57 practices (19 per arm); however, only 154 patients were recruited from 19 practices. Due to these low recruitment rates it was not possible to report the conventional trial findings. Baseline characteristics of the sample from data gathered from both postal self-completion questionnaires and face-to-face interviews suggest that our sample experienced very few symptoms of constipation (PAC-SYM) and that the condition itself did not have a major impact upon their quality of life (PAC-QOL). The low level of symptoms of constipation is most likely explained by 90% of the sample using a laxative in the previous week. Most participants in our sample were satisfied with the performance of their laxatives, and levels of anxiety and depression were low. Their fibre consumption was classified as 'moderate' but their average water consumption fell below the recommended guidelines. Daily diaries, completed each day for a

  16. Lack of lasting effectiveness of PEG 3350 laxative treatment of constipation.

    PubMed

    Tran, Lily C; Di Palma, Jack A

    2005-08-01

    PEG 3350 (MiraLax, Braintree Laboratories Inc., Braintree, MA) 17 g daily has been shown to be safe and effective in a 14-day trial for constipation. This present investigation was designed to extend the treatment and safety experience with PEG 3350 and to evaluate any lasting effectiveness during a 30-day post-treatment observation period. Study subjects met Rome II criteria for constipation and reported <3 bowel movements a week. They were treated with PEG 3350 17 g daily for 14 days. Treatment efficacy was defined by resolution of constipation symptoms as determined by the Rome II and stool frequency definitions during the treatment period. Fifty healthy constipated subjects formed the study group. There were 42 females and 8 males. Mean age was 52 +/- 15.5 years (+/-SD). Symptom duration was 22.6 +/- 16.7 months (+/-SD). At baseline, all had <3 bowel movements a week and met Rome II criteria. Two were lost to follow-up. Two took enemas or laxatives and 2 discontinued active treatment because of "gas" and were considered treatment failures. At the end of 14 days, 40 of 48 (83.3%) had >3 stools in the last week and no longer met Rome criteria. Thirty-two of 45 (71.1%) reported satisfaction with the first bowel movement after initiating treatment. Thirty days after active treatment, 29 of 47 (61.7%) responded that they needed laxative treatment. PEG 3350 relieved constipation in most treated study subjects. During a 30-day post-treatment observation period, 29 of 47 (61.7%) had additional constipation treatment interventions.

  17. A comparison of polyethylene glycol laxative and placebo for relief of constipation from constipating medications.

    PubMed

    DiPalma, Jack A; Cleveland, Mark B; McGowan, John; Herrera, Jorge L

    2007-11-01

    Medications often cause constipation and little data are available concerning treatment interventions. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 laxative (MiraLax) for relief of constipation from medicines associated with symptoms of constipation. Study subjects were enrolled who met defined criteria for chronic constipation and were also taking medications that were associated with a reported side effect incidence of more than 3% constipation. Subjects were randomized into a double-blind, parallel, multicenter study where they received 17 g per day of PEG laxative or placebo for 28 days. The primary efficacy variable, "Treatment Success," was defined as relief of ROME II criteria for constipation over the last 7 days of the treatment period. Various secondary measures were also assessed. Daily bowel movement experience, patient perception of efficacy, and safety information were recorded in a diary. Laboratory testing was performed at baseline and at end of study for hematology and blood chemistry, including BUN, calcium, electrolytes, and TSH. One hundred patients were enrolled at 4 study centers. Successful treatment according to the primary efficacy variable was seen in 78.3% of PEG and 39.1% of placebo subjects (P < 0.001). Similar results were observed in a subgroup of 28 elderly subjects. Secondary measures of number of bowel movements, complete bowel movements, satisfactory bowel movements, straining at stool and stool consistency also showed statistically significant results in favor of PEG compared with placebo (P < or = 0.01) after the first week of treatment. There were no differences inpatient reported scores for gas, cramping, or bloating between PEG and placebo. No significant differences in laboratory findings or adverse events, including the gastrointestinal category, were observed. Diarrhea and flatulence occurred more frequently with PEG treatment, although they were not individually

  18. Use of Pharmacist Consultations for Nonprescription Laxatives in Japan: An Online Survey.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Keita; Matsumoto, Arisa; Nakagawa, Ayumi; Akagawa, Keiko; Nakamura, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Kurata, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Community pharmacies in Japan have long been advocated as effective sources of nonprescription medicines and health-related advice. Consumers sometimes self-treat symptoms of minor illnesses without consulting a pharmacist because the benefits of such consultations are not adequately recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate the use and impact of pharmacist consultations before purchase of nonprescription laxatives. An online survey was conducted July 14-22, 2012 with 500 respondents (250 men, 250 women), ranging 20-60 years old. All participants had purchased nonprescription laxatives for constipation within the past year. Stratified analysis was used to compare responses in groups that had and had not consulted a pharmacist before purchase. Consulting a pharmacist appears to improve consumers' awareness and makes them more likely to use appropriate medication. Those who consulted a pharmacist were better able to identify side effects and take appropriate action than the group that did not consult the pharmacist. Those who consulted a pharmacist were also significantly more likely to say that they would consult a pharmacist in the future. These results indicate that it is important for consumers to be able to consult with pharmacists, to improve consumers' awareness of side effects and to self-medicate appropriately, and hence improve their quality of life. Pharmacists in community pharmacy could be more active in health promotion campaigns, such as drug safety, campaigns, to raise their public profile. Increased public awareness of what pharmacists in community pharmacy do will make it easier for patients to consult with them.

  19. Influence of Repeated Senna Laxative Use on Skin Barrier Function in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Satoshi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Yamate, Yurika; Ooi, Kazuya

    2017-08-01

    Senna, one of the major stimulant laxatives, is widely used for treating constipation. Chronic senna use has been reported to be associated with colonic disorders such as melanosis coli and/or epithelial hyperplasia. However, there is no obvious information on the influence of chronic senna use on organs except for the intestine. To clarify the influence of senna laxative use on skin barrier function by repeated senna administration. Eight-week-old male hairless mice received senna (10 mg/kg/day) for 21 days. After administration, we evaluated transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and investigated the biomarkers in plasma and skin using protein analysis methods. Fecal water content on day seven was significantly increased; however, on day 21, it was significantly decreased after repeated senna administration. In the senna-administered group, TEWL was significantly higher compared to the control on days seven and 21. Plasma acetylcholine concentration and NO 2 - /NO 3 - were increased on days seven and 21, respectively. In skin, tryptase-positive mast cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-positive cells were increased on days seven and 21, respectively. The increase of TEWL on days seven and 21 was suppressed by the administration of atropine and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, respectively. It was suggested that diarrhea or constipation induced by repeated senna administration caused the impairment of skin barrier function. There is a possibility that this impaired skin barrier function occurred due to degranulation of mast cells via cholinergic signals or oxidative stress derived from iNOS.

  20. A feasibility study on laxative-free bowel preparation for virtual colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhengrong; Chen, Dongqing; Wax, Mark; Lakare, Sarang; Li, Lihong; Anderson, Joseph; Kaufman, Arie; Harrington, Donald

    2005-04-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of laxative-free bowel preparation to relieve the patient stress in colon cleansing for virtual colonoscopy. Materials and Methods: Three different bowel-preparation protocols were investigated by 60 study cases from 35 healthy male volunteers. All the protocols utilize low-residue diet for two days and differ in diet for the third day - the day just prior to image acquisition in the fourth day morning. Protocol Diet-1 utilizes fluid or liquid diet in the third day, Diet-2 utilizes a food kit, and Diet-3 remains the low-residue diet. Oral contrast of barium sulfate (2.1%, 250 ml) was added respectively to the dinner in the second day and the three meals in the third day. Two doses of MD-Gastroview (60 ml) were ingested each in the evening of the third day and in the morning before image acquisition. Images were acquired by a single-slice detector spiral CT (computed tomography) scanner with 5 mm collimation, 1 mm reconstruction, 1.5-2.0:1.0 pitch, 100-150 mA, and 120 kVp after the colons were inflated by CO2. The contrasted colonic residue materials were electronically removed from the CT images by specialized computer-segmentation algorithms. Results: By assumptions that the healthy young volunteers have no polyp and the image resolution is approximately 4 mm, a successful electronic cleansing is defined as "no more than five false positives and no removal of a colon fold part greater than 4 mm" for each study case. The successful rate is 100% for protocol Diet-1, 77% for Diet-2 and 57% for Diet-3. Conclusion: A laxative-free bowel preparation is feasible for virtual colonoscopy.

  1. [Paralysis, organic brain syndrome, and cardiac dysrhythmias caused by chronic laxative abuse (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Dahlmann, W; Volles, E; Lüderitz, B

    1977-10-28

    A 39-year-old woman developed generalised paralysis, reversible organic brain syndrome, and cardiac dysrhythmias after 15 years of laxative abuse. Under continuous and cautious administration of potassium the cardiac rhythm became normal within four days and two days later the paralysis and organic brain syndrome almost disappeared. The cause of the psychiatric symptoms is thought to be cerebral potassium deficiency and an abnormal sodium/potassium equilibrium. Other clinical signs and symptoms due to extreme potassium depletion are presented. The importance of Na+/K+-activated membrane ATP-ase in myocardium and CNS is discussed.

  2. Structure analysis and laxative effects of oligosaccharides isolated from bananas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Huang, Hui Hua; Cheng, Yan Feng; Yang, Gong Ming

    2012-10-01

    Banana oligosaccharides (BOS) were extracted with water, and then separated and purified using column chromatography. Gel penetration chromatography was used to determine the molecular weights. Thin layer chromatogram and capillary electrophoresis were employed to analyze the monosaccharide composition. The indican bond and structure of the BOS molecule were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Results showed that BOS were probably composed of eight β-D-pyran glucose units linked with 1→6 indican bonds. The laxative effects of BOS were investigated in mice using the method described in "Handbook of Technical Standards for Testing and Assessment of Health Food in China." The length of the small intestine over which a carbon suspension solution advanced in mice treated with low-, middle-, and high-dose BOS was significantly greater than that in the model group, suggesting that BOS are effective in accelerating the movement of the small intestine.

  3. Comparison of the chloride channel activator lubiprostone and the oral laxative Polyethylene Glycol 3350 on mucosal barrier repair in ischemic-injured porcine intestine.

    PubMed

    Moeser, Adam-J; Nighot, Prashant-K; Roerig, Birgit; Ueno, Ryuji; Blikslager, Anthony-T

    2008-10-21

    To investigate the effects of lubiprostone and Polyethylene Glycol 3350 (PEG) on mucosal barrier repair in ischemic-injured porcine intestine. Ileum from 6 piglets (approximately 15 kg body weight) was subjected to ischemic conditions by occluding the local mesenteric circulation for 45 min in vivo. Ileal tissues from each pig were then harvested and mounted in Ussing chambers and bathed in oxygenated Ringer's solution in vitro. Intestinal barrier function was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and mucosal-to-serosal fluxes of (3)H-mannitol and (14)C-inulin. Statistical analyses of data collected over a 120-min time course included 2-way ANOVA for the effects of time and treatment on indices of barrier function. Application of 1 micromol/L lubiprostone to the mucosal surface of ischemic-injured ileum in vitro induced significant elevations in TER compared to non-treated tissue. Lubiprostone also reduced mucosal-to-serosal fluxes of (3)H-mannitol and (14)C-inulin. Alternatively, application of a polyethylene laxative (PEG, 20 mmol/L) to the mucosal surface of ischemic tissues significantly increased flux of (3)H-mannitol and (14)C-inulin. This experiment demonstrates that lubiprostone stimulates recovery of barrier function in ischemic intestinal tissues whereas the PEG laxative had deleterious effects on mucosal repair. These results suggest that, unlike osmotic laxatives, lubiprostone stimulates repair of the injured intestinal barrier.

  4. Correlation between Colon Transit Time Test Value and Initial Maintenance Dose of Laxative in Children with Chronic Functional Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mock Ryeon; Park, Hye Won; Son, Jae Sung; Lee, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the correlation between colon transit time (CTT) test value and initial maintenance dose of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 or lactulose. Methods Of 415 children with chronic functional constipation, 190 were enrolled based on exclusion criteria using the CTT test, defecation diary, and clinical chart. The CTT test was performed with prior disimpaction. The laxative dose for maintenance was determined on the basis of the defecation diary and clinical chart. The Shapiro-Wilk test and Pearson's and Spearman's correlations were used for statistical analysis. Results The overall group median value and interquartile range of the CTT test was 43.8 (31.8) hours. The average PEG 4000 dose for maintenance in the overall group was 0.68±0.18 g/kg/d; according to age, the dose was 0.73±0.16 g/kg/d (<8 years), 0.53±0.12 g/kg/d (8 to <12 years), and 0.36±0.05 g/kg/d (12 to 15 years). The dose of lactulose was 1.99±0.43 mL/kg/d (<8 years) or 1.26±0.25 mL/kg/d (8 to <12 years). There was no significant correlation between CTT test value and initial dose of laxative, irrespective of the subgroup (encopresis, abnormal CTT test subtype) for either laxative. Even in the largest group (overall, n=109, younger than 8 years and on PEG 4000), the correlation was weak (Pearson's correlation coefficient [R]=0.268, p=0.005). Within the abnormal transit group, subgroup (n=73, younger than 8 years and on PEG 4000) correlation was weak (R=0.267, p=0.022). Conclusion CTT test value cannot predict the initial maintenance dose of PEG 4000 or lactulose with linear correlation. PMID:27738600

  5. Correlation between Colon Transit Time Test Value and Initial Maintenance Dose of Laxative in Children with Chronic Functional Constipation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mock Ryeon; Park, Hye Won; Son, Jae Sung; Lee, Ran; Bae, Sun Hwan

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the correlation between colon transit time (CTT) test value and initial maintenance dose of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 or lactulose. Of 415 children with chronic functional constipation, 190 were enrolled based on exclusion criteria using the CTT test, defecation diary, and clinical chart. The CTT test was performed with prior disimpaction. The laxative dose for maintenance was determined on the basis of the defecation diary and clinical chart. The Shapiro-Wilk test and Pearson's and Spearman's correlations were used for statistical analysis. The overall group median value and interquartile range of the CTT test was 43.8 (31.8) hours. The average PEG 4000 dose for maintenance in the overall group was 0.68±0.18 g/kg/d; according to age, the dose was 0.73±0.16 g/kg/d (<8 years), 0.53±0.12 g/kg/d (8 to <12 years), and 0.36±0.05 g/kg/d (12 to 15 years). The dose of lactulose was 1.99±0.43 mL/kg/d (<8 years) or 1.26±0.25 mL/kg/d (8 to <12 years). There was no significant correlation between CTT test value and initial dose of laxative, irrespective of the subgroup (encopresis, abnormal CTT test subtype) for either laxative. Even in the largest group (overall, n=109, younger than 8 years and on PEG 4000), the correlation was weak (Pearson's correlation coefficient [R]=0.268, p =0.005). Within the abnormal transit group, subgroup (n=73, younger than 8 years and on PEG 4000) correlation was weak (R=0.267, p =0.022). CTT test value cannot predict the initial maintenance dose of PEG 4000 or lactulose with linear correlation.

  6. Are Senna based laxatives safe when used as long term treatment for constipation in children?

    PubMed

    Vilanova-Sanchez, Alejandra; Gasior, Alessandra C; Toocheck, Nicole; Weaver, Laura; Wood, Richard J; Reck, Carlos A; Wagner, Andrea; Hoover, Erin; Gagnon, Renae; Jaggers, Jordon; Maloof, Tassiana; Nash, Onnalisa; Williams, Charae; Levitt, Marc A

    2018-04-01

    Senna is a stimulant laxative commonly used by pediatricians, pediatric gastroenterologists, and pediatric surgeons. Many clinicians avoid Senna for reasons such as tolerance or side effects but this has little scientific justification. We recently found several patients we were caring for developed perineal blistering during the course of Senna treatment. Because of this we chose to review the literature to identify side effects in children taking this medication as well as to analyze our Center's experience with Senna's secondary effects. We performed a literature review (MEDLINE, PUBMED) using the keywords of Senna, sen, sennosides and children, and pediatric and functional (idiopathic) constipation. We looked for articles with information regarding perineal blisters related to Senna as well as other secondary effects of Senna laxatives in children when used on a long-term basis. We also reviewed the charts of our patients who had previously taken Senna or are currently taking Senna, looking for adverse reactions. Eight articles in the literature reported perineal blisters after administration of Senna laxatives in 28 patients. Of those occurrences, 18 patients (64%) had accidental administration of Senna and 10 (36%) had Senna prescribed as a long term treatment. All of the blistering episodes were related to high dose, night-time accidents, or intense diarrhea with a long period of stool to skin contact. At our institution, from 2014 to 2017, we prescribed Senna and have recorded data to 640 patients. During the study period, 17 patients (2.2%) developed blisters during their treatment. Patients who developed blisters had higher doses 60mg/day; 60 [12-100] vs. 17.5 [1.7-150] (p<0.001). All of the blistering episodes were related to night-time accidents, with a long period of stool to skin contact. 83 (13%) patients presented minor side effects such as abdominal cramping, vomiting or diarrhea which resolved once the type of laxatives were changed or enemas were

  7. Comparison of the chloride channel activator lubiprostone and the oral laxative Polyethylene Glycol 3350 on mucosal barrier repair in ischemic-injured porcine intestine

    PubMed Central

    Moeser, Adam J; Nighot, Prashant K; Roerig, Birgit; Ueno, Ryuji; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of lubiprostone and Polyethylene Glycol 3350 (PEG) on mucosal barrier repair in ischemic-injured porcine intestine. METHODS: Ileum from 6 piglets (approximately 15 kg body weight) was subjected to ischemic conditions by occluding the local mesenteric circulation for 45 min in vivo. Ileal tissues from each pig were then harvested and mounted in Ussing chambers and bathed in oxygenated Ringer’s solution in vitro. Intestinal barrier function was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and mucosal-to-serosal fluxes of 3H-mannitol and 14C-inulin. Statistical analyses of data collected over a 120-min time course included 2-way ANOVA for the effects of time and treatment on indices of barrier function. RESULTS: Application of 1 μmol/L lubiprostone to the mucosal surface of ischemic-injured ileum in vitro induced significant elevations in TER compared to non-treated tissue. Lubiprostone also reduced mucosal-to-serosal fluxes of 3H-mannitol and 14C-inulin. Alternatively, application of a polyethylene laxative (PEG, 20 mmol/L) to the mucosal surface of ischemic tissues significantly increased flux of 3H-mannitol and 14C-inulin. CONCLUSION: This experiment demonstrates that lubiprostone stimulates recovery of barrier function in ischemic intestinal tissues whereas the PEG laxative had deleterious effects on mucosal repair. These results suggest that, unlike osmotic laxatives, lubiprostone stimulates repair of the injured intestinal barrier. PMID:18932279

  8. Laxative Choice and Treatment Outcomes in Childhood Constipation: Clinical Data in a Longitudinal Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Chanpong, Atchariya; Osatakul, Seksit

    2018-04-01

    Functional constipation (FC) is a common gastrointestinal (GI) problem affecting children's well-being and quality of life. Although polyethylene glycol (PEG) is recommended as the first line therapy, it is not always applicable in lower socioeconomic populations. Hence, this study aimed to compare clinical courses of FC in children treated with different medications in order to identify prognostic factors related to treatment outcomes. We reviewed the medical records of patients aged ≤15 years diagnosed with FC according to the Rome IV criteria from 2007 to 2015 at the GI clinic, Songklanagarind Hospital. Baseline characteristic, medical history, and treatment outcomes were collected at first and subsequent visits. Exactly 104 patients (median age at diagnosis, 2.8 years) were diagnosed with FC. The number of follow-up visits per patient ranged from 1 to 35. The median duration of follow-up was 18.0 months (range, 6.0-84.2 months). PEG was given to 21% of patients. During the follow up period, 76% of patients experienced first recovery with a median time to recovery of 9.8 months. There were no significant differences in time until first recovery and relapse between patients who received and those who did not receive PEG ( p =0.99 and 0.06, respectively). Age >6 years, normal defecation frequency, no history of cow's milk protein allergy, and use of laxatives were associated with successful outcomes. Treatment outcomes between patients who had and never had PEG demonstrated no significant difference in our study. Hence, current practices in laxative prescriptive patterns may be effective.

  9. The combination of Cassia obtusifolia L. and Foeniculum vulgare M. exhibits a laxative effect on loperamide-induced constipation of rats

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Seung Hee

    2018-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a functional gastrointestinal disease that is detrimental to the quality of patient life. Cassia obtusifolia L. (CO) and Foeniculum vulgare M. (FV) are commonly used as medicinal foods in many countries. We aimed to examine the laxative effect and their underlying mechanism of CO and FV mixture on loperamide (lop)-induced constipated rats. To determine the laxative effects of these compounds, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: the control, lop-induced constipated (2mg/kg), and three doses (100, 300, and 500mg/kg) of CO and FV mixture-, and Bisacodyl (bis, 3.3mg/kg)-treated groups. The mixture of CO and FV and bis were orally administered once a day for 4 weeks. For induction of constipation, the lop were treated with a dose of 2 mg/kg twice a day on the 3rd week after treatments of CO and FV extracts and bis. The results were revealed that the CO and FV mixture has the laxative effects more than those in CO and FV-alone treatments on constipated rats by determining the stool parameters, including stool number and weight. Indeed, stool parameters, such as, stool number, weight, and water contents and colonic peristalsis from the intestinal transit length and ratio were dramatically improved by CO and FV mixture treatment. Histological study also revealed that CO and FV mixture enhanced the thicknesses of mucosa and muscular layers of the colon in constipated rats. For their underlying mechanism, the mRNAs and proteins expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchR) M2 and M3 and their downstream signaling were preserved by CO and FV mixture treatment in constipated rats. Therefore, this study suggests that treatment with CO and FV mixture has beneficial effects against constipation. We further suggest that CO and FV mixture may be utilized as an alternative therapeutic strategy for constipation. PMID:29621360

  10. The LUCK study: Laxative Usage in patients with GP-diagnosed Constipation in the UK, within the general population and in pregnancy. An epidemiological study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD)

    PubMed Central

    Shafe, Anna C. E.; Lee, Sally; Dalrymple, Jamie S. O.; Whorwell, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the high prevalence of constipation and its related public health implications, there is relatively little research available on the condition from large epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of general practitioner (GP)-diagnosed constipation and the prescribing trends for laxatives in the UK, within the general population and during pregnancy. Methods: A cohort study for the period from 2005 to 2009 was performed using the UK primary care database (General Practice Research Database), which contains information on over 3 million individuals. Results: The prevalence of GP-diagnosed constipation ranged from 12 per 1000 persons in 2005 (0.012 per person year) to 12.8 per 1000 in 2009 (0.013 per person year). The prevalence was almost twice as high in women as in men, and was higher in older patients. In 2005 the most commonly prescribed laxatives were lactulose (37%), senna (26%), macrogol (19%), ispaghula (6%), docusate sodium (5%), bisacodyl (4%) and glycerol suppositories (2%). By 2009, this pattern had changed: macrogol (31%), lactulose (29%), senna (22%), ispaghula (5%), docusate sodium (6%), bisacodyl (3%) and glycerol suppositories (3%). In pregnancy, lactulose accounted for 81% of laxative use in 2005, falling to 64% by 2009. In contrast, macrogol use in pregnancy rose from 13% in 2005 to 32% in 2009. Conclusions: GP-diagnosed constipation is common, accounting for a large number of consultations. Laxative prescribing trends have changed over the 5-year study period, prescriptions for macrogol becoming increasingly common and prescriptions for lactulose and senna less common. Macrogol also appears to have been replacing lactulose for treating constipation in pregnant women. PMID:22043228

  11. Osmotic and stimulant laxatives for the management of childhood constipation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Morris; MacDonald, John K; Parker, Claire E; Akobeng, Anthony K; Thomas, Adrian G

    2016-08-17

    Constipation within childhood is an extremely common problem. Despite the widespread use of osmotic and stimulant laxatives by health professionals to manage constipation in children, there has been a long standing paucity of high quality evidence to support this practice. We set out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic and stimulant laxatives used to treat functional childhood constipation. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Trials Register from inception to 10 March 2016. There were no language restrictions. We also searched the references of all included studies, personal contacts and drug companies to identify studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compared osmotic or stimulant laxatives to placebo or another intervention, with participants aged 0 to 18 years old were considered for inclusion. The primary outcome was frequency of defecation. Secondary endpoints included faecal incontinence, disimpaction, need for additional therapies and adverse events. Relevant papers were identified and two authors independently assessed the eligibility of trials, extracted data and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The primary outcome was frequency of defecation. Secondary endpoints included faecal incontinence, disimpaction, need for additional therapies and adverse events. For continuous outcomes we calculated the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using a fixed-effect model. For dichotomous outcomes we calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% CI using a fixed-effect model. The Chi(2) and I(2) statistics were used to assess statistical heterogeneity. A random-effects model was used in situations of unexplained heterogeneity. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence supporting the primary and secondary outcomes using the GRADE criteria. Twenty-five RCTs (2310 participants) were included in the review. Fourteen

  12. Daily laxative therapy reduces organ dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients: a phase II randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Rodrigo Palacio; Freitas, Flávio Geraldo Resende; Ferreira, Elaine Maria; Pontes de Azevedo, Luciano Cesar; Machado, Flávia Ribeiro

    2015-09-16

    Constipation is a common problem in intensive care units. We assessed the efficacy and safety of laxative therapy aiming to promote daily defecation in reducing organ dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled, nonblinded phase II clinical trial at two general intensive care units. Patients expected to remain ventilated for over 3 days were randomly assigned to daily defecation or control groups. The intervention group received lactulose and enemas to produce 1-2 defecations per day. In the control group, absence of defecation was tolerated up to 5 days. Primary outcome was the change in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score between the date of enrollment and intensive care unit discharge, death or day 14. We included 88 patients. Patients in the treatment group had a higher number of defecations per day (1.3 ± 0.42 versus 0.7 ± 0.56, p < 0.0001) and lower percentage of days without defecation (33.1 ± 15.7% versus 62.3 ± 24.5%, p < 0.0001). Patients in the intervention group had a greater reduction in SOFA score (-4.0 (-6.0 to 0) versus -1.0 (-4.0 to 1.0), p = 0.036) with no difference in mortality rates or in survival time. Adverse events were more frequent in the treatment group (4.5 (3.0-8.0) versus 3.0 (1.0-5.7), p = 0.016), including more days with diarrhea (2.0 (1.0-4.0) versus 1.0 (0-2.0) days, p < 0.0001). Serious adverse events were rare and did not significantly differ between groups. Laxative therapy improved daily defecation in ventilated patients and was associated with a greater reduction in SOFA score. Clinical Trials.gov NCT01607060, registered 24 May 2012.

  13. Contrast enema as a guide for senna-based laxatives in managing overflow retentive stool incontinence in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Ahmed Bassiuony; El-Debeiky, Mohammed Soliman; Abdel-Hay, Sameh

    2015-08-01

    Overflow retentive stool incontinence (ORSI) is secondary to constipation and fecal loading. In our study, the dose and duration of senna-based laxatives (SBL) treatment to achieve full defecatory control will be examined for possible correlation with new parameters measured from the initial contrast enema. Initially, an observational study was conducted prospectively on a group of patient with ORSI to define the optimum dose of SBL to achieve full defecatory control with measurement of six parameters in the initial contrast enema (level of colonic dilatation, recto-anal angle, ratio of maximal diameter of dilated colon to last lumbar spine, ratio of maximum diameter of dilated colon to normal descending colon, immediate and after 24-h post-evacuation residual contrast). The result was analyzed statistically to reach a correlation between the radiological data and prescribed dose. Over 2 and half years, 72 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 6.3 ± 3.33 years. The mean effective starting dose of SBL was 57 ± 18.13 mg/day and the mean effective ending dose was 75 ± 31.68 mg/day. Time lapsed till full defecatory control ranged from 1 to 16 weeks. Statistical correlation revealed that mean effective ending dose of SBL treatment significantly increased with higher levels of colonic dilatation. A weak positive correlation was found for both the mean effective starting and ending doses with the ratio of maximum colonic diameter to last lumbar spine and descending colonic diameters ratio. Senna-based laxatives are effective treatment for overflow retentive stool incontinence and their doses can be adjusted initially depending on the analysis of the radiological data.

  14. Efficacy of daiokanzoto in chronic constipation refractory to first-line laxatives.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Tatsuya; Shinoda, Yasutaka; Yoshida, Aya; Kurimoto, Machiko; Mori, Kouki; Kawachi, Yuki; Tanaka, Kouji; Takeda, Atsuko; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Sugiyama, Tadashi

    2016-10-01

    There are only a few treatment options for constipation and limited evidence of suitable treatments. Daiokanzoto (DKT) is a Kampo medicine often used clincally to treat constipation. DKT is a laxative used predominantly in Japan; however, clinical data on its efficacy and safety is lacking. Patients who used DKT, but were intolerant to either magnesium oxide (MgO; MgO group; n=16) or senna extract (Senna group; n=26) were included in the present study. The frequencies of their bowel movements were compared during the 1 week prior to and following DKT administration. Within 24 hours after DKT administration, 93.8% of the patients in the MgO group evacuated their bowels. The median bowel movement frequency 1 week prior to DKT administration was 2.5 and 1 week after DKT administration was significantly increased to 7.5. In the Senna group, within 24 h of DKT administration, 80.8% of the patients evacuated their bowels. The median bowel movement frequency 1 week prior to the DKT treatment was 2.0, which significantly increased to 8.5 1 week after the administration of DKT. The adverse events from DKT treatment were mild and controllable.

  15. Efficacy of daiokanzoto in chronic constipation refractory to first-line laxatives

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Tatsuya; Shinoda, Yasutaka; Yoshida, Aya; Kurimoto, Machiko; Mori, Kouki; Kawachi, Yuki; Tanaka, Kouji; Takeda, Atsuko; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Sugiyama, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    There are only a few treatment options for constipation and limited evidence of suitable treatments. Daiokanzoto (DKT) is a Kampo medicine often used clincally to treat constipation. DKT is a laxative used predominantly in Japan; however, clinical data on its efficacy and safety is lacking. Patients who used DKT, but were intolerant to either magnesium oxide (MgO; MgO group; n=16) or senna extract (Senna group; n=26) were included in the present study. The frequencies of their bowel movements were compared during the 1 week prior to and following DKT administration. Within 24 hours after DKT administration, 93.8% of the patients in the MgO group evacuated their bowels. The median bowel movement frequency 1 week prior to DKT administration was 2.5 and 1 week after DKT administration was significantly increased to 7.5. In the Senna group, within 24 h of DKT administration, 80.8% of the patients evacuated their bowels. The median bowel movement frequency 1 week prior to the DKT treatment was 2.0, which significantly increased to 8.5 1 week after the administration of DKT. The adverse events from DKT treatment were mild and controllable. PMID:27699020

  16. PEG and Thickeners: A Critical Interaction Between Polyethylene Glycol Laxative and Starch-Based Thickeners.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Brian J; Craft, Garrett; Harmon, Julie P; Ilkevitch, Alina; Nicoghosian, Jenik; Sheyner, Inna; Stewart, Jonathan T

    2016-09-01

    Clinicians commonly encounter dysphagia and constipation in a skilled nursing population. Increasing the viscosity of liquids, usually with a starch- or xanthan gum-based thickener, serves as a key intervention for patients with dysphagia. We report a newly identified and potentially dangerous interaction between polyethylene glycol 3350 laxative (PEG) and starch-thickened liquids. A patient requiring nectar-thickened liquids became constipated, and medical staff prescribed PEG for constipation. His nurse observed that the thickened apple juice immediately thinned to near-water consistency when PEG was added. She obtained the same results with thickened water and coffee. We quantified this phenomenon by isothermal rotational rheology. Results confirmed a precipitous loss of thickening when PEG was added to starch-based thickeners but not with xanthan gum-based thickeners. Clinicians and front-line staff should be aware of this potentially critical interaction between PEG- and starch-based thickeners. Although confirmatory studies are needed, our preliminary data suggest that PEG may be compatible with xanthan gum-- based thickeners. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Successful use of a bulk laxative to control the diarrhea of tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Frank, H A; Green, L C

    1979-01-01

    The greatly increased nutritional demands of the severely burned patient frequently require the use of tube feeding for enternal hyperalimentation. At a time when general patient morale is low and motivation needs to be maximally maintained, there is nothing so dispiriting as the distress of a painful perianal region and uncontrollable liquid stools. Attempts to control the diarrhea which frequently accompanies tube feeding by changing the formula or the method of administration or a wide variety of constipating drugs have all met with very limited success. Based on the clinical observation of a noted gastroenterologist (Bockus), we have administered a mucilagenous hydrophilic colloid bulk laxative (Metamucil) to patients on tube feeding formulae. The dosage and frequency are adjusted to individual patient needs, but average 7 g per liter of liquid formula. The results have been dramatic; namely, the virtual elimination of the diarrhea problem in our burn patients on enteral hyperalimentation by gastric tube feeding. Colonic transit time increases. The stools become formed but soft, cohesive but not adhesive. Perianal irritation does not occur. Neither does soilage of wound, dressings, or bed. No rebound constipation or obstructive symptoms have been encountered. We attribute this response to the same water binding mechanism that allows these colloids to prevent chronic constipation. Our patients may be given as much as 5,000 to 6,000 calories of tube feeding per day. Our patients are not distressed by diarrhea. Our nursing staff is relieved of the burden that entails.

  18. Rheinanthrone, a metabolite of sennoside A, triggers macrophage activation to decrease aquaporin-3 expression in the colon, causing the laxative effect of rhubarb extract.

    PubMed

    Kon, Risako; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Nagoya, Chika; Takayama, Tomoko; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Ishii, Makoto; Ueda, Harumi; Ochiai, Wataru; Machida, Yoshiaki; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2014-02-27

    Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is expressed in mucosal epithelial cells in the colon and is important for regulating fecal water content. We examined the role of AQP3 in the laxative effect of rhubarb extract. After orally administering rhubarb extract or its major component (sennoside A) to rats, the fecal water content, AQP3 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations in the colon were examined. The mechanism by which sennoside A decreases the expression of AQP3 was examined using the human colon cancer HT-29 cells and macrophage-derived Raw264.7 cells. During diarrhea by rhubarb extract administration, the PGE2 levels in the colon increased while the AQP3 expression significantly decreased. Similar changes were also observed when sennoside A was administered. When sennoside A or its metabolites, rheinanthrone and rhein were added to Raw264.7 cells, a significant increase in the PGE2 concentration was observed only in cells treated with rheinanthrone. Fifteen minutes after adding PGE2 to the HT-29 cells, the AQP3 expression decreased to approximately 40% of the control. When pretreated with indomethacin, sennoside A neither decreased the AQP3 expression nor induced diarrhea. Sennoside A may decrease AQP3 expression in the colon to inhibit water transport from the luminal to the vascular side, leading to a laxative effect. The decreases in the levels of AQP3 are caused by rheinanthrone, which is a metabolite of sennoside A, this metabolite activates the macrophages in the colon and increases the secretion of PGE2; PGE2 acts as a paracrine factor and decreases AQP3 expression in colon mucosal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Real-Time Electronic Tracking of Diarrheal Episodes and Laxative Therapy Enables Verification of Clostridium difficile Clinical Testing Criteria and Reduction of Clostridium difficile Infection Rates.

    PubMed

    Truong, Cynthia Y; Gombar, Saurabh; Wilson, Richard; Sundararajan, Gopalakrishnan; Tekic, Natasa; Holubar, Marisa; Shepard, John; Madison, Alexandra; Tompkins, Lucy; Shah, Neil; Deresinski, Stan; Schroeder, Lee F; Banaei, Niaz

    2017-05-01

    Health care-onset health care facility-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) is overdiagnosed for several reasons, including the high prevalence of C. difficile colonization and the inability of hospitals to limit testing to patients with clinically significant diarrhea. We conducted a quasiexperimental study from 22 June 2015 to 30 June 2016 on consecutive inpatients with C. difficile test orders at an academic hospital. Real-time electronic patient data tracking was used by the laboratory to enforce testing criteria (defined as the presence of diarrhea [≥3 unformed stools in 24 h] and absence of laxative intake in the prior 48 h). Outcome measures included C. difficile test utilization, HO-CDI incidence, oral vancomycin utilization, and clinical complications. During the intervention, 7.1% (164) and 9.1% (211) of 2,321 C. difficile test orders were canceled due to absence of diarrhea and receipt of laxative therapy, respectively. C. difficile test utilization decreased upon implementation from an average of 208.8 tests to 143.0 tests per 10,000 patient-days ( P < 0.001). HO-CDI incidence rate decreased from an average of 13.0 cases to 9.7 cases per 10,000 patient-days ( P = 0.008). Oral vancomycin days of therapy decreased from an average of 13.8 days to 9.4 days per 1,000 patient-days ( P = 0.009). Clinical complication rates were not significantly different in patients with 375 canceled orders compared with 869 episodes with diarrhea but negative C. difficile results. Real-time electronic clinical data tracking is an effective tool for verification of C. difficile clinical testing criteria and safe reduction of inflated HO-CDI rates. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Next Generation Sequencing and Transcriptome Analysis Predicts Biosynthetic Pathway of Sennosides from Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.), a Non-Model Plant with Potent Laxative Properties.

    PubMed

    Rama Reddy, Nagaraja Reddy; Mehta, Rucha Harishbhai; Soni, Palak Harendrabhai; Makasana, Jayanti; Gajbhiye, Narendra Athamaram; Ponnuchamy, Manivel; Kumar, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a world's natural laxative medicinal plant. Laxative properties are due to sennosides (anthraquinone glycosides) natural products. However, little genetic information is available for this species, especially concerning the biosynthetic pathways of sennosides. We present here the transcriptome sequencing of young and mature leaf tissue of Cassia angustifolia using Illumina MiSeq platform that resulted in a total of 6.34 Gb of raw nucleotide sequence. The sequence assembly resulted in 42230 and 37174 transcripts with an average length of 1119 bp and 1467 bp for young and mature leaf, respectively. The transcripts were annotated using NCBI BLAST with 'green plant database (txid 33090)', Swiss Prot, Kyoto Encylcopedia of Genes & Genomes (KEGG), Cluster of Orthologous Gene (COG) and Gene Ontology (GO). Out of the total transcripts, 40138 (95.0%) and 36349 (97.7%) from young and mature leaf, respectively, were annotated by BLASTX against green plant database of NCBI. We used InterProscan to see protein similarity at domain level, a total of 34031 (young leaf) and 32077 (mature leaf) transcripts were annotated against the Pfam domains. All transcripts from young and mature leaf were assigned to 191 KEGG pathways. There were 166 and 159 CDS, respectively, from young and mature leaf involved in metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides. Many CDS encoding enzymes leading to biosynthesis of sennosides were identified. A total of 10,763 CDS differentially expressing in both young and mature leaf libraries of which 2,343 (21.7%) CDS were up-regulated in young compared to mature leaf. Several differentially expressed genes found functionally associated with sennoside biosynthesis. CDS encoding for many CYPs and TF families were identified having probable roles in metabolism of primary as well as secondary metabolites. We developed SSR markers for molecular breeding of senna. We have identified a set of putative genes involved in various

  1. Next Generation Sequencing and Transcriptome Analysis Predicts Biosynthetic Pathway of Sennosides from Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.), a Non-Model Plant with Potent Laxative Properties

    PubMed Central

    Rama Reddy, Nagaraja Reddy; Mehta, Rucha Harishbhai; Soni, Palak Harendrabhai; Makasana, Jayanti; Gajbhiye, Narendra Athamaram; Ponnuchamy, Manivel; Kumar, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a world’s natural laxative medicinal plant. Laxative properties are due to sennosides (anthraquinone glycosides) natural products. However, little genetic information is available for this species, especially concerning the biosynthetic pathways of sennosides. We present here the transcriptome sequencing of young and mature leaf tissue of Cassia angustifolia using Illumina MiSeq platform that resulted in a total of 6.34 Gb of raw nucleotide sequence. The sequence assembly resulted in 42230 and 37174 transcripts with an average length of 1119 bp and 1467 bp for young and mature leaf, respectively. The transcripts were annotated using NCBI BLAST with ‘green plant database (txid 33090)’, Swiss Prot, Kyoto Encylcopedia of Genes & Genomes (KEGG), Cluster of Orthologous Gene (COG) and Gene Ontology (GO). Out of the total transcripts, 40138 (95.0%) and 36349 (97.7%) from young and mature leaf, respectively, were annotated by BLASTX against green plant database of NCBI. We used InterProscan to see protein similarity at domain level, a total of 34031 (young leaf) and 32077 (mature leaf) transcripts were annotated against the Pfam domains. All transcripts from young and mature leaf were assigned to 191 KEGG pathways. There were 166 and 159 CDS, respectively, from young and mature leaf involved in metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides. Many CDS encoding enzymes leading to biosynthesis of sennosides were identified. A total of 10,763 CDS differentially expressing in both young and mature leaf libraries of which 2,343 (21.7%) CDS were up-regulated in young compared to mature leaf. Several differentially expressed genes found functionally associated with sennoside biosynthesis. CDS encoding for many CYPs and TF families were identified having probable roles in metabolism of primary as well as secondary metabolites. We developed SSR markers for molecular breeding of senna. We have identified a set of putative genes involved in various

  2. Automated image-based colon cleansing for laxative-free CT colonography computer-aided polyp detection

    SciTech Connect

    Linguraru, Marius George; Panjwani, Neil; Fletcher, Joel G.

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for detecting colonic polyps at noncathartic computed tomography colonography (CTC) in conjunction with an automated image-based colon cleansing algorithm. Methods: An automated colon cleansing algorithm was designed to detect and subtract tagged-stool, accounting for heterogeneity and poor tagging, to be used in conjunction with a colon CAD system. The method is locally adaptive and combines intensity, shape, and texture analysis with probabilistic optimization. CTC data from cathartic-free bowel preparation were acquired for testing and training the parameters. Patients underwent various colonic preparations with barium or Gastroview in divided dosesmore » over 48 h before scanning. No laxatives were administered and no dietary modifications were required. Cases were selected from a polyp-enriched cohort and included scans in which at least 90% of the solid stool was visually estimated to be tagged and each colonic segment was distended in either the prone or supine view. The CAD system was run comparatively with and without the stool subtraction algorithm. Results: The dataset comprised 38 CTC scans from prone and/or supine scans of 19 patients containing 44 polyps larger than 10 mm (22 unique polyps, if matched between prone and supine scans). The results are robust on fine details around folds, thin-stool linings on the colonic wall, near polyps and in large fluid/stool pools. The sensitivity of the CAD system is 70.5% per polyp at a rate of 5.75 false positives/scan without using the stool subtraction module. This detection improved significantly (p = 0.009) after automated colon cleansing on cathartic-free data to 86.4% true positive rate at 5.75 false positives/scan. Conclusions: An automated image-based colon cleansing algorithm designed to overcome the challenges of the noncathartic colon significantly improves the sensitivity of colon CAD by approximately 15%.« less

  3. [Histomorphology of the liver by damage with phenolisatine-containing laxatives (Recurrent chronic cholangiohepatitis)].

    PubMed

    Lüders, C J; Riske, W E; Henning, H; Vogel, H M

    1975-01-01

    In the case of 36 female patients who were anamnestically known to have taken laxatives, semiquantitative histological investigations with laparoscopically obtained liver needle biopsies were effected after the exposition with preparations containing phenolisatine. The time gap until exposition was 12 to 24 h (16 cases), 48 h (8 cases), 72 to 96 h (4 cases) and 7 to 14 days (4 cases). The histological result after the exposition is an acute cholangiolitis of the allergic-hyperergic type with edema and a dense eosinophile infiltration of the portal fields with destruction of the epithelium of preformed bile ducts and portally proliferated ductles. In addition, the parenchyma of the liver shows a pleomorphism of the cells in form and colour with a cellular edema and with disseminated acidophilic necroses and necrobioses of the individual cells as well as with little reactive proliferation of the Kupffer's cell. After a period of 8 days the acute process has more or less subsided. Also, in the majority of cases there are histological signs of an aggressive chronic hepatitis of type IIa, partially in the active stage with piece-meal necroses and partially stabilized or in the process of healing. A transition to the picture of hepatitic cirrhosis is possible. In serious cases the picture of a chronic non-purulent destructive cholangitis can be simulated by the hepatocellular and canalicular damage. Thirty-one bioptic pre-examinations from the same results, whereby the acute cholangiolitical exacerbation can be attributed to an exposition of the patients themselves. The clinical picture of the phenolisatine damage in its entirety is induced by medication and is described as a recurrent chronic cholangiohepatitis. Similarities exist between the liver damages caused by chlorpromazine and arsphenamine. When medication is discontinued, the morphologic substrate recedes leaving behind an inactive fibrosis or cirrhosis. The formal and known causal pathogenetic connections are

  4. Standardized Application of Laxatives and Physical Measures in Neurosurgical Intensive Care Patients Improves Defecation Pattern but Is Not Associated with Lower Intracranial Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Kieninger, Martin; Sinner, Barbara; Graf, Bernhard; Grassold, Astrid; Bele, Sylvia; Seemann, Milena; Künzig, Holger; Zech, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Inadequate bowel movements might be associated with an increase in intracranial pressure in neurosurgical patients. In this study we investigated the influence of a structured application of laxatives and physical measures following a strict standard operating procedure (SOP) on bowel movement, intracranial pressure (ICP), and length of hospital stay in patients with a serious acute cerebral disorder. Methods. After the implementation of the SOP patients suffering from a neurosurgical disorder received pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures to improve bowel movements in a standardized manner within the first 5 days after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) starting on day of admission. We compared mean ICP levels, length of ICU stay, and mechanical ventilation to a historical control group. Results. Patients of the intervention group showed an adequate defecation pattern significantly more often than the patients of the control group. However, this was not associated with lower ICP values, fewer days of mechanical ventilation, or earlier discharge from ICU. Conclusions. The implementation of a SOP for bowel movement increases the frequency of adequate bowel movements in neurosurgical critical care patients. However, this seems not to be associated with reduced ICP values. PMID:25628896

  5. Standardized application of laxatives and physical measures in neurosurgical intensive care patients improves defecation pattern but is not associated with lower intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Kieninger, Martin; Sinner, Barbara; Graf, Bernhard; Grassold, Astrid; Bele, Sylvia; Seemann, Milena; Künzig, Holger; Zech, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Inadequate bowel movements might be associated with an increase in intracranial pressure in neurosurgical patients. In this study we investigated the influence of a structured application of laxatives and physical measures following a strict standard operating procedure (SOP) on bowel movement, intracranial pressure (ICP), and length of hospital stay in patients with a serious acute cerebral disorder. Methods. After the implementation of the SOP patients suffering from a neurosurgical disorder received pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures to improve bowel movements in a standardized manner within the first 5 days after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) starting on day of admission. We compared mean ICP levels, length of ICU stay, and mechanical ventilation to a historical control group. Results. Patients of the intervention group showed an adequate defecation pattern significantly more often than the patients of the control group. However, this was not associated with lower ICP values, fewer days of mechanical ventilation, or earlier discharge from ICU. Conclusions. The implementation of a SOP for bowel movement increases the frequency of adequate bowel movements in neurosurgical critical care patients. However, this seems not to be associated with reduced ICP values.

  6. Treating constipation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Trottier, Magan; Erebara, Aida; Bozzo, Pina

    2012-08-01

    Many of my patients experience constipation during pregnancy, even after increasing dietary fibre and fluids. Are there any safe treatments I can recommend to them? Although the recommended first-line therapy for constipation includes increasing fibre, fluids, and exercise, these are sometimes ineffective. Therefore, laxatives such as bulk-forming agents, lubricant laxatives, stool softeners, osmotic laxatives, and stimulant laxatives might be considered. Although few of the various types of laxatives have been assessed for safety in pregnancy, they have minimal systemic absorption. Therefore, they are not expected to be associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies. However, it is recommended that osmotic and stimulant laxatives be used only in the short term or occasionally to avoid dehydration or electrolyte imbalances in pregnant women.

  7. Efficacy and tolerability of peg-only laxative on faecal impaction and chronic constipation in children. A controlled double blind randomized study vs a standard peg-electrolyte laxative

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background PEG-based laxatives are considered today the gold standard for the treatment of constipation in children. PEG formulations differ in terms of composition of inactive ingredients which may have an impact on acceptance, compliance and adherence to treatment. We therefore compared the efficacy, tolerability, acceptance and compliance of a new PEG-only formulation compared to a reference PEG-electrolyte (PEG-EL) formulation in resolving faecal impaction and in the treatment of chronic constipation. Methods Children aged 2–16 years with functional chronic constipation for at least 2 months were randomized to receive PEG-only 0.7 g/kg/day in 2 divided doses or 6.9 g PEG-EL 1–4 sachets according to age for 4 weeks. Children with faecal impaction were randomized to receive PEG-only 1.5/g/kg in 2 divided doses until resolution or for 6 days or PEG-EL with an initial dose of 4 sachets and increasing 2 sachets a day until resolution or for 7 days. Results Ninety-six children were randomized into the study. Five patients withdrew consent before starting treatment. Three children discontinued treatment for refusal due to bad taste of the product (1 PEG-only, 2 PEG-EL); 1 (PEG-EL) for an adverse effect (abdominal pain). Intent-to-treat analysis was carried out in 49 children in the PEG-only group and 42 in the PEG-EL group. No significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups at baseline. Adequate relief of constipation in terms of normalized frequency and painless defecation of soft stools was achieved in all patients in both groups. The number of stools/week was 9.2 ± 3.2 (mean ± SD) in the PEG-only group and 7.8 ± 2.4 in the PEG-EL group (p = 0.025); the number of days with stool was 22.4 ± 5.1 in the PEG-only group and 19.6 ± 7.2 in the PEG-EL group (p = 0.034). In the PEG-only group faecaloma resolution was observed in 5 children on the second day and in 2 children on the third day, while in the PEG-EL group it was observed in 2

  8. Using massage to ease constipation.

    PubMed

    Lämås, Kristina

    Constipation is a painful and serious condition that patients often find difficult to talk about. It is usually treated with laxatives alone. To determine whether abdominal massage is an effective treatment for constipation. METHOD Of 60 people with constipation, half received 15 minutes of abdominal and hand massage a day, five days a week, for eight weeks, as well as prescribed laxatives. The rest received prescribed laxatives only. Interviews with participants were also conducted. Abdominal massage used with laxatives reduced abdominal pain, increased bowel movements and improved quality of life compared with laxative use alone. Patients reported positive experiences of abdominal massage but it did not reduce their laxative use. Abdominal massage was seen as a pleasant treatment that can be offered as an option in constipation management.

  9. National CT Colonography Trial (ACRIN 6664): Comparison of Three Full-Laxative Bowel Preparations in More Than 2500 Average-Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Amy K.; Kuo, Mark D.; Blevins, Meridith; Chen, Mei-Hsiu; Yee, Judy; Dachman, Abraham; Menias, Christine O.; Siewert, Betina; Cheema, Jugesh I.; Obregon, Richard G.; Fidler, Jeff L.; Zimmerman, Peter; Horton, Karen M.; Coakley, Kevin; Iyer, Revathy B.; Halvorsen, Robert A.; Casola, Giovanna; Johnson, C. Daniel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of our study was to compare the effect of three different full-laxative bowel preparations on patient compliance, residual stool and fluid, reader confidence, and polyp detection at CT colonography (CTC). SUBJECTS AND METHODS A total of 2531 patients underwent CTC followed by colonoscopy for the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) National CTC Trial. Of this total, 2525 patients used one of three bowel preparations with bisacodyl tablets and stool and fluid tagging: 4 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG); 90 mL of phosphosoda; or 300 mL of magnesium citrate. Patients reported percent compliance with the bowel preparation and radiologists graded each CTC examination for the amount of residual fluid and stool on a scale from 1 (none) to 4 (nondiagnostic). Reader confidence for true-positive findings was reported on a 5-point scale: 1 (low) to 5 (high). Sensitivity and specificity for detecting polyps ≥ 6 mm and ≥ 1 cm compared with colonoscopy were calculated for each preparation. RESULTS The most commonly prescribed preparation was phosphosoda (n = 1403) followed by PEG (n = 1020) and magnesium citrate (n = 102). Phosphosoda had the highest patient compliance (p = 0.01), least residual stool (p < 0.001), and highest reader confidence versus PEG for examinations with polyps (p = 0.06). Magnesium citrate had significantly more residual fluid compared with PEG and phosphosoda (p = 0.006). The sensitivity and specificity for detecting colon polyps ≥ 6 mm and ≥ 1 cm did not differ significantly between preparations. CONCLUSION Polyp detection was comparable for all three preparations, although phosphosoda had significantly higher patient compliance and the least residual stool. PMID:21512073

  10. Combined low-volume polyethylene glycol solution plus stimulant laxatives versus standard-volume polyethylene glycol solution: A prospective, randomized study of colon cleansing before colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hookey, Lawrence C; Depew, William T; Vanner, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The effectiveness of polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG) for colon cleansing is often limited by the inability of patients to drink adequate portions of the 4 L solution. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a reduced volume of PEG combined with stimulant laxatives would be better tolerated and as or more effective than the standard dose. METHODS Patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy were randomly assigned to receive either low-volume PEG plus sennosides (120 mg oral sennosides syrup followed by 2 L PEG) or the standard volume preparation (4 L PEG). The subjects rated the tolerability of the preparations and their symptoms. Colonoscopists were blind to the colonic cleansing preparation and graded the cleansing efficacy using a validated tool (the Ottawa scale). RESULTS The low-volume PEG plus sennosides preparation was significantly better tolerated than the standard large volume PEG (P<0.001) but was less efficacious (P=0.03). Thirty-eight per cent of patients in the large volume PEG group were unable to finish the preparation, compared with only 6% in the reduced volume group. There were no adverse events reported. CONCLUSIONS Although the low-volume PEG plus sennosides preparation was better tolerated, it was not as effective as standard large-volume PEG. However, in view of the significant difference in tolerance, further research investigating possible improvements in the reduced-volume regimen seems warranted. PMID:16482236

  11. Constipation Prophylaxis Is Rare for Adults Prescribed Outpatient Opioid Therapy From U.S. Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Hunold, Katherine M; Smith, Samantha A; Platts-Mills, Timothy F

    2015-09-01

    Constipation is a common and potentially serious side effect of oral opioids. Accordingly, most clinical guidelines suggest routine use of laxatives to prevent opioid-induced constipation. The objective was to characterize emergency provider prescribing of laxatives to prevent constipation among adults initiating outpatient opioid treatment. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) data from 2010 were analyzed. Among visits by individuals aged 18 years and older discharged from the emergency department (ED) with opioid prescriptions, the authors estimated the survey-weighted proportion of visits in which laxatives were also prescribed. A subgroup analysis was conducted for individuals aged 65 years and older, as the potential risks associated with opioid-induced constipation are greater among older individuals. To examine a group expected to be prescribed laxative medication and confirm that NHAMCS captures prescriptions for these medications, the authors estimated the proportion of visits by individuals discharged with prescriptions for laxatives among those who presented with constipation. Among visits in 2010 by adults aged 18 years and older discharged from the ED with opioid prescriptions, 0.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7% to 1.3%, estimated total n = 191,203 out of 21,075,050) received prescriptions for laxatives. Among the subset of visits by adults aged 65 years and older, 1.0% (95% CI = 0.5% to 2.0%, estimated total n = 18,681 out of 1,904,411) received prescriptions for laxatives. In comparison, among visits by individuals aged 18 years and older with constipation as a reason for visit, 42% received prescriptions for laxatives. In this nationally representative sample, laxatives were not routinely prescribed to adults discharged from the ED with prescriptions for opioid pain medications. Routine prescribing of laxatives for ED visits may improve the safety and effectiveness of outpatient opioid pain management. © 2015 by the

  12. Improving management of constipation in an inpatient setting using a care bundle.

    PubMed

    Linton, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Constipation is a common occurrence on geriatric in-patient wards. It can result in delirium and other complications including bowel obstruction. Over treatment with laxatives can result in iatrogenic diahorrea, which can lead to dehydration, delirium, and the false positive labeling and unnecessary treatment of clostridium difficile carriers. This can result in increased morbidity and mortality, and a longer stay in hospital. This means that improving the assessment and treatment of constipation should improve patient outcomes and result in significant hospital cost savings. Multidisciplinary discussion and planning resulted in the delivery of our constipation project. This aimed to encourage the early assessment and treatment of constipation of inpatients on a geriatric rehabilitation ward. The goal was to prevent significant constipation by intervening early, improving the prescription of laxatives, and titrating them when the constipation has resolved. This involved educational sessions, non-pharmacological alternatives to laxatives (optimisation of hydration, exercise, and high fibre foods), laxative prescription guidance, and twice weekly laxative ward rounds. The profile of laxative prescription changed in keeping with our guidance. There was a reduction in overall laxative prescription by a third and the prescription of "PRN" laxatives was eliminated. This hopefully resulted in reduced morbidity for the patients and reduced length of stay. There was a cost savings on the laxative bill on average per day of the project, which when extrapolated to a 365 day year was £1226.40. This doesn't include potential savings gained from reduced complications of constipation and reduced length of stay, which are hard to accurately measure.

  13. A Cinematic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Milk of Magnesia Laxative and an Antiflatulent Diet to Reduce Intrafraction Prostate Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Nichol, Alan M.; Warde, Padraig R.; Lockwood, Gina A.

    Purpose: To determine the reduction of prostate motion during a typical radiotherapy (RT) fraction from a bowel regimen comprising an antiflatulent diet and daily milk of magnesia. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with T1c-T2c prostate cancer voided the bladder and rectum before three cinematic magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained every 9 s for 9 min in a vacuum immobilization device. The MRIs were at baseline without bowel regimen (MRI-BL), before CT planning with bowel regimen (MRI-CT), and before a randomly assigned RT fraction (1-42) with bowel regimen (MRI-RT). A single observer tracked displacement of the posterior midpoint (PM) of themore » prostate. The primary endpoints were comparisons of the proportion of time that the PM was displaced >3 mm (PTPM3) from its initial position, and the secondary endpoints were comparisons of the reduction of initial rectal area, with and without the bowel regimen. Results: The mean rectal area was: 13.5 cm{sup 2} at MRI-BL, 12.7 cm{sup 2} at MRI-CT, and 12.3 cm{sup 2} at MRI-RT (MRI-BL vs. MRI-CT, p = 0.11; MRI-BL vs. MRI-CT, p = 0.07). Moving rectal gas alone (56%) and moving gas and stool (18%) caused 74% of intrafraction prostate motion. The PTPM3 was 11.3% at MRI-BL, 4.8% at MRI-CT, and 12.0% at MRI-RT (MRI-BL vs. MRI-CT, p = 0.12; MRI-BL vs. MRI-RT, p = 0.89). Conclusion: For subjects voiding their rectum before imaging, an antiflatulent diet and milk of magnesia laxative did not significantly reduce initial rectal area or intrafraction prostate motion.« less

  14. Validity of Retrospective Reports of Eating Behavior from the Eating Disorder Examination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    counts of self- induced vomiting. misuse of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, and excessive exercise . To date, only three semi-structured assessment...of weight control (self- induced vomiting, laxative misuse. diuretic misuse. and intense exercising ) are assessed. Some of the individual items are...gain, such as self- induced vomiting; misuse of laxatives, diuretics, enemas, or other medications; fasting; or excessive exercise . C. The binge eating

  15. Constipation and Defecation Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... resulting in harm to people with kidney failure. Stimulant laxatives contain substances that directly stimulate the walls ... bisacodyl), causing them to contract. Taken by mouth, stimulant laxatives generally cause a bowel movement in six ...

  16. 28 CFR 552.12 - Close observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... prescribed and given by hospital personnel. No laxatives may be given except natural laxatives, i.e., coffee, prune juice, etc. (9) When the inmate needs to urinate and/or defecate, the inmate will be furnished an...

  17. 28 CFR 552.12 - Close observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... prescribed and given by hospital personnel. No laxatives may be given except natural laxatives, i.e., coffee, prune juice, etc. (9) When the inmate needs to urinate and/or defecate, the inmate will be furnished an...

  18. 28 CFR 552.12 - Close observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prescribed and given by hospital personnel. No laxatives may be given except natural laxatives, i.e., coffee, prune juice, etc. (9) When the inmate needs to urinate and/or defecate, the inmate will be furnished an...

  19. Management of chronic constipation in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Prasad, V G M; Abraham, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the clinical assessment and evidence-based treatment options for managing diabetes-associated chronic constipation. A literature search of published medical reports in English language was performed using the OVID Portal, from PUBMED and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from inception to October 2015. A total of 145 abstracts were identified; duplicate publications were removed and 95 relevant full-text articles were retrieved for potential inclusion. Chronic constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with diabetes, and occurs more frequently than in healthy individuals. Treatment goals include improving symptoms and restoring bowel function by accelerating colonic transit and facilitating defecation. Based on guidelines and data from published literature, food and dietary change with exercise and lifestyle change should be the first step in management. For patients recalcitrant to these changes, laxatives should be the next step of treatment. Treatment should begin with bulking agents such as psyllium, bran or methylcellulose followed by osmotic laxatives if response is poor. Lactulose, polyethylene glycol and lactitol are the most frequently prescribed osmotic agents. Lactulose has a prebiotic effect and a carry-over effect (continued laxative effect for at least 6 to 7 days, post cessation of treatment). Stimulants such as bisacodyl, sodium picosulphate and senna are indicated if osmotic laxatives are not effective. Newer agents such as chloride-channel activators and 5-HT4 agonist can be considered for severe or resistant cases. The primary aim of intervention in diabetic patients with chronic constipation is to better manage the diabetes along with management of constipation. The physician should explain the rationale for prescribing laxatives and educate patients about the potential drawbacks of long-term use of laxatives. They should contact their physician if

  20. Characterization of Changes in Global Genes Expression in the Distal Colon of Loperamide-Induced Constipation SD Rats in Response to the Laxative Effects of Liriope platyphylla

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Eun; Park, So Hae; Kwak, Moon Hwa; Go, Jun; Koh, Eun Kyoung; Song, Sung Hwa; Sung, Ji Eun; Lee, Hee Seob; Hong, Jin Tae; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the changes in global gene expression in the distal colon of constipated SD rats in response to the laxative effects of aqueous extracts of Liriope platyphylla (AEtLP), including isoflavone, saponin, oligosaccharide, succinic acid and hydroxyproline, the total RNA extracted from the distal colon of AEtLP-treated constipation rats was hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays. The AEtLP treated rats showed an increase in the number of stools, mucosa thickness, flat luminal surface thickness, mucin secretion, and crypt number. Overall, compared to the controls, 581 genes were up-regulated and 216 genes were down-regulated by the constipation induced by loperamide in the constipated rats. After the AEtLP treatment, 67 genes were up-regulated and 421 genes were down-regulated. Among the transcripts up-regulated by constipation, 89 were significantly down-regulated and 22 were recovered to the normal levels by the AEtLP treatment. The major genes in the down-regulated categories included Slc9a5, klk10, Fgf15, and Alpi, whereas the major genes in the recovered categories were Cyp2b2, Ace, G6pc, and Setbp1. On the other hand, after the AEtLP treatment, ten of these genes down-regulated by constipation were up-regulated significantly and five were recovered to the normal levels. The major genes in the up-regulated categories included Serpina3n, Lcn2 and Slc5a8, whereas the major genes in the recovered categories were Tmem45a, Rerg and Rgc32. These results indicate that several gene functional groups and individual genes as constipation biomarkers respond to an AEtLP treatment in constipated model rats. PMID:26151867

  1. Effect of the herbal formulation Jianpijiedu on the TCRVβCDR3 repertoire in rats with hepatocellular carcinoma and subjected to food restriction combined with laxative.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baoguo; Meng, Jun; Xiang, Ting; Zhang, Lei; Deng, Liuxiang; Chen, Yan; Luo, Haoxuan; Yang, Zhangbin; Chen, Zexiong; Zhang, Shijun

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Chinese herbal formulation Jianpijiedu (JPJD) in a rat model of orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (OHC). The tumor-bearing rats underwent food restriction combined with laxative (FRL) treatment in order to model the nutritional and digestive symptoms of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, the study aimed to elucidate the effect of JPJD on the T cell receptor Vβ-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (TCRVβCDR3) repertoire and the underlying mechanism. The FRL rat model was established by alternate-day food restriction and the oral administration of Glauber's salt (sodium sulfate), based on which the OHC model was then established. Subsequently, the FRL-OHC induced animals received JPJD or thymopentin-5 (TP5) for 17 days. Differences in the TCRVβCDR3 repertoire in the rat thymus, liver and hepatocellular carcinoma tissues were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. Compared with the FRL-OHC model animals without any treatment, those treated with JPJD exhibited significantly inhibited hepatocellular carcinoma growth (P<0.05), reduced weight loss (P<0.01) and stable visceral indices (P<0.05). Furthermore, the JPJD treatment appeared to improve Simpsons diversity index (Ds) values and the quasi-Gaussian distribution rate of the TCRVβCDR3 repertoire in the thymus, liver and hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. However, no anti-hepatoma effects were evident in the rats treated with TP5. In addition, TP5 increased the Ds values and the quasi-Gaussian distribution rate of the TCRVβCDR3 repertoire in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues compared with those in the JPJD-treated group. The anti-hepatoma effects of JPJD in FRL-OHC-induced animals may be due to the promotion of the Ds values of the TCRVβCDR3 repertoire.

  2. Effect of the herbal formulation Jianpijiedu on the TCRVβCDR3 repertoire in rats with hepatocellular carcinoma and subjected to food restriction combined with laxative

    PubMed Central

    SUN, BAOGUO; MENG, JUN; XIANG, TING; ZHANG, LEI; DENG, LIUXIANG; CHEN, YAN; LUO, HAOXUAN; YANG, ZHANGBIN; CHEN, ZEXIONG; ZHANG, SHIJUN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Chinese herbal formulation Jianpijiedu (JPJD) in a rat model of orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (OHC). The tumor-bearing rats underwent food restriction combined with laxative (FRL) treatment in order to model the nutritional and digestive symptoms of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, the study aimed to elucidate the effect of JPJD on the T cell receptor Vβ-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (TCRVβCDR3) repertoire and the underlying mechanism. The FRL rat model was established by alternate-day food restriction and the oral administration of Glauber's salt (sodium sulfate), based on which the OHC model was then established. Subsequently, the FRL-OHC induced animals received JPJD or thymopentin-5 (TP5) for 17 days. Differences in the TCRVβCDR3 repertoire in the rat thymus, liver and hepatocellular carcinoma tissues were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. Compared with the FRL-OHC model animals without any treatment, those treated with JPJD exhibited significantly inhibited hepatocellular carcinoma growth (P<0.05), reduced weight loss (P<0.01) and stable visceral indices (P<0.05). Furthermore, the JPJD treatment appeared to improve Simpsons diversity index (Ds) values and the quasi-Gaussian distribution rate of the TCRVβCDR3 repertoire in the thymus, liver and hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. However, no anti-hepatoma effects were evident in the rats treated with TP5. In addition, TP5 increased the Ds values and the quasi-Gaussian distribution rate of the TCRVβCDR3 repertoire in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues compared with those in the JPJD-treated group. The anti-hepatoma effects of JPJD in FRL-OHC-induced animals may be due to the promotion of the Ds values of the TCRVβCDR3 repertoire. PMID:26997998

  3. Laxative-free CT colonography

    PubMed Central

    Slater, A; Betts, M; D'Costa, H

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine if the introduction of faecal tagging to CT colonography (CTC) made the examination easier to tolerate or reduced the number of false-positives. Methods Our department changed bowel preparation for CT colonography from Picolax (Ferring Pharmaceuticals Ltd, London, UK) to Gastrografin® (Bracco Diagnostics Inc, Princeton, NJ) only with a modified diet. Questionnaires were given to a subgroup of patients within these cohorts. The numbers of false-positives were compared between two cohorts before and after this change. false-positives were defined as lesions reported on CT that were not confirmed by subsequent endoscopic examination. Polyps were matched if they were in the same or adjacent segments, and were within 5 mm of the reported size. Results 412 patients were identified from the Picolax cohort, and 116 from the Gastrografin cohort. 62 patients in each group completed questionnaires. Gastrografin produced less diarrhoea; 34% had five or more bowel motions in the previous day and night, compared with 77% for Picolax (p<0.001), although more patients found drinking it unpleasant compared with Picolax (85% reported drinking Picolax as “easy” vs 61% for Gastrografin; p=0.002). Picolax produced more non-diagnostic examinations, although this difference was not statistically significant. There was not a significant reduction in the numbers of false-positives (2 out of 112 for Gastrografin group, 14 out of 389 for the Picolax group; p=0.54). Conclusion Switching from Picolax to Gastrografin as a CTC preparation technique produced less diarrhoea, but did not reduce the number of false-positives. PMID:22167512

  4. Laxative-free CT colonography.

    PubMed

    Slater, A; Betts, M; D'Costa, H

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the introduction of faecal tagging to CT colonography (CTC) made the examination easier to tolerate or reduced the number of false-positives. Our department changed bowel preparation for CT colonography from Picolax (Ferring Pharmaceuticals Ltd, London, UK) to Gastrografin (Bracco Diagnostics Inc, Princeton, NJ) only with a modified diet. Questionnaires were given to a subgroup of patients within these cohorts. The numbers of false-positives were compared between two cohorts before and after this change. false-positives were defined as lesions reported on CT that were not confirmed by subsequent endoscopic examination. Polyps were matched if they were in the same or adjacent segments, and were within 5 mm of the reported size. 412 patients were identified from the Picolax cohort, and 116 from the Gastrografin cohort. 62 patients in each group completed questionnaires. Gastrografin produced less diarrhoea; 34% had five or more bowel motions in the previous day and night, compared with 77% for Picolax (p<0.001), although more patients found drinking it unpleasant compared with Picolax (85% reported drinking Picolax as "easy" vs 61% for Gastrografin; p=0.002). Picolax produced more non-diagnostic examinations, although this difference was not statistically significant. There was not a significant reduction in the numbers of false-positives (2 out of 112 for Gastrografin group, 14 out of 389 for the Picolax group; p=0.54). Switching from Picolax to Gastrografin as a CTC preparation technique produced less diarrhoea, but did not reduce the number of false-positives.

  5. Abdominal Massage for the Treatment of Idiopathic Constipation in Children with Profound Learning Disabilities: A Single Case Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Lucy; Smith, Melanie; Wharton, Sarah; Hames, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common problem in people with learning disabilities. Treatment often involves dietary changes or long-term laxative use. The participants were five children with profound learning disabilities and additional physical difficulties. Their long-standing idiopathic constipation was managed by laxatives. Intervention lasted up…

  6. [Guidelines for the treatment of constipation].

    PubMed

    Park, Moo In; Shin, Jeong Eun; Myung, Seung Jae; Huh, Kyu Chan; Choi, Chang Hwan; Jung, Sung Ae; Choi, Suck Chei; Sohn, Chong Il; Choi, Myung Gyu

    2011-02-01

    While constipation is a common symptom in Korea, there are no existing treatment guidelines. Although constipation may occur as a result of organic cause, there is no obstructive mucosal or structural cause in the vast majority of patients with constipation. The present paper deals with only the management of functional constipation: lifestyle changes; bulking agents and stool softeners; osmotic agents; stimulant laxatives; prokinetics; biofeedback and surgical treatments. Exercise and dietary fiber are helpful in some patients with constipation. Laxatives including bulking agents, stool softeners, osmotic agents, and stimulant laxatives have been found to be more effective than placebo at relieving symptoms of constipation. New enterokinetic agents that affect peristalsis through selective interaction with 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 receptors can be effective in patients with constipation who cannot get adequate relief from current laxatives. Biofeedback can relieve symptoms in selected patients with pelvic floor dyssynergia. Surgical treatments can be helpful in some patients with refractory constipation.

  7. Cost Effectiveness of Naloxegol for Opioid-Induced Constipation in the UK.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Richard; Ryan, James; King, Frederic; Goh, Jo Wern; Tichy, Eszter; Marsh, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is the most common adverse effect reported in patients receiving opioids to manage pain. Initial treatment with laxatives provides inadequate response in some patients. Naloxegol is a peripherally acting µ-opioid receptor antagonist used to treat patients with inadequate response to laxative(s) (laxative inadequate responder [LIR]). A cost-effectiveness model was constructed from the UK payer perspective to compare oral naloxegol 25 mg with placebo in non-cancer LIR patients receiving opioids for chronic pain, and a scenario analysis of naloxegol 25 mg with rescue laxatives compared with placebo with rescue laxatives in the same patient population. The model comprised a decision tree for the first 4 weeks of treatment, followed by a Markov model with a 4-week cycle length and the following states: 'OIC', 'non-OIC (on treatment)', 'non-OIC (untreated)' and 'death'. Two phase III trials with a follow-up period of 12 weeks provided data on treatment efficacy, transition probabilities, adverse event frequency and patient utility. Resource utilisation data were sourced from a UK-based burden of illness study and physician surveys. A UK National Health Service and Personal Social Service perspective was adopted; costs and health-related quality of life gains were discounted at a rate of 3.5 %. The model was run over a time horizon of 5 years, reflecting the average period of opioid use. Naloxegol has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £10,849 per quality-adjusted life-year gained versus placebo, and £11,179 when rescue laxatives are made available in both arms (2014 values). Model outcomes were only sensitive to variations in utility inputs. However, the probabilistic sensitivity analyses indicate that naloxegol has a 91 % probability of being cost effective at a £20,000 threshold when compared with placebo. Naloxegol is likely a cost-effective treatment option for LIR patients with OIC. This assessment should be

  8. Surgical Management of Functional Constipation: Preliminary Report of a New Approach Using a Laparoscopic Sigmoid Resection Combined with a Malone Appendicostomy.

    PubMed

    Gasior, Alessandra; Brisighelli, Giulia; Diefenbach, Karen; Lane, Victoria Alison; Reck, Carlos; Wood, Richard J; Levitt, Marc

    2017-08-01

    Introduction  Functional constipation is a common problem in children. It usually can be managed with laxatives but a small subset of patients develop intolerable cramps and need to be temporarily treated with enemas. The senior author has previously reported: 1) open sigmoid resection as a surgical option, but this did not sufficiently reduce the laxative need, then 2) a transanal approach (with resection of rectosigmoid), but this led to a high rate of soiling due to extensive stretching of the anal canal and loss of the rectal reservoir. The understanding of these procedures' results has led us to use a laparoscopic sigmoid ± left colonic resection with a Malone appendicostomy for these patients, to decrease the laxative requirements, temporarily treat with antegrade flushes, and to reduce postoperative soiling. Methods  A single-institution retrospective review (3/2014-9/2015) included patients who failed our laxative protocol, and therefore were considered surgical candidates. Patients with anorectal malformation (ARM), Hirschsprung disease, spina bifida, tethered cord, trisomy 21, cerebral palsy, mitochondrial disease, prior colon resection at other facilities, or those that did not participate in our laxative program were excluded. Demographics, duration of symptoms, prior treatments, postoperative complications, and postoperative bowel regimens were evaluated. Results  A total of 6 patients (3 males; median age of 12.5 years) presented with soiling related to constipation and intolerance to laxatives. Four patients failed preoperative cecostomy (done prior to referral to us). An average of 4.7 medication treatments were previously tried. In all, 4 patients had required in-patient disimpactions. Duration of symptoms was 7.5 years (median). The median senna dose was 30 mg (range, 15-150 mg), and all patients had intolerable symptoms or failed to empty their colon, which we considered a failed laxative trial. All had contrast enemas that

  9. Recurrent aborted sudden cardiac death with seizures and rhabdomyolysis due to bulimia-induced hypokalemia: report of one case.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Recurrent vomiting due to bulimia associated with abuse of furosemide and laxatives causing severe hypokalemia may result in recurrent aborted sudden cardiac death (SCD) and seizures. We report a 25-year-old female with a history of bulimia associated with abuse of furosemide and laxatives since the age of 15 years, migraine since puberty, renal abscesses at age 20 y, and rhabdomyolysis of unknown cause at age 24 y. She experienced aborted SCD due to severe hypokalemia with symptomatic seizures at 21 and 25 years of age. Bulimia patients additionally taking laxatives or furosemide are at particular risk of SCD and rhabdomyolysis and require periodic determination of electrolytes, potassium substitution, and adequate psychiatric therapy and surveillance.

  10. Development of a series of patient information leaflets for constipation using a range of cognitive interview techniques: LIFELAX.

    PubMed

    Lake, Amelia A; Speed, Chris; Brookes, Anna; Heaven, Ben; Adamson, Ashley J; Moynihan, Paula; Corbett, Sally; McColl, Elaine

    2007-01-04

    The aim of the LIFELAX randomised controlled trial (diet and lifestyle vs. laxatives in the management of chronic constipation) is to develop and evaluate a cost effective intervention to promote diet and lifestyle in the treatment and management of chronic constipation for older people in Primary Care. Constipation affects the quality of life in around 20% of older people in the community. In the 65 years plus population, a significant proportion of men and women both living in institutions (81% and 75% respectively) and free living (30% and 37% respectively) use laxatives. Approximately 42 million pounds is spent each year on prescribed laxatives in England in addition to laxatives purchased over the counter. Although bowel problems are often multifactorial, diet and lifestyle have an extremely important role in their management. This paper describes one aspect of the main study, the development and piloting of the Patient information leaflets (PILs). Following review of the literature and interviews with practitioners and patients, 8 PILs were designed on: constipation, activity, bowel health, fruit and vegetables, fibre, fluid, alternative therapies and laxatives. To check the patient's understanding of terms used in the PILS and the clarity and accessibility of the information understanding, cognitive interviews (CI) were used with nine patients (selected from 3 GP surgeries), aged > or = 55 years, who had received > or = 3 prescriptions of laxatives over 12 months. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Changes made following the CI process included the lay-out, words used (e.g. 'exercise' was changed to 'activity', 'gut motility' changed to 'bowel movement') and descriptions and examples were adapted to be more appropriate for the target population. Pilot testing with CIs resulted in improvements in the PILs, which emphasises the need to pilot PILs with the target population before use. The techniques employed are relatively inexpensive and could be

  11. Use of macrogol 4000 in chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    De Giorgio, R; Cestari, R; Corinaldesi, R; Stanghellini, V; Barbara, G; Felicani, C; Di Nardo, G; Cucchiara, S

    2011-08-01

    Chronic constipation is a common functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting up to 35% of the general population, and especially the elderly. However, its definition as perceived by the patient can vary, making it difficult to understand the problem and find appropriate therapeutic measures. The approach to chronic constipation, thus, needs a thorough understanding of the patient's complaint and the main pathophysiological mechanism requiring treatment. Lifestyle changes do not usually meet with complete patient satisfaction. Other treatments include different types of laxatives. Of these, osmotic laxatives appear one of the most effective and are, therefore, frequently prescribed. This review will cover the topic of osmotic laxatives, specifically focusing on polyethylene glycol (PEG/macrogol 4000) in chronic constipation and as a key agent for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy. PEG formulations, including macrogol 4000, are safe, effective treatments for constipation, even in children and elderly patients. Macrogol 4000 may well be more palatable than combined formulations (macrogol 3350 with electrolytes), which could help improve adherence to the long-term treatment required for chronic constipation. PEG/macrogol is also recommended as an effective option for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy. The improved cost-effectiveness of macrogol over other commonly prescribed laxatives, such as lactulose, should be taken into consideration.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of prucalopride in the treatment of chronic constipation in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Nuijten, Mark J. C.; Dubois, Dominique J.; Joseph, Alain; Annemans, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of prucalopride vs. continued laxative treatment for chronic constipation in patients in the Netherlands in whom laxatives have failed to provide adequate relief. Methods: A Markov model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of prucalopride in patients with chronic constipation receiving standard laxative treatment from the perspective of Dutch payers in 2011. Data sources included published prucalopride clinical trials, published Dutch price/tariff lists, and national population statistics. The model simulated the clinical and economic outcomes associated with prucalopride vs. standard treatment and had a cycle length of 1 month and a follow-up time of 1 year. Response to treatment was defined as the proportion of patients who achieved “normal bowel function”. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the base case. Results: In the base case analysis, the cost of prucalopride relative to continued laxative treatment was € 9015 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Extensive sensitivity analyses and scenario analyses confirmed that the base case cost-effectiveness estimate was robust. One-way sensitivity analyses showed that the model was most sensitive in response to prucalopride; incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from € 6475 to 15,380 per QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses indicated that there is a greater than 80% probability that prucalopride would be cost-effective compared with continued standard treatment, assuming a willingness-to-pay threshold of € 20,000 per QALY from a Dutch societal perspective. A scenario analysis was performed for women only, which resulted in a cost-effectiveness ratio of € 7773 per QALY. Conclusion: Prucalopride was cost-effective in a Dutch patient population, as well as in a women-only subgroup, who had chronic constipation and who obtained inadequate relief from laxatives. PMID:25926794

  13. Prevalence and clinical presentation of constipation in children with severe generalized cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Veugelers, Rebekka; Benninga, Marc A; Calis, Elsbeth A C; Willemsen, Sten P; Evenhuis, Heleen; Tibboel, Dick; Penning, Corine

    2010-09-01

    Our aim was to study the prevalence and characteristics of constipation in children with profound multiple disabilities, as data in this area are scarce. A cross-sectional observational study was performed in specialized day-care centres and schools in the Netherlands. The study included 152 children (81 males, 71 females; mean age 9 y 6 mo, SD 4 y 6 mo). Intellectual disability ranged from moderate (7%) to profound (52%) in all participants who also had severe motor disabilities (83% classified at Gross Motor Function Classification System level V). We collected data on defaecation characteristics, food and fluid intake, and laxative consumption using standardized bowel diaries and interviews. Constipation was defined as (1) scybalous, pebble-like, hard stools in over a quarter of defaecations in combination with a defaecation frequency of less than three times per week during a 2-week study period; (2) large stools palpable on abdominal examination; or (3) laxative use or manual disimpaction of faeces. Of the studied population, 57% were constipated and 55% used laxatives, 27% of whom showed symptoms of constipation. Daily intakes of water and fibre were below the required standards in 87% and 53% of participants respectively, without a proven relation to constipation. Constipation is a common problem in children with severe disabilities. Laxative use is high but dosing is frequently inadequate to prevent symptoms.

  14. Randomised trial of biofeedback training for encopresis.

    PubMed Central

    van der Plas, R N; Benninga, M A; Redekop, W K; Taminiau, J A; Büller, H A

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate biofeedback training in children with encopresis and the effect on psychosocial function. DESIGN: Prospective controlled randomised study. PATIENT INTERVENTIONS: A multimodal treatment of six weeks. Children were randomised into two groups. Each group received dietary and toilet advice, enemas, oral laxatives, and anorectal manometry. One group also received five biofeedback training sessions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Successful treatment was defined as less than two episodes of encopresis, regular bowel movements, and no laxatives. Psychosocial function after treatment was assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist. RESULTS: Children given laxatives and biofeedback training had higher success rates than those who received laxatives alone (39% v 19%) at the end of the intervention period. At 12 and 18 months, however, approximately 50% of children in each group were successfully treated. Abnormal behaviour scores were initially observed in 35% of children. Most children had improved behaviour scores six months after treatment. Children with an initial abnormal behaviour score who were successfully treated had a significant improvement in their behavioural profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Biofeedback training had no additional effect on the success rate or behaviour scores. Psychosocial problems are present in a subgroup of children with encopresis. The relation between successful treatment and improvement in behavioural function supports the idea that encopresis has an aetiological role in the occurrence and maintenance of behavioural problems in children with encopresis. PMID:8957948

  15. Constipation in adults.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Lissner, Stefan A; Wald, Arnold

    2010-07-05

    Although there are defined criteria for the diagnosis of constipation, in practice, diagnostic criteria are less rigid, and depend in part on the perception of normal bowel habit. Constipation is highly prevalent, with approximately 12 million general practitioner prescriptions for laxatives in England in 2001. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug interventions, bulk-forming laxatives, faecal softeners, stimulant laxatives, osmotic laxatives, prostaglandin derivatives, and 5-HT4 agonists in adults with idiopathic chronic constipation? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 51systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: arachis oil, biofeedback, bisacodyl, cascara, docusate, exercise, glycerol/glycerine suppositories, high-fibre diet, increasing fluids, ispaghula husk, lactitol, lactulose, lubiprostone, macrogols (polyethylene glycols), magnesium salts, methylcellulose, paraffin, phosphate enemas, seed oils, senna, sodium citrate enemas, prucalopride, and sterculia.

  16. Constipation in the acutely hospitalized older patients.

    PubMed

    Cardin, Fabrizio; Minicuci, Nadia; Droghi, Annapaola Teggia; Inelmen, Emine Meral; Sergi, Giuseppe; Terranova, Oreste

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish the factors that determine the onset of constipation in acutely hospitalized older patients with a view to contributing towards an evidence-based identification of which patients warrant early, specific preventive measures. To evade the problem posed by the definition of constipation, we have considered parameters that are part of the daily routine in the hospital ward, such as the prescription of laxatives, also paying attention to how the co-operative older person subjectively interpret this condition. One thirds of the 192 hospitalized older patients needed a laxative at least once every 3 days. Multivariate analysis identified the use of laxatives at home as the only risk factor for objective constipation while in hospital (odds ratio (OR)=3.0). A significant risk of being dissatisfied with their bowel emptying emerged among patients who were bedridden for more than 2 weeks (OR=6.0), and in those who experienced cerebrovascular events (OR=3.1). The use of laxatives at home and awareness that satisfaction with bowel movements drops in patients obliged to stay in bed for lengthy periods of time and in those who have suffered cerebrovascular damage, should provide the grounds for a screening program to establish rational guidelines on bowel movement therapy. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Idiopathic constipation: A challenging but manageable problem.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Andrea; Brisighelli, Giulia; Dickie, Belinda; Frischer, Jason; Levitt, Marc A; Peña, Alberto

    2017-10-10

    A protocol to treat idiopathic constipation is presented. A contrast enema is performed in every patient and, when indicated, patients are initially submitted to a "clean out" protocol. All patients are started on a Senna-based laxative. The initial dosage is empirically determined and adjusted daily, during a one week period, based on history and abdominal radiographs, until the amount of Senna that empties the colon is reached. The management is considered successful when patients empty their colon daily and stop soiling. If the laxatives dose provokes abdominal cramping, distension, and vomiting, without producing bowel movements, patients are considered nonmanageable. From 2005 to 2012, 215 patients were treated. 121 (56%) were males. The average age was 8.2years (range: 1-20). 160 patients (74%) presented encopresis. 67 patients (32%) needed a clean out. After one week, 181 patients (84%) achieved successful management, with an average Senna dose of 67mg (range: 5-175mg). In 34 patients (16%) the treatment was unsuccessful: 19 were nonmanageable, 3 noncompliant, and 12 continued soiling. At a later follow-up (median: 329days) the success rate for 174 patients was 81%. We designed a successful protocol to manage idiopathic constipation. The key points are clean out before starting laxatives, individual adjustments of laxative, and radiological monitoring of colonic emptying. Level IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Case-controlled study on risk factors for the development of constipation in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Tetsuya; Nagai, Keiko; Ooe, Nobuharu; Nakashima, Mihoko N; Nishida, Koyo; Nakamura, Junzo; Nakashima, Mikiro

    2011-03-01

    Constipation is a common problem in hospitalized patients; however, the relative risks of its development with various factors have not been clarified. To clarify the risk factors associated with constipation, we performed a case-controlled study of 165 hospitalized patients who were not laxative users on admission. They were divided into case (n=35) and control (n=130) groups according to laxative administration during hospitalization. Comparison of the patient backgrounds in the two groups revealed significant differences in the activities of daily living, length of fasting, rest level on admission, cerebrovascular disease, and administration of hypnotics. Multiple logistic regression analysis using these five factors as autonomous variables showed that administration of hypnotics (odds ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-7.06; p=0.031) was significantly related to laxative use. Therefore, the administration of hypnotics may be the principal cause of constipation development in hospitalized patients and they should be used with caution.

  19. Clinical Study of Senna Administration to Nursing Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, William F.

    1963-01-01

    Fifty nursing mothers were given regular doses of a senna compound (Senokot Granules) and 50 received mineral oil or magnesia (Magnolax) to determine whether senna was an effective laxative and whether senna affected the bowel habits of infants of nursing mothers. Senna laxative was effective in 49 of 50 mothers. Infant bowel habits were not affected by senna administration to nursing mothers. The evidence suggests that the active principles of senna if they are transmitted in breast milk have no effect on the evacuation patterns of nursed infants. PMID:14045350

  20. Interventions for treating constipation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rungsiprakarn, Phassawan; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee S; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Pratt, Jeremy J

    2015-09-04

    Constipation is a common symptom experienced during pregnancy. It has a range of consequences from reduced quality of life and perception of physical health to haemorrhoids. An understanding of the effectiveness and safety of treatments for constipation in pregnancy is important for the clinician managing pregnant women. To assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) for treating constipation in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (30 April 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We considered all published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs and quasi-RCTs, evaluating interventions (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) for constipation in pregnancy. Cross-over studies were not eligible for inclusion in this review. Trials published in abstract form only (without full text publication) were not eligible for inclusion.We compared one intervention (pharmacological or non-pharmacological) against another intervention, placebo or no treatment. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Four studies were included, but only two studies with a total of 180 women contributed data to this review. It was not clear whether they were RCTs or quasi-RCTs because the sequence generation was unclear. We classified the overall risk of bias of three studies as moderate and one study as high risk of bias. No meta-analyses were carried out due to insufficient data.There were no cluster-RCTs identified for inclusion. Comparisons were available for stimulant laxatives versus bulk-forming laxatives, and fibre supplementation versus no intervention. There were no data available for any other comparisons.During the review process we found that studies

  1. [Fucus vesiculosus induced hyperthyroidism in a patient undergoing concomitant treatment with lithium].

    PubMed

    Arbaizar, Beatriz; Llorca, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Fucus vesiculosus is a marine alga rich in iodine, which is being used in alternative medicine as a laxative, diuretic, and as a complement for weight loss diets. We report the case of a 60-year old male patient, diagnosed with bipolar disorder and under treatment with lithium concomitantly with a herbal preparation, including Fucus vesiculosus, as a laxative. He developed hyperthyroidism that remitted once the herbal preparation was withdrawn. Fucus vesiculosus may cause hyperthyroidism given its high iodine content. Herbal preparations should be taken in account when treating a patient due to the possibility of adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.

  2. Comparative study of two bowel preparation regimens for colonoscopy: senna tablets vs sodium phosphate solution.

    PubMed

    Kositchaiwat, Savit; Suwanthanmma, Weerapat; Suvikapakornkul, Ronnarat; Tiewthanom, Vaewvadee; Rerkpatanakit, Prisna; Tinkornrusmee, Chaowalitr

    2006-09-14

    To compare the efficacy and acceptance of senna tablet and sodium phosphate solution for bowel preparation before colonoscopy. One hundred and thirty four patients, who needed elective colonoscopy, were randomly allocated to take 180 mg senna tablet or 95 mL sodium phosphate solution on the day before colonoscopy. The efficacies of both laxatives were compared using the mean difference of colon-cleanliness score of the rectum, sigmoid segments, descending colon, transverse colon and cecum. The scores were rated by two observers who were blinded to the laxatives administered. The higher score means that the colon is cleaner. The efficacy of both laxatives were equivalent if the 95% confidence interval of the mean difference of the score of colon lie within -1 to +1. On intention-to-treat analysis, the mean cleanliness scores in the four segments of colon except the cecum were higher in the sodium phosphate group than those in senna group (7.9 +/- 1.7 vs 8.3 +/- 1.5, 8.0 +/- 1.8 vs 8.5 +/- 1.4, 7.9 +/- 2.0 vs 8.5 +/- 1.3, 7.9 +/- 2.0 vs 8.2 +/- 1.4 and 7.2 +/- 1.7 vs 6.9 +/- 1.4, respectively). The 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of mean difference in each segment of colon were not found to lie within 1 point which indicated that their efficacies were not equivalent. The taste of senna was better than sodium phosphate solution. Also, senna had fewer side effects. The efficacy of senna is not equivalent to sodium phosphate solution in bowel preparation for colonoscopy, but senna may be considered an alternative laxative.

  3. Bowel preparation for colonoscopy: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Voiosu, Theodor; Voiosu, Andrei; Voiosu, Radu

    2016-07-13

    Bowel preparation for colonoscopy is a key quality indicator that impacts on all aspects of the procedure, such as patient comfort, diagnostic yield, and adverse events. Although most laxative regimens currently employed have been compared in a multitude of settings, the optimal preparation regimen still remains an open question. Recent studies have focused on developing new regimens by modifying dosage, timing of administration or by combining laxatives with synergic mechanisms of action with the purpose of increasing patient tolerability while maximizing bowel cleansing. Several low-volume preparations and combinations of laxatives and adjunctive medication have shown promise in delivering both adequate preparation of the colon and good patient tolerability. Also, we have gained a better understanding of the influence of patient-related factors such as health literacy and education on the quality of bowel preparation. Although several novel regimens have been tested in recent trials, it remains unclear which, if any, of these bowel preparations can replace the standard bowel cleansing regimens in clinical practice. Also, further data are required on how to improve bowel cleansing by choosing the appropriate regimen for the individual patient.

  4. A prospective audit of the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of low-volume polyethylene glycol (2 L) versus standard volume polyethylene glycol (4 L) versus magnesium citrate plus stimulant laxative as bowel preparation for colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Nicholas Michael; Rodgers, Colin; Patterson, Neil; Jacob, Sudheer George; Mainie, Inder

    2012-08-01

    High-quality video colonoscopy requires adequate preparation of the bowel to ensure both adequate procedure completion rates and polyp detection rates. We sought to examine our practice to determine which bowel preparation cleansed most effectively in our patients. A prospective audit of the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of low-volume polyethylene glycol (2-L Moviprep; Norgine Pharmaceuticals) versus standard volume polyethylene glycol (4-L KleanPrep; Norgine Pharmaceuticals) versus magnesium citrate (Citramag; Sanochemia UK Ltd.) plus stimulant laxative as bowel preparation for colonoscopy. District General Hospital. Patients attending for day case colonoscopy. Not applicable. Overall cleansing grades of preparations used: patient compliance, taste, and acceptability. A prospective audit of patient experience of taking bowel preparation and blinded colonic scoring assessment of bowel cleansing of each of the tested regimes. A total of 258 (female,138; 53.5%) patients were recruited, 91 in the KleanPrep group (F:45, 49.5%), 86 patients in the Moviprep group (female, 45; 52.3%), and 81 in the Senna/Citramag group (female, 44; 54.3%). Significantly more patients were unable to take the prescribed dose of KleanPrep when compared with the other 2 regimes (19.6%; P<0.0001 vs. Moviprep; P<0.0001 vs. Senna/Citramag). A total of 45.65% of patients reported KleanPrep as tasting unpleasant. This was significantly more than both Moviprep (10.47%; P=0.008) and Senna/Citramag (9.88%; P<0.0001). The overall cleansing efficacy across the 3 groups (those with grades A or B) was 73.9%, 74.5%, and 86.5% for KleanPrep, Moviprep, and Senna/Citramag, respectively. In this series Senna/Citramag proved significantly better at bowel cleansing than KleanPrep (P<0.05) and it showed a trend toward better cleansing when compared with Moviprep (P=0.08). Nonrandomized trial. Split-dosing regime for morning and afternoon lists may have confounded results. In summary, low-volume PEG

  5. Diarrhea (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drinking water contaminated with organisms like bacteria and parasites. Medications can also cause diarrhea, especially antibiotics, laxatives containing magnesium, and chemotherapy for cancer treatment.

  6. Missed Opportunity to Deprescribe: Docusate for Constipation in Medical Inpatients.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Thomas E; Kamali, Reza; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2016-09-01

    Hospital admissions provide an opportunity to deprescribe ineffective medications and reduce pill burden. Docusate sodium is a stool softener that is frequently prescribed to treat constipation despite poor evidence for efficacy, thus providing a good target for deprescription. The aims of this study were to characterize rates of use and discontinuation of docusate among internal medicine inpatients, as well as use of other laxatives. We conducted a retrospective observational study over 1 year on all patients admitted to internal medicine at 2 urban academic hospitals to determine rates of docusate use. We also evaluated laxative and opioid medication use on a random sample of 500 inpatients who received docusate to characterize patterns of prescription and deprescription. Fifteen percent (1169/7581) of all admitted patients received 1 or more doses of docusate. Among our random sample, 53% (238/452) received docusate before admission, and only 13% (31/238) had docusate deprescribed. Among patients not receiving docusate before admission, 33.2% (71/214) received a new prescription for docusate on discharge. Patients receiving opioids were frequently prescribed no laxatives or given docusate monotherapy (28%, 51/185). Docusate was frequently prescribed to medical inpatients despite its known ineffectiveness, with low deprescription and high numbers of new prescriptions. Docusate use was common even among patients at high risk of constipation. One third of patients not receiving docusate before admission were prescribed docusate on discharge, potentially exacerbating polypharmacy. Among patients already receiving docusate, 80% had it continued on discharge, indicating significant missed opportunities for deprescribing. Given the availability of effective alternatives, our results suggest that quality-improvement initiatives are needed to promote evidence-based laxative use in hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative study of two bowel preparaton regimens for colonoscopy: Senna tablets vs sodium phosphate solution

    PubMed Central

    Kositchaiwat, Savit; Suwanthanmma, Weerapat; Suvikapakornkul, Ronnarat; Tiewthanom, Vaewvadee; Rerkpatanakit, Prisna; Tinkornrusmee, Chaowalitr

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the efficacy and acceptance of senna tablet and sodium phosphate solution for bowel preparation before colonoscopy. METHODS: One hundred and thirty four patients, who needed elective colonoscopy, were randomly allocated to take 180 mg senna tablet or 95 mL sodium phosphate solution on the day before colonoscopy. The efficacies of both laxatives were compared using the mean difference of colon-cleanliness score of the rectum, sigmoid segments, descending colon, transverse colon and cecum. The scores were rated by two observers who were blinded to the laxatives administered. The higher score means that the colon is cleaner. The efficacy of both laxatives were equivalent if the 95% confidence interval of the mean difference of the score of colon lie within -1 to +1. RESULTS: On intention-to-treat analysis, the mean cleanliness scores in the four segments of colon except the cecum were higher in the sodium phosphate group than those in senna group (7.9 ± 1.7 vs 8.3 ± 1.5, 8.0 ± 1.8 vs 8.5 ± 1.4, 7.9 ± 2.0 vs 8.5 ± 1.3, 7.9 ± 2.0 vs 8.2 ± 1.4 and 7.2 ± 1.7 vs 6.9 ± 1.4, respectively). The 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of mean difference in each segment of colon were not found to lie within 1 point which indicated that their efficacies were not equivalent. The taste of senna was better than sodium phosphate solution. Also, senna had fewer side effects. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of senna is not equivalent to sodium phosphate solution in bowel preparation for colonoscopy, but senna may be considered an alternative laxative. PMID:17006995

  8. Genetic and Non-genetic Factors Associated With Constipation in Cancer Patients Receiving Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Laugsand, Eivor A; Skorpen, Frank; Kaasa, Stein; Sabatowski, Rainer; Strasser, Florian; Fayers, Peter; Klepstad, Pål

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether the inter-individual variation in constipation among patients receiving opioids for cancer pain is associated with genetic or non-genetic factors. Methods: Cancer patients receiving opioids were included from 17 centers in 11 European countries. Intensity of constipation was reported by 1,568 patients on a four-point categorical scale. Non-genetic factors were included as covariates in stratified regression analyses on the association between constipation and 75 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 15 candidate genes related to opioid- or constipation-signaling pathways (HTR3E, HTR4, HTR2A, TPH1, ADRA2A, CHRM3, TACR1, CCKAR, KIT, ARRB2, GHRL, ABCB1, COMT, OPRM1, and OPRD1). Results: The non-genetic factors significantly associated with constipation were type of laxative, mobility and place of care among patients receiving laxatives (N=806), in addition to Karnofsky performance status and presence of metastases among patients not receiving laxatives (N=762) (P<0.01). Age, gender, body mass index, cancer diagnosis, time on opioids, opioid dose, and type of opioid did not contribute to the inter-individual differences in constipation. Five SNPs, rs1800532 in TPH1, rs1799971 in OPRM1, rs4437575 in ABCB1, rs10802789 in CHRM3, and rs2020917 in COMT were associated with constipation (P<0.01). Only rs2020917 in COMT passed the Benjamini–Hochberg criterion for a 10% false discovery rate. Conclusions: Type of laxative, mobility, hospitalization, Karnofsky performance status, presence of metastases, and five SNPs within TPH1, OPRM1, ABCB1, CHRM3, and COMT may contribute to the variability in constipation among cancer patients treated with opioids. Knowledge of these factors may help to develop new therapies and to identify patients needing a more individualized approach to treatment. PMID:26087058

  9. Genetic and Non-genetic Factors Associated With Constipation in Cancer Patients Receiving Opioids.

    PubMed

    Laugsand, Eivor A; Skorpen, Frank; Kaasa, Stein; Sabatowski, Rainer; Strasser, Florian; Fayers, Peter; Klepstad, Pål

    2015-06-18

    To examine whether the inter-individual variation in constipation among patients receiving opioids for cancer pain is associated with genetic or non-genetic factors. Cancer patients receiving opioids were included from 17 centers in 11 European countries. Intensity of constipation was reported by 1,568 patients on a four-point categorical scale. Non-genetic factors were included as covariates in stratified regression analyses on the association between constipation and 75 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 15 candidate genes related to opioid- or constipation-signaling pathways (HTR3E, HTR4, HTR2A, TPH1, ADRA2A, CHRM3, TACR1, CCKAR, KIT, ARRB2, GHRL, ABCB1, COMT, OPRM1, and OPRD1). The non-genetic factors significantly associated with constipation were type of laxative, mobility and place of care among patients receiving laxatives (N=806), in addition to Karnofsky performance status and presence of metastases among patients not receiving laxatives (N=762) (P<0.01). Age, gender, body mass index, cancer diagnosis, time on opioids, opioid dose, and type of opioid did not contribute to the inter-individual differences in constipation. Five SNPs, rs1800532 in TPH1, rs1799971 in OPRM1, rs4437575 in ABCB1, rs10802789 in CHRM3, and rs2020917 in COMT were associated with constipation (P<0.01). Only rs2020917 in COMT passed the Benjamini-Hochberg criterion for a 10% false discovery rate. Type of laxative, mobility, hospitalization, Karnofsky performance status, presence of metastases, and five SNPs within TPH1, OPRM1, ABCB1, CHRM3, and COMT may contribute to the variability in constipation among cancer patients treated with opioids. Knowledge of these factors may help to develop new therapies and to identify patients needing a more individualized approach to treatment.

  10. Comparison of polyethylene glycol 3350 and lactulose for treatment of chronic constipation in children.

    PubMed

    Gremse, David A; Hixon, Jamie; Crutchfield, Alysia

    2002-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 and lactulose were compared in an unblinded, randomized, crossover design for treatment of constipation in 37 children aged 2 to 16 years. Subjects received lactulose (1.3 g/kg/d divided twice daily up to 20 g) or PEG 3350 (10 g/m2/day) for 2 weeks. PEG 3350 significantly decreased the total colonic transit time compared to lactulose (47.6+/-2.7 vs 55.3+/-2.4 hours, mean +/- SE, PEG 3350 vs lactulose, respectively, p = 0.038). The stool frequency, form, and the ease of passage were similar for each laxative. Polyethylene glycol 3350 is an effective laxative for the treatment of chronic constipation in children.

  11. Contemporary understanding and management of reflux and constipation in the general population and pregnancy: a consensus meeting.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, G N; Heading, R C; Müller-Lissner, S; Kamm, M A; Schölmerich, J; Berstad, A; Fried, M; Chaussade, S; Jewell, D; Briggs, A

    2003-08-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and constipation have a major impact on public health; however, the wide variety of treatment options presents difficulties for recommending therapy. Lack of definitive guidelines in pharmacy and general practice medicine further exacerbates the decision dilemma. To address these issues, a panel of experts discussed the principles and practice of treating GERD and constipation in the general population and in pregnancy, with the aim of developing respective treatment guidelines. The panel recommended antacids 'on-demand' as the first-line over-the-counter treatment in reflux, and as rescue medication for immediate relief when reflux breaks through with proton pump inhibitors. Calcium/magnesium-based antacids were recommended as the treatment of choice for pregnant women because of their good safety profile. In constipation, current data do not distinguish a hierarchy between polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based laxatives and other first-line treatments, although limitations are associated with stimulant- and bulk-forming laxatives. Where data are available, PEG is superior to lactulose in terms of efficacy. In pregnancy, PEG-based laxatives meet the criteria for the ideal treatment. The experts developed algorithms that present healthcare professionals with clear treatment options and management strategies for GERD and constipation in pharmacy and general practice medicine.

  12. Talking about GI Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifestyle Changes Strategies for Improving Bowel Habits Improving Sleep Quality Kids & Dietary Fiber Fruit Juice Surgery Laxatives Living with GI Disorders Talking About GI Disorders Personal Stories Social Security Benefits ...

  13. Management of constipation in palliative care patients undergoing opioid therapy: is polyethylene glycol an option?

    PubMed

    Wirz, Stefan; Klaschik, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of laxative use for treatment of constipation in patients receiving opioid therapy, with special attention to polyethylene glycol 3350/electrolyte solution (PEG-ES). Computerized data from 206 patients were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Subgroups were analyzed using confirmatory statistics. Constipation occurred in 42.7 percent of patients. Laxatives were administered to 74.3 percent of these patients using a standardized step scheme, with good results in 78.4 percent. As a therapy for constipation, the combined administration of PEG-ES, sodium picosulphate, and liquid paraffin proved most effective, although statistical analysis yielded no significance. Early use of PEG-ES using a step scheme holds promise for treatment of opioid-related constipation in palliative care patients, although further investigation is warranted.

  14. Toxicology study of senna (CAS No. 8013-11-4) in C57BL/6NTAC Mice and toxicology and carcinogenesis study of senna in genetically modified C3B6.129F1/Tac-Trp53tm1Brd haploinsufficient mice (Feed Studies).

    PubMed

    2012-04-01

    Senna is used as a stimulant laxative in the management of constipation resulting from opioid use or when treatment with bulking or osmotic agents has failed. Increased use of senna was expected due to the removal of the stimulant laxatives danthron and phenolphthalein from the market. Senna was nominated for study by the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to the wide use of laxative preparations, positive genotoxicity in vitro for some senna components or metabolites, and unknown carcinogenic potential. Because a 2-year rat study was ongoing by the manufacturer, the FDA requested that the NTP conduct a senna study in the p53(+/-) mouse. In this study, the potential for carcinogenic effects of senna was studied in the C3B6.129F1/Tac-Trp53tm1Brd N12 haploinsufficient (heterozygous F1 p53(+/-)) mouse model as an ongoing goal of the NTP to develop and test model systems for toxicology and carcinogenesis studies, especially those that can provide mechanistic information relative to understanding an agents mode of action. C57BL/6NTac mice were exposed to senna in feed for 5 weeks; heterozygous F1 p53(+/-) mice were exposed to senna in feed for 40 weeks. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes.

  15. Polyethylene Glycol 3350

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called osmotic laxatives. It works by causing water to be retained ... 8 ounces (240 milliliters) of water, juice, soda, coffee, or tea. Stir to dissolve the powder. Drink ...

  16. Prochlorperazine overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... AND THROAT Blurred vision Drooling Dry mouth Nasal congestion Small pupils Yellow eyes STOMACH AND INTESTINES Constipation ... symptoms Activated charcoal Laxative Breathing support, including a tube through the mouth into the lungs and connected ...

  17. Eucalyptus oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... liniments Diaper rash creams Inhalers to relieve nasal congestion Medicine for sore gums, mouth, and throat Mouthwashes ... IV) Medicines to treat symptoms Activated charcoal Laxative Tube through the nose into the stomach to wash ...

  18. Amitriptyline and perphenazine overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... MOUTH Blurred vision Dry mouth Enlarged pupils Nasal congestion Unpleasant taste in mouth HEART AND BLOOD Irregular ... symptoms Activated charcoal Laxative Breathing support, including a tube through the mouth into the lungs and connected ...

  19. Morphine overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests Chest x-ray EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids through a vein (IV) Laxative Naloxone, a ... Toxicology Data Network. Morphine. Toxnet.nlm.nih.gov Web site. toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/ ...

  20. Magnesium Oxide

    MedlinePlus

    ... used for different reasons. Some people use it as an antacid to relieve heartburn, sour stomach, or acid indigestion. Magnesium oxide also may be used as a laxative for short-term, rapid emptying of ...

  1. Cascara

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart damage. Herbs that contain cardiac glycosides include black hellebore, Canadian hemp roots, digitalis leaf, hedge mustard, ... Other stimulant laxative herbs are aloe, alder buckthorn, black root, blue flag, butternut bark, colocynth, European buckthorn, ...

  2. Total proctocolectomy and ileal - anal pouch

    MedlinePlus

    ... clear liquids, such as broth, clear juice, and water after a certain time. Follow the instructions you have been given about when to stop eating and drinking. Your may need to use enemas or laxatives ...

  3. Total proctocolectomy with ileostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... clear liquids, such as broth, clear juice, and water, after a certain time. Follow the instructions you have been given about when to stop eating and drinking. You may need to use enemas or laxatives ...

  4. Bisacodyl Rectal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bisacodyl is in a class of medications called stimulant laxatives. It works by increasing activity of the ... your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  5. Bisacodyl

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bisacodyl is in a class of medications called stimulant laxatives. It works by increasing activity of the ... your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  6. The management of constipation in hospital inpatients.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Simon M

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews the causes of constipation in hospital and how it can be prevented with simple measures. A review of laxatives available on hospital words is provided for the reader and recommendations are made.

  7. Colyte and Colyte-flavored (PEG-3350 & electrolytes) for oral solution for gastrointestinal lavage.

    PubMed

    Pickering, P

    1994-06-01

    Colyte and Colyte-flavored are effective in preparing the bowel for endoscopic examination, particularly when used in combination with saline and stimulant laxatives, which may decrease the volume of Colyte required for optimal bowel cleansing.

  8. Mu-opioid antagonists for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in people with cancer and people receiving palliative care.

    PubMed

    Candy, Bridget; Jones, Louise; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Larkin, Philip J; Stone, Patrick

    2018-06-05

    Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) is characterised by constipation, incomplete evacuation, bloating, and gastric reflux. It is one of the major adverse events of treatment for pain in cancer and in palliative care, resulting in increased morbidity and reduced quality of life.This is an update of two Cochrane reviews. One was published in 2011, Issue 1 on laxatives and methylnaltrexone for the management of constipation in people receiving palliative care; this was updated in 2015 and excluded methylnaltrexone. The other was published in 2008, Issue 4 on mu-opioid antagonists (MOA) for OIBD. In this updated review, we only included trials on MOA (including methylnaltrexone) for OIBD in people with cancer and people receiving palliative care. To assess the effectiveness and safety of MOA for OIBD in people with cancer and people receiving palliative care. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science to August 2017. We also searched clinical trial registries and regulatory websites. We contacted manufacturers of MOA to identify further data. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effectiveness and safety of MOA for OIBD in people with cancer and people at a palliative stage irrespective of the type of terminal disease they experienced. Two review authors assessed risk of bias and extracted data. The appropriateness of combining data from the trials depended upon sufficient homogeneity across the trials. Our primary outcomes were laxation, impact on pain relief, and adverse events. Impact on pain relief was a primary outcome because a possible adverse effect of MOAs is a reduction in pain relief from opioids. We assessed the evidence on these outcomes using GRADE. We identified four new trials for this update, bringing the total number included in this review to eight. In total, 1022 men and women with cancer irrespective of stage or at a palliative care stage of any disease

  9. Doxercalciferol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doxercalciferol is in a class of medications called vitamin D analogs. It works by helping the body to ... oil (in laxatives), phenobarbital, or other forms of vitamin D. Your doctor may need to change the doses ...

  10. Lubiprostone in constipation: clinical evidence and place in therapy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nicholas; Schey, Ron

    2015-03-01

    Constipation is one of the most common function bowel disorders encountered by primary care providers and gastroenterologists. Disorders of chronic constipation, including irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, chronic idiopathic constipation, and opioid-induced chronic constipation, are associated with significant medical costs and a negative impact on quality of life. Although there is evidence supporting the effectiveness of some over-the-counter laxatives in chronic constipation, currently there is no evidence supporting lifestyle modification, dietary change or over-the-counter laxatives as effective long-term therapy for patients with chronic constipation. Lubiprostone is a prostaglandin-derived bicyclic fatty acid available to use for long-term treatment of constipation. Lubiprostone works by increasing intraluminal chloride ion secretion, which results in a passive influx of water and sodium, leading to increased intestinal peristalsis and colonic laxation with decreased intestinal stool transit time. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of lubiprostone in patients with chronic constipation, irritable bowel syndrome and opioid-induced constipation have shown it to be effective and free of serious adverse effects. The most common side effects associated with lubiprostone are mild to moderate nausea and diarrhea. Currently lubiprostone is approved for treatment of chronic constipation and opioid-induced constipation for men and women at 24 µg twice daily and for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in women at 8 µg twice daily. Additional research continues to shed light on the molecular mechanisms of lubiprostone and further work may expand its clinical applications.

  11. Contrasting effects of non-starch polysaccharide and resistant starch-based diets on the disposition and excretion of the food carcinogen, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Zhu, Shuotun; Kestell, Philip

    2003-06-01

    It has commonly been believed that increasing fibre in the diet should reduce the incidence of cancers, especially those of the colon and rectum. The earliest definitions of dietary fibre restricted the term to plant cell walls in which non-starch polysaccharides are key chemical components. However, new definitions encompass a wider range of materials, including starches resistant to digestion in the colon (resistant starches). Nevertheless, most definitions require that "dietary fibres" show physiological effects considered beneficial against cancer, including enhanced laxation and faecal bulking. On theoretical grounds, such properties might be expected to dilute the concentration of any carcinogen present and move it more rapidly through the colon, thereby reducing bioavailability. We have compared the properties of two dietary fibre preparations that are primarily non-starch polysaccharides with two resistant starch preparations for effects on carcinogen disposition in a rodent model. Although both preparations enhanced laxation and faecal bulking, only the non-starch polysaccharide preparation reduced carcinogen biovailability. Indeed, carcinogen biovailability was significantly enhanced by resistant starch. We suggest that there may be fundamental differences in the manner by which non-starch polysaccharides or resistant starches affect carcinogen disposition, and express concern that the events seen with the resistant starches [RS] are unlikely to be beneficial with respect to protection against cancer by exogenous carcinogens. Furthermore, the data reveal that the observation of enhanced laxation and faecal bulking does not necessarily imply a reduction in carcinogen bioavailability.

  12. Ultrastructure of mouse intestinal mucosa and changes observed after long term anthraquinone administration.

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, P; Gendre, P

    1984-01-01

    In an attempt to study the relative toxicity of anthraquinonic laxatives on intestinal mucosa, we compared in mice the effects of fruit pulp containing sennosides A and B with those of a free anthraquinone, 1-8 dihydroxyanthraquinone. Observations have been made with transmission electron microscopy (EM) after 16 weeks of treatment with the two drugs. Although the doses used in this study were equipotent in terms of laxative activity, no damage to the intestinal tissue was observed with the sennosides. A number of changes, however, were detected in intestinal nervous tissues of all the animals treated with 1-8 dihydroxyanthraquinone, mainly in the form of vacuolisation of the axons, formation of lysosomal structures and in some cases appearances of fibrillar degeneration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6510768

  13. Encopresis.

    PubMed

    Patel, D R; Pratt, H D

    1999-01-01

    Encopresis is fecal soiling associated with functional constipation in a child. Constipation and encopresis are common problems in children. Encopresis is most common between ages 3 and 7 years. Infants and pre-school children present with a history of constipation and withholding maneuvers. The school-age child may have constipation and fecal soiling for some time prior to detection. In some children encopresis is associated with enuresis and urinary tract infection. Family education is the essential first step in management, followed by disimpaction of stool and complete evacuation of the rectum. Reaccumulation of stool should be prevented by appropriate use of laxatives and stool softeners. This is followed by a gradual weaning of the laxative regimen and instituting toilet training. Relapses may occur. Up to 50-60% of children achieve acceptable bowel control, free of soiling, within a year.

  14. Fecal impaction

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems Examine you carefully. Recommend changes in your diet, how to use laxatives and stool softeners, special exercises, lifestyle changes, and other special techniques to retrain your bowel. Follow you closely to make sure the program works for you.

  15. Psyllium

    MedlinePlus

    Psyllium, a bulk-forming laxative, is used to treat constipation. It absorbs liquid in the intestines, swells, and forms a bulky stool, which ... doctor if you have or have ever had diabetes mellitus, heart disease, high blood pressure, kidney disease, ...

  16. Senna

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels in the body might drop too low. Stimulant laxative herbs include aloe, alder buckthorn, black root, blue flag, butternut bark, colocynth, European buckthorn, fo ti, gamboge, gossypol, greater bindweed, jalap, manna, Mexican scammony root, rhubarb, senna, and yellow dock.

  17. Effect of dietary fiber on constipation: A meta analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Hai-Peng; Zhou, Li; Xu, Chun-Fang

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of dietary fiber intake on constipation by a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: We searched Ovid MEDLINE (from 1946 to October 2011), Cochrane Library (2011), PubMed for articles on dietary fiber intake and constipation using the terms: constipation, fiber, cellulose, plant extracts, cereals, bran, psyllium, or plantago. References of important articles were searched manually for relevant studies. Articles were eligible for the meta-analysis if they were high-quality RCTs and reported data on stool frequency, stool consistency, treatment success, laxative use and gastrointestinal symptoms. The data were extracted independently by two researchers (Yang J and Wang HP) according to the described selection criteria. Review manager version 5 software was used for analysis and test. Weighted mean difference with 95%CI was used for quantitative data, odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI was used for dichotomous data. Both I2 statistic with a cut-off of ≥ 50% and the χ2 test with a P value < 0.10 were used to define a significant degree of heterogeneity. RESULTS: We searched 1322 potential relevant articles, 19 of which were retrieved for further assessment, 14 studies were excluded for various reasons, five studies were included in the analysis. Dietary fiber showed significant advantage over placebo in stool frequency (OR = 1.19; 95%CI: 0.58-1.80, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in stool consistency, treatment success, laxative use and painful defecation between the two groups. Stool frequency were reported by five RCTs, all results showed either a trend or a significant difference in favor of the treatment group, number of stools per week increased in treatment group than in placebo group (OR = 1.19; 95%CI: 0.58-1.80, P < 0.05), with no significant heterogeneity among studies (I2= 0, P = 0.77). Four studies evaluated stool consistency, one of them presented outcome in terms of percentage of hard stool

  18. Nutritional Considerations for Severely Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick

    Children and adults with severe disabilities may have nutritional problems due to the effects of the primary disability (including such syndromes as phenylketonuria, galactosemia, and Hurler's Disease), effects related to medications (including anticonvulsants, tranquilizers, and laxatives), effects of food preferences (restrictive food…

  19. [Constipation in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Rossol, Siegbert

    2007-11-01

    Up to 60% of the patients with diabetes mellitus suffer from gastrointestinal tract symptoms that arise pathogenetically from a disturbance of the autonomous nervous system. Patient age, disease duration and poor control of diabetes mellitus correlate positively with the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Chronic constipation, in addition to diarrhoea, gall bladder dysfunction and incontinence, is increasingly regarded as a serious problem and for the first time, is now considered in the current guidelines of the professional societies. Modern diagnosis and treatment facilitate systematic control of the symptoms. Treatment necessitates long-term intake of laxatives, proper diabetes control and other accompanying general measures such as adequate amounts of liquids, dietary fibre and exercise. Motility and secretion-stimulating, osmotically active or locally applied laxatives are used. Slow transit constipation, which is typically observed in diabetics, can be best controlled with polyethylene glycol, bisacodyl or sodium picosulphate.

  20. Aquaporins in the Colon as a New Therapeutic Target in Diarrhea and Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Kon, Risako; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) play important roles in the water transport system in the human body. There are currently 13 types of AQP, AQP0 through AQP12, which are expressed in various organs. Many members of the AQP family are expressed in the intestinal tract. AQP3 is predominantly expressed in the colon, ultimately controlling the water transport. Recently, it was clarified that several laxatives exhibit a laxative effect by changing the AQP3 expression level in the colon. In addition, it was revealed that morphine causes severe constipation by increasing the AQP3 expression level in the colon. These findings have shown that AQP3 is one of the most important functional molecules in water transport in the colon. This review will focus on the physiological and pathological roles of AQP3 in the colon, and discuss clinical applications of colon AQP3. PMID:27447626

  1. Consensus statement AIGO/SICCR diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation and obstructed defecation (Part II: Treatment)

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Antonio; Bellini, Massimo; Battaglia, Edda; Bocchini, Renato; Gambaccini, Dario; Bove, Vincenzo; Pucciani, Filippo; Altomare, Donato Francesco; Dodi, Giuseppe; Sciaudone, Guido; Falletto, Ezio; Piloni, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    The second part of the Consensus Statement of the Italian Association of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Italian Society of Colo-Rectal Surgery reports on the treatment of chronic constipation and obstructed defecation. There is no evidence that increasing fluid intake and physical activity can relieve the symptoms of chronic constipation. Patients with normal-transit constipation should increase their fibre intake through their diet or with commercial fibre. Osmotic laxatives may be effective in patients who do not respond to fibre supplements. Stimulant laxatives should be reserved for patients who do not respond to osmotic laxatives. Controlled trials have shown that serotoninergic enterokinetic agents, such as prucalopride, and prosecretory agents, such as lubiprostone, are effective in the treatment of patients with chronic constipation. Surgery is sometimes necessary. Total colectomy with ileorectostomy may be considered in patients with slow-transit constipation and inertia coli who are resistant to medical therapy and who do not have defecatory disorders, generalised motility disorders or psychological disorders. Randomised controlled trials have established the efficacy of rehabilitative treatment in dys-synergic defecation. Many surgical procedures may be used to treat obstructed defecation in patients with acquired anatomical defects, but none is considered to be the gold standard. Surgery should be reserved for selected patients with an impaired quality of life. Obstructed defecation is often associated with pelvic organ prolapse. Surgery with the placement of prostheses is replacing fascial surgery in the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse, but the efficacy and safety of such procedures have not yet been established. PMID:23049207

  2. Constipation in older people: A consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Anton; Mattace-Raso, Francesco; Neri, Maria Cristina; Petersen, Karl-Uwe; Rey, Enrique; Rogers, June

    2017-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a serious medical condition that affects 30%-40% of people over 60 years old. Although not normally life threatening, constipation reduces quality of life by the same extent as diabetes and osteoarthritis. There are currently no Europe-wide guidelines for treating constipation in older people, although there is some country-level guidance for the general population. We have evaluated the existing guidance and best clinical practice to improve the care of older people with constipation. European healthcare professionals working in gastroenterology, geriatrics, nursing and pharmacology discussed the treatment of constipation in older people and reviewed existing guidance on the treatment of constipation in the general population. This manuscript represents the consensus of all authors. Most general guidance for constipation treatment recommends increased dietary fibre, fluid intake and exercise; however, this is not always possible in older patients. Although a common first-line treatment, bulk-forming laxatives are unsuitable for older people because of an associated need to increase fluid intake, osmotic laxatives are likely to be the most suitable laxative type for older patients. Treatment is often hampered by reluctance to talk about bowel problems so healthcare providers should proactively identify older constipated patients who are self-medicating or not receiving treatment. With certain modifications, general treatment guidelines can be applied to older people with constipation, although specific guidelines are still required for this age group. Awareness of constipation, its complications and treatment options need to be increased among healthcare providers, patients and carers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Lubiprostone in constipation: clinical evidence and place in therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is one of the most common function bowel disorders encountered by primary care providers and gastroenterologists. Disorders of chronic constipation, including irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, chronic idiopathic constipation, and opioid-induced chronic constipation, are associated with significant medical costs and a negative impact on quality of life. Although there is evidence supporting the effectiveness of some over-the-counter laxatives in chronic constipation, currently there is no evidence supporting lifestyle modification, dietary change or over-the-counter laxatives as effective long-term therapy for patients with chronic constipation. Lubiprostone is a prostaglandin-derived bicyclic fatty acid available to use for long-term treatment of constipation. Lubiprostone works by increasing intraluminal chloride ion secretion, which results in a passive influx of water and sodium, leading to increased intestinal peristalsis and colonic laxation with decreased intestinal stool transit time. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of lubiprostone in patients with chronic constipation, irritable bowel syndrome and opioid-induced constipation have shown it to be effective and free of serious adverse effects. The most common side effects associated with lubiprostone are mild to moderate nausea and diarrhea. Currently lubiprostone is approved for treatment of chronic constipation and opioid-induced constipation for men and women at 24 µg twice daily and for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in women at 8 µg twice daily. Additional research continues to shed light on the molecular mechanisms of lubiprostone and further work may expand its clinical applications. PMID:25729555

  4. Restrictive eating in anorexia nervosa: Examining maintenance and consequences in the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Accurso, Erin C; Ciao, Anna C; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Pisetsky, Emily M; Le Grange, Daniel; Peterson, Carol B; Crow, Scott J; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-11-01

    This study examined negative and positive affect in relation to restrictive eating episodes (i.e., meals/snacks perceived as restrictive) and whether restrictive eating was associated with likelihood of subsequent eating disorder behaviors (i.e., additional restrictive eating, binge eating, vomiting, laxative use, weighing, exercising, meal skipping, drinking fluids to curb appetite, body checking). Women with anorexia nervosa (N = 118) completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment protocol. For both restrictive and nonrestrictive eating, negative affect significantly increased from prebehavior to the time of the behavior but remained stable thereafter, while positive affect remained stable from prebehavior to the time of the behavior but decreased significantly thereafter. Across time, negative affect was significantly lower and positive affect was significantly greater in restrictive than nonrestrictive episodes. Engagement in restrictive eating was associated with an increased likelihood of subsequent restrictive eating, laxative use, and body checking, but not other behaviors. Engagement in nonrestrictive eating was associated with a decreased likelihood of subsequent restrictive eating, binge eating, vomiting, laxative use, weighing, meal skipping, drinking fluids to curb appetite, and body checking. Despite similar patterns of affect across eating episodes over time, results suggest affect may be involved in the maintenance of restrictive eating in anorexia nervosa since restrictive episodes were associated with lower negative and greater positive affect across time compared to nonrestrictive episodes. Further, while restrictive episodes increased the likelihood of only three subsequent eating disorder behaviors, nonrestrictive episodes were protective since they decreased likelihood of all but one behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Correlates of constipation in people with Parkinson's.

    PubMed

    Gage, H; Kaye, J; Kimber, A; Storey, L; Egan, M; Qiao, Y; Trend, P

    2011-02-01

    To investigate clinical, demographic and dietary factors associated with constipation in a sample of community dwelling people with Parkinson's disease, recruited through a specialist outpatient clinic. Partners/carers provided a convenience control group. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire (background information, diet and exercise, activities of daily living: mobility and manual dexterity, health-related quality of life (SF-12), stool frequency and characteristics, extent of concern due to constipation, laxative taking), and a four-week stool diary. The Rome criterion was used to determine constipation status. Multiple regression methods were used to explore the correlates of constipation. Baseline data were provided by 121 people with Parkinson's, (54 controls), of whom 73% (25%) met the Rome criterion. Prospective diary data from 106 people with Parkinson's (43 controls) showed lower proportions: 35% (7%) meeting the Rome criterion. Among all study subjects, i.e. Parkinson's patients and controls taken together, the presence of constipation is predicted by having Parkinson's disease (p = .003; odds ratio 4.80, 95% CI 1.64-14.04) and mobility score (p = .04; odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.31), but not by dietary factors. Amongst people with Parkinson's constipation is predicted by number of medications (p = .027). Laxative taking masks constipation, and is significantly associated with wearing protection against bowel incontinence (p = .009; odds ratio 4.80, 95% CI: 1.48-15.52). Constipation is disease-related, not a lifestyle factor. More research is needed on optimal management and laxative use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Relationship bBetween Health and Fitness Magazine Reading and Eating-Disordered Weight-Loss Methods among High School Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Weber, Michele M.; Brown, Lora Beth

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between reading women's health and fitness magazines and using eating disordered diet methods (laxatives, appetite suppressants/diet pills, vomiting, and over-restricting calories) among adolescent high school girls. Student surveys found positive associations between reading frequency and use of unhealthy weight…

  7. Treating Retentive Encopresis: Dietary Modification and Behavioral Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Laura; Morgan, Sam B.

    1995-01-01

    A home-based contingency management program, consisting of diet modification, laxatives, correction for soiling accidents, stimulus control training, and positive reinforcement, was implemented for treatment of a 4-year-old encopretic male. The findings provide evidence supporting the effectiveness of dietary modification combined with behavior…

  8. Evaluating health benefits of various fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruits are an essential part of our daily diets. Most fruits are naturally low in fat, sodium and calories. Fruits are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin C, folic acid and they do not contain cholesterol. Some fruits have laxative effects, prevent uri...

  9. Case 39: Anorexia nervosa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anorexia nervosa is a disease affecting primarily young women who have distorted body images. Although their weight is less than 30 percent under ideal body weight, they see themselves as overweight. Anorectics often use diuretic and laxative agents to accomplish their weight loss. Patients with bul...

  10. Does senna extract promote growth of aberrant crypt foci and malignant tumors in rat colon?

    PubMed

    Mascolo, N; Mereto, E; Borrelli, F; Orsi, P; Sini, D; Izzo, A A; Massa, B; Boggio, M; Capasso, F

    1999-11-01

    Current evidence suggests that aberrant crypt foci (ACF) can be used to evaluate agents for their potential colon carcinogenic activity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether senna pod extract (SE) itself induces ACF and tumors in the rat colon or increases the development of ACF and tumors induced by azoxymethane (AOM). A daily administration of SE 10 mg/kg by mouth for 13-28 weeks produced a weak laxative effect but did not itself cause the appearance of ACF or tumors. The numbers of ACF and tumors induced by AOM were, however, increased by a dose of SE (100 mg/kg) able to induce chronic diarrhea over three months. These results suggest that SE does not cause the appearance of ACF or tumors in the rat colon nor does it have a promoting effect when given to rats at a dose that produces laxation (10 mg/kg), whereas a diarrhogenic dose (100 mg/kg) increases the appearance of tumors induced by AOM.

  11. Dietary fiber type reflects physiological functionality: comparison of grain fiber, inulin, and polydextrose.

    PubMed

    Raninen, Kaisa; Lappi, Jenni; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fiber is a nutritional concept based not on physiological functions but on defined chemical and physical properties. Recent definitions of dietary fiber differentiate inherent plant cell wall-associated fiber from isolated or synthetic fiber. For the latter to be defined as fiber, beneficial physiological effects should be demonstrated, such as laxative effects, fermentability, attenuation of blood cholesterol levels, or postprandial glucose response. Grain fibers are a major natural source of dietary fiber worldwide, while inulin, a soluble indigestible fructose polymer isolated from chicory, and polydextrose, a synthetic indigestible glucose polymer, have more simple structures. Inulin and polydextrose show many of the same functionalities of grain fiber in the large intestine, in that they are fermentable, bifidogenic, and laxative. The reported effects on postprandial blood glucose and fasting cholesterol levels have been modest, but grain fibers also show variable effects. New biomarkers are needed to link the physiological functions of specific fibers with long-term health benefits. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  12. Morphological and reproductive characterization of guar genetic resources regenerated in Georgia, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Guar, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba is used worldwide in food, laxatives, paper, oil well drilling, and in the mining industry. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU conserves 1,298 accessions originating from Pakistan and India. Guar accessions were directly planted to the field in Griffin, GA between early May and the s...

  13. Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, William; Rhea, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    This study examined whether behavioral differences (exercise, dieting, changing eating habits, taking pills, or vomiting/taking laxatives to lose weight) exist when identifying the major influencing factors (media, family, friends, teacher/coach, and doctor/nurse) among Black and White men's and women's self-perceptions of body weight. Respondents…

  14. Polydextrose and soluble corn fiber increase five-day fecal wet weight in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Timm, Derek A; Thomas, William; Boileau, Thomas W; Williamson-Hughes, Patricia S; Slavin, Joanne L

    2013-04-01

    Dietary fiber has well-established beneficial effects on laxation. Many fibers have been developed with positive sensory properties and 2 such fibers are polydextrose (PDX) and soluble corn fiber (SCF), which can be added to many commercially produced products. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study comparing the laxative effects of PDX and SCF at a dose of 20 g/d with a low fiber control (LFC) eaten daily as a muffin and cereal in 36 healthy men and women. Each treatment period was 10 d with a 2-wk washout period between. Participants collected fecal samples during the last 5 d of each treatment and completed food diaries and gastrointestinal tolerance questionnaires on d 1, 2, and 10 of each treatment period. Five-day fecal wet weight was higher after the PDX and SCF treatments than the LFC treatment (P ≤ 0.0007). The number of stools per day and daily fecal output also were significantly greater during the PDX treatment compared with the LFC treatment. The whole gut transit time did not differ among treatments. The PDX treatment resulted in a softer stool (P = 0.002) than the SCF and LFC treatments. Fecal pH was lowered by the PDX treatment (P = 0.02), whereas SCF tended to lower it compared with the LFC treatment (P = 0.07). When the participants consumed PDX and SCF, they reported significantly more flatulence and borborygmi compared with when they consumed the LFC. Consumption of PDX and SCF at a dose of 20 g/d results in a mild laxative effect with nominal gastrointestinal tolerance issues.

  15. Influence of medications and diagnoses on fall risk in psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Lavsa, Stacey M; Fabian, Tanya J; Saul, Melissa I; Corman, Shelby L; Coley, Kim C

    2010-08-01

    The influence of medications and diagnoses on fall risk in psychiatric inpatients was evaluated. In this retrospective case-control study, psychiatric inpatients age 18 years or older with a documented fall that was reported served as study cases. These patients were matched to control patients from the same hospital (1:1) by admission year, sex, and age. Psychiatric diagnoses evaluated included major depressive disorder, schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease and dementia, anxiety or neurosis, delirium, personality disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Medications assessed as independent variables were conventional antipsychotics, atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, atypical antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, lithium, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepine sleep aids, Alzheimer's disease medications, antihistamines, antiarrhythmics, antihypertensives, benign prostatic hyperplasia medications, oral hypoglycemic agents, histamine H(2)-receptor blockers, laxatives and stool softeners, muscle relaxants, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, opioids, Parkinson's disease medications, and overactive bladder medications. Univariate logistic regression models were developed for each risk factor to determine its impact on fall risk. A total of 774 patient cases were matched with controls. Most falls occurred on the second day of hospitalization. Medications associated with a higher risk of falls were alpha-blockers, nonbenzodiazepine sleep aids, benzodiazepines, H(2)-blockers, lithium, antipsychotics, atypical antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and laxatives and stool softeners. Patients with a diagnosis of dementia and Alzheimer's disease also had an increased risk of falling. Alpha-blockers, nonbenzodiazepine sleep aids, benzodiazepines, H(2)-blockers, lithium, atypical antipsychotics, atypical antidepressants, anticonvulsants and mood

  16. Prevalence and impact of constipation and bowel dysfunction induced by strong opioids: a cross-sectional survey of 520 patients with cancer pain: DYONISOS study.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, L; Béziaud, N; Labreze, L; Giardina, V; Caussé, C; Chuberre, B; Allaert, F A; Perrot, S

    2013-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in patients with cancer pain according to the Knowles-Eccersley-Scott symptom score (KESS), the different symptoms of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD), and to assess the impact of OIBD on patient's quality-of-life. A cross-sectional observational study, using the KESS questionnaire and the physician's subjective assessment of constipation, and other questionnaires and questions on constipation, OIBD, and quality-of-life, carried out on 1 day at oncology day centres and hospitals. Five hundred and twenty patients were enrolled at 77 centres in France; 61.7% of patients (n = 321) showed a degree of constipation that is problematic for the patient according to KESS (between 9-39). Even more patients, 85.7% (n = 438), were considered constipated according to the physician's subjective assessment-despite laxative use (84.7% of patients). Quality-of-life was significantly reduced in constipated vs non-constipated patients for both PAC-QoL (p < 0.0001 for total score and each dimension) and the SF-12 questionnaires (statistically significant for all dimensions except physical state and role physical). OIC and OIBD led to hospitalization (16% of patients), pain (75% of patients), and frequent changes in opioid and laxative treatment. This cross-sectional study, in a selected population of cancer patients, has measured prevalence and impact of OIBD. Further confirmation could be sought through the use of longitudinal studies, and larger populations, such as non-cancer pain patients treated with opioids. Cancer patients taking opioids for pain are very frequently constipated, even if they are prescribed laxatives. This leads to relevant impairments of quality-of-life.

  17. Long-term results of subtotal colectomy with cecorectal anastomosis for isolated colonic inertia

    PubMed Central

    Iannelli, Antonio; Piche, Thierry; Dainese, Raffaella; Fabiani, Pascal; Tran, Albert; Mouiel, Jean; Gugenheim, Jean

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the results of sub total colectomy with cecorectal anastomosis (STC-CRA) for isolated colonic inertia (CI). METHODS: Fourteen patients (mean age 57.5 ± 16.5 year) underwent surgery for isolated CI between January 1986 and December 2002. The mean frequency of bowel motions with the aid of laxatives was 1.2 ± 0.6 per week. All subjects underwent colonoscopy, anorectal manometry, cinedefaecography and colonic transit time (CTT). CI was defined as diffuse markers delay on CTT without evidence of pelvic floor dysfunction. All patients underwent STC-CRA. Long-term follow-up was obtained prospectively by clinical visits between October 2005 and February 2006 at a mean of 10.5 ± 3.6 years (range 5-16 years) during which we considered the number of stool emissions, the presence of abdominal pain or digitations, the use of pain killers, laxatives and/or fibers. Patients were also asked if they were satisfied with the surgery. RESULTS: There was no postoperative mortality. Postoperative complications occurred in 21.4% (3/14). At the end of follow-up, bowel frequency was significantly (P < 0.05) increased to a mean of 4.8 ± 7.5 per day (range 1-30). One patient reported disabling diarrhea. Two patients used laxatives less than three times per month without complaining of what they called constipation. Overall, 78.5% of patients would have chosen surgery again if necessary. CONCLUSION: STC-CRA is feasible and safe in patients with CI achieving 79% of success at a mean follow-up of 10.5 years. A prospective controlled evaluation is warranted to verify the advantages of this surgical approach in patients with CI. PMID:17552007

  18. 21 CFR 250.11 - Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for treatment of obesity in humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... treatment of obesity in humans. 250.11 Section 250.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... of obesity in humans. (a) Investigation by the Food and Drug Administration has revealed that a large... laxatives, are being marketed for or as adjuncts to the treatment, control, or management of obesity in...

  19. 21 CFR 250.11 - Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for treatment of obesity in humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment of obesity in humans. 250.11 Section 250.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... of obesity in humans. (a) Investigation by the Food and Drug Administration has revealed that a large... laxatives, are being marketed for or as adjuncts to the treatment, control, or management of obesity in...

  20. 21 CFR 250.11 - Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for treatment of obesity in humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment of obesity in humans. 250.11 Section 250.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... of obesity in humans. (a) Investigation by the Food and Drug Administration has revealed that a large... laxatives, are being marketed for or as adjuncts to the treatment, control, or management of obesity in...

  1. 21 CFR 250.11 - Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for treatment of obesity in humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment of obesity in humans. 250.11 Section 250.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... of obesity in humans. (a) Investigation by the Food and Drug Administration has revealed that a large... laxatives, are being marketed for or as adjuncts to the treatment, control, or management of obesity in...

  2. 21 CFR 250.11 - Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for treatment of obesity in humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... treatment of obesity in humans. 250.11 Section 250.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... of obesity in humans. (a) Investigation by the Food and Drug Administration has revealed that a large... laxatives, are being marketed for or as adjuncts to the treatment, control, or management of obesity in...

  3. When Food Consumes You: Taking Eating to Extremes

    MedlinePlus

    ... to weight gain and can be associated with obesity. When binge-eating is followed by “purging,” it’s called bulimia nervosa. People with bulimia nervosa may follow binge-eating by vomiting or taking laxatives to purge, over-exercising, or fasting. They’re often able to maintain a normal ...

  4. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  5. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds are used in Taiwan as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. S...

  6. An Analysis of Specific Life Satisfaction Domains and Disordered Eating among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Molly; Zullig, Keith J.; Ward, Rose Marie; Horn, Thelma; Huebner, E. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Research has revealed that overall life satisfaction (LS) is negatively related to disordered eating. This study examined whether specific LS domains (e.g., family, friends, etc.) were more strongly associated with eating behaviors/weight perceptions (e.g., exercising to lose weight, using laxatives to lose weight, etc.) in 723 randomly selected…

  7. An oral carcinogenicity and toxicity study of senna (Tinnevelly senna fruits) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J M; Mengs, U; McPherson, S; Zijlstra, J; Dettmar, P; Gregson, R; Tigner, J C

    2006-01-01

    Senna (Tinnevelly senna fruits), a known laxative derived from plants, was administered by gavage to Sprague-Dawley (Crl:CD (SD) BR) rats once daily at dose levels of 0, 25, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day for up to 104 consecutive weeks. Based upon clinical signs related to the laxation effect of senna, the highest dose (300 mg/kg/day) was considered to be a maximum tolerated dose. Sixty animals per sex were assigned to the control and dose groups. Assessments included clinical chemistry, hematology, full histology (control and high-dose groups; in addition, low and mid dose: intestinal tract, adrenals, liver, kidneys, brain and gross lesions) and toxicokinetics. The primary treatment-related clinical observation was mucoid feces seen at 300 mg/kg/day. When compared to controls, animals administered 300 mg/kg/day had slightly reduced body weights, increased water consumption and notable changes in electrolytes in serum (increases in potassium and chloride) and urine (decreases in sodium, potassium and chloride). The changes in electrolytes are most likely physiologic adaptations to the laxative effect of senna. At necropsy, dark discoloration of the kidneys was observed in animals in all treated groups. Histological changes were seen in the kidneys of animals from all treated groups and included slight to moderate tubular basophilia and tubular pigment deposits. In addition, for all treated groups, minimal to slight hyperplasia was evident in the colon and cecum. These histological changes, together with the changes seen in the evaluation of clinical chemistry and urine parameters, have been shown to be reversible in a previous 13-week rat study of senna. No treatment-related neoplastic changes were observed in any of the examined organs. Based upon these data, it is concluded that senna is not carcinogenic even after daily administration for 2 years at dosages of up to 300 mg/kg/day in Sprague-Dawley rats.

  8. PEG 3350 (Transipeg) versus lactulose in the treatment of childhood functional constipation: a double blind, randomised, controlled, multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    Voskuijl, W; de Lorijn, F; Verwijs, W; Hogeman, P; Heijmans, J; Mäkel, W; Taminiau, J; Benninga, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: Recently, polyethylene glycol (PEG 3350) has been suggested as a good alternative laxative to lactulose as a treatment option in paediatric constipation. However, no large randomised controlled trials exist evaluating the efficacy of either laxative. Aims: To compare PEG 3350 (Transipeg: polyethylene glycol with electrolytes) with lactulose in paediatric constipation and evaluate clinical efficacy/side effects. Patients: One hundred patients (aged 6 months–15 years) with paediatric constipation were included in an eight week double blinded, randomised, controlled trial. Methods: After faecal disimpaction, patients <6 years of age received PEG 3350 (2.95 g/sachet) or lactulose (6 g/sachet) while children ⩾6 years started with 2 sachets/day. Primary outcome measures were: defecation and encopresis frequency/week and successful treatment after eight weeks. Success was defined as a defecation frequency ⩾3/week and encopresis ⩽1 every two weeks. Secondary outcome measures were side effects after eight weeks of treatment. Results: A total of 91 patients (49 male) completed the study. A significant increase in defecation frequency (PEG 3350: 3 pre v 7 post treatment/week; lactulose: 3 pre v 6 post/week) and a significant decrease in encopresis frequency (PEG 3350: 10 pre v 3 post/week; lactulose: 8 pre v 3 post/week) was found in both groups (NS). However, success was significantly higher in the PEG group (56%) compared with the lactulose group (29%). PEG 3350 patients reported less abdominal pain, straining, and pain at defecation than children using lactulose. However, bad taste was reported significantly more often in the PEG group. Conclusions: PEG 3350 (0.26 (0.11) g/kg), compared with lactulose (0.66 (0.32) g/kg), provided a higher success rate with fewer side effects. PEG 3350 should be the laxative of first choice in childhood constipation. PMID:15479678

  9. Novel Oral Therapies for Opioid-induced Bowel Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Noncancer Pain.

    PubMed

    Holder, Renee M; Rhee, Diane

    2016-03-01

    Opioid analgesics are frequently prescribed and play an important role in chronic pain management. Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, which includes constipation, hardened stool, incomplete evacuation, gas, and nausea and vomiting, is the most common adverse event associated with opioid use. Mu-opioid receptors are specifically responsible for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, resulting in reduced peristaltic and secretory actions. Agents that reverse these actions in the bowel without reversing pain control in the central nervous system may be preferred over traditional laxatives. The efficacy and safety of these agents in chronic noncancer pain were assessed from publications identified through Ovid and PubMed database searches. Trials that evaluated the safety and efficacy of oral agents for opioid-induced constipation or opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, excluding laxatives, were reviewed. Lubiprostone and naloxegol are approved in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration for use in opioid-induced constipation. Axelopran (TD-1211) and sustained-release naloxone have undergone phase 2 and phase 1 studies, respectively, for the same indication. Naloxegol and axelopran are peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists. Naloxone essentially functions as a peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonist when administered orally in a sustained-release formulation. Lubiprostone is a locally acting chloride channel (CIC-2) activator that increases secretions and peristalsis. All agents increase spontaneous bowel movements and reduce other bowel symptoms compared with placebo in patients with noncancer pain who are chronic opioid users. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal in nature, and none of the drugs were associated with severe adverse or cardiovascular events. Investigations comparing these agents to regimens using standard laxative and combination therapy and trials in special populations and patients with active cancer are

  10. Gender Identity, Sexual Orientation, and Eating-Related Pathology in a National Sample of College Students.

    PubMed

    Diemer, Elizabeth W; Grant, Julia D; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Patterson, David A; Duncan, Alexis E

    2015-08-01

    This study examined associations of gender identity and sexual orientation with self-reported eating disorder (SR-ED) diagnosis and compensatory behaviors in transgender and cisgender college students. Data came from 289,024 students from 223 U.S. universities participating in the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (median age, 20 years). Rates of past-year SR-ED diagnosis and past-month use of diet pills and vomiting or laxatives were compared among transgender students (n = 479) and cisgender sexual minority (SM) male (n = 5,977) and female (n = 9,445), unsure male (n = 1,662) and female (n = 3,395), and heterosexual male (n = 91,599) and female (n = 176,467) students using chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of eating-related pathology outcomes after adjusting for covariates. Rates of past-year SR-ED diagnosis and past-month use of diet pills and vomiting or laxatives were highest among transgender students and lowest among cisgender heterosexual men. Compared to cisgender heterosexual women, transgender students had greater odds of past-year SR-ED diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 4.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.41-6.26) and past-month use of diet pills (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.48-2.83) and vomiting or laxatives (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.83-3.30). Although cisgender SM men and unsure men and women also had elevated rates of SR-ED diagnosis than heterosexual women, the magnitudes of these associations were lower than those for transgender individuals (ORs; 1.40-1.54). Transgender and cisgender SM young adults have elevated rates of compensatory behavior and SR-ED diagnosis. Appropriate interventions for these populations are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of constipation among persons living in institutional geriatric-care settings - a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lämås, Kristina; Karlsson, Stig; Nolén, Anna; Lövheim, Hugo; Sandman, Per-Olof

    2017-03-01

    The current state of knowledge about the prevalence of constipation among persons living in institutional geriatric-care settings is limited. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of constipation among institutional geriatric-care residents and identify resident characteristics related to constipation. In a cross-sectional study of all the institutional geriatric-care settings in a county in northern Sweden, 2970 residents were assessed. The member of staff who knew each resident best used the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale and the resident's records of prescribed medication to monitor cognitive function, activities in daily life, behavioural and psychological symptoms, physical restraints, speech ability, nutrition and pharmacologic agents. The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board. The prevalence of constipation was 67%. The mean age was higher among those with constipation. A significantly higher proportion of the constipated had cognitive and/or physical impairments, physical restraints, impaired speech, problems with nutrition, and higher numbers of drugs for regular use. Of those with constipation, 68% were prescribed laxatives for regular use. Twenty-three per cent of the constipated residents were prescribed opioid analgesics (n = 465), and 29% (n = 134) of these were not prescribed any laxatives. Due to the cross-sectional design, the results should be interpreted with caution in terms of causal reasoning, generalisation and conclusions about risk factors. Another limitation is the use of proxy assessments of constipation. The results show that constipation is common among residents in institutional geriatric-care settings in Sweden, which is in line with previous studies from other Western countries. Despite being constipated when having prescribed opioid analgesics, a large number did not have prescribed laxatives. The results indicate the urgency of finding strategies and implementing suitable interventions to improve

  12. Dietary roles of non-starch polysaccharides in human nutrition: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Sinha, Amit K; Makkar, Harinder P S; de Boeck, Gudrun; Becker, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs) occur naturally in many foods. The physiochemical and biological properties of these compounds correspond to dietary fiber. Nonstarch polysaccharides show various physiological effects in the small and large intestine and therefore have important health implications for humans. The remarkable properties of dietary NSPs are water dispersibility, viscosity effect, bulk, and fermentibility into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These features may lead to diminished risk of serious diet related diseases which are major problems in Western countries and are emerging in developing countries with greater affluence. These conditions include coronary heart disease, colo-rectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, breast cancer, tumor formation, mineral related abnormalities, and disordered laxation. Insoluble NSPs (cellulose and hemicellulose) are effective laxatives whereas soluble NSPs (especially mixed-link β-glucans) lower plasma cholesterol levels and help to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of polysaccharides a part of dietary plans to treat cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Moreover, a major proportion of dietary NSPs escapes the small intestine nearly intact, and is fermented into SCFAs by commensal microflora present in the colon and cecum and promotes normal laxation. Short chain fatty acids have a number of health promoting effects and are particularly effective in promoting large bowel function. Certain NSPs through their fermented products may promote the growth of specific beneficial colonic bacteria which offer a prebiotic effect. Various modes of action of NSPs as therapeutic agent have been proposed in the present review. In addition, NSPs based films and coatings for packaging and wrapping are of commercial interest because they are compatible with several types of food products. However, much of the physiological and nutritional impact of NSPs and the mechanism involved is not fully

  13. Evaluation of two minimal-preparation regimes for CT colonography: optimising image quality and patient acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Pollentine, A; Mortimer, A; Mccoubrie, P; Archer, L

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare a 2 day bowel preparation regime of barium, iodine and a mild stimulant laxative with a 1 day iodine-only regime for CT colonography (CTC). Methods 100 consecutive patients underwent CTC. The first 50 patients (Regime 1) ingested 1 bisacodyl tablet twice a day 3 days before CTC and 1 dose each of 50 ml of barium and 20 ml of iodinated contrast per day starting 2 days before CTC. The second 50 patients (Regime 2) ingested 3 doses of iodinated contrast over 24 h prior to CTC. Volumes of residual stool and fluid, and the effectiveness of stool and fluid tagging, were graded according to methods established by Taylor et al (Taylor S, Slaker A, Burling D, Tam E, Greenhalgh R, Gartner L, et al. CT colonography: optimisation, diagnostic performance and patient acceptability of reduced-laxative regimens using barium-based faecal tagging. Eur Radiol 2008; 18: 32–42). A 3 day low-residue diet was taken by both cohorts. Questionnaires rating the side-effects and burden of the bowel preparation were compared to a control cohort of patients undergoing barium enema. Results The proportion of colons producing none/scattered stool (score 1) was 90.3% with Regime 1 and 65.0% with Regime 2 (p<0.005). Any residual stool was significantly better tagged with Regime 1 (score 5), with 91.7% of Regime 1 exhibiting optimum tagging vs 71.3% of Regime 2 (p<0.05). No significant differences in side-effects between the bowel preparation regimes for CTC were elicited. Bowel preparation for barium enema was tolerated significantly worse than both of the CTC bowel preparation regimes. Conclusion Regime 1, containing a 3 day preparation of a mild laxative, barium and iodine, produced a significantly better prepared colon, with no difference in patient acceptability. PMID:22422379

  14. Evaluation of two minimal-preparation regimes for CT colonography: optimising image quality and patient acceptability.

    PubMed

    Pollentine, A; Mortimer, A; McCoubrie, P; Archer, L

    2012-08-01

    To compare a 2 day bowel preparation regime of barium, iodine and a mild stimulant laxative with a 1 day iodine-only regime for CT colonography (CTC). 100 consecutive patients underwent CTC. The first 50 patients (Regime 1) ingested 1 bisacodyl tablet twice a day 3 days before CTC and 1 dose each of 50 ml of barium and 20 ml of iodinated contrast per day starting 2 days before CTC. The second 50 patients (Regime 2) ingested 3 doses of iodinated contrast over 24 h prior to CTC. Volumes of residual stool and fluid, and the effectiveness of stool and fluid tagging, were graded according to methods established by Taylor et al (Taylor S, Slaker A, Burling D, Tam E, Greenhalgh R, Gartner L, et al. CT colonography: optimisation, diagnostic performance and patient acceptability of reduced-laxative regimens using barium-based faecal tagging. Eur Radiol 2008; 18: 32-42). A 3 day low-residue diet was taken by both cohorts. Questionnaires rating the side-effects and burden of the bowel preparation were compared to a control cohort of patients undergoing barium enema. The proportion of colons producing none/scattered stool (score 1) was 90.3% with Regime 1 and 65.0% with Regime 2 (p<0.005). Any residual stool was significantly better tagged with Regime 1 (score 5), with 91.7% of Regime 1 exhibiting optimum tagging vs 71.3% of Regime 2 (p<0.05). No significant differences in side-effects between the bowel preparation regimes for CTC were elicited. Bowel preparation for barium enema was tolerated significantly worse than both of the CTC bowel preparation regimes. Regime 1, containing a 3 day preparation of a mild laxative, barium and iodine, produced a significantly better prepared colon, with no difference in patient acceptability.

  15. Gender Identity, Sexual Orientation, and Eating-related Pathology in a National Sample of College Students

    PubMed Central

    Diemer, Elizabeth W.; Grant, Julia D.; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A.; Patterson, David A.; Duncan, Alexis E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined associations of gender identity and sexual orientation with self-reported eating disorder (SR-ED) diagnosis and compensatory behaviors (CB) in trans- and cis-gender college students. Methods Data came from 289,024 students from 223 U.S. universities participating in The American College Health Association – National College Health Assessment II (median age 20 years). Rates of self-reported past year SR-ED diagnosis and past month use of diet pills and vomiting or laxatives were compared among transgender students (n=479) and cisgender sexual minority male (n=5,977) and female (n=9,445), unsure male (n=1,662) and female (n=3,395), and heterosexual male (n=91,599) and female (n=176,467) students using chi-squared tests. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of eating-related pathology outcomes after adjusting for covariates. Results Rates of past year SR-ED diagnosis and past month use of diet pills and vomiting or laxatives were highest among transgender students and lowest cisgender heterosexual men. Compared to cisgender heterosexual women, transgender students had greater odds of past year SR-ED diagnosis (OR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.41-6.26) and past month use of diet pills (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.48-2.83) and vomiting or laxatives (OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.83-3.30). Although cisgender sexual minority men and unsure men and women also had elevated rates of SR-ED diagnosis than heterosexual women, the magnitudes of these associations were lower than for transgender individuals (ORs: 1.40-1.54). Conclusions Transgender and cisgender sexual minority young adults have elevated rates of CB and SR-ED diagnosis. Appropriate interventions for these populations are urgently needed. PMID:25937471

  16. Constipation, haemorrhoids, and heartburn in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Constipation, heartburn, and haemorrhoids are common gastrointestinal complaints during pregnancy. Constipation occurs in 11-38% of pregnant women. Although the exact prevalence of haemorrhoids during pregnancy is unknown, the condition is common, and the prevalence of symptomatic haemorrhoids in pregnant women is higher than in non-pregnant women. The incidence of heartburn in pregnancy is reported to be 17-45%. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat constipation in pregnancy? What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat haemorrhoids in pregnancy? What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat heartburn in pregnancy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to July 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found five systematic reviews, RCTs or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: Acid-suppressing drugs, anaesthetic agents (topical), antacids with or without alginates, bulk-forming laxatives, compound corticosteroid and anaesthetic agents (topical), corticosteroid agents (topical), increased fibre intake, increased fluid intake, osmotic laxatives, raising the head of the bed, reducing caffeine intake, intake of fatty foods, and the size and frequency of meals, rutosides, sitz baths, and stimulant laxatives. PMID:19450328

  17. Constipation, haemorrhoids, and heartburn in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Constipation, heartburn, and haemorrhoids are common gastrointestinal complaints during pregnancy. Constipation occurs in 11% to 38% of pregnant women. Although the exact prevalence of haemorrhoids during pregnancy is unknown, the condition is common, and the prevalence of symptomatic haemorrhoids in pregnant women is higher than in non-pregnant women. The incidence of heartburn in pregnancy is reported to be 17% to 45%. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat constipation in pregnancy? What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat haemorrhoids in pregnancy? What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat heartburn in pregnancy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found seven systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acid-suppressing drugs; anaesthetic agents (topical); antacids with or without alginates; bulk-forming laxatives; compound corticosteroid and anaesthetic agents (topical); corticosteroid agents (topical); increased fibre intake; increased fluid intake; osmotic laxatives; raising the head of the bed; reducing caffeine intake, intake of fatty foods, and the size and frequency of meals; rutosides; sitz baths; and stimulant laxatives. PMID:21418682

  18. PEG 3350 (Transipeg) versus lactulose in the treatment of childhood functional constipation: a double blind, randomised, controlled, multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Voskuijl, W; de Lorijn, F; Verwijs, W; Hogeman, P; Heijmans, J; Mäkel, W; Taminiau, J; Benninga, M

    2004-11-01

    Recently, polyethylene glycol (PEG 3350) has been suggested as a good alternative laxative to lactulose as a treatment option in paediatric constipation. However, no large randomised controlled trials exist evaluating the efficacy of either laxative. To compare PEG 3350 (Transipeg: polyethylene glycol with electrolytes) with lactulose in paediatric constipation and evaluate clinical efficacy/side effects. One hundred patients (aged 6 months-15 years) with paediatric constipation were included in an eight week double blinded, randomised, controlled trial. After faecal disimpaction, patients <6 years of age received PEG 3350 (2.95 g/sachet) or lactulose (6 g/sachet) while children > or =6 years started with 2 sachets/day. Primary outcome measures were: defecation and encopresis frequency/week and successful treatment after eight weeks. Success was defined as a defecation frequency > or =3/week and encopresis < or =1 every two weeks. Secondary outcome measures were side effects after eight weeks of treatment. A total of 91 patients (49 male) completed the study. A significant increase in defecation frequency (PEG 3350: 3 pre v 7 post treatment/week; lactulose: 3 pre v 6 post/week) and a significant decrease in encopresis frequency (PEG 3350: 10 pre v 3 post/week; lactulose: 8 pre v 3 post/week) was found in both groups (NS). However, success was significantly higher in the PEG group (56%) compared with the lactulose group (29%). PEG 3350 patients reported less abdominal pain, straining, and pain at defecation than children using lactulose. However, bad taste was reported significantly more often in the PEG group. PEG 3350 (0.26 (0.11) g/kg), compared with lactulose (0.66 (0.32) g/kg), provided a higher success rate with fewer side effects. PEG 3350 should be the laxative of first choice in childhood constipation.

  19. [Guidelines for the treatment of functional constipation].

    PubMed

    Bautista Casasnovas, A; Argüelles Martín, F; Peña Quintana, L; Polanco Allué, I; Sánchez Ruiz, F; Varea Calderón, V

    2011-01-01

    Constipation is common in childhood. It can affect around 5-30% of the child population, depending on the criteria used for diagnosis. The currently recommended treatment is based on three main points: a) explanation, b) disimpaction and c) maintenance therapy consisting of diet changes, behavioural modification, and the use of laxatives. In the last decades treatment on disimpaction have changed radically from the rectal route to the oral route with polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG), the most used and accepted regimen nowadays. Treatment and care should take into account the individual needs and preferences of the patient. Good communication is essential, to allow patients to reach informed decisions about their care. Maintenance therapy consists of dietary interventions, toilet training, and laxatives to obtain daily painless defaecation in order to prevent re-accumulation of stools. Maintenance therapy should be start as soon as the child's bowel is disimpacted. Early intervention with oral laxatives may improve complete resolution of functional constipation. Enemas using phosphate, mineral oil, or normal saline are effective in relieving rectal impaction, but carry the risk of mechanical trauma and are not recommended for maintenance therapy in the paediatric population. Among osmotic agents, polyethylene glycol 3350 plus electrolyte solutions appear to be the first-line drug treatment to use in children of any age, as it is safe, effective, and well-tolerated. Recommended doses ranges from 0.25 to 1.5g/kg. Advances in the understanding of the gastrointestinal enteric nervous system and epithelial function have led to the development of new substances that bind to serotonin receptors or are chloride channel activators. Copyright © 2010 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Emerging therapies for patients with symptoms of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Leppert, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) comprises gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, gastric stasis, bloating, abdominal pain, and opioid-induced constipation, which significantly impair patients’ quality of life and may lead to undertreatment of pain. Traditional laxatives are often prescribed for OIBD symptoms, although they display limited efficacy and exert adverse effects. Other strategies include prokinetics and change of opioids or their administration route. However, these approaches do not address underlying causes of OIBD associated with opioid effects on mostly peripheral opioid receptors located in the GI tract. Targeted management of OIBD comprises purely peripherally acting opioid receptor antagonists and a combination of opioid receptor agonist and antagonist. Methylnaltrexone induces laxation in 50%–60% of patients with advanced diseases and OIBD who do not respond to traditional oral laxatives without inducing opioid withdrawal symptoms with similar response (45%–50%) after an oral administration of naloxegol. A combination of prolonged-release oxycodone with prolonged-release naloxone (OXN) in one tablet (a ratio of 2:1) provides analgesia with limited negative effect on the bowel function, as oxycodone displays high oral bioavailability and naloxone demonstrates local antagonist effect on opioid receptors in the GI tract and is totally inactivated in the liver. OXN in daily doses of up to 80 mg/40 mg provides equally effective analgesia with improved bowel function compared to oxycodone administered alone in patients with chronic non-malignant and cancer-related pain. OIBD is a common complication of long-term opioid therapy and may lead to quality of life deterioration and undertreatment of pain. Thus, a complex assessment and management that addresses underlying causes and patomechanisms of OIBD is recommended. Newer strategies comprise methylnaltrexone or OXN administration in the management of OIBD

  1. Driven exercise in the absence of binge eating: Implications for purging disorder.

    PubMed

    Lydecker, Janet A; Shea, Megan; Grilo, Carlos M

    2018-02-01

    Purging disorder (PD) is characterized by recurrent purging without objectively large binge-eating episodes. PD has received relatively little attention, and questions remain about the clinical significance of "purging" by exercise that is driven or compulsive (i.e., as extreme compensatory or weight-control behavior). The little available research suggests that individuals who use exercise as a compensatory behavior might have less eating-disorder psychopathology than those who purge by vomiting or laxatives, but those studies have had smaller sample sizes, defined PD using low-frequency thresholds, and defined exercise without weight-compensatory or driven elements. Participants (N = 2,017) completed a web-based survey with established measures of eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and physical activity. Participants were categorized (regular compensatory driven exercise, PD-E, n = 297; regular compensatory vomiting/laxatives, PD-VL, n = 59; broadly defined anorexia nervosa, AN, n = 20; and no eating-disordered behaviors, NED, n = 1,658) and compared. PD-E, PD-VL, and AN had higher eating-disorder psychopathology and physical activity than NED but did not significantly differ from each other on most domains. PD-VL and AN had higher depression than PD-E, which was higher than NED. Findings suggest that among participants with regularly compensatory behaviors without binge eating, those who use exercise alone have similar levels of associated eating-disorder psychopathology as those who use vomiting/laxatives, although they have lower depression levels and overall frequency of purging. Findings provide further support for the clinical significance of PD. Clinicians and researchers should recognize the severity of driven exercise as a compensatory behavior, and the need for further epidemiological and treatment research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Efficacy of Functional Electrical Stimulation of the Abdominal Muscles in the Treatment of Chronic Constipation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Peace, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Chronic constipation in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is common and the current methods of treatment are ineffective in some patients. Anecdotal observations suggest that functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the abdominal muscles may be effective in the management of constipation in these patients. Patients and Methods. In this exploratory investigation we studied the effects of FES on the whole gut transit time (WGTT) and the colonic transit time (CTT). In addition, we evaluated the treatment effect on the patients' constipation-related quality of life and on the use of laxatives and the use of manual bowel evacuation. FES was given for 30 minutes twice a day for a period of six weeks. Four female patients were studied. Results. The WGTT and CTT and constipation-related quality of life improved in all patients. The patients' use of laxatives was reduced. No adverse effects of FES treatment were reported. Conclusion. The findings of this pilot study suggest that FES applied to the abdominal muscles may be an effective treatment modality for severe chronic constipation in patients with MS. PMID:27200190

  3. Economic impact of low dose polyethylene glycol 3350 plus electrolytes compared with lactulose in the management of idiopathic constipation in the UK.

    PubMed

    Christie, Angela H; Culbert, Pearl; Guest, Julian F

    2002-01-01

    To estimate the economic impact of using low dose polyethyene glycol 3350 (PEG 3350) plus electrolytes (PEG+E) compared with lactulose in the treatment of idiopathic constipation in ambulant patients. DESIGN AND PERSPECTIVE: This was a decision analytic modelling study performed from the perspective of the UK's National Health Service (NHS). The clinical outcomes from a previously reported single-blind, randomised, multicentre trial were used as the clinical basis for the analysis. These data were combined with resource utilisation estimates derived from a panel of six general practitioners (GPs) and four nurses enabling a decision model to be constructed depicting the management of idiopathic constipation with either PEG+E or lactulose over 3 months. The model was used to estimate the expected 3-monthly NHS cost of using either laxative to manage idiopathic constipation. The expected 3-monthly NHS cost of using PEG+E or lactulose to manage idiopathic constipation was estimated to be 85 pound sterling and 96 pound sterling per patient, respectively (1999/2000 values). However, significantly more patients were successfully treated with PEG+E than lactulose (53% versus 24%; p < 0.001) at 3 months. GP visits were the primary cost driver for both PEG+E- and lactulose-treated patients, accounting for 56% (2.9 visits) and 73% (4.4 visits), respectively, of the expected NHS cost per patient at 3 months. Among PEG+E-treated patients, the acquisition cost of PEG+E was the secondary cost driver, accounting for 30% of the expected NHS cost per patient at 3 months, whereas the acquisition cost of lactulose accounted for only 11% of the expected NHS cost per lactulose-treated patient. District nurse domiciliary visits accounted for 4% and thyroid function tests for 2%. The costs of switched laxatives, concomitant laxatives, and gastroenterologist and colorectal surgeon visits collectively accounted for up to 9% of the total. The true cost of managing idiopathic constipation is

  4. Transport of sennosides and sennidines from Cassia angustifolia and Cassia senna across Caco-2 monolayers--an in vitro model for intestinal absorption.

    PubMed

    Waltenberger, B; Avula, B; Ganzera, M; Khan, I A; Stuppner, H; Khan, S I

    2008-05-01

    Laxative effects of Senna preparations are mainly mediated by rheinanthrone, a metabolite formed in the intestinal flora from dianthrones. Nevertheless, it was not clear whether dianthrones are bioavailable at all and contribute to the overall effects of this important medicinal plant. Using the Caco-2 human colonic cell line as an in vitro model of the human intestinal mucosal barrier, the bioavailability of dianthrones was studied in apical to basolateral (absorptive) and basolateral to apical (secretive) direction. Permeability coefficients (P(c)) and percent transport were calculated based on quantitations by HPLC. From the data obtained it was concluded that sennosides A and B, as well as their aglycones sennidine A and B are transported through the Caco-2 monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner and their transport was linear with time. The absorption in apical to basolateral direction was poor and P(c) values were comparable to mannitol. The transport was higher in the secretory direction, indicating a significant efflux (e.g. by efflux pumps) of the (poorly) absorbed compounds in the intestinal lumen again. Our findings support the general understanding that the laxative effects of Senna are explainable mainly by metabolites and not by the natively present dianthrones.

  5. Cardiac Risk and Disordered Eating: Decreased R Wave Amplitude in Women with Bulimia Nervosa and Women with Subclinical Binge/Purge Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Green, Melinda; Rogers, Jennifer; Nguyen, Christine; Blasko, Katherine; Martin, Amanda; Hudson, Dominique; Fernandez-Kong, Kristen; Kaza-Amlak, Zauditu; Thimmesch, Brandon; Thorne, Tyler

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was threefold. First, we examined whether women with bulimia nervosa (n = 12) and women with subthreshold binge/purge symptoms (n = 20) showed decreased mean R wave amplitude, an indicator of cardiac risk, on electrocardiograph compared to asymptomatic women (n = 20). Second, we examined whether this marker was pervasive across experimental paradigms, including before and after sympathetic challenge tasks. Third, we investigated behavioural predictors of this marker, including binge frequency and purge frequency assessed by subtype (dietary restriction, excessive exercise, self-induced vomiting, and laxative abuse). Results of a 3 (ED symptom status) × 5 (experimental condition) mixed factorial ANCOVA (covariates: body mass index, age) indicated women with bulimia nervosa and women with subclinical binge/purge symptoms demonstrated significantly reduced mean R wave amplitude compared to asymptomatic women; this effect was pervasive across experimental conditions. Multiple regression analyses showed binge and purge behaviours, most notably laxative abuse as a purge method, predicted decreased R wave amplitude across all experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Weight Loss Behaviors Used by Active Duty Air Force Personnel to Maintain Compliance with Weight Control Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    lose weight. The methods of weight loss reported were exercising , skipping meals, using diet pills, and self- induced vomiting. In each case, females...Restrictive Diet Popular Diet Self- induced Vomifing Laxatives Diuretics Diet Pills Exercise Other Note- N = frequency of resf were allowed to...Rate 69 Demographic Data 69 Exercise 70 Weight Loss Beliefs and Practices 71 Additional Data Collected 76 Implications for Military Health Care

  7. Factitious diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Saibil, F G

    1974-11-16

    The causes of diarrhea are legion. In any diagnostic problem a factitious etiology must be carefully considered. Three cases are presented, in two of which daily ingestion of prunes and prune juice was found to be the cause of chronic diarrhea. In the third case an edible oil product, Coffee Rich, was determined by dietary manipulation to be the cause, carrageenan possibly being the laxative principle.

  8. Impact of Disordered Eating and Psychological Functioning on Overweight Adolescents Participating in a Placebo-Controlled Medication and Behavioral Weight Loss Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-23

    1997; Sothern et al., 2000)), and therefore induce greater and faster weight loss compared to other hypocaloric diets . However, similar to other...between VLCD and a hypocaloric diet +behavior modification and their combination. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 21(7...taking diet pills, self-induced vomiting, and using laxatives or diuretics, as well as “unhealthy” weight control behaviors, including fasting

  9. Small volume isosmotic polyethylene glycol electrolyte balanced solution (PMF-100) in treatment of chronic nonorganic constipation.

    PubMed

    Corazziari, E; Badiali, D; Habib, F I; Reboa, G; Pitto, G; Mazzacca, G; Sabbatini, F; Galeazzi, R; Cilluffo, T; Vantini, I; Bardelli, E; Baldi, F

    1996-08-01

    The present multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled trial evaluates the therapeutic effectiveness of small-volume daily doses of an isosmotic polyethylene glycol (PEG) electrolyte solution in the treatment of chronic nonorganic constipation. After a complete diagnostic investigation, patients still constipated at the end of a four-week placebo-treatment run-in period were enrolled and randomized to receive either placebo or PEG solution 250 ml twice a day for the following eight weeks. Patients were assessed at four and eight weeks of treatment, and they reported frequency and modality of evacuation, use of laxatives, and relevant symptoms daily on a diary card. Oroanal and segmental large-bowel transit times were assessed with radiopaque markers during the fourth week of the run-in period and the last week of the treatment period. During the study period, dietary fiber and liquids were standardized and laxatives were allowed only after five consecutive days without a bowel movement. Of the 55 patients enrolled, five dropped out, three because of adverse events and two for reasons unrelated to therapy; another two were excluded from the efficacy analysis because of protocol violation. Of the remaining 48 patients (37 women, age 42 +/- 15 years, mean +/- SD), 23 were assigned to placebo and 25 to PEG treatment. In comparison to placebo, PEG solution induced a statistically significant increase in weekly bowel frequency at four weeks and at the end of the study (PEG: 4.8 +/- 2.3 vs placebo: 2.8 +/- 1.6; P < 0.002) and a significant decrease in straining at defecation (P < 0.01), stool consistency (P < 0.02), and use of laxatives (P < 0.03). Oroanal, left colon, and rectal transit times were significantly shortened by PEG treatment. There was no difference between controls and PEG-treated patients as far as abdominal symptoms and side effects were concerned. In conclusion, PEG solution at 250 ml twice a day is effective in increasing bowel frequency, accelerating

  10. The comparative gastrointestinal responses of children and adults following consumption of sweets formulated with sucrose, isomalt and lycasin HBC.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Wils, D; Zumbé, A; Storey, D M

    2002-08-01

    To determine the gastrointestinal responses of children and adults following consumption of sucrose, isomalt and lycasin HBC and to compare these at two different dose levels in adults. Both studies were randomised, double-blind, cross-over designs. Fifty-one children aged 6-9 y were recruited from primary schools in the Salford area of Greater Manchester. Forty-eight children completed the study. Fifty healthy adult volunteers aged 18-24 y were recruited from the student population of the University of Salford. All subjects completed the study. Children consumed either 25 g of sucrose, isomalt or lycasin HBC and adults 25 and 40 g in hard boiled sweets per day for two consecutive test days. Test periods of 2 days were separated by 7 day washout periods. Children consumed sweets throughout test days and adults in no less than 30 min but no more than 90 min. Subjects reported the prevalence and magnitude of flatulence, borborygmi, bloating, colic, bowel movements and watery faeces. Consumption of 25 g isomalt provoked a mild laxative effect in children but not in adults. Consumption of 25 g isomalt significantly increased the prevalence and magnitude of gastrointestinal responses in both children and adults. Consumption of 25 g lycasin HBC significantly increased borborygml in children and adults but no other gastrointestinal responses. Consumption of 40 g lycasin HBC or isomalt by adults significantly increased the mean frequency of bowel movements and the number of subjects passing watery faeces. In adults, 40 g isomalt and lycasin HBC provoked significantly more gastrointestinal responses compared to 25 g of either product. Consumption of 25 g lycasin HBC does not provoke an unacceptable laxative effect or gastrointestinal response in children or adults compared to 25 g isomalt, which is associated with a mild laxative effect and increase in gastrointestinal responses. In adults gastrointestinal responses following consumption of products were found to be dose

  11. Lubiprostone: chloride channel activator for chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Rivkin, Anastasia; Chagan, Larisa

    2006-12-01

    Chronic constipation is a common and costly health problem occurring in approximately 4.5 million Americans. Current management of constipation is suboptimal and requires a stepwise approach using a combination of laxatives to decrease symptoms. The objective of this review was to describe the efficacy and safety of a new therapeutic entity, lubiprostone, recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation. Computerized searches of MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were conducted (1966-July 10, 2006). Search terms utilized were lubiprostone, RU-0211, and chronic constipation. References of selected articles were searched for additional articles or abstracts. All relevant published literature regarding lubiprostone was included in this review. Pertinent abstracts presented at meetings of the American College of Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases Week were also included. Lubiprostone activates a chloride channel (ie, subtype 2) and increases chloride and fluid secretion into the intestines, resulting in relief of constipation. It is poorly absorbed after oral administration, and its metabolism occurs primarily in the stomach and jejunum. Lubiprostone was evaluated in 6 placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized Phase II or III clinical trials. Overall, in clinical trials, >1400 patients were exposed to 24 mug of lubiprostone BID for up to 48 weeks. It improved the number of bowel movements, stool consistency, bloating, and global assessment of constipation compared with placebo (P < 0.05). Nausea was the most common adverse effect reported in clinical trials, occurring in 30.9% of patients. However, nausea was dose dependent and decreased when lubiprostone was given with food. Lubiprostone is the first in its class of chloride channel activators that results in improvement of symptoms of constipation. It has not been compared with other laxatives but, based on the available placebo

  12. Contact Burn with Blister Formation in Children Treated with Sennosides.

    PubMed

    Cogley, Kimberly; Echevarria, Andrea; Correa, Catalina; De la Torre-Mondragón, Luis

    2017-03-01

    Eight children treated for severe constipation with sennosides unexpectedly developed contact burns with blisters secondary to the use of these laxatives. All patients wore diapers, and the injuries occurred overnight. To avoid this side effect, we recommend that patients treated with sennosides, especially those in diapers, receive the medication at a time that allows for bowel movements to occur during the day and not overnight. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.E.; Choplin, R.H.; Chiles, C.

    Exogenous lipoid pneumonia results from the aspiration or inhalation of fatty substances, such as mineral oil found in laxatives or nasal medications containing liquid paraffin. We present standard and lipid-sensitive (chemical-shift) MR findings in a patient with histologically confirmed lipoid pneumonia. The loss of signal intensity in an area of airspace disease on opposed-phase imaging was considered specific for the presence of lipid. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Factitious diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Saibil, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    The causes of diarrhea are legion. In any diagnostic problem a factitious etiology must be carefully considered. Three cases are presented, in two of which daily ingestion of prunes and prune juice was found to be the cause of chronic diarrhea. In the third case an edible oil product, Coffee Rich, was determined by dietary manipulation to be the cause, carrageenan possibly being the laxative principle. PMID:4429937

  15. Biofeedback-guided pelvic floor exercise therapy for obstructive defecation: An effective alternative

    PubMed Central

    ba-bai-ke-re, Ma-Mu-Ti-Jiang A; Wen, Ni-Re; Hu, Yun-Long; Zhao, Liang; Tuxun, Tuerhongjiang; Husaiyin, Aierhati; Sailai, Yalikun; Abulimiti, Alimujiang; Wang, Yun-Hai; Yang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare biofeedback-guided pelvic floor exercise therapy (BFT) with the use of oral polyethylene glycol (PEG) for the treatment of obstructive defecation. METHODS: A total of 88 subjects were assigned to treatment with either BFT (n = 44) or oral PEG (n = 44). Constipation symptoms (including difficult evacuation, hard stool, digitation necessity, incomplete emptying sensation, laxative dependence, perianal pain at defecation, and constipation satisfaction), Wexner Scores, and quality of life scores were assessed after 1, 3, and 6 mo. RESULTS: At the 6 mo follow-up, the symptoms of the BFT group patients showed significantly greater improvements compared with the PEG group regarding difficult evacuation, hard stools, digitation necessity, laxative dependence, perianal pain at defecation, constipation satisfaction, Wexner Constipation Score, and quality of life score (P < 0.05). The quality of life score of the BFT group at the final follow-up time (6 mo) was 80 ± 2.2. After a complete course of training, improvements in the clinical symptoms of the BFT group were markedly improved (P < 0.05), and the Wexner Constipation Scores were greatly decreased compared with the oral PEG group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We concluded that manometric biofeedback-guided pelvic floor exercise training is superior to oral polyethylene glycol therapy for obstructive defecation. PMID:25083090

  16. [Difficulties in adressing purging behaviour in the treatment of a patient with anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Keifenheim, Katharina Eva; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Leehr, Elisabeth Johanna; Becker, Sandra; Mörike, Klaus; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2013-08-01

    We report on a 24-year-old patient with secondary amenorrhoea, underweight (BMI 15,0 kg/m²), and a fear of weight gain, who used laxatives, diuretics, excessive sport and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for weight regulation. On physical examination, cachexia, bradycardia, lanugo hair on face and back, and cyanosis of hands and feet were observed. In the laboratory findings, leukopenia, recurrent low potassium and an elevated mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were remarkable. We diagnosed anorexia nervosa, binge/purging type (AN-BP). We treated the patient for seven weeks in a multimodal setting specific for patients with eating disorders. She gained 3.9 kg (11% of her initial weight). Special challenges included the complications of her laxative abuse as well as her distinct body image disturbance. With knowledge of her background, we understood this misuse of hCG. Purging behaviour should be questioned in detail in patients with eating disorders, because purging methods are not always reported right away and are accompanied with great shame. However, purging behaviour can be very dangerous to one's health. Using a hCG diet (Hollywood diet) is a rare purging method in patients with anorexia nervosa. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. No clastogenic activity of a senna extract in the mouse micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Mengs, U; Grimminger, W; Krumbiegel, G; Schuler, D; Silber, W; Völkner, W

    1999-08-18

    In previous studies, an analytically well-defined senna extract, commonly used as a laxative, gave positive responses in vitro in the Ames test and in the CHO assay. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the genotoxic activity of the same senna extract in an in vivo genotoxicity assay by means of the generally acknowledged MNT. After administration of an oral dose of 2000 mg senna extract/kg to NMRI mice of both genders, which is equivalent to 119 mg potential rhein/kg, 5.74 mg potential aloeemodin/kg and 0. 28 mg potential emodin/kg, there were no elevated levels of micronuclei in bone marrow cells. Kinetic studies were performed in parallel to demonstrate target organ availability. Highest concentrations in the plasma were reached after 1 h with 3.4 microg rhein/ml and 0.065 microg aloeemodin/ml. In all cases, emodin was below the limit of quantification. From the results, the in vitro clastogenic activity of the senna extract could not be confirmed in the mouse micronucleus assay. Together with further negative in vivo genotoxicity studies with anthranoids, the conclusion can be drawn that there is no indication so far demonstrating a genotoxic risk for patients taking senna laxatives.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation – a European perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tack, J; Müller-Lissner, S; Stanghellini, V; Boeckxstaens, G; Kamm, M A; Simren, M; Galmiche, J-P; Fried, M

    2011-01-01

    Background Although constipation can be a chronic and severe problem, it is largely treated empirically. Evidence for the efficacy of some of the older laxatives from well-designed trials is limited. Patients often report high levels of dissatisfaction with their treatment, which is attributed to a lack of efficacy or unpleasant side-effects. Management guidelines and recommendations are limited and are not sufficiently current to include treatments that became available more recently, such as prokinetic agents in Europe. Purpose We present an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, current management and available guidelines for the treatment of chronic constipation, and include recent data on the efficacy and potential clinical use of the more newly available therapeutic agents. Based on published algorithms and guidelines on the management of chronic constipation, secondary pathologies and causes are first excluded and then diet, lifestyle, and, if available, behavioral measures adopted. If these fail, bulk-forming, osmotic, and stimulant laxatives can be used. If symptoms are not satisfactorily resolved, a prokinetic agent such as prucalopride can be prescribed. Biofeedback is recommended as a treatment for chronic constipation in patients with disordered defecation. Surgery should only be considered once all other treatment options have been exhausted. PMID:21605282

  19. Biofeedback therapy for dyssynergic defecation

    PubMed Central

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Heymen, Steve; Whitehead, William E

    2006-01-01

    Dyssynergic defecation is one of the most common forms of functional constipation both in children and adults; it is defined by incomplete evacuation of fecal material from the rectum due to paradoxical contraction or failure to relax pelvic floor muscles when straining to defecate. This is believed to be a behavioral disorder because there are no associated morphological or neurological abnormalities, and consequently biofeedback training has been recommended for treatment. Biofeedback involves the use of pressure measurements or averaged electromyographic activity within the anal canal to teach patients how to relax pelvic floor muscles when straining to defecate. This is often combined with teaching the patient more appropriate techniques for straining (increasing intra-abdominal pressure) and having the patient practice defecating a water filled balloon. In adults, randomized controlled trials show that this form of biofeedback is more effective than laxatives, general muscle relaxation exercises (described as sham biofeedback), and drugs to relax skeletal muscles. Moreover, its effectiveness is specific to patients who have dyssynergic defecation and not slow transit constipation. However, in children, no clear superiority for biofeedback compared to laxatives has been demonstrated. Based on three randomized controlled studies in the last two years, biofeedback appears to be the preferred treatment for dyssynergic defecation in adults. PMID:17131466

  20. Biofeedback-guided pelvic floor exercise therapy for obstructive defecation: an effective alternative.

    PubMed

    Ba-Bai-Ke-Re, Ma-Mu-Ti-Jiang A; Wen, Ni-Re; Hu, Yun-Long; Zhao, Liang; Tuxun, Tuerhongjiang; Husaiyin, Aierhati; Sailai, Yalikun; Abulimiti, Alimujiang; Wang, Yun-Hai; Yang, Peng

    2014-07-21

    To compare biofeedback-guided pelvic floor exercise therapy (BFT) with the use of oral polyethylene glycol (PEG) for the treatment of obstructive defecation. A total of 88 subjects were assigned to treatment with either BFT (n = 44) or oral PEG (n = 44). Constipation symptoms (including difficult evacuation, hard stool, digitation necessity, incomplete emptying sensation, laxative dependence, perianal pain at defecation, and constipation satisfaction), Wexner Scores, and quality of life scores were assessed after 1, 3, and 6 mo. At the 6 mo follow-up, the symptoms of the BFT group patients showed significantly greater improvements compared with the PEG group regarding difficult evacuation, hard stools, digitation necessity, laxative dependence, perianal pain at defecation, constipation satisfaction, Wexner Constipation Score, and quality of life score (P < 0.05). The quality of life score of the BFT group at the final follow-up time (6 mo) was 80 ± 2.2. After a complete course of training, improvements in the clinical symptoms of the BFT group were markedly improved (P < 0.05), and the Wexner Constipation Scores were greatly decreased compared with the oral PEG group (P < 0.05). We concluded that manometric biofeedback-guided pelvic floor exercise training is superior to oral polyethylene glycol therapy for obstructive defecation.

  1. Lubiprostone for constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Ashok K; Rao, Satish S C

    2008-12-01

    Chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome are heterogeneous disorders characterized by altered bowel habits, abdominal discomfort and/or difficult defecation. These conditions have a significant impact on patients' quality of life, as well as on the US economy, both in terms of healthcare costs and lost productivity. Treatment typically begins with lifestyle changes, increased fiber intake and osmotic and stimulant laxative intake. However, treatments for constipation vary in terms of their efficacy and safety. Furthermore, surveys of physicians and patients have revealed a strong desire for improved therapeutic options. Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid that is gut selective and stimulates type 2 chloride channels, resulting in increased chloride, sodium and water secretion into the lumen. The increased fluid secretion causes luminal distension, secondary peristalsis and laxation. Randomized Phase III trials have shown that lubiprostone is efficacious in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. The US FDA has approved lubiprostone at a dose of 24 microg twice daily for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in adults, and at a dose of 8 microg twice daily for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in adult women. Nausea, diarrhea and headaches are the most commonly reported side effects. In long-term studies, lubiprostone appears to be safe.

  2. Chronic constipation: Current treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Louis Wing Cheong

    2011-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects patients of all ages. In 2007, a consensus group of 10 Canadian gastroenterologists developed a set of recommendations pertaining to the management of chronic constipation and constipation-dominant irritable bowel syndrome. Since then, tegaserod has been withdrawn from the Canadian market. A new, highly selective serotonin receptor subtype 4 agonist, prucalopride, has been examined in several large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating its efficacy and safety in the management of patients with chronic constipation. Additional studies evaluating the use of stimulant laxatives, polyethylene glycol and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation have also been published. The present review summarizes the previous recommendations and new evidence supporting different treatment modalities – namely, diet and lifestyle, bulking agents, stool softeners, osmotic and stimulant laxatives, prucalopride and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation. A brief summary of lubiprostone and linaclotide is also presented. The quality of evidence is presented by adopting the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Finally, a management pyramid for patients with chronic constipation is proposed based on the quality of evidence, impact of each modality on constipation and on general health, and their availabilities in Canada. PMID:22114754

  3. Intraluminal pressure patterns in the human colon assessed by high-resolution manometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji-Hong; Yu, Yuanjie; Yang, Zixian; Yu, Wen-Zhen; Chen, Wu Lan; Yu, Hui; Kim, Marie Jeong-Min; Huang, Min; Tan, Shiyun; Luo, Hesheng; Chen, Jianfeng; Chen, Jiande D. Z.; Huizinga, Jan D.

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of colonic motor dysfunction is rarely done because of inadequate methodology and lack of knowledge about normal motor patterns. Here we report on elucidation of intraluminal pressure patterns using High Resolution Colonic Manometry during a baseline period and in response to a meal, in 15 patients with constipation, chronically dependent on laxatives, 5 healthy volunteers and 9 patients with minor, transient, IBS-like symptoms but no sign of constipation. Simultaneous pressure waves (SPWs) were the most prominent propulsive motor pattern, associated with gas expulsion and anal sphincter relaxation, inferred to be associated with fast propagating contractions. Isolated pressure transients occurred in most sensors, ranging in amplitude from 5–230 mmHg. Rhythmic haustral boundary pressure transients occurred at sensors about 4–5 cm apart. Synchronized haustral pressure waves, covering 3–5 cm of the colon occurred to create a characteristic intrahaustral cyclic motor pattern at 3–6 cycles/min, propagating in mixed direction. This activity abruptly alternated with erratic patterns resembling the segmentation motor pattern of the small intestine. High amplitude propagating pressure waves (HAPWs) were too rare to contribute to function assessment in most subjects. Most patients, dependent on laxatives for defecation, were able to generate normal motor patterns in response to a meal. PMID:28216670

  4. Severe hypokalaemia with paralysis induced by small doses of liquorice.

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, A. M.; Boddy, K.; Brown, J. J.; Fraser, R.; Lever, A. F.; Padfield, P. L.; Robertson, J. I.

    1980-01-01

    A patient, who presented with a flaccid quadriplegia due to profound hypokalaemia, is described. Hypokalaemia and myoglobinuria were caused by the ingestion of small amounts of liquorice contained in a laxative preparation. Subsequent controlled administration of small amounts of this preparation induced marked hypokalaemia. This was associated with sodium retention and potassium loss confirming a mineralocorticoid-like action. The sodium retention was associated with suppression of plasma levels of renin and aldosterone. PMID:7443613

  5. Computer Simulation of Protein-Protein and Protein-Peptide Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-08

    a full molecular dynamic z simulation is performed, with resulting dipolar re - laxation. However, this is prohibitive when a large . number of...1993 Dr. Mike Marron Program Manager Molecular Biology Office of Naval Research 800 N. Quincy Street Arlington, VA 22217 Dear Mike, Here is the...rztnbutior is unLi--ited. , 93-30630 98 12 � 12/08/93 01/0/92-;03/31/93: Final Report, Computer Simulation of Protein-Protein and Protein-Peptide

  6. A comparison of sennosides-based bowel protocols with and without docusate in hospitalized patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Philippa Helen; Byeon, Jai Jun

    2008-05-01

    Constipation is a common and distressing condition in patients with cancer, especially those taking opioid analgesics. Many institutions prevent and treat constipation with titrated laxatives, which is known as a bowel protocol. An effective and well-tolerated bowel protocol is a very important component of cancer care, and there is little evidence on which to base selection of the most appropriate agents. This study compares a protocol of the stimulant laxative sennosides alone with a protocol of sennosides plus the stool softener docusate, in hospitalized patients at an oncology center. The docusate-containing protocol had an initial docusate-only step for patients not taking opioids, and four to six 100-mg capsules of docusate sodium in addition to the sennosides for the rest of the protocol. Thirty patients received the sennosides-only (S) protocol and 30 the sennosides plus docusate (DS) protocol. The efficacy and adverse effects of the protocols were monitored for 5-12 days. The two protocols were used sequentially, creating two cohorts, one on each protocol. Eighty percent of patients were taking oral opioids and 72% were admitted for symptom control/supportive care. Over a total of 488 days of observation it was found that the S protocol produced more bowel movements than the DS protocol, and in the symptom control/supportive care patients this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In the S group admitted for symptom control/supportive care 62.5% had a bowel movement more than 50% of days, as compared with 32% in those receiving the DS protocol. Fifty-seven percent of the DS group required additional interventions (lactulose, suppositories or enemas) compared to 40% in the S group. Cramps were reported equally by 3 (10%) patients in each group. Eight patients (27%) experienced diarrhea in the S group compared to 4 (13%) in the DS group. The addition of the initial docusate-only step and adding docusate 400-600 mg/d to the sennosides did not

  7. Constipation in the population over 50 years of age in Albacete province.

    PubMed

    López Cara, M A; Tárraga López, P J; Cerdán Oliver, M; Ocaña López, J M; Celada Rodríguez, A; Solera Albero, J; Palomino Medina, M A

    2006-06-01

    To Determine the incidence of constipation in Albacete province and its relation with diet and lifestyle. Cross-sectional population survey. We studied 414 participants over 50 years of age in Albacete province. 445 persons over 50 years of age were included in the study. All participants were selected by systematic random sampling; 414 participants filled in the questionnaire correctly. age, weight and height, marital status, level of education and occupation; presence of a disease, number of sleep hours a day, physical exercise, smoking, alcohol intake, drug intake (anti-inflammatories and laxatives); bowel habit, diet, meal frequency and place; food intake frequency per week, daily intake of water, coffee, tea and herbal beverages; vitamin and fiber supplements; presence of cancer in the family. 56.9% of participants were women. Mean age 67.07 years. In Albacete province, 4.4% of the population over 50 years have a bowel habit consistent with constipation. Most participants had three meals a day (breakfast, lunch, and supper), while 50% had another meal in the morning or afternoon. These meals took place, habitually, in the domicile. There was a preponderance in daily intake of the following foods: milk (83.7%), bread (95.1%), vegetables (68.8%), fruit (91.8%), and virgin olive oil (96.6%). Fish was eaten every one to two days, and pulses and meat every three to six days. 44.4% of participants drank one to two liters of water a day. Only 3.9% of participants took some supplement; 35% of participants were on a diet. It was observed that 97.7% of participants with more than three defecations a week had a high intake of virgin olive oil; 65.7% of participants did some physical exercise customarily; 70.2% of participants were non-smokers, 10.2% were smokers, and 18.4% were ex-smokers. With regard to alcohol, the percentage of drinkers was 35.1%. The main class of medications taken by participants was NSAIDs - 14.5%; 79.7% took neither NSAIDs nor laxatives. Only 2

  8. [Clinical study on the treatment of acute paraquat poisoning with sequential whole gastric and bowel irrigation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Dai, Jingbin; Li, Jun; Xiao, Lei; Sun, Baoquan; Liu, Naizheng; Zhang, Yanmin; Jian, Xiangdong

    2015-03-01

    To explore the clinical efficacy of early application of sequential gastrointestinal lavage in patients with acute paraquat poisoning by analyzing the clinical data of 97 patients. A total of 97 eligible patients with acute paraquat poisoning were divided into conventional treatment group (n = 48) and sequential treatment group (n = 49). The conventional treatment group received routine gastric lavage with water. Then 30 g of montmorillonite powder, 30 g of activated charcoal, and mannitol were given to remove intestinal toxins once a day for five days. The sequential treatment group received 60 g of montmorillonite powder for oral administration, followed by small-volume low-pressure manual gastric lavage with 2.5%bicarbonate liquid. Then 30 g of activated charcoal, 30 g of montmorillonite powder, and polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution were given one after another for gastrointestinal lavage once a day for five days. Both groups received large doses of corticosteroids, blood perfusion, and anti-oxidation treatment. The levels of serum potassium, serum amylase (AMY) alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), lactate (Lac), and PaO₂of patients were determined at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days. Laxative time, mortality, and survival time of dead cases were evaluated in the two groups. The incidence rates of hypokalemia (<3.5 mmol/L) and AMY (>110 U/L) were significantly lower in the sequential treatment group than in the conventional treatment group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the incidence of ALT (>80 U/L), TBIL (>34.2 µmol/L), BUN (>7.2 mmol/L), and Cr (>177 µmol/L) between the two groups (P>0.05). However, the highest levels of ALT, TBIL, BUN, Cr, and Lac were significantly lower in the sequential treatment group than in the conventional treatment group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the sequential treatment group had significantly lower incidence of PaO₂(<60 mmHg), shorter

  9. Case-control study of relationship of some biosocial correlates to rectal cancer patients in Belgrade, Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Jarebinski, M; Adanja, B; Vlajinac, H

    1989-01-01

    This investigation of some biosocial factors such as level of education, profession, tobacco smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, and previous illnesses, reports on 98 patients with histologically confirmed rectal cancer, and 196 hospitalized and neighborhood-matched controls. Past history of hemorrhoids, polyposis, colitis, diverticulosis and appendectomy, as well as the use of laxatives were significantly more frequent among rectal cancer patients than in their controls. None of the case-control differences related to the other parameters reached statistical significance.

  10. Phytodermatitis caused by Ceratocephalus falcatus (Ranunculacea).

    PubMed

    Karaca, Semsettin; Kulac, Mustafa; Kucuker, Hudaverdi

    2005-01-01

    Ceratocephalus falcatus is a member of Ranunculacea family that forms part of the flora of the Sinanpasa and Dinar regions of Afyon city in Turkey. Ceratocephalus falcatus has laxative properties and has been used for treating hemorrhoids, rheumatismal diseases and wounds. Here, a case of phytodermatitis caused by this remedy used for relieving knee pain is presented. This plant should be kept in mind when a case of phytodermatitis with vesicles or bullae presents at clinics.

  11. Polyethylene glycol 3350 without electrolytes for treatment of childhood constipation

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seen; Cheng, Adam; Goldman, Ran D.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT QUESTION I have come across many pediatric patients with functional constipation. Is polyethylene glycol 3350 without electrolytes a safe and effective long-term treatment option for these patients? ANSWER Functional constipation is a common and often difficult problem for parents and families to deal with. Polyethylene glycol 3350 is a safe and effective long-term laxative in pediatric populations, but there are limited studies for its use in children younger than 2 years of age. PMID:19439699

  12. Gastrointestinal medications and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, T M

    1998-09-01

    Medications used to treat gastrointestinal symptoms are increasingly being used as more have been gained nonprescription status. Most of the gastrointestinal medications, such as laxatives, antacids, and antidiarrheal agents, are used short term. Women who breastfeed should be aware of the risks of taking any medications, whether prescription or nonprescription. There is little information describing transfer into breast milk for many of these products. Cimetidine, atropine, cascara, cisapride, loperamide, magnesium sulfate, and senna are the only products identified by the AAP as compatible with breast feeding. Metoclopramide is listed by the AAP as a drug whose effect on nursing infants is unknown but may be of potential concern, although studies published to date have not reported any adverse effects. The safest laxatives and antidiarrheals are those that are not absorbed and should be considered first-line therapy for conditions of constipation or loose stools. Famotidine and nizatidine are excreted into breast milk to a lesser extent than cimetidine or ranitidine and may be the preferred histamine antagonists. Despite the limited data on the use of cisapride in nursing women, it is considered safe by the AAP and may be preferred over metoclopramide for first-line prescription treatment of heartburn. Although most of these agents appear safe in the nursing infant, caretakers should be aware of the potential adverse reactions that may occur in infants whose mothers require these products.

  13. Care of Patients at the End of Life: Management of Nonpain Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Baralatei, Florence T; Ackermann, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Management of nonpain symptoms can improve quality of life for patients at the end of life and their family members. Constipation is the most common nonpain symptom. It can be related to opioid therapy and/or medical conditions. After abdominal examination to detect masses or evidence of bowel obstruction and rectal examination to exclude fecal impaction, constipation should be managed with a stimulant laxative (eg, senna) or an osmotic laxative (eg, sorbitol). Dyspnea also is common, and often improves with use of a fan to blow air into the face, as well with breathing and relaxation exercises. However, many patients require titrated doses of opioids to address respiratory depression, and anxiolytics such as haloperidol may be needed to manage dyspnea-related anxiety. Oxygen typically is not effective in dyspnea management in nonhypoxemic patients at the end of life. Cough is managed with antitussives. Nausea and vomiting occur in 70% of patients in palliative care units. If no reversible etiology can be identified, dopamine antagonists and motility-enhancing drugs can be used. There are no clearly effective treatments to manage noisy respiratory secretions, but position change, decrease in fluid intake, and drugs such as scopolamine or glycopyrrolate may be effective. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  14. Reduction of opioid side effects by prophylactic measures of palliative care team may result in improved quality of life.

    PubMed

    Myotoku, Michiaki; Nakanishi, Akiko; Kanematsu, Miwa; Sakaguchi, Noriko; Hashimoto, Norio; Koyama, Fumiko; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Ikeda, Kenji; Konishi, Hiroki; Hirotani, Yoshihiko

    2010-04-01

    In February 2002, the palliative care team was established in Ikeda Municipal Hospital to improve palliative care. We investigated changes in the incidences of side effects related to opioids, and evaluated palliative care team activities. Regarding inpatients for whom narcotics were prescribed in our hospital in the years of 2002 (from October 1, 2002 until September 30, 2003), 2004 (from October 1, 2004 until September 30, 2005), and 2006 (from October 1, 2006 until September 30, 2007), we surveyed the rates at which laxatives or antiemetics were prescribed, frequency of defecation/its state before and after the start of narcotic therapy, frequency of nausea/vomiting, and dietary intake. The proportions of patients in whom laxatives were simultaneously prescribed during opioid therapy in 2002, 2004, and 2006 were 43.5%, 78.7%, and 75.6%, respectively. The proportions of those in whom antiemetics were combined with opioids were 45.7%, 78.7%, and 78.0%, respectively. The incidences of constipation were 50.0%, 39.3%, and 37.8%, respectively. Those of nausea/vomiting were 30.4%, 21.3%, and 9.8%, respectively. Those of anorexia were 65.3%, 39.4%, and 15.4%, respectively. These results suggest that palliative care team activities facilitated appropriate drug prescription during opioid therapy, reducing the appearance of side effects, with likelihood of improved quality of life.

  15. Constipation: an overlooked, unmanaged symptom of patients with pheochromocytoma and sympathetic paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Thosani, Sonali; Ayala-Ramirez, Montserrat; Román-González, Alejandro; Zhou, Shouhao; Thosani, Nirav; Bisanz, Annette; Jimenez, Camilo

    2015-09-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PHs) and sympathetic paragangliomas (PGs) are tumors that produce catecholamines, predisposing patients to cardiovascular disease and gastrointestinal effects such as constipation. i) determine the prevalence of constipation, its risk factors, and its impact on survival; ii) identify whether a systematic combination of fiber, water, and laxatives was effective for treatment of constipation. We retrospectively studied 396 patients with PH/PG diagnosed in 2005-2014. The study population was patients with constipation as a presenting symptom; the control group was patients without constipation as a presenting symptom. The MD Anderson Symptom Inventory was used to assess constipation and quality of life. Twenty-three patients (6%) had constipation. Constipation was associated with headaches, palpitations, diaphoresis, weight loss, and excessive noradrenaline production (P<0.0001). Eighteen of these patients had non-metastatic primary tumors larger than 5 cm and/or extensive metastases. No statistically significant differences in age, sex, and genotype were noted between the study and control groups. In patients without metastases, resection of the primary tumor led to symptom disappearance. A systematic combination of fiber, water, and laxatives was associated with symptom improvement. Two patients who presented unmanaged constipation died because of sepsis from toxic megacolon. Constipation is a rare and potentially lethal complication in patients with PH/PGs. Severe constipation can be prevented by recognizing and treating mild symptoms. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. The use of abdominal muscle training, breathing exercises and abdominal massage to treat paediatric chronic functional constipation.

    PubMed

    Silva, C A G; Motta, M E F A

    2013-05-01

    The effect of muscular training, abdominal massage and diaphragmatic breathing was compared with medical treatment in a prospective randomized trial of patients with chronic functional constipation. Patients aged 4-18 years old with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria were randomized to physiotherapy or medical treatment. In the physiotherapy group, exercises (isometric training of the abdominal muscles, diaphragmatic breathing exercises and abdominal massage) were employed during 12 40-min sessions twice a week by a trained physiotherapist, with laxatives. Patients in the medication group were only given laxatives. Primary outcome measures were frequency of defaecation and faecal incontinence. The analysis was performed by intention-to-treat. After 6 weeks of treatment, the frequency of bowel movements was higher in the physiotherapy group [5.1 (2.1) days/week] than in the medication group [3.9 (2.0) days/week] (P = 0.01). The frequency of faecal incontinence was no different between the groups [3.6 (1.9) days/week vs 3.0 (2.1) days/week] (P = 0.31). The combined use of isometric training of abdominal muscles, breathing exercises and abdominal massage increased defaecation frequency after 6 weeks but faecal incontinence remained unchanged. Physiotherapy may be a useful treatment for constipation. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Characteristics of referrals to an inpatient hospice and a survey of general practitioner perceptions of palliative care.

    PubMed Central

    Seamark, D A; Lawrence, C; Gilbert, J

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine symptoms, drug prescribing and physical problems of patients referred to an inpatient hospice, case notes from 130 consecutive first admissions (95 general practitioner (GP) referrals, 35 consultant referrals) were analysed. GP referrals were more likely to be constipated, require care and be discharged to home. Consultant referrals were more gravely ill, dependent and more likely to die in the hospice. On admission 76 (58%) patients were receiving opiates with co-prescription of opiate and laxative occurring in 41% (31/76) of the cases. The prescription of laxatives with the symptoms of constipation occurred in 62% (26/42) of the cases on admission. A telephone survey of 79 referring GPs revealed that 37% had attended neither a course nor a lecture relevant to palliative care in the past 3 years. GPs experienced difficulties frequently or always in: (a) managing pain (8/79); (b) managing other symptoms (25/79); (c) helping patients and relatives cope with their emotional distress (18/79); and (d) coping with their own emotional responses to death and dying (5/79). In conclusion, the differences demonstrated between the GP and consultant referrals have implications for purchasers. The high incidence of possible opiate-induced side-effects and the difficulties with symptom control expressed by some GPs indicate a continuing need for effective educational input. PMID:8683506

  18. Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark and its active component emodin.

    PubMed

    Brkanac, Sandra Radić; Gerić, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Vujčić, Valerija; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Kremer, Dario; Domijan, Ana-Marija

    2015-12-01

    In the present study toxicity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark, widely used as laxative, was investigated. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) were treated with F. alnus bark extract or emodin (emodin is bark component with laxative property), and cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and parameters of oxidative stress were assessed. Also, polyphenol content of bark extract and antioxidant activity of the extract and emodin measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods were examined. The bark extract (500 μg/ml) produced cell death and DNA damage, while level of ROS changed at 250 μg/ml. Emodin induced cell death and DNA damage at 150 μg/ml and 200 μg/ml, respectively, and the increase of ROS was observed at 25 μg/ml. These results suggest that both, bark extract and emodin, are cyto/genotoxic to HPBLs and that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of their toxicity. The results on antioxidant activity showed that, unlike emodin, bark extract possess moderate antioxidant capacity (44.6%, 46.8% and 2.25 mmol Fe(2+)/g measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay, respectively) that can be related to relatively high phenolic content (116.07 mg/g). However, due to toxicological properties use of F. alnus bark as well as emodin-containing preparations should be taken with caution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship of some biosocial factors to colon cancer in Belgrade (Yugoslavia).

    PubMed

    Vlajinac, H; Jarebinski, M; Adanja, B

    1987-01-01

    Eighty-eight patients with histologically confirmed colon cancer and two control groups individually matched by age, sex and place of residence, were interviewed about demographic, biosocial and medical variables. The use of laxatives, past history of large bowel disease and coffee consumption for 20 or more years were significantly more frequent among colon cancer than in their controls. No significant differences were found between cases and controls with respect to education level, job activity, smoking habits, alcohol consumption and cholecystectomy.

  20. Low Noise Amplifiers Based on Lattice Engineered Substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    the base contacts. To overcome this deficiency, a current aperture must be adopted in the emitter to properly channel the carriers. Appendix V is a...Appendix V "Design and Fabrication of Collector-up Heterojunction BipolarTransistors with Oxide Confined Current Apertures," James G. Champlain and Umesh K...a consequence of the [110] elimination of steps which were produced during plastic re- o, .A,,A A A A’YAL , V IA VP ’ \\P4 laxation of the misfit strain

  1. Molecular mechanism of emodin action: transition from laxative ingredient to an antitumor agent.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Gopal; Babykutty, Suboj; Sathiadevan, Priya Prasanna; Srinivas, Priya

    2007-09-01

    Anthraquinones represent a large family of compounds having diverse biological properties. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) is a naturally occurring anthraquinone present in the roots and barks of numerous plants, molds, and lichens, and an active ingredient of various Chinese herbs. Earlier studies have documented mutagenic/genotoxic effects of emodin, mainly in bacterial system. Emodin, first assigned to be a specific inhibitor of the protein tyrosine kinase p65lck, has now a number of cellular targets interacting with it. Its inhibitory effect on mammalian cell cycle modulation in specific oncogene overexpressed cells formed the basis of using this compound as an anticancer agent. Identification of apoptosis as a mechanism of elimination of cells treated with cytotoxic agents initiated new studies deciphering the mechanism of apoptosis induced by emodin. At present, its role in combination chemotherapy with standard drugs to reduce toxicity and to enhance efficacy is pursued vigorously. Its additional inhibitory effects on angiogenic and metastasis regulatory processes make emodin a sensible candidate as a specific blocker of tumor-associated events. Additionally, because of its quinone structure, emodin may interfere with electron transport process and in altering cellular redox status, which may account for its cytotoxic properties in different systems. However, there is no documentation available which reviews the biological activities of emodin, in particular, its growth inhibitory effects. This review is an attempt to analyze the biological properties of emodin, a molecule offering a broad therapeutic window, which in future may become a member of anticancer armamentarium. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Senna alata.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Thierry; Weniger, Bernard; Joseph, Henry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2009-10-01

    A review is made of chemical, ethnopharmacological and pharmacological papers dealing with Senna alata (L.) Roxb., a plant that belongs to the Creole traditional system of medicine and that has recently been introduced in the French Pharmacopoeia. The proofs existing for its various usages are presented. The species is mainly used against constipation and skin diseases. The laxative activity is supported by scientific findings. In contrast the dermatologic use requires further investigation. The species can be considered as safe for short-term or topical use.

  3. Hot Topics in Primary Care: Management of Opioid-induced Constipation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David A; Argoff, Charles E

    2015-12-01

    Constipation is a common complication of opioid therapy that contributes to substantial patient morbidity, decreased productivity, and opioid nonadherence. Other causes of constipation may occur concomitantly and should be investigated. Although evidence supporting their use is limited, the use of fiber, water, laxatives, and/or exercise is recommended in current guidelines as initial management. Peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists are important treatment options, are well-tolerated, and improve many signs and symptoms of OIC in patients taking an opioid for chronic noncancer pain.

  4. Translations on USSR Military Affairs, Number 1309

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-17

    correlation of forces in the world . In recent years, a turning away from the "cold war " to the re- laxation of tension and to the establishment of the...intensifying the arms race and trying to revive an atmosphere of confrontation and to return the world to the times of the "cold war ." 20 The...headed by V. I. Lenin, rose up for the decisive assault on the bourgeoisie- landlord system and crushed it. The first socialist state in the world

  5. The immune-regulating effect of Xiao'er Qixingcha in constipated mice induced by high-heat and high-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chang; Yang, Guang-Hua; Zheng, Rong-Bo; Yu, Xiu-Ting; Peng, Shao-Zhong; Xie, Jian-Hui; Chen, Jian-Nan; Wang, Xiu-Fen; Su, Zi-Ren; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-03-31

    Xiao'er Qixingcha (EXQ) has been extensively applied to relieve dyspepsia and constipation in children for hundreds of years in China. However, the therapeutic mechanism underlying its efficacy remained to be defined. The present study aimed to clarify the possible laxative and immune-regulating effects of EXQ on two models of experimental constipation in mice, which mimicked the pediatric constipation caused by high-heat and high-protein diet (HHPD). The two models of constipated mice were induced by HHPD or HHPD + atropine respectively. To investigate the laxative and immune-regulating activities of EXQ, animals were treated with three doses of EXQ (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/kg) for 7 consecutive days. The fecal output parameters (number and weight), weight of intestinal content and, the thymus and spleen indexes were measured. The levels of sIgA, IL-10, TNF-α and LPS in colon and serum were determined by ELISA. Furthermore, the pathological changes of colon tissue were examined after routine H&E staining. Both HHPD and HHPD + atropine treatments obviously inhibited the fecal output and reduced the colonic sIgA, prominently increased the levels of IL-10 and TNF-α in colonic tissue and elevated the contents of LPS in serum and colonic tissues. In contrast, oral administration of EXQ significantly improved the feces characters and dose-dependently decreased the intestinal changes in both models. In HHPD model test, EXQ efficaciously boosted the sIgA level in a dose-dependent manner, significantly elicited decreases in TNF-α and IL-10 levels, and evidently decreased the spleen and thymus indexes. In HHPD + atropine model test, EXQ treatment reversed the pathological changes by not only dramatically decreasing the spleen index and the levels of LPS and IL-10, but also markedly elevating the thymus index. Furthermore, microscopic observation revealed that EXQ treatment maintained the integrity of colonic mucosa, and protected the colonic tissues from inflammation in the

  6. Preoperative management of surgical patients by "shortened fasting time": a study on the amount of total body water by multi-frequency impedance method.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hideki; Sasaki, Toshio; Fujita, Hisae

    2012-01-01

    Preoperative fasting is an established procedure to be practiced for patients before surgery, but optimal preoperative fasting time still remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of "shortened preoperative fasting time" on the change in the amount of total body water (TBW) in elective surgical patients. TBW was measured by multi-frequency impedance method. The patients, who were scheduled to undergo surgery for stomach cancer, were divided into two groups of 15 patients each. Before surgery, patients in the control group were managed with conventional preoperative fasting time, while patients in the "enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS)" group were managed with "shortened preoperative fasting time" and "reduced laxative medication." TBW was measured on the day before surgery and the day of surgery before entering the operating room. Defecation times and anesthesia-related vomiting and aspiration were monitored. TBW values on the day of surgery showed changes in both groups as compared with those on the day before surgery, but the rate of change was smaller in the ERAS group than in the control group (2.4±6.8% [12 patients] vs. -10.6±4.6% [14 patients], p<0.001). Defecation times were less in the ERAS group. Vomiting and aspiration were not observed in either group. The results suggest that preoperative management with "shorted preoperative fasting time" and "reduced administration of laxatives" is effective in the maintenance of TBW in elective surgical patients.

  7. Bloom and bust: intestinal microbiota dynamics in response to hospital exposures and Clostridium difficile colonization or infection.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Caroline; Miller, Mark A; Edens, Thaddeus J; Mehrotra, Sudeep; Dewar, Ken; Manges, Amee R

    2016-03-14

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading infectious cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Hospitalized patients are at increased risk of developing CDI because they are exposed to C. difficile spores through contact with the hospital environment and often receive antibiotics and other medications that can disrupt the integrity of the indigenous intestinal microbiota and impair colonization resistance. Using whole metagenome shotgun sequencing, we examined the diversity and composition of the fecal microbiota in a prospective cohort study of 98 hospitalized patients. Four patients had asymptomatic C. difficile colonization, and four patients developed CDI. We observed dramatic shifts in the structure of the gut microbiota during hospitalization. In contrast to CDI cases, asymptomatic patients exhibited elevated relative abundance of potentially protective bacterial taxa in their gut at the onset of C. difficile colonization. Use of laxatives was associated with significant reductions in the relative abundance of Clostridium and Eubacterium; species within these genera have previously been shown to enhance resistance to CDI via the production of secondary bile acids. Cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone exposure decreased the frequency of Clostridiales Family XI Incertae Sedis, a bacterial family that has been previously associated with decreased CDI risk. This study underscores the detrimental impact of antibiotics as well as other medications, particularly laxatives, on the intestinal microbiota and suggests that co-colonization with key bacterial taxa may prevent C. difficile overgrowth or the transition from asymptomatic C. difficile colonization to CDI.

  8. DRY CUPPING IN CHILDREN WITH FUNCTIONAL CONSTIPATION: A RANDOMIZED OPEN LABEL CLINICAL TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Shahamat, Mahmoud; Daneshfard, Babak; Najib, Khadijeh-Sadat; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Tafazoli, Vahid; Kasalaei, Afshineh

    2016-01-01

    As a common disease in pediatrics, constipation poses a high burden to the community. In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of dry cupping therapy (an Eastern traditional manipulative therapy) in children with functional constipation. One hundred and twenty children (4-18 years old) diagnosed as functional constipation according to ROME III criteria were assigned to receive a traditional dry cupping protocol on the abdominal wall for 8 minutes every other day or standard laxative therapy (Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 40% solution without electrolyte), 0.4 g/kg once daily) for 4 weeks, in an open label randomized controlled clinical trial using a parallel design with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Patients were evaluated prior to and following 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of the intervention commencement in terms of the ROME III criteria for functional constipation. There were no significant differences between the two arms regarding demographic and clinical basic characteristics. After two weeks of the intervention, there was a significant better result in most of the items of ROME III criteria of patients in PEG group. In contrast, after four weeks of the intervention, the result was significantly better in the cupping group. There was no significant difference in the number of patients with constipation after 4 and 8 weeks of the follow-up period. This study showed that dry cupping of the abdominal wall, as a traditional manipulative therapy, can be as effective as standard laxative therapy in children with functional constipation.

  9. Review of the treatment options for chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Johanson, John F

    2007-05-02

    Constipation is a common gastrointestinal motility disorder that is often chronic, negatively affects patients' daily lives, and is associated with high healthcare costs. There is a considerable range of treatment modalities available for patients with constipation; however, the clinical evidence supporting their use varies widely. Nonpharmacologic modalities, such as increased exercise or fluid intake and bowel habit training, are generally recommended as first-line approaches, but data on the effectiveness of these measures are limited. The clinical benefits of various traditional pharmacologic agents (many of which are available over the counter, such as laxatives and fiber supplements) remain unclear. Although these modalities may benefit some patients with temporary constipation, their efficacy in patients for whom constipation is chronic is less well defined. Some studies suggest benefit with psyllium, polyethylene glycol, and lactulose; however, the use of other agents, such as calcium polycarbophil, methylcellulose, bran, magnesium hydroxide, and stimulant laxatives, is not supported by strong clinical evidence. More recently, newer agents have been approved for the treatment of patients with chronic constipation on the basis of comprehensive clinical investigation programs. Tegaserod, with its well-established clinical profile, and lubiprostone, the latest addition to the treatment armamentarium, represent the new generation of therapies for chronic constipation. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of traditional therapies used in the management of the multiple symptoms associated with chronic constipation and discusses recently approved and emerging therapies for this disorder.

  10. Complete LC/MS analysis of a Tinnevelli senna pod extract and subsequent isolation and identification of two new benzophenone glucosides.

    PubMed

    Terreaux, Christian; Wang, Qi; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Ndjoko, Karine; Grimminger, Wolf; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2002-04-01

    The hydroalcoholic extract of Tinnevelli senna is widely used as a laxative phytomedicine. In order to improve the knowledge of the chemical composition of this extract, LC/MS and LC/MS(n) studies were performed, allowing the on-line identification of most of the known constituents, i. e., flavonoids, anthraquinones and the typical dianthronic sennosides. However, the identity of four compounds could not be ascertained on-line under the given LC/MS conditions. These substances were isolated and their structures elucidated as kaempferol, the naphthalene derivative tinnevellin 8-glucoside and two new carboxylated benzophenone glucosides.

  11. Constipation and catharsis.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    Constipation is endemic in the Western world. Stool consistence and associated symptoms are more important than stool frequency. The patient's attitude towards his bowel habit is also important. Exclusion of "organic" disease, reassurance and discussion of normal variations of bowel habit are necessary first steps in treatment. Adquate bulk in the stool must be ensured, either through diet or bulking agnets, and bowel retraining attempted. Laxatives should be reserved for episodes of constipation following enforced bedrest, or as a preparation for diagnostic procedures. Long-term use should be avoided. PMID:1268778

  12. New Options in Constipation Management.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mellar; Gamier, Pamela

    2015-12-01

    Constipation is common in the general population and for those on opioids and/or who are suffering from advanced cancer. Self-management consists of dietary changes, exercise, and laxatives. However, responses to self-management efforts are often inadequate to relieve the subjective and objective experience of constipation. Multiple new anti-constipating medications have recently been tested in randomized trials and the following are available commercially: probiotics, prucalopride, lubiprostone, linaclotide, elobixibat, antidepressants, methylnaltrexone, alvimopan, and naloxegol. This review will discuss the evidence-based benefits of these medications and outline an approach to managing constipation.

  13. [The effect of lifestyle modification on chronic constipation].

    PubMed

    Borre, Mette; Qvist, Niels; Raahave, Dennis; Worsøe, Jonas; Ærthøj, Jørgen Peter; Christensen, Peter; Krogh, Klaus

    2015-04-06

    First-line treatment of constipation includes dietary fibre, fluid and exercise. The evidence for these recommendations is, however, scarce. Increased intake of fibre will reduce colonic transit time and improve the frequency and consistency of stools in 50% of patients. Bloating and flatulence are common side effects to highly fermentable fibres. Daily intake of 2 l of water enhances the positive effects of fibre and 30 min. exercise per day also alleviates symptoms. Conservative treatment is usually insufficient and should be supplemented with laxatives or motility enhancing drugs.

  14. [Successful Removal of Hard Sigmoid Fecaloma Using Endoscopic Cola Injection].

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Jin; Kim, Jeong Wook

    2015-07-01

    Colorectal fecaloma is hardening of feces into lumps of varying size that is much harder in consistency than a fecal impaction. Complications of colorectal fecaloma include ulceration, bleeding, perforation and obstruction of the colon. Most fecalomas are successfully removed by conservative treatment with laxatives, enemas and rectal evacuation to relieve fecal impaction. When conservative treatments have failed, a surgical intervention may be needed. Herein, we report a case of 4.7 cm sized sigmoid fecaloma showing no response to conservative treatments that was successfully removed by endoscopic fragmentation with Coca-Cola injection instead of surgery.

  15. Absorption of 5-aminosalicylic acid from colon and rectum.

    PubMed Central

    Bondesen, S; Schou, J B; Pedersen, V; Rafiolsadat, Z; Hansen, S H; Hvidberg, E F

    1988-01-01

    In order to clarify the characteristics of absorption of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) from the colon, a neutral solution was instilled into the right part of the colon and the rectum, respectively, in six volunteers. A laxative (bisacodyl) and liquid meals were given prior to each instillation. No significant difference could be demonstrated between the two parts of the large bowel, but the absorption was considerably restricted compared with previous results obtained from the jejunum. The results confirm in a direct manner earlier observations on 5-ASA released from sulphasalazine. PMID:3358890

  16. Cost-effectiveness of linaclotide compared to antidepressants in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mark; Walker, Andrew; Falqués, Meritxell; Moya, Miguel; Rance, Mark; Taylor, Douglas; Lindner, Leandro

    2016-12-01

    Presently, linaclotide is the only EMA-approved therapy indicated for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). This study sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of linaclotide compared to antidepressants for the treatment of adults with moderate to severe IBS-C who have previously received antispasmodics and/or laxatives. A Markov model was created to estimate costs and QALYs over a 5-year time horizon from the perspective of NHS Scotland. Health states were based on treatment satisfaction (satisfied, moderately satisfied, not satisfied) and mortality. Transition probabilities were based on satisfaction data from the linaclotide pivotal studies and Scottish general all-cause mortality statistics. Treatment costs were calculated from the British National Formulary. NHS resource use and disease-related costs for each health state were estimated from Scottish clinician interviews in combination with NHS Reference costs. Quality of life was based on EQ-5D data collected from the pivotal studies. Costs and QALYs were discounted at 3.5 % per annum. Uncertainty was explored through extensive deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Over a 5-year time horizon, the additional costs and QALYs generated with linaclotide were £659 and 0.089, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £7370 per QALY versus antidepressants. Based on the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the likelihood that linaclotide was cost-effective at a willingness to pay of £20,000 per QALY was 73 %. Linaclotide can be a cost-effective treatment for adults with moderate-to-severe IBS-C who have previously received antispasmodics and/or laxatives in Scotland.

  17. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Study of Senna in the C3B6.129F1-Trp53tm1Brd N12 haploinsufficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Surh, Inok; Brix, Amy; French, John E.; Collins, Bradley J.; Sanders, J. Michael; Vallant, Molly; Dunnick, June K.

    2013-01-01

    Senna is a pod or leaf of Senna alexandrina P. Mill and is used as a stimulant laxative. In the large intestine, bacterial enzymes break sennosides and release rhein-9-anthrone, the active form for the laxative effect. To determine potential toxic effects of senna, a 5-week dose range finding study in the C57BL/6N mouse and a 40-week toxicology and carcinogenesis study in the C3B6.129F1-Trp53tm1Brd N12 haploinsufficient (p53+/−) mouse were conducted. In the 5-week study, C57BL/6N mice were exposed up to 10,000 ppm senna in feed. Increased incidences of epithelial hyperplasia of the cecum and colon were observed in males and females exposed to 5,000 or 10,000 ppm senna. These intestinal lesions were not considered to be of sufficient severity to cause mortality and, thus, in the p53+/− mouse 40-week study, the high dose of 10,000 ppm was selected. Significant increases in the incidences of epithelial hyperplasia of the colon and cecum were observed at 10,000 ppm in p53(+/−) males and females, and the incidence of hyperplasia of the colon was significantly increased at 3,000 ppm in females. In conclusion, the large intestine was the major target of senna-induced toxicity in both wild-type and the p53+/− mouse model. There was no neoplastic change, when senna was administered to p53 +/− mouse. PMID:23125117

  18. Toxicology and carcinogenesis study of senna in C3B6.129F1-Trp53 tm1Brd N12 haploinsufficient mice.

    PubMed

    Surh, Inok; Brix, Amy; French, John E; Collins, Bradley J; Sanders, J Michael; Vallant, Molly; Dunnick, June K

    2013-07-01

    Senna is a pod or leaf of Senna alexandrina P. Mill and is used as a stimulant laxative. In the large intestine, bacterial enzymes reduce sennosides to rhein-9-anthrone, the active form for the laxative effect. To determine the potential toxic effects of senna, a 5-week dose range finding study in the C57BL/6N mouse and a 40-week toxicology and carcinogenesis study in the C3B6.129F1-Trp53 (tm1Brd) N12 haploinsufficient (p53(+/-)) mouse were conducted. In the 5-week study, C57BL/6N mice were exposed to up to 10,000 ppm senna in feed. Increased incidences of epithelial hyperplasia of the cecum and colon were observed in males and females exposed to 5,000 or 10,000 ppm senna. These intestinal lesions were not considered to be of sufficient severity to cause mortality and, thus, in the p53(+/-) mouse 40-week study, the high dose of 10,000 ppm was selected. Significant increases in the incidences of epithelial hyperplasia of the colon and cecum were observed at 10,000 ppm in p53(+/-) males and females, and the incidence of hyperplasia of the colon was significantly increased at 3,000 ppm in females. In conclusion, the large intestine was the major target of senna-induced toxicity in both wild-type and the p53(+/-) mouse model. There was no neoplastic change when senna was administered to p53(+/-) mouse.

  19. DRY CUPPING IN CHILDREN WITH FUNCTIONAL CONSTIPATION: A RANDOMIZED OPEN LABEL CLINICAL TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Shahamat, Mahmoud; Daneshfard, Babak; Najib, Khadijeh-Sadat; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Tafazoli, Vahid; Kasalaei, Afshineh

    2016-01-01

    Background: As a common disease in pediatrics, constipation poses a high burden to the community. In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of dry cupping therapy (an Eastern traditional manipulative therapy) in children with functional constipation. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty children (4-18 years old) diagnosed as functional constipation according to ROME III criteria were assigned to receive a traditional dry cupping protocol on the abdominal wall for 8 minutes every other day or standard laxative therapy (Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 40% solution without electrolyte), 0.4 g/kg once daily) for 4 weeks, in an open label randomized controlled clinical trial using a parallel design with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Patients were evaluated prior to and following 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of the intervention commencement in terms of the ROME III criteria for functional constipation. Results: There were no significant differences between the two arms regarding demographic and clinical basic characteristics. After two weeks of the intervention, there was a significant better result in most of the items of ROME III criteria of patients in PEG group. In contrast, after four weeks of the intervention, the result was significantly better in the cupping group. There was no significant difference in the number of patients with constipation after 4 and 8 weeks of the follow-up period. Conclusion: This study showed that dry cupping of the abdominal wall, as a traditional manipulative therapy, can be as effective as standard laxative therapy in children with functional constipation. PMID:28852716

  20. The challenge of international consensus: defining an opioid essential prescription package.

    PubMed

    Vignaroli, Ernesto; Wenk, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    To describe a new strategy that aimed to facilitate opioid prescription for better pain management. The International Association of Hospice and Palliative Care recently develop a single prescription package (drugs and dosing) with one opioid, one laxative, and one antiemetic for the initiation of opioid treatment in cancer pain and other life-threatening conditions, with the intention to facilitate opioid use, improve patient compliance, and reduce adverse effects. The opioid essential prescription package was an international project designed to ensure that opioids are better tolerated by reducing the adverse effects of opioids, which could lead to more sustained improvements in pain management.

  1. [Encopresis revealing myotonic dystrophy in 2 children].

    PubMed

    Avez-Couturier, J; Michaud, L; Cuisset, J-M; Lamblin, M-D; Dolhem, P; Turck, D; Vallée, L; Gottrand, F

    2009-05-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are very frequent in myotonic dystrophy but largely unrecognized. They can be the revealing factors of the disease. We report 2 cases of 10 and 17-year-old children with persistent encopresis starting at the age of 3 and 5 years in spite of laxative treatment. Neurological examination and anorectal manometry provided the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy. Procainamide treatment was introduced and the digestive symptoms improved. Any child with encopresis should have complete evaluation to rule out the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy and physicians should look for upper and/or lower gastrointestinal symptoms in every patient with myotonic dystrophy.

  2. Agony of the ecstasy: report of five cases of MDMA smuggling.

    PubMed

    Low, V H S; Dillon, E K

    2005-10-01

    The international smuggling of illicit drugs by the ingestion or rectal insertion of drug-filled packages is recognized in the trafficking of heroin and cocaine. Customs authorities, with suspicion of such activities, presented five subjects. The legally allowed radiological examination comprising one supine abdominal radiograph was performed. Radiographic findings demonstrated the presence of multiple enteric oval, capsule-shaped packages of soft tissue density. This was confirmed following supervised evacuation of bowel contents induced by the administration of laxatives. Analysis of the concealed material identified ecstasy (methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)), a substance not previously reported as transported by this route.

  3. [Smuggling of illegal drugs by body suffers].

    PubMed

    Aksnes, Tonje Amb; Jacobsen, Dag

    2004-07-01

    Body packers are persons who smuggle illegal drugs by swallowing condoms or plastic cylinders containing such substances. Body stuffers are drug dealers or drug abusers who swallow illegal drugs in an effort to conceal evidence during an arrest or in fear of being arrested. We report four cases and discuss management. Asymptomatic body packers may be managed conservatively with laxatives and water-soluble contrast medium. This method allows an accurate follow-up with abdominal radiography. If patients develop abdominal pain or signs and symptoms of intoxication, surgical intervention should be considered. Both types of patients should be monitored carefully.

  4. Developmental toxicity study of D-tagatose in rats.

    PubMed

    Kruger, C L; Whittaker, M H; Frankos, V H; Schroeder, R E

    1999-04-01

    D-tagatose is a low-calorie sweetener that tastes like sucrose. The developmental toxicity of D-tagatose was investigated in Crl:CD(SD)BR rats administered D-tagatose at three dose levels (4000, 12,000, and 20,000 mg/kg body wt/day) via gastric intubation on days 6-15 of gestation. No compound-related toxicity was seen among any of the maternal groups. No treatment-related clinical effects were seen in the maternal animals at the 4000 mg/kg/day dose level. At the mid- and high-dose levels, most maternal animals had unformed or watery stools; this effect was most prominent early in the treatment period (Gestation Days 6-8). This effect was attributed to the osmotic effect of the large amount of D-tagatose given to the animals at these doses. Since D-tagatose is not digested or absorbed to a large extent, most of the sugar passes into the colon where it absorbs water and is fermented by colonic bacteria. Mean weight gain for the low- and mid-dose animals was comparable to the control; however, the high-dose group experienced a mean weight loss over the Gestation Day 6-9 interval. Over the entire treatment interval, however, mean weight gain for the high-dose animals was comparable to control. The decreased weight gain in the high-dose animals during the Gestation Day 6-9 interval was considered to be a direct result of laxation. In addition to the effect of laxation on body weight, reduced food consumption also contributed to the decreased weight gain. In the low-dose animals, no effect on food consumption was seen; however, both mid- and high-dose animals had food consumption values that were statistically significantly lower than the control. Food consumption was lowest during the Gestation Day 6-9 interval, the period when laxation was most prominent. Food consumption rebounded and was statistically significantly higher than the control for the mid- and high-dose animals during the posttreatment interval. Maternal liver weight for the low-dose animals was

  5. Long-term efficacy and cost-effectiveness of polyethylene glycol 3350 plus electrolytes in chronic constipation: a retrospective study in a disabled population.

    PubMed

    Migeon-Duballet, I; Chabin, M; Gautier, A; Mistouflet, T; Bonnet, M; Aubert, J M; Halphen, M

    2006-06-01

    The efficacy and safety of treatments for constipation in severely intellectually disabled patients and their associated cost-effectiveness are an under-investigated area of clinical practice. Aiming to address this, the objectives of the study were to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of polyethylene glycol 3350 plus electrolytes (Movicol; PEG+E) by comparing clinical data collected before and after its introduction to a stable population of residents of a mental health care, long-stay institution. The study also attempted an economic evaluation of the use of PEG+E in this setting. This was a retrospective study of 54/66 severely intellectually and physically disabled residents of a specialist unit at La Milétrie University Hospital, Poitiers, France, who suffered regularly from constipation. A total of 54 residents were treated with PEG+E (1-3 sachets a day) for 24 months. The number of stools, episodes of diarrhoea (defined as frequent stools, not necessarily watery), body weights and blood biochemistry were recorded. Data were compared with those recorded during the 21 months preceding the introduction of PEG+E for 16/54 residents who had been treated regularly with a range of other interventions for the relief of constipation. The monthly use and costs of laxatives, enemas and suppositories was obtained from hospital pharmacy records, and the total hospital costs before and after the introduction of PEG+E treatment was calculated. The mean (+/- standard deviation) number of stools per patient per month was significantly greater following the introduction of PEG+E (24.9 +/- 6.3) compared to before its use (12.4 +/- 3.4) (p < 0.001). The mean (+/- standard deviation) monthly number of episodes of diarrhoea per patient before and after the introduction of PEG+E was 0.1 +/- 0.1 and 6.3 +/- 2.9, respectively (p < 0.001). Treatment with PEG+E was not associated with adverse effects on body weight or blood biochemistry values. Introduction of PEG+E and its

  6. High- versus low-volume polyethylene glycol plus laxative versus sennosides for colonoscopy preparation in children.

    PubMed

    Kierkus, Jaroslaw; Horvath, Andrea; Szychta, Monika; Woynarowski, Marek; Wegner, Agnieszka; Wiernicka, Anna; Dadalski, Maciej; Teisseyre, Mikolaj; Dziechciarz, Piotr

    2013-08-01

    Many protocols of bowel preparation are available for use in children; however, none of them is commonly accepted. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of high-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) versus low-volume PEG combined with bisacodyl (BPEG) versus sennosides for colonoscopy preparation in children. Participants ages 10 to 18 years were randomly assigned to receive either PEG 60 or PEG 30 mL kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ plus oral bisacodyl 10 to 15 mg/day or sennosides 2 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for 2 days. A blinded assessment of bowel cleansing was made by the endoscopist according to the Aronchick and Ottawa scales. Patient acceptability was evaluated with the visual-analog scale. Analysis was done on an available case analysis basis. Of 240 patients enrolled in the study 234 patients were available for analysis of the efficacy of colon cleansing. There were no significant differences found among the 3 groups for the proportions of participants with excellent/good (PEG: 35/79, BPEG: 26/79, sennosides 25/76) and poor/inadequate (PEG: 20/79, BPEG: 28/79, sennosides 28/76) bowel preparation evaluated with the Aronchick scale and for the mean Ottawa total score (PEG: 5.47 ± 3.63, BPEG: 6.22 ± 3.3, sennosides: 6.18 ± 3.53). Acceptability of bowel cleansing protocol was similar in all of the groups (P = 0.8). All 3 cleansing methods showed similar efficacy and tolerability; however, none of them was satisfactory.

  7. Polyethylene glycol 3350 in occasional constipation: A one-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 in subjects with self-reported occasional constipation. METHODS: Eligible subjects ≥ 17 years of age were randomized to receive either placebo or PEG 3350 17 g once daily in this multicenter, double-blind trial. Evaluations were conducted before (baseline) and after a 7-d treatment period. The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of subjects reporting complete resolution of straining and hard or lumpy stools. Secondary efficacy variables assessed the severity of the subjects’ daily bowel movement (BM) symptoms, and preference of laxatives based on diary entries, visual analog scale scores, and questionnaires. RESULTS: Of the 203 subjects enrolled in the study, 11 had major protocol violations. Complete resolution was noted by 36/98 (36.7%) subjects in the PEG 3350 group and 23/94 (24.5%) in the placebo group (P = 0.0595). The number of complete BMs without straining or lumpy stools was similar between both groups. Subjects receiving PEG 3350 experienced significant relief in straining and reduction in hardness of stools over a 7-d period (P < 0.0001). Subjects reported that PEG 3350 had a better effect on their daily lives, provided better control over a BM, better relief from constipation, cramping, and bloating, and was their preferred laxative. Adverse events (AEs) were balanced between the PEG 3350 and the placebo groups. No deaths, serious AEs, or discontinuations due to AEs were reported. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00770432. CONCLUSION: Oral administration of 17 g PEG 3350 once daily for a week is effective, safe, and well tolerated in subjects with occasional constipation. PMID:27158544

  8. Review of pathogenesis and management of constipation.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Uday C

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the pathogenesis, classification, mechanism and management of constipation. Constipation is likely to be common in the Indian population. It is difficult to define precisely since perception of patient and doctor may differ. Rome Consensus Criteria may not be applicable in India where we should not define constipation as stool frequency less than thrice a week as normal bowel movement in among Indians is different than that in the West. Constipation may be due to difficulty in evacuation, i.e. dyschezia, or due to a combination of infrequency and dyschezia. Low fibre diet, insufficient fluid intake, irregular toilet habit, lack of exercise, prolonged bed rest and chronic consumption of drugs may all lead to this chronic ailment. Constipation may result from slow colonic transit, faecal evacuation disorders or a combination of both. The first step in management is to exclude organic and anatomic causes. In the elderly, proctosigmoidoscopy or when required, colonoscopy and barium enema should be done. Colonic transit study is useful to screen for slow transit constipation or faecal evacuation disorders. Defecography, the balloon expulsion test, anorectal ultrasound, anorectal manometry, defecometry, anal sphincter electromyography and the pudendal nerve terminal motor latency study may be used to diagnose faecal evacuation disorders. Treatment aims at symptom relief and bettering the quality of life. High fibre diet, physical activity, modification of current therapy (e.g. where the patient is on opioids), and prescription of laxatives may provide relief. Current guidelines for prescribing laxatives suggest bulk agents as first line and osmotic agents as second line therapy. Biofeedback is useful in faecal evacuation disorders. Surgery may also rarely be necessary to correct anatomical abnormalities.

  9. [Performance and optimisation of a trigger tool for the detection of adverse events in hospitalised adult patients].

    PubMed

    Guzmán Ruiz, Óscar; Pérez Lázaro, Juan José; Ruiz López, Pedro

    To characterise the performance of the triggers used in the detection of adverse events (AE) of hospitalised adult patients and to define a simplified panel of triggers to facilitate the detection of AE. Cross-sectional study of charts of patients from a service of internal medicine to detect EA through systematic review of the charts and identification of triggers (clinical event often related to AE), determining if there was AE as the context in which it appeared the trigger. Once the EA was detected, we proceeded to the characterization of the triggers that detected it. Logistic regression was applied to select the triggers with greater AE detection capability. A total of 291 charts were reviewed, with a total of 562 triggers in 103 patients, of which 163 were involved in detecting an AE. The triggers that detected the most AE were "A.1. Pressure ulcer" (9.82%), "B.5. Laxative or enema" (8.59%), "A.8. Agitation" (8.59%), "A.9. Over-sedation" (7.98%), "A.7. Haemorrhage" (6.75%) and "B.4. Antipsychotic" (6.75%). A simplified model was obtained using logistic regression, and included the variable "Number of drugs" and the triggers "Over-sedation", "Urinary catheterisation", "Readmission in 30 days", "Laxative or enema" and "Abrupt medication stop". This model showed a probability of 81% to correctly classify charts with EA or without EA (p <0.001; 95% confidence interval: 0.763-0.871). A high number of triggers were associated with AE. The summary model is capable of detecting a large amount of AE, with a minimum of elements. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of an organized bowel management program in the management of severe chronic constipation in children.

    PubMed

    Russell, Katie W; Barnhart, Douglas C; Zobell, Sarah; Scaife, Eric R; Rollins, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Chronic constipation is a common problem in children. The cause of constipation is often idiopathic, when no anatomic or physiologic etiology can be identified. In severe cases, low dose laxatives, stool softeners and small volume enemas are ineffective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a structured bowel management program in these children. We retrospectively reviewed children with chronic constipation without a history of anorectal malformation, Hirschsprung's disease or other anatomical lesions seen in our pediatric colorectal center. Our bowel management program consists of an intensive week where treatment is assessed and tailored based on clinical response and daily radiographs. Once a successful treatment plan is established, children are followed longitudinally. The number of patients requiring hospital admission during the year prior to and year after initiation of bowel management was compared using Fisher's exact test. Forty-four children with refractory constipation have been followed in our colorectal center for greater than a year. Fifty percent had at least one hospitalization the year prior to treatment for obstructive symptoms. Children were treated with either high-dose laxatives starting at 2mg/kg of senna or enemas starting at 20ml/kg of normal saline. Treatment regimens were adjusted based on response to therapy. The admission rate one-year after enrollment was 9% including both adherent and nonadherent patients. This represents an 82% reduction in hospital admissions (p<0.001). Implementation of a structured bowel management program similar to that used for children with anorectal malformations, is effective and reduces hospital admissions in children with severe chronic constipation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Polyethylene glycol 3350 in occasional constipation: A one-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Thomas

    2016-05-06

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 in subjects with self-reported occasional constipation. Eligible subjects ≥ 17 years of age were randomized to receive either placebo or PEG 3350 17 g once daily in this multicenter, double-blind trial. Evaluations were conducted before (baseline) and after a 7-d treatment period. The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of subjects reporting complete resolution of straining and hard or lumpy stools. Secondary efficacy variables assessed the severity of the subjects' daily bowel movement (BM) symptoms, and preference of laxatives based on diary entries, visual analog scale scores, and questionnaires. Of the 203 subjects enrolled in the study, 11 had major protocol violations. Complete resolution was noted by 36/98 (36.7%) subjects in the PEG 3350 group and 23/94 (24.5%) in the placebo group (P = 0.0595). The number of complete BMs without straining or lumpy stools was similar between both groups. Subjects receiving PEG 3350 experienced significant relief in straining and reduction in hardness of stools over a 7-d period (P < 0.0001). Subjects reported that PEG 3350 had a better effect on their daily lives, provided better control over a BM, better relief from constipation, cramping, and bloating, and was their preferred laxative. Adverse events (AEs) were balanced between the PEG 3350 and the placebo groups. No deaths, serious AEs, or discontinuations due to AEs were reported. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00770432. Oral administration of 17 g PEG 3350 once daily for a week is effective, safe, and well tolerated in subjects with occasional constipation.

  12. Adolescent vegetarians. A behavioral profile of a school-based population in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Neumark-Sztainer, D; Story, M; Resnick, M D; Blum, R W

    1997-08-01

    To compare a population-based sample of vegetarian and nonvegetarian adolescents regarding food intake patterns, disordered eating, and a range of other non-food-related health-compromising and health-promoting behaviors. A cross-sectional school-based survey. Public schools within nonurban areas of Minnesota. Adolescents (n = 107) aged 12 to 20 years who reported on the Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey that they follow a vegetarian diet and a comparison group of nonvegetarian youth (n = 214) matched for sex, age, and ethnicity. The percentage of self-identified vegetarians in the study population was relatively low (0.6%); most of the vegetarians were female (81%). Food intake patterns, disordered eating (frequent dieting, binge eating, self-induced vomiting, and laxative use), health-compromising behaviors (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and suicide attempts), and health-promoting behaviors (seat belt use, physical activity, and brushing teeth regularly). Vegetarian adolescents were twice as likely to consume fruits and vegetables (P < .001), one third as likely to consume sweets (P < .001), and one fourth as likely to eat salty snack foods (P < .001) more than once a day compared with nonvegetarians. Vegetarians were almost twice as likely to report frequent dieting (P < .001), 4 times as likely to report intentional vomiting (P < .001), and 8 times as likely to report laxative use (P < .001) than nonvegetarians. Overall, associations with other health-compromising and health-promoting behaviors were not apparent. A vegetarian diet may be beneficial because of increased fruit and vegetable consumption and decreased consumption of foods high in fat, salt, and sugar. However, adolescents following a vegetarian diet need to be screened for adequate food intake and potential disordered eating behaviors.

  13. Unreported sauna use in anorexia nervosa: evidence from the world-wide-web.

    PubMed

    Vähäsoini, A; Vazquez, R; Birmingham, C L; Gutierrez, E

    2004-03-01

    Weight loss methods employed in anorexia nervosa (AN) are vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, enemas, suppositories, ipecac, weight loss medications and inadequate insulin in diabetics. Some methods result in weight loss from fluid depletion and not a reduction in body fat. Sauna use causes rapid fluid loss, but has not been reported in the medical literature as a weight loss strategy used in AN. We found reports of sauna use in AN on the world-wide-web are rare. We hypothesize that the warming caused by the use of sauna, may result in physical improvement in AN and thereby reduce its acceptability as a weight loss strategy.

  14. [Fumaria officinalis (fumitory)--clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Hentschel, C; Dressler, S; Hahn, E G

    1995-07-10

    Fumaria officinalis-fumitory or earth smoke-is a medicinal plant which has long had a role to play in empirical medicine in numerous countries. A review of the literature, however, reveals very few studies that support its use for dermatological indications (milk crust, eczema, scabies, etc.) or as a diuretic or laxative. This contrasts with its use to treat functional diseases of the biliary system. Although no placebo-controlled studies have been done, a number of empirical reports, clinical case reports and animal experimental studies have been published. Accordingly, in Germany, Fumaria officinalis is approved for the indication "colicky pain affecting the gallbladder and biliary system, together with the gastrointestinal tract".

  15. Targinact--opioid pain relief without constipation?

    PubMed

    2010-12-01

    Targinact (Napp Pharmaceuticals Ltd) is a modified-release combination product containing the strong opioid oxycodone plus the opioid antagonist naloxone. It is licensed for "severe pain, which can be adequately managed only with opioid analgesics".1 The summary of product characteristics (SPC) states that "naloxone is added to counteract opioid-induced constipation by blocking the action of oxycodone at opioid receptors locally in the gut". Advertising for the product claims "better pain relief", "superior GI [gastrointestinal] tolerability" and "improved quality of life" "compared to previous treatment in a clinical practice study (n=7836)". Here we consider whether Targinact offers advantages over using strong opioids plus laxatives where required.

  16. Viscosity as related to dietary fiber: a review.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, Cheryl L; Fahey, George C

    2006-01-01

    Viscosity is a physicochemical property associated with dietary fibers, particularly soluble dietary fibers. Viscous dietary fibers thicken when mixed with fluids and include polysaccharides such as gums, pectins, psyllium, and beta-glucans. Although insoluble fiber particles may affect viscosity measurement, viscosity is not an issue regards insoluble dietary fibers. Viscous fibers have been credited for beneficial physiological responses in human, animal, and animal-alternative in vitro models. The following article provides a review of viscosity as related to dietary fiber including definitions and instrumentation, factors affecting viscosity of solutions, and effects of viscous polysaccharides on glycemic response, blood lipid attenuation, intestinal enzymatic activity, digestibility, and laxation.

  17. Gastrointestinal effects of low-digestible carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Grabitske, Hollie A; Slavin, Joanne L

    2009-04-01

    Low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) are carbohydrates that are incompletely or not absorbed in the small intestine but are at least partly fermented by bacteria in the large intestine. Fiber, resistant starch, and sugar alcohols are types of LDCs. Given potential health benefits (including a reduced caloric content, reduced or no effect on blood glucose levels, non-cariogenic effect) the prevalence of LDCs in processed foods is increasing. Many of the benefits of LDCs are related to the inability of human digestive enzymes to break down completely the carbohydrates into absorbable saccharides and the subsequent fermentation of unabsorbed carbohydrates in the colon. As a result, LDCs may affect laxation and cause gastrointestinal effects, including abdominal discomfort, flatus, and diarrhea, especially at higher or excessive intakes. Such responses, though transient, affect the perception of the well-being of consumers and their acceptance of food products containing LDCs. Current recommendations for fiber intake do not consider total LDC consumption nor recommend an upper limit for LDC intake based on potential gastrointestinal effects. Therefore, a review of published studies reporting gastrointestinal effects of LDCs was conducted. We included only studies published in refereed journals in English. Additionally, we excluded studies of subjects with incomplete or abnormal functioning gastrointestinal tracts or where antibiotics, stimulant laxatives, or other drugs affecting motility were included. Only in studies with a control period, either placebo treatment or no LDC treatment, were included. Studies must have included an acceptable measure of gastrointestinal effect. Sixty-eight studies and six review articles were evaluated. This review describes definitions, classifications, and mechanisms of LDCs, evaluates published human feeding studies of fifteen LDCs for associations between gastrointestinal effects and levels of LDC intake, and presents recommendations

  18. Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples.

    PubMed

    van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; Rademaker, C J; Paton, N D; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2014-07-01

    Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter were evaluated as additional quality measures. The dietary treatments consisted of nonstarch polysaccharide content (NSP; corn vs. wheat), particle size of insoluble fiber (coarse vs. finely ground oat hulls), viscosity of a nonfermentable fiber (low- and high-viscosity carboxymethyl cellulose), inclusion of a clay mineral (sepiolite), and inclusion of a laxative electrolyte (MgSO4). The 8 treatments were randomly assigned to cages within blocks, resulting in 12 replicates per treatment with 6 birds per replicate. Limited effects of the dietary treatments were noted on excreta and litter water activity, and indications were observed that this measurement is limited in high-moisture samples. Increasing dietary NSP content by feeding a corn-based diet (low NSP) compared with a wheat-based diet (high NSP) increased water intake, excreta moisture and free water, and litter moisture content. Adding insoluble fibers to the wheat-based diet reduced excreta and litter moisture content, as well as litter water activity. Fine grinding of the oat hulls diminished the effect on litter moisture and water activity. However, excreta moisture and free water content were similar when fed finely or coarsely ground oat hulls. The effects of changing viscosity and adding a clay mineral or laxative deviated from results observed in previous studies. Findings of the current experiment indicate a potential for excreta free water measurement as an additional parameter to assess excreta quality besides total moisture. The exact implication of this parameter warrants further investigation. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Fiber for the treatment of hemorrhoids complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Mills, Ed; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; López-Yarto, Maite; Zhou, Qi; Johanson, John F; Guyatt, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of laxatives on a wide range of symptoms in patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids. We searched using the following sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL, BIOSIS, AMED, Papers First and Proceedings; study authors, industry, and experts in the field. We included all published and unpublished parallel group randomized controlled trials comparing any type of laxative to placebo or no therapy in patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion, retrieved all potentially relevant studies, and extracted data on study population, intervention, prespecified outcomes, and methodology. Seven trials randomized 378 patients to fiber or a nonfiber control. Studies were of moderate quality for most outcomes. Meta-analyses using random effects models suggested that fiber has an apparent beneficial effect. The risk of not improving/persisting symptoms decreased by 47% in the fiber group (RR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.38-0.73) and the risk of bleeding by 50% (RR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.28-0.89). Studies with multiple follow-ups, usually at 6 wk and at 3 months, showed consistent results over time. Results are also compatible with large treatment effects in prolapse, pain, and itching, but even in the pooled analyses confidence intervals were wide and compatible with no effect (RR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.37-1.67; RR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.07-1.65; and RR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.24-2.10, respectively). One study suggested a decrease in recurrence. Results showed a nonsignificant trend toward increases in mild adverse events in the fiber group (RR = 6.0, 95% CI 0.57-64.8). Trials of fiber show a consistent beneficial effect for symptoms and bleeding in the treatment of symptomatic hemorrhoids.

  20. Assessment of neurogenic bowel dysfunction impact after spinal cord injury using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Pires, Jennifer M; Ferreira, Ana M; Rocha, Filipa; Andrade, Luis G; Campos, Inês; Margalho, Paulo; Laíns, Jorge

    2018-05-09

    Bowel function is frequently compromised after spinal cord injury (SCI). Regardless of this crucial importance in patients' lives, there is still scarce literature on the Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction (NBD) deleterious impact on SCI patient's lives and only few studies correlating NBD severity with quality of life (QoL). To our knowledge there are no studies assessing the impact of NBD on the context of ICF domains. To assess NBD after SCI using ICF domains and to assess its impact in QoL. Retrospective data analysis and cross-sectional phone survey. Outpatient spinal cord injury setting. Portuguese adult spinal cord injury patients. Retrospective analysis of demographic data, lesion characteristics and bowel management methods at last inpatient discharge. Cross-sectional phone survey assessing current bowel management methods, the Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction Score and a Likert scale questionnaire about the impact on ICF domains and QoL. 64 patients answered the questionnaire. The majority was male (65.6%), mean age 56.6±15.6 years, AIS A lesion (39.1%), with a traumatic cause (71.9%). The main bowel management methods were contact laxatives, suppositories and osmotic laxatives. 50.1% of patients scored moderate or severe NBD. Considering ICF domains, the greatest impact was in personal and environmental factors, with 39.1% reporting impact in financial costs, 45.3% in need of assistance, 45.3% in emotional health and 46.9% in loss of privacy. There was a significant association between severity of NBD and negative impact on QoL (p<0.05). The study confirms the major impact of NBD on personal and environmental factors of ICF and on the quality of life of SCI population. These findings confirm that it is relevant to identify the main ICF domains affected by NBD after SCI in order to address targeted interventions, working toward changes in health policies and psychosocial aspects.

  1. Demographics and health care seeking behavior of Singaporean women with chronic constipation: implications for therapeutic management.

    PubMed

    Gwee, Kok Ann; Setia, Sajita

    2012-01-01

    Chronic constipation is significantly more prevalent in women than men in Singapore. We carried out a survey to study patient demographics, symptom prevalence, healthcare-seeking behavior, and patient satisfaction with available treatment options in women with chronic constipation. Responses were collected predominantly via a web-based survey from a panel representative of Singapore's women population. Eligibility was established using a nine-question screener. A total of 1006 invited females took part in an online screener survey, of which 911 respondents did not meet the eligibility requirements for the chronic constipation survey. Of the total panelists consenting to participate (via both online and face-to-face interviews), 100 women met eligibility requirements and took the 22-question survey. Eligible respondents were skewed to younger patients but well mixed in terms of marital status. The majority of them were not keen on doing exercise and were working women, especially white collar females. The majority complained of straining and hard stools as the most common constipation symptoms (88% and 80% respectively) and rated constipation symptoms as severe or moderate. On average, respondents experienced constipation symptoms for 6 to 7 months in the last year. In more than two-thirds of respondents, constipation symptoms were frequent (at least 1 in 3 times). Most of the patients had attempted to treat constipation themselves and 80% had tried laxatives before visiting the doctor. Satisfaction with fiber supplements and laxatives was average and many of the users were not satisfied with their effect. Ineffectiveness and prolonged time taken for the treatment to take effect were the most common reasons for dissatisfaction. Nearly all respondents (97%) were interested in considering alternative prescriptive medication that is proven more effective. Chronic constipation symptoms in women are often severe and bothersome, and many patients are dissatisfied with

  2. Lubiprostone for the treatment of adults with constipation and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schey, Ron; Rao, Satish S C

    2011-06-01

    Chronic constipation and IBS-C are two of the most common functional bowel disorders encountered by primary care providers and gastroenterologists, affecting up to 27% of the population in Western countries [1-4]. The treatment of these disorders is often empiric and most current therapies are indicated for episodic constipation. Over time, most patients become refractory to one or more laxatives. Lubiprostone (Amitiza) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of chronic-idiopathic constipation [6]. It is an oral bicyclic fatty acid that selectively activates type 2 chloride channels in the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelial cells, hence stimulating chloride secretion, along with passive secretion of sodium and water, inducing peristalsis and laxation, without stimulating gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Several trials have shown it to be effective in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation, and recently also IBS-C. It has little systemic absorption and almost free of any serious adverse effects, however, occasionally can cause nausea. Based on the available evidence, it is reasonable to conclude that lubiprostone should be added to the short list of evidence-based pharmacotherapies for chronic constipation and IBS-C. Given the overlap between chronic constipation and IBS-C, clinicians can consider two strategies when deciding on the initial dose of lubiprostone. Based on current product labeling, it is recommended that 8 μg bid be started in patients with IBS-C whereas 24 μg bid be used in those with chronic constipation. Thus far, lubiprostone offers a novel approach to our therapeutic armamentarium, however, there is a need for more drugs with different mechanisms of action, in order to treat constipation that is often multifunctional.

  3. Massive hyperphosphatemia in a patient with neuronal intestinal dysplasia after bowel preparation with oral sodium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Hakki; Guler, Derya; Birdal, Gurdal; Nalcaci, Serdar; Aykut, Emre; Ozcan, Ceren; Irmak, Rahmi; Banzragch, Munkhtsetseg; Arzu, Velioglu

    2013-07-01

    Oral sodium phosphate-based laxatives are frequently used for bowel preparation or relief of constipation in some countries. However, these agents are not without risk. Small and clinical insignificant increments on serum phosphorus levels are observed in almost all individuals after use of oral sodium phosphate. Some patients are prone to severe hyperphosphatemia such as elders, those with chronic or acute renal disease and those with poor bowel motility. Severe hyperphosphatemia accompanied with hypocalcemia may be life-threatening in these patients. We present an 18-year-old woman with neuronal intestinal dysplasia who developed symptomatic and severe hyperphosphatemia after bowel preparation with oral sodium phosphate enema. Urgent hemodialysis was performed two times for severe hyperphosphatemia.

  4. Strategies for Optimizing the Diagnostic Predictive Value of Clostridium difficile Molecular Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kociolek, Larry K

    2017-05-01

    Because nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) do not distinguish Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and asymptomatic C. difficile carriage, the diagnostic predictive value of NAATs is limited when used in patients with a low probability of CDI. In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology , Truong et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol., 55:1276-1284, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02319-16) report significant reductions in hospital-onset CDI and oral vancomycin utilization at their institution following implementation of a novel intervention that leveraged their clinical bioinformatics resources to prevent C. difficile testing of stools from patients without clinically significant diarrhea and in patients with recent laxative use. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. [Encopresis].

    PubMed

    von Gontard, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Encopresis is defined as functional faecal incontinence at 4 years of age or older and affects 1-3% of all school children. The two most important subtypes are encopresis with and without constipation. In preschoolers toilet refusal syndrome can occur. Comorbid behavioural disorders and urinary incontinence are common. The current state-of-the-art regarding aetiology, assessment and therapy is presented in this overview. A symptom-oriented behavioural approach (toilet training) is most successful, with the addition of laxatives (polyethylene glycol) if constipation is present. Biofeedback is not effective. Other forms of psychotherapy are indicated only in case of comorbid behavioural disorders. The long-term outcome has been poor and needs improvement.

  6. Encopresis.

    PubMed

    Loening-Baucke, Vera

    2002-10-01

    A careful history and physical examination will help to differentiate between encopresis with or without constipation and fecal incontinence caused by anatomic or organic disease. Most children with encopresis with or without functional constipation require no or minimal laboratory workup. Successful treatment of encopresis requires a combination of parent and child education, behavioral intervention, medical therapy, and long-term compliance with the treatment regimen. The conventional treatment approach consists of behavior modification and laxative for children with encopresis with constipation and behavior modification alone for the few children with encopresis without constipation. Almost every patient will experience dramatic improvement in encopresis. Recovery rates are 30% to 50% after 1 year and 48% to 75% after 5 years.

  7. Occupational allergy to Spagulax®(Plantago ovata seed).

    PubMed

    Viñas, M; Pineda, F; Izquierdo-Domínguez, A; Castillo, M; Castillo, M J; Hernández, N; Ibero, M

    2017-11-01

    We report the case of a 36-year-old male pharmaceutical laboratory worker. On handling Spagulax ® sachets whose content is a laxative called Plantago ovata, he immediately presented rhinoconjunctivitis. Methods. Specific allergy study included SDS-PAGE with Western Blot and specific nasal challenge to Plantago ovata extract. Results. Prick by prick for Spagulax ® was negative. Total IgE: 126.5 U/mL. Western Blot recognized two proteins of 15 and 20 kDa in the extract of Plantago ovata and three proteins of 15, 18 and 50 kDa in the extract of Plantago lanceolata. Conclusions. We present a case of occupational allergy due to inhalation of and/or contact with Plantago ovata seeds.

  8. Brazilian Green Propolis Promotes Weight Loss and Reduces Fat Accumulation in C57BL/6 Mice Fed A High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tohru; Ohhata, Miyuki; Fujii, Misaki; Oda, Sayaka; Kusaka, Yasuna; Matsumoto, Miki; Nakamoto, Akiko; Taki, Tomoyo; Nakamoto, Mariko; Shuto, Emi

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a bee product with various biological properties. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet and treated with propolis for 14 weeks. Body weight in mice treated with 2% propolis was less than that in control mice from 3 weeks after the start of treatment until 14 weeks except for the 7th week. Mice treated with propolis showed significantly lower epididymal fat weight and subcutaneous fat weight. Infiltration of epididymal fat by macrophages and T cells was reduced in the propolis group. Supplementation of propolis increased feces weight and fat content in feces, suggesting that mechanisms of weight reduction by propolis partly include a laxative effect and inhibition of fat absorption.

  9. [New drugs for small animals in 2010].

    PubMed

    Emmerich, I U

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, no active pharmaceutical ingredients were released on the German market for small animals. Furthermore, no additional substances were authorized for additional species. Only one drug with an interesting new pharmaceutical form, two products with a new strength and one drug, which is interesting because of other criteria, were added to the market for small animals. In addition, nine active pharmaceutical ingredients with approval for use in human medicine, which are of potential interest for veterinary medicine, entered the market in 2010. Those are the analgesic Tapentadol, the antiallergicum Bilastine, the antiarrhythmics Dronedarone and Vernakalant, the antihaemorrhagic Eltrombopag, the bronchodilator Roflumilast, the hormone Corifollitropin alfa, the laxative Prucalopride and the cytostatic Mifamurtide.

  10. [Drug induced diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Morard, Isabelle; Hadengue, Antoine

    2008-09-03

    Diarrhea is a frequent adverse event involving the most frequently antibiotics, laxatives and NSAI. Drug induced diarrhea may be acute or chronic. It may be due to expected, dose dependant properties of the drug, to immuno-allergic or bio-genomic mechanisms. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been described resulting in osmotic, secretory or inflammatory diarrhea, shortened transit time, or malabsorption. Histopathological lesions sometimes associated with drug induced diarrhea are usually non specific and include ulcerations, inflammatory or ischemic lesions, fibrous diaphragms, microscopic colitis and apoptosis. The diagnosis of drug induced diarrhea, sometimes difficult to assess, relies on the absence of other obvious causes and on the rapid disappearance of the symptoms after withdrawal of the suspected drug.

  11. A Review of the Clinical Manifestations, Pathophysiology and Management of Opioid Bowel Dysfunction and Narcotic Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Zahra; Javid Anbardan, Sanam; Ebrahimi Daryani, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Opioids are widely used for the treatment of malignant and non-malignant pains. These medications are accompanied by adverse effects, in particular gastrointestinal symptoms known as opioid bowel dysfunction (OBD). The most common symptom of OBD is refractory constipation that is usually stable regardless of the use of laxatives. Narcotic bowel syndrome (NBS) is a subset of OBD described as ambiguous chronic pain aggravated by continual or increased opioid use for pain relief. Pathophysiology of these disorders are not definitely disentangled. Some challenging hypothesis have been posed leading to specific management in order to mitigate the adverse effects. This article is a review of the literature on the prevalence, pathophysiology and management of OBD and NBS. PMID:24829698

  12. Effect of Home Care Nursing on Patients Discharged From Hospital With Self-Reported Signs of Constipation: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Konradsen, Hanne; Rasmussen, Marie Louise Thiese; Noiesen, Eline; Trosborg, Ingelise

    Constipation is a common health problem in relation to hospitalization. This randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate whether advice from a home care nurse after discharge had an effect on self-reported signs of constipation. A total of 59 patients were included in the study on the basis of their self-reported signs of constipation evaluated using the Constipation Assessment Scale. Advice from the home care nurses was given on the intake of fiber and liquid and mobilization related to scorings on the Constipation Risk Assessment Scale, the administration of laxatives, and referral to a physician when needed. Results showed a tendency toward the visits being effective, but a more complex intervention might be needed.

  13. Allergic reaction to polyethylene glycol in a painter.

    PubMed

    Antolin-Amerigo, D; Sánchez-González, M J; Barbarroja-Escudero, J; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, M; Álvarez-Perea, A; Alvarez-Mon, M

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of a male painter who visited our outpatient clinic after developing a distinct skin reaction 15 min after the ingestion of a laxative solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) prior to colonoscopy. He described suffering from the same skin reaction when he was previously exposed to paints that contained PEG-4000. An exposure challenge test with pure PEG-4000, simulating his workplace conditions, elicited a generalized urticarial reaction. Allergy to PEG should be considered in painters who develop urticarial or other systemic symptoms after handling PEG-containing products. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Improving halva quality with dietary fibres of sesame seed coats and date pulp, enriched with emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Elleuch, Mohamed; Bedigian, Dorothea; Maazoun, Bouthaina; Besbes, Souhail; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-02-15

    Supplementation of halva with waste products of manufacturing, for example defatted sesame seed coats (testae) and date fibre concentrate, can improve its nutritional and organoleptic qualities. These constituents provide high fibre content and technological potential for retaining water and fat. Standard halva supplemented with date fibre concentrate, defatted sesame testae and emulsifier was evaluated for oil separation, texture and colour changes, sensory qualities and acceptability to a taste panel. Addition of both fibres with an emulsifier, improved emulsion stability and increased the hardness of halva significantly. The functional properties of sesame testae and date fibres promote nutrition and health, supplying polyphenol antioxidants and laxative benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 76 FR 7743 - Professional Labeling for Laxative Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... following methods: Electronic Submissions Submit electronic comments in the following way: Federal e.... Robinson, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave... observational, retrospective studies have attempted to assess the incidence of subclinical (without symptoms...

  16. The ‘mystery’ of opioid-induced diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Bril, Silviu; Shoham, Yoav; Marcus, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Bowel dysfunction, mainly constipation, is a well-known and anticipated side effect of opioids. The physician prescribing an opioid frequently confronts the challenge of preventing and treating bowel dysfunction. Different strategies have emerged for managing opioid-induced constipation. These strategies include physical activity, maintaining adequate fluid intake, adhering to regular daily bowel habits, using laxatives and other anticonstipation medications and, recently, using a peripheral opioid antagonist, either as a separate drug or in the form of an opioid agonist-antagonist combination pill. What options exist for the physician when a patient receiving opioids complains of diarrhea, cramps and bloating, rather than the expected constipation? The present article describes a possible cause of opioid-induced diarrhea and strategies for management. PMID:21766071

  17. Drug-Induced Urinary Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Matlaga, Brian R; Shah, Ojas D; Assimos, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    Urinary calculi may be induced by a number of medications used to treat a variety of conditions. These medications may lead to metabolic abnormalities that facilitate the formation of stones. Drugs that induce metabolic calculi include loop diuretics; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; and laxatives, when abused. Correcting the metabolic abnormality may eliminate or dramatically attenuate stone activity. Urinary calculi can also be induced by medications when the drugs crystallize and become the primary component of the stones. In this case, urinary supersaturation of the agent may promote formation of the calculi. Drugs that induce calculi via this process include magnesium trisilicate; ciprofloxacin; sulfa medications; triamterene; indinavir; and ephedrine, alone or in combination with guaifenesin. When this situation occurs, discontinuation of the medication is usually necessary. PMID:16985842

  18. Current developments in pharmacological therapeutics for chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chunhuan; Xu, Qinglong; Wen, Xiaoan; Sun, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common gastrointestinal disease severely affecting the patient׳s quality of life. The traditional treatment of constipation is the use of laxatives. Recently, several new drugs including lubiprostone, linaclotide and prucalopride have been approved for treatment of chronic constipation. However, a significant unmet medical need still remains, particularly among those patients achieving poor results by current therapies. The 5-HT4 receptor modulators velusetrag and naronapride, the guanylate cyclase C agonist plecanatide and the ileal bile acid transporter inhibitor elobixibat are recognized as the most promising drugs under investigation. Herein, we give a comprehensive review on the pharmacological therapeutics for the treatment of chronic constipation, with the purpose of reflecting the drug development trends in this field. PMID:26579459

  19. A review of dietary fiber and health: focus on raisins.

    PubMed

    Bell, Stacey J

    2011-09-01

    Fibers vary in their physiologic effects. For example, viscous fibers may delay gastric emptying of ingested foods into the small intestine, creating a sensation of fullness; reduce blood glucose concentrations; and potentially benefit insulin sensitivity. They also improve blood cholesterol levels. Insoluble fibers are poorly absorbed and are known to improve fecal bulk and laxation and ameliorate constipation. Despite these numerous benefits, most Americans do not get enough of either kind of fiber in the diet. Some have argued that fiber-rich foods are not appetizing and therefore avoided. Raisins contain both forms of fiber and have a sweet flavor. This review provides support for consuming adequate fiber in the diet and suggests a role for raisins to help increase total dietary fiber.

  20. Over-the-Counter and Out-of-Control: Legal Strategies to Protect Youths From Abusing Products for Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lisa M.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of widely available, over-the-counter drugs and supplements such as laxatives and diet pills for weight control by youths is well documented in the epidemiological literature. Many such products are not medically recommended for healthy weight control or are especially susceptible to abuse, and their misuse can result in serious health consequences. We analyzed the government’s role in regulating these products to protect public health. We examined federal and state regulatory authority, and referred to international examples to inform our analysis. Several legal interventions are indicated to protect youths, including increased warnings and restrictions on access through behind-the-counter placement or age verification. We suggest future directions for governments internationally to address this pervasive public health problem. PMID:23237149

  1. Evaluation of the Effect of Four Fibers on Laxation, Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Serum Markers in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Maria L.; Nikhanj, Soma D.; Timm, Derek A.; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Average dietary fiber intake in the United States is roughly half of the recommended amount. As new dietary fiber products are introduced to increase fiber intake, it is critical to evaluate the physiological effects of such fibers. Aims: This study examined the effect of 4 fibers derived from maize or tapioca on fecal chemistry, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and serum markers of chronic disease. Methods Twenty healthy subjects completed the single-blind crossover study in which 12 g/day of fiber (pullulan, Promitor™ Resistant Starch, soluble fiber dextrin or Promitor Soluble Corn Fiber) or placebo (maltodextrin) were consumed for 14 days followed by a 21-day washout. GI symptom surveys were completed (days 3 and 14), stools were collected (days 11–14), diet was recorded (days 12–14) and fasting blood samples were obtained (day 15). Results The 4 test fibers were well tolerated, with mild to moderate GI symptoms. Total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations did not differ among the treatments. Fecal pH and individual SCFAs were affected by some treatments. Stool weight and serum markers of chronic disease did not change with these treatments. Conclusion Increasing fiber intake by 12 g/day was well tolerated and may have a positive impact on colon health due to fermentation. PMID:20090313

  2. Epidemiology of cholelithiasis in southern Italy. Part II: Risk factors.

    PubMed

    Misciagna, G; Leoci, C; Guerra, V; Chiloiro, M; Elba, S; Petruzzi, J; Mossa, A; Noviello, M R; Coviello, A; Minutolo, M C; Mangini, V; Messa, C; Cavallini, A; De Michele, G; Giorgio, I

    1996-06-01

    To determine behavioural, dietary and other common factors associated with new cases of gallstones, diagnosed by ultrasonography, in a prospective cohort study conducted in southern Italy. Between May 1985 and June 1986, systematic sampling from the electoral register of Castellana, a small town in southern Italy, yielded 2472 subjects who had had their gallbladder checked for gallstones by ultrasonography. Between May 1992 and June 1993, 1962 out of the 2235 (87.7%) subjects without gallstones at baseline agreed to a further ultrasound examination. At the first survey a standardized questionnaire was administered, inquiring about medical history, diet, cigarette smoking and other behavioural characteristics. Height and weight were also measured, and blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were determined by standard methods. The same variables were measured at the second survey. The diagnosis of gallstones was made with the same echograph by echographists working in the same department. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine which factors measured at the first survey were associated with the incident cases of gallstones. One hundred and four subjects had developed gallstones, an incidence of 9.7 per 1000 persons per year. Age, body mass index (BMI), weight change, a history of diabetes, constipation (shown by use of laxatives), cigarette smoking, years of schooling, consumption of fried foods and excessive oil, and pregnancy in females, were positively associated with the incidence of gallstones. Consumption of wine, coffee, fish and wholemeal bread was inversely associated. Sex, family history of cholelithiasis, use of oral contraceptives and serum lipids were not independent risk factors for gallstones. The results of this study confirm many gallstone-associated factors reported in previous cross-sectional and case-control studies, as well as in other cohort studies based on the clinical diagnosis of gallstones, such

  3. Demographics and health care seeking behavior of Singaporean women with chronic constipation: implications for therapeutic management

    PubMed Central

    Gwee, Kok Ann; Setia, Sajita

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Chronic constipation is significantly more prevalent in women than men in Singapore. We carried out a survey to study patient demographics, symptom prevalence, healthcare-seeking behavior, and patient satisfaction with available treatment options in women with chronic constipation. Methods Responses were collected predominantly via a web-based survey from a panel representative of Singapore’s women population. Eligibility was established using a nine-question screener. Results A total of 1006 invited females took part in an online screener survey, of which 911 respondents did not meet the eligibility requirements for the chronic constipation survey. Of the total panelists consenting to participate (via both online and face-to-face interviews), 100 women met eligibility requirements and took the 22-question survey. Eligible respondents were skewed to younger patients but well mixed in terms of marital status. The majority of them were not keen on doing exercise and were working women, especially white collar females. The majority complained of straining and hard stools as the most common constipation symptoms (88% and 80% respectively) and rated constipation symptoms as severe or moderate. On average, respondents experienced constipation symptoms for 6 to 7 months in the last year. In more than two-thirds of respondents, constipation symptoms were frequent (at least 1 in 3 times). Most of the patients had attempted to treat constipation themselves and 80% had tried laxatives before visiting the doctor. Satisfaction with fiber supplements and laxatives was average and many of the users were not satisfied with their effect. Ineffectiveness and prolonged time taken for the treatment to take effect were the most common reasons for dissatisfaction. Nearly all respondents (97%) were interested in considering alternative prescriptive medication that is proven more effective. Conclusion Chronic constipation symptoms in women are often severe and bothersome

  4. Anismus and biofeedback: who benefits?

    PubMed

    Siproudhis, L; Dautrème, S; Ropert, A; Briand, H; Renet, C; Beusnel, C; Juguet, F; Rabot, A F; Bretagne, J F; Gosselin, M

    1995-06-01

    Biofeedback is the main treatment for dyschezia in patients with anismus, but retraining may fail because of the frequent association of pelvirectal disorders with anismus. We set out to identify indices of biofeedback failure in the treatment of anismus. From May 1990 to May 1993, 27 patients (20 women and seven men; median age 46 years) with anismus in which dyschezia was not improved by laxative agents were enrolled in a biofeedback retraining programme. All patients underwent proctologic examination, anal manometry and defecography. Anismus was defined as an increase in anal pressure during attempted defecation in conjunction with an impairment of rectal emptying as assessed using an objective test (barium paste expulsion). Associated disorders were encountered frequently. These included abnormal perineal descent (22 cases), large rectocoele (12 cases), high-grade rectal prolapse (six cases), abnormally high anal canal pressures at rest (seven cases) and abnormal rectal response to inflation (20 cases). Anismus was the sole abnormality in 12 patients when perineal descent, low-grade prolapse and abnormal rectal sensations were not taken into account. Biofeedback retraining did not suppress dyschezia in 13 out of 27 patients. Neither associated disorders (rectocoele, rectal prolapse, abnormal perineal descent, anal pressure and abnormalities of rectal sensation) nor a relevant past history (hysterectomy, laxative abuse, use of antidepressive agents) were encountered more frequently in these 13 patients than in the other 14. The duration of symptoms before treatment was significantly longer in the group unresponsive to biofeedback retraining (81 +/- 61 compared with 33 +/- 34 months for the responsive group, P < 0.01), but the total duration of symptoms and the number of retraining sessions attended did not differ significantly between the two groups. (1) Extensive examination (defecography and manometry) before biofeedback retraining of anismus is not mandatory

  5. Ficus carica aqueous extract alleviates delayed gastric emptying and recovers ulcerative colitis-enhanced acute functional gastrointestinal disorders in rats.

    PubMed

    Rtibi, Kaïs; Grami, Dhekra; Wannes, Dalanda; Selmi, Slimen; Amri, Mohamed; Sebai, Hichem; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2018-06-02

    Ficus carica fruit, a source of bioactive functional ingredients, have been traditionally long time used for its medicinal benefits as they improve the digestive system, treating constipation and used as a natural laxative. The recent study was investigated the ameliorative effect of Ficus carica L. aqueous extract (FCAE) on delayed gastric emptying and ulcerative colitis-improved motility disturbances in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis in rats. Wistar rats were assigned randomly and received 5% DSS for seven days. Ulcerative colitis diagnosis was confirmed by clinical signs, visible fecal blood and histopatological evaluation. The estimation of the action of colitis on TGI and constipation as well as the protective effect of extract, the intestinal biochemical and physiological parameters were measured using the charcoal meal test, loperamide (Lop)-induced constipation as well as spectrophotometric assays. FCAE (150 and 300 mg kg -1 ) was administered orally once per day for seven days 1 h after the loperamide treatment. Phenol-red colorimetric method was used to explore the action of FCAE on gastric emptying process. Ulcerative colitis caused a significantly gastrointestinal motility inhibition in normal rats and notably aggravated the constipation in LOP group. Oppositely, FCAE oral intake significantly increased levels of the gastrointestinal transit ratio and gastric emptying by accelerating of their times. Moreover, constipation severity induced by colitis was remarkably reduced in the FCAE treatment group, as demonstrated by a marked management of fecal parameters, water content, oxidative stress indicators, lipid metabolism, and intracellular mediators. Phytochemical analysis of FCAE revealed the presence of carbohydrates, polysaccharides, phenolic acids as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, syringic acid and ellagic acid, and flavonoids (e.g. rutin, catechin, epicatechin and apeginine). The obtained results indicated that FCAE exhibits

  6. Predictors of patient reluctance to wake early in the morning for bowel preparation for colonoscopy: a precolonoscopy survey in city-wide practice.

    PubMed

    Shafer, L A; Walker, J R; Waldman, C; Michaud, V; Yang, C; Bernstein, C N; Hathout, L; Park, J; Sisler, J; Wittmeier, K; Restall, G; Singh, H

    2018-06-01

     Many endoscopists do not use split-dose bowel preparation (SDBP) for morning colonoscopies. Despite SDBP being recommended practice, they believe patients will not agree to take early morning bowel preparation (BP). We assessed patients' opinions about waking early for BP.  A self-administered survey was distributed between 08/2015 and 06/2016 to patients in Winnipeg, Canada when they attended an outpatient colonoscopy. Logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of reluctance to use early morning BP.  Of the 1336 respondents (52 % female, median age 57 years), 33 % had used SDBP for their current colonoscopy. Of the 1336, 49 % were willing, 24 % neutral, and 27 % reluctant to do early morning BP. Predictors of reluctant versus willing were number of prior colonoscopies (OR 1.20; 95 %CI: 1.07 - 1.35), female gender (OR 1.65; 95 %CI: 1.19 - 2.29), unclear BP information (OR 1.86; 95 %CI: 1.21 - 2.85), high BP anxiety (OR 2.02; 95 %CI: 1.35 - 3.02), purpose of current colonoscopy being bowel symptoms (OR 1.40; 95 %CI: 1.00 - 1.97), use of 4 L of polyethylene glycol laxative (OR 1.45; 95 %CI: 1.02 - 2.06), not having SDBP (OR 1.96; 95 %CI: 1.31 - 2.93), and not having finished the laxative for the current colonoscopy (OR 1.66; 95 %CI: 1.01 - 2.73). Most of the same predictors were identified when reluctance was compared to willing or neutral, and in ordinal logistic regression.  Almost three-quarters of patients do not express reluctance to get up early for BP. Among those who are reluctant, improving BP information, allaying BP-related anxiety, and use of low volume BP may increase acceptance of SDBP.

  7. Predictors of patient reluctance to wake early in the morning for bowel preparation for colonoscopy: a precolonoscopy survey in city-wide practice

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, L. A.; Walker, J. R.; Waldman, C.; Michaud, V.; Yang, C.; Bernstein, C. N.; Hathout, L.; Park, J.; Sisler, J.; Wittmeier, K.; Restall, G.; Singh, H.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction  Many endoscopists do not use split-dose bowel preparation (SDBP) for morning colonoscopies. Despite SDBP being recommended practice, they believe patients will not agree to take early morning bowel preparation (BP). We assessed patients’ opinions about waking early for BP. Methods  A self-administered survey was distributed between 08/2015 and 06/2016 to patients in Winnipeg, Canada when they attended an outpatient colonoscopy. Logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of reluctance to use early morning BP. Results  Of the 1336 respondents (52 % female, median age 57 years), 33 % had used SDBP for their current colonoscopy. Of the 1336, 49 % were willing, 24 % neutral, and 27 % reluctant to do early morning BP. Predictors of reluctant versus willing were number of prior colonoscopies (OR 1.20; 95 %CI: 1.07 – 1.35), female gender (OR 1.65; 95 %CI: 1.19 – 2.29), unclear BP information (OR 1.86; 95 %CI: 1.21 – 2.85), high BP anxiety (OR 2.02; 95 %CI: 1.35 – 3.02), purpose of current colonoscopy being bowel symptoms (OR 1.40; 95 %CI: 1.00 – 1.97), use of 4 L of polyethylene glycol laxative (OR 1.45; 95 %CI: 1.02 – 2.06), not having SDBP (OR 1.96; 95 %CI: 1.31 – 2.93), and not having finished the laxative for the current colonoscopy (OR 1.66; 95 %CI: 1.01 – 2.73). Most of the same predictors were identified when reluctance was compared to willing or neutral, and in ordinal logistic regression. Conclusions  Almost three-quarters of patients do not express reluctance to get up early for BP. Among those who are reluctant, improving BP information, allaying BP-related anxiety, and use of low volume BP may increase acceptance of SDBP. PMID:29854940

  8. The anticholinergic impregnation scale: Towards the elaboration of a scale adapted to prescriptions in French psychiatric settings.

    PubMed

    Briet, Jeanne; Javelot, Hervé; Heitzmann, Edwige; Weiner, Luisa; Lameira, Catherine; D'Athis, Philippe; Corneloup, Marie; Vailleau, Jean-Louis

    2017-09-01

    Some drugs have anticholinergic activity and can cause peripheral or central side effects. Several scales exist to evaluate the potential anticholinergic effect of prescribed drugs but: (i) they are validated in the elderly and mainly assess the cognitive side effect of treatments; (ii) they do not concern some of the drugs frequently used in clinical psychiatry in France. The aim of our study is to develop a new scale, the anticholinergic impregnation scale (AIS), with drugs used in France and based on an assessment of the drugs used against peripheral anticholinergic adverse effects. We assigned a score, ranging from 1 to 3, to a list of 128 drugs with a consensus approach obtained via literature data and expert opinions. We collected data from 7278 prescriptions in 34 French psychiatric facilities: age, sex, atropinic drugs, laxatives and treatments of xerophthalmia and xerostomia, in order to evaluate the association between AIS score and the prescription of drugs aiming to reduce peripheral anticholinergic side effects. The most frequently prescribed drugs were cyamemazine (n=1429; 20%) and tropatepine (n=1403; 19%), two drugs marketed almost exclusively in France and with a score of 3. The frequency of patients with a high AIS score, greater than 5, was significantly higher in patients who received laxatives and treatments of xerostomia. AIS score represents the first validated solution to evaluate anticholinergic load in psychiatry settings in France. The anticholinergic problem remains underevaluated in mental health settings. In order to rule out the confounding factor of mental disease, assessment of peripheral side effects can be considered more objective than the evaluation of cognitive function in psychiatric patients. Building scales appropriate for each state also appear essential to obtain an useful and effective tool in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS

  9. Understanding the Physics of Functional Fibers in the Gastrointestinal Tract: An Evidence-Based Approach to Resolving Enduring Misconceptions about Insoluble and Soluble Fiber.

    PubMed

    McRorie, Johnson W; McKeown, Nicola M

    2017-02-01

    Enduring misconceptions about the physical effects of fiber in the gut have led to misunderstandings about the health benefits attributable to insoluble and soluble fiber. This review will focus on isolated functional fibers (eg, fiber supplements) whose effects on clinical outcomes have been readily assessed in well-controlled clinical studies. This review will also focus on three health benefits (cholesterol lowering, improved glycemic control, and normalizing stool form [constipation and diarrhea]) for which reproducible evidence of clinical efficacy has been published. In the small bowel, clinically meaningful health benefits (eg, cholesterol lowering and improved glycemic control) are highly correlated with the viscosity of soluble fibers: high viscosity fibers (eg, gel-forming fibers such as b-glucan, psyllium, and raw guar gum) exhibit a significant effect on cholesterol lowering and improved glycemic control, whereas nonviscous soluble fibers (eg, inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and wheat dextrin) and insoluble fibers (eg, wheat bran) do not provide these viscosity-dependent health benefits. In the large bowel, there are only two mechanisms that drive a laxative effect: large/coarse insoluble fiber particles (eg, wheat bran) mechanically irritate the gut mucosa stimulating water and mucous secretion, and the high water-holding capacity of gel-forming soluble fiber (eg, psyllium) resists dehydration. Both mechanisms require that the fiber resist fermentation and remain relatively intact throughout the large bowel (ie, the fiber must be present in stool), and both mechanisms lead to increased stool water content, resulting in bulky/soft/easy-to-pass stools. Soluble fermentable fibers (eg, inulin, fructooligosaccharide, and wheat dextrin) do not provide a laxative effect, and some fibers can be constipating (eg, wheat dextrin and fine/smooth insoluble wheat bran particles). When making recommendations for a fiber supplement, it is essential to recognize which

  10. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifolia is largely used in Brazil for the treatment of constipation. However, the laxative efficacy of the compound has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product. Methods This randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-blinded trial included 20 patients presenting with chronic constipation according to the criteria of the American Association of Gastroenterology. The order of treatments was counterbalanced across subjects: half of the subjects received the phytotherapic compound for a 5-day period, whereas the other half received placebo for the same period. Both treatment periods were separated by a 9-day washout period followed by the reverse treatment for another 5-day period. The primary endpoint was colonic transit time (CTT), measured radiologically. Secondary endpoints included number of evacuations per day, perception of bowel function, adverse effects, and quality of life. Results Mean CTT assessed by X ray was 15.7 hours (95%CI 11.1-20.2) in the active treatment period and 42.3 hours (95%CI 33.5-51.1) during the placebo treatment (p < 0.001). Number of evacuations per day increased during the use of active tea; significant differences were observed as of the second day of treatment (p < 0.001). Patient perception of bowel function was improved (p < 0.01), but quality of life did not show significant differences among the study periods. Except for a small reduction in serum potassium levels during the active treatment, no significant differences were observed in terms of adverse effects throughout the study period. Conclusions The findings of this randomized controlled trial allow to conclude that the phytotherapic compound assessed has laxative efficacy and is a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation. Trial

  11. Disordered Weight Management Behaviors, Nonprescription Steroid Use, and Weight Perception in Transgender Youth.

    PubMed

    Guss, Carly E; Williams, David N; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Katz-Wise, Sabra L

    2017-01-01

    Disordered weight management behaviors are prevalent among youth; recent case reports suggested that these behaviors might also be common in transgender youth. We studied associations of gender identity with disordered weight management behaviors, nonprescription steroid use, and weight perception among transgender and cisgender (nontransgender) high-school students in Massachusetts. Data were analyzed from the 2013 Massachusetts Youth Health Survey, an anonymous survey in a random sample of Massachusetts public high schools. Respondents were divided into three groups: transgender (n = 67), cisgender male (n = 1,117), and cisgender female (n = 1,289). Fisher's exact tests and multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine unhealthy weight management behaviors in the past 30 days: fasting >24 hours, vomiting, diet pill use, and laxative use; nonprescription steroid use; and self-perceived weight status. Analyses controlled for age, race/ethnicity, and body mass index. Compared with cisgender males, transgender adolescents had higher odds of fasting >24 hours (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.9, confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-7.8), using diet pills (AOR = 8.9, 95% CI = 2.3-35.2) and taking laxatives (AOR = 7.2, 95% CI = 1.4-38.4). Transgender youth had higher odds of lifetime use of steroids without a prescription than male cisgender respondents (AOR = 26.6, 95% CI = 3.5-200.1). Compared with cisgender females, transgender respondents had higher odds of perceiving themselves as healthy weight/underweight when they were overweight/obese (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.5-4.1). Transgender youth disproportionately self-reported unsafe weight management behaviors and nonprescription steroid use compared with cisgender youth. Clinicians should be aware of this increased risk among transgender youth. Research is needed to further understand these disparities and to inform future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and

  12. Assessment of antimutagenic and genotoxic potential of senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) aqueous extract using in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Silva, C R; Monteiro, M R; Rocha, H M; Ribeiro, A F; Caldeira-de-Araujo, A; Leitão, A C; Bezerra, R J A C; Pádula, M

    2008-02-01

    Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is widely used as a laxative, although potential side effects, such as toxicity and genotoxicity, have been reported. This study evaluated genotoxic and mutagenic effects of senna aqueous extract (SAE) by means of four experimental assays: inactivation of Escherichia coli cultures; bacterial growth inhibition; reverse mutation test (Mutoxitest) and DNA strand break analysis in plasmid DNA. Our results demonstrated that SAE produces single and double strand breaks in plasmid DNA in a cell free system. On the other hand, SAE was not cytotoxic or mutagenic to Escherichia coli strains tested. In effect, SAE was able to avoid H(2)O(2)-induced mutagenesis and toxicity in Escherichia coli IC203 (uvrA oxyR) and IC205 (uvrA mutM) strains, pointing to a new antioxidant/antimutagenic action of SAE.

  13. Effect of wine processing and acute blood stasis on the serum pharmacochemistry of rhubarb: a possible explanation for processing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Fu, Jinfeng; Lv, Mengying; Tian, Yuan; Xu, Fengguo; Song, Rui; Zhang, Zunjian

    2014-09-01

    As a specific item mentioned in traditional Chinese medicine theory, processing can fulfill different requirements of therapies. Crude and wine-processed rhubarbs are used as drastic and mild laxatives, respectively. In this study, a practical method based on ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed to screen and analyze multiple absorbed bioactive components and metabolites in the serum of both normal and acute blood stasis rats after oral administration of crude or wine-processed rhubarbs. A total of 16 compounds, mainly including phase II metabolites, were tentatively identified. Possible explanations for the processing-induced changes in pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines were first explored at serum pharmacochemistry level. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Replication protein A, the laxative that keeps DNA regular: The importance of RPA phosphorylation in maintaining genome stability.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Brendan M; Oakley, Gregory G

    2018-04-20

    The eukaryotic ssDNA-binding protein, Replication protein A (RPA), was first discovered almost three decades ago. Since then, much progress has been made to elucidate the critical roles for RPA in DNA metabolic pathways that help promote genomic stability. The canonical RPA heterotrimer (RPA1-3) is an essential coordinator of DNA metabolism that interacts with ssDNA and numerous protein partners to coordinate its roles in DNA replication, repair, recombination and telomere maintenance. An alternative form of RPA, termed aRPA, is formed by a complex of RPA4 with RPA1 and RPA3. aRPA is expressed differentially in cells compared to canonical RPA and has been shown to inhibit canonical RPA function while allowing for regular maintenance of cell viability. Interestingly, while aRPA is defective in DNA replication and cell cycle progression, it was shown to play a supporting role in nucleotide excision repair and recombination. The binding domains of canonical RPA interact with a growing number of partners involved in numerous genome maintenance processes. The protein interactions of the RPA-ssDNA complex are not only governed by competition between the binding proteins but also by post-translation modifications such as phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of RPA2 is an important post-translational modification of the RPA complex, and is essential for directing context-specific functions of the RPA complex in the DNA damage response. Due to the importance of RPA in cellular metabolism, it was identified as an appealing target for chemotherapeutic drug development that could be used in future cancer treatment regimens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Imported fenproporex-based diet pills from Brazil: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A

    2009-03-01

    Banned amphetamine-based anorectics are illicitly imported into the United States (US), but little is known regarding the harm these diet pills pose to US residents. A 26-year-old woman using imported diet pills presented with a two-year history of intermittent chest pains, palpitations, headaches and insomnia. Urine toxicology screen detected amphetamines and benzodiazepines. Fenproporex and chlordiazepoxide were detected in her pills. Her symptoms resolved after she stopped using diet pills. A 38-year-old man using imported diet pills presented after his occupational urine screen was significantly positive for amphetamine. Fenproporex and fluoxetine were detected in his pills. These cases illustrate the potential harm from imported prescription diet pills that combine fenproporex with benzodiazepines, antidepressants, diuretics, laxatives and other substances. Increasing physicians' awareness of imported diet pill use may improve care of patients suffering from the pills' many adverse effects.

  16. Comparison of total costs of administering calcium polycarbophil and psyllium mucilloid in an institutional setting.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, R; Cimino, J A; Cooperman, J M; Kugel, R

    1990-01-01

    The total cost of administering calcium polycarbophil per unit dose (two tablets) was compared with that of administering psyllium mucilloid (one packet dissolved in 8 oz of water) in 20 elderly nursing-home residents. Times for printing labels, checking and initialing labels, gathering materials needed, and preparing and administering the medications were recorded during at least 50 observations in each treatment group. Total cost included nurses' and pharmacists' time, materials, and medications. Calcium polycarbophil doses were prepared and administered more quickly (mean, 49.5 sec) than psyllium mucilloid (105.3 sec). The mean cost of preparing and administering a unit dose was 28.2 for calcium polycarbophil tablets and 59.9 for psyllium mucilloid. The results suggest that the use of calcium polycarbophil tablets would save time and money in institutions in which laxatives are frequently administered.

  17. Senna and the formation of aberrant crypt foci and tumors in rats treated with azoxymethane.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, F; Capasso, R; Aviello, G; Di Carlo, G; Izzo, A A; Mascolo, N; Capasso, F

    2005-06-01

    Chronic use of anthraquinone laxatives has been blamed for the induction of habituation and the development of colonic cancer, but there are no definitive studies which have demonstrated this. To evaluate the carcinogenic potential of anthraquinones, the effect of long-term senna pod extract (SE) treatment on either healthy rats or rats treated with an initiating tumor agent (azoxymethane--AOM) has been studied. SE (30 and 60mg/kg), administered for 110 weeks, did not induce the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumors in healthy rats. The development of ACF and tumors in rats treated with AOM were significantly reduced by SE (30 and 60 mg/kg). These results suggest that a chronic SE use does not predispose to colon cancer. By contrast, SE might exert an anti-tumoral activity on rat colon carcinogenesis.

  18. [Functional childhood gastrointestinal disorders. III. Constipation and solitary encopresis; diagnostic work-up and therapy].

    PubMed

    van Ginkel, R; Büller, H A; Heymans, H S; Taminiau, J A; Boeckxstaens, G E; Benninga, M A

    2003-06-28

    A detailed medical history in combination with a thorough physical examination, including rectal examination, form the cornerstone in the diagnostic work-up for children with functional defecation disorders. Additional investigations are often not informative and have only minor diagnostic or therapeutic implications. Medical therapy in children with functional constipation and solitary encopresis is primarily based on clinical experience. In both patient groups, the role of education, the use of diary cards and toilet training is important. In some patients behaviour interventions are important. Oral laxatives are the basis of treatment of children with functional constipation, whereas they are contra-indicated in children with solitary encopresis. In both groups, biofeedback training appears to be of little additional benefit. Long-term follow-up of children with functional defecation disorders shows that complaints continue far beyond puberty in many children.

  19. Encopresis in children: a cyclical model of constipation and faecal retention.

    PubMed Central

    Swanwick, T

    1991-01-01

    Encopresis afflicts one in 100 children causing considerable stigma and parental concern. General practitioners are in a position to help in most cases but are often deterred by the psychoanalytical theories which have been developed to explain this problem. It is currently accepted that children with encopresis tend to retain stools. This leads to constipation, overstretching of sphincters and resultant faecal soiling. Physical and psychological perpetuating factors result in retention once again, thus completing a cycle of constipation and retention. Various precipitant and predisposing factors can maintain this cycle. Once physical causes have been excluded a simple behavioural approach can be adopted aimed at retraining the bowel. By using laxatives to prevent retention, gaining the child's confidence, cooperation and understanding and involving both the family and school, encopresis can be successfully managed in general practice. PMID:1807329

  20. Alleviating debilitating, chronic constipation with colostomy after appendicostomy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza K; Boyer, Mary Lou; Marquez, Helen; Wexner, Steven D

    2005-12-01

    Severe chronic constipation is a debilitating condition. Patients not only experience infrequent bowel movements, but also are often frustrated by the sensation of incomplete evacuation; pain; straining; daily use of enemas; and continual concerns regarding diet, fluids, and medications. Diagnostic tests are performed to rule out organic causes of the condition. Common treatment options consist of dietary fiber supplementation, dietary instruction, adequate fluid intake, enemas, and laxatives; additional noninvasive management includes biofeedback training and botulinum toxin type A injections. Surgery is rarely recommended, although a select group of patients may benefit from antegrade continence enema procedure. A female patient presented with a history of long-standing constipation. When antegrade continence enema offered no improvement and other treatment measures failed, she underwent successful laparoscopic-assisted sigmoid resection and end colostomy. This approach may provide options for patients in similar circumstances.

  1. Weight loss in combat sports: physiological, psychological and performance effects.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Emerson; Brito, Ciro José; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2012-12-13

    The present article briefly reviews the weight loss processes in combat sports. We aimed to discuss the most relevant aspects of rapid weight loss (RWL) in combat sports. This review was performed in the databases MedLine, Lilacs, PubMed and SciELO, and organized into sub-topics: (1) prevalence, magnitude and procedures, (2) psychological, physiological and performance effects, (3) possible strategies to avoid decreased performance (4) organizational strategies to avoid such practices. There was a high prevalence (50%) of RWL, regardless the specific combat discipline. Methods used are harmful to performance and health, such as laxatives, diuretics, use of plastic or rubber suits, and sauna. RWL affects physical and cognitive capacities, and may increase the risk of death. Recommendations during different training phases, educational and organizational approaches are presented to deal with or to avoid RWL.

  2. Managing a patient's constipation with physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Kendra L; Haskvitz, Esther M

    2006-11-01

    Constipation is a prevalent condition in the United States, with typical treatment consisting of diet modification, stool softeners, and laxatives. These interventions, however, are not always effective. The purpose of this case report is to describe the use of abdominal massage in physical therapist management for a patient with constipation. An 85-year-old woman with constipation was referred for physical therapy following unsuccessful treatment with stool softeners. The patient was instructed in bowel management as well as a daily, 10-minute home abdominal massage program. Upon re-examination, the patient reported a return of normal bowel frequency and function without the need to strain or use digital evacuation. Physical therapy incorporating abdominal massage appeared to be helpful in resolving this patient's constipation. Unlike medical management of constipation, no known side effects have been identified with abdominal massage.

  3. Weight loss in combat sports: physiological, psychological and performance effects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present article briefly reviews the weight loss processes in combat sports. We aimed to discuss the most relevant aspects of rapid weight loss (RWL) in combat sports. Methods This review was performed in the databases MedLine, Lilacs, PubMed and SciELO, and organized into sub-topics: (1) prevalence, magnitude and procedures, (2) psychological, physiological and performance effects, (3) possible strategies to avoid decreased performance (4) organizational strategies to avoid such practices. Results There was a high prevalence (50%) of RWL, regardless the specific combat discipline. Methods used are harmful to performance and health, such as laxatives, diuretics, use of plastic or rubber suits, and sauna. RWL affects physical and cognitive capacities, and may increase the risk of death. Conclusion Recommendations during different training phases, educational and organizational approaches are presented to deal with or to avoid RWL. PMID:23237303

  4. SmartPill® as an objective parameter for determination of severity and duration of postoperative ileus: study protocol of a prospective, two-arm, open-label trial (the PIDuSA study)

    PubMed Central

    Vilz, Tim O; Pantelis, Dimitrios; Lingohr, Philipp; Fimmers, Rolf; Esmann, Anke; Randau, Thomas; Kalff, Jörg C; Coenen, Martin; Wehner, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative ileus (POI) is a frequent complication after abdominal surgery (AS). Until today, neither a prophylaxis nor an evidence-based therapy exists. This originates from the absence of objective parameters evaluating the severity and duration of POI resulting in clinical trials of modest quality. The SmartPill®, a capsule which frequently measures pH value, temperature and intraluminal pressure after swallowing, offers an elegant option for analysing gastrointestinal (GI) transit times and smooth muscle activity in vivo. As the use in patients in the first months after AS is not covered by the marketing authorisation, we aim to investigate the safety and feasibility of the SmartPill® immediately after surgery. Additionally, we analyse the influence of prokinetics and laxatives as well as standardised physiotherapy on postoperative bowel contractility, as scientific evidence of its effects is still lacking. Methods and analysis The PIDuSA study is a prospective, single-centre, two-arm, open-label trial. The SmartPill® will be applied to 55 patients undergoing AS having a high risk for POI and 10 patients undergoing extra-abdominal surgery rarely developing POI. The primary objective is the safety of the SmartPill® in patients after surgery on the basis of adverse device effects/serious adverse device effects (ADE/SADE). The sample size suggests that events with a probability of 3% could be seen with a certainty of 80% for at least once in the sample. Secondary objective is the analysis of postoperative intestinal activity in the GI tract in both groups. Furthermore, clinical signs of bowel motility disorders will be correlated to the data measured by the SmartPill® to evaluate its significance as an objective parameter for assessing POI severity. Additionally, effects of prokinetics, laxatives and physiotherapy on postoperative peristaltic activity recorded by the SmartPill® will be analysed. Ethics and dissemination The protocol was

  5. SmartPill® as an objective parameter for determination of severity and duration of postoperative ileus: study protocol of a prospective, two-arm, open-label trial (the PIDuSA study).

    PubMed

    Vilz, Tim O; Pantelis, Dimitrios; Lingohr, Philipp; Fimmers, Rolf; Esmann, Anke; Randau, Thomas; Kalff, Jörg C; Coenen, Martin; Wehner, Sven

    2016-07-08

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is a frequent complication after abdominal surgery (AS). Until today, neither a prophylaxis nor an evidence-based therapy exists. This originates from the absence of objective parameters evaluating the severity and duration of POI resulting in clinical trials of modest quality. The SmartPill(®), a capsule which frequently measures pH value, temperature and intraluminal pressure after swallowing, offers an elegant option for analysing gastrointestinal (GI) transit times and smooth muscle activity in vivo. As the use in patients in the first months after AS is not covered by the marketing authorisation, we aim to investigate the safety and feasibility of the SmartPill(®) immediately after surgery. Additionally, we analyse the influence of prokinetics and laxatives as well as standardised physiotherapy on postoperative bowel contractility, as scientific evidence of its effects is still lacking. The PIDuSA study is a prospective, single-centre, two-arm, open-label trial. The SmartPill(®) will be applied to 55 patients undergoing AS having a high risk for POI and 10 patients undergoing extra-abdominal surgery rarely developing POI. The primary objective is the safety of the SmartPill(®) in patients after surgery on the basis of adverse device effects/serious adverse device effects (ADE/SADE). The sample size suggests that events with a probability of 3% could be seen with a certainty of 80% for at least once in the sample. Secondary objective is the analysis of postoperative intestinal activity in the GI tract in both groups. Furthermore, clinical signs of bowel motility disorders will be correlated to the data measured by the SmartPill(®) to evaluate its significance as an objective parameter for assessing POI severity. Additionally, effects of prokinetics, laxatives and physiotherapy on postoperative peristaltic activity recorded by the SmartPill(®) will be analysed. The protocol was approved by the federal authority (94

  6. Effectiveness of Pelvic Physiotherapy in Children With Functional Constipation Compared With Standard Medical Care.

    PubMed

    van Engelenburg-van Lonkhuyzen, Marieke L; Bols, Esther M J; Benninga, Marc A; Verwijs, Wim A; de Bie, Rob A

    2017-01-01

    Functional constipation (FC) is a common childhood problem often related to pelvic floor muscle dysfunction. We compared the effectiveness of pelvic physiotherapy (PPT) vs standard medical care (SMC) in children with FC. We performed a multicenter randomized controlled trial of 53 children (age, 5-16 y) with FC according to the Rome III criteria, at hospitals in The Netherlands from December 2009 to May 2014. Group allocation was concealed using a central computer system. SMC consisted of education, toilet training, and laxatives (n = 26), whereas PPT included SMC plus specific physiotherapeutic interventions (n = 27). Results were obtained from written reports from the subjects' pediatricians and parents. The primary outcome was absence of FC, according to Rome III criteria, after a 6-month follow-up period. Secondary outcomes were global perceived effect (range, 1-9; success was defined as a score ≥ 8), numeric rating scales assessing quality of life (parent and child; scale, 1-10), and the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Treatment was effective for 92.3% of the children receiving PPT and for 63.0% of the children receiving SMC (adjusted odds ratio for success of PPT, 11.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-78.3) (P = .011). Significantly more children undergoing PPT stopped using laxatives (adjusted odds ratio, 6.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-26.4) (P = .009). Treatment success (based on global perceived effect) was achieved for 88.5% of subjects receiving PPT vs 33.3% of subjects receiving SMC) (P < .001). PPT also produced larger adjusted mean differences, before vs after treatment, in numeric rating scales to assess quality of life: an increase of 1.8 points for parents (P = .047) and 2.0 points for children (P = .028). Results from the SDQ did not differ significantly between groups (P = .78). In a randomized controlled trial of children with FC, PPT was more effective than SMC on all outcomes measured, with the exception of findings

  7. Imported Fenproporex-based Diet Pills from Brazil: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Banned amphetamine-based anorectics are illicitly imported into the United States (US), but little is known regarding the harm these diet pills pose to US residents. A 26-year-old woman using imported diet pills presented with a two-year history of intermittent chest pains, palpitations, headaches and insomnia. Urine toxicology screen detected amphetamines and benzodiazepines. Fenproporex and chlordiazepoxide were detected in her pills. Her symptoms resolved after she stopped using diet pills. A 38-year-old man using imported diet pills presented after his occupational urine screen was significantly positive for amphetamine. Fenproporex and fluoxetine were detected in his pills. These cases illustrate the potential harm from imported prescription diet pills that combine fenproporex with benzodiazepines, antidepressants, diuretics, laxatives and other substances. Increasing physicians’ awareness of imported diet pill use may improve care of patients suffering from the pills’ many adverse effects. PMID:19096898

  8. Biosocial and other characteristics of the large bowel cancer patients in Belgrade (Yugoslavia).

    PubMed

    Jarebinski, M; Vlajinac, H; Adanja, B

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparative biosocial study between 186 patients with large bowel cancer and two groups of matched controls, each with 186 persons. One of these groups was from hospitalized patients, the other from the neighbourhood of the cancer patients. Bowel cancer patients and their controls were compared with regard to level of education, profession, physical activity in job, smoking habits, alcohol and coffee consumption and previous illnesses. The only parameters that were statistically different between cancer patients and both controls were haemorrhoids and use of laxatives, that were found to be increased in the cancer group. Higher education level, coffee consumption, polyposis, appendectomia were significantly more presented in bowel cancer patients but only in comparison to one control group. Out of the other diseases of the digestive tract, cases and controls differed with respect to cholecystitis, cholecystectomy and to diabetes.

  9. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction: pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and treatment.

    PubMed

    Preziosi, Giuseppe; Emmanuel, Anton

    2009-08-01

    Bowel dysfunction (e.g., fecal incontinence, infrequent or difficult defecation) are both frequent and severely troubling problems for patients with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. The etiology of these symptoms is complex; there may be autonomic and pelvic nerve dysfunction (with attenuation of voluntary motor function and impaired anorectal sensation and anorectal reflexes), or generalized systemic factors (e.g., altered diet and behavior, impaired mobility, psychological disturbances or drug adverse effects). The mainstay of current treatment is adapting a conservative approach towards reversing the systemic effects and optimizing the mechanics of defecation through the use of laxatives and irrigation approaches. When successful, this approach improves both evacuation and incontinence symptoms, with associated improvements in quality of life and independence. Future therapies may be directed at modulating pelvic innervation through electrical stimulation. Stoma formation remains an option for patients refractory to other approaches.

  10. Treating Opioid-Induced Constipation in Older Adults: New Options.

    PubMed

    Sani, Halima; Mahan, Rebecca J

    2015-10-01

    Numerous factors, such as changes in gastrointestinal physiology, reduced mobility, decreased liquid and nutritional intake, and certain comorbidities, predispose older adults to constipation. Use of opioid medications further compounds this problem. Unlike other side effects associated with opioid use, patients do not develop tolerance to constipation and other opioid-induced bowel dysfunctions. Although opioid-induced constipation has a prevalence rate of 80% in this population, it remains highly undertreated. Despite this problem, there have been limited therapeutic options available for older adults suffering from opioid-induced constipation. On September 16, 2014, a new oral agent, naloxegol, a peripherally acting muopioid receptor antagonist (PAMORA), approved by the Food and Drug Administration, provides new hope for patients. This paper explores clinical complications associated with opioid-induced constipation in older adults, analyzes the efficacy and safety of laxatives and PAMORAs, and defines the future role of naloxegol in this vulnerable population.

  11. Exogenous Lipoid Pneumonia in Laryngectomy Patients: Radiological Findings.

    PubMed

    García Latorre, Raquel; Rodríguez Díaz, Ricardo; Barrios Barreto, Deisy; Ayala Carbonero, Ana; García Gómez-Muriel, María Isabel; Gorospe Sarasúa, Luis

    2015-07-01

    Exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP) is a rare (incidence 1.0%-2.5%), often under-diagnosed disease, caused by the aspiration and accumulation of exogenous lipids within the pulmonary alveoli. Various cases have been described due to inhalation of lubricants via the nasal passages and oropharynx, aspiration of mineral oils in laxatives in patients with eating disorders, application of lip gloss, occupational exposure to liquid paraffin or mineral oils ("fire-eaters", industrial use in washing of machinery, automobile workshops, plastic paints, etc.) and application of Vaseline during the insertion of nasogastric tubes and in the care of tracheotomy patients. ELP usually presents radiologically as areas of low-attenuation peribronchial consolidation and ground glass opacities, with a predominantly bibasal distribution. We present 5 cases of long-standing laryngectomy patients diagnosed with ELP who admitted using Vaseline in their tracheal stoma care. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Forced Degradation Studies of Aloe Emodin and Emodin by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P; Kadam, V J

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are natural phenolic compounds, which are reported to act as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, laxative and antitumor agents. They are abudant in plants like candle bush, aloes, cascara bark and rhubarb. The present work was to observe the effect of different forced degradation conditions by high-performance thin layer chromatography on potential markers i.e. aloe emodin and emodin. Both aloe emodin and emodin were subjected to various forced degradation studies such as oxidation, acid and alkaline hydrolysis, photolysis, hydrolytic and thermal degradation. Aloe emodin, was more susceptible to acid hydrolysis and degradation was found to a lesser extent under thermal degradation whereas significant degradation was observed under acid hydrolysis, lesser extent was observed under alkali hydrolysis for emodin. Forced degradation studies on aloe emodin and emodin gives information about its storage and intrinsic stability conditions considering the advanced pharmaceutical aspects of formulation.

  13. Nurse-Led Self-Management Educational Intervention Improves Symptoms of Patients With Functional Constipation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiong; Zhu, Hongqin; Jiang, Guixiang; Liu, Xueqin

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of self-management educational intervention on the symptoms of patients with functional constipation. From January 2014 to April 2015, 66 patients with functional constipation were randomly assigned into intervention group receiving intensive educational interventions and control group receiving routine nursing care. The constipation score of all clinical symptoms (Bristol stool form scale, defecation interval, incomplete evacuation, evacuatory difficulty) at 1 month postdischarge were all significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (all, p < .05). At 1 month postdischarge, the intervention group had a significantly higher proportion of patients with good health habits (reasonable diet, regular exercise, good defecation habits, proper use of laxatives) as compared with the control group (all, p < .05). These data suggest educational intervention can effectively improve constipation symptoms and compliance with treatment of patients, and lead to the development of good health habits.

  14. The herbal medicine daikenchuto ameliorates an impaired anorectal motor activity in postoperative pediatric patients with an anorectal malformation--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Akiko; Yagi, Minoru; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Asagiri, Kimio; Asakawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Ishii, Shinji; Egami, Hideaki; Akaiwa, Masao; Tsuru, Tomomitsu

    2010-01-01

    Fecoflowmetry (FFM) has been introduced to simulate natural anorectal evacuation. So far, few reports have described the effect of the herbal medicine Daikenchuto (DKT) on impaired anorectal motor function. The aim of this pilot study was to assess anorectal motor function by FFM in postoperatively impaired patients with an anorectal malformation (ARM) before and after administration of DKT. Six postoperative patients with ARM (mean age, 7.8 years) who complained of intractable constipation with soiling in spite of administration of magnesia as a laxative were assessed over an extended period. These patients received 0.3 g/kg/d of DKT for an average of 128 days. Evacuative rate and maximum fecal stream flow were seen to increase significantly after administration of DKT when compared with values before administration of DKT. In conclusion, DKT had a favorable clinical effect on anorectal motor function in postoperative patients with ARM.

  15. The long-term value of the selected list as a method of controlling drug costs in a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Upton, D R; Holmes, G K; Fox, P D; Cullen, A M; Poston, J W

    1989-02-01

    The results of a study aimed at evaluating the long-term effects of the Limited List (now officially referred to as the Selected List Scheme) on inpatient drug costs in a district general hospital (DGH) are presented. Study periods of six months duration were examined before, shortly after, and a further year after implementation of the List on 1 April 1985. Eight therapeutic classes affected by the regulations were examined; in four of these (antacids, expectorants, mucolytics and anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives) statistically significant reductions in costs were demonstrated over the study periods. There was no significant change in the costs of the other four classes (vitamins, laxatives, nasal preparations and analgesics). Overall, inpatient expenditure for the hospital showed no significant change. The changes in cost demonstrated can be attributed to the Selected List and occurred despite the prior existence of a local formulary.

  16. Sugar substitutes: their energy values, bulk characteristics, and potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Levin, G V; Zehner, L R; Saunders, J P; Beadle, J R

    1995-11-01

    Restriction of dietary energy extends life and reduces incidences of disease in animals. These benefits would likely extend to humans. However, diet restriction in animals imposes reductions of 30-50% in food intake, which is probably unacceptable to humans. Low-energy sweeteners used in beverages offer minor reductions in energy intake. However, they lack the bulk required for baked goods and other sugar-rich foods. Full-bulk sweeteners providing about one-half the energy of sugar are under development for such uses. Laxation limits their acceptable dose. Even within such limitations, they can help achieve the health benefits for humans indicated by diet restriction. D-Tagatose, a new candidate sweetener, is nearly as sweet as sucrose and has the bulk of sucrose, yet provides zero available energy. We discuss its potential contribution to human diet restriction along with its specific effect in delaying the aging effects of glycosylation.

  17. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Satyendra; Manvi; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Trichosanthes, a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc.

  18. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Satyendra; Manvi; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Trichosanthes, a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc. PMID:22654406

  19. Acupuncture for treatment of hospital-induced constipation in children: a retrospective case series study.

    PubMed

    Anders, Eric Falk; Findeisen, Annette; Nowak, Andreas; Rüdiger, Mario; Usichenko, Taras Ivanovich

    2012-12-01

    Acupuncture is a promising option in the treatment of functional bowel disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptance of acupuncture for the treatment of hospital-induced constipation (HIC) in children. Bilateral stimulation of acupuncture point LI11 was applied in 10 children with HIC using fixed indwelling acupuncture needles (0.9 mm long) before considering starting conventional local constipation therapy with laxative suppositories. The clinical records were studied retrospectively for feasibility, acceptance and effectiveness of acupuncture. Acupuncture was feasible in all children and application of the indwelling needles was tolerated without fear. Side effects were not observed. After a median of 3 days of HIC, all children defaecated within 2 h after LI11 stimulation. No patient required conventional local constipation therapy. Acupuncture for the treatment of HIC is feasible and acceptable. Its effect should be verified in a randomised controlled trial.

  20. Paediatric constipation: An approach and evidence-based treatment regimen

    PubMed

    Singh, Harveen; Connor, Frances

    2018-05-01

    Constipation affects 5-30% of children and is responsible for 3% of primary care visits. General practitioners (GPs) are frequently the first medical encounter for concerned parents regarding their child's bowel habit. The aim of this article is to review the assessment and management of children with constipation to empower GPs to initiate treatment and know when to refer to a paediatrician. In the absence of organic aetiology, childhood constipation is almost always functional and often due to painful bowel movements that prompt the child to withhold stool. It is important to initiate a clear management plan for the family, as what is an easily treatable condition can escalate into a vicious cycle of pain if not addressed early. The medical approach should consider organic disease, the use of appropriate toileting habits, and dietary modifications. Laxatives are often required to re-establish regular, painless defaecation.

  1. Emodin and Its Role in Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Monisha, B Anu; Kumar, Niraj; Tiku, Ashu Bhan

    Diseases, such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes, are by far the leading cause of mortality in the world, representing 60 % of all deaths. Although substantial medical advances have been made and many therapeutic approaches proposed yet traditional medicine and medicinal plants find an important place in therapy. They have been providing invaluable solutions to the various health problems. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) is a natural anthraquinone derivative found in various Chinese medicinal herbs. Traditionally, it has been used as an active constituent of many herbal laxatives. However, in the last few years, significant progress has been made in studying the biological effects of emodin at cellular and molecular levels and it is emerging as an important therapeutic agent. This review provides an overview of the modulatory effects of emodin in various diseases and cell signaling pathways, which may have important implications in its future clinical use.

  2. Chromatographic fingerprinting through chemometric techniques for herbal slimming pills: A way of adulterant identification.

    PubMed

    Shekari, Nafiseh; Vosough, Maryam; Tabar Heidar, Kourosh

    2018-05-01

    In the current study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) fingerprinting of herbal slimming pills assisted by chemometric methods has been presented. Deconvolution of two-way chromatographic signals of nine herbal slimming pills into pure chromatographic and spectral patterns was performed. The peak clusters were resolved using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) by employing appropriate constraints. It was revealed that more useful chemical information about the composition of the slimming pills can be obtained by employing sophisticated GC-MS method coupled with proper chemometric tools yielding the extended number of identified constituents. The thorough fingerprinting of the complex mixtures proved the presence of some toxic or carcinogen components, such as toluene, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, styrene, itaconic anhydride, citraconic anhydride, trimethyl phosphate, phenol, pyrocatechol, p-propenylanisole and pyrogallol. In addition, some samples were shown to be adulterated with undeclared ingredients, including stimulants, anorexiant and laxatives such as phenolphthalein, amfepramone, caffeine and sibutramine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.)--a promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Policegoudra, R S; Aradhya, S M; Singh, L

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  4. Bulimia Nervosa/Purging Disorder.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Marigold; Weiselberg, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Bulimia nervosa was first described in 1979 by British psychiatrist Gerald Russell as a "chronic phase of anorexia nervosa" in which patients overeat and then use compensatory mechanisms, such as self-induced vomiting, laxatives, or prolonged periods of starvation. The characterization of bulimia nervosa continues to evolve with the introduction of the DSM-5 in 2013. In this article, the epidemiology and risk factors of bulimia nervosa are identified and reviewed, along with the medical complications and psychiatric comorbidities. The evaluation of a patient with suspected bulimia nervosa is addressed, with an emphasis on acquiring a complete and thorough history as well as discovering any comorbidities that are present. Management of the patient involves both medical interventions and behavioral counseling in order to address physical, psychological, and social needs. Lastly, a new diagnosis introduced in the DSM-5, purging disorder, is described and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Subjective and objective binge eating in relation to eating disorder symptomatology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem among treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Ciao, Anna C; Accurso, Erin C; Pisetsky, Emily M; Peterson, Carol B; Byrne, Catherine E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa. We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variables, OBEs (not SBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in global ED pathology, vomiting, and self-esteem. SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in restraint and depression. Both OBEs and SBEs accounted for significant unique variance in eating concern; neither accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, laxative use, diuretic use, or driven exercise. Loss of control, rather than amount of food, may be most important in defining binge eating. Additionally, OBEs may indicate broader ED pathology, while SBEs may indicate restrictive/depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Subjective and Objective Binge Eating in Relation to Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Depressive Symptoms, and Self-Esteem Among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents with Bulimia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.; Pisetsky, Emily M.; Peterson, Carol B.; Byrne, Catherine E.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN). We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variables, OBEs (not SBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in global ED pathology, vomiting, and self-esteem. SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in restraint and depression. Both OBEs and SBEs accounted for significant unique variance in eating concern; neither accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, laxative use, diuretic use, or driven exercise. Loss of control, rather than amount of food, may be most important in defining binge eating. Additionally, OBEs may indicate broader ED pathology while SBEs may indicate restrictive/depressive symptomatology. PMID:24852114

  7. A multidisciplinary treatment for encopresis in children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Call, Nathan A; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; McElhanon, Barbara O; Scheithauer, Mindy C

    2017-04-01

    Achieving continence of one's bowel movements is a key step in development and failure to do so leads to many negative consequences. Treatments for encopresis appearing in the literature have employed behavioral strategies; medications such as suppositories, laxatives, or enemas; and in some studies a combination of these approaches. To date, attempts to extend successful treatments for encopresis in typically developing children to those with developmental disabilities have been limited. The current study included three participants diagnosed with developmental disabilities who had a history of encopresis. None of the participants had a continent bowel movement under baseline conditions. Continent bowel movements increased during treatment that included the addition of suppositories to elicit continent bowel movements. Two participants began having independent continent bowel movements (i.e., without requiring suppositories) and medication was successfully faded out for the remaining participant. Treatment took between 13 and 21 days. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Management of obstructed defecation.

    PubMed

    Podzemny, Vlasta; Pescatori, Lorenzo Carlo; Pescatori, Mario

    2015-01-28

    The management of obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) is mainly conservative and mainly consists of fiber diet, bulking laxatives, rectal irrigation or hydrocolontherapy, biofeedback, transanal electrostimulation, yoga and psychotherapy. According to our experience, nearly 20% of the patients need surgical treatment. If we consider ODS an "iceberg syndrome", with "emerging rocks", rectocele and rectal internal mucosal prolapse, that may benefit from surgery, at least two out of ten patients also has "underwater rocks" or occult disorders, such as anismus, rectal hyposensation and anxiety/depression, which mostly require conservative treatment. Rectal prolapse excision or obliterative suture, rectocele and/or enterocele repair, retrograde Malone's enema and partial myotomy of the puborectalis muscle are effective in selected cases. Laparoscopic ventral sacral colporectopexy may be an effective surgical option. Stapled transanal rectal resection may lead to severe complications. The Transtar procedure seems to be safer, when dealing with recto-rectal intussusception. A multidisciplinary approach to ODS provides the best results.

  9. Management of obstructed defecation

    PubMed Central

    Podzemny, Vlasta; Pescatori, Lorenzo Carlo; Pescatori, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The management of obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) is mainly conservative and mainly consists of fiber diet, bulking laxatives, rectal irrigation or hydrocolontherapy, biofeedback, transanal electrostimulation, yoga and psychotherapy. According to our experience, nearly 20% of the patients need surgical treatment. If we consider ODS an “iceberg syndrome”, with “emerging rocks”, rectocele and rectal internal mucosal prolapse, that may benefit from surgery, at least two out of ten patients also has “underwater rocks” or occult disorders, such as anismus, rectal hyposensation and anxiety/depression, which mostly require conservative treatment. Rectal prolapse excision or obliterative suture, rectocele and/or enterocele repair, retrograde Malone’s enema and partial myotomy of the puborectalis muscle are effective in selected cases. Laparoscopic ventral sacral colporectopexy may be an effective surgical option. Stapled transanal rectal resection may lead to severe complications. The Transtar procedure seems to be safer, when dealing with recto-rectal intussusception. A multidisciplinary approach to ODS provides the best results. PMID:25632177

  10. Comparison of two Chinese medical herbs, Huangbai and Qianniuzi, on influence of short circuit current across the rat intestinal epithelia.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jong-Chang; Tsai, Shuli; Chang, Weng-Cheng

    2004-07-01

    Huangbai (Phellodendron spec.) and Qianniuzi (Pharbitis spec.) are two traditional Chinese medical herbs used for anti-diarrheal and laxative agents, respectively. Ethanol and water extracts of these two herbs were prepared and effects of the extracts on ion transport of the rat intestinal epithelia were studied. For measuring changes of the short circuit current across the epithelia, the rat intestinal epithelia were mounted in the Ussing chamber and attached with voltage/current clamp. The intestinal epithelia were firstly activated by serosal administration of 5 microM forskolin. As current raised and being stable, extracts of these herbs were added, respectively, and changes in the short circuit current were recorded. Ethanol extract of Huangbai attenuated the current increment; on the contrary, ethanol extract of Qianniuzi augmented the current increment additionally. Water extracts of the two herbs showed minor effects on the current in comparison to ethanol extracts. The results provide evidences to reveal the pharmacological mechanism of the two Chinese medical herbs on the intestinal tissue.

  11. Improving the recognition and diagnosis of opioid-induced constipation in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anita

    2015-10-01

    Opioid-induced constipation is a common side effect of opioid therapy that has been under-recognized and undertreated. With the continued increase in opioid use in the United States, along with the growth of the elderly population, more patients will develop OIC, and family physicians will encounter more patients with OIC. OIC negatively affects patient QOL, daily activity, work productivity, and psychological well-being. If not treated effectively, OIC may result in patients attempting to balance their pain relief against their constipation, by self-adjusting their opioid dose. OIC results from opioid actions at enteric opioid receptors. Although commonly prescribed for OIC, laxatives do not target the pathophysiologic mechanism of OIC and have limited efficacy. Specific, effective treatments for OIC, consisting of a subcutaneously administered PAMORA, an oral PAMORA, and an oral chloride channel activator, have been developed and have received US Food and Drug Administration approval. After recognizing the signs and symptoms of OIC to facilitate diagnosis, family physicians can initiate effective treatments in appropriate patients.

  12. Lubiprostone: a new drug for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2007-01-01

    Lubiprostone offers an additional alternative for patients with chronic idiopathic constipation. Lubiprostone is more efficacious than placebo in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation. In placebo-controlled clinical trials, lubiprostone therapy was generally well tolerated and was not associated with severe adverse effects; however, the high incidence of nausea may be problematic for some patients. The nausea may be alleviated or minimized by administering the dose with food, and some patients may require a dosage reduction to 24 mug once daily. The key limitations of the placebo-controlled clinical trials include the absence of information regarding the duration of the constipation and previous types of therapies that had been used to treat the constipation and the absence of an active control group. Comparative studies with other therapies (eg, saline laxatives, polyethylene glycol) used for constipation are necessary to determine the clinical and economic value of this agent relative to other forms of therapy.

  13. Advances in the use of milk thistle (Silybum marianum).

    PubMed

    Post-White, Janice; Ladas, Elena J; Kelly, Kara M

    2007-06-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is an herbal supplement used to treat liver and biliary disorders. Silymarin, a mixture of flavanoid complexes, is the active component that protects liver and kidney cells from toxic effects of drugs, including chemotherapy. Although milk thistle has not significantly altered the course of chronic liver disease, it has reduced liver enzyme levels and demonstrated anti-inflammatory and T cell-modulating effects. There is strong preclinical evidence for silymarin's hepatoprotective and anticarcinogenic effects, including inhibition of cancer cell growth in human prostate, skin, breast, and cervical cells. Milk thistle is considered safe and well-tolerated, with gastrointestinal upset, a mild laxative effect, and rare allergic reaction being the only adverse events reported when taken within the recommended dose range. More clinical trials of rigorous methodology, using standardized and well-defined products and dosages, are needed to evaluate the potential of silymarin against liver toxicity, chronic liver disease, and human cancers.

  14. MANAGEMENT OF ANOREXIA IN ELDERLY AS REMARKED BY MEDIEVAL PERSIAN PHYSICIANS.

    PubMed

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2015-01-01

    Normal ageing is often accompanied by loss of appetite and decrease in food intake. Weight loss of senescence is called anorexia of ageing. As an outstanding scientist and physician of Traditional Persian Medicine, Avicenna has introduced an unconventional approach to seniors. He also believed that the elderly should consider special schemes in order to maintain their health. These schemes include consideration of nutrition, mental states, sleep, bathing, and physical activities, and even choosing some appropriate hobbies. The elderly should consume foods and fruits with laxative and stool-softening properties to prevent constipation. They would also do better to decrease the amount of food eaten at meals, but at the same time increasing the number of meals to compensate for low food intake. Moreover, they should maintain their vital force and avoid any activities that tax the body. Furthermore, considering the principles of hifz-al-sehah can help secure long and healthy lives for the elderly.

  15. Onosma L.: A review of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Neeraj; Kumar, Rajnish; Kishore, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The genus Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) includes about 150 species distributed world-wide in which only about 75 plants has been described for its morphology and less than 10 plants for their chemical constituents and clinical potential. The phytochemical reports of this genus revels that it comprise mainly aliphatic ketones, lipids, naphthazarins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, naphthoquinones, flavones while most important are shikonins and onosmins. The plants are traditionally used as laxative, anthelmintic and for alexipharmic effects. The plants are also equally use in eye, blood diseases, bronchitis, abdominal pain, stangury, thirst, itch, lecoderma, fever, wounds, burns, piles and urinary calculi. The flowers of various plants are prescribed as stimulants, cardiotonic, in body swelling while leaves are used as purgative and in cutaneous eruptions. The roots are used for coloring food stuffs, oils and dying wool and in medicinal preparations. This review emphasizes the distribution, morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnopharmacology, which may help in future research. PMID:24347922

  16. EFFECT OF CERTAIN YOGIC ASANAS ON THE PELVIC CONGESTION AND IT'S ANATOMY

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Satyendra Prasad; Singh, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    20 patient including 6 females and 14 males, between 20 years to 30 years of age, with complaints of chronic constipation refractory to various treatments by medicines, belching, sense of heaviness in the lower abdomen or pelvic region, offensive discharge from vagina (leucorrhoea) and bleeding per rectum with discomfort in the region of perineum were observed under instructions and supervision to practice certain yogic exercises for a period of three years. Viparitakarani, Goraksa asana, Uddyana Bandha and Mula Bandha (Nauli, Perineal Shrug) when practiced, relieved these patients were asked not to take any purgatives or laxatives. It was concluded from the present study that these complaints which can be ascribed to poor hemodynamics in the region of pelvis and perineum disappeared and patients showed obvious improvement after practicing these Asanas which reduced pelvic congestion and increased blood flow to the pelvic viscera i.e rectum, anal canal, prostate, uterus, vagina and levator ani and perineal muscles PMID:22557465

  17. Anaphylaxis to Polyethylene Glycol (Colyte®) in a Patient with Diverticulitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Hee; Hwang, Sun Hyuk; Park, Jin Soo; Park, Hae Sim; Shin, Yoo Seob

    2016-10-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are believed to be chemically inert agents, but larger PEG polymers could have immunogenicity. A 39-year-old man was referred to emergency room for loss of consciousness and dyspnea after taking of PEG-3350 (Colyte®). In laboratory findings, the initial serum tryptase level was increased to 91.9 mg/L (normal range: 0.00-11.40 mg/L) without any other laboratory abnormalities. The intradermal test with 10 mg/mL Colyte® showed a 5 × 5 mm wheal, but basophil activation and histamine releasability tests were negative. PEG-3350 is widely used as an osmotic laxative due to its lack of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. However, the loss of mucosal integrity at gastrointestinal membrane such as diverticulitis may be a predisposing factor for anaphylaxis to Colyte®. We report a case of anaphylaxis induced by the ingestion of PEG-3350 in a patient with diverticulitis which might be a risk factor of anaphylaxis.

  18. Anaphylaxis to Polyethylene Glycol (Colyte®) in a Patient with Diverticulitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are believed to be chemically inert agents, but larger PEG polymers could have immunogenicity. A 39-year-old man was referred to emergency room for loss of consciousness and dyspnea after taking of PEG-3350 (Colyte®). In laboratory findings, the initial serum tryptase level was increased to 91.9 mg/L (normal range: 0.00-11.40 mg/L) without any other laboratory abnormalities. The intradermal test with 10 mg/mL Colyte® showed a 5 × 5 mm wheal, but basophil activation and histamine releasability tests were negative. PEG-3350 is widely used as an osmotic laxative due to its lack of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. However, the loss of mucosal integrity at gastrointestinal membrane such as diverticulitis may be a predisposing factor for anaphylaxis to Colyte®. We report a case of anaphylaxis induced by the ingestion of PEG-3350 in a patient with diverticulitis which might be a risk factor of anaphylaxis. PMID:27550498

  19. Evaluation of acute toxicity and intestinal transit time of Olax scandens Roxb. leaves.

    PubMed

    Naik, Raghavendra; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Nariya, Mukesh B; Borkar, Sneha D

    2015-01-01

    Olax scandens Roxb. is a shrub or small tree found throughout tropical India. Fruits and leaves of this plant are used for medicinal and food purpose. Traditionally, leaves of O. scandens are used as vegetable in constipation. To evaluate the acute toxicity and intestinal transit time of O. scandens leaves on experimental animals. Acute oral toxicity study for sample was carried out following OECD guidelines. Evaluation of intestinal transit time was carried out in the dose of 1300 mg/kg by adopting Kaolin expulsion test and latency of the onset of kaolin expulsion in fecal matter in mice. The results show that the test drug is not likely to produce any toxicity in higher dose. In kaolin expulsion test, the drug produced mild increase in intestinal motility in mice proved by fast clearance of kaolin pellet in comparison to control group. The leaves of O. scandens are safe at higher dose and showed mild laxative activity in the dose of 1300 mg/kg body weight of mice.

  20. Constipation: Pathophysiology and Current Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amol; Rao, Satish

    2017-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common, persistent condition affecting many patients worldwide, presenting significant economic burden and resulting in substantial healthcare utilization. In addition to infrequent bowel movements, the definition of constipation includes excessive straining, a sense of incomplete evacuation, failed or lengthy attempts to defecate, use of digital manoeuvres for evacuation of stool, abdominal bloating, and hard consistency of stools. After excluding secondary causes of constipation, chronic idiopathic or primary constipation can be classified as functional defecation disorder, slow-transit constipation (STC), and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). These classifications are not mutually exclusive and significant overlap exists. Initial therapeutic approach to primary constipation, regardless of aetiology, consists of diet and lifestyle changes such as encouraging adequate fluid and fibre intake, regular exercise, and dietary modification. Laxatives are the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for potential long-term therapy in patients who do not respond to lifestyle or dietary modification. After a failed empiric trial of laxatives, diagnostic testing is necessary to understand underlying anorectal and/or colonic pathophysiology. No single test provides a comprehensive assessment for primary constipation; therefore, multiple tests are used to provide complementary information to one another. Dyssynergic defecation, a functional defecation disorder, is an acquired behavioural disorder of defecation present in two-thirds of adult patients, where an inability to coordinate the abdominal, recto-anal, and pelvic floor muscles during attempted defecation exists. Biofeedback therapy is the mainstay treatment for dyssynergic defecation aimed at improving coordination of abdominal and anorectal muscles. A large percentage of patients with dyssynergic defecation also exhibit rectal hyposensitivity and may benefit from the

  1. Habit training versus habit training with direct visual biofeedback in adults with chronic constipation: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Norton, Christine; Emmanuel, Anton; Stevens, Natasha; Scott, S Mark; Grossi, Ugo; Bannister, Sybil; Eldridge, Sandra; Mason, James M; Knowles, Charles H

    2017-03-24

    Constipation affects up to 20% of adults. Chronic constipation (CC) affects 1-2% of adults. Patient dissatisfaction is high; nearly 80% feel that laxative therapy is unsatisfactory and symptoms have significant impact on quality of life. There is uncertainty about the value of specialist investigations and whether equipment-intensive therapies using biofeedback confer additional benefit when compared with specialist conservative advice. A three-arm, parallel-group, multicentre randomised controlled trial. to determine whether standardised specialist-led habit training plus pelvic floor retraining using computerised biofeedback is more clinically effective than standardised specialist-led habit training alone; to determine whether outcomes are improved by stratification based on prior investigation of anorectal and colonic pathophysiology. Primary outcome measure is response to treatment, defined as a 0.4-point (10% of scale) or greater reduction in Patient Assessment of Constipation-Quality of Life (PAC-QOL) score 6 months after the end of treatment. Other outcomes up to 12 months include symptoms, quality of life, health economics, psychological health and qualitative experience. (1) habit training (HT) with computer-assisted direct visual biofeedback (HTBF) results in an average reduction in PAC-QOL score of 0.4 points at 6 months compared to HT alone in unselected adults with CC, (2) stratification to either HT or HTBF informed by pathophysiological investigation (INVEST) results in an average 0.4-point reduction in PAC-QOL score at 6 months compared with treatment not directed by investigations (No-INVEST). Inclusion: chronic constipation in adults (aged 18-70 years) defined by self-reported symptom duration of more than 6 months; failure of previous laxatives or prokinetics and diet and lifestyle modifications. Consenting participants (n = 394) will be randomised to one of three arms in an allocation ratio of 3:3:2: [1] habit training, [2] habit

  2. A Cross-Lagged Evaluation of Eating Disorder Symptomatology and Substance-Use Problems*

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Erin C.; Neighbors, Clayton; Fossos, Nicole; Larimer, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a temporal examination of the associations among disordered eating behaviors, substance use, and use-related negative consequences in female college students—a population at high risk for developing eating and substance-use disorders. Method: Participants completed assessments of disordered eating behaviors, alcohol and drug use, and use-related negative consequences. Results: Results support previous research suggesting that disordered eating behaviors are more strongly associated with alcohol- and substance-related problems rather than use per se. With respect to temporal precedence, results indicated that binge eating preceded alcohol-use problems, but a bidirectional relationship was found for vomiting. With regard to drug problems, laxatives use preceded drug problems, whereas drug problems preceded fasting. These associations were not better accounted for by pre-existing eating or substance-use problems or psychiatric distress (e.g., depression, anxiety). Conclusions: This study further supports the importance of assessing consequences, in addition to use patterns, when examining substance use in individuals demonstrating threshold and subthreshold eating-disordered behaviors. PMID:19118399

  3. Hypokalemic paralysis in a young obese female.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wen-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Juei; Chang, Chin-Chun; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2012-08-16

    Profound hypokalemia with paralysis usually poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report on a 28-y-old obese Chinese female presenting with sudden onset of flaccid quadriparesis upon awaking in the morning. There is no family history of hyperthyroidism. She experienced body weight loss of 7 kg in 2 months. The most conspicuous blood biochemistry is marked hypokalemia (1.8 mmol/l) and hypophosphatemia (0.5 mmol/l) associated with low urine K(+) and phosphate excretion. Surreptitious laxatives and/or diuretics abuse-related hypokalemic paralysis were tentatively made. However, her relatively normal blood acid-base status and the absence of low urine Na(+) and/or Cl(-) excretion made these diagnoses unlikely. Furthermore, she developed rebound hyperkalemia (5.7 mmol/l) after only 80 mmol K(+) supplementation. Thyroid function test confirmed hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. Control of the hyperthyroidism completely abolished her periodic paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) should be kept in mind as a cause of paralysis in female, even with obesity, despite its predominance in adult males. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of dietary habits on mineral composition of human scalp hair.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Zielińska, Agnieszka; Michalak, Izabela; Górecki, Henryk

    2010-09-01

    In the present work, hair mineral analysis of 117 individuals was carried out. The subjects were asked to fill a questionnaire concerning their dietary habits. The content of minerals in hair was determined by ICP-OES (macroelements) and ICP-MS technique (micro-, toxic and other trace elements). The results were elaborated statistically by Statisticaver. 8.0. It was found that consuming highly processed food causes increased levels of e.g. Na and P in hair, intake of slimming preparation resulted in increased content of Al, Cr, Ti, taking in laxative agents caused lower level of Pb (this element was probably eliminated by other excretory routes). Individuals which declared the use of analgesic agents had more Si in their hair. Drinking coffee was related with higher level of Al, Ni, S and Ti and lower Pb in hair. Drinking tea caused reduction in the level of Hg. These results show that hair mineral content reflects exposure of elements from the diet. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cistanches Herba: A Neuropharmacology Review.

    PubMed

    Gu, Caimei; Yang, Xianying; Huang, Linfang

    2016-01-01

    Cistanches Herba (family Orobanchaceae), commonly known as "desert ginseng" or Rou Cong Rong, is a global genus and commonly used for its neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative, kidney impotence, laxative, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-tumor effects in traditional herbal formulations in North Africa, Arabic, and Asian countries. The major bioactive compound present in this plant is phenylethanoid glycosides. In recent years, there has been great important in scientific investigation of the neuropharmacological effects of the bioactive compounds. The in vitro and in vivo studies suggests these compounds demonstrate neuropharmacological activities against a wide range of complex nervous system diseases which occurs through different mechanisms include improving immunity function and kidney aging, anti-lipid peroxidation, scavenging free radical, inducing the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8. This review aims to summaries the various neuropharmacological effects and mechanisms of Cistanches Herba extracts and related compounds, including its efficacy as a cure for Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease with reference to the published literature. Which provides guidance for further research on the clinical application of Cistanches Herba .

  6. Medical & Surgical Management of Pelvic Floor Disorders Affecting Defecation

    PubMed Central

    Schey, Ron; Cromwell, John; Rao, Satish S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders that affect stool evacuation include structural (example: rectocele) and functional disorders (example: dyssynergic defecation). Meticulous history, digital rectal examination, and physiological tests such as anorectal manometry, colonic transit study, balloon expulsion and imaging studies such as anal ultrasound, defecography, and static and dynamic MRI can facilitate an objective diagnosis and optimal treatment. Management consists of education and counseling regarding bowel function, diet, laxatives, most importantly behavioral and biofeedback therapies, and lastly surgery. Randomized clinical trials have established that biofeedback therapy is effective in treating dyssynergic defecation. Because dyssynergic defecation may co-exist with conditions such as solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS), and rectocele, before considering surgery, biofeedback therapy should be tried and an accurate assessment of the entire pelvis and its function should be performed. Several surgical approaches have been advocated for the treatment of pelvic floor disorders including open, laparoscopic and trans-abdominal approach, stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR), and robotic colon and rectal resections. However, there is lack of well controlled randomized studies and efficacy of these surgical procedures remains to be established. PMID:22907620

  7. Luminally Acting Agents for Constipation Treatment: A Review Based on Literatures and Patents

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2017-01-01

    Constipation is one of the most frequently reported gastrointestinal (GI) disorders that negatively impacts quality of life and is associated with a significant economic burden to the patients and society. Traditional treatments including lifestyle modification and laxatives are often ineffective in the more severe forms of constipation and over the long term. New medications targeting at intestinal chloride channels and colonic serotonin receptors have been demonstrated effective in recent years. Emerging agents focusing on improving intestinal secretion and/or colonic motility have been shown effective in animal models and even in clinical trials. Recognization of the role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) in intestine fluid secretion and motility modulation makes CFTR and CaCCs promising molecule targets for anti-constipation therapy. Although there are multiple choices for constipation treatment, there is still a recognized need for new medications in anti-constipation therapy. The present review covers the discovery of luminally acting agents for constipation treatment described in both patents (2011–present) and scientific literatures. PMID:28713271

  8. Diagnosis and Treatment of Dyssynergic Defecation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Satish S C; Patcharatrakul, Tanisa

    2016-01-01

    Dyssynergic defecation is common and affects up to one half of patients with chronic constipation. This acquired behavioral problem is due to the inability to coordinate the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles to evacuate stools. A detailed history, prospective stool diaries, and a careful digital rectal examination will not only identify the nature of bowel dysfunction, but also raise the index of suspicion for this evacuation disorder. Anorectal physiology tests and balloon expulsion test are essential for a diagnosis. Newer techniques such as high-resolution manometry and magnetic resonance defecography can provide mechanistic insights. Recently, randomized controlled trials have shown that biofeedback therapy is more effective than laxatives and other modalities, both in the short term and long term, without side effects. Also, symptom improvements correlated with changes in underlying pathophysiology. Biofeedback therapy has been recommended as the first-line of treatment for dyssynergic defecation. Here, we provide an overview of the burden of illness and pathophysiology of dyssynergic defecation, and how to diagnose and treat this condition with biofeedback therapy. PMID:27270989

  9. Naloxegol: A Novel Therapy in the Management of Opioid-Induced Constipation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel; Prommer, Eric; Backstedt, David

    2016-11-01

    Opioid-related bowel dysfunction is a common and potentially severe adverse effect from treatment with opioid analgesics. Its development is not dose related, nor do patients develop tolerance. Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) can lead to fecal impaction, bowel obstruction, and bowel perforation as well as noncompliance with opioid analgesics and poor quality of life. Routine administration of laxatives is necessary to maintain bowel function, and, in refractory cases, other modalities must be pursued. Available options are limited but include peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists (PAMORAs), including methylnaltrexone. Naloxegol is a newly developed PAMORA that is available through the oral route. At the therapeutic dose of 25 mg daily, naloxegol is effective and safe, with a limited side effect profile and is associated with preservation of centrally mediated analgesia. In this article, we discuss the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, adverse effects, clinical trials, and cost considerations of naloxegol. Finally, we discuss its potential role as a novel key treatment for OIC in palliative medicine patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Evidence-Based Management of Pain After Excisional Haemorrhoidectomy Surgery: A PROSPECT Review Update.

    PubMed

    Sammour, Tarik; Barazanchi, Ahmed W H; Hill, Andrew G

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to update previous PROSPECT ( http://www.postoppain.org ) review recommendations for the management of pain after excisional haemorrhoidectomy. Randomized studies and reviews published in the English language from July 2006 (end date of last review) to March 2016, assessing analgesic, anaesthetic, and operative interventions pertaining to excisional haemorrhoidectomy in adults, and reporting pain scores, were retrieved from the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases. An additional 464 studies were identified of which 74 met the inclusion criteria. There were 48 randomized controlled trials and 26 reviews. Quantitative analyses were not performed, as there were limited numbers of trials with a sufficiently homogeneous design. Pudendal nerve block, with or without general anaesthesia, is recommended for all patients undergoing haemorrhoidal surgery. Either closed haemorrhoidectomy, or open haemorrhoidectomy with electrocoagulation of the pedicle is recommended as the primary procedure. Combinations of analgesics (paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioids), topical lignocaine and glyceryl trinitrate, laxatives, and oral metronidazole are recommended post-operatively. The recommendations are largely based on single intervention, not multimodal intervention, studies.

  11. A systematic review of treatments for constipation in children and young adults undergoing cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert S; Gibson, Faith

    2008-11-01

    Constipation is a common problem in children and young people with cancer. Treatment of this complication is subject to wide variation in practice. We undertook a systematic review of randomized controlled trials to build a rational approach to prophylaxis and treatment of this complication. Randomized controlled trials of any intervention (pharmacologic, physical, complementary, or alternative) to prevent or treat constipation were to be included if they included children and young people 16 years old and younger who were undergoing treatment for malignancy. Of the 1336 abstracts retrieved from the searches, only 3 papers were identified for further assessment, and no studies were suitable for inclusion. There are no good data on which to base the management of constipation in children and young people with cancer. This is not to say that we do not know if laxatives work-they are clearly effective. Our ignorance is of the comparative value of different agents. The practical problems with undertaking specific trials of supportive care measures are large, and integration of such questions into treatment trials is essential.

  12. Detection and quantitation of trace phenolphthalein (in pharmaceutical preparations and in forensic exhibits) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, a sensitive and accurate method.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kakali; Sharma, Shiba P; Lahiri, Sujit C

    2013-01-01

    Phenolphthalein, an acid-base indicator and laxative, is important as a constituent of widely used weight-reducing multicomponent food formulations. Phenolphthalein is an useful reagent in forensic science for the identification of blood stains of suspected victims and for apprehending erring officials accepting bribes in graft or trap cases. The pink-colored alkaline hand washes originating from the phenolphthalein-smeared notes can easily be determined spectrophotometrically. But in many cases, colored solution turns colorless with time, which renders the genuineness of bribe cases doubtful to the judiciary. No method is known till now for the detection and identification of phenolphthalein in colorless forensic exhibits with positive proof. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry had been found to be most sensitive, accurate method capable of detection and quantitation of trace phenolphthalein in commercial formulations and colorless forensic exhibits with positive proof. The detection limit of phenolphthalein was found to be 1.66 pg/L or ng/mL, and the calibration curve shows good linearity (r(2) = 0.9974). © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Geriatric management in medieval Persian medicine

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Morteza; Sadeghpour, Omid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M.

    2013-01-01

    In Iran, a large group of patients are elderly people and they intend to have natural remedies as treatment. These remedies are rooted in historical of Persian and humoral medicine with a backbone of more than 1000 years. The current study was conducted to draw together medieval pharmacological information related to geriatric medicine from some of the most often manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plants through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In the medieval Persian documents, digestible and a small amount of food such as chicken broth, honey, fig and plum at frequent intervals as well as body massage and morning unctioning are highly recommended. In the field of pharmacotherapy, 35 herbs related to 25 families were identified. Plants were classified as tonic, anti-aging, appetizer, memory and mood enhancer, topical analgesic and laxative as well as health improvement agents. Other than historical elucidation, this paper presents medical and pharmacological approaches that medieval Persian practitioners applied to deal with geriatric complications. PMID:24381461

  14. Novel Pharmacological Therapies for Management of Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Marina A.; Mendez-Navarro, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common health problem that significantly affects the quality of life of patients and impacts in terms of costs; current treatments based on fiber and laxatives cause dissatisfaction to doctors and patients in more than half of the cases. New drugs are now available or in very advanced stages of research, with different and innovative mechanisms of action as prucalopride, lubiprostone, and linaclotide. Prucalopride an enterokinetic, is a selective high-affinity 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)4 receptor agonist of serotonin that increases the peristaltic reflex and the colonic contractions; lubiprostone, a type 2 chlorine channel activator, or linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase-C agonist of enterocytes, both prosecretory agents, stimulate the secretion of fluid within the intestinal lumen. In general, these promising drugs have proven efficacy and safety as a specific therapeutic option in patients with chronic constipation. Yet the solution might not be sufficient for everybody and still without the ideal drug that might be useful in all cases, the pharmacological revolution for colonic motility disorders has arrived. PMID:24172177

  15. A new ester coumarin from Ferula Persica wild, indigenous to Iran.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Janani, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Ferula persica wild (Apiaceae) is a perennial herb indigenous to Iran. It has been used in folk medicine for treatment of diabetes, lowering of blood pressure and for antispasmodic, carminative, laxative and expectorant effects in central Iran. Dried ground roots of F. persica (150 g) were extracted sequentially with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol (MeOH), 500 ml each, using a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane extract of the roots (3 g) was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography on silica gel, eluting with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity: 100% n-hexane-ethyl acetate (EtOAc), to yield a number of fractions, Fraction 4 (80% EtOAc in n-hexane) was further analysed by preparative TLC (mobile phase was 12% acetone in chloroform) to yield a coumarin ester (10.1 mg, Rf = 0.31, blue florescent). The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by spectroscopic means. The compound is 7-O-(4,8,12 -trihydroxy-4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanoyl)-coumarin, named, ferulone C as a new natural product.

  16. Prenatal knowledge and informational priorities of pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, P B; Levenson, P M; Morrow, J R

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and forty-six indigent pregnant adolescents (12 to 18 years of age) were asked to complete a questionnaire concerning their prenatal care priorities (Scale I) and their knowledge of correct perinatal behaviors (Scale II). On Scale I, over 75% of teens considered parenting skills, infant care, and diet extremely important. On Scale II correctly answered items focused on the need to avoid substance abuse and smoking during pregnancy, visit the doctor, and eat balanced meals. The mean number of correct answers, however, was only 11.8 out of a total possible scale of 18 items. Less than 50% correctly answered statements about the effects of weight gain and other health behaviors on risk for high blood pressure and toxemia, safety of laxatives during pregnancy, possibility of becoming pregnant again before resuming menstruation, and the safety of various physical activities. Performance on both knowledge and health priority scales showed correct health information was limited to basic concrete facts. Abstract and technical aspects of health care did not appear to be easily assimilated.

  17. Safety evaluation of lubiprostone in the treatment of constipation and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Sherman M; Rao, Satish S C

    2012-09-01

    Lubiprostone is approved in the United States for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation and constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). Lubiprostone causes secretion of fluid and electrolytes in the small bowel, through the activation of chloride channels, and thereby induces laxation and improvement of bowel functions. It is generally considered to be safe and effective. Common side effects of lubiprostone include nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating, and the rare side effect dyspnea. Likely mechanisms for these side effects may be related to lubiprostone's primary action on small bowel secretion and the associated intestinal distension, as well as smooth muscle contraction. This article reviews the pharmacokinetic and safety profile of lubiprostone, with particular relevance to the two FDA-approved dosages. Lubiprostone acts topically in the gut lumen and is almost completely metabolized in the gut lumen. Lubiprostone's M3 metabolite can be detected in low concentrations in the serum and may be responsible for some of its side effects. However, the exact mechanisms by which the side effects are produced are currently unknown.

  18. Decontamination and decorporation: the clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Poda, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Decontamination and decorporation are quite interrelated when dealing with a contaminated person. Some clinical experiences from a transuranium production facility are offered. Skin decontamination is accomplished by washing with detergent and water. Stubborn cases are treated with sodium hypochlorite followed by rinsing, and emery cloth is used on more stubborn nail or finger pad contamination. If inhaled, the usual skin cleansing followed by nasal douche with normal saline decontaminates reachable areas and one of the DTPA salts given via aerosol both decontaminates and decorporates the inner recesses. Saline laxative reduces the time inhaled, and ingested particles remain in the gastro-intestinalmore » tract. Conservatism prevails in general, but most persons found to have inhaled contamination are given a single chelation within the hour of discovery and if subsequently found to have over 10% M.P.P.B. of a soluble actinide are offered further chelation. Single dose chelation has been found to be relatively innocuous and usually sufficient. The longest case of chelation therapy spanned 2-1/4 years and encompassed 123 doses of CaNa-DTPA.« less

  19. The effect of a sweet potato, footbath, and acupressure intervention in preventing constipation in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kai; Qiu, Jingbo; Wang, Xiaohua; Niu, Fenglin; Jiang, Tingbo

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a common health problem that adversely affects quality of life and the prognosis of hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The purpose of this study was to develop and test the sweet potato/footbath/acupressure massage (SFA) intervention as a safe treatment for prevention of constipation and to increase satisfaction with bowel emptying in hospitalized patients with ACS. The study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial with a sample of 93 patients (SFA group, n = 44; usual care group, n = 49). Patients in the SFA group received SFA intervention combined with usual care. The results showed that there were statistical differences between the two groups in terms of (1) the incidence of constipation; (2) the use of laxatives and enemas; (3) patients' subjective satisfaction with their bowel emptying during hospitalization; and (4) sensation of incomplete evacuation and anorectal obstruction/blockade. The SFA intervention was more effective, economical, and practical than usual care alone in managing constipation and satisfaction with defecation in patients hospitalized with ACS.

  20. Eating behaviours among young women.

    PubMed

    Abraham, S F; Mira, M; Beumont, P J; Sowerbutts, T D; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1983-09-03

    Disordered eating and weight-control behaviour is becoming increasingly common among adolescent girls. We studied four groups of young women aged between 15 and 27 years (106 school and university students, 50 ballet school students, 22 patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and 44 patients with bulimia). Our results suggest that most young women diet at some time and lose more than three kg in weight; that they may experience episodes of binge eating and "picking" behaviour; and that they wish to be thinner irrespective of their current body weight. Twenty per cent of young women may fulfil the criteria for an eating disorder (bulimia or anorexia nervosa) at some stage, however briefly, and about 7% abuse laxatives or diuretics in order to achieve a fashionably slim figure. We suggest that most young women may pass through a phase of what is currently called disordered eating, and that this is part of normal development and may not necessarily require treatment. The incidence of disordered eating is greater in those young women who are under pressure to maintain a low body weight.

  1. Dose-Dependent Prebiotic Effect of Lactulose in a Computer-Controlled In Vitro Model of the Human Large Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Bothe, Melanie K.; Maathuis, Annet J. H.; Bellmann, Susann; van der Vossen, Jos M. B. M.; Berressem, Dirk; Koehler, Annalena; Schwejda-Guettes, Susann; Gaigg, Barbara; Kuchinka-Koch, Angelika; Stover, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Lactulose, a disaccharide of galactose and fructose, used as a laxative or ammonia-lowering drug and as a functional food ingredient, enhances growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus at clinically relevant dosages. The prebiotic effect of subclinical dosages of Lactulose, however, remains to be elucidated. This study analyses changes in the microbiota and their metabolites after a 5 days Lactulose treatment using the TIM-2 system, a computer-controlled model of the proximal large intestine representing a complex, high density, metabolically active, anaerobic microbiota of human origin. Subclinical dosages of 2–5 g Lactulose were used. While 2 g Lactulose already increased the short-chain fatty acid levels of the intestinal content, 5 g Lactulose were required daily for 5 days in this study to exert the full beneficial prebiotic effect consisting of higher bacterial counts of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Anaerostipes, a rise in acetate, butyrate and lactate, as well as a decrease in branched-chain fatty acids, pH (suggested by an increase in NaOH usage), and ammonia. PMID:28718839

  2. Binge eating and weight loss behaviors of overweight and obese college students.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Weeder, Susan; Phillips, Kathryn; Leonard, Kelly; Veroneau, Margaret

    2014-08-01

    To investigate binge eating (BE) and weight-related behaviors in overweight and obese college students. This was a secondary analysis of data from 487 overweight and obese college-age students from a private university in the northeastern United States. BE was reported by 34.9% of students. Only 6.2% of participants reported the use of compensatory behaviors (i.e., self-induced vomiting, laxative, or diuretic use) to prevent weight gain. BE was associated with smoking and exercising to lose weight. Gender differences emerged from the data as women were more likely to report being obese, the use of compensatory behaviors, and to perceive themselves as moderately or extremely overweight. BE is a significant problem on college campuses and is associated with the development of obesity and eating disorders. Nurse practitioners (NPs) are in an excellent position to effect change in this population through their frequent contact with young adults in community and school-based venues. NPs are well-prepared to identify at-risk college students and provide them with individualized care, education, and support. ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  3. An acute oral intoxication with haloperidol decanoate.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Bart G J; Eck, Ruben J; Ter Maaten, Jan C; Touw, Daniël J

    2017-09-01

    Haloperidol decanoate is a typical antipsychotic drug used as maintenance therapy for schizophrenia and mood disorders formulated as an ester for intramuscular injection. Cases of oral haloperidol decanoate intoxications have not been described in literature. In this report, we present for the first time a case of an oral ingestion of haloperidol decanoate of a young woman who presented to the emergency department following an intentional oral ingestion of 1 ampoule of haloperidol decanoate 100mg. At presentation, she had a bilateral rest tremor of both hands and mild hypothermia. No other obvious signs of an intoxication were observed. She was treated with a single dose of activated charcoal and laxative and was admitted to the intensive care for rhythm monitoring and observation. During the night the QTc interval increased to 453ms, but stayed within the normal range. Haloperidol plasma levels increased as well, but also stayed within therapeutic ranges. These findings indicate that treatment with oral activated charcoal was sufficient to prevent any serious events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Familial correlates of extreme weight control behaviors among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Helena; Ireland, Marjorie; Resnick, Michael D

    2002-12-01

    To identify familial factors associated with extreme weight control among adolescents. Analysis of a comprehensive 1996 health survey of Connecticut students. Familial factors among extreme dieters who deliberately vomited, took diet pills, laxatives, or diuretics were compared with youth reporting none of these behaviors, using logistic regression controlling for age and body mass index. Nearly 7% of adolescents reported engaging in extreme weight control behaviors. Boys' risk factors included high parental supervision/monitoring and sexual abuse history. Protective factors included high parental expectations, maternal presence, and connectedness with friends and other adults. The only significant risk factor for girls was sexual abuse history. Protective factors included family connectedness, positive family communication, parental supervision/monitoring, and maternal presence. Extreme dieting appears to be less an expression of body composition than of psychosocial issues. That connectedness to family, other adults, and friends is protective further demonstrates interrelationships of extreme weight control behaviors with family/social issues. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 32: 441-448, 2002.

  5. Safety of polyethylene glycol 3350 for the treatment of chronic constipation in children.

    PubMed

    Pashankar, Dinesh S; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Bishop, Warren P

    2003-07-01

    To assess the clinical and biochemical safety profile of long-term polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG) therapy in children with chronic constipation and to assess pediatric patient acceptance of PEG therapy. Prospective observational study. Pediatric clinics at a referral center. Patients Eighty-three children (44 with chronic constipation, 39 with constipation and encopresis) receiving PEG therapy for more than 3 months. Clinical adverse effects related to PEG therapy and acceptance and compliance with PEG therapy. Serum electrolyte levels, osmolality, albumin levels, and liver and renal function test results were measured. At the time of evaluation, the mean duration of PEG therapy was 8.7 months, and the mean PEG dose was 0.75 g/kg daily. There were no major clinical adverse effects. All blood test results were normal, except for transient minimal alanine aminotransferase elevation unrelated to therapy in 9 patients. All children preferred PEG to previously used laxatives, and daily compliance was measured as good in 90% of children. Long-term PEG therapy is safe and is well accepted by children with chronic constipation with and without encopresis.

  6. SYMPOSIUM REPORT: An Evidence-Based Approach to IBS and CIC: Applying New Advances to Daily Practice: A Review of an Adjunct Clinical Symposium of the American College of Gastroenterology Meeting October 16, 2016 • Las Vegas, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Chey, William D

    2017-02-01

    Many nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies are available to manage irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). The American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) regularly publishes reviews on IBS and CIC therapies. The most recent of these reviews was published by the ACG Task Force on the Management of Functional Bowel Disorders in 2014. The key objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of therapies for IBS or CIC compared with placebo or no treatment in randomized controlled trials. Evidence-based approaches to managing diarrhea-predominant IBS include dietary measures, such as a diet low in gluten and fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs); loperamide; antispasmodics; peppermint oil; probiotics; tricyclic antidepressants; alosetron; eluxadoline, and rifaximin. Evidence-based approaches to managing constipation-predominant IBS and CIC include fiber, stimulant laxatives, polyethylene glycol, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, lubiprostone, and guanylate cyclase agonists. With the growing evidence base for IBS and CIC therapies, it has become increasingly important for clinicians to assess the quality of evidence and understand how to apply it to the care of individual patients.

  7. SYMPOSIUM REPORT: An Evidence-Based Approach to IBS and CIC: Applying New Advances to Daily Practice

    PubMed Central

    Chey, William D.

    2017-01-01

    Many nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies are available to manage irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). The American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) regularly publishes reviews on IBS and CIC therapies. The most recent of these reviews was published by the ACG Task Force on the Management of Functional Bowel Disorders in 2014. The key objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of therapies for IBS or CIC compared with placebo or no treatment in randomized controlled trials. Evidence-based approaches to managing diarrhea-predominant IBS include dietary measures, such as a diet low in gluten and fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs); loperamide; antispasmodics; peppermint oil; probiotics; tricyclic antidepressants; alosetron; eluxadoline, and rifaximin. Evidence-based approaches to managing constipation-predominant IBS and CIC include fiber, stimulant laxatives, polyethylene glycol, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, lubiprostone, and guanylate cyclase agonists. With the growing evidence base for IBS and CIC therapies, it has become increasingly important for clinicians to assess the quality of evidence and understand how to apply it to the care of individual patients. PMID:28729815

  8. Medicinal plants of the genus Anthocleista--A review of their ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Gabriel O; Nisar-ur-Rehman; Onyeneke, Chukwu E; Rauf, Khalid

    2015-12-04

    The genus Anthocleista of the Gentianaceae family contains 14 species of trees and shrub-like plants distributed in tropical Africa, in Madagascar and on the Comoros. Traditionally, they are commonly used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, malaria, typhoid fever, obesity, diarrhea, dysentery, hyperprolactinemia, abdominal pain, ulcer, jaundice, asthma, hemorrhoids, hernia, cancer, wounds, chest pains, inflammations, rheumatism, STDs, infertility and skin diseases. They serve as an anthelmintic, laxative, diuretic and contraceptive. This review aims to provide for the first time a repository of ethnopharmacological information while critically evaluating the relation between the traditional medicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the Anthocleista species so as to unveil opportunities for future research. A search for relevant information on Anthocleista species was performed on scientific databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, SciFinder, Web of Science, Scopus, PubChem and other web sources such as The Plant List, Kew Botanical Garden and PROTA) and books, PhD and MSc dissertations for un-published resources. Out of the 14 species of Anthocleista, 6 have been reported in literature to be widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The six species include: A. djalonensis, A. vogelii, A. nobilis, A. grandiflora, A. schweinfurthii, and A. liebrechtsiana. The chemical compounds isolated from Anthocleista species fall into the class of phytochemicals such as secoiridoids, nor-secoiridoids, xanthones, phytosterols, triterpenes, alkaloids, and others of which majority of the compounds were isolated from A. djalonensis and A. vogelii. The in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies on the crude extracts, fractions and few isolated compounds of Anthocleista species showed antidiabetic, antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, hypotensive, spasmogenic, anti-obesity, antiulcerogenic, analgesic, anti

  9. Dexpanthenol (Ro 01-4709) in the treatment of constipation.

    PubMed

    Hanck, A B; Goffin, H

    1982-01-01

    Functional constipation is not a life-threatening disease, but as a chronic state it worries the patient and causes him discomfort and often leads him to self-medication with potentially dangerous drugs. Ro 01-4709 contains as active substance dexpanthenol, which is the alcohol of pantothenic acid, a vitamin of the B-complex. In the cells, dexpanthenol is readily oxidized to pantothenic acid, which stimulates peristalsis when administered in therapeutically effective doses. Ro 01-4709 has already proven its efficacy in the prevention and treatment of adynamic ileus. Recently, several open and two double-blind studies have been carried out, investigating the efficacy of oral Ro 01-4709 in the treatment of chronic functional constipation. The two double-blind studies showed Ro 01-4709 to be superior to placebo in all parameters measured. The studies with an open design also demonstrated a favourable effect of Ro 01-4709 in the treatment of chronic functional constipation. Owing to its physiological action-which is in a favourable contrast to that of normal laxatives. Ro 01-4709 can be recommended for the treatment of functional constipation in pregnant women, children and the elderly.

  10. Pharmaceuticals released from senior residences: occurrence and risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lacorte, Silvia; Luis, Silvia; Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Sala-Comorera, Teresa; Courtier, Audrey; Roig, Benoit; Oliveira-Brett, Ana Maria; Joannis-Cassan, Claire; Aragonés, Juan Ignacio; Poggio, Lucia; Noguer, Thierry; Lima, Luisa; Barata, Carlos; Calas-Blanchard, Carole

    2018-03-01

    One of the main pursuits, yet most difficult, in monitoring studies is to identify the sources of environmental pollution. In this study, we have identified health-care facilities from south European countries as an important source of pharmaceuticals in the environment. We have estimated that compounds consumed in by the elderly and released from effluents of senior residences can reach river waters at a concentration higher than 0.01 μg/L, which is the European Medicines Agency (EMA) threshold for risk evaluation of pharmaceuticals in surface waters. This study has been based on five health institutions in Portugal, Spain, and France, with 52 to 130 beds. We have compiled the pharmaceuticals dispensed on a daily base and calculated the consumption rates. From 54.9 to 1801 g of pharmaceuticals are consumed daily, with laxatives, analgesics, antiepileptics, antibiotics, and antidiabetic agents being the main drug families administered. According to excretion rates, dilution in the sewerage system, and elimination in wastewater treatment plants, macrogol, metformin, paracetamol, acetylcysteine, amoxicillin, and gabapentin, among others, are expected to reach river waters. Finally, we discuss the risk management actions related to the discharge of pharmaceuticals from senior residences to surface waters.

  11. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Polyphenols Ameliorate Functional Constipation Symptoms in Humans Beyond Equivalent Amount of Fiber.

    PubMed

    P Venancio, Vinicius; Kim, Hyemee; A Sirven, Maritza; D Tekwe, Carmen; Honvoh, Gilson; T Talcott, Stephen; U Mertens-Talcott, Susanne

    2018-05-07

    Chronic constipation is a common gastrointestinal condition associated with intestinal inflammation and considerably impaired quality of life, affecting about 20% of Americans. Dietary fiber and laxatives aid in its treatment but do not fully address all symptoms, such as intestinal inflammation. Mango (Mangifera indica L.), a fiber- and polyphenol-rich fruit may provide anti-inflammatory effects in constipation. The 4-week consumption of mango fruit (300 g) or the equivalent amount of fiber was investigated in otherwise healthy human volunteers with chronic constipation that were randomly assigned to either group. Blood and fecal samples and digestive wellness questionnaires were collected at the beginning and end of the study. Results show that mango consumption significantly improved constipation status (stool frequency, consistency, and shape) and increased gastrin levels and fecal concentrations of short chain fatty acid (valeric acid) while lowering endotoxin and interleukin 6 concentrations in plasma. In this pilot study, the consumption of mango improves symptoms and associated biomarkers of constipation beyond an equivalent amount of fiber. Larger follow-up studies would need to investigate biomarkers for intestinal inflammation in more detail. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Gold kiwifruit ( Actinidia chinensis 'Hort16A') for immune support.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Margot A; Loh, Jacelyn M S; Hunter, Denise C; Zhang, Jingli

    2011-05-01

    Kiwifruit is a good source of several vitamins and minerals and dietary fibre, and contains a number of phytochemicals; so kiwifruit potentially provides health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Consumption of green kiwifruit can have positive effects on cardiovascular health through antioxidant activity, inhibition of platelet aggregation and lowered TAG levels, and gut health through improving laxation, aiding digestion and promoting a healthy gut microflora. The importance of nutrition on immune function is well recognised, with deficiencies in vitamins A, C, E, B6 and B12, folic acid, Zn, Cu, Fe and Se being associated with impaired immune function and increased susceptibility to diseases. Evidence is growing that kiwifruit enhances immunity, with several small murine studies showing enhancement of innate and adaptive immune function. Few studies have examined the effect of kiwifruit on immune function in human subjects, but a recent study has revealed that kiwifruit up-regulates several 'immune' and 'DNA and repair'-related gene sets, and down-regulates one gene set related to Ig secretion. Taken together, the evidence from the literature provides supporting data for designing a human intervention trial to validate the ability of kiwifruit to support immune function in healthy and immunocompromised populations.

  13. Identifying Underlying Emotional Instability and Utilizing a Combined Intervention in the Treatment of Childhood Constipation and Encopresis-A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jamie L

    2016-06-01

    Childhood constipation is a common ailment that in certain cases can lead to encopresis or fecal incontinence. The literature suggests that standard care varies in effectiveness, especially in the long term. Fecal incontinence can lead to frustration, guilt, and shame for both the child and family and has untold long-term psychological and physical consequences. To address alternative treatment options for pediatric constipation and encopresis by using acupuncture and Chinese medicine. Patient and Setting: This is a case study of a 6-year-old girl seen in a private practice acupuncture clinic in the northwestern United States. Treatment involved acupuncture, massage, and Chinese herbal medicine. The patient in this study began to have regular bowel movements on her own, from a type 5 on the modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for Children to a type 3, with no laxative use and few to no fecal accidents. Emotional stability and support seem to play an important role in pediatric constipation and encopresis. Acupuncture may be an effective treatment option in the integrative care model to address both the emotional and physical components of childhood constipation.

  14. A population-based case-control study of cancer of the bile ducts and gallbladder in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ghadirian, P; Simard, A; Baillargeon, J

    1993-01-01

    In a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer in Greater Montreal between 1984 and 1988, a total of 24 patients with cancer of the bile ducts and 33 patients suffering from cancer of the gallbladder were compared to 239 population-based controls. This study was part of the SEARCH program of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In cases of cancer of the bile ducts, smoking nonfiltered cigarettes produced a relative risk of 2.82 and a 95% confidence interval of 1.01-7.86 after adjustment for age, sex, other smoking habits, alcohol consumption, schooling, and respondent status. Laxative intake was associated with a risk of 2.87 (1.00-8.22). Coffee drinkers were collectively at lower risk than non-drinkers: OR = 0.26 (0.07-0.95). In patients with cancer of the gallbladder, constipation was related to a risk of 3.19 (1.02-9.95) after adjustment for the same factors. In cases with previous gallbladder problems, the risk was found to be significant [OR = 7.96 (2.03-31.2)], 8 times greater in cases than in controls.

  15. Cistanches Herba: A Neuropharmacology Review

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Caimei; Yang, Xianying; Huang, Linfang

    2016-01-01

    Cistanches Herba (family Orobanchaceae), commonly known as “desert ginseng” or Rou Cong Rong, is a global genus and commonly used for its neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative, kidney impotence, laxative, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-tumor effects in traditional herbal formulations in North Africa, Arabic, and Asian countries. The major bioactive compound present in this plant is phenylethanoid glycosides. In recent years, there has been great important in scientific investigation of the neuropharmacological effects of the bioactive compounds. The in vitro and in vivo studies suggests these compounds demonstrate neuropharmacological activities against a wide range of complex nervous system diseases which occurs through different mechanisms include improving immunity function and kidney aging, anti-lipid peroxidation, scavenging free radical, inducing the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8. This review aims to summaries the various neuropharmacological effects and mechanisms of Cistanches Herba extracts and related compounds, including its efficacy as a cure for Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease with reference to the published literature. Which provides guidance for further research on the clinical application of Cistanches Herba. PMID:27703431

  16. Assessment of palliative care team activities--survey of medications prescribed immediately before and at the beginning of opioid usage.

    PubMed

    Myotoku, Michiaki; Murayama, Yoko; Nakanishi, Akiko; Hashimoto, Norio; Koyama, Fumiko; Irishio, Keiko; Kawaguchi, Syunichi; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Ikeda, Kenji; Hirotani, Yoshihiko

    2008-02-01

    We established the Terminal Care Study Group, consisting of physicians, pharmacists, and nurses, in September 2001, and developed the group into the Palliative Care Team. We have surveyed the state of concomitant medications immediately before and at the beginning of opioid usage (except injections) to assess the role of the Palliative Care Team. The survey period was 3 years from October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2005. While the frequency of the prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), laxatives, or antiemetics before the beginning of opioid administration did not differ significantly among the 3 periods, that at the beginning of opioid administration increased significantly in 2003 compared with 2002, and increased further in 2004. Many of the drugs used were those that were recommended in our cancer pain management program. Thus, the activities of the Palliative Care Team are considered to have led to proper measures for the control of the major adverse effects of opioids such as constipation and nausea/vomiting in addition to pain control in accordance with the WHO's pain ladder, and also contributed to improvements of the patients' QOL.

  17. A comparison of eating disorder psychopathology, appearance satisfaction, and self-esteem in overweight and obese women with and without binge eating.

    PubMed

    Herbozo, Sylvia; Schaefer, Lauren M; Thompson, J Kevin

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the differences in eating disorder psychopathology, appearance satisfaction, and self-esteem between 194 overweight/obese college women with and without binge eating. Participants were categorized as binge eating (BE; n=56) or non-binge eating (NBE; n=138) based on reports of binge eating at least once per week on average for the past 28days and no episodes of vomiting or laxative use in the past 28days. The BE group had significantly greater levels of eating, weight, and shape concerns and lower levels of appearance satisfaction and self-esteem than the NBE group. For the BE group, binge eating frequency was negatively correlated with dietary restraint. Results are generally consistent with studies utilizing clinical and community samples. The findings extend such research by examining binge eating in a sample of overweight and obese college women and indicating that overall appearance satisfaction is lower among women with binge eating. Study findings also highlight potential issues to address in obesity and binge eating intervention efforts for college populations. Future research is needed to replicate these findings in additional samples of college women and men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study on Senna alata and its different extracts by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adiana, M. A.; Mazura, M. P.

    2011-04-01

    Senna alata L. commonly known as candle bush belongs to the family of Fabaceae and the plant has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, laxative and antiplatelet-aggregating activity. In order to develop a rapid and effective analysis method for studying integrally the main constituents in the medicinal materials and their extracts, discriminating the extracts from different extraction process, comparing the categories of chemical constituents in the different extracts and monitoring the qualities of medicinal materials, we applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) associated with second derivative infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) to study the main constituents of S. alata and its different extracts (extracted by hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR and 2D-IR can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. Use of the macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectrum can identify the main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their extracts, but also compare the components differences among similar samples. In a conclusion, FT-IR spectroscopy combined with 2D correlation analysis provides a powerful method for the quality control of traditional medicines.

  19. Efficient synthesis and activity of beneficial intestinal flora of two lactulose-derived oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Cui, Di; Gao, Hui; Dong, Feng-Ying; Liu, Xiao-cui; Liu, Fei; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Yong-min

    2016-05-23

    Lactulose is considered as a prebiotic because it promotes the intestinal proliferation of Lactobacillus acidophilus which is added to various milk products. Moreover, lactulose is used in pharmaceuticals as a gentle laxative and to treat hyperammonemia. This study was aimed at the total synthesis of two Lactulose-derived oligosaccharides: one is 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-d-fructose, d-fructose and β-d-galactose bounded together with β-1,3-glycosidic bound, the other is 1-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-d-fructose, d-fructose and β-d-galactose bounded together with β-1,1-glycosidic bound, which were accomplished in seven steps from d-fructose and β-d-galactose and every step of yield above 75%. This synthetic route provided a practical and effective synthetic strategy for galactooligosaccharides, starting from commercially available monosaccharides. Then we evaluated on their prebiotic properties in the search for potential agents of regulating and improving the intestinal flora of human. The result showed that the prebiotic properties of Lactulose-derived oligosaccharides was much better than Lactulose. Among them, 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-d-fructose displayed the most potent activity of proliferation of L. acidophilus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A review of eating disorders in males.

    PubMed

    Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W

    2014-11-01

    Research in eating disorders in males has been active lately compared to the past. This review aims to provide an overview of the recently published studies of eating disorders in males. Publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition has outlined more sex-neutral diagnostic criteria for eating disorders. Data of socioeconomic factors, prenatal influences, clinical characteristics, assessment, and mortality for eating disorders have been reported independently for males. Unlike in females, higher parental education showed no association with eating disorders in males, but twin or triplet status and lower gestational age at birth had an independent association with anorexia nervosa in males. Contrary to earlier suggestions, no differences in eating disorder symptoms such as binging, vomiting, or laxative abuse were observed between the sexes. Yet, males tended to score lower on eating disorder symptom measures than females. High rates of premorbid overweight and higher BMIs at various stages of eating disorders have been confirmed repeatedly. Higher age and lower BMI at admission, and restrictive anorexia nervosa subtype predicted fatal outcome for anorexia nervosa in males. Contemporary research provides grounds for improved recognition, diagnosis, and treatment for males suffering from eating disorders.

  1. Investigating the DSM-5 severity specifiers based on thinness for adults with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Reas, Deborah Lynn; Rø, Øyvind

    2017-08-01

    The DSM-5 severity classification scheme for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) is based upon current body mass index (BMI; kg/m 2 ). This study examined the utility of the DSM-5 severity specifiers for adults with AN in relation to core cognitive and behavioral features of eating pathology and associated psychosocial impairment. A clinical sample of 146 adult AN patients (140 women, 6 men) were categorized using DSM-5 current BMI severity specifiers and assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA). A total of 34 (23.3%) patients were categorized as mild (>=17.0 BMI), 35 (24.0%) as moderate (16-16.99 BMI), 32 (21.9%) as severe (15-15.99 BMI), and 45 (30.8%) as extreme (<15 BMI). No significant group differences were found for age, CIA and EDE-Q global or subscale scores, frequency of laxative use, self-induced vomiting, binge eating, or excessive exercise. This study found little empirical evidence to support the utility of DSM-5 severity rating scheme to differentiate adults with AN in terms of core eating disorder pathology or associated psychosocial impairment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Diplogonoporiasis presumably introduced into Spain: first confirmed case of human infection acquired outside the Far East.

    PubMed

    Clavel, A; Bargues, M D; Castillo, F J; Rubio, M D; Mas-Coma, S

    1997-09-01

    A 58-year-old man who was very fond of eating raw fish and had not left Zaragoza Province in Spain in the last 20 years excreted a short chain of gravid proglottids. Treatment with 50 mg/kg of paromomycin sulfate was divided into three doses, all given within the same day, followed by administration of a laxative at night. On days 1 and 2 post-treatment, several chains of degenerated proglottids were evacuated. Only eggs were expelled on days 3 and 4. A long complete strobila including the scolex, and immature, mature, and gravid segments was spontaneously discharged on day 25 after treatment. It was identified as Diplogonoporus balaenopterae, and was the first confirmed case of diplogonoporiasis outside the Far East (all previous cases were reported from Japan, except for one recent case reported from Korea). The origin of this case, outside of its normal geographic location, may be associated with the importation of fish into Spain. The viability of the infective larval stage is evidence of its resistance to export/import conditions. Treatment with paromomycin sulfate did not result in the whole worm being discharged but several short strobilar chains showed drug-induced degeneration.

  3. Effects of resistance and functional-skills training on habitual activity and constipation among older adults living in long-term care facilities: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chin A Paw, Marijke J M; van Poppel, Mireille N M; van Mechelen, Willem

    2006-07-31

    Large-scale RCTs comparing different types of exercise training in institutionalised older people are scarce, especially regarding effects on habitual physical activity and constipation. This study investigated the effects of different training protocols on habitual physical activity and constipation of older adults living in long-term care facilities. A randomized controlled trial with 157 participants, aged 64 to 94 years, who were randomly assigned to 1) resistance training; 2) all-round functional-skills training; 3) both; or 4) an 'educational' control condition. Habitual physical activity was assessed with a physical activity questionnaire and accelerometers. Constipation was assessed by a questionnaire. Measurements were performed at baseline and after six months of training. At baseline the median time spent sitting was 8.2 hr/d, the median time spent on activity of at least moderate intensity was 32 min/d. At baseline, about 22% of the subjects were diagnosed with constipation and 23% were taking laxatives. There were no between-group differences for changes in habitual physical activity or constipation over 6-months. Six months of moderate intensity exercise training neither enhances habitual physical activity nor affects complaints of constipation among older people living in long-term care facilities.

  4. [The body packer syndrome].

    PubMed

    Clément, R; Fornes, P; Lecomte, D

    2001-02-17

    Ingestion of illicit drug packages is a well known method for transportation. These packages are prone to rupture causing overdose. The body packer syndrome may be overlooked in medical practice as illustrated by the following case report. A 19-year old male had convulsions followed by cardiac arrest during a flight. He was resuscitated in the plane, but he died a few hours after admission in intensive care unit. Chest and abdominal X-rays were considered normal. Cocaïne métabolites were found in his urine. The death was considered suspicious. X-rays performed before medicolegal autopsy showed numerous packages in his digestive tract. Thirty-six packages were found in the stomach and intestine. Two were ruptured in the stomach. The cause of death was cocaïne overdose caused by package rupture. The packages are usually visible on an standard abdomen X-ray. The drug is often wrapped in latex membranes or condoms. The air is trapped between the condoms by the nodes, forming two crescents visible on the X-ray. Surgery is preferred to laxatives when the packages are fragile with a high risk of rupture.

  5. Gas insufflation of minimal preparation CT of the colon reduces false-positives

    PubMed Central

    Slater, A; North, M; Hart, M; Ferrett, C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Minimal preparation CT of the colon (MPCT colon) is used for investigation of suspected colorectal cancer in frail and/or elderly patients who would be expected to tolerate laxative bowel preparation poorly. Although it has good sensitivity for colorectal cancer it has a poor specificity. We wished to investigate whether distension of the colon with carbon dioxide alone would reduce the number of false-positives, but without making the test arduous or excessively uncomfortable. Methods 134 patients were recruited and underwent MPCT colon with gas insufflation and antispasmodics. Results were compared with a cohort of 134 patients undergoing standard protocol MPCT colon. The numbers of false-positives were compared, as was reader confidence. All trial patients were given a questionnaire documenting their experience. Results The number of false-positives was 15% in the control group and 5% in the trial group; this difference was statistically significant, (p=0.01). Reader confidence was increased in the trial group. Patient tolerance was good, with 95% saying they would have the test again. Conclusion Use of gas insufflation and antispasmodics reduces the false-positives from 15% to 5% without adversely affecting patient tolerance. PMID:21224295

  6. Drug-induced abnormalities of potassium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Franciszek; Hyla-Klekot, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years with the result that general practioners more and more often use drugs which may influence potassium metabolism at the kidney or gastrointestinal level, or the transmembrane transport of potassium at the cellular level. Potassium abnormalities may result in life-theatening clinical conditions. Hypokalemia is most frequently caused by renal loss of this electrolyte (thiazide, thiazide-like and loop diuretics, glucocorticoids) and the gastrointestinal tract (laxatives, diarrhea, vomiting, external fistula), and may be the result of an increased intracellular potassium influx induced by sympathicomimetics used mostly by patients with asthma, or by insulin overdosage in diabetic subjects. The leading symptoms of hypokalemia are skeletal and smooth muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias. Hyperkalemia may be caused by acute or end-stage renal failure, impaired tubular excretion of potassium (blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclosporine, antifungal drugs, potassium sparing diuretics), acidemia, and severe cellular injury (tumor lysis syndrome). Hyperkalemia may be the cause of severe injury of both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. The specific treatment counteracting hyperkalemia is a bolus injection of calcium salts and, when necessary, hemodialysis.

  7. Perspective on Physical Therapist Management of Functional Constipation.

    PubMed

    George, Susan E; Borello-France, Diane F

    2017-04-01

    Functional constipation is a common bowel disorder leading to activity restrictions and reduced health-related quality of life. Typically, this condition is initially managed with prescription of laxatives or fiber supplementation, or both. However, these interventions are often ineffective and fail to address the underlying pathophysiology and impairments contributing to this condition. Physical therapists possess the knowledge and skills to diagnose and manage a wide range of musculoskeletal and motor coordination impairments that may contribute to functional constipation. Relevant anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral contributors to functional constipation are discussed with regard to specific constipation diagnoses. A framework for physical therapist examination of impairments that can affect gastrointestinal function, including postural, respiratory, musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, and behavioral impairments, is offered. Within the context of diagnosis-specific patient cases, multifaceted interventions are described as they relate to impairments underlying functional constipation type. The current state of evidence to support these interventions and patient recommendations is summarized. This perspective article aims not only to heighten physical therapists' awareness and management of this condition, but also to stimulate clinical questioning that will open avenues for future research to improve patient care. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  8. Parsley: a review of ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Abbasabadi, Zahra; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Rahimi, Roja; Farzaei, Fatemeh

    2013-12-01

    To summarize comprehensive information concerning ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of parsley. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science were searched for studies focusing on the ethnomedicinal use, phytochemical compounds and biological and pharmacological activities of parsley. Data were collected from 1966 to 2013. The search terms were: "Parsley" or "Petroselinum crispum" or "Petroselinum hortence". Parsley has been used as carminative, gastro tonic, diuretic, antiseptic of urinary tract, anti-urolithiasis, anti-dote and anti-inflammatory and for the treatment of amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, gastrointestinal disorder, hypertension, cardiac disease, urinary disease, otitis, sniffle, diabetes and also various dermal disease in traditional and folklore medicines. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids particularly apigenin, apiin and 6"-Acetylapiin; essential oil mainly myristicin and apiol; and also coumarins are the active compounds identified in Petroselinum crispum. Wide range of pharmacological activity including antioxidant, hepatoprotective, brain protective, anti-diabetic, analgesic, spasmolytic, immunosuppressant, anti-platelet, gastroprotective, cytoprotective, laxative, estrogenic, diuretic, hypotensive, antibacterial and antifungal activities have been exhibited for this plant in modern medicine. It is expectant that this study resulted in improvement the tendencies toward Petroselinum crispum as a useful and important medicinal plant with wide range of proven medicinal activity.

  9. Colitis induced by sodium polystyrene sulfonate in sorbitol: A report of six cases.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sheba S K; Parameswaran, Ashok; Parameswaran, Sarojini Ashok; Dhus, Ubal

    2016-03-01

    Drug-related injury has been noted in virtually all organ systems, and recognition of the patterns of injury associated with medication enables modification of treatment and reduces the morbidity associated with the side effects of drugs. With the large number of new drugs being developed, documentation of the morphology of the changes seen as an adverse effect becomes important to characterize the pattern of injury. The pathologist is often the first to identify these abnormalities and correlate them with a particular drug. Kayexalate or sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS), a linear polymer derived from polystyrene containing sulfonic acid and sulfonate functional groups is used to treat hyperkalemia. It is usually administered with an osmotic laxative sorbitol orally or as retention enema. This combination has been implicated in causing damage to different parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract especially the colon and causes an established pattern of injury, recognizable by the presence of characteristic crystals, is presented to create a greater awareness of the Kayexalate colitis. This entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of lower GI mucosal injury in a setting of uremia and hyperkalemia.

  10. Disordered eating and injuries among adolescent ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J J; Keel, P K; Heatherton, T F

    2011-09-01

    Ballet dancers are at elevated risk for eating disorders, but the extent to which disordered eating attitudes and behaviors represent a relatively benign adaptation to an environment that values extreme thinness, or a functionally impairing form of psychopathology, has sparked considerable debate. To determine whether disordered eating is associated with role impairment in dancers, we evaluated its association with musculoskeletal injuries among 239 adolescent female ballet students. Dance students reported a variety of lifetime disordered eating behaviors to control weight including fasting (29.3%), vomiting (9.6%), and laxative use (4.2%). More than half (52.3%) reported a lifetime history of injury (stress fracture, broken bone, and/or medically treated tendonitis). A greater number of lifetime disordered eating behaviors was associated with a greater number of lifetime injuries (p=0.01). Moreover, vomiting history was associated with greater likelihood of injury (p=0.004) and increased time to recover from injury (median difference=22.8 days, p=0.006). Although the direction of causality cannot be determined from this retrospective design, these results suggest that disordered eating is associated with role-relevant functional impairment, even among members of a subculture that values extreme thinness.

  11. A review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Fumaria indica (Fumitory)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Sharma, Nisha; Rao, Ch V

    2012-01-01

    Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley (Fumariaceae), known as “Fumitory”, is an annual herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and Pakistan. The whole plant is widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. In traditional systems of medicine, the plant is reputed for its anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, laxative, cholagogue, stomachic and sedative activities and is used to purify blood and in liver obstruction in ethnopharmacology. The whole plant is ascribed to possess medicinal virtues in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine and is also used in preparation of important Ayurvedic medicinal preparations and polyherbal liver formulations. The review reveals that phytochemical constituents of wide range have been separated from the plants and it possesses important pharmacological activities like smooth muscle relaxant, spasmogenic and spasmolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, neuropharmacological and antibacterial activities. The separation of hepatoprotective and antifungal constituents from this plant was also reported newly. This review highlights the traditional, ethnobotanical, phytochemical, pharmacological information available on Fumaria indica, which might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses. PMID:23569991

  12. Review - Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Liquorice).

    PubMed

    Dastagir, Ghulam; Rizvi, Muhammad Afzal

    2016-09-01

    Medicinal plants are being used for treating various diseases. According to World Health Organization 80% of the world population depends on indigenous medicinal plant remedies. Herbal medicine employs fruits, vegetables, as dry materials or their extracts for the treatment of different diseases and health maintenance. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) has been used in Europe since prehistoric times. It is well documented in written form starting with the ancient Greeks. Glycyrrhizin is the major active constituent obtained from liquorice roots, one of the most widely used in herbal preparations for the treatment of liver complaints. The plant is used as anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, laxative, anti-depressive, anti-ulcer and anti-diabetic. The present review focuses Glycyrrhiza glabra distribution, ethno botany, ethno pharmacology, chemical constituents, medicinal uses, cultivation and trade. Plant requires a lot of attention as it has been reduced in population due to over-use in Baluchistan. The plant conservationists should consider this herb as priority species and should start its cultivation on the commercial scale to fulfill the requirements of the local markets and pharmaceutical industries as well as reduce the pressure on the wild plants.

  13. Binge Eating and Weight Loss Behaviors of Overweight and Obese College Students

    PubMed Central

    Kelly-Weeder, Susan; Phillips, Kathryn; Leonard, Kelly; Veroneau, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate binge eating (BE) and weight related behaviors in overweight and obese college students. Data Sources This was a secondary analysis of data from 487 overweight and obese college age students from a private university in the northeastern US. Conclusions BE was reported by 34.9% of students. Only 6.2% of participants reported the use of compensatory behaviors (i.e., self-induced vomiting, laxative, or diuretic use) to prevent weight gain. BE was associated with smoking and exercising to lose weight. Gender differences emerged from the data as women were more likely to report being obese, the use of compensatory behaviors, and to perceive themselves as moderately or extremely overweight. Implications for Practice Binge eating is a significant problem on college campuses and is associated with the development of obesity and eating disorders. Nurse practitioners (NPs) are in an excellent position to effect change in this population through their frequent contact with young adults in community and school-based venues. Nurse practitioners are well-prepared to identify at-risk college students and provide them with individualized care, education, and support. PMID:24170676

  14. Can balneotherapy improve the bowel motility in chronically constipated middle-aged and elderly patients?

    PubMed

    Dandinoglu, Taner; Dandin, Ozgur; Ergin, Tuncer; Tihan, Deniz; Akpak, Yasam Kemal; Aydın, Oguz Ugur; Teomete, Uygar

    2017-06-01

    Balneotherapy or spa therapy is usually known for different application forms of medicinal waters and its effects on the human body. Our purpose is to demonstrate the effect of balneotherapy on gastrointestinal motility. A total of 35 patients who were treated for osteoarthritis with balneotherapy from November 2013 through March 2015 at our hospital had a consultation at the general surgery for constipation and defecation disorders. Patients followed by constipation scores, short-form health survey (SF-12), and a colonic transit time (CTT) study before and after balneotherapy were included in this study, and the data of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. The constipation score, SF-12 score, and CTT were found statistically significant after balneotherapy (p < 0.05). The results of our study confirm the clinical finding that a 15-day course of balneotherapy with mineral water from a thermal spring (Bursa, Turkey) improves gastrointestinal motility and reduces laxative consumption in the management of constipation in middle-aged and elderly patients, and it is our belief that treatment with thermal mineral water could considerably improve the quality of life of these patients.

  15. Pediatric constipation therapy using guidelines and polyethylene glycol 3350.

    PubMed

    Bell, Edward A; Wall, Geoffrey C

    2004-04-01

    To review current guidelines on the treatment of functional constipation in pediatric patients, with an emphasis on the role of polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG 3350). Primary medical literature published in English was identified by MEDLINE search (1980-May 2003). Recently published treatment guidelines relating to pediatric functional constipation and its pharmacotherapy are assessed and compared. Published trials evaluating PEG 3350 in pediatric subjects are discussed and their results applied to the clinical role and use of this new agent. Constipation is a common disorder among children. A number of factors may play a role. A variety of medications are commonly used for this disorder, although few treatments have undergone evaluation by controlled clinical trials. Consensus guidelines recommend either osmotic laxatives, mineral oil, or their combination for maintenance treatment in concert with patient and parental education and behavioral training. PEG 3350 solution (MiraLax) has been shown in recent clinical studies to be an effective maintenance treatment for pediatric constipation. PEG 3350 is an effective and well-tolerated treatment choice for pediatric constipation, especially as an adjunct to education and behavioral training. PEG 3350 is an option for children with constipation who have failed or are intolerant of other pharmacotherapies.

  16. The clinical effectiveness of Movicol in children with severe constipation: an outcome audit.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Sandra; Bansal, Nav

    2006-03-01

    This audit reviewed the clinical effectiveness of polyethylene glycol 3350 plus electrolytes (PEG+E, Movicol) in the management of severe paediatric constipation. A seven-day disimpaction regimen was initiated followed by a maintenance dose as appropriate. An information and support service was provided by the community children's nursing team (CCNT) at Darent Valley Hospital. Twenty-three parents completed questionnaires on their children's experiences with previous and current laxative treatments, bowel movement status, in-patient admissions or home visits required and the perceived value of the back up service. The mean age of children studied was 6.7 years. Prior to PEG+E treatment, 57 per cent of children were admitted to hospital and 26 per cent required home visits for constipation treatment. After treatment, no child needed either intervention. Thirty-nine percent of parents used the support service, of which 96 per cent rated the information it provided as adequate. When asked about their satisfaction with the control of their children's constipation, 96 per cent of parents were 'more than happy' after treatment with PEG+E. The treatment of severe paediatric constipation with PEG+E in conjunction with a support and advice service was both clinically and economically effective.

  17. New and Emerging Treatment Options for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Brian E.; Chey, William D.; Lembo, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder associated with abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, or a mix of symptoms. The pathophysiology of IBS is not completely understood but appears to involve genetics, the gut microbiome, immune activation, altered intestinal permeability, and brain-gut interactions. There is no gold standard for diagnosis. Several sets of symptom-based guidelines exist. Treatment strategies for IBS may include both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches. Lifestyle modifications that aim to improve exercise, sleep, diet, and stress may be warranted. Recent data suggest that a gluten-free diet and a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) may benefit some patients. For patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS, treatment options include the synthetic peripheral μ-opioid receptor agonist loperamide, antispasmodic agents, antidepressants, serotonin 5-HT3 antagonists, and the gut-specific antibiotic rifaximin. Ongoing research is evaluating the use of probiotics. For patients with constipation-predominant IBS, therapeutic strategies may include dietary fiber, laxatives, and the prosecretory agents lubiprostone and linaclotide. Research is continuing to optimize the use of available agents and evaluating new approaches to further improve the care of patients with IBS. PMID:26491416

  18. Biofeedback for treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in adults.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Sue; Norton, Christine; Chiarelli, Pauline

    2014-03-26

    possible. Different effect sizes were reported ranging from 40 to 100% of patients who received biofeedback improving following the intervention. While electromyograph (EMG) biofeedback was the most commonly used, there is a lack of evidence as to whether any one method of biofeedback is more effective than any other method of biofeedback. We found low or very low quality evidence that biofeedback is superior to oral diazepam, sham biofeedback and laxatives. One study (n = 60) found EMG biofeedback to be superior to oral diazepam. Seventy per cent (21/30) of biofeedback patients had improved constipation at three month follow-up compared to 23% (7/30) of diazepam patients (RR 3.00, 95% CI 1.51 to 5.98). One study compared manometry biofeedback to sham biofeedback or standard therapy consisting of diet, exercise and laxatives. The mean number of complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBM) per week at three months was 4.6 in the biofeedback group compared to 2.8 in the sham biofeedback group (MD 1.80, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.35; 52 patients). The mean number of CSBM per week at three months was 4.6 in the biofeedback group compared to 1.9 in the standard care group (MD 2.70, 95% CI 1.99 to 3.41; 49 patients). Another study (n = 109) compared EMG biofeedback to conventional treatment with laxatives and dietary and lifestyle advice. This study found that at both 6 and 12 months 80% (43/54) of biofeedback patients reported clinical improvement compared to 22% (12/55) laxative-treated patients (RR 3.65, 95% CI 2.17 to 6.13). Some surgical procedures (partial division of puborectalis and stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR)) were reported to be superior to biofeedback, although with a high risk of adverse events in the surgical groups (wound infection, faecal incontinence, pain, and bleeding that required further surgical intervention). Successful treatment, defined as a decrease in the obstructed defecation score of > 50% at one year was reported in 33% (3/39) of EMG biofeedback

  19. Definition, diagnosis and treatment strategies for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction-Recommendations of the Nordic Working Group.

    PubMed

    Drewes, Asbjørn M; Munkholm, Pia; Simrén, Magnus; Breivik, Harald; Kongsgaard, Ulf E; Hatlebakk, Jan G; Agreus, Lars; Friedrichsen, Maria; Christrup, Lona L

    2016-04-01

    /OIC was proposed and presented in a flowchart. First-line treatment of OIC is conventional laxatives, lifestyle changes, tapering the opioid dosage and alternative analgesics. Whilst opioid rotation may also improve symptoms, these remain unalleviated in a substantial proportion of patients. Should conventional treatment fail, mechanism-based treatment with opioid antagonists should be considered, and they show advantages over laxatives. It should not be overlooked that many reasons for constipation other than OIBD exist, which should be taken into consideration in the individual patient. It is the belief of this Nordic Working Group that increased awareness of adverse effects and OIBD, particularly OIC, will lead to better pain treatment in patients on opioid therapy. Subsequently, optimised therapy will improve quality of life and, from a socio-economic perspective, may also reduce costs associated with hospitalisation, sick leave and early retirement in these patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Body uneasiness, eating disorders, and muscle dysmorphia in individuals who overexercise.

    PubMed

    Segura-García, Cristina; Ammendolia, Antonio; Procopio, Leonardo; Papaianni, Maria C; Sinopoli, Flora; Bianco, Carmelina; De Fazio, Pasquale; Capranica, Laura

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate exercise dependence, body and eating concerns of active individuals in relation to muscle dysmorphia (MD) and eating disorders (EDs). One hundred and thirty-four active individuals (86 men, 48 women) and 20 ED women were divided into 4 groups according to their sex and the difference between their actual and desired body weight (group A: men who wanted to gain weight; group B: men who wanted to lose weight; group C: women who wanted to lose weight; group D: ED women). The Eating Disorder Inventory 2, Body Uneasiness Test, and Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory questionnaires were administered. All women desired to reduce their body weight, whereas 55% of men wanted to increase their muscle mass, also using anabolic steroids and food integrators. All groups showed a similar use of diuretics and laxatives (range 10-21%). The findings highlighted the presence of minor body image disorders in groups B and C. Conversely, body image was remarkably altered in groups D and A. Recognizing main MD traits, physical trainers should recommend further psychological counseling. Information should also be provided to gym clients regarding the health risks associated with purgative behaviors, use of steroids, and abuse of food supplements.

  1. Therapeutic Uses of Triphala in Ayurvedic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Christine Tara; Denniston, Kate; Chopra, Deepak

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review the current literature on the therapeutic uses and efficacy of Triphala. Herbal remedies are among the most ancient medicines used in traditional systems of healthcare such as Ayurveda. Triphala, a well-recognized and highly efficacious polyherbal Ayurvedic medicine consisting of fruits of the plant species Emblica officinalis (Amalaki), Terminalia bellerica (Bibhitaki), and Terminalia chebula (Haritaki), is a cornerstone of gastrointestinal and rejuvenative treatment. A search of the PubMed database was conducted. In addition, numerous additional therapeutic uses described both in the Ayurvedic medical literature and anecdotally are being validated scientifically. In addition to laxative action, Triphala research has found the formula to be potentially effective for several clinical uses such as appetite stimulation, reduction of hyperacidity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antibacterial, antimutagenic, adaptogenic, hypoglycemic, antineoplastic, chemoprotective, and radioprotective effects, and prevention of dental caries. Polyphenols in Triphala modulate the human gut microbiome and thereby promote the growth of beneficial Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus while inhibiting the growth of undesirable gut microbes. The bioactivity of Triphala is elicited by gut microbiota to generate a variety of anti-inflammatory compounds. This review summarizes recent data on pharmacological properties and clinical effects of Triphala while highlighting areas in need of additional investigation and clinical development.

  2. Consumerism: its impact on the health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Austin, S B; Rich, M

    2001-10-01

    Marketplace practices are integral to the larger economic and social context of adolescent health risk behaviors. To corporations and marketers, adolescents represent a gold mine of current and future profits. Adolescent incomes increased by almost a third in the 1990s. The annual spending of the U.S. adolescent population is estimated now to have reached 155 billion US dollars. The sheer size of the adolescent population and its spending power are of keen interest to corporations and marketers. This chapter presents a brief history of youth-targeted marketing and examines the major avenues in the media and inside schools that marketers and corporations use today to reach adolescents with their messages and products. It outlines the impact of consumerism and marketing on adolescent health using five case examples: tobacco, alcohol, cosmetic surgery, laxatives, and diet pills. It then concludes with a discussion of resistance efforts, led by health advocates, policy makers, parents, and youth themselves to restrict sales of harmful products to youth and curtail advertisers' access to adolescents in schools. A critical role for adolescent health researchers and advocates is to contribute a public health perspective into ongoing debates over regulating business practices that negatively affect the health of young people.

  3. Factors Predictive of Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events of Prucalopride: An Integrated Analysis of Four Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Leelakusolvong, Somchai; Ke, MeiYun; Zou, Duowu; Choi, Suck Chei; Tack, Jan; Quigley, Eamonn M. M.; Liu, Andy; Kim, JinYong

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims This integrated analysis aimed to identify the factors associated with the most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in Asian and non-Asian patients with chronic constipation (CC) who receive prucalopride or placebo over 12 weeks. Methods Pooled data from four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, phase III studies (NCT00488137, NCT00483886, NCT00485940, and NCT01116206) on patients treated with prucalopride 2 mg or placebo were analyzed. The associations between predictors and TEAEs were evaluated based on a logistic regression model. Results Overall, 1,821 patients (Asian, 26.1%; non-Asian, 73.9%) were analyzed. Prucalopride treatment was significantly associated with diarrhea, headache, and nausea (p<0.001), but not with abdominal pain, compared with placebo. Differences in the prevalence of TEAEs between prucalopride and placebo decreased greatly after the first day of treatment. Compared with non-Asians, Asians were more likely to experience diarrhea and less likely to develop abdominal pain, headache, and nausea. Prior laxative use, CC duration, and body weight were not predictive of any of these TEAEs. Conclusions Prucalopride treatment was positively associated with diarrhea, headache, and nausea. Asian patients tended to have a higher frequency of diarrhea but lower frequencies of headache, abdominal pain, and nausea compared with non-Asians. PMID:25534573

  4. Endoscopic monopolar coagulation of internal haemorrhoids: a surgeon's experience of the first 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Loh, W-L; Tan, S; Ngooi, M S; Ong, Z K; Ngoi, S S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate one surgeon's initial experience with a novel technique of retroflexed endoscopic coagulation of internal haemorrhoids. Patients who presented with symptoms and signs indicating Grade II-III haemorrhoids were counselled before the procedure. Those who were assessed to require an examination of their colon, based on their age and symptoms, underwent a full colonoscopy before treatment of the haemorrhoids. After the procedure, patients were routinely prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and laxatives. The first 100 patients of median age 52.0 (20.8-78.5) years included 65 (65%) women. Five (5%) patients suffered from postprocedural complications, of which three (3%) were postprocedural bleeding and two (2%) were postprocedural pain, all treated conservatively. The recurrence rate was 6% at a median follow-up time of 36 (6-76) months. The median duration of follow-up was 36.5 (8.5-57.0) months. This novel technique appears to be safe and effective for the treatment of Grade II-III internal haemorrhoids, and can be incorporated seamlessly into the end of a colonoscopy for the evaluation of haematochezia. Comparative trials should be performed. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Endoscopic management of massive mercury ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Zag, Levente; Berkes, Gábor; Takács, Irma F; Szepes, Attila; Szabó, István

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Ingestion of a massive amount of metallic mercury was thought to be harmless until the last century. After that, in a number of cases, mercury ingestion has been associated with appendicitis, impaired liver function, memory deficits, aspiration leading to pneumonitis and acute renal failure. Treatment includes gastric lavage, giving laxatives and chelating agents, but rapid removal of metallic mercury with gastroscopy has not been used. Patient concerns: An 18-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department after drinking 1000 g of metallic mercury as a suicide attempt. Diagnosis: Except from mild umbilical tenderness, he had no other symptoms. Radiography showed a metallic density in the area of the stomach. Intervention: Gastroscopy was performed to remove the mercury. One large pool and several small droplets of mercury were removed from the stomach. Outcomes: Blood and urine mercury levels of the patient remained low during hospitalization. No symptoms of mercury intoxication developed during the follow-up period. Lessons: Massive mercury ingestion may cause several symptoms, which can be prevented with prompt treatment. We used endoscopy to remove the mercury, which shortened the exposure time and minimized the risk of aspiration. This is the first case where endoscopy was used for the management of mercury ingestion. PMID:28562544

  6. Management of the colonic volvulus in 2016.

    PubMed

    Perrot, L; Fohlen, A; Alves, A; Lubrano, J

    2016-06-01

    Colonic volvulus is the third leading cause of colonic obstruction worldwide, occurring at two principal locations: the sigmoid colon and cecum. In Western countries, sigmoid volvulus preferentially affects elderly men whereas cecal volvulus affects younger women. Some risk factors, such as chronic constipation, high-fiber diet, frequent use of laxatives, personal past history of laparotomy and anatomic predispositions, are common to both locations. Clinical symptomatology is non-specific, including a combination of abdominal pain, gaseous distention, and bowel obstruction. Abdominopelvic computerized tomography is currently the gold standard examination, allowing positive diagnosis as well as detection of complications. Specific management depends on the location, patient comorbidities and colonic wall viability, but treatment is an emergency in every case. If clinical or radiological signs of gravity are present, emergency surgery is mandatory, but is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. For sigmoid volvulus without criteria of gravity, the ideal strategy is an endoscopic detorsion procedure followed, within 2 to 5 days, by surgery that includes a sigmoid colectomy with primary anastomosis. Exclusively endoscopic therapy must be reserved for patients who are at excessive risk for surgical intervention. In cecal volvulus, endoscopy has no role and surgery is the rule. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Update on the management of constipation in the elderly: new treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Satish SC; Go, Jorge T

    2010-01-01

    Constipation disproportionately affects older adults, with a prevalences of 50% in community-dwelling elderly and 74% in nursing-home residents. Loss of mobility, medications, underlying diseases, impaired anorectal sensation, and ignoring calls to defecate are as important as dyssynergic defecation or irritable bowel syndrome in causing constipation. Detailed medical history on medications and co-morbid problems, and meticulous digital rectal examination may help identify causes of constipation. Likewise, blood tests and colonoscopy may identify organic causes such as colon cancer. Physiological tests such as colonic transit study with radio-opaque markers or wireless motility capsule, anorectal manometry, and balloon expulsion tests can identify disorders of colonic and anorectal function. However, in the elderly, there is usually more than one mechanism, requiring an individualized but multifactorial treatment approach. The management of constipation continues to evolve. Although osmotic laxatives such as polyethylene glycol remain mainstay, several new agents that target different mechanisms appear promising such as chloride-channel activator (lubiprostone), guanylate cyclase agonist (linaclotide), 5HT4 agonist (prucalopride), and peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists (alvimopan and methylnaltrexone) for opioid-induced constipation. Biofeedback therapy is efficacious for treating dyssynergic defecation and fecal impaction with soiling. However, data on efficacy and safety of drugs in elderly are limited and urgently needed. PMID:20711435

  8. Factors that influence Italian consumers' understanding of over-the-counter medicines and risk perception.

    PubMed

    Calamusa, Andrea; Di Marzio, Alessandra; Cristofani, Renza; Arrighetti, Paola; Santaniello, Vincenzo; Alfani, Simona; Carducci, Annalaura

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate information needs for safe self-medication we explored the Italian consumers' functional health literacy, specific knowledge and risk awareness about over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. A survey was conducted in the health sections of six large super stores. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 1.206 adults aged 18 years and older through a self-administered questionnaire. Around 42% confused the concept of "contraindications" with that of "side effects" and were unable to calculate simple dosages. Most respondents were aware of the OTC general potential for side effects but 64.3% did not know that people with high blood pressure should use painkillers with cautions and 14.0% and 20.0% were unaware of the risks of long-term use of laxatives and nasal decongestants respectively. Higher total scores were obtained from women, highly educated people and those citing package leaflets as information sources. The study, the first of this type in Italy, showed an incomplete awareness of several risk areas, with regard to drug interactions and misuse/abuse. The results of this study were the basis of a following intervention plan tailored to the observed consumer needs and including information tools for customers and courses for the retail pharmacists. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adolescent smoking, weight changes, and binge-purge behavior: associations with secondary amenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J; Whitaker, A H

    1992-01-01

    The association of secondary amenorrhea with extreme forms of substance use, weight control, and exercise in nonrepresentative samples raises questions as to whether adolescents in the general population who engage in these behaviors are at increased risk for secondary amenorrhea. We examined the prevalence and behavioral correlates of secondary amenorrhea in a county-wide high school population of 2544 girls aged 13 to 18. A survey questionnaire, which elicited menstrual history as well as weight history, weight control practices, level of exercise, and use of cigarettes, wine, and beer, was administered during school hours; absentees were also surveyed. The completion rate was 91%. The 1-year prevalence of secondary amenorrhea was 8.5%. Secondary amenorrhea was associated with smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day (adjusted relative risk [RRa] = 1.96, 1.21-3.10), with multiple binge-eating behaviors in combination with laxative use or self-induced vomiting (RRa = 4.17, 2.54-6.32), and with weight fluctuation due to weight control (RRa = 2.59, 1.33-4.79). There was no association between amenorrhea and alcohol consumption or exercise level. Estimates of attributable risk are provided and indicate that bulimic behaviors and cigarette smoking may result in a considerable excess of cases of secondary amenorrhea in an adolescent population.

  10. Odisolane, a Novel Oxolane Derivative, and Antiangiogenic Constituents from the Fruits of Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Park, Jun Yeon; Yu, Jae Sik; Lee, Sung Ok; Ryu, Ja-Young; Choi, Sang-Zin; Kang, Ki Sung; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-05-18

    Mulberry, the fruit of Morus alba L., is known as an edible fruit and commonly used in Chinese medicines as a warming agent and as a sedative, tonic, laxative, odontalgic, expectorant, anthelmintic, and emetic. Systemic investigation of the chemical constituents of M. alba fruits led to the identification of a novel oxolane derivative, (R*)-2-((2S*,3R*)-tetrahydro-2-hydroxy-2-methylfuran-3-yl)propanoic acid (1), namely, odisolane, along with five known heterocyclic compounds (2-6). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) data analysis. Compound 1 has a novel skeleton that consists of 8 carbon units with an oxolane ring, which until now has never been identified in natural products. The isolated compounds were subjected to several activity tests to verify their biological function. Among them, compounds 1, 3, and 5 significantly inhibited cord formation in HUVECs. The action mechanism of compound 3, which had the strongest antiangiogenic activity, was mediated by decreasing VEGF, p-Akt, and p-ERK protein expression. These results suggest that compounds isolated from M. alba fruits might be beneficial in antiangiogenesis therapy for cancer treatment.

  11. Treatment of severe cancer pain by low-dose continuous subcutaneous morphine.

    PubMed

    Drexel, H; Dzien, A; Spiegel, R W; Lang, A H; Breier, C; Abbrederis, K; Patsch, J R; Braunsteiner, H

    1989-02-01

    In a prospective and intraindividually controlled trial, we have compared the efficacy and safety of a continuous subcutaneous morphine infusion with conventional intermittent oral or subcutaneous morphine application. Twenty-eight in-patients with cancer pain received a short-term infusion lasting 2-42 days, and 8 out-patients underwent long-term infusion from 49 to 197 days during the terminal stage of their disease. Continuous subcutaneous morphine infusion significantly (P less than 0.001) improved both pain and quality of life when compared to conventional morphine application. With continuous infusion, 5-48 mg (median 19 mg) of morphine was required daily, significantly (P less than 0.001) less than the 10-90 mg (median 50 mg) necessary with conventional use. As a result of lower dosage, side effects under continuous infusion were infrequent and mild. Constipation occurred in 3 of the 36 patients and was always controlled by the addition of laxatives; no nausea, sedation or respiratory depression were observed. Signs of tolerance developed in 2 patients on long-term infusion, but the use of continuous subcutaneous methadone for 2 weeks reversed the tolerance. The study presented indicates that low-dose continuous subcutaneous morphine provides a valuable treatment modality for severe terminal cancer pain exhibiting a high degree of both efficacy and safety.

  12. Plantago major in Traditional Persian Medicine and modern phytotherapy: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Najafian, Younes; Hamedi, Shokouh Sadat; Farshchi, Masoumeh Kaboli; Feyzabadi, Zohre

    2018-02-01

    Plantago major has been used widely since ancient times, to manage a wide range of diseases including constipation, coughs and wounds. The aim of this study is to review the traditional application, botanical characterization, pharmacological activities, phytochemistry effects and toxicity of Plantago major. In this review study, medicinal properties of Plantago major are collected from credible pharmacopeias, textbooks of traditional Persian medicine (TPM) belonging to the 10-18th century AD, such as "The Canon of Medicine", "Makhzan-Al- Advia" and so on. Moreover, electronic databases including Scopus, Medline and Web of science were explored for this purpose. Plantago major has been prescribed in various forms such as roasted seeds, decoction, syrup, liniment, gargle, rectal enema, vaginal suppository, eye and nasal drop for each illness by TPM scholars. Some of its traditional properties including wound healing, antipyretic, antitussive, anti-infective, anti-hemorrhagic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, laxative, astringent and hemostatic have been confirmed in recent researches. Phytochemical investigations showed that Plantago major contains volatile compounds, triterpenoids, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Modern pharmacological studies have proven some of the traditional applications of Plantago major. Nevertheless, more investigations are required on this plant, because it has the potential to be used to produce various natural medications.

  13. Issues in Nutrition: Carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources. Many artificial sweeteners contain no kilocalories in the amounts typically used. Sugar alcohols may have a laxative effect when consumed in large amounts. Glycemic index and glycemic load are measurements that help quantify serum glucose response after ingestion of particular foods. These measurements may be affected by the combination of foods consumed in a given meal, and the glycemic index may vary among individuals eating the same meal. Eating foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent development of type 2 diabetes. There is no definitive evidence to recommend low-carbohydrate diets over low-fat diets for long-term weight loss; they are equally effective. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  14. Primary Care Management of Chronic Constipation in Asia: The ANMA Chronic Constipation Tool

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Chua, Andrew Seng Boon; Myung, Seung-Jae; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Wu, Justin C Y; Chen, Min-Hu; Gong, Xiao-Rong; Lu, Ching-Liang; Chen, Chien-Lin; Pratap, Nitesh; Abraham, Philip; Hou, Xiao-Hua; Ke, Meiyun; Ricaforte-Campos, Jane D; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Abdullah, Murdani

    2013-01-01

    Chronic constipation (CC) may impact on quality of life. There is substantial patient dissatisfaction; possible reasons are failure to recognize underlying constipation, inappropriate dietary advice and inadequate treatment. The aim of these practical guidelines intended for primary care physicians, and which are based on Asian perspectives, is to provide an approach to CC that is relevant to the existing health-care infrastructure. Physicians should not rely on infrequent bowel movements to diagnose CC as many patients have one or more bowel movement a day. More commonly, patients present with hard stool, straining, incomplete feeling, bloating and other dyspeptic symptoms. Physicians should consider CC in these situations and when patients are found to use laxative containing supplements. In the absence of alarm features physicians may start with a 2-4 week therapeutic trial of available pharmacological agents including osmotic, stimulant and enterokinetic agents. Where safe to do so, physicians should consider regular (as opposed to on demand dosing), combination treatment and continuous treatment for at least 4 weeks. If patients do not achieve satisfactory response, they should be referred to tertiary centers for physiological evaluation of colonic transit and pelvic floor function. Surgical referral is a last resort, which should be considered only after a thorough physiological and psychological evaluation. PMID:23667746

  15. [Weight control behaviors in dieting adolescent girls and their relation to body dissatisfaction and obsession with thinness].

    PubMed

    Contreras, M Liliana A; Morán, Javier K; Frez, Scarlett H; Lagos, Carola O; Marín, María Paz F; de los Ángeles Pinto B, María; Suzarte, Érika A

    2015-01-01

    Obsession with thinness and body dissatisfaction can lead adolescents to follow unsupervised diets, which could result in risky weight control behaviors such as fasting, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives. The aim of the current study is to examine weight control behaviors in dieting adolescents and relate them to body dissatisfaction (BD) and obsession with thinness (OT). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 439 adolescents from Valparaiso public schools to investigate risky weight control behaviors due to BD and OT scales from the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), comparing restrained eaters and non-restrained eaters. A total of 43% adolescents had followed a weight loss diet without medical supervision. The dieters had higher BD and OT values. Moderate to severe food restriction, based on expert judgment, was observed in 29.6%, and differences in the presence and severity of purging behaviors were found between the 2 groups. One third of the adolescents studied followed diets without professional supervision and had higher BD and OT values, as well as risky weight control behaviors. Overweight and obese adolescents followed more restrictive diets and developed riskier weight control behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  16. Adulteration of herbal sexual enhancers and slimmers: The wish for better sexual well-being and perfect body can be risky.

    PubMed

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Georgiev, Milen I; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan

    2017-10-01

    The popularity of herbal medicines and dietary supplements is increasing all over the world due to the many side-effects assigned to synthetic drugs. Herbal remedies should be considered as safe, with no side-effects, but unfortunately, even if they are labelled as natural, large numbers of adulterants, not only with toxic heavy metals but also with undeclared synthetic substances, have been detected up to date. In this review, the most frequent instances of adulteration of herbal medicines and dietary supplements acting as sexual enhancers and slimming products are thoroughly discussed. The great success of synthetic phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitory drugs like sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil, used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction has made them, as well as their unapproved analogues, popular as adulterants in herbal dietary supplements. The second group among blockbuster products are herbal preparations for slimming purpose, as obesity and gaining weight are major problems worldwide. Here, sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate, an anti-obesity drug which inhibits serotonergic and noradrenergic reuptake, seems to be the most common adulterant. Together with large numbers of its analogues, thyroid hormones, anorexigens, diuretics, stimulants, and laxative agents are also detected in most of tested diet supplements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fatal hypermagnesemia in a child treated with megavitamin/megamineral therapy.

    PubMed

    McGuire, J K; Kulkarni, M S; Baden, H P

    2000-02-01

    We report a case of fatal hypermagnesemia resulting from the unsupervised use of high doses of magnesium oxide administered as part of a regimen of megavitamin and megamineral therapy to a child with mental retardation, spastic quadriplegia, and seizures. The treatment regimen was given at the recommendation of a dietician working as a private nutritional consultant without the involvement or notification of the child's pediatrician. Hypermagnesemia is an uncommon but serious side effect of the use of magnesium containing compounds. These compounds are widely used as laxatives and dietary supplements, and serious side effects are uncommon when used in appropriate dosages and with adequate supervision. The use of alternative medical therapies, including megavitamin/megamineral therapy, is widespread. Many patients use alternative medicine or seek care from alternative medicine practitioners without the recommendation or knowledge of their primary physicians. Despite unproved benefit, many alternative therapies may be safe. However, unsupervised use of generally safe treatments can result in serious side effects. This case report serves to illustrate the characteristic pathophysiologic changes of severe hypermagnesemia, an entity rarely seen in pediatric practice, and more importantly, it alerts primary care and subspecialty pediatricians to be aware of and monitor the use of alternative medical therapies in their patients.

  18. Delayed presentation of anorectal malformation for definitive surgery.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shilpa; Gupta, Devendra K

    2012-08-01

    To retrospectively study the outcome of patients with anorectal malformations (ARM) presenting late for definitive procedure. Patients with ARM presenting beyond 5 months of age managed from January 2008 to March 2012 were studied for clinical outcome. Ages at presentation varied from 5 months to 14 years, seven patients were older than 5 years of age. Of the 36 cases, 5 patients (3 boys and 2 girls) had presented with colostomy done elsewhere. Four patients had high anomalies. Of the 33 girls, 14 had rectovestibular fistula and 9 had anovestibular fistula. Bowel preparation with peglec was used in patients without colostomy. Preoperative retention enemas, laxatives and Hegar dilators were used for 3-11 days before surgery. On table irrigation was required in four. Patients without a covering colostomy were kept nil per oral for 5 days following surgery in prone/lateral position. Two patients had mild post-op wound infection, and were managed with local care. Delayed presentation of ARM especially in girls is quite common in developing countries. With proper perioperative care, these cases may be managed successfully with a single stage procedure in most cases. The mature tissue growth with age allows proper tissue dissection and good repair of the perineal body in girls.

  19. Plantago major in Traditional Persian Medicine and modern phytotherapy: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Najafian, Younes; Hamedi, Shokouh Sadat; Farshchi, Masoumeh Kaboli

    2018-01-01

    Plantago major has been used widely since ancient times, to manage a wide range of diseases including constipation, coughs and wounds. The aim of this study is to review the traditional application, botanical characterization, pharmacological activities, phytochemistry effects and toxicity of Plantago major. In this review study, medicinal properties of Plantago major are collected from credible pharmacopeias, textbooks of traditional Persian medicine (TPM) belonging to the 10–18th century AD, such as “The Canon of Medicine”, “Makhzan-Al- Advia” and so on. Moreover, electronic databases including Scopus, Medline and Web of science were explored for this purpose. Plantago major has been prescribed in various forms such as roasted seeds, decoction, syrup, liniment, gargle, rectal enema, vaginal suppository, eye and nasal drop for each illness by TPM scholars. Some of its traditional properties including wound healing, antipyretic, antitussive, anti-infective, anti-hemorrhagic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, laxative, astringent and hemostatic have been confirmed in recent researches. Phytochemical investigations showed that Plantago major contains volatile compounds, triterpenoids, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Modern pharmacological studies have proven some of the traditional applications of Plantago major. Nevertheless, more investigations are required on this plant, because it has the potential to be used to produce various natural medications. PMID:29629064

  20. VICTOR: Vinflunine in advanced metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium: A retrospective analysis of the use of vinflunine in multi-centre real life setting as second line chemotherapy through Free of Charge Programme for patients in the UK and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Syed A; Ansari, Jawaher; Huddart, Robert; Power, Derek G; Lyons, Jeanette; Wylie, James; Vilarino-Varlela, Maria; Elander, Nils O; McMenemin, Rhona; Pickering, Lisa M; Faust, Guy; Chauhan, Seema; Jackson, Richard J

    2017-03-01

    There is no standard of care in the UK or Ireland for second-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma (TCCU). Vinflunine is approved for TCCU patients who have failed a platinum-based regimen, and is standard of care in Europe but is not routinely available in the UK. Data were collected retrospectively on patients who received vinfluine as a second-line treatment. The aims were to document the toxicity and efficacy in a real life setting. Data were collected on 49 patients from 9 sites across the UK and Ireland [median age, 64 (IQR, 57-70) years, 33 males]. All patients had advanced metastatic TCCU. Thirteen patients had bone or liver metastases, 4 patients had PS 2 and 11 patients had HB <10. Median vinflunine administration was 3.5 cycles (range 1-18). Most common grade 3-4 toxicities were constipation (4 patients) and fatigue (3 patients). Partial response rate was 29% (14 PR, 11 SD, 19 PD, 4 NE, 1 not available). Median OS was 9.1 (6.0, 12.7) months. Results are consistent with real life data from Europe. Toxicity is further reduced with prophylactic laxative and oral antibiotics. Vinflunine is an efficient and tolerable second line treatment in advanced TCCU.

  1. Exploring gender differences in the link between weight suppression and eating pathology.

    PubMed

    Burnette, C Blair; Simpson, Courtney C; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2017-12-01

    Weight suppression (WS), the difference in one's highest weight (excluding pregnancy) and current weight at current height, is associated with the onset of eating disorders. Previous research has explored the influence of WS in predominantly clinical, female samples. However, the transition to college is a particularly high-risk time for weight gain and the development of eating pathology and men with eating disorders often have higher premorbid weights. This study investigated the associations of WS and dimensions of eating pathology in an undergraduate sample (N=859) and examined the effect of gender. Results demonstrated that higher levels of WS were associated with more dietary restraint (p=0.004) and more frequent purging behaviors (p<0.001); WS was indirectly related to loss-of-control eating through dietary restraint for both men and women (p<0.001). Additionally, men with higher WS were more likely to engage in extreme weight control behaviors, such as vomiting and laxative abuse (p=0.036). Findings suggest that weight history might be especially important to assess in men at risk for disordered eating. This approach might be particularly beneficial with college students due to their heightened risk of eating and weight disturbances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Abnormal eating behaviours are not associated with micronutrient deficiencies among women of childbearing age from Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Bojórquez-Chapela, Ietza; Mendoza-Flores, María Eugenia; Tolentino, Maricruz; Morales, Rosa Maria; De-Regil, Luz María

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the risk of abnormal eating behaviors (AEB) and vitamin and mineral deficiencies among women. Women of childbearing age (n = 282) were systematically sampled with a random start (21.9% adolescents) in 6 suburbs in the west side of Mexico City, they were non pregnant or breastfeeding. Vitamin A, C, E, B12, folic acid, hemoglobin, ferritin, cupper, iron and zinc concentrations were measured. A questionnaire validated in the Mexican population was used for screening AEB. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and by using Fisher's test. Approximately 68% of the sample belonged to a mid-low or lower socioeconomic status. 14% had risk of AEB, without statistical differences between adults and teenagers. 10% used diuretics or laxatives to reduce weight within the trimester preceding the survey. Vitamin E, zinc and iron were the most widespread deficiencies affecting 47%, 44% and 27% of the population, respectively. There was no association between the AEB and micronutrient deficiencies neither when AEB were analyzed globally nor individually. Considering these results and the high prevalence of the AEB and overweight in this population, it is important to promote the adoption or healthy behaviors to achieve an adequate weight.

  3. Physical activity may decrease the likelihood of children developing constipation.

    PubMed

    Seidenfaden, Sandra; Ormarsson, Orri Thor; Lund, Sigrun H; Bjornsson, Einar S

    2018-01-01

    Childhood constipation is common. We evaluated children diagnosed with constipation, who were referred to an Icelandic paediatric emergency department, and determined the effect of lifestyle factors on its aetiology. The parents of children who were diagnosed with constipation and participated in a phase IIB clinical trial on laxative suppositories answered an online questionnaire about their children's lifestyle and constipation in March-April 2013. The parents of nonconstipated children that visited the paediatric department of Landspitali University Hospital or an Icelandic outpatient clinic answered the same questionnaire. We analysed responses regarding 190 children aged one year to 18 years: 60 with constipation and 130 without. We found that 40% of the constipated children had recurrent symptoms, 27% had to seek medical attention more than once and 33% received medication per rectum. The 47 of 130 control group subjects aged 10-18 were much more likely to exercise more than three times a week (72%) and for more than a hour (62%) than the 26 of 60 constipated children of the same age (42% and 35%, respectively). Constipation risk factors varied with age and many children diagnosed with constipation had recurrent symptoms. Physical activity may affect the likelihood of developing constipation in older children. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Diethyl Ether and n-Hexane Extract of Polyalthia suberosa Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Yasmen, Nelufar; Tajmim, Afsana; Akter, Mst. Irin; Hazra, Amit Kumar; Rahman, S. M. Mushiur

    2018-01-01

    In folk medicine, Polyalthia suberosa is used as abortifacient, laxative, febrifuge analgesic, filler of tooth cavities, and anti-HIV drug and for rheumatism and various skin infections. The present study was directed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of diethyl ether and n-hexane extracts of Polyalthia suberosa leaves (PSDE and PSNH). A variety of tests including formalin-induced paw licking test, acetic acid induced writhing test, and tail immersion test were used to assess the analgesic activity. In addition, xylene-induced ear edema test was used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of PSDE and PSNH. PSDE and PSNH at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses expressed analgesic as well as anti-inflammatory activities in mice. In formalin-induced paw licking test, acetic acid induced writhing test, and xylene-induced ear edema test, the extracts exhibited significant inhibition (⁎P < 0.05 versus control) of pain and inflammation. Alternatively, in tail immersion test, PSDE 400 mg/kg showed significant (⁎P < 0.05 versus control) latency at 30 min but another tested sample had no significant latency. From this study, it could be shown that Polyalthia suberosa leaves may contain analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents which support its use in traditional medicine. PMID:29599807

  5. The role of biofeedback in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Whitehead, William E

    2008-07-01

    Biofeedback is a form of treatment that has no adverse effects and can be provided by physician extenders. The therapy relies on patients' ability to learn how to influence their bodily functions through dedicated machinery and teaching. This Review provides a comprehensive overview of all potential therapeutic applications of biofeedback for functional constipation, fecal incontinence, functional anorectal pain, IBS, functional dyspepsia, and aerophagia. Practical clinical applications of biofeedback therapy supported by randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) are limited to fecal incontinence and dyssynergic defecation. For fecal incontinence, RCTs suggest that biofeedback combining strength training and sensory discrimination training is effective in approximately 75% of patients and is more effective than placebo. However, verbal feedback provided by a therapist during extended digital examination may be equally effective, and children whose fecal incontinence is associated with constipation plus fecal impaction do no better with biofeedback than medical management. For dyssynergic defecation, RCTs show that biofeedback combining pelvic floor muscle relaxation training, practice in defecating a water-filled balloon, and instruction in effective straining is effective in approximately 70% of patients who have failed to respond to laxative treatment. For both incontinence and dyssynergic defecation, the benefits of biofeedback last at least 12 months.

  6. Lubiprostone for the treatment of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Banny S; Camilleri, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OBD) is a prevalent condition that leads to reduced opioid use, human suffering and a high burden and cost on the healthcare system. Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is the most troublesome aspect of OBD, for which standard laxatives are often ineffective. A major unmet need is effective and safe OIC treatment without inhibiting opioid analgesia or inducing opioid withdrawal symptoms. Recent data indicate that lubiprostone, a locally acting type 2 chloride channel activator, approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, may be effective in treating OBD. The areas covered are: i) an overview of clinical trials of lubiprostone in the treatment of OBD based on peer-reviewed literature and congress materials from 2005 to 2010; and ii) an evaluation of the efficacy and potential mechanisms of action of lubiprostone in the treatment of OBD. Lubiprostone has potential in treating OBD and deserves additional study. Lubiprostone's ability to promote fluid secretion locally at the apical membrane of intestinal epithelial cells ensures it does not provoke opioid withdrawal or compromise analgesia. Lubiprostone seems safe for long-term use in CIC patients, and a similar safety profile is anticipated in OBD.

  7. New Horizons for the Study of Dietary Fiber and Health: A Review.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Stacey; Beck, Eleanor; Salman, Hayfa; Tapsell, Linda

    2016-03-01

    Dietary fibre has been consumed for centuries with known health benefits, but defining dietary fibre is a real challenge. From a functional perspective, dietary fibre is described as supporting laxation, attenuating blood glucose responses and assisting with cholesterol lowering. The problem is different types of dietary fibre have different effects, and new effects are increasingly observed, such as the influence on gut microbiota. Thus, a single definition may need to be described in more generic terms. Rather than being bound by a few functional definitions, we may need to embrace the possibilities of new horizons, and derive a working definition of dietary fibre based on a set of conceptual principles, rather than the limited definitions we have to date. To begin this process, a review of individual fibre types and their physiological effects would be helpful. Dietary fibre is a complex group of substances, and there is a growing interest in specific effects linked to fibre type. Different fractions of dietary fibre have different physiological properties, yet there is a paucity of literature covering the effects of all fibres. This paper describes a range of individual fibre types and identifies gaps in the literature which may expose new directions for a working definition of dietary fibre.

  8. A Challenging Case of Acute Mercury Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Alghoula, Faysal; Holewinski, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Background Mercury exists in multiple forms: elemental, organic, and inorganic. Its toxic manifestations depend on the type and magnitude of exposure. The role of colonoscopic decompression in acute mercury toxicity is still unclear. We present a case of acute elemental mercury toxicity secondary to mercury ingestion, which markedly improved with colonoscopic decompression. Clinical Case A 54-year-old male presented to the ED five days after ingesting five ounces (148 cubic centimeters) of elemental mercury. Examination was only significant for a distended abdomen. Labs showed elevated serum and urine mercury levels. An abdominal radiograph showed radiopaque material throughout the colon. Succimer and laxatives were initiated. The patient had recurrent bowel movements, and serial radiographs showed interval decrease of mercury in the descending colon with interval increase in the cecum and ascending colon. Colonoscopic decompression was done successfully. The colon was evacuated, and a repeat radiograph showed decreased hyperdense material in the colon. Three months later, a repeat radiograph showed no hyperdense material in the colon. Conclusion Ingested elemental mercury can be retained in the colon. Although there are no established guidelines for colonoscopic decompression, our patient showed significant improvement. We believe further studies on this subject are needed to guide management practices. PMID:29559996

  9. In Vitro Estrogenic and Breast Cancer Inhibitory Activities of Chemical Constituents Isolated from Rheum undulatum L.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dahae; Park, SeonJu; Choi, Sungyoul; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kang, Ki Sung

    2018-05-18

    We investigated the estrogenic and breast cancer inhibitory activities of chemical constituents isolated from Rhei undulati Rhizoma (roots of Rheum undulatum L.), which is used as a laxative, an anti-inflammatory, and an anti-blood stagnation agent. Estrogen-like activity was studied using the well characterized E-screen assay in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 cells. The mechanism underlying the breast cancer inhibitory activity of the compounds was studied using human ER-negative MDA-MB-231 and ER-positive MCF-7 cells. The activation of apoptosis pathway-related proteins was investigated by western blotting, using extracts of R. undulatum prepared in three solvent conditions (EX1, EX2, and EX3). The R. undulatum chemical constituents (compounds 1 ⁻ 3 ) showed estrogen-like activity in the concentration range of 10 to 50 μM, by increasing the proliferation of human ER-positive MCF-7 cells. These effects were attenuated by co-treatment with 100 nM fulvestrant, an ER antagonist. Compounds 1 ⁻ 3 decreased the viability of MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Compounds 1 (aloe emodin) and 2 (rhapontigenin) induced mitochondria-independent apoptosis by activating the caspase-8 pathway, whereas the cytotoxic effect of compound 3 (chrysophanol 1- O -β-d-glucopyranoside) was mediated through the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway.

  10. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Diethyl Ether and n-Hexane Extract of Polyalthia suberosa Leaves.

    PubMed

    Yasmen, Nelufar; Aziz, Md Abdullah; Tajmim, Afsana; Akter, Mst Irin; Hazra, Amit Kumar; Rahman, S M Mushiur

    2018-01-01

    In folk medicine, Polyalthia suberosa is used as abortifacient, laxative, febrifuge analgesic, filler of tooth cavities, and anti-HIV drug and for rheumatism and various skin infections. The present study was directed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of diethyl ether and n-hexane extracts of Polyalthia suberosa leaves (PSDE and PSNH). A variety of tests including formalin-induced paw licking test, acetic acid induced writhing test, and tail immersion test were used to assess the analgesic activity. In addition, xylene-induced ear edema test was used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of PSDE and PSNH. PSDE and PSNH at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses expressed analgesic as well as anti-inflammatory activities in mice. In formalin-induced paw licking test, acetic acid induced writhing test, and xylene-induced ear edema test, the extracts exhibited significant inhibition ( ⁎ P < 0.05 versus control) of pain and inflammation. Alternatively, in tail immersion test, PSDE 400 mg/kg showed significant ( ⁎ P < 0.05 versus control) latency at 30 min but another tested sample had no significant latency. From this study, it could be shown that Polyalthia suberosa leaves may contain analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents which support its use in traditional medicine.

  11. Triterpenoid Acids as Important Antiproliferative Constituents of European Elderberry Fruits.

    PubMed

    Gleńsk, Michał; Czapińska, Elżbieta; Woźniak, Marta; Ceremuga, Ireneusz; Włodarczyk, Maciej; Terlecki, Grzegorz; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Seweryn, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    In Europe, both the fruits and flowers of Sambucus nigra L. have been used against cold, as well as laxative, diaphoretic, and diuretic remedies. There are also a number of commercially available food products that contain elderberry juice, puréed or dried elderberries. Recent comprehensive literature data on pharmacology and chemistry of Sambuci fructus have encouraged us to screen extracts with different polarities from this plant material against cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the ethyl acetate and aqueous acetone extracts from elderberries as well as detected triterpenoids on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (LoVo) and human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) was investigated by sulforhodamine B assay. Moreover, cell migration assay was conducted for triterpenoid fraction and pure compounds. Aqueous acetone extract possessed much lower IC 50 value in cancer cell lines compared to ethyl acetate extract. The latter manifested high cytotoxicity against studied cell lines, suggesting that nonpolar compounds are responsible for the cytotoxic activity. Indeed, the phytochemical analysis revealed that ursolic and oleanolic acids are the main triterpenoids in the mentioned extract of which ursolic acid showed the highest activity with IC 50 values of 10.7 µg/mL on MCF-7 and 7.7 µg/mL on LoVo cells.

  12. Outpatient Palliative Cardiology Service Embedded Within a Heart Failure Clinic: Experiences With an Emerging Model of Care.

    PubMed

    Gandesbery, Benjamin; Dobbie, Krista; Gorodeski, Eiran Z

    2018-04-01

    The role of palliative care consultation in the outpatient treatment of patients with symptomatic heart failure (HF) is poorly studied. In August 2015, we created an outpatient palliative care service embedded within the HF clinic at Cleveland Clinic main campus. To characterize patients cared for by our novel outpatient palliative cardiology service, including their degree of HF, symptoms, comorbidities, topics addressed in clinic, palliative treatments prescribed, advanced directives status, and mortality. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients evaluated by this outpatient service. Eighty patients were seen in 229 outpatient encounters. The most commonly reported symptoms were tiredness (74%), pain (64%), dyspnea (57%), drowsiness (45%), anxiety (45%), and depression (43%). The most frequently addressed issues were pain management (55%) and advanced care planning (54%). The most common palliative medications prescribed in palliative care clinic were opiates (48%), laxatives (22%), antineuropathics (22%), and antidepressants (16%). The 1-year survival rate was 70% (CI 65-75%). Embedding palliative medicine services in an HF outpatient clinic is feasible. Patients seen in this setting had an array of quality-of-life limiting symptoms and were medically managed with several interventions familiar to palliative medicine specialists. Outpatients with chronic HF have a significant symptom burden and may benefit from outpatient specialist palliative care.

  13. Emerging Adjuvant Therapy for Cancer: Propolis and its Constituents.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema

    2016-01-01

    Propolis is a bee-metabolized resinous substance (bee glue) from plant sap and gums. It has been in usage as a healing agent since antiquity, yet has not garnered global popularity as a health promoter. Its biological effects, which range from antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, dermatoprotective, anti-allergic, laxative and immunomodulatory to anticancer, have been validated. Propolis has shown efficacy against brain, head and neck, skin, breast, liver, pancreas, kidney, bladder, prostate, colon and blood cancers. The inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases, anti-angiogenesis, prevention of metastasis, cell-cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis and moderation of the chemotherapy-induced deleterious side effects have been deduced as the key mechanisms of cancer manipulation. The components conferring antitumor potentials have been identified as caffeic acid phenethyl ester, chrysin, artepillin C, nemorosone, galangin, cardanol, etc. These compounds target various genetic and biochemical pathways of cancer progression. Depending on the botanical sources and the geographical origin, biological activities of propolis vary. Despite phenomenal development in cancer research, conventional therapy falls short in complete malignancy management. The findings obtained so far build hope that propolis as a complementary medicine may address the lacunae. This review documents the recent advances and scope of amendement in cancer remediation with adequate emphasis on the mechanistic aspect of propolis.

  14. OTC polyethylene glycol 3350 and pharmacists' role in managing constipation.

    PubMed

    Horn, John R; Mantione, Maria Marzella; Johanson, John F

    2012-01-01

    To define constipation, assess the pharmacist's role in identifying and treating constipation, and review clinical evidence for the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 (MiraLAX-Merck Consumer Care), an osmotic laxative now available over the counter (OTC), across a variety of patient populations routinely encountered in pharmacy settings. Systematic PubMed search of the primary literature for constipation treatment guidelines and clinical trial results for PEG 3350. Pharmacists have a unique role in assisting patients with identifying and managing constipation. Multiple controlled clinical trials have established the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of PEG 3350 at its recommended dose of 17 g once daily. On the basis of this evidence, various professional groups have recommended PEG 3350 for use in improving stool frequency and consistency in patients with constipation. PEG 3350 is approved for short-term use, including treatment of constipation caused by medications. Pharmacists can play an important role in managing constipation with OTC agents. Compared with other available OTC agents, PEG 3350 can be recommended to patients suffering from constipation on the basis of a large body of clinical evidence supporting its efficacy and safety, as well as the high patient acceptance shown for its palatability and once-daily dosing.

  15. Prucalopride: A Review in Chronic Idiopathic Constipation.

    PubMed

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-01-01

    Prucalopride (Resolor®), a highly selective serotonin 5-HT4 receptor agonist, is indicated in the European Economic Area for the treatment of adults with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) in whom laxatives have failed to provide adequate relief. This article reviews the pharmacological properties of prucalopride and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in patients with CIC. In five well-designed, 12-week trials in patients with CIC, oral prucalopride 2 mg/day was significantly more effective than placebo at improving bowel function, including the number of bowel movements and a range of other constipation symptoms, as well as health-related quality of life and patient satisfaction; however, no significant differences in bowel function measures were observed between prucalopride and placebo in a 24-week trial. Oral PEG-3350 + electrolytes reconstituted powder was found to be noninferior but not superior to prucalopride according to primary endpoint data from a 4-week, controlled-environment trial. Prucalopride was generally well tolerated in clinical trials; the most common adverse events were headache, diarrhoea, nausea and abdominal pain. No cardiovascular safety issues have arisen with prucalopride treatment. Although further long-term and comparative data would be beneficial, prucalopride provides an additional treatment option for patients with CIC.

  16. A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of AJG522 versus Standard PEG + E as Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sagawa, Toshihiko; Tomizawa, Taku; Mizuide, Masafumi; Yasuoka, Hidetoshi; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kakizaki, Satoru; Kawamura, Osamu; Kusano, Motoyasu; Yamada, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol- (PEG-) based bowel preparations for colonoscopies are often poorly tolerated due to the large volumes of fluid intake required. We compared low-volume “modified” PEG + ascorbic acid (AJG522) with standard PEG with electrolytes (PEG + E) in addition to a stimulant laxative and an agent to improve bowel function for the bowel cleansing before colonoscopy to evaluate its efficacy, safety, and acceptability. Outpatients scheduled to undergo colonoscopy were randomized to receive either AJG522 or PEG + E. Bowel cleansing conditions were assessed via macroscopic fecal findings by blinded and independent investigators. A survey of the patients' feedback regarding the preparation was conducted by questionnaire. Successful cleansing was achieved in all cases, except for 4 cases in the PEG + E group, at 3 hours after taking the preparation. The fecal properties were significantly clearer in the AJG522 group than in the PEG + E group at 2 hours after taking each preparation (P = 0.013). Although the total liquid volume of the bowel preparation was not reduced, the AJG522 preparation could significantly reduce the required volume of the preparation (P < 0.0001). Moreover, the patients in the AJG522 group had better acceptability (P = 0.010). There were no significant differences in the safety profiles between groups (UMIN000013892). PMID:25688357

  17. Management of faecal incontinence and constipation in adults with central neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Coggrave, Maureen; Norton, Christine

    2013-12-18

    small trials that people with Parkinson's disease had a statistically significant improvement in the number of bowel motions or successful bowel care routines per week when fibre (psyllium) (mean difference (MD) -2.2 bowel motions, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.3 to -1.4) or oral laxative (isosmotic macrogol electrolyte solution) (MD 2.9 bowel motions per week, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.32) are used compared with placebo. One trial in people with spinal cord injury showed statistically significant improvement in total bowel care time comparing intramuscular neostigmine-glycopyrrolate (anticholinesterase plus an anticholinergic drug) with placebo (MD 23.3 minutes, 95% CI 4.68 to 41.92).Five studies reported the use of cisapride and tegaserod in people with spinal cord injuries or Parkinson's disease. These drugs have since been withdrawn from the market due to adverse effects; as they are no longer available they have been removed from this review.Rectal stimulantsOne small trial in people with spinal cord injuries compared two bisacodyl suppositories, one polyethylene glycol-based (PGB) and one hydrogenated vegetable oil-based (HVB). The trial found that the PGB bisacodyl suppository significantly reduced the mean defaecation period (PGB 20 minutes versus HVB 36 minutes, P < 0.03) and mean total time for bowel care (PGB 43 minutes versus HVB 74.5 minutes, P < 0.01) compared with the HVB bisacodyl suppository.Physical interventionsThere was evidence from one small trial with 31 participants that abdominal massage statistically improved the number of bowel motions in people who had a stroke compared with no massage (MD 1.7 bowel motions per week, 95% CI 2.22 to 1.18). A small feasibility trial including 30 individuals with multiple sclerosis also found evidence to support the use of abdominal massage. Constipation scores were statistically better with the abdominal massage during treatment although this was not supported by a change in outcome measures (for example the

  18. Comparison of polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes in the treatment of constipation in elderly institutionalized patients: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Seinelä, Lauri; Sairanen, Ulla; Laine, Tarmo; Kurl, Sangita; Pettersson, Tiina; Happonen, Pertti

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a commonly used osmotic laxative. PEG with electrolytes is mixed with water, but PEG without electrolytes can also be mixed with, for example, juice, coffee or tea, making it more palatable. Laxatives, including PEG, are commonly used by the elderly, particularly those living in institutions. Few clinical studies, however, have investigated the use of PEG in this population. To test whether PEG 4000 without electrolytes (hypotonic PEG) is at least as effective and safe as PEG 4000 with electrolytes (isotonic PEG) in elderly institutionalized constipated patients. The acceptability of the treatments was also compared. This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted at ten private assisted-living facilities or communal nursing homes in Finland. Eligible patients were required to have used isotonic PEG at a stable dose without any other treatment for constipation (except for Plantago ovata seeds) for at least 2 weeks prior to a run-in period. After the 1-week run-in, 62 patients (mean age 86 years; range 66-99 years) were randomly either switched to receive hypotonic PEG or continued to receive isotonic PEG, both dissolved in water, 12 g once or twice daily or once every other day, for 4 weeks. Stool frequency, stool consistency, stool straining and gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded. Safety laboratory tests were conducted before and after the treatment period. Acceptability was assessed at the end of the study. At week 4, mean (SD) weekly stool frequencies in the hypotonic and isotonic PEG groups were 8.5 (4.5) and 8.4 (3.6), respectively. The mean stool frequency ratio (95% CI) was 0.90 (0.74, 1.10); thus, the PEG products were considered equally effective. At week 4, the proportion of patients with soft or normal stool consistency was higher in the hypotonic PEG group than in the isotonic PEG group (70% vs 52%), but this difference was not statistically significant. There were no differences between the groups in

  19. Weight management practices associated with PCOS and their relationships with diet and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Moran, L J; Brown, W J; McNaughton, S A; Joham, A E; Teede, H J

    2017-03-01

    Do weight management practices differ in women with and without PCOS? Women in the general population with self-reported PCOS are more likely to be using healthy weight management practices and alternative non-lifestyle measures for weight management than women without PCOS. Lifestyle management is the first-line treatment in PCOS. However, the specific weight management practices used by women with PCOS and their effect on diet and physical activity are unclear. The study was a population-based observational cross-sectional study involving women in the 1973-1978 cohort (n = 7767 total; n = 556 with PCOS, n = 7211 without PCOS). Women with and without self-reported PCOS were included. Self-reported outcome measures included healthy lifestyle-related or alternative non-lifestyle-related (e.g. laxatives or smoking) weight management practices, dietary intake and physical activity. Women with PCOS were more likely to be following both healthy [reducing meal or snack size (odds ratio (OR) 1.50, 95% CI 1.14, 1.96, P = 0.004) and reducing fat or sugar intake (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.03, 1.69, P = 0.027) or following a low glycaemic index diet (OR 2.88, 95% CI 2.30, 3.59, P < 0.001)] and alternative [smoking (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.02, 2.52, P = 0.043) or use of laxative, diet pills, fasting or diuretics (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07, 1.97, P = 0.017)] weight management practices than women without PCOS. In PCOS, the use of a range of healthy weight management practices was associated with increases in physical activity (P < 0.001), diet quality (P < 0.001), percentage protein intake (P < 0.001) and decreases in glycaemic index (P < 0.001), and percentages of fat (P = 0.001), saturated fat (P < 0.001) or fibre (P = 0.003). Use of alternative weight management practices was associated with decreases in diet quality. Limitations include the use of self-reported data for PCOS, height, weight, diet, physical activity and weight management behaviours. In PCOS, we should focus on improving

  20. Living with constipation—older people's experiences and strategies with constipation before and during hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Munch, Lene; Tvistholm, Nina; Trosborg, Ingelise; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Constipation is a common problem among older people. This study aimed to explore how older patients experience constipation and which strategies they used in handling the condition before and during hospitalization. Methods A qualitative exploratory research design was used. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (61–91 years of age) during hospitalization. Data were analyzed by using content analysis. Results Themes concerning experiences were Bodily signs and symptoms of constipation; the participants described severe pain during constipation, as well as pronounced relief after bowel movements, Impact on well-being and social activities; being constipated negatively impacted their mood and limited social activities, Striving for bowel balance; the participants experienced an ongoing strive for balancing between constipation and diarrhea. Themes related to strategies were Struggling to find a solution; they were aware of different strategies to prevent and treat constipation, though the most common solution described was the use of laxatives, Wait and see; the participants were awaiting to take action until they experienced constipation symptoms, Constipation is a private problem being challenged during hospitalization; constipation was considered a private issue rarely discussed with health-care professionals. Conclusion This study illuminates the need for health-care professionals to be attentive to this issue and initiate the conversation with patients in order to advise on the management of constipation. PMID:27121271

  1. Measuring clinical outcomes of animal-assisted therapy: impact on resident medication usage.

    PubMed

    Lust, Elaine; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Coover, Kelli; Snell, Jeff

    2007-07-01

    To measure changes in medication usage of as-needed, psychoactive medications and other select as-needed medication usage as a result of a therapy dog residing in the rehabilitation facility. Additional measures are participants' thoughts and feelings on quality-of-life factors. One group, pretest, post-test. Residential rehabilitation facility. Convenience sample, N = 58 residents living at the facility. A certified, trained therapy dog. Changes in as-needed medication usage for the following categories: analgesics, psychoactive medications, and laxatives, as well as changes in vital sign measurements of blood pressure, pulse, respiration rate, and body weight. Additionally, changes in the residents' perception of quality-of-life factors. One of the three monitored drug classes, analgesia, revealed a decrease in medication usage (mean = 2.6, standard deviation [SD] +/- 6.90, P = 0.017), and one of four monitored vital signs, pulse, showed a decrease (mean = 5.8, SD +/-7.39, P = 0.000) in study participants exposed to the therapy dog. Positive changes were reported in study participants' quality of life. The benefits to human welfare as a result of the presence of a therapy dog have the potential to decrease medication usage for certain conditions in long-term care patients as well as decrease costs. Pharmacist involvement in animal-assisted therapy has the potential to make unique and measurable improvements to best patient care.

  2. Chemical Library Screening and Structure-Function Relationship Studies Identify Bisacodyl as a Potent and Selective Cytotoxic Agent Towards Quiescent Human Glioblastoma Tumor Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mameri, Samir; Dong, Jihu; Salomé, Christophe; Chen, Wanyin; El-Habr, Elias A.; Bousson, Fanny; Sy, Mohamadou; Obszynski, Julie; Boh, Alexandre; Villa, Pascal; Assad Kahn, Suzana; Didier, Bruno; Bagnard, Dominique; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Haiech, Jacques; Hibert, Marcel; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem-like cells reside in hypoxic and slightly acidic tumor niches. Such microenvironments favor more aggressive undifferentiated phenotypes and a slow growing "quiescent state" which preserves them from chemotherapeutic agents that essentially target proliferating cells. Our objective was to identify compounds active on glioblastoma stem-like cells, including under conditions that mimick those found in vivo within this most severe and incurable form of brain malignancy. We screened the Prestwick Library to identify cytotoxic compounds towards glioblastoma stem-like cells, either in a proliferating state or in more slow-growing "quiescent" phenotype resulting from non-renewal of the culture medium in vitro. Compound effects were assessed by ATP-level determination using a cell-based assay. Twenty active molecules belonging to different pharmacological classes have thus been identified. Among those, the stimulant laxative drug bisacodyl was the sole to inhibit in a potent and specific manner the survival of quiescent glioblastoma stem-like cells. Subsequent structure-function relationship studies led to identification of 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl-2-pyridyl-methane (DDPM), the deacetylated form of bisacodyl, as the pharmacophore. To our knowledge, bisacodyl is currently the only known compound targeting glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells in their quiescent, more resistant state. Due to its known non-toxicity in humans, bisacodyl appears as a new potential anti-tumor agent that may, in association with classical chemotherapeutic compounds, participate in tumor eradication. PMID:26270679

  3. Risk eating behaviors in male and female students: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    González-González, Alejandro; Betancourt-Ocampo, Diana; Tavel-Gelrud, Daniela; Martínez-Lanz, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze changes in body mass index and risk eating behaviors in a group of students through a longitudinal study and determine the differences in risk eating behaviors between men and women with different rates of body mass. 5780 students participated, 37.5% were male and 62.5% female, mean age for each measurement times were: 15.1 years first measurement, 18.0 yearssecond measurement, 22.1 years last measurement. For purposes of this study indicators were used from automated medical examination, which serves to collect information on the physical and mental health, family and environment of students at a public university in Mexico. The measurements were made for weight and height of each student to then calculate the body mass index based on the proposal of the World Health Organization. Risk eating behaviors were evaluated with seven indicators that measure the presence or absence of such things as: the use of laxatives, vomiting after eating, exercising 2 h a day, stop eating for a day or moreover, use of pills or diuretics, being on more than two. Significant differences were found in the risk eating behavior with respect to different categories of body mass index only in the first measurement, where young people were of less underweight risk eating behavior than those who are overweight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adolescent smoking, weight changes, and binge-purge behavior: associations with secondary amenorrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, J; Whitaker, A H

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The association of secondary amenorrhea with extreme forms of substance use, weight control, and exercise in nonrepresentative samples raises questions as to whether adolescents in the general population who engage in these behaviors are at increased risk for secondary amenorrhea. We examined the prevalence and behavioral correlates of secondary amenorrhea in a county-wide high school population of 2544 girls aged 13 to 18. METHODS. A survey questionnaire, which elicited menstrual history as well as weight history, weight control practices, level of exercise, and use of cigarettes, wine, and beer, was administered during school hours; absentees were also surveyed. The completion rate was 91%. RESULTS. The 1-year prevalence of secondary amenorrhea was 8.5%. Secondary amenorrhea was associated with smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day (adjusted relative risk [RRa] = 1.96, 1.21-3.10), with multiple binge-eating behaviors in combination with laxative use or self-induced vomiting (RRa = 4.17, 2.54-6.32), and with weight fluctuation due to weight control (RRa = 2.59, 1.33-4.79). There was no association between amenorrhea and alcohol consumption or exercise level. CONCLUSIONS. Estimates of attributable risk are provided and indicate that bulimic behaviors and cigarette smoking may result in a considerable excess of cases of secondary amenorrhea in an adolescent population. PMID:1536334

  5. Technological advances in hybrid imaging and impact on dose.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Sören; Andersson, Martin; Söderberg, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    New imaging technologies utilising X-rays and radiopharmaceuticals have developed rapidly. Clinical application of computed tomography (CT) has revolutionised medical imaging and plays an enormous role in medical care. Due to technical improvements, spatial, contrast and temporal resolutions have continuously improved. In spite of significant reduction of CT doses during recent years, CT is still a dominating source of radiation exposure to the population. Combinations with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) and especially the use of SPECT/CT and PET/CT, provide important additional information about physiology as well as cellular and molecular events. However, significant dose contributions from SPECT and PET occur, making PET/CT and SPECT/CT truly high dose procedures. More research should be done to find optimal activities of radiopharmaceuticals for various patient groups and investigations. The implementation of simple protocol adjustments, including individually based administration, encouraged hydration, forced diuresis and use of optimised voiding intervals, laxatives, etc., can reduce the radiation exposure to the patients. New data about staff doses to fingers, hands and eye lenses indicate that finger doses could be a problem, but not doses to the eye lenses and to the whole body. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. [Encopresis--predictive factors and outcome].

    PubMed

    Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Scheuerpflug, Peter; Peschke, Nicole; Roth, Michael; Reitzle, Karl; Warnke, Andreas

    2005-10-01

    comparison of diagnostic, clinical and therapeutic features and their predictive value for the outcome of encopresis in children and adolescents. 85 children and adolescents (aged 9.6 +/- 3.2 years) with severe encopresis (ICD 10: F98.1) were investigated during inpatient treatment and 35 of them again 5.5 +/- 1.8 years later. Mentally retarded patients were excluded. Inpatient therapy consisted of treating constipation and/or stool regulation by means of laxatives, behavioural approaches, and the specific therapy of comorbid psychiatric disorders. During inpatient treatment 22% of the patients experienced total remission, 8% an unchanged persistence of symptoms. Of the 35 patients studied at follow-up 5.5 years later, 40% were symptom-free. As main result, prognostic outcome depended significantly on sufficient treatment of obstipation. Another important factor was the specific therapeutic approach to psychiatric comorbidity, especially to ADHD. The outcome for patients with comorbid ICD 10: F43 was significantly better than for the other patients. Those who were symptom-free at discharge had significantly better long-term outcomes. Decisive to the success of encopresis treatment were the stool regulation and the specific therapy of associated psychiatric illnesses, in particular of ADHD. Inpatient treatment revealed significantly better long-term outcomes where total remission had been achieved by the time of discharge from hospital.

  7. Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.)—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1–3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed. PMID:22489153

  8. Longitudinal Associations Among Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Disordered Eating, and Weight Gain in Military Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, K. S.; Porter, B.; Boyko, E. J.; Field, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is a major health problem in the United States and a growing concern among members of the military. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with overweight and obesity and may increase the risk of those conditions among military service members. Disordered eating behaviors have also been associated with PTSD and weight gain. However, eating disorders remain understudied in military samples. We investigated longitudinal associations among PTSD, disordered eating, and weight gain in the Millennium Cohort Study, which includes a nationally representative sample of male (n = 27,741) and female (n = 6,196) service members. PTSD at baseline (time 1; 2001–2003) was associated with disordered eating behaviors at time 2 (2004–2006), as well as weight change from time 2 to time 3 (2007–2008). Structural equation modeling results revealed that the association between PTSD and weight change from time 2 to time 3 was mediated by disordered eating symptoms. The association between PTSD and weight gain resulting from compensatory behaviors (vomiting, laxative use, fasting, overexercise) was significant for white participants only and for men but not women. PTSD was both directly and indirectly (through disordered eating) associated with weight change. These results highlight potentially important demographic differences in these associations and emphasize the need for further investigation of eating disorders in military service members. PMID:27283146

  9. Changes of intestinal mucosal and plasma PYY in a diarrhea model rat and influence of loperamide as the treatment agent for diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Yoshihiko; Mikajiri, Kyoko; Ikeda, Kenji; Myotoku, Michiaki; Kurokawa, Nobuo

    2008-09-01

    Peptide YY (PYY) is produced by endocrine cells in the lower gastrointestinal tract. The main functions of PYY are antisecretory effects in the colon and inhibition of gastrointestinal motility. We chose PYY as an index of the intrinsic factor in diarrhea and examined the influence of changes induced in a diarrhea rat model by administration of 4 types of laxative and loperamide hydrochloride (loperamide) as an agent for the treatment of diarrhea. A specific radioimmunoassay was performed to determine plasma and intestinal mucosal PYY concentrations. PYY in the rat intestinal tissue extract was distributed at a high density in the lower intestinal mucosa. In the diarrhea rat model, multiple changes in PYY concentrations in the intestinal mucosa and plasma were observed. In rats administered castor oil and sodium picosulfate, the intestinal mucosal PYY levels significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Plasma PYY levels significantly decreased only in rats administered magnesium citrate. Next, we examined the influence of loperamide administration on the intestinal mucosa and plasma PYY concentrations in these rats. Loperamide administration resulted in multiple changes in plasma and intestinal mucosa PYY concentrations, along with an improvement in the diarrhea. Our research showed that the endocrine hormone PYY is involved in the onset of diarrhea, the course of the condition, and the manifestation of medicinal effects in the lower intestine.

  10. Bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kishi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Emina; Tateno, Fuyuki; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamanishi, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Bladder dysfunction (urinary urgency/frequency), bowel dysfunction (constipation), and sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction) (also called "pelvic organ" dysfunctions) are common nonmotor disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast to motor disorders, pelvic organ autonomic dysfunctions are often nonresponsive to levodopa treatment. The brain pathology causing the bladder dysfunction (appearance of overactivity) involves an altered dopamine-basal ganglia circuit, which normally suppresses the micturition reflex. By contrast, peripheral myenteric pathology causing slowed colonic transit (loss of rectal contractions) and central pathology causing weak strain and paradoxical anal sphincter contraction on defecation (PSD, also called as anismus) are responsible for the bowel dysfunction. In addition, hypothalamic dysfunction is mostly responsible for the sexual dysfunction (decrease in libido and erection) in PD, via altered dopamine-oxytocin pathways, which normally promote libido and erection. The pathophysiology of the pelvic organ dysfunction in PD differs from that in multiple system atrophy; therefore, it might aid in differential diagnosis. Anticholinergic agents are used to treat bladder dysfunction in PD, although these drugs should be used with caution particularly in elderly patients who have cognitive decline. Dietary fibers, laxatives, and "prokinetic" drugs such as serotonergic agonists are used to treat bowel dysfunction in PD. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are used to treat sexual dysfunction in PD. These treatments might be beneficial in maximizing the patients' quality of life.

  11. Bladder, Bowel, and Sexual Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kishi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Emina; Tateno, Fuyuki; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamanishi, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Bladder dysfunction (urinary urgency/frequency), bowel dysfunction (constipation), and sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction) (also called “pelvic organ” dysfunctions) are common nonmotor disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast to motor disorders, pelvic organ autonomic dysfunctions are often nonresponsive to levodopa treatment. The brain pathology causing the bladder dysfunction (appearance of overactivity) involves an altered dopamine-basal ganglia circuit, which normally suppresses the micturition reflex. By contrast, peripheral myenteric pathology causing slowed colonic transit (loss of rectal contractions) and central pathology causing weak strain and paradoxical anal sphincter contraction on defecation (PSD, also called as anismus) are responsible for the bowel dysfunction. In addition, hypothalamic dysfunction is mostly responsible for the sexual dysfunction (decrease in libido and erection) in PD, via altered dopamine-oxytocin pathways, which normally promote libido and erection. The pathophysiology of the pelvic organ dysfunction in PD differs from that in multiple system atrophy; therefore, it might aid in differential diagnosis. Anticholinergic agents are used to treat bladder dysfunction in PD, although these drugs should be used with caution particularly in elderly patients who have cognitive decline. Dietary fibers, laxatives, and “prokinetic” drugs such as serotonergic agonists are used to treat bowel dysfunction in PD. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are used to treat sexual dysfunction in PD. These treatments might be beneficial in maximizing the patients' quality of life. PMID:21918729

  12. [Diagnosis and treatment of pediatric anismus].

    PubMed

    Ding, Shu-qing; Ding, Yi-jiang; Chen, Yong-tian; Ye, Hui

    2006-11-01

    To explore the diagnosis and treatment methods of pediatric anismus. Twenty-nine patients with idiopathic chronic constipation, diagnosed with anismus by colon barium contrast and anorectal manometry from Nov. 2001 to Nov. 2004 in our hospital, were investigated retrospectively. This group consisted of 13 men and 16 women whose mean age was (6.7+/-4.0) years. Hirschsprung diseases were excluded from the patients by colon barium contrast and rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) examination. Normal RAIR (5-10 ml elicited) was showed on 21 cases while weakened RAIR (15-30 ml elicited) was showed on 8 cases. After the diagnosis, the patients were treated by toilet training, diet regulation and laxative for 1-2 months. 4 cases were recovered, 5 cases were improved and 20 cases were relied on glycerin suppository. Four cases, relied on glycerin suppository, underwent Lynn procedure and had good results after 5-24 months follow-up. Two cases were re-examined by anorectal manometry 3 and 6 months after surgery, the resting pressure and the high pressure zone (HPZ) decreased, but the simulation defecation reflex was still abnormal. The diagnosis of pediatric anismus relies on history of constipation, combined with anorectal manometry and colon barium contrast. Lynn procedure could be chosen for the patients unsatisfied in toilet training and other non-operative treatment.

  13. Therapeutic Uses of Triphala in Ayurvedic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Denniston, Kate; Chopra, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The aim of this article is to review the current literature on the therapeutic uses and efficacy of Triphala. Herbal remedies are among the most ancient medicines used in traditional systems of healthcare such as Ayurveda. Triphala, a well-recognized and highly efficacious polyherbal Ayurvedic medicine consisting of fruits of the plant species Emblica officinalis (Amalaki), Terminalia bellerica (Bibhitaki), and Terminalia chebula (Haritaki), is a cornerstone of gastrointestinal and rejuvenative treatment. Methods: A search of the PubMed database was conducted. Results: In addition, numerous additional therapeutic uses described both in the Ayurvedic medical literature and anecdotally are being validated scientifically. In addition to laxative action, Triphala research has found the formula to be potentially effective for several clinical uses such as appetite stimulation, reduction of hyperacidity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antibacterial, antimutagenic, adaptogenic, hypoglycemic, antineoplastic, chemoprotective, and radioprotective effects, and prevention of dental caries. Polyphenols in Triphala modulate the human gut microbiome and thereby promote the growth of beneficial Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus while inhibiting the growth of undesirable gut microbes. The bioactivity of Triphala is elicited by gut microbiota to generate a variety of anti-inflammatory compounds. Conclusions: This review summarizes recent data on pharmacological properties and clinical effects of Triphala while highlighting areas in need of additional investigation and clinical development. PMID:28696777

  14. The Medical Complications Associated with Purging

    PubMed Central

    Forney, K. Jean; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M.; Keel, Pamela K.; Frank, Guido K.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Purging behaviors, including self-induced vomiting, laxative abuse, and diuretic abuse, are present across many of the eating disorders. Here we review the major medical complications of these behaviors. Method Although we identified over 100 scholarly articles describing medical complications associated with purging, most papers involved case studies or small, uncontrolled samples. Given the limited evidence base, we conducted a qualitative (rather than systematic) review to identify medical complications that have been attributed to purging behaviors. Results Medical conditions affecting the teeth, esophagus, gastrointestinal system, kidneys, skin, cardiovascular system, and musculoskeletal system were identified, with self-induced vomiting causing the most medical complications. Conclusions Purging behavior can be associated with severe medical complications across all body systems. Mental health professionals should refer patients with purging behaviors to medical providers for screening and treatment as needed. The medical work-up for individuals with eating disorders should include a comprehensive metabolic panel, complete blood count, and a full body exam including the teeth to prevent severe complications. Medical providers should screen patients for purging behaviors and associated medical complications, even in the absence of an eating disorder diagnosis, to increase the detection of eating disorders. Recognizing the link between purging and medical complications can aid in identifying potential eating disorders, particularly those that often elude detection such as purging disorder. PMID:26876429

  15. Gender differences in body mass index, body weight perception and weight loss strategies among undergraduates in Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.

    PubMed

    Kuan, P X; Ho, H L; Shuhaili, M S; Siti, A A; Gudum, H R

    2011-04-01

    This study was carried out among undergraduate students in Universiti Malaysia Sarawak with the objective of examining gender differences in body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, eating attitudes and weightloss strategies. Subjects consisted of 600 undergraduates (300 males and 300 females) recruited from the various faculties between September 2008 until mid-November 2008. The Original Figure Rating Scale: Body Weight Perception, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) were used as assessment tools. Overall, 52.8% of students had normal BMI, with approximately an equal number of both sexes. More males than females were overweight (33.7%), while more females were underweight (25.3%). Males were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight, and fail to see themselves as underweight. More than half of the females preferred their ideal figure to be underweight, whereas about 30% males chose an overweight figure as their ideal model. Females were generally more concerned about body weight, body shape and eating than males. They diet more frequently, had self-induced vomiting, and used laxatives and exercise as their weight-loss strategies. Issues pertaining to body weight perception, eating attitudes and weight-loss strategies exist with differences among male and female undergraduates. Thus, in order to correct misperceptions among young adults, a more tailored intervention programme and more in-depth studies into the various factors involved are required.

  16. Treatment and prevention of kidney stones: an update.

    PubMed

    Frassetto, Lynda; Kohlstadt, Ingrid

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Kidney stones are associated with chronic kidney disease. Preventing recurrence is largely specific to the type of stone (e.g., calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, cystine, struvite [magnesium ammonium phosphate]), and uric acid stones); however, even when the stone cannot be retrieved, urine pH and 24-hour urine assessment provide information about stone-forming factors that can guide prevention. Medications, such as protease inhibitors, antibiotics, and some diuretics, increase the risk of some types of kidney stones, and patients should be counseled about the risks of using these medications. Managing diet, medication use, and nutrient intake can help prevent the formation of kidney stones. Obesity increases the risk of kidney stones. However, weight loss could undermine prevention of kidney stones if associated with a high animal protein intake, laxative abuse, rapid loss of lean tissue, or poor hydration. For prevention of calcium oxalate, cystine, and uric acid stones, urine should be alkalinized by eating a diet high in fruits and vegetables, taking supplemental or prescription citrate, or drinking alkaline mineral waters. For prevention of calcium phosphate and struvite stones, urine should be acidified; cranberry juice or betaine can lower urine pH. Antispasmodic medications, ureteroscopy, and metabolic testing are increasingly being used to augment fluid and pain medications in the acute management of kidney stones.

  17. Nutritional supplements in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Alberdi-Páramo, Iñigo; Niell-Galmés, Lluis

    2017-09-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a series of differentiated nosological entities sharing the common link of a continuous alteration in food intake or in food intake-related behavior. Within this classification, the following disorders are noteworthy: anorexia nerviosa (AN) and bulimia nerviosa (BN). Anorexia nervosa is a chronic disorder characterized mainly by negative or decreased food intake accompanied by a distortion of body image and intense accompanying fear of weight gain. The estimated vital prevalence of this disorder in adolescence is approximately 0.5%-1%.1 The primary feature of BN is the presence of binge eating accompanied by compensatory behavior (in the form of intense exercise and the use of laxatives and diuretics, etc.). The prevalence of BN is estimated to be between 2% and 4% in young women, and it generally starts at somewhat later stages than AN. It is believed that biological, psychological, and environmental factors, as well as genetic vulnerability, influence the pathogenesis of EDs. A variety of therapies exist, both biological and psychological, whose effectiveness is supported by the scientific literature. Nonetheless, we find these therapies only partially effective and new targets as well as new treatments should be sought. Although the etiopathogenesis of EDs is unclear, some of the neurobiological dysfunction found suggests that diet and nutrient supplementation could be relevant in their treatment. We review in this article new treatments focusing on nutritional deficits.

  18. A qualitative study of quality of life and the experience of complementary and alternative medicine in Korean women with constipation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jin; Warden, Sherry

    2011-01-01

    Twelve percent of people worldwide report suffering from self-defined constipation. Women experience constipation three times more than men. Many people have used complementary and alternative medicine for constipation, but there is no qualitative research about this issue. The purpose of this article was to describe Korean women's experience of treating chronic constipation with complementary and alternative medicine. A qualitative descriptive approach used in-depth, semistructured interviews with 10 Korean women in the United States who had constipation. Four themes were identified: (1) subjective definition of constipation; (2) efforts to find the reason for constipation; (3) efforts to find solutions for constipation (subtheme: frequent use of enemas, laxatives, and suppositories; expectation and disappointment for complementary and alternative medicine; finding individually effective solutions for constipation); and (4) negative impact on quality of life (subtheme: mental discomfort, changed appetite, and difficult relationships with people).Ten women reported that they had used exercise, massage, yogurt, vegetables, seeds of tangles (seaweed), mineral oil, milk with plums, mixed rice, walnuts, grapefruits, apples, oranges, aloe, oatmeal, soymilk, sweet potatoes, ground flax seed, and alcohol as a strategy for relieving constipation. Participants had also used herbs, acupuncture, acupressure, moxibustion, cupping therapy, hand acupuncture, senna tea, and soy bean past fomentation. In conclusion, living with constipation is an irritable and uncomfortable experience, and it motivated these women to select a variety of methods to reduce constipation.

  19. Constipation in adults.

    PubMed

    Frizelle, Frank; Barclay, Murray

    2007-08-01

    Although there are defined criteria for the diagnosis of constipation, in practice, diagnostic criteria are less rigid, and in part depend on the perception of normal bowel habit. Constipation is highly prevalent, with approximately 12 million general practitioner prescriptions for laxatives in England in 2001. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug interventions, and of other interventions, in adults with idiopathic chronic constipation? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to October 2006 (BMJ Clinical evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 42 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: arachis oil, biofeedback, bisacodyl, cascara, docusate, exercise, glycerine suppositories, glycerol, high-fibre diet, increasing fluids, ispaghula husk, lactitol, lactulose, macrogols (polyethylene glycols), magnesium salts, methylcellulose, paraffin, phosphate enemas, seed oils, senna, sodium citrate enemas, sterculia.

  20. Effects of Daikenchuto on Abdominal Bloating Accompanied by Chronic Constipation: A Prospective, Single-Center Randomized Open Trial.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Mika; Komazawa, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Yoshiya; Kusunoki, Maho; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Sayaka; Uno, Goichi; Ikuma, Isao; Shizuku, Toshihiro; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2015-12-01

    Daikenchuto (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is widely used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of DKT for abdominal bloating in patients with chronic constipation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of DKT for the treatment of abdominal bloating. After discontinuing as-needed use of laxatives, 10 patients received oral DKT for 14 days (15 g/d). To evaluate small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO), a glucose breath test was performed before and after treatment with DKT. Before beginning the treatment, 4 patients (40%) had a diagnosis of SIBO based on a positive glucose breath test result. In both the SIBO and non-SIBO groups, bowel movement frequency and stool form remained unchanged after DKT treatment. For all patients, median total Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale score and the median Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale indigestion and constipation subscales were significantly decreased, whereas the median visual analog score for decreased abdominal bloating was significantly increased. Improvements of those symptoms were the same in both the SIBO and non-SIBO groups, indicating that DKT does not have effects on small intestine bacteria. No serious side effects were reported. DKT treatment improved quality of life for patients with chronic constipation regardless of the presence of SIBO and showed no effects on small intestine bacteria. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry identifier: UMIN000008070.

  1. Body image and eating behaviors in Orthodox and Secular Jewish women.

    PubMed

    Gluck, Marci E; Geliebter, Allan

    2002-01-01

    To explore the impact of religion on the development of disturbances in body image and eating behaviors. 78 Orthodox Jewish women were compared with 48 secular Jewish women. Participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Version (EDE-Q), and the Figure Rating Scale (FRS). Despite a similar body mass index of 22.2 +/- 2.8 SDs, the secular women scored significantly higher on the BSQ (P = .005) and the EDE-Q (P = .004) than the Orthodox women. The secular women also had greater eating disorder symptomatology: more laxative use (P = .02) and a trend toward more vomiting (P = .06) and diuretic use (P = .06), although not more binge eating. They were twice as likely to have a fear of becoming fat (P = .05) and were four times as likely to be influenced by their shape and weight (P = .001). Also, despite increased media exposure, the secular group chose an ideal body size on the FRS similar to that of the Orthodox group, suggesting that their greater body dissatisfaction on the BSQ was related, instead, to greater cultural pressure for thinness (P = .007) and more shame about appearance (P = .04). Our findings show that membership in a strict, insulated religious group such as Orthodox Judaism may protect women, to some extent, from developing body dissatisfaction and eating pathology.

  2. Changes in Body Weight Among People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the United States, NHANES 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiting; Bolge, Susan C; Lopez, Janice M S; Zhu, Vivienne J; Stang, Paul E

    2016-06-01

    To understand weight loss strategies, weight changes, goals, and behaviors in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and whether these differ by ethnicity. T2DM was identified by self-reported diagnosis using the NHANES 2005-2012 data, which also included measured and self-reported current body weight and height, self-reported weight the prior year, and self-reported aspired weight. Nineteen weight loss strategies were evaluated for association with ≥5% weight loss or weight gain versus <5% weight change. Among people with T2DM, 88.0% were overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m(2)) in the prior year and 86.1% the current year. About 60% of the overweight/obese took weight loss actions, mostly using diet-related methods with average weight lost <5%. Two most "effective" methods reported (smoking, taking laxatives/vomiting) are also potentially most harmful. Similar BMI distributions but different goals and behaviors about weight and weight loss were observed across ethnicity. Only physical activity meeting the recommended level and changing eating habits were consistently associated with favorable and statistically significant weight change. Weight management in T2DM is an ongoing challenge, regardless of ethnicity/race. Among overweight/obese T2DM subjects, recommended level of physical activity and changing eating habits were associated with statistically significant favorable weight change. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Children with congenital colorectal malformations often require special education or remedial teaching, despite normal intelligence.

    PubMed

    van den Hondel, Desiree; Aarsen, Femke K; Wijnen, Rene M H; Sloots, Cornelius E J; IJsselstijn, Hanneke

    2016-02-01

    This study prospectively evaluated neuropsychological functioning in 8-year-old patients with anorectal malformation (ARM) and Hirschsprung's disease (HD). School functioning and behaviour were assessed in a standardised interview. Intelligence, attention, self-esteem and quality of life were evaluated with validated tests and questionnaires. The following predictors were assessed: socio-economic status, number of episodes of general anaesthesia, laxative treatment and premature birth. Severely intellectually disabled patients were excluded. In total, twelve of the 23 (52%) patients with ARM and 11 (55%) of the 20 patients with HD received special education or remedial teaching. The intelligence quotient was normal: mean (standard deviation or SD) was 98 (17) and 96 (17), respectively. However, sustained attention was below the norm: mean (SD) Z-score was -1.90 (1.94) and -1.43 (1.98) for ARM and HD patients; both p < 0.01. Self-esteem was normal: mean (SD) Z-score was 0.10 (1.29) and -0.20 (1.11) for ARM and HD patients. Quality of life was normal in ARM patients and slightly impaired in HD patients. No predictors for neuropsychological outcome were identified. Despite normal intelligence, more than half of these patients received special education or remedial teaching. In addition, problems with sustained attention were found. These findings are important for long-term care. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [The myth of virgin cleansing: Latest news on an archaic magico-religious practice].

    PubMed

    Charlier, P; Bou Abdallah, F; Brun, L; Hoang-Oppermann, V; Deo, S; Mostefai-Dulac, Y; Mamzer, M-F; Hervé, C

    2018-03-01

    In the medical anthropology section of the Nanterre Hospital (France) for migrants and refugees, three cases were recorded of "virgin cleansing" in sub-Saharan African countries. These consisted of sexual assaults (2 instances of rape and 1 of sexual interference) on sexually immature females (young girls) by patients with sexually transmitted infections (mainly HIV, syphilis) hoping they might thereby be cured. These particularly atrocious hetero-aggressive sexual practices based on magical arguments are unfortunately universal and are not limited to a specific culture. At the medical anthropology level, the belief in cleansing by virgins is based on the notion that the patient is dirty and impure. In the same way that emetics and/or laxatives are prescribed in the case of intestinal disorders (to "eliminate" the disease), some subjects use diuretics for urinary abnormalities or, literally, "clean vaginas (or anuses)" to purge their own miasma. The rising tide of population migrations (some of whom carry chronic infections), refugee camps, prolonged incarcerations, etc., makes observations of such phenomena increasingly frequent. Belief in cleansing by virgins (and the fatal consequences thereof) will be difficult to eradicate. The education of populations and health professionals should promote absolute respect for the body of children, and, more generally, of others, particularly since at this time of increasingly marked migratory flows, this problem sadly risks becoming widespread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Gastrografin as an alternative booster to sodium phosphate in colon capsule endoscopy: safety and efficacy pilot study*

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Kazutomo; Fujita, Tomoki; Utano, Kenichi; Waga, Eriko; Katsuki, Shinichi; Isohata, Noriyuki; Endo, Shungo; Lefor, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Sodium phosphate is a key component of bowel preparation regimen for colon capsule endoscopy (CCE), but may cause serious complications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of Gastrografin, substituted for sodium phosphate, in CCE bowel preparation. Patients and methods: In total, 29 patients (median age 64 years; 23 females) underwent CCE, covered by the national health insurance system of Japan. All had a history of laparotomy and/or previously incomplete colonoscopy. On the day before examination, patients ingested 1 L of polyethylene glycol + ascorbic acid with 0.5 L of water in the evening, and again the same laxative on the morning of examination. After capsule ingestion, 50 mL of Gastrografin diluted with 0.9 L of magnesium citrate was administered, and then repeated after 1 hour. Results: The capsule excretion rate was 97 % (28/29). The median colon transit time was 2 hours 45 minutes and rapid transit (< 40 minutes) through the colon occurred in one patient (3.4 %). Bowel cleansing level was adequate in 90 % of patients. The polyp (≥ 6 mm) detection rate was 52 %. Diluted Gastrografin was well tolerated by patients. No adverse events occurred. Conclusion: Gastrografin can be an alternative to sodium phosphate in CCE bowel preparation regimen. PMID:26716132

  6. Lubiprostone--a novel treatment for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    PubMed

    Owen, Richard T

    2008-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, highly prevalent gastrointestinal motility disorder characterized by abdominal discomfort/pain associated with altered bowel habits such as diarrhea or constipation or both. Current therapy for the constipation-predominant form (IBS-C) comprises fiber or osmotic or stimulant laxatives. However, these may exacerbate the condition or cause electrolyte disturbances. Lubiprostone is a novel selective chloride channel-2 activator that increases fluid secretion in the intestinal apical cell membrane, increasing gut motility and frequency of stool passage, and alleviating abdominal discomfort/pain. Lubiprostone has very low systemic bioavailability and cannot be quantitated in blood, but its active metabolite, M3, has been pharmacokinetically profiled. Lubiprostone reaches peak plasma concentrations within approximately 1 h and has a half-life of 0.9-1.4 h. Despite this short half-life, lubiprostone can be administered orally twice daily. Its efficacy in IBS-C has been demonstrated in two phase III studies; spontaneous bowel movement frequency increased and stool consistency improved, whereas straining, bloating and severity of constipation decreased. The beneficial effects continued for up to 4 weeks after cessation of lubiprostone. Lubiprostone was well tolerated in the long-term, with nausea and diarrhea being the commonest adverse events. Further studies are ongoing in opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel therapies for constipation

    PubMed Central

    Thayalasekeran, Sreedhari; Ali, Hani; Tsai, Her-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Constipation is a common medical problem and when standard laxatives fail it can be difficult to treat. Different aetiologies require tailored therapeutic approaches. Simple constipation may only require dietary manipulation while severe neurological or slow transit constipation may need pharmacologic intervention. Recently new drug therapies have been introduced. PubMed and Ovid were searched for reviews, systematic reviews and meta-analysis published since 2003 using the terms: constipation, prucalopride, linaclotide and lubiprostone. This review summarizes potential novel therapies identified as effective in the management of chronic constipation. Prucalopride is a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist. The prucalopride study was in patients, largely women with idiopathic constipation showed improved spontaneous complete bowel movement (SCBM) at a dose of 2 mg a day with few adverse events reported. Linaclotide is a 14-amino acid peptide guanylate cyclase-C agonist. The linaclotide study was carried out in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, constipation group (IBS-C). There was significant improvement of bowel evacuation and symptom resolution in patients on the active treatment arm. Lubiprostone activates type-2 chloride channels, increasing intestinal fluid secretion. In the trials of this drug, the lubiprostone arms had a greater mean number of SCBM. The novel therapies, prucalopride, lubiprostone, and linaclotide had very different modes of action yet, all three have been shown to be efficacious and safe in the treatment dose for constipation. PMID:24363515

  8. In vitro screening for cestocidal activity of three species of Cassia plants against the tapeworm Raillietina tetragona.

    PubMed

    Kundu, S; Lyndem, L M

    2013-06-01

    Different species of Cassia plant are widely available in India and are commonly used either for their laxative, antimicrobial or antibacterial activity. In the present study the effectiveness in vitro of the crude alcoholic extracts of three species, namely Cassia alata, C. occidentalis and C. angustifolia, in the early paralysis and mortality of the fowl tapeworm Raillietina tetragona at concentrations ranging from 5 to 80 mg/ml was investigated. Time of paralysis and death were monitored frequently. Immediately after paralysis the tapeworms were processed for electron microscopic studies. While the untreated or control parasites survived for 81.93 ± 5.85 h, the parasites treated with C. alata took less time (1.68 ± 0.27 h) to be paralysed, followed by those treated with C. angustifolia (2.95 ± 0.29 h). Although C. occidentalis took more time (4.13 ± 0.31 h) to paralyse, in combination with either C. alata or C. angustifolia the time taken to paralyse became shorter. All the plant-treated parasites showed irrevocable changes in the scolex and proglottids as compared with the control, and these observations are comparable with those obtained with praziquantel. These results indicate that the three plants tested can be claimed to have anthelmintic activity in addition to their known properties, both when used individually and in combination. Further investigations will be required to evaluate their mechanism of action.

  9. Sex-specific issues in eating disorders: a clinical and psychopathological investigation.

    PubMed

    Valente, Stefano; Di Girolamo, Giulia; Forlani, Martina; Biondini, Anna; Scudellari, Paolo; De Ronchi, Diana; Atti, Anna Rita

    2017-12-01

    To highlight the characteristics of eating disorders (ED) in males, with particular attention to sex-related clinical features and psychiatric co-morbidities. Out of 280 persons, referred to our outpatients ED clinic between January 2011 and June 2014, 267 with complete information were included in this retrospective observational study. The men/women ratio was one to five (male 16.5% vs female 83.5%) with an increasing proportion of male patients over the years. The most frequent ED in males was binge eating disorder, whereas in females anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa prevailed. Excessive exercising and fasting were the most common compensation behaviours in males; while self-induced vomiting and laxative-diuretic abuse were more typical in females. Among women, the most represented psychiatric co-morbidities were mood and somatoform disorders, whereas among men, anxiety and psychosis spectrum disorders were the most frequent ones. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders were prevalent in female ED, while narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders prevailed in males. ED in men is a growing phenomenon. Male ED, compared to female ED, show differences in clinical presentation, symptoms and co-morbidities. Despite the use of clinical and psychometric evaluating tools targeting female patients, sex differences do exist and additional studies are required to investigate male specific issues in ED. Level of Evidence Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

  10. Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne

    2013-04-22

    The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known "prebiotics", "a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health." To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects.

  11. Fiber supplements and clinically proven health benefits: How to recognize and recommend an effective fiber therapy.

    PubMed

    Lambeau, Kellen V; McRorie, Johnson W

    2017-04-01

    Only 5% of adults consume the recommended level of dietary fiber. Fiber supplements appear to be a convenient and concentrated source of fiber, but most do not provide the health benefits associated with dietary fiber. This review will summarize the physical effects of isolated fibers in small and large intestines, which drive clinically meaningful health benefits. A comprehensive literature review was conducted (Scopus and PubMed) without limits to year of publication (latest date included: October 31, 2016). The physical effects of fiber in the small intestine drive metabolic health effects (e.g., cholesterol lowering, improved glycemic control), and efficacy is a function of the viscosity of gel-forming fibers (e.g., psyllium, β-glucan). In the large intestine, fiber can provide a laxative effect if (a) it resists fermentation to remain intact throughout the large intestine, and (b) it increases percentage of water content to soften/bulk stool (e.g., wheat bran and psyllium). It is important for nurse practitioners to understand the underlying mechanisms that drive specific fiber-related health benefits, and which fiber supplements have rigorous clinical data to support a recommendation. For most fiber-related beneficial effects, "Fiber needs to gel to keep your patients well." ©2017 The Authors. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. Living with constipation--older people's experiences and strategies with constipation before and during hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Munch, Lene; Tvistholm, Nina; Trosborg, Ingelise; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a common problem among older people. This study aimed to explore how older patients experience constipation and which strategies they used in handling the condition before and during hospitalization. A qualitative exploratory research design was used. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (61-91 years of age) during hospitalization. Data were analyzed by using content analysis. Themes concerning experiences were Bodily signs and symptoms of constipation; the participants described severe pain during constipation, as well as pronounced relief after bowel movements, Impact on well-being and social activities; being constipated negatively impacted their mood and limited social activities, Striving for bowel balance; the participants experienced an ongoing strive for balancing between constipation and diarrhea. Themes related to strategies were Struggling to find a solution; they were aware of different strategies to prevent and treat constipation, though the most common solution described was the use of laxatives, Wait and see; the participants were awaiting to take action until they experienced constipation symptoms, Constipation is a private problem being challenged during hospitalization; constipation was considered a private issue rarely discussed with health-care professionals. This study illuminates the need for health-care professionals to be attentive to this issue and initiate the conversation with patients in order to advise on the management of constipation.

  13. Duhamel operation for children with distal colonic dysmotility.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yew-Wei; Borrelli, Osvaldo; Lindley, Keith; Thapar, Nikhil; Curry, Joe

    2017-08-01

    To report outcomes of children with constipation refractory to medical management and manometrically proven distal colonic dysmotility, managed with rectosigmoidectomy followed by Duhamel operation (Duhamel). Children who underwent a Duhamel from 2009 onwards for intractable constipation and left colonic dysmotility were retrospectively reviewed. The primary end point was resolution of constipation, and secondary end point was postoperative complications. Continuous data were median (range). 11 patients (4 males) had Duhamel at 11 years (5-16) with constipation started from 2 years (1-8). Hirschsprung's disease was excluded. All Duhamels were performed with a covering ileostomy: 9 following a Hartmann procedure, one following a previously failed reversal of Hartmann, and one Duhamel performed with a pre-existing ileostomy. All ileostomies were subsequently closed. Median resection length was 22 cm (11-31). Length of stay was 8 days (5-23). Follow-up was 5 years (0.5-7). Age at final review was 15 years (10-18). Resolution of constipation occurred in nine patients (4 required antegrade continence enemas (ACE), 5 with laxative); two had persistent constipation and faecal incontinence despite ACE, ultimately requiring an ileostomy. Two postoperative small bowel obstructions required laparotomy. Duhamel performed in children with manometrically proven distal colonic dysmotility yielded 82% resolution of refractory constipation; half of them subsequently needed ACE.

  14. Incidence and predictors of new-onset constipation during acute hospitalisation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Lim, S-F; Ong, S Y; Tan, Y L; Ng, Y S; Chan, Y H; Childs, C

    2015-04-01

    We investigated new-onset constipation in patients with stroke compared with orthopaedic conditions and explored the predictors associated with constipation during acute hospitalisation. This was a prospective matched cohort study of 110 patients comparing stroke patients (n = 55) with orthopaedic patients (n = 55) admitted to a large tertiary acute hospital. Both cohorts were matched by age and sex. The incidence of new-onset constipation which occurred during a patient's acute hospitalisation was determined. Demographics, comorbidity, clinical factors, laboratory parameters and medications were evaluated as possible predictors of constipation. The incidence of new-onset constipation was high for both stroke (33%) and orthopaedic patients (27%; p = 0.66). Seven stroke patients (39%) and four orthopaedic patients (27%) developed their first onset of constipation on day 2 of admission. Mobility gains (RR 0.741, p < 0.001) and the use of prophylactic laxatives (RR 0.331, p < 0.01) had a protective effect against constipation. Bedpan use (RR 2.058, p < 0.05) and longer length of stay (RR 1.032, p < 0.05) increased the risk of developing new-onset constipation. New-onset constipation is common among patients admitted for stroke and orthopaedic conditions during acute hospitalisation. The early occurrence, on day 2 of admission, calls for prompt preventive intervention for constipation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) in the treatment of rectocele: personal experience].

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Alfredo; Cesaretti, Manuela; Tirone, Andrea; Vuolo, Giuseppe; Verre, Luigi; Savelli, Vinno; Piccolomini, Alessandro; Di Cosmo, Leonardo; Carli, Anton Ferdinando; Burroni, Mariagrazia; Pitzalis, Marcella

    2008-01-01

    Rectocele is an organic cause of chronic constipation, with a prevalence ranging from 8.95% to 12% in Europe and United States. Necessarily, the approach for rectocele repair is a surgical operation. Stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) is safe and effective in the treatment of obstructed defecation syndrome. The authors' experience suggests that the surgical operation needs to be combined to rehabilitation exercises, before and after the surgical treatment, in order to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic pavement. From January 2005 to January 2007, 20 patients with outlet obstruction underwent STARR. Patients were selected for operation based on a strict diagnostic protocol: anamnesis, clinical examination, coloproctological and urogynaecological examinations, defecography, anorectal manometry, transrectal ultrasonography and peritoneal electromyography. The therapeutic protocol consists of 3 parts: phase I: rehabilitation of the pelvic pavement; phase II: surgical operation; III phase: post-surgical rehabilitation of the pelvic pavement; The clinical result was classified into: excellent (6 patients), when all constipation symptoms disappeared, good (11 patients), when patient has 1 or 2 obstructed defecation episodes treated with a laxative, fairly good (2 patients), more than 2 episodes, and poor (1 patient), when surgical operation doesn't improve any of the symptoms. Our results, confirmed by the literature, suggest that Longo's technique should be considered as gold standard for rectocele treatment.

  16. Fiber supplements and clinically proven health benefits: How to recognize and recommend an effective fiber therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lambeau, Kellen V.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Only 5% of adults consume the recommended level of dietary fiber. Fiber supplements appear to be a convenient and concentrated source of fiber, but most do not provide the health benefits associated with dietary fiber. Purpose This review will summarize the physical effects of isolated fibers in small and large intestines, which drive clinically meaningful health benefits. Data sources A comprehensive literature review was conducted (Scopus and PubMed) without limits to year of publication (latest date included: October 31, 2016). Conclusions The physical effects of fiber in the small intestine drive metabolic health effects (e.g., cholesterol lowering, improved glycemic control), and efficacy is a function of the viscosity of gel‐forming fibers (e.g., psyllium, β‐glucan). In the large intestine, fiber can provide a laxative effect if (a) it resists fermentation to remain intact throughout the large intestine, and (b) it increases percentage of water content to soften/bulk stool (e.g., wheat bran and psyllium). Implications for practice It is important for nurse practitioners to understand the underlying mechanisms that drive specific fiber‐related health benefits, and which fiber supplements have rigorous clinical data to support a recommendation. Clinical pearl For most fiber‐related beneficial effects, “Fiber needs to gel to keep your patients well.” PMID:28252255

  17. [Dietary fiber: concept, classification and current indications].

    PubMed

    García Peris, P; Camblor Alvarez, M

    1999-05-01

    Fiber is a concept that refers to or encompasses several carbohydrates and lignine that resist hydrolysis by human digestive enzymes and that are fermented by the microflora of the colon. From a practical point of view, fibers can be divided into soluble and insoluble. There is general acceptance of the concepts soluble fiber, fermentable, viscous and insoluble fiber, and non-viscous and barely fermentable fiber. The physiological effects and therefore the clinical applications of both fibers are different. In general, the insoluble fiber is barely fermentable and has a marked laxative and intestinal regulatory effect. Soluble fiber is fermented to a high degree, showing a powerful trophic effect at the colon level. Soluble fiber is also attributed a positive role in the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism due to the effects that this has at the intestinal and the systemic level on the glucose and the cholesterol metabolism. The goal of this article is to review the current concept of fiber based on the existing bibliography (it is thought that perhaps the current classification should be changed and that fiber should be talked about depending on its degree of polymerization), its physiologic effects and the possible indications that this may have from a clinical point of view, be this at the level of oral or enteral nutrition.

  18. Efficacy and optimal dose of daily polyethylene glycol 3350 for treatment of constipation and encopresis in children.

    PubMed

    Pashankar, D S; Bishop, W P

    2001-09-01

    To determine efficacy, safety, and optimal dose of a laxative, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, in children with chronic constipation. Children with chronic constipation (n = 24) were treated with PEG for 8 weeks at an initial dose of 1 g/kg/d. The dose was adjusted every 3 days as required to achieve 2 soft stools per day. A diary was kept to monitor dose, stool frequency and consistency, soiling, and other symptoms. Stool consistency was rated from 1 (hard) to 5 (watery). Subjects were examined for fecal retention. The Student t test and the Fisher exact test were used for data analysis. All 20 children who completed the study found PEG to be palatable and were satisfied with the treatment. There were no significant adverse effects. Weekly stool frequency increased from 2.3 +/- 0.4 to 16.9 +/- 1.6 (P <.0001) during treatment and stool consistency from 1.2 +/- 0.1 to 3.3 +/- 0.1 (P <.0001). In 9 children with soiling, weekly soiling events declined from 10.0 +/- 2.4 to 1.3 +/- 0.7 (P =.003). The mean effective dose was 0.84 g/kg/d (range, 0.27-1.42 g/kg/d). Daily administration of PEG at a mean dose of 0.8 g/kg is an effective, safe, and palatable treatment for constipation.

  19. Sorbitol-based osmotic diarrhea: Possible causes and mechanism of prevention investigated in rats

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Sakaguchi, Ei

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the possible causes of sorbitol (S)-based diarrhea and its mechanism of reduction by rice gruel (RG) in cecectomized rats. METHODS: S was dissolved either in distilled water or in RG (50 g/L) and ingested as a single oral dose (1.2 g/kg body mass, containing 0.5 g/L phenol red as a recovery marker) by S (control) and S + RG groups (n = 7), respectively. This dose is over the laxative dose for humans. Animals were sacrificed exactly 1 h after dose ingestion, without any access to drinking water. The whole gastro-intestinal tract was divided into seven segments and sampled to analyze the S and marker remaining in its contents. RESULTS: Gastric-emptying and intestinal transit were comparatively slower in the S + RG group. Also, the S absorption index in the 3rd and last quarter of the small intestine (24.85 ± 18.88% vs 0.0 ± 0.0% and 39.09 ± 32.75% vs 0.0 ± 0.0%, respectively, P < 0.05) was significantly higher in the S + RG group than in the control group. The S absorption index and the intestinal fluid volume are inversely related to each other. CONCLUSION: The intestinal mal-absorption of S is the main reason for S-based osmotic diarrhea. Where RG enhanced the absorption of S through passive diffusion, the degree of diarrhea was reduced in cecectomized rats. PMID:17171792

  20. Double-blind prospective randomized study comparing polyethylene glycol to lactulose for bowel preparation in colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Menacho, Aline Moraes; Reimann, Adriano; Hirata, Lie Mara; Ganzerella, Caroline; Ivano, Flavio Heuta; Sugisawa, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Colonoscopy is the most frequent exam used to evaluate colonic mucosa, allowing the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The appropriate bowel preparation is indispensable for the realization of colonoscopy. Therefore, it is necessary the use of laxative medications, preferentially by oral administration. To compare two medications used in bowel preparation in adult patients going to ambulatory colonoscopy and to analyze the patients' profile. A double-blind prospective study with 200 patients, randomized in two groups: one that received polyethilene glycol and another that received lactulose. The patients answered to questionnaires to data compilation, as tolerance, symptoms and complications related to preparation. Besides, it was also evaluated the prepare efficacy related to the presence of fecal residue. Intestinal habit alterations and abdominal pain were the main reasons to realize the exams and hypertension was the most prevalent comorbidity. Ten percent of the ones who received lactulose didn't get to finish the preparation and 50% considered the taste "bad, but tolerable". The most common subjective symptom after the medication was nausea, especially after lactulose. During the exam, most of the patients who used lactulose had a "light discomfort" and the ones who used polyethilene glycol considered the discomfort as "tolerable". The quality of the preparation was good in 75%, undependable of the medication that was used. Polyethilene glycol was more tolerable when compared to lactulose, without difference on the quality of the preparation.

  1. DOUBLE-BLIND PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED STUDY COMPARING POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL TO LACTULOSE FOR BOWEL PREPARATION IN COLONOSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    MENACHO, Aline Moraes; REIMANN, Adriano; HIRATA, Lie Mara; GANZERELLA, Caroline; IVANO, Flavio Heuta; SUGISAWA, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Colonoscopy is the most frequent exam used to evaluate colonic mucosa, allowing the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The appropriate bowel preparation is indispensable for the realization of colonoscopy. Therefore, it is necessary the use of laxative medications, preferentially by oral administration. Aim To compare two medications used in bowel preparation in adult patients going to ambulatory colonoscopy and to analyze the patients' profile. Methods A double-blind prospective study with 200 patients, randomized in two groups: one that received polyethilene glycol and another that received lactulose. The patients answered to questionnaires to data compilation, as tolerance, symptoms and complications related to preparation. Besides, it was also evaluated the prepare efficacy related to the presence of fecal residue. Results Intestinal habit alterations and abdominal pain were the main reasons to realize the exams and hypertension was the most prevalent comorbidity. Ten percent of the ones who received lactulose didn't get to finish the preparation and 50% considered the taste "bad, but tolerable". The most common subjective symptom after the medication was nausea, especially after lactulose. During the exam, most of the patients who used lactulose had a "light discomfort" and the ones who used polyethilene glycol considered the discomfort as "tolerable". The quality of the preparation was good in 75%, undependable of the medication that was used. Conclusion Polyethilene glycol was more tolerable when compared to lactulose, without difference on the quality of the preparation. PMID:24676290

  2. Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known “prebiotics”, “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health.” To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects. PMID:23609775

  3. Predictors of initiation and persistence of recurrent binge eating and inappropriate weight compensatory behaviors in college men.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Clerici, Massimo; Caslini, Manuela; Gaudio, Santino; Serino, Silvia; Riva, Giuseppe; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The transition to college is considered as a risk period for the development of behavioral symptoms of eating disorders (BSEDs) and some evidence suggests that, amongst men, these symptoms occurring on a regular basis remain relatively stable over the college period. Nevertheless, little is known about factors associated with persistent engagement in and initiation of recurrent (or regular) binge eating and inappropriate weight compensatory behaviors in this population. The objective of this report was to address these research gaps. Data were examined from 2,555 male first-year college students who completed an assessment of potential vulnerability factors and BSEDs at the beginning of the autumn semester (baseline) and nine months later (end of the spring semester; follow-up). Elevated negative affectivity, body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, and lower self-esteem at baseline were predictive of persistent engagement in regular binge eating and four compensatory behaviors (self-induced vomiting, laxative/diuretic abuse, fasting, exercise) at follow-up, as well as initiation of all these behaviors occurring regularly (i.e., at least weekly for 3 months). Self-objectification (thinking and monitoring the body's outward appearance from a third-person perspective) emerged as the largest contributor of both the initiation and persistence of all behavioral symptoms. Data emphasize that the same psychological factors underlie initiation and persistence of recurrent BSEDs and should shape the focus of future interventions for college men. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:581-590). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. International bowel function basic spinal cord injury data set.

    PubMed

    Krogh, K; Perkash, I; Stiens, S A; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2009-03-01

    International expert working group. To develop an International Bowel Function Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on bowel function in daily practice or in research. Working group consisting of members appointed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS). A draft prepared by the working group was reviewed by Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, and later by ISCoS Scientific Committee and the ASIA Board. Relevant and interested scientific and professional (international) organizations and societies (approximately 40) were also invited to review the data set and it was posted on the ISCoS and ASIA websites for 3 months to allow comments and suggestions. The ISCoS Scientific Committee, Council and ASIA Board received the data set for final review and approval. The International Bowel Function Basic SCI Data Set includes the following 12 items: date of data collection, gastrointestinal or anal sphincter dysfunction unrelated to SCI, surgical procedures on the gastrointestinal tract, awareness of the need to defecate, defecation method and bowel care procedures, average time required for defecation, frequency of defecation, frequency of fecal incontinence, need to wear pad or plug, medication affecting bowel function/constipating agents, oral laxatives and perianal problems. An International Bowel Function Basic SCI Data Set has been developed.

  5. A 13-week oral toxicity study of senna in the rat with an 8-week recovery period.

    PubMed

    Mengs, U; Mitchell, J; McPherson, S; Gregson, R; Tigner, J

    2004-05-01

    Senna was administered by gavage to Sprague Dawley rats once daily at dose levels of 0, 100, 300, 750 or 1500 mg/kg for up to 13 consecutive weeks followed by an 8-week recovery period for selected animals. Dose- and treatment-related clinical signs included abnormal feces, which were seen to varying degrees from animals at 300 mg/kg per day and more. Animals receiving 750 or 1500 mg/kg per day had significantly reduced body weight gain (males only) and, related to the laxative properties of senna, increased water consumption and notable changes in electrolytes in both serum and urine. At both the terminal and recovery phase necropsy, an increase in absolute and relative kidney weights was seen for male and female animals receiving 750 and/or 1500 mg/kg per day. A dark discoloration of the kidneys was observed at necropsy along with histopathological changes in the kidneys (slight to moderate tubular basophilia and pigment deposits) at 300 mg/kg and above. However, there were no indications in laboratory parameters of any renal dysfunction. In addition, for all treated groups, minimal to slight hyperplasia was recorded in the forestomach and large intestine. Following 8 weeks of recovery, with the exception of the brown pigment in the kidneys, there were no histopathological abnormalities. Thus, the biochemical and morphological changes seen following 13 weeks of treatment of senna significantly reversed following 8 weeks of recovery.

  6. Influence of a highly purified senna extract on colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    van Gorkom, B A; Karrenbeld, A; van Der Sluis, T; Koudstaal, J; de Vries, E G; Kleibeuker, J H

    2000-01-01

    Chronic use of sennoside laxatives often causes pseudomelanosis coli. A recent study suggested that pseudomelanosis coli is associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. A single high dose of highly purified senna extract increased proliferation rate and reduced crypt length in the sigmoid colon compared to historical controls. To evaluate in a controlled study the effects of highly purified senna extract on cell proliferation and crypt length in the entire colon and on p53 and bcl-2 expression. Addition of a senna extract to colonic lavage was studied in 184 consecutive outpatients. From 32 randomised patients, 15 with sennosides (Sen), 17 without (NSen), biopsies were taken. Proliferative activity was studied in 4 areas of the colon, using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labelling and immunohistochemistry (labelling index, LI). Expression of p53 and bcl-2 in the sigmoid colon was determined immunohistochemically. Crypts were shorter in Sen than in NSen in the transverse and sigmoid colon. LI was higher in Sen than in NSen in the entire colon. No difference in p53 expression was seen. Bcl-2 expression was higher in both groups when crypts were shorter and/or proliferation was increased. Sennosides induce acute massive cell loss probably by apoptosis, causing shorter crypts, and increased cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis to restore cellularity. These effects may reflect the mechanism for the suggested cancer-promoting effect of chronic sennoside use. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Body weight perception, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and suicidal ideation among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal ideation among Korean adolescents. Data on BMI, BWP, UWCBs, and suicidal ideation were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, a school-based survey conducted on a nationally representative sample of students in grades 7-12 (36,463 boys and 33,433 girls). Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. BMI was significantly associated with both UWCB and suicidal ideation among boys and girls, even after controlling for covariates. However, the significance and magnitude of the association between BMI and UWCB were considerably attenuated when BWP was added to the model. When BWP was included, the association between overweight BMI status and suicidal ideation became nonsignificant in both sexes, whereas the association between underweight BMI status and suicidal ideation remained significant among boys. Adolescent boys and girls engaging in multiple UWCBs were at greater risk for experiencing suicidal thoughts. This study suggests that BWP represents a potential mediator between BMI and UWCB, and between BMI and suicidal ideation among both boys and girls. Thus, school programs addressing issues related to BWP should be developed and targeted at adolescents to reduce the potential risks for both UWCB and suicidal behavior.

  8. Female athlete triad screening in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes: is the preparticipation evaluation form effective?

    PubMed

    Mencias, Tara; Noon, Megan; Hoch, Anne Z

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the screening practices and preparticipation evaluation (PPE) forms used to identify college athletes at risk for the female athlete triad (triad). Phone and/or e-mail survey. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I universities. All 347 NCAA Division I universities were invited to participate in a survey, with 257 participating in the survey (74%) and 287 forms collected (83%). Information about the nature of the PPE was requested from team physicians and certified athletic trainers during a phone or e-mail survey. In addition, a copy of their PPE form was requested to evaluate for inclusion of the 12 items recommended by the Female Athlete Triad Coalition for primary screening for the triad. All 257 universities (100%) required a PPE for incoming athletes; however, only 83 universities (32%) required an annual PPE for returning athletes. Screening was performed on campus at 218 universities (85%). Eleven universities (4%) were using the recently updated fourth edition PPE. Only 25 universities (9%) had 9 or more of the 12 recommended items included in their forms, whereas 127 universities (44%) included 4 or less items. Relevant items that were omitted from more than 40% of forms included losing weight to meet the image requirements of a sport; using vomiting, diuretics, and/or laxatives to lose weight; and the number of menses experienced in the past 12 months. The current PPE forms used by NCAA Division I universities may not effectively screen for the triad.

  9. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes for children with constipation and encopresis.

    PubMed

    Loening-Baucke, Vera

    2002-04-01

    Children with functional constipation and encopresis benefit from behavior modification and from long-term laxative medication. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes has become the first option for many pediatric gastroenterologists. Twenty-eight children treated with polyethylene glycol without electrolytes were compared with 21 children treated with milk of magnesia to evaluate the efficiency, acceptability, side effects, and treatment dosage of polyethylene glycol in long-term treatment of functional constipation and encopresis. Children were rated as "doing well," "improved," or "not doing well," depending on resolution of constipation and encopresis. At the 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups, bowel movement frequency increased and soiling frequency decreased significantly in both groups. At the 1-month follow-up, children on polyethylene glycol were soiling more frequently (P < 0.01) and fewer were improved (P < 0.01). At the 3- and 6-month follow-ups, both groups had similarly improved. At the 12-month visit, 61% of children on polyethylene glycol and 67% of children on milk of magnesia were doing well. Children on polyethylene glycol soiled more frequently (P < 0.01). None refused polyethylene glycol, but 33% refused to take milk of magnesia. The mean initial treatment dosage of polyethylene glycol was 0.6 +/- 0.2 g/kg daily. Polyethylene glycol had no taste, and no loss of efficacy occurred. Polyethylene glycol did not cause clinically significant side effects. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes is an alternative for long-term management of children with constipation and encopresis.

  10. Barium enema in frail elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Segal, R; Khahil, A; Leibovitz, A; Gil, I; Annuar, M; Habot, B

    2000-01-01

    Barium enema (BE) examinations for the investigation of suspected colonic disease are often unsuccessful in elderly patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success rate of BE in hospitalized frail elderly patients. Four hundred and seventy-two elderly patients hospitalized for different reasons underwent BE examinations. The medical charts and radiological reports were retrospectively reviewed. One hundred and ninety-two (41%) BE examinations were considered inadequate; mostly (32%) because of inappropriate preparation. Sixty-seven patients (14%) were not cooperative and could not retain the contrast material, and in 25 patients (5%), the examination failed due to both these reasons. The characteristics associated with unsuccessful BE examination were the mean number of medical problems (p < 0.001), the mean number of scheduled medications (p < 0.05) and in particular the long-term use of laxatives (p < 0.01) or antiparkinsonian drugs (p < 0.01). Of great significance in predicting an inadequate BE were the patient's functional status (p < 0.001) and the presence of dementia (p < 0.001). The high percentage of unsuccessful BEs in the frail elderly suggests that clinicians should carefully consider the need for that examination in these patients. We suggest that only in patients where there is a clear suspicion of a bleeding or obstructing tumor should a BE examination be performed, and even in these cases, colonoscopy or CT may be preferable as the initial examination in the frail elderly. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. [Analysis of phenylethanoid glycosides of Herba cistanchis by RP-HPLC].

    PubMed

    Tu, P F; Wang, B; Deyama, T; Zhang, Z G; Lou, Z C

    1997-04-01

    The Chinese drug "Rou Cong-rong" (Herba Cistanchis) is one of the commonly used drugs in Chinese traditional medicine. It is used to reinforce the vital function of kidney, especially that of the sexual organs and induce laxation, for the treatment of impotence, premature ejaculation in men, infertility, morbid leukorrhea, profuse metrorrhagia in women, and chronic constipation in the aged. This paper deals with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenylethanoid glycosides of four species and one variety of Genus Cistanche and 23 lots of commercial crude drugs of Herba Cistanchis by RP-HPLC. The results were as follows: the chemical constituents of Cistanche deserticola Ma, C. salsa (C. A. Mey) G. Beck, C. salsa var. albiflora P. F. Tu et Z. C. Lou and C. tubulosa were similar while those of C. sinensis were different from the others; the contents of echinacoside and acteoside of C. salsa, which were 2.13% and 1.51%, were the highest of the genus Cistanche. An ODS column (Alltima C18, 5 microns, 250 x 4.6 mm) was employed. Linear gradient elution of acetonitrile--1.5% acetic acid was used as mobile phase, and concentration of acetontrile was from 8% to 20% (0-60 min) in the qualitative analysis, and from 11.5 to 20% (0-35 min) in the quantitative analysis. The flow rate was 1.2 ml.min-1. The detection wavelength was set at 335 nm.

  12. [Development of a pre-dehydration assessment sheet: Research among elderly individuals who regularly visited an elderly-care institution].

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hideki; Akiyama, Masako; Gomi, Ikuko; Kimura, Mamiko

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we defined the state of pre-dehydration (PD) as the suspected loss of body fluids, not accompanied by subjective symptoms, where the serum osmotic pressure ranges from 292 to 300 mOsm/kg・H2O. The goal of this study was to develop a PD assessment sheet based on the results of sensitivity and specificity testing among elderly individuals. We evaluated the serum osmotic pressure in 70 subjects >65 years of age who regularly visited an elderly-care institution. We then determined the associations between the serum osmotic pressure and various dehydration-related diagnostic factors identified in our previous study. Risk factors for dehydration were evaluated using a logistic regression analysis and allotted points according to the odds ratio. PD was confirmed in 15 subjects (21.4%) using measurements of the serum osmotic pressure. We developed a PD assessment sheet that consisted of six items: (1) Female gender (4 points), (2) BMI≥25 kg/m2 (5 points), (3) Diuretics (6 points), (4) Laxatives (2 points), (5) Dry skin (2 points) and (6) A desire to consume cold drinks or foods (2 points). The cutoff value at which the risk of PD was high was set at 9 points (total of 21 points) (sensitivity 0.73, specificity 0.82; P<0.001). In this study, we found that 21.4% of the elderly subjects had PD. Using these data, we developed an effective noninvasive tool for detecting PD among elderly individuals.

  13. Survey of contemporary feeding practices in critically ill children in the Asia-Pacific and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Wong, Judith J M; Ong, Chengsi; Han, Wee Meng; Mehta, Nilesh M; Lee, Jan Hau

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition is a fundamental component of care of critically ill children. Determining variation in nutritional practices within paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) allows for review and improvement of nutrition practices. The aim was to survey the nutrition practices and perspectives of paediatric intensivists and dieticians in Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. A questionnaire was developed to collect data on (1) the respondent's and institution's characteristics, (2) nutritional assessments and nutrient delivery practices, and (3) the perceived importance and barriers to optimal enteral feeding in the PICU. We analysed 47 responses from 35 centres in 18 different countries. Dedicated dietetic services were only present in 13 (37%) centres and regular nutrition assessments were conducted in only 12 (34%) centres. In centres with dedicated dieticians, we found greater use of carbohydrate, fat additives and special formulas. Two thirds [31 (66%)] of respondents used total fluids to estimate energy requirements. Only 11 (31%) centres utilized feeding protocols. These centres had higher use of small bowel feeding, acid suppressants, laxatives and gastric residual volume thresholds. When dealing with feed intolerance, they were also more likely to start a motility agent. There was also a lack of consensus on when feeding should start and the use of adjuncts. Nutrition practices and barriers are unique in Asia-Pacific and the Middle East and strongly reflect a lack of dietetic services. Future effort should focus on developing a uniform approach on nutrition practices to drive paediatric critical care nutrition research in these regions.

  14. Botulinum toxin, a new treatment modality for chronic idiopathic constipation in children: long-term follow-up of a double-blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Keshtgar, Alireza S; Ward, Harry C; Sanei, Ahmad; Clayden, Graham S

    2007-04-01

    Myectomy of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) has been performed on some children after failure of medical treatment to treat idiopathic constipation. The aim of this study was to compare botulinum toxin injection with myectomy of the IAS in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation and soiling in children. This was a double-blind randomized trial. Patients between 4 and 16 years old were included in the study if they had failed to respond to laxative treatment and anal dilatation for chronic idiopathic constipation. All study patients had anorectal manometry and anal endosonography under ketamine anesthesia. Outcome was measured using a validated symptom severity (SS) scoring system, with scores ranging from 0 to 65. Of 42 children, 21 were randomized to the botulinum group and 21 were randomized to the myectomy group. At the 3-month follow-up, the median preoperative SS score improved from 34 (range = 19-47) to 20 (range = 2-43) in the botulinum group (P < .001) and from 31 (range = 18-49) to 19 (range = 3-47) in the myectomy group (P < .002). At the 12-month follow-up, the scores were 19 (range = 0-45) and 14.5 (range = 0-41) for the botulinum group and the myectomy group, respectively (P < .0001). There was no complication in both groups. Botulinum toxin is equally effective as and less invasive than myectomy of the IAS for chronic idiopathic constipation and fecal incontinence in children.

  15. The Mexican consensus on chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Remes-Troche, J M; Coss-Adame, E; Lopéz-Colombo, A; Amieva-Balmori, M; Carmona Sánchez, R; Charúa Guindic, L; Flores Rendón, R; Gómez Escudero, O; González Martínez, M; Icaza Chávez, M E; Morales Arámbula, M; Schmulson, M; Tamayo de la Cuesta, J L; Valdovinos, M Á; Vázquez Elizondo, G

    Significant advances have been made in the knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic constipation, since the publication of the 2011 guidelines on chronic constipation diagnosis and treatment in Mexico from the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. To present a consensus review of the current state of knowledge about chronic constipation, providing updated information and integrating the new scientific evidence. Three general coordinators reviewed the literature published within the time frame of January 2011 and January 2017. From that information, 62 initial statements were formulated and then sent to 12 national experts for their revision. The statements were voted upon, using the Delphi system in 3 voting rounds (2 electronic and one face-to-face). The statements were classified through the GRADE system and those that reached agreement >75% were included in the consensus. The present consensus is made up of 42 final statements that provide updated knowledge, supplementing the information that had not been included in the previous guidelines. The strength of recommendation and quality (level) of evidence were established for each statement. The current definitions of chronic constipation, functional constipation, and opioid-induced constipation are given, and diagnostic strategies based on the available diagnostic methods are described. The consensus treatment recommendations were established from evidence on the roles of diet and exercise, fiber, laxatives, new drugs (such as prucalopride, lubiprostone, linaclotide, plecanatide), biofeedback therapy, and surgery. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  16. Dietary Fiber Future Directions: Integrating New Definitions and Findings to Inform Nutrition Research and Communication12

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Julie Miller

    2013-01-01

    The CODEX Alimentarius definition of dietary fiber includes all nondigestible carbohydrate polymers with a degree of polymerization of 3 or more as dietary fiber with the proviso that they show health benefits. The global definition, if accepted by all authoritative bodies, offers a chance for international harmonization in research, food composition tables, and food labeling. Its nonacceptance highlights problems that may develop when definitions vary by region. The definition requires that the research community agrees upon physiological effects for which there is substantial scientific agreement, e.g., fibers’ effects on laxation and gut health, on attenuating blood lipids and blood glucose and insulin, and in promoting fermentation in the large bowel. The definition also necessitates the delineation of research protocols to prove the benefits of various isolated and synthesized fibers. These should emanate from evidence-based reviews that fairly weigh epidemiological data while considering that added fibers are not reflected in many food composition databases. They then should include well-controlled, randomized, control trials and utilize animal studies to determine mechanisms. Agreement on many study variables such as the type of subject and the type of baseline diet that best fits the question under investigation will also be needed. Finally, the definition establishes that all types of fiber can address the severe fiber consumption gap that exists throughout the world by recognizing that the combination of fiber-rich and -fortified foods increases fiber intake while allowing consumers to stay within allowed energy levels. PMID:23319118

  17. The "body packer syndrome"-toxicity following ingestion of illicit drugs packaged for transportation.

    PubMed

    Wetli, C V; Mittlemann, R E

    1981-07-01

    Ten fatalities and one survivor of attempts to smuggle cocaine within the body were investigated. Most cases have occurred since 1979. All but one of the victims were male. Victims found dead at home or in hotel rooms had little or no drug paraphernalia at the scene, although abundant laxatives and enema apparatus were often evident. Some died aboard aircraft, and witnesses described agitated behavior followed by grand-mal type seizures, respiratory collapse, and death. Seven victims presented to hospital emergency rooms. The symptoms include mydriasis, seizures, acute toxic psychosis, and coma in various combinations. One individual, realizing his plight, sought emergency room help by claiming he attempted suicide by using cocaine. All victims had recently returned to the United States on flights from South America. Balloons, condoms, or plastic bags filled with 3 to 6 g of cocaine each were swallowed and found in the gastrointestinal tract of eight victims. One of these had ingested more than 147 packets totaling 460 g. Two victims inserted packets of cocaine into their rectums, and one woman was found with nearly 170 g of cocaine in her vagina. The packets, being semipermeable membranes, do not have to break open to cause death from acute cocaine toxicity. Characteristic autopsy and radiologic findings, circumstances of death, and toxicologic data are presented. The "body packer syndrome" should be considered in any international traveler who dies suddenly, has seizures, or presents with any signs consistent with cocaine toxicity.

  18. [The Effectiveness of Abdominal Massage on Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzu-Jung; Lin, Chiu-Chu; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2017-02-01

    Neurogenic bowel dysfunction is a common comorbidity in spinal cord injury patients that may result in fecal incontinence. Abdominal massage is one intestinal training method that is used to improve bowel movement and defecation. To review the effectiveness of abdominal massage on neurogenic bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. A systematic review of Chinese and English-language articles was performed in six databases using the following key words: spinal cord injury, abdominal massage, neurogenic bowel dysfunction, and bowel training. Relevant studies published prior to June 2016 that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected. The Downs and Black scale was used to appraise the quality of each of the included studies. Eight studies were included in the final analysis. Four of these studies indicated that abdominal massage significantly improved bowel functions and the regularity and frequency of bowel movements. Although two of the studies indicated that abdominal massage significantly reduced the use of glycerin and laxatives, the remaining six did not. The eight studies earned respective quality scores ranging between 13 and 25. The current literature lacks consensus on the efficacy of abdominal massage in terms of improving bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injuries. Future studies should use more stringent experimental designs such as randomized controlled studies to explore the correlations among massage time and frequency and bowel function improvements in order to provide guidelines for clinical care applications.

  19. The key to unlocking the virtual body: virtual reality in the treatment of obesity and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2011-03-01

    Obesity and eating disorders are usually considered unrelated problems with different causes. However, various studies identify unhealthful weight-control behaviors (fasting, vomiting, or laxative abuse), induced by a negative experience of the body, as the common antecedents of both obesity and eating disorders. But