Science.gov

Sample records for layer growth kinetics

  1. The kinetic boundary layer around an absorbing sphere and the growth of small droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, M.E.; Titulaer, U.M. )

    1989-06-01

    Deviations from the classical Smoluchowski expression for the growth rate of a droplet in a supersaturated vapor can be expected when the droplet radius is not large compared to the mean free path of a vapor molecule. The growth rate then depends significantly on the structure of the kinetic boundary layer around a sphere. The authors consider this kinetic boundary layer for a dilute system of Brownian particles. For this system a large class of boundary layer problems for a planar wall have been solved. They show how the spherical boundary layer can be treated by a perturbation expansion in the reciprocal droplet radius. In each order one has to solve a finite number of planar boundary layer problems. The first two corrections to the planar problem are calculated explicitly. For radii down to about two velocity persistence lengths (the analog of the mean free path for a Brownian particle) the successive approximations for the growth rate agree to within a few percent. A reasonable estimate of the growth rate for all radii can be obtained by extrapolating toward the exactly known value at zero radius. Kinetic boundary layer effects increase the time needed for growth from 0 to 10 (or 2{1/2}) velocity persistence lengths by roughly 35% (or 175%).

  2. The Powder-Pack Nitriding Process: Growth Kinetics of Nitride Layers on Pure Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Silva, I.; Ortiz-Dominguez, M.; Elias-Espinosa, M.; Vega-Morón, R. C.; Bravo-Bárcenas, D.; Figueroa-López, U.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the growth kinetics of nitride layers that develop during the powder-pack nitriding process on the surface of ARMCO pure iron was estimated. The powder-pack nitriding of pure iron was performed according to the Pulnieren© (H.E.F. Durferrit) method using a "Pulnier" powder and an activator, at 798-848 K with different exposure times (2-12 h) for each temperature. In addition, for the entire set of nitriding conditions, three different activator/"Pulnier" powder ratios (0.20, 0.25, and 0.35) were used to evaluate the activation level during the growth of nitride layers. The kinetics of the nitride layers over the surface of ARMCO pure iron were estimated by two mathematical approaches, that consider the mass balance equations at the growth interphases. The resulting expressions for the effective diffusion coefficients in the nitride layers were evaluated as a function of nitriding temperatures and activator/"Pulnier" powder ratio. Finally, based on the experimental parameters ascribed to the powder-pack nitriding process, two expressions were proposed to estimate the nitride layer thicknesses at 798 and 823 K after 9 h of exposure for each temperature, to validate the diffusion models used in this work.

  3. Growth kinetics of cubic carbide free layers in graded cemented carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liu-Yong; Liu, Yi-Min; Huang, Ji-Hua; Zhang, Shou-Quan; Zhao, Xing-Ke

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the formation mechanism of cubic carbide free layers (CCFL), graded cemented carbides with CCFL in the surface zone were fabricated by a one-step sintering procedure in vacuum, and the analysis on microstructure and element distribution were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA), respectively. A new physical model and kinetic equation were established based on experimental results. Being different from previous models, this model suggests that nitrogen diffusion outward is only considered as an induction factor, and the diffusion of titanium through liquid phase plays a dominative role. The driving force of diffusion is expressed as the differential value between nitrogen partial pressure and nitrogen equilibrium pressure essentially. Simulation results by the kinetic equation are in good agreement with experimental values, and the effect of process parameters on the growth kinetics of CCFL can also be explained reasonably by the current model.

  4. From atoms to layers: in situ gold cluster growth kinetics during sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Buffet, Adeline; Körstgens, Volker; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Schlage, Kai; Benecke, Gunthard; Perlich, Jan; Rawolle, Monika; Rothkirch, André; Heidmann, Berit; Herzog, Gerd; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Röhlsberger, Ralf; Gehrke, Rainer; Stribeck, Norbert; Roth, Stephan V.

    2013-05-01

    The adjustment of size-dependent catalytic, electrical and optical properties of gold cluster assemblies is a very significant issue in modern applied nanotechnology. We present a real-time investigation of the growth kinetics of gold nanostructures from small nuclei to a complete gold layer during magnetron sputter deposition with high time resolution by means of in situ microbeam grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (μGISAXS). We specify the four-stage growth including their thresholds with sub-monolayer resolution and identify phase transitions monitored in Yoneda intensity as a material-specific characteristic. An innovative and flexible geometrical model enables the extraction of morphological real space parameters, such as cluster size and shape, correlation distance, layer porosity and surface coverage, directly from reciprocal space scattering data. This approach enables a large variety of future investigations of the influence of different process parameters on the thin metal film morphology. Furthermore, our study allows for deducing the wetting behavior of gold cluster films on solid substrates and provides a better understanding of the growth kinetics in general, which is essential for optimization of manufacturing parameters, saving energy and resources.The adjustment of size-dependent catalytic, electrical and optical properties of gold cluster assemblies is a very significant issue in modern applied nanotechnology. We present a real-time investigation of the growth kinetics of gold nanostructures from small nuclei to a complete gold layer during magnetron sputter deposition with high time resolution by means of in situ microbeam grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (μGISAXS). We specify the four-stage growth including their thresholds with sub-monolayer resolution and identify phase transitions monitored in Yoneda intensity as a material-specific characteristic. An innovative and flexible geometrical model enables the extraction

  5. From atoms to layers: in situ gold cluster growth kinetics during sputter deposition.

    PubMed

    Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Buffet, Adeline; Körstgens, Volker; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Schlage, Kai; Benecke, Gunthard; Perlich, Jan; Rawolle, Monika; Rothkirch, André; Heidmann, Berit; Herzog, Gerd; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Röhlsberger, Ralf; Gehrke, Rainer; Stribeck, Norbert; Roth, Stephan V

    2013-06-07

    The adjustment of size-dependent catalytic, electrical and optical properties of gold cluster assemblies is a very significant issue in modern applied nanotechnology. We present a real-time investigation of the growth kinetics of gold nanostructures from small nuclei to a complete gold layer during magnetron sputter deposition with high time resolution by means of in situ microbeam grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (μGISAXS). We specify the four-stage growth including their thresholds with sub-monolayer resolution and identify phase transitions monitored in Yoneda intensity as a material-specific characteristic. An innovative and flexible geometrical model enables the extraction of morphological real space parameters, such as cluster size and shape, correlation distance, layer porosity and surface coverage, directly from reciprocal space scattering data. This approach enables a large variety of future investigations of the influence of different process parameters on the thin metal film morphology. Furthermore, our study allows for deducing the wetting behavior of gold cluster films on solid substrates and provides a better understanding of the growth kinetics in general, which is essential for optimization of manufacturing parameters, saving energy and resources.

  6. Layer-by-layer deposition on a heterogeneous surface: Effect of sorption kinetics on the growth of polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    PubMed

    Bellanger, Hervé; Casdorff, Kirstin; Muff, Livius F; Ammann, Rebecca; Burgert, Ingo; Michen, Benjamin

    2017-08-15

    Surface functionalization by means of controlled deposition of charged polymers or nanoparticles using the layer-by-layer (LbL) approach has been used to modify mostly engineered materials with well-defined surface chemistry and morphology. In this regard, natural and inhomogeneous interfaces have gained very little attention. Furthermore, natural substrates are susceptible to alterations by factors commonly used to control the growth of multilayers, such as pH, temperature and ionic strength. Here, we study the impact of sorption kinetics of a bilayer system (Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and Poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)) on a natural heterogeneous wood surface at neutral pH, without salt addition, on the multilayer buildup. To overcome analytical limitations we introduce a complementary approach based on UV reflectance spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and zeta potential measurements. Compared to immersion times used for ideal substrates, we found that a high surface coverage requires relatively long immersion, approximately 30min, into polyelectrolyte solutions, while a sufficient removal of polyelectrolyte excess during the washing step, requires even longer, about 100min. Based on these findings, we show that film growth can be controlled kinetically. Long immersion times provide well-defined and regular multilayers. The obtained data points to specific requirements to be considered when LbL treatments are applied to rough, porous and heterogeneous surfaces, and thereby sets a basis for a successful transfer of various surface functionalization approaches already shown on ideal surfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Distinct Cloud Droplet Growth Kinetics Observed Above the Marine Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruehl, C. R.; Chuang, P. Y.; Nenes, A.

    2007-12-01

    The influence of aerosols on cloud properties is an important modulator of the climate system, and remains one of the most uncertain components of the anthropogenic influence on the radiative budget of the atmosphere. Traditional Kohler theory predicts the ability of an atmospheric particle of known size and composition to act as a cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) at equilibrium. However, it is not known to what extent particles exist in the atmosphere that may be prevented from acting as CCN by kinetic limitations. We measured the rate of cloud droplet formation at various sites across the United States during the summer of 2006. Our results suggested that kinetically-limited drops, with apparent mass accommodation coefficients (α) up to 10× lower than those observed for lab-generated ammonium sulfate particles, may be prevalent in the free troposphere. Here we report the results of similar measurements made in 2007 at a high-elevation site near the California coast that is typically above the marine boundary layer. We found that the ambient aerosol at this site was an external mixture of particles with distinct growth kinetics: approximately 50% of the time, we observed two or more modes in the α spectrum. The slower mode typically contained 25% to 50% of the total CCN at ~0.4% supersaturation. These results cannot be explained without incorporating kinetic effects into Kohler theory. By varying the chamber parameters (supersaturation ratio, residence time), we determine whether these kinetic limitations are more consistent with a model of lower α or a delay to activation.

  8. Synthesis of Graphene Layers from Metal-Carbon Melts: Nucleation and Growth Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Shaahin

    A new method for growth of large-area graphene, which can lead to a scalable low-cost high-throughput production technology, was demonstrated. The method is based on growing of graphene films on the surface of metal-carbon melts and involves dissolving carbon in a molten metal at a specified temperature and then allowing the dissolved carbon to nucleate and grow on top of the melt at a lower temperature. The synthesized graphene layers were subjected to detailed microscopic and Raman spectroscopic characterizations. The deconvolution of the Raman 2D band was used to accurately determine the number of atomic planes in the resulting graphene layers and access their quality. The results indicated that the technology can provide bulk graphite films, few-layer graphene as well as high-quality single layer graphene on metals. It was also shown that upon cooling of supersaturated metal-carbon melts; graphite would also grow inside the melt either with flake or sphere morphology, depending on the solidification rate and degree of supersaturation. At small solidification rates, graphite crystals are normally bounded by faceted low index basal and prismatic planes which grow by lateral movement of ledges produced by 2D-nucleation or dislocations. At higher growth rates, however, both interfaces become kinetically rough, and growth becomes limited by diffusion of carbon to the growing interface. The roughening transition from faceted to non-faceted was found to depend on the driving force and nature of growing plane. Due to high number of C-C dangling bonds in prismatic face, its roughening transition occurs at smaller driving forces. At intermediate rates, the prismatic interfaces become rough and grow faster while the basal plane is still faceted, leading to formation of flake graphite. At higher growth rates, both interfaces grow with a relatively similar rate leading to initiation of graphite sphere formation, which later grows by a multi-stage growth mechanism. An

  9. Accelerated kinetics and mechanism of growth of boride layers on titanium under isothermal and cyclic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Biplab

    2011-12-01

    The tendency of titanium (Ti) and its alloys to wear, gall and seize during high contact stresses between sliding surfaces severely limits their applications in bearings, gears etc. One way to mitigate these problems is to modify their surfaces by applying hard and wear resistant surface coatings. Boriding, which involves solid state diffusion of boron (B) into Ti, thereby forming hard surface layers consisting of TiB2 and TiB compounds has been shown to produce extremely high wear resistant surfaces in Ti and its alloys. The growth kinetics of these layers are, however, limited by the low diffusivities of B in the high melting TiB2 and TiB compounds. On the basis of the fact that HCP metals such as Ti show enhanced (anomalous) self-diffusion near the phase transition temperature, the first hypothesis of this work has been that the diffusivity enhancement should cause rapid ingress of B atoms, thereby accelerating the growth of the hard boride layers. Isothermal boriding experiments were performed close to phase transition temperature (890, 910, and 915°C) for time periods ranging from 3 to 24 hours. It was found that indeed a much deeper growth of TiB into the Ti substrate (˜75 mum) occurred at temperatures very close to the transition temperature (910°C), compared to that obtained at 1050°C. A diffusion model based on error-function solutions of Fick's second law was developed to quantitatively illustrate the combined effects of the normal B diffusion in the TiB phase and the anomalous B diffusion in Ti phase in accelerating TiB layer growth. Furthermore, isothermal boriding experiments close to transition temperature (900°C) for a period of 71 hours resulted in coating thickness well above 100 mum, while at 1050°C, the layer growth saturated after about 24 hours of treatment time. In the second part of this work, a novel approach named "cyclic-phase-changediffusion, (CPCD)," to create deeper TiB2 and TiB coating layers on CP-Ti by cyclic thermal processing

  10. Simulation of the growth kinetics of boride layers formed on Fe during gas boriding in H2-BCl3 atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulka, M.; Makuch, N.; Pertek, A.; Małdziński, L.

    2013-03-01

    The modeling of the boriding kinetics is considered as a necessary tool to select the suitable process parameters for obtaining boride layer of an adequate thickness. Therefore, the simulation of the growth kinetics of boride layers has gained much attention for last years. The majority of the published works described the kinetics of the pack-boriding or paste-boriding. In this study, the model of growth kinetics of two-phase boride layer (FeB+Fe2B) on pure Fe was proposed for gas boriding. Displacements of the two interfaces (FeB/Fe2B and Fe2B/substrate) resulted from a difference of the arrival flux of interstitial boron atoms to one phase and the departure flux of the boron atoms from this phase to the second phase. The mass balance equations were formulated. The measurements of thickness of both zones (FeB and Fe2B), for different temperature of boriding, were used for calculations. Based on the experimental data, the parabolic growth constants AFeB and B versus the temperature of boriding were determined. The linear relationships were accepted. As a consequence, the activation energies (QFeB and Q) were calculated. The calculated values were comparable to other data derived from gas boriding. The presented model can predict the thicknesses of the FeB and Fe2B zones (XFeB and Y, respectively) formed on pure Fe during gas boriding. Additionally, the diffusion annealing after boriding was analyzed. This process was carried out in order to obtain a single-phase boride layer (Fe2B). The relationship between the reduction in FeB zone (dXFeB) and the growth in Fe2B phase (dY) was determined. The time tXFeB=0, needed for the total elimination of FeB phase in the boride layer was calculated and compared to the experimental data.

  11. Growth Kinetics in Epitaxial Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessinger, Uwe

    Growth kinetics in heteroepitaxial growth are related to the nucleation and growth of atomic-height islands during the deposition of a material on a dissimilar substrate. Experimental measurements of the initial morphology of CaF_2 films deposited on Si(111) substrates were performed. These measurements consisted of photoemission spectroscopy and diffraction, which give sub-nanometer scale information averaged over the entire sample, and plan-view transmission electron microscopy, which gives localized information on a scale of several nanometers. These results, combined with others in the literature, revealed four distinct growth morphologies dependent on the deposition rate, substrate temperature and spacing between atomic-height steps on the surface, two of which had not been previously explained. A model based on two extant theories of homoepitaxial growth kinetics was developed to explain the different observed growth morphologies for the heteroepitaxial system CaF_2/Si(111). The first theory deals with whether the initial nucleation will occur at substrate steps or through adatom collisions on flat terraces, while the second deals with the nucleation of subsequent layers as these initial atomic islands increase in size. In extending these theories to heteroepitaxy, very different rates of upper-layer nucleation for the different size islands that nucleated at steps and on terraces are predicted. By applying this theory to CaF_2/Si(111), the diffusion barriers for CaF_2 molecule migration both on the reacted Si-Ca-F interface layer and on subsequent CaF_2 layers was extracted. The four different growth morphologies are explained within a common framework. The theory is quite general, and should apply to most heteroepitaxial systems. These theories were extended to predict a means by which the upper-layer nucleation may be inhibited while the underlying layer is completed. This method involves initiating the growth at conditions favoring many, small islands on

  12. Microstructure, Growth Kinetics and Some Mechanical Properties of Boride Layers Produced on Pure Titanium by Molten-Salt Boriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L. S.; Duan, Y. H.; Li, P.

    2017-08-01

    To modify the surface properties of pure titanium, boride layers had been fabricated by the boron molten-salt diffusion on pure titanium surfaces in the temperature range of 900-1100 °C for 5- to 30-h treatments. The results demonstrated that the boride layers were mainly composed of TiB whiskers and TiB2 layers without the rutile titanium oxide TiO2. Two diffusion models were introduced to model the growth kinetics of boride layers. The parabolic growth constants and the boron diffusion coefficients were obtained. The boron activation energies for TiB2 and TiB were 225.617 and 165.266 kJ mol-1, respectively. The surface microhardness of the borided titanium decreased with the increase in distance from the surface. The results of wear tests indicated that the wear properties had been improved significantly compared to the pure titanium under dry sliding conditions.

  13. Nonlinear Response of Layer Growth Dynamics in the Mixed Kinetics-Bulk-Transport Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vekilov, Peter G.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1996-01-01

    In situ high-resolution interferometry on horizontal facets of the protein lysozyme reveal that the local growth rate R, vicinal slope p, and tangential (step) velocity v fluctuate by up to 80% of their average values. The time scale of these fluctuations, which occur under steady bulk transport conditions through the formation and decay of step bunches (macrosteps), is of the order of 10 min. The fluctuation amplitude of R increases with growth rate (supersaturation) and crystal size, while the amplitude of the v and p fluctuations changes relatively little. Based on a stability analysis for equidistant step trains in the mixed transport-interface-kinetics regime, we argue that the fluctuations originate from the coupling of bulk transport with nonlinear interface kinetics. Furthermore, step bunches moving across the interface in the direction of or opposite to the buoyancy-driven convective flow increase or decrease in height, respectively. This is in agreement with analytical treatments of the interaction of moving steps with solution flow. Major excursions in growth rate are associated with the formation of lattice defects (striations). We show that, in general, the system-dependent kinetic Peclet number, Pe(sub k) , i.e., the relative weight of bulk transport and interface kinetics in the control of the growth process, governs the step bunching dynamics. Since Pe(sub k) can be modified by either forced solution flow or suppression of buoyancy-driven convection under reduced gravity, this model provides a rationale for the choice of specific transport conditions to minimize the formation of compositional inhomogeneities under steady bulk nutrient crystallization conditions.

  14. Modified growth kinetics of ion induced yttrium--silicide layers during subsequent thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, T.L.; Mayer, J.W. )

    1991-12-02

    Yttrium and amorphous silicon bilayers were irradiated with 600-keV inert ions between {minus}190 and 265 {degree}C. Ion-induced YSi{sub 1.7} layers occurred in those samples irradiated above {ge} (R18)205 {degree}C. These ion-mixed samples were thermally annealed at temperatures between 325 and 380 {degree}C. The diffusion-limited growth was observed only in those samples which had an ion-induced YSi{sub 1.7} layer present prior to thermal annealing. This type of growth is distinctly different from the interface limited, nonuniform, and irreproducible growth seen during typical thermal annealing of yttrium and silicon bilayers. This type of growth still occurred in those samples annealed after ion irradiations at {le}190 {degree}C.

  15. Influence of C60 co-deposition on the growth kinetics of diindenoperylene-From rapid roughening to layer-by-layer growth in blended organic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorch, C.; Novák, J.; Banerjee, R.; Weimer, S.; Dieterle, J.; Frank, C.; Hinderhofer, A.; Gerlach, A.; Carla, F.; Schreiber, F.

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the growth of the two phase-separating materials diindenoperylene (DIP) and buckminsterfullerene C60 with different mixing ratio in real-time and in situ by X-ray scattering experiments. We found that at room temperature, mixtures with an excess of DIP show a growth mode which is very close to the perfect layer-by-layer limit with DIP crystallites forming over the entire film thickness. An unexpected increase in the island size is observed for these mixtures as a function of film thickness. On the other hand, equimolar and C60 dominated mixtures grow with poor crystallinity but form very smooth films. Additionally, it is observed that higher substrate temperatures lead to an increase in the length scale of phase separation with film thickness.

  16. Kinetics of low-pressure, low-temperature graphene growth: toward single-layer, single-crystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Mehdipour, Hamid; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2012-11-27

    Graphene grown on metal catalysts with low carbon solubility is a highly competitive alternative to exfoliated and other forms of graphene, yet a single-layer, single-crystal structure remains a challenge because of the large number of randomly oriented nuclei that form grain boundaries when stitched together. A kinetic model of graphene nucleation and growth is developed to elucidate the effective controls of the graphene island density and surface coverage from the onset of nucleation to the full monolayer formation in low-pressure, low-temperature CVD. The model unprecedentedly involves the complete cycle of the elementary gas-phase and surface processes and shows a precise quantitative agreement with the recent low-energy electron diffraction measurements and also explains numerous parameter trends from a host of experimental reports. These agreements are demonstrated for a broad pressure range as well as different combinations of precursor gases and supporting catalysts. The critical role of hydrogen in controlling the graphene nucleation and monolayer formation is revealed and quantified. The model is generic and can be extended to even broader ranges of catalysts and precursor gases/pressures to enable the as yet elusive effective control of the crystalline structure and number of layers of graphene using the minimum amounts of matter and energy.

  17. Growth and dissolution kinetics of tetragonal lysozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monaco, L. A.; Rosenberger, F.

    1993-01-01

    The growth and dissolution kinetics of lysozyme in a 25 ml solution bridge inside a closed growth cell was investigated. It was found that, under all growth conditions, the growth habit forming (110) and (101) faces grew through layer spreading with different growth rate dependence on supersaturation/temperature. On the other hand, (100) faces which formed only at low temperatures underwent a thermal roughening transition around 12 C.

  18. Growth and dissolution kinetics of tetragonal lysozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monaco, L. A.; Rosenberger, F.

    1993-01-01

    The growth and dissolution kinetics of lysozyme in a 25 ml solution bridge inside a closed growth cell was investigated. It was found that, under all growth conditions, the growth habit forming (110) and (101) faces grew through layer spreading with different growth rate dependence on supersaturation/temperature. On the other hand, (100) faces which formed only at low temperatures underwent a thermal roughening transition around 12 C.

  19. High In-content InGaN layers synthesized by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy: Growth conditions, strain relaxation, and In incorporation kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Valdueza-Felip, S. Bellet-Amalric, E.; Pouget, S.; Monroy, E.; Wang, Y.; Chauvat, M.-P.; Ruterana, P.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.

    2014-12-21

    We report the interplay between In incorporation and strain relaxation kinetics in high-In-content In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (x = 0.3) layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. For In mole fractions x = 0.13–0.48, best structural and morphological qualities are obtained under In excess conditions, at In accumulation limit, and at a growth temperature where InGaN decomposition is active. Under such conditions, in situ and ex situ analyses of the evolution of the crystalline structure with the layer thickness point to an onset of misfit relaxation after the growth of 40 nm, and a gradual relaxation during more than 200 nm, which results in an inhomogeneous strain distribution along the growth axis. This process is associated with a compositional pulling effect, i.e., indium incorporation is partially inhibited in presence of compressive strain, resulting in a compositional gradient with increasing In mole fraction towards the surface.

  20. Tailoring graphene layer-to-layer growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongtao; Wu, Bin; Guo, Wei; Wang, Lifeng; Li, Jingbo; Liu, Yunqi

    2017-06-01

    A layered material grown between a substrate and the upper layer involves complex interactions and a confined reaction space, representing an unusual growth mode. Here, we show multi-layer graphene domains grown on liquid or solid Cu by the chemical vapor deposition method via this ‘double-substrate’ mode. We demonstrate the interlayer-induced coupling effect on the twist angle in bi- and multi-layer graphene. We discover dramatic growth disunity for different graphene layers, which is explained by the ideas of a chemical ‘gate’ and a material transport process within a confined space. These key results lead to a consistent framework for understanding the dynamic evolution of multi-layered graphene flakes and tailoring the layer-to-layer growth for practical applications.

  1. Domain Growth Kinetics in Stratifying Foam Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-03-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Typical foam films consist of two surfactant-laden surfaces that are μ 5 nm - 10 micron apart. Sandwiched between these interfacial layers is a fluid that drains primarily under the influence of viscous and interfacial forces, including disjoining pressure. Interestingly, for certain low molecular weight surfactants, a layered ordering of micelles inside the foam films (thickness <100 nm) leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification. We experimentally elucidate the influence of these different driving forces, and confinement on drainage kinetics of horizontal stratifying foam films. Thinner, darker domains spontaneously grow within foam films. Quantitative characterization of domain growth visualized in a using Scheludko-type thin film cell and a theoretical model based on lubrication analysis, provide critical insights into hydrodynamics of thin foam films, and the strength and nature of surface forces, including supramolecular oscillatory structural forces.

  2. Kinetic Aspects of Formation of Carbonitride Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryzunov, V. I.; Priymak, E. Yu.; Firsova, N. V.; Emel'yanova, T. V.

    2017-07-01

    The laws of formation and growth of carbonitride layer in steels 40G2, 38KhMA, 40KhN2MA, and 09GSF at a temperature of 560°C are studied. Metallographic methods are used to determine its composition, location and length. Equations for computing the lengths of the carbonitride phase and of the layer due to surface cyaniding are derived.

  3. Domain growth kinetics in stratifying foam films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-11-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Typical foam films consist of two surfactant-laden surfaces that are ~ 5 nm - 10 micron apart. Sandwiched between these interfacial layers is a fluid that drains primarily under the influence of viscous and interfacial forces, including disjoining pressure. Interestingly, a layered ordering of micelles inside the foam films (thickness <100 nm) leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification, which results in a thickness-dependent variation in reflected light intensity, visualized as progressively darker shades of gray. Thinner, darker domains spontaneously grow within foam films. We show that the domain expansion dynamics exhibit two distinct growth regimes with characteristic scaling laws. Though several studies have focused on the expansion dynamics of isolated domains that exhibit a diffusion-like scaling, the change in expansion kinetics observed after domains contact with the Plateau border has not been reported and analyzed before.

  4. Growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN){sub 1}/(GaN){sub 1–20} short-period superlattices on +c-GaN template in dynamic atomic layer epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Wang, Ke; Imai, Daichi; Itoi, Takaomi; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2016-04-11

    The growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN){sub 1}/(GaN){sub 1–20} short-period superlattices (SPSs) were investigated with their application to ordered alloys in mind. The SPSs were grown on +c-GaN template at 650 °C by dynamic atomic layer epitaxy in conventional plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that coherent structured InN/GaN SPSs could be fabricated when the thickness of the GaN barrier was 4 ML or above. Below 3 ML, the formation of SPSs was quite difficult owing to the increased strain in the SPS structure caused by the use of GaN as a template. The effective or average In composition of the (InN){sub 1}/(GaN){sub 4} SPSs was around 10%, and the corresponding InN coverage in the ∼1 ML-thick InN wells was 50%. It was found that the effective InN coverage in ∼1 ML-thick InN wells could be varied with the growth conditions. In fact, the effective In composition could be increased up to 13.5%, i.e., the corresponding effective InN coverage was about 68%, by improving the capping/freezing speed by increasing the growth rate of the GaN barrier layer.

  5. Growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN)1/(GaN)1-20 short-period superlattices on +c-GaN template in dynamic atomic layer epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Itoi, Takaomi; Wang, Ke; Imai, Daichi; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    The growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN)1/(GaN)1-20 short-period superlattices (SPSs) were investigated with their application to ordered alloys in mind. The SPSs were grown on +c-GaN template at 650 °C by dynamic atomic layer epitaxy in conventional plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that coherent structured InN/GaN SPSs could be fabricated when the thickness of the GaN barrier was 4 ML or above. Below 3 ML, the formation of SPSs was quite difficult owing to the increased strain in the SPS structure caused by the use of GaN as a template. The effective or average In composition of the (InN)1/(GaN)4 SPSs was around 10%, and the corresponding InN coverage in the ˜1 ML-thick InN wells was 50%. It was found that the effective InN coverage in ˜1 ML-thick InN wells could be varied with the growth conditions. In fact, the effective In composition could be increased up to 13.5%, i.e., the corresponding effective InN coverage was about 68%, by improving the capping/freezing speed by increasing the growth rate of the GaN barrier layer.

  6. Kinetic-based layer response to RMPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callen, J. D.; Hegna, C. C.; Cole, A. J.

    2012-10-01

    Plasma toroidal rotation can prevent reconnection of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields near rational surfaces. A low collisionality kinetic toroidal model of RMP-flutter-induced electron density and thermal transport in toroidally flowing plasmas has been developed [1]. Since this electron transport is non-ambipolar, it produces a co-current toroidal torque on the plasma. This low collisionality torque differs from fluid-based cylindrical results [2] in three key ways: the effective electron collision frequency is increased because only untrapped electrons carry parallel currents, this effect increases the singular layer width, and electron temperature gradient effects are included. A Te gradient torque is caused by the parallel electron thermal force which is usually neglected in Ohm's law. It changes the perpendicular electron flow where the torque at the rational surface vanishes to where (e/Te)(dφ/dr)=dpe/dr+cTdTe/dr in which cT is 0.71 for Z=1. The cT!=0 effect moves the radial location for RMP field penetration and hence reconnection to smaller radii relative to theories [2] that neglect the thermal force.[4pt] [1] J.D. Callen, A.J. Cole and C.C. Hegna, UW-CPTC 11-15R (2012).[0pt] [2] F.L. Waelbroeck et al., Nucl. Fusion 52, 074004 (2012).

  7. Growth kinetics for temperature-controlled atomic layer deposition of GaN using trimethylgallium and remote-plasma-excited NH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pansila, P.; Kanomata, K.; Miura, M.; Ahmmad, B.; Kubota, S.; Hirose, F.

    2015-12-01

    Fundamental surface reactions in the atomic layer deposition of GaN with trimethylgallium (TMG) and plasma-excited NH3 are investigated by multiple-internal-reflection infrared absorption spectroscopy (MIR-IRAS) at surface temperatures varying from room temperature (RT) to 400 °C. It is found that TMG is saturated at RT on GaN surfaces when the TMG exposure exceeds 8 × 104 Langmuir (L), where 1 L corresponds to 1.33 × 10-4 Pa s (or 1.0 × 10-6 Torr s), and its saturation density reaches the maximum value at RT. Nitridation with the plasma-excited NH3 on the TMG-saturated GaN surface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nitridation becomes effective at surface temperatures in excess of 100 °C. The reaction models of TMG adsorption and nitridation on the GaN surface are proposed in this paper. Based on the surface analysis, a temperature-controlled ALD process consisting of RT-TMG adsorption and nitridation at 115 °C is examined, where the growth per cycle of 0.045 nm/cycle is confirmed. XPS analysis indicates that all N atoms are bonded as GaN. Atomic force microscopy indicates an average roughness of 0.23 nm. We discuss the reaction mechanism of GaN ALD in the low-temperature region at around 115 °C with TMG and plasma-excited NH3.

  8. Kinetics of microbial growth on pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed Central

    Klecka, G M; Maier, W J

    1985-01-01

    Batch and fed-batch experiments were conducted to examine the kinetics of pentachlorophenol utilization by an enrichment culture of pentachlorophenol-degrading bacteria. The Haldane modification of the Monod equation was found to describe the relationship between the specific growth rate and substrate concentration. Analysis of the kinetic parameters indicated that the maximum specific growth rate and yield coefficients are low, with values of 0.074 h-1 and 0.136 g/g, respectively. The Monod constant (Ks) was estimated to be 60 micrograms/liter, indicating a high affinity of the microorganisms for the substrate. However, high concentrations (KI = 1,375 micrograms/liter) were shown to be inhibitory for metabolism and growth. These kinetic parameters can be used to define the optimal conditions for the removal of pentachlorophenol in biological treatment systems. PMID:3977315

  9. Transport and Growth Kinetics in Microgravity Protein Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otalora, F.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.; Carotenuto, L.; Castagnolo, D.; Novella, M. L.; Chernov, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic coupling between mass transport and incorporation of growth units into the surface of a crystal growing from solution in microgravity is used to derive quantitative information on the crystal growth kinetics. To this end, new procedures for experiment preparation, interferometric data processing and model fitting have been developed. The use of experimental data from the bulk diffusive maw transport together with a model for steady state stagnant crystal growth allows the detailed quantitative understanding of the kinetics of both the concentration depletion zone around the crystal and the growth of the crystal interface. The protein crystal used in the experiment is shown to be growing in the mixed kinetic regime (0.2 x 10(exp -6) centimeters per second less than beta R/D less than 0.9 x 10(exp -6) centimeters per second).

  10. Transport and Growth Kinetics in Microgravity Protein Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otalora, F.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.; Carotenuto, L.; Castagnolo, D.; Novella, M. L.; Chernov, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic coupling between mass transport and incorporation of growth units into the surface of a crystal growing from solution in microgravity is used to derive quantitative information on the crystal growth kinetics. To this end, new procedures for experiment preparation, interferometric data processing and model fitting have been developed. The use of experimental data from the bulk diffusive maw transport together with a model for steady state stagnant crystal growth allows the detailed quantitative understanding of the kinetics of both the concentration depletion zone around the crystal and the growth of the crystal interface. The protein crystal used in the experiment is shown to be growing in the mixed kinetic regime (0.2 x 10(exp -6) centimeters per second less than beta R/D less than 0.9 x 10(exp -6) centimeters per second).

  11. Layer growth kinetics and wear resistance of martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel plasma nitrocarburized at 460°C with rare earth addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R. L.; Qiao, Y. J.; Yan, M. F.; Fu, Y. D.

    2013-09-01

    To study the effect of rare earth (RE) addition on low temperature plasma nitrocarburizing of martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel, 17-4PH stainless steel was plasma nitrocarburized at 460 °C for different times with RE addition. The modified layers were tested by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, microhardness tester and pin-on-disc tribometer. The experimental results show that the layer depth of plasma RE nitrocarburized layer can be increased up to 56% compared with plasma nitrocarburizing without RE addition. Incorporation of RE element is beneficial to the formation of nitrogen and carbon expanded martensite (α'N). The surface microhardness of plasma RE nitrocarburized layer can be increased to 1286 HV and higher up to 80 HV than that obtained from the conventional treated one. The friction coefficient of martensitic stainless steel can be dramatically decreased by low temperature plasma nitrocarburizing with RE addition, and the friction coefficient of the modified specimens decrease gradually with increasing process time in the present test condition.

  12. Kinetics of powder layer shrinkage during electron-beam treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazeva, A.

    2016-10-01

    When layerwise synthesis of new material occurs, only thin surface area, thin melt film or thin powder layer undergo essential changes. To describe the behaviour of thin layer where temperature and composition change, a model similar to shallow-water theory is suggested. The equations for thin layer behaviour are deduced for the Maxwell model of viscoelastic body in the approximation of incompressibility. The hydrodynamic part of the problem is coupled with thermal-kinetical one.

  13. Protein crystal growth - Growth kinetics for tetragonal lysozyme crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, M. L.; Snyder, R. S.; Naumann, R.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported from theoretical and experimental studies of the growth rate of lysozyme as a function of diffusion in earth-gravity conditions. The investigations were carried out to form a comparison database for future studies of protein crystal growth in the microgravity environment of space. A diffusion-convection model is presented for predicting crystal growth rates in the presence of solutal concentration gradients. Techniques used to grow and monitor the growth of hen egg white lysozyme are detailed. The model calculations and experiment data are employed to discuss the effects of transport and interfacial kinetics in the growth of the crystals, which gradually diminished the free energy in the growth solution. Density gradient-driven convection, caused by presence of the gravity field, was a limiting factor in the growth rate.

  14. Growth kinetics of Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, R.M.; Subramanian, R.; Bly, M.J.; Winter, S.; Aronson, C.L.

    1991-12-31

    Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219, a phenol-resistant thermophile, can convert phenol to the specialty chemical catechol. The growth kinetics of this organism were studied in batch, continuous, and immobilized-cell culture. Batch growth was insensitive to pH between 6.0 and 8.0, but little growth occurred at 5.5. In continuous culture on a dilute medium supplemented with 10 mM phenol, several steady states were achieved between dilution rates of 0.25 and 1.3 h{sup -1}. Phenol degradation was found to be uncoupled from growth. Immobilized cells grew rapidly in a rich medium, but cell viability plummeted following a switch to a dilute medium supplemented with 5 mM phenol.

  15. Morphological stability and kinetics in crystal growth from vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) microscopy image storage and processing system; (2) growth kinetics and morphology study with carbon tetrabromide; (3) photothermal deflection vapor growth setup; (4) bridgman growth of iodine single crystals; (5) vapor concentration distribution measurement during growth; and (6) Monte Carlo modeling of anisotropic growth kinetics and morphology. A collection of presentations and publications of these results are presented.

  16. Growth morphology with anisotropic surface kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiao, Rong-Fu; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1990-01-01

    The morphological evolution of crystals growing from an incongruent vapor phase is studied using a Monte Carlo model, and the full range of growth morphologies is recovered. The diffusion in the bulk nutrient and the anisotropy in the interface kinetics are morphologically destabilizing and stabilizing, respectively. For a given set of simulation parameters and lattice symmetries there is a critical size, which scales linearly with the mean free path in the vapor, beyond which a crystal cannot retain its stable, macroscopically faceted growth shape. Surface diffusion stabilizes faceted growth on the shorter scale of the mean surface diffusion length. In simulations with a uniform drift superimposed on the random walk nutrient transport, crystal faces oriented toward the drift show enhanced morphological stability compared to the purely diffusive situation. Rotational drifts with periodic reversal of direction are morphologically stabilizing for all crystal facets.

  17. Kinetic versus thermodynamic control over growth process of electrodeposited Bi/BiSb superlattice nanowires.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xincun; Li, Guanghai; Lei, Hechang

    2008-05-01

    The growth mechanism of the electrodeposited single crystalline nanowires is generally considered to follow a three-dimensional to two-dimensional (2D) transition mode, and as for the 2D growth, it is ordinarily considered as a plane growth mode (layer-by-layer growth mechanism). We report in this Letter the growth of Bi/BiSb superlattice nanowires by adopting a charge-controlled pulse electrodeposition technique, and to our best knowledge, different growth modes of the nanowires, the 2D plane growth mode, the tilted plane growth mode, and the curved plane growth mode, were first observed. These growth modes were gathered and analyzed from the perspectives of crystal growth as well as kinetics and thermodynamics. It is shown that the superlattice nanowires are good structures for studying the growth mechanism of electrodeposited nanowires. This work will deeply benefit the understanding of the growth process of the electrodeposited nanowires and provide important experiment data to crystal growth theory.

  18. Volume Diffusion Growth Kinetics and Step Geometry in Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Ramachandran, Narayanan

    1998-01-01

    The role of step geometry in two-dimensional stationary volume diff4sion process used in crystal growth kinetics models is investigated. Three different interface shapes: a) a planar interface, b) an equidistant hemispherical bumps train tAx interface, and c) a train of right angled steps, are used in this comparative study. The ratio of the super-saturation to the diffusive flux at the step position is used as a control parameter. The value of this parameter can vary as much as 50% for different geometries. An approximate analytical formula is derived for the right angled steps geometry. In addition to the kinetic models, this formula can be utilized in macrostep growth models. Finally, numerical modeling of the diffusive and convective transport for equidistant steps is conducted. In particular, the role of fluid flow resulting from the advancement of steps and its contribution to the transport of species to the steps is investigated.

  19. Volume Diffusion Growth Kinetics and Step Geometry in Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Ramachandran, Narayanan

    1998-01-01

    The role of step geometry in two-dimensional stationary volume diff4sion process used in crystal growth kinetics models is investigated. Three different interface shapes: a) a planar interface, b) an equidistant hemispherical bumps train tAx interface, and c) a train of right angled steps, are used in this comparative study. The ratio of the super-saturation to the diffusive flux at the step position is used as a control parameter. The value of this parameter can vary as much as 50% for different geometries. An approximate analytical formula is derived for the right angled steps geometry. In addition to the kinetic models, this formula can be utilized in macrostep growth models. Finally, numerical modeling of the diffusive and convective transport for equidistant steps is conducted. In particular, the role of fluid flow resulting from the advancement of steps and its contribution to the transport of species to the steps is investigated.

  20. A kinetic model for the borided layers by the paste-boriding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddam, M.

    2004-09-01

    This work is dedicated to the study of the growth kinetics of the borided layers obtained by the paste-boriding process. A diffusion model based on Fick's laws and coupled with a thermodynamic description of the Fe-B binary system was suggested to simulate the growth kinetics of the borided layers consisting only of Fe 2B phase and containing 8.83 wt.% B onto the iron substrate within the temperature range of 1223-1323 K. The validation of the diffusion model was achieved by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data taken from the literature and a good agreement was observed. Furthermore, the model was able to predict the boron-depth-concentration profile for Fe 2B phase as well as the thickness of the borided layers depending on the boriding parameters.

  1. Particle growth kinetics over the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinterich, T.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Kuang, C.; Longo, K.; Machado, L.; Manzi, A. O.; Martin, S. T.; Mei, F.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöhlker, M. L.; Poeschl, U.; Shilling, J. E.; Shiraiwa, M.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Zaveri, R. A.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol particles larger than 100 nm play a key role in global climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Most of these particles, originated from new particle formation or directly emitted into the atmospheric, are initially too small to serve as CCN. These small particles grow to CCN size mainly through condensation of secondary species. In one extreme, the growth is dictated by kinetic condensation of very low-volatility compounds, favoring the growth of the smallest particles; in the other extreme, the process is driven by Raoult's law-based equilibrium partitioning of semi-volatile organic compound, favoring the growth of larger particles. These two mechanisms can lead to very different production rates of CCN. The growth of particles depends on a number of parameters, including the volatility of condensing species, particle phase, and diffusivity inside the particles, and this process is not well understood in part due to lack of ambient data. Here we examine atmospheric particle growth using high-resolution size distributions measured onboard the DOE G-1 aircraft during GoAmazon campaign, which took place from January 2014 to December 2015 near Manaus, Brazil, a city surrounded by natural forest for over 1000 km in every direction. City plumes are clearly identified by the strong enhancement of nucleation and Aitken mode particle concentrations over the clean background. As the plume traveled downwind, particle growth was observed, and is attributed to condensation of secondary species and coagulation (Fig.1). Observed aerosol growth is modeled using MOSAIC (Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry), which dynamically partitions multiple compounds to all particle size bins by taking into account compound volatility, gas-phase diffusion, interfacial mass accommodation, particle-phase diffusion, and particle-phase reaction. The results from both wet and dry seasons will be discussed.

  2. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    DOEpatents

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  3. Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in a Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vyas, Manan; Waindim, Mbu; Gaitonde, Datta

    2016-01-01

    Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Quantities present in the exact equation of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) transport were accumulated. These quantities will be used to calculate the components of TKE-like production, dissipation, transport, and dilatation. Correlations of these terms will be presented to study the growth and interaction between various terms. A comparison with its RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) counterpart will also be presented.

  4. Characterizing the Growth Kinetics in Estrogen Responsive ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is a need to develop high-throughput screening (HTS) tests capable of testing thousands of environmental chemicals for endocrine disrupting potential. The estrogen signaling pathway is a known xenobiotic target that has been implicated in a variety of adverse health effects including reproductive deficits and cancer promotion. Using real-time measurements of growth kinetics by electrode impedance, the estrogen-responsive human ductal carcinoma cell line, T47D, was treated with 2000 chemicals of environmental relevance. Cells were treated in concentration response and measurements of cellular impedance were recorded every hour for six days. Exponential impedance, signifying increased proliferation, was observed by prototypical estrogen receptor agonists (17β-estradiol, genestein, bisphenol-A, nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol). Several compounds, including bisphenol-A and genestein, induced cell proliferation at comparable levels to 17β-estradiol, although at much higher concentrations. Progestins, and mineralocortocoids (progesterone, dihydrotestosterone, aldosterone) invoked a biphasic impedance signature. In conclusion, the real-time nature of this assay allows for rapid detection of differential growth characteristics shows potential, in combination with other ToxCast HTS assays, to detect environmental chemicals with potential endocrine activity. [This abstract does not necessarily reflect Agency policy]. Several compounds, including bisphenol-A and

  5. Diamagnetic boundary layers - A kinetic theory. [for collisionless magnetized plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaire, J.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1976-01-01

    A kinetic theory is presented for boundary layers associated with MHD tangential 'discontinuities' in a collisionless magnetized plasma, such as those observed in the solar wind. The theory consists of finding self-consistent solutions of Vlasov's equation and Maxwell's equation for stationary one-dimensional boundary layers separating two Maxwellian plasma states. Layers in which the current is carried by electrons are found to have a thickness of the order of a few electron gyroradii, but the drift speed of the current-carrying electrons is found to exceed the Alfven speed, and accordingly such layers are not stable. Several types of layers in which the current is carried by protons are discussed; in particular, cases are considered in which the magnetic-field intensity, direction, or both, changed across the layer. In every case, the thickness was of the order of a few proton gyroradii, and the field changed smoothly, although the characteristics depended somewhat on the boundary conditions. The drift speed was always less than the Alfven speed, consistent with stability of such structures. These results are consistent with observations of boundary layers in the solar wind near 1 AU.

  6. Modeling the growth of an altered layer in mineral weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Fábio D. A. Aarão

    2015-10-01

    A stochastic reaction-diffusion model on a lattice is introduced to describe the growth kinetics of an altered layer in the weathering of a mineral. Particles R represent H2O that permanently fills the outer surface and diffuse on M (mineral) and A (altered) sites with coefficients DM and DA , respectively. The transformation M + R → A occurs with rate r, representing the irreversible formation of the altered material in a region of molecular size, viz. the lattice site of size a. These assumptions agree with predictions of the interfacial dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism, although the model does not describe the chemistry of dissolution reactions or precipitation processes. Scaling concepts are used to distinguish kinetic regimes and their crossovers, and are supported by simulation results. In the short time reactive regime, the thickness of the altered layer increases linearly in time and filling of that layer by particles R is high. In the long time diffusive regime, the altered layer thickness grows as (DA t) 1 / 2 . Modeling of single crystals require very small values of DM , which produces atomically narrow interfaces between the altered material and the mineral and absence of R in the latter, in agreement with recent experimental results. If r growth velocity of the altered layer by a factor lAM / a , but no fluid in the bulk mineral. Estimates of the order of magnitude of transformation rates and of diffusion coefficients are obtained by application of the model to some recently studied systems: calcite dissolution, labradorite weathering, and silicate glass weathering. Effects of dissolution of the altered layer are analyzed. Significant differences between the model and leached layer theories are discussed.

  7. Temperature dependence of protein solubility-determination, application to crystallization, and growth kinetics studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1993-01-01

    A scintillation method was developed for determinations of the temperature dependence of the solubility, and of nucleation induction times of proteins, in 50-100 mu(l) volumes of solution. Solubility data for lysozyme and horse serum albumin were obtained for various combinations of pH and precipitant concentrations. These data and the nucleation induction information were used for dynamic crystallization control, that is, for the controlled separation of nucleation and growth stages. Individual lysozyme and horse serum albumin crystals were grown in 15-20 mu(l) solution volumes contained in x-ray capillaries. The morphology and kinetics of the growth and dissolution of lysozyme in aqueous solutions with 2.5 percent NaCl and at pH = 4.5 was studied in situ with a depth resolution of 300 A (4 unit cells) by high resolution optical microscopy and digital image processing. The bulk super- or under saturation, sigma, of the solution inside a closed growth cell was controlled by temperature. The growth habit was bound by (110) and (101) faces that grew through layer spreading, although with different growth rate dependencies on supersaturation/temperature. At sigma less than 10 (obtained at higher temperatures) growth was purely kinetic ally controlled, with impurity effects (macrostep formation and kinetic hindrance) becoming significant for sigma less than 2. At sigma greater than 10 (lower temperatures), anisotropies in the interfacial kinetics were more pronounced, with interfacial kinetics and bulk transport becoming equally important to the growth morphology. Growth rates were growth history dependent. The formation of striations (layers of irregularly incorporated solution) was unambiguously correlated with growth temperature variations. Etching exposed dislocations and various high-index faces whose growth morphologies were studied during return to the steady state growth form. Growth steps were observed to originate from two-dimensional nuclei or from outcrops

  8. Temperature dependence of protein solubility-determination, application to crystallization, and growth kinetics studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1993-01-01

    A scintillation method was developed for determinations of the temperature dependence of the solubility, and of nucleation induction times of proteins, in 50-100 mu(l) volumes of solution. Solubility data for lysozyme and horse serum albumin were obtained for various combinations of pH and precipitant concentrations. These data and the nucleation induction information were used for dynamic crystallization control, that is, for the controlled separation of nucleation and growth stages. Individual lysozyme and horse serum albumin crystals were grown in 15-20 mu(l) solution volumes contained in x-ray capillaries. The morphology and kinetics of the growth and dissolution of lysozyme in aqueous solutions with 2.5 percent NaCl and at pH = 4.5 was studied in situ with a depth resolution of 300 A (4 unit cells) by high resolution optical microscopy and digital image processing. The bulk super- or under saturation, sigma, of the solution inside a closed growth cell was controlled by temperature. The growth habit was bound by (110) and (101) faces that grew through layer spreading, although with different growth rate dependencies on supersaturation/temperature. At sigma less than 10 (obtained at higher temperatures) growth was purely kinetic ally controlled, with impurity effects (macrostep formation and kinetic hindrance) becoming significant for sigma less than 2. At sigma greater than 10 (lower temperatures), anisotropies in the interfacial kinetics were more pronounced, with interfacial kinetics and bulk transport becoming equally important to the growth morphology. Growth rates were growth history dependent. The formation of striations (layers of irregularly incorporated solution) was unambiguously correlated with growth temperature variations. Etching exposed dislocations and various high-index faces whose growth morphologies were studied during return to the steady state growth form. Growth steps were observed to originate from two-dimensional nuclei or from outcrops

  9. Interneurons targeting similar layers receive synaptic inputs with similar kinetics.

    PubMed

    Cossart, Rosa; Petanjek, Zdravko; Dumitriu, Dani; Hirsch, June C; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Esclapez, Monique; Bernard, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    GABAergic interneurons play diverse and important roles in controlling neuronal network dynamics. They are characterized by an extreme heterogeneity morphologically, neurochemically, and physiologically, but a functionally relevant classification is still lacking. Present taxonomy is essentially based on their postsynaptic targets, but a physiological counterpart to this classification has not yet been determined. Using a quantitative analysis based on multidimensional clustering of morphological and physiological variables, we now demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of glutamate and GABA miniature synaptic currents received by CA1 hippocampal interneurons and the laminar distribution of their axons: neurons that project to the same layer(s) receive synaptic inputs with similar kinetics distributions. In contrast, the kinetics distributions of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic events received by a given interneuron do not depend upon its somatic location or dendritic arborization. Although the mechanisms responsible for this unexpected observation are still unclear, our results suggest that interneurons may be programmed to receive synaptic currents with specific temporal dynamics depending on their targets and the local networks in which they operate.

  10. Kinetics of epidermal growth factor in saliva.

    PubMed

    Ino, M; Ushiro, K; Ino, C; Yamashita, T; Kumazawa, T

    1993-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) stimulates the growth and differentiation of various tissues. We measured EGF levels in saliva (n = 128), urine (n = 94), and serum (n = 99) with radioimmunoassay in order to study the kinetics of hEGF in saliva of normal subjects and patients with oral disease. Salivary EGF levels showed an apparent diurnal rhythm related to the taking of meals. Urinary and serum EGF levels showed no obvious diurnal rhythm. There was no significant correlation between salivary and urinary EGF levels, nor between salivary and serum EGF levels. Salivary EGF levels were significantly lower in the younger group (0-9 years old, 3.06 +/- 0.32 ng/ml, p < 0.05) than in the elder group (10-79 years old, 4.78 +/- 3.5 ng/ml), but did not correlate with age in the elder group. There was no significant difference between males and females between EGF levels in saliva, urine or serum. The relative proportion of EGF levels in submandibular gland saliva, parotid saliva, and whole saliva was 1:6:4. The positive rate of immunohistochemical EGF showed no significant differences between submandibular gland, parotid gland, sublingual gland or minor salivary gland. Salivary EGF levels were markedly low in patients with oral inflammations (stomatitis aphthosa, or peritonsillar abscess) or head and neck tumors (squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, oral cavity, hypopharynx or larynx). These findings may be significant pathophysiologically. Low salivary EGF levels may reduce the capacity of oral mucosal defense mechanisms to fight against injury by physiochemical agents.

  11. Anion exchange kinetics of nanodimensional layered metal hydroxides: use of isoconversional analysis.

    PubMed

    Majoni, Stephen; Hossenlopp, Jeanne M

    2010-12-16

    Anion exchange reactions of nanodimensional layered metal hydroxide compounds are utilized to create materials with targeted physical and chemical properties and also as a means for controlled release of intercalated anions. The kinetics of this important class of reaction are generally characterized by model-based approaches. In this work, a different approach based on isothermal, isoconversional analysis was utilized to determine effective activation energies with respect to extent of reaction. Two different layered metal hydroxide materials were chosen for reaction with chloride anions, using a temperature range of 30-60 °C. The concentrations of anions released into solution and the changes in polycrystalline solid phases were evaluated using model-based (Avrami-Erofe'ev nucleation-growth model) and model-free (integral isoconversional) methods. The results demonstrate the utility of the isoconversional approach for identifying when fitting to a single model is not appropriate, particularly for characterizing the temperature dependence of the reaction kinetics.

  12. Influence of deformation on dolomite rim growth kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helpa, Vanessa; Rybacki, Erik; Grafulha Morales, Luiz Fernando; Dresen, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Using a gas-deformation apparatus stacks of oriented calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) single crystals were deformed at T = 750° C and P = 400 MPa to examine the influence of stress and strain on magnesio-calcite and dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) growth kinetics. Triaxial compression and torsion tests performed at constant stresses between 7 and 38 MPa and test durations between 4 and 171 hours resulted in bulk strains of 0.03-0.2 and maximum shear strains of 0.8-5.6, respectively. The reaction rims consist of fine-grained (2-7 μm) dolomite with palisade-shaped grains growing into magnesite reactants and equiaxed granular dolomite grains next to calcite. In between dolomite and pure calcite, magnesio-calcite grains evolved with an average grain size of 20-40 μm. Grain boundaries tend to be straighter at high bulk strains and equilibrium angles at grain triple junctions are common within the magnesio-calcite layer. Transmission electron microscopy shows almost dislocation free palisades and increasing dislocation density within granular dolomite towards the magnesio-calcite boundary. Within magnesio-calcite grains, dislocations are concentrated at grain boundaries. Variation of time at fixed stress (˜17 MPa) yields a parabolic time dependence of dolomite rim width, indicating diffusion-controlled growth, similar to isostatic rim growth behavior. In contrast, the magnesio-calcite layer growth is enhanced compared to isostatic conditions. Triaxial compression at given time shows no significant change of dolomite rim thickness (11±2 μm) and width of magnesio-calcite layers (33±5 μm) with increasing stress. In torsion experiments, reaction layer thickness and grain size decrease from the center (low stress/strain) to the edge (high strain/stress) of samples. Chemical analysis shows nearly stoichiometric composition of dolomite palisades, but enhanced Ca content within granular grains, indicating local disequilibrium with magnesio-calcite, in particular for twisted

  13. Large-scale epitaxial growth kinetics of graphene: A kinetic Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2015-08-28

    Epitaxial growth via chemical vapor deposition is considered to be the most promising way towards synthesizing large area graphene with high quality. However, it remains a big theoretical challenge to reveal growth kinetics with atomically energetic and large-scale spatial information included. Here, we propose a minimal kinetic Monte Carlo model to address such an issue on an active catalyst surface with graphene/substrate lattice mismatch, which facilitates us to perform large scale simulations of the growth kinetics over two dimensional surface with growth fronts of complex shapes. A geometry-determined large-scale growth mechanism is revealed, where the rate-dominating event is found to be C{sub 1}-attachment for concave growth-front segments and C{sub 5}-attachment for others. This growth mechanism leads to an interesting time-resolved growth behavior which is well consistent with that observed in a recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiment.

  14. Growth kinetics of Al–Fe intermetallic compounds during annealing treatment of friction stir lap welds

    SciTech Connect

    Movahedi, M.; Kokabi, A.H.; Seyed Reihani, S.M.; Najafi, H.; Farzadfar, S.A.; Cheng, W.J.; Wang, C.J.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we explored the growth kinetics of the Al–Fe intermetallic (IM) layer at the joint interface of the St-12/Al-5083 friction stir lap welds during post-weld annealing treatment at 350, 400 and 450 °C for 30 to 180 min. Optical microscope (OM), field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to investigate the structure of the weld zone. The thickness and composition of the IM layers were evaluated using image analysis system and electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD), respectively. Moreover, kernel average misorientation (KAM) analysis was performed to evaluate the level of stored energy in the as-welded state. The results showed that the growth kinetics of the IM layer was not governed by a parabolic diffusion law. Presence of the IM compounds as well as high stored energy near the joint interface of the as-welded sample was recognized to be the origin of the observed deviation from the parabolic diffusion law. - Highlights: • This work provided a new insight into growth kinetics of Al–Fe IM thickness. • The growth kinetics of IM layer was not governed by a parabolic diffusion law. • IM near the joint interface was the origin of deviation from the parabolic law. • High stored energy at joint interface was origin of deviation from parabolic law.

  15. Chemical composition and growing kinetics of titanium nitrided layers under CO2 laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurens, Patricia; L'Enfant, Herve; Dubois, Thierry; Saint Catherine, Marie C.

    1997-08-01

    The growth and morphology of nitrided layers formed during the solid phase nitriding of pure titanium by CO2 laser were investigated. In the case of a laser treatment carried out under isothermal conditions, it was shown that CO2 photons irradiation of the substrate does not produce any specific assisted nitride growth: nitriding kinetics, nitride composition and structure were similar to those obtained after nitriding using a classical heating system. From the nitriding kinetics, nitrogen diffusion coefficients were determined using an analytical solution of Fick's equation. This allows to plot the evolution of the nitrogen concentration with respect to depth and to compare calculated profiles to those determined experimentally by Nuclear Reaction Microanalysis.

  16. Unstirred Water Layers and the Kinetics of Organic Cation Transport

    PubMed Central

    Shibayama, Takahiro; Morales, Mark; Zhang, Xiaohong; Martinez, Lucy; Berteloot, Alfred; Secomb, Timothy W.; Wright, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Unstirred water layers (UWLs) present an unavoidable complication in the measurement of transport kinetics in cultured cells and the high rates of transport achieved by overexpressing heterologous transporters exacerbate the UWL effect. This study examined the correlation between measured Jmax and Kt values and the effect of manipulating UWL thickness or transport Jmax on the accuracy of experimentally determined kinetics of the multidrug transporters, OCT2 and MATE1. Methods Transport of TEA and MPP was measured in CHO cells that stably expressed human OCT2 or MATE1. UWL thickness was manipulated by vigorous reciprocal shaking. Several methods were used to manipulate maximal transport rates. Results Vigorous stirring stimulated uptake of OCT2-mediated transport by decreasing apparent Kt (Ktapp) values. Systematic reduction in transport rates was correlated with reduction in Ktapp values. The slope of these relationships indicated a 1500 µm UWL in multiwell plates. Reducing the influence of UWLs (by decreasing either their thickness or the Jmax of substrate transport) reduced Ktapp by 2-fold to >10-fold. Conclusions Failure to take into account the presence of UWLs in experiments using cultured cells to measure transport kinetics can result in significant underestimates of the affinity of multidrug transporters for substrates. PMID:25791216

  17. Growth Kinetics of Suspended Microbial Cells: From Single-Substrate-Controlled Growth to Mixed-Substrate Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Kovárová-Kovar, Karin; Egli, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Growth kinetics, i.e., the relationship between specific growth rate and the concentration of a substrate, is one of the basic tools in microbiology. However, despite more than half a century of research, many fundamental questions about the validity and application of growth kinetics as observed in the laboratory to environmental growth conditions are still unanswered. For pure cultures growing with single substrates, enormous inconsistencies exist in the growth kinetic data reported. The low quality of experimental data has so far hampered the comparison and validation of the different growth models proposed, and only recently have data collected from nutrient-controlled chemostat cultures allowed us to compare different kinetic models on a statistical basis. The problems are mainly due to (i) the analytical difficulty in measuring substrates at growth-controlling concentrations and (ii) the fact that during a kinetic experiment, particularly in batch systems, microorganisms alter their kinetic properties because of adaptation to the changing environment. For example, for Escherichia coli growing with glucose, a physiological long-term adaptation results in a change in KS for glucose from some 5 mg liter−1 to ca. 30 μg liter−1. The data suggest that a dilemma exists, namely, that either “intrinsic” KS (under substrate-controlled conditions in chemostat culture) or μmax (under substrate-excess conditions in batch culture) can be measured but both cannot be determined at the same time. The above-described conventional growth kinetics derived from single-substrate-controlled laboratory experiments have invariably been used for describing both growth and substrate utilization in ecosystems. However, in nature, microbial cells are exposed to a wide spectrum of potential substrates, many of which they utilize simultaneously (in particular carbon sources). The kinetic data available to date for growth of pure cultures in carbon-controlled continuous culture

  18. Growth kinetics of indium metal atoms on Si(1 1 2) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Raj, Vidur; Chauhan, Amit Kumar Singh; Gupta, Govind

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Controlled growth of indium atoms on Si(1 1 2) surface has been carried out systematically and the influence of substrate temperature on the kinetics is analysed under various growth conditions. Temperature induced anomalous layer-to-clusters transformation during thermal desorption has also been reported. - Highlights: • Controlled growth of indium atoms on Si(1 1 2) surface & their thermal stability. • Influence of substrate temperature on the kinetics under various growth conditions. • Temperature induced layer-to-clusters transformation during thermal desorption. - Abstract: The growth kinetics and desorption behavior of indium (In) atoms grown on high index Si(1 1 2) surface at different substrate temperatures has been studied. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis revealed that In growth at room temperature (RT) and high substrate temperature (HT) ∼250 °C follows Frank–van der Merve growth mode whereas at temperatures ≥450 °C, In growth evolves through Volmer–Weber growth mode. Thermal desorption studies of RT and 250 °C grown In/Si(1 1 2) systems show temperature induced rearrangement of In atoms over Si(1 1 2) surface leading to clusters to layer transformation. The monolayer and bilayer desorption energies for RT grown In/Si(1 1 2) system are calculated to be 2.5 eV and 1.52 eV, while for HT-250 °C the values are found to be 1.6 eV and 1.3 eV, respectively. This study demonstrates the effect of temperature on growth kinetics as well as on the multilayer/monolayer desorption pathway of In on Si(1 1 2) surface.

  19. Growth kinetics of microalgae in microfluidic static droplet arrays.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Alim; Kim, Jihye; McLean, Rebecca H; Vanapalli, Siva A; Karim, Muhammad Nazmul

    2012-12-01

    We investigated growth kinetics of microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris, in immobilized arrays of nanoliter-scale microfluidic drops. These static drop arrays enabled simultaneous monitoring of growth of single as well as multiple cells encapsulated in individual droplets. To monitor the growth, individual drop volumes were kept nearly intact for more than a month by controlling the permeation of water in and out of the microfluidic device. The kinetic growth parameters were quantified by counting the increase in the number of cells in each drop over time. In addition to determining the kinetic parameters, the cell-size distribution of the microalgae was correlated with different stages of the growth. The single-cell growth kinetics of C. vulgaris showed significant heterogeneity. The specific growth rate ranged from 0.55 to 1.52 day(-1) for different single cells grown in the same microfluidic device. In comparison, the specific growth rate in bulk-scale experiment was 1.12 day(-1). It was found that the average cell size changes significantly at different stages of the cell growth. The mean cell-size increased from 5.99 ± 1.08 to 7.33 ± 1.3 µm from exponential to stationary growth phase. In particular, when multiple cells are grown in individual drops, we find that in the stationary growth phase, the cell size increases with the age of cell suggesting enhanced accumulation of fatty acids in older cells.

  20. Progress of nanocrystalline growth kinetics based on oriented attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Huang, Feng; Lin, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The crystal growth mechanism, kinetics, and microstructure development play a fundamental role in tailoring the materials with controllable sizes and morphologies. The classical crystal growth kinetics-Ostwald ripening (OR) theory is usually used to explain the diffusion-controlled crystal growth process, in which larger particles grow at the expense of smaller particles. In nanoscale systems, another significant mechanism named ``oriented attachment (OA)'' was found, where nanoparticles with common crystallographic orientations directly combine together to form larger ones. Comparing with the classical atom/molecular-mediated crystallization pathway, the OA mechanism shows its specific characteristics and roles in the process of nanocrystal growth. In recent years, the OA mechanism has been widely reported in preparing low-dimension nanostructural materials and reveals remarkable effects on directing and mediating the self-assembly of nanocrystals. Currently, the interests are more focused on the investigation of its role rather than the comprehensive insight of the mechanism and kinetics. The inner complicacy of crystal growth and the occurrence of coexisting mechanisms lead to the difficulty and lack of understanding this growth process by the OA mechanism. In this context, we review the progress of the OA mechanism and its impact on materials science, and especially highlight the OA-based growth kinetics aiming to achieve a further understanding of this crystal growth route. To explore the OA-limited growth, the influence of the OR mechanism needs to be eliminated. The introduction of strong surface adsorption was reported as the effective solution to hinder OR from occurring and facilitate the exclusive OA growth stage. A detailed survey of the nanocrystal growth kinetics under the effect of surface adsorption was presented and summarized. Moreover, the development of OA kinetic models was systematically generalized, in which the ``molecular-like'' kinetic

  1. Optimal Growth in Hypersonic Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2016-01-01

    The linear form of the parabolized linear stability equations is used in a variational approach to extend the previous body of results for the optimal, nonmodal disturbance growth in boundary-layer flows. This paper investigates the optimal growth characteristics in the hypersonic Mach number regime without any high-enthalpy effects. The influence of wall cooling is studied, with particular emphasis on the role of the initial disturbance location and the value of the spanwise wave number that leads to the maximum energy growth up to a specified location. Unlike previous predictions that used a basic state obtained from a self-similar solution to the boundary-layer equations, mean flow solutions based on the full Navier-Stokes equations are used in select cases to help account for the viscous- inviscid interaction near the leading edge of the plate and for the weak shock wave emanating from that region. Using the full Navier-Stokes mean flow is shown to result in further reduction with Mach number in the magnitude of optimal growth relative to the predictions based on the self-similar approximation to the base flow.

  2. Optimal Growth in Hypersonic Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2016-01-01

    The linear form of the parabolized linear stability equations is used in a variational approach to extend the previous body of results for the optimal, nonmodal disturbance growth in boundary-layer flows. This paper investigates the optimal growth characteristics in the hypersonic Mach number regime without any high-enthalpy effects. The influence of wall cooling is studied, with particular emphasis on the role of the initial disturbance location and the value of the spanwise wave number that leads to the maximum energy growth up to a specified location. Unlike previous predictions that used a basic state obtained from a self-similar solution to the boundary-layer equations, mean flow solutions based on the full Navier-Stokes equations are used in select cases to help account for the viscous- inviscid interaction near the leading edge of the plate and for the weak shock wave emanating from that region. Using the full Navier-Stokes mean flow is shown to result in further reduction with Mach number in the magnitude of optimal growth relative to the predictions based on the self-similar approximation to the base flow.

  3. Ab initio determination of kinetics for atomic layer deposition modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmers, Elizabeth M.

    A first principles model is developed to describe the kinetics of atomic layer deposition (ALD) systems. This model requires no fitting parameters, as it is based on the reaction pathways, structures, and energetics obtained from quantum-chemical studies. Using transition state theory and partition functions from statistical mechanics, equilibrium constants and reaction rates can be calculated. Several tools were created in Python to aid in the calculation of these quantities, and this procedure was applied to two systems- zinc oxide deposition from diethyl zinc (DEZ) and water, and alumina deposition from trimethyl aluminum (TMA) and water. A Gauss-Jordan factorization is used to decompose the system dynamics, and the resulting systems of equations are solved numerically to obtain the temporal concentration profiles of these two deposition systems.

  4. Model for computing kinetics of the graphene edge epitaxial growth on copper.

    PubMed

    Khenner, Mikhail

    2016-06-01

    A basic kinetic model that incorporates a coupled dynamics of the carbon atoms and dimers on a copper surface is used to compute growth of a single-layer graphene island. The speed of the island's edge advancement on Cu[111] and Cu[100] surfaces is computed as a function of the growth temperature and pressure. Spatially resolved concentration profiles of the atoms and dimers are determined, and the contributions provided by these species to the growth speed are discussed. Island growth under the conditions of a thermal cycling is studied.

  5. Electrodeposition of a Pt monolayer film: using kinetic limitations for atomic layer epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Brimaud, Sylvain; Behm, R Jürgen

    2013-08-14

    A new and facile one-step method to prepare a smooth Pt monolayer film on a metallic substrate in the absence of underpotential deposition-type stabilizations is presented as a general approach and applied to the growth of Pt monolayer films on Au. The strongly modified electronic properties of these films were demonstrated by in situ IR spectroscopy at the electrified solid-liquid interface with adsorbed carbon monoxide serving as a probe molecule. The Pt monolayer on Au is kinetically stabilized by adsorbed CO, inhibiting further Pt deposition in higher layers.

  6. Crystal growth kinetics of the two-step model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Clifford Y.; Lin, Chiu-Hsiung

    1987-03-01

    The single crystal technique was used to measure the growth rate of the potassium alum (111) face and the magnesium sulfate (110) face. The two-step model was found appropriate to describe the growth kinetics with the surface integration order of two for potassium alum crystal and of one for magnesium sulfate crystal. The individual rate constants, Kd and Kr, were determined accordingly.

  7. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Salmon Roe - a kinetic analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to investigate the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in unsalted and salted (3%) salmon roe. Growth curves, developed using inoculated samples incubated at constant temperatures between 5 and 30 degrees C, were analyzed by curve-fitting to the Huang and Baran...

  8. Nonlinear Transient Growth and Boundary Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Parabolized stability equations (PSE) are used in a variational approach to study the optimal, non-modal disturbance growth in a Mach 3 at plate boundary layer and a Mach 6 circular cone boundary layer. As noted in previous works, the optimal initial disturbances correspond to steady counter-rotating streamwise vortices, which subsequently lead to the formation of streamwise-elongated structures, i.e., streaks, via a lift-up effect. The nonlinear evolution of the linearly optimal stationary perturbations is computed using the nonlinear plane-marching PSE for stationary perturbations. A fully implicit marching technique is used to facilitate the computation of nonlinear streaks with large amplitudes. To assess the effect of the finite-amplitude streaks on transition, the linear form of plane- marching PSE is used to investigate the instability of the boundary layer flow modified by spanwise periodic streaks. The onset of bypass transition is estimated by using an N- factor criterion based on the amplification of the streak instabilities. Results show that, for both flow configurations of interest, streaks of sufficiently large amplitude can lead to significantly earlier onset of transition than that in an unperturbed boundary layer without any streaks.

  9. Kinetics of downflow anaerobic attached growth reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.J.; Hamoda, M.F.; Droste, R.L.

    1987-04-01

    This study examines basic reactor operating parameters to be used in DSF reactor design with an optimum surface area to volume ratio, determines kinetic constants, and predicts reactor performance. It includes a comparison of two different substrates, a carbohydrate and a fatty acid. The model gave a good fit to the experimental data obtained and showed that the DSF reactor can successfully treat different wastewaters of various organic strengths at relatively high organic loading rates and short HRTs. (Refs. 27).

  10. Crystallization kinetics in poly(ethylene oxide) / layered silicates nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Fotiadou, Sapfo; Papananou, Eleni; Chrissopoulou, Kiriaki; Anastasiadis, Spiros H.; Portale, Giuseppe; Bras, Wim

    2009-03-01

    We investigate the effect of inorganic clay on the crystalline characteristics and the crystallization kinetics of PEO in its intercalated nanocomposites with natural montmorillonite (Na+- MMT). The structure of the hybrids was investigated over multiple length scales by X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM) as well as by DSC. The PEO within the galleries is completely amorphous whereas only the excess polymer outside the completely full galleries can crystallize at high PEO concentrations. The time resolved measurements reveal the effect of clay on crystallization. Even very small amount of the inorganic can cause a significant decrease of the spherulite size. The crystallization mechanism varies from sporadic nucleation for pure PEO to two-dimensional growth with predetermined nuclei at 10wt% clay with a higher activation barrier for low clay concentration. Sponsored by NATO's Scientific Affairs Division, by the Greek GSRT and by the EU.

  11. The Growth Kinetics of Salmonella Enteritidis in Raw Ground Beef.

    PubMed

    Sabike, Islam I; Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Edris, Abobakr M

    2015-01-01

    The growth kinetics of Salmonella Enteritidis in raw beef has been little studied so far. Thus, this study aimed to clarify the growth kinetics of the pathogen in ground beef using a growth model. When Salmonella cells inoculated at various initial doses into ground beef were incubated at a given temperature (24℃), the maximum population (Nmax) of the microbe at the stationary phase varied with the doses. This relationship was expressed with a polynomialequation for Nmax using the initial dose. The combination of the growth model and the polynomial equation successfully predicted Salmonella growth at a given initial dose. When Salmonella cells inoculated in ground beef were incubated at various constant temperatures, the growth curves of the pathogen and natural microflora (NM) were well described with the growth model. The rate constant of growth and the Nmax values for Salmonella and NM were then analyzed kinetically. From these results, growth curves of Salmonella and NM in ground beef stored at dynamic temperatures were successfully predicted. Competition between Salmonella and NM in ground beef was also found during the storage. This study could give usable information on the growth of Salmonella and NM in ground beef at various temperatures.

  12. Pattern formation and growth kinetics in eutectic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Jing

    Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rod, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to

  13. Pattern Formation and Growth Kinetics in Eutectic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rodl, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to

  14. Kinetic Anisotropy and Dendritic Growth in Electrochemical Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkey, D.; Oberholtzer, F.; Wu, Q.

    1995-10-01

    It is shown that kinetic anisotropy stabilizes dendritic growth in electrochemical deposition of copper, and that in its absence the growth tips are unstable to splitting. The degree of anisotropy in the interfacial dynamics, which may be controlled through the chemistry of the electrolyte solution, was determined by the measurement of open-circuit potentials of single-crystal electrodes under nonequilibrium conditions. The experiments provide direct evidence that microscopic interfacial anisotropy in depositional growth stabilizes the dendritic morphology.

  15. On the Nonequilibrium Interface Kinetics of Rapid Coupled Eutectic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Chen, Y. Z.; Shan, G. B.; Zhang, Z. R.; Liu, F.

    2017-08-01

    Nonequilibrium interface kinetics (NEIK) is expected to play an important role in coupled growth of eutectic alloys, when solidification velocity is high and intermetallic compound or topologically complex phases form in the crystallized product. In order to quantitatively evaluate the effect of NEIK on the rapid coupled eutectic growth, in this work, two nonequilibrium interface kinetic effects, i.e., atom attachment and solute trapping at the solid-liquid interface, were incorporated into the analyses of the coupled eutectic growth under the rapid solidification condition. First, a coupled growth model incorporating the preceding two nonequilibrium kinetic effects was derived. On this basis, an expression of kinetic undercooling (∆ T k), which is used to characterize the NEIK, was defined. The calculations based on the as-derived couple growth model show good agreement with the reported experimental results achieved in rapidly solidified eutectic Al-Sm alloys consisting of a solid solution phase ( α-Al) and an intermetallic compound phase (Al11Sm3). In terms of the definition of ∆ T k defined in this work, the role of NEIK in the coupled growth of the Al-Sm eutectic system was analyzed. The results show that with increasing the coupled growth velocity, ∆ T k increases continuously, and its ratio to the total undercooling reaches 0.32 at the maximum growth velocity for coupled eutectic growth. Parametric analyses on two key alloy parameters that influence ∆ T k, i.e., interface kinetic parameter ( μ i ) and solute distribution coefficient ( k e ), indicate that both μ i and k e influence the NEIK significantly and the decrease of either these two parameters enhances the NEIK effect.

  16. Kinetics-driven anisotropic growth of pentacene thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mahboob, Abdullah; Sadowski, Jerzy T.; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Nakajima, Kazuo; Sakurai, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    The growth of nonepitaxial as well as epitaxial structures of (001)-oriented pentacene ( C22H14 , Pn) thin films on silicon surfaces has been extensively studied in order to elucidate the intrinsic thin-film growth mechanism. The kinetically driven growth processes in pentacene films were found to be modified significantly by the anisotropy of the crystal structure. In situ real-time low-energy electron microscopy studies of diffusion-limited growth of Pn islands on Si(111)-7×7 and α√3 -Bi-Si(111) surfaces reveal a definite anisotropy in their shapes. Although this anisotropy is associated with organic film crystal structure, it cannot be predicted directly from the equilibrium crystal shape. It has been found that under kinetic growth conditions the Pn islands are always elongated along the b axis of the in-plane unit cell, even though the step along the a axis has the lowest energy, regardless of crystalline polymorph or epitaxial relation, indicating that Pn thin-film growth has an intrinsic kinetic preference along the b -axis direction. Utilizing this kinetic preference and constraining the direction of available flux on inert surfaces during Pn deposition enabled us to control the crystal orientation of Pn domains.

  17. Multiple substrate growth kinetics of Leptothrix discophora SP-6.

    PubMed

    Yurt, Nurdan; Sears, John; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

    2002-01-01

    The growth parameters of Leptothrix discophora SP-6 were quantified on the basis of the steady-state concentrations and utilization rates of pyruvate, dissolved oxygen, and concentration of microorganisms in a chemostat operated at 25 degrees C, pH 7.2, and an agitation rate of 350 rpm. The results showed that the microbial growth was limited by both pyruvate and dissolved oxygen. A combined growth kinetics model using Monod growth kinetics for pyruvate and Tessier growth kinetics for oxygen showed the best correlation with the experimental data when analyzed using an interactive multiple substrate model. The growth kinetics parameters and the respective confidence limits, estimated using the Monte Carlo simulation, were mu(max) = 0.576 +/- 0.021 h(-1), K(sMp) = 38.81 +/- 4.24 mg L(-1), K(sTo) = 0.39 +/- 0.04 mg L(-1), Y(X/p) = 0.150 (mg microorganism mg(-1) pyruvate), Y(X/o) = 1.24 (mg microorganism mg(-1) oxygen), the maintenance factors for pyruvate and oxygen were m(p) = 0.129 (mg pyruvate consumed mg(-1) microorganism h(-1)) and m(o) = 0.076 (mg oxygen consumed mg(-1) microorganism h(-1)), respectively.

  18. Janus particle rotator-to-lamellar nucleation and growth kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltran-Villegas, Daniel J.; Zhang, Yulei; Larson, Ronald G.

    2017-03-01

    We determine the free energy barrier, critical nucleus size, and kinetics of a Janus particle solid-solid transition by nucleation and growth of lamellar clusters within a metastable rotator phase. The transition involves negligible change in particle position and phase volume and entails only particle orientational ordering. Fast kinetics enable the analysis of unbiased crystal growth and shrinkage trajectories from Brownian dynamic simulations. By fitting simulation trajectories to a diffusion-migration equation, the nucleus free energy and growth coefficient as a function of nucleus size are extracted. Observed transition times are on the order of hundreds of characteristic particle rotation times. Lamellar crystal nuclei are oblate rather than spherical, but otherwise classical nucleation theory applies, with the bulk free energy contribution following closely the Maier-Saupe theory for purely orientational transitions and the interfacial energy contribution following trends from 3-dimensional Ising spin kinetics.

  19. Growth and Nitrogen Uptake Kinetics in Cultured Prorocentrum donghaiense

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhangxi; Duan, Shunshan; Xu, Ning; Mulholland, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    We compared growth kinetics of Prorocentrum donghaiense cultures on different nitrogen (N) compounds including nitrate (NO3−), ammonium (NH4+), urea, glutamic acid (glu), dialanine (diala) and cyanate. P. donghaiense exhibited standard Monod-type growth kinetics over a range of N concentraions (0.5–500 μmol N L−1 for NO3− and NH4+, 0.5–50 μmol N L−1 for urea, 0.5–100 μmol N L−1 for glu and cyanate, and 0.5–200 μmol N L−1 for diala) for all of the N compounds tested. Cultures grown on glu and urea had the highest maximum growth rates (μm, 1.51±0.06 d−1 and 1.50±0.05 d−1, respectively). However, cultures grown on cyanate, NO3−, and NH4+ had lower half saturation constants (Kμ, 0.28–0.51 μmol N L−1). N uptake kinetics were measured in NO3−-deplete and -replete batch cultures of P. donghaiense. In NO3−-deplete batch cultures, P. donghaiense exhibited Michaelis-Menten type uptake kinetics for NO3−, NH4+, urea and algal amino acids; uptake was saturated at or below 50 μmol N L−1. In NO3−-replete batch cultures, NH4+, urea, and algal amino acid uptake kinetics were similar to those measured in NO3−-deplete batch cultures. Together, our results demonstrate that P. donghaiense can grow well on a variety of N sources, and exhibits similar uptake kinetics under both nutrient replete and deplete conditions. This may be an important factor facilitating their growth during bloom initiation and development in N-enriched estuaries where many algae compete for bioavailable N and the nutrient environment changes as a result of algal growth. PMID:24710151

  20. Kinetic effects on the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability in ion-to-magnetohydrodynamic scale transverse velocity shear layers: Particle simulations

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, T. K. M.; Hasegawa, H.; Shinohara, I.

    2010-01-01

    Ion-to-magnetohydrodynamic scale physics of the transverse velocity shear layer and associated Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) in a homogeneous, collisionless plasma are investigated by means of full particle simulations. The shear layer is broadened to reach a kinetic equilibrium when its initial thickness is close to the gyrodiameter of ions crossing the layer, namely, of ion-kinetic scale. The broadened thickness is larger in B⋅Ω<0 case than in B⋅Ω>0 case, where Ω is the vorticity at the layer. This is because the convective electric field, which points out of (into) the layer for B⋅Ω<0 (B⋅Ω>0), extends (reduces) the gyrodiameters. Since the kinetic equilibrium is established before the KHI onset, the KHI growth rate depends on the broadened thickness. In the saturation phase of the KHI, the ion vortex flow is strengthened (weakened) for B⋅Ω<0 (B⋅Ω>0), due to ion centrifugal drift along the rotational plasma flow. In ion inertial scale vortices, this drift effect is crucial in altering the ion vortex size. These results indicate that the KHI at Mercury-like ion-scale magnetospheric boundaries could show clear dawn-dusk asymmetries in both its linear and nonlinear growth. PMID:20838425

  1. [Growth and development kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis in batch culture].

    PubMed

    Sakharova, Z V; Ignatenko, Iu N; Schulz, F; Khovrychev, M P; Rabotnova, I L

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis growth and its assimilation of nutrient substances were studied under the conditions of batch cultivation in a complex medium containing yeast extract and in a chemically defined medium with amino acids. The growth of B. thuringiensis can be divided into five phases: exponential growth; decelerated growth; stationary phase when protein crystals are formed; stationary phase when spores are formed; lysis of sporangia releasing spores. The first phase may in turn be subdivided into three stages according to changes in the specific growth rate and substrate assimilation: a high specific growth rate and no glucose assimilation; an abrupt drop in mu and the beginning of intensive glucose assimilation from the medium; a new rise in the specific growth rate. As follows from the results of studying the kinetics of B. thuringiensis growth in a chemically defined medium, the above changes in the exponential growth phase are due to the fact that the culture assimilates yeast extract components in the complex medium or amino acids in the chemically defined medium during this phase, and then starts to assimilate glucose and ammonium in the following phases of growth.

  2. An autocatalytic kinetic model for describing microbial growth during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ibarz, Albert; Augusto, Pedro E D

    2015-01-01

    The mathematical modelling of the behaviour of microbial growth is widely desired in order to control, predict and design food and bioproduct processing, stability and safety. This work develops and proposes a new semi-empirical mathematical model, based on an autocatalytic kinetic, to describe the microbial growth through its biomass concentration. The proposed model was successfully validated using 15 microbial growth patterns, covering the three most important types of microorganisms in food and biotechnological processing (bacteria, yeasts and moulds). Its main advantages and limitations are discussed, as well as the interpretation of its parameters. It is shown that the new model can be used to describe the behaviour of microbial growth.

  3. Thermodynamic and kinetic control of the lateral Si wire growth

    SciTech Connect

    Dedyulin, Sergey N. Goncharova, Lyudmila V.

    2014-03-24

    Reproducible lateral Si wire growth has been realized on the Si (100) surface. In this paper, we present experimental evidence showing the unique role that carbon plays in initiating lateral growth of Si wires on a Si (100) substrate. Once initiated in the presence of ≈5 ML of C, lateral growth can be achieved in the range of temperatures, T = 450–650 °C, and further controlled by the interplay of the flux of incoming Si atoms with the size and areal density of Au droplets. Critical thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the growth are discussed in detail.

  4. Kinetic Effects in Tokamak Scrape-off Layer Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batishchev, O. V.

    1996-11-01

    Transport modeling for the tokamak scrape-off layer is typically done using fluid theory which assumes short Coulomb collisional mean-free paths along the magnetic field, λ, in comparison with the connection length, L. This assumption is often violated for typical discharge parameters, especially above the thermal energy where most of the heat flux is carried; here λ ∝ ɛ^2 with ɛ being the energy. Thus, the tail of the distribution function can strongly depart from Maxwellian owing to nonlocal effects, modifying plasma transport, impurity radiation, and plasma-neutral gas interactions. These nonlocal effects become particularly pronounced for detached plasma conditions which are characterized by sharp gradients of plasma parameters along the magnetic field. These problems are addressed by developing a 1D-2V fully kinetic collisional time-dependent PIC code, W1, and its parallel-computer version, PW1. Both are used here to study divertor plasma detachment. New developments are presented that include a cross-field spatial dimension to assess the competition between radial and parallel transport in determining the SOL particle distribution functions, as well as impurity radiation and volume recombination. Short time-scale transport effects for ELMs in the tokamak edge are modeled also, and incomplete equilibration of the electron distribution function is observed. A comparison is made with a Fokker-Planck code ALLA and with experimental results. Results on the influence of kinetic effects on probe measurement interpretation, impurity radiation and parallel heat conductivity due to non-Maxwellian features in the SOL plasmas are presented and compared with ad hoc heat flux-limit models. Additional topics discussed are the sheath potential increase caused by hot electrons and plasma flow stagnation in the recycling region due to strong plasma-neutral particle interaction. In collaboration with X.Q. Xu, J.A. Byers, T.D. Rognlien, R.H. Cohen, S.I. Krasheninnikov, A

  5. Signature of microscale kinetics in mesoscale description of epitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Joshua P.; Margetis, Dionisios

    2017-08-01

    We describe the effect of kinetic interactions of adsorbed atoms in a mesoscale model of epitaxial growth without elasticity. Our goal is to understand how atomic correlations due to kinetics leave their signature in mechanisms governing the motion of crystal line defects (steps) at the nanoscale. We focus on the key atomistic processes related to external material deposition, desorption, and asymmetric energy barriers on a stepped surface. By starting with a kinetic, restricted solid-on-solid model in 1+1 dimensions, we derive laws that govern the motion of a single step when deposition is nearly balanced out by desorption. These mesoscale laws reveal how kinetic processes, e.g., bond breaking at the step edge, influence step motion via the correlated motion of atoms.

  6. Metastable Solution Thermodynamic Properties and Crystal Growth Kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soojin; Myerson, Allan S.

    1996-01-01

    The crystal growth rates of NH4H2PO4, KH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, KAl(SO4)2 central dot 12H2O, NaCl, and glycine and the nucleation rates of KBr, KCl, NaBr central dot 2H2O, (NH4)2Cl, and (NH4)2SO4 were expressed in terms of the fundamental driving force of crystallization calculated from the activity of supersaturated solutions. The kinetic parameters were compared with those from the commonly used kinetic expression based on the concentration difference. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, rate expressions based on the chemical potential difference provide accurate kinetic representation over a broad range of supersaturation. The rates estimated using the expression based on the concentration difference coincide with the true rates of crystallization only in the concentration range of low supersaturation and deviate from the true kinetics as the supersaturation increases.

  7. Kinetic model of particle-inhibited grain growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Gary Scott

    The effects of second phase particles on matrix grain growth kinetics were investigated using Al2O3-SiC as a model system. In particular, the validity of the conclusion drawn from a previous kinetic analysis that the kinetics of particle-inhibited grain growth in Al2 O3-SiC samples with an intermediate volume fraction of second phase could be well quantified by a modified-Zener model was investigated. A critical analysis of assumptions made during the previous kinetic analysis revealed oversimplifications which affect the validity of the conclusion. Specifically, the degree of interaction between particles and grain boundaries was assumed to be independent of the mean second phase particle size and size distribution. In contrast, current measurements indicate that the degree of interaction in Al2O3-SiC is dependent on these parameters. An improved kinetic model for particle-inhibited grain growth in Al 2O3-SiC was developed using a modified-Zener approach. The comparison of model predictions with experimental grain growth data indicated that significant discrepancies (as much as 4--5 orders of magnitude) existed. Based on this, it was concluded that particles had a much more significant effect on grain growth kinetics than that caused by a simple reduction of the boundary driving force due to the removal of boundary area. Consequently, it was also concluded that the conclusion drawn from the earlier kinetic analysis regarding the validity of a modified-Zener model was incorrect. Discrepancies between model and experiment were found to be the result of a significant decrease in experimental growth rate constant not predicted by the model. Possible physical mechanisms for such a decrease were investigated. The investigation of a small amount of SiO2 on grain growth in Al2O3 indicated that the decrease was not the result of a decrease in grain boundary mobility due to impurity contamination by particles. By process of elimination and based on previous observations

  8. Half Layer By Half Layer Growth of a Blue Phosphorene Monolayer on a GaN(001) Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jiang; Cui, Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2017-01-01

    Black phosphorene (BlackP), consisting of a vertically corrugated yet single layer of phosphorus atoms, is a latest member of the expanding two-dimensional (2D) materials family with high carrier mobility and immense application potentials. Blue phosphorene (BlueP), an allotrope of BlackP with appealing properties of its own, consists of a more flatly arranged layer of phosphorus atoms. To date, direct growth of either BlackP or BlueP remains a daunting challenge. Using first-principles approaches, here we establish a novel kinetic pathway for fabricating BlueP via epitaxial growth. Our systematic energetic studies reveal that both BlackP and BlueP monolayers can be readily stabilized on Cu(111), Au(111), and GaN(001) substrates. The semiconducting GaN(001) is further shown to be superior for fabricating BlueP, through an intriguing half-layer-by-half-layer (HLBHL) growth mechanism. Within this scheme, the GaN(001) surface is first preferentially covered by a half layer of phosphorus adatoms, followed by the addition of the other half. Once formed, such a BlueP monolayer is thermodynamically stable, as tested using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The HLBHL growth mechanism discovered here may enable mass production of high-quality BlueP, and could also be instrumental in achieving epitaxial growth of BlackP and other 2D materials.

  9. Implications of a concentration-dependent growth rate on the boundary layer crystal-melt model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaga, Antonio C.

    1981-12-01

    The influence of a melt boundary layer on crystal growth is analyzed. The treatment extends the results of Burton, Prim and Slichter (1953) and incorporates composition-dependent growth rates. It is shown that in these general cases the growth rate cannot be arbitrarily fixed but must satisfy a self-consistent equation. Self-consistency problems arise because the growth rate determines the composition profile in the melt and, in turn, the composition profile determines the growth rate. The self-consistent growth rate is shown to vary markedly with the ratio δ/D, where δ is the thickness of the boundary layer and D is the appropriate diffusion coefficient in the melt. This self-consistency can be very important in the analysis of both field and laboratory growth rates as well as in trace element partition kinetic models.

  10. Growth Kinetics and Modeling of ZnO Nanoparticles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Penny S.; Maddox, Leone M.; Shapter, Joe G.; Voelcker, Nico H.; Ford, Michael J.; Waclawik, Eric R.

    2005-01-01

    The technique for producing quantum-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) particles is much safer than a technique that used hydrogen sulfide gas to produce cadmium sulfide and zinc sulfide nanoparticles. A further advantage of this method is the ability to sample the solution over time and hence determine the growth kinetics.

  11. Growth Kinetics and Modeling of ZnO Nanoparticles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Penny S.; Maddox, Leone M.; Shapter, Joe G.; Voelcker, Nico H.; Ford, Michael J.; Waclawik, Eric R.

    2005-01-01

    The technique for producing quantum-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) particles is much safer than a technique that used hydrogen sulfide gas to produce cadmium sulfide and zinc sulfide nanoparticles. A further advantage of this method is the ability to sample the solution over time and hence determine the growth kinetics.

  12. Buried amorphous layers by electronic excitation in ion-beam irradiated lithium niobate: Structure and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, J.; Garcia-Navarro, A.; Garcia, G.; Agullo-Lopez, F.; Agullo-Rueda, F.; Garcia-Cabanes, A.; Carrascosa, M.

    2007-02-01

    The formation of buried heavily damaged and amorphous layers by a variety of swift-ion irradiations (F at 22 MeV, O at 20 MeV, and Mg at 28 MeV) on congruent LiNbO{sub 3} has been investigated. These irradiations assure that the electronic stopping power S{sub e}(z) is dominant over the nuclear stopping S{sub n}(z) and reaches a maximum value inside the crystal. The structural profile of the irradiated layers has been characterized in detail by a variety of spectroscopic techniques including dark-mode propagation, micro-Raman scattering, second-harmonic generation, and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy/channeling. The growth of the damage on increasing irradiation fluence presents two differentiated stages with an abrupt structural transition between them. The heavily damaged layer reached as a final stage is optically isotropic (refractive index n=2.10, independent of bombarding ion) and has an amorphous structure. Moreover, it has sharp profiles and its thickness progressively increases with irradiation fluence. The dynamics under irradiation of the amorphous-crystalline boundaries has been associated with a reduction of the effective amorphization threshold due to the defects created by prior irradiation (cumulative damage). The kinetics of the two boundaries of the buried layer is quite different, suggesting that other mechanisms aside from the electronic stopping power should play a role on ion-beam damage.

  13. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of boundary-layer plasmas in the kinetic regime

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbusch, Benedikt; Gibbon, Paul; Sydora, Richard D.

    2016-05-15

    The dynamics of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are investigated in the kinetic, high-frequency regime with a novel, two-dimensional, mesh-free tree code. In contrast to earlier studies which focused on specially prepared equilibrium configurations in order to compare with fluid theory, a more naturally occurring plasma-vacuum boundary layer is considered here with relevance to both space plasma and linear plasma devices. Quantitative comparisons of the linear phase are made between the fluid and kinetic models. After establishing the validity of this technique via comparison to linear theory and conventional particle-in-cell simulation for classical benchmark problems, a quantitative analysis of the more complex magnetized plasma-vacuum layer is presented and discussed. It is found that in this scenario, the finite Larmor orbits of the ions result in significant departures from the effective shear velocity and width underlying the instability growth, leading to generally slower development and stronger nonlinear coupling between fast growing short-wavelength modes and longer wavelengths.

  14. Nucleation and growth kinetics of biochemicals measured at high supersaturations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Amarjit J.; Kirwan, Donald J.

    1994-12-01

    A grid mixer device (characteristic micromixing time < 3 ms) was successfully used to measure both nucleation and growth kinetics of lovastatin in 60 vol% methanol and asparagine monohydrate in 50 vol% 2-propanol at 23°C at high supersaturations but in the absence of mixing limitations. The supersaturation ratios investigated were in the range 1.25-8.8 for the lovastatin system and 1.17-4.1 for the asparagine system. When plotted according to primary nucleation theory, the induction time and nucleation rate measurements for both systems exhibited a homogeneous nucleation region at high supersaturations and a heterogeneous nucleation region at low supersaturations. The values of interfacial free energy extracted from these measurements for lovastatin (1.4-1.6 mJ/m 2) and asparagine (4.5-6.1 mJ/m 2) were an order-of-magnitude lower than those for inorganic salts reflecting the weaker intermolecular bonding in such biochemical solutes. The measured crystal growth rates for both solutes over the entire range of supersaturation could be represented with a power law dependence on chemical potential driving force. The kinetic orders of crystal growth were found to be 6.7 and 2.9 for lovastatin and asparagine, respectively. These unusually high kinetic orders could be represented by a polynuclear surface nucleation growth mechanism. The activation energy for the growth of lovastatin was measured as 280 kJ/mol.

  15. Tetradymite layer assisted heteroepitaxial growth and applications

    DOEpatents

    Stoica, Vladimir A.; Endicott, Lynn; Clarke, Roy; Uher, Ctirad

    2017-08-01

    A multilayer stack including a substrate, an active layer, and a tetradymite buffer layer positioned between the substrate and the active layer is disclosed. A method for fabricating a multilayer stack including a substrate, a tetradymite buffer layer and an active layer is also disclosed. Use of such stacks may be in photovoltaics, solar cells, light emitting diodes, and night vision arrays, among other applications.

  16. Growth Kinetics of Magnesio-Aluminate Spinel in Al/Mg Lamellar Composite Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouad, Yasser; Rabeeh, Bakr Mohamed

    The synthesis of Mg-Al2O3 double layered interface is introduced via the application of hot isostatic pressing, HIPing, in Al-Mg foils. Polycrystalline spinel layers are grown experimentally at the interfacial contacts between Al-Mg foils. The growth behavior of the spinel layers along with the kinetic parameters characterizing interface motion and long-range diffusion is established. Low melting depressant (LMD), Zn, and alloying element segregation tends to form micro laminated and/or Nano structure interphase in a lamellar composite solid state processing. Nano composite ceramic interphase materials offer interesting mechanical properties not achievable in other materials, such as superplastic flow and metal-like machinability. Microstructural characterization, mechanical characterization is also established via optical microscopy scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and tensile testing. Chemical and mechanical bonding via inter diffusion processing with alloy segregation are dominant for interphase kinetics. Mechanical characterization with interfacial shear strength is also introduced. HIPing processing is successfully applied on 6082 Al-alloy and AZ31 magnesium alloy for either particulate or micro-laminated interfacial composite processing. The interphase kinetic established through localized micro plasticity, metal flow, alloy segregation and delocalized Al oxide and Mg oxide. The kinetic of interface/interphase induce new nontraditional crack mitigation a long with new bridging and toughening mechanisms.

  17. Growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on Brie and Camembert cheeses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Soomin; Han, Minkyung; Yoon, Yohan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we developed mathematical models to describe the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on natural cheeses. A five-strain mixture of Staph. aureus was inoculated onto 15 g of Brie and Camembert cheeses at 4 log CFU/g. The samples were then stored at 4, 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C for 2-60 d, with a different storage time being used for each temperature. Total bacterial and Staph. aureus cells were enumerated on tryptic soy agar and mannitol salt agar, respectively. The Baranyi model was fitted to the growth data of Staph. aureus to calculate kinetic parameters such as the maximum growth rate in log CFU units (r max; log CFU/g/h) and the lag phase duration (λ; h). The effects of temperature on the square root of r max and on the natural logarithm of λ were modelled in the second stage (secondary model). Independent experimental data (observed data) were compared with prediction and the respective root mean square error compared with the RMSE of the fit on the original data, as a measure of model performance. The total growth of bacteria was observed at 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C on both cheeses. The r max values increased with storage temperature (P<0·05), but a significant effect of storage temperature on λ values was only observed between 4 and 15 °C (P<0·05). The square root model and linear equation were found to be appropriate for description of the effect of storage temperature on growth kinetics (R 2=0·894-0·983). Our results indicate that the models developed in this study should be useful for describing the growth kinetics of Staph. aureus on Brie and Camembert cheeses.

  18. Dendritic growth shapes in kinetic Monte Carlo models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumwiede, Tim R.; Schulze, Tim P.

    2017-02-01

    For the most part, the study of dendritic crystal growth has focused on continuum models featuring surface energies that yield six pointed dendrites. In such models, the growth shape is a function of the surface energy anisotropy, and recent work has shown that considering a broader class of anisotropies yields a correspondingly richer set of growth morphologies. Motivated by this work, we generalize nanoscale models of dendritic growth based on kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. In particular, we examine the effects of extending the truncation radius for atomic interactions in a bond-counting model. This is done by calculating the model’s corresponding surface energy and equilibrium shape, as well as by running KMC simulations to obtain nanodendritic growth shapes. Additionally, we compare the effects of extending the interaction radius in bond-counting models to that of extending the number of terms retained in the cubic harmonic expansion of surface energy anisotropy in the context of continuum models.

  19. Kinetic Roughening Transition and Energetics of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    Interpretation of lysozyme crystal growth rates using well-established physical theories enabled the discovery of a phenomenon possibly indicative of kinetic roughening. For example, lysozyme crystals grown above a critical supersaturation sigma, (where supersaturation sigma = ln c/c(sub eq), c = the protein concentration and c(sub eq) = the solubility concentration) exhibit microscopically rough surfaces due to the continuous addition of growth units anywhere on the surface of a crystal. The rate of crystal growth, V(sub c), for the continuous growth process is determined by the continuous flux of macromolecules onto a unit area of the crystal surface, a, from a distance, xi, per unit time due to diffusion, and a probability of attachment onto the crystal surface, expressed. Based upon models applied, the energetics of lysozyme crystal growth was determined. The magnitudes of the energy barriers of crystal growth for both the (110) and (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals are compared. Finally, evidence supportive of the kinetic roughening hypothesis is presented.

  20. Kinetic Roughening Transition and Energetics of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    Interpretation of lysozyme crystal growth rates using well-established physical theories enabled the discovery of a phenomenon possibly indicative of kinetic roughening. For example, lysozyme crystals grown above a critical supersaturation sigma, (where supersaturation sigma = ln c/c(sub eq), c = the protein concentration and c(sub eq) = the solubility concentration) exhibit microscopically rough surfaces due to the continuous addition of growth units anywhere on the surface of a crystal. The rate of crystal growth, V(sub c), for the continuous growth process is determined by the continuous flux of macromolecules onto a unit area of the crystal surface, a, from a distance, xi, per unit time due to diffusion, and a probability of attachment onto the crystal surface, expressed. Based upon models applied, the energetics of lysozyme crystal growth was determined. The magnitudes of the energy barriers of crystal growth for both the (110) and (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals are compared. Finally, evidence supportive of the kinetic roughening hypothesis is presented.

  1. Turbulent kinetic energy generation in the convective boundary layer derived from thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slameršak, Aljoša; Renner, Maik; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Hartogensis, Oscar; Kolle, Olaf; Kleidon, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Turbulent heat fluxes facilitate the bulk of heat transfer between the surface and lower atmosphere, which results in the diurnal growth of convective boundary layer (CBL) and turbulent kinetic energy generation (TKE). Here we postulate the hypothesis that TKE generation in the CBL occurs as a result of heat transfer in a "Carnot-like" heat engine with temporal changes in the internal energy of the boundary layer. We used the Tennekes energy-balance model of CBL and extended it with the analysis of the entropy balance to derive the estimates of TKE generation in the CBL. These TKE generation estimates were compared to the turbulent dissipation from a simple dissipation model from Moeng and Sullivan, to test the validity of our heat engine hypothesis. In addition, to evaluate the performance of the dissipation model, this was independently validated by a comparison of its estimates with the turbulent dissipation calculations based on spectral analysis of eddy covariance wind measurements at a German field station. Our analysis demonstrates how a consistent application of thermodynamics can be used to obtain an independent physical constraint on the diurnal boundary layer evolution. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that the CBL operates at the thermodynamic limit, thus imposing a thermodynamic constraint on surface-atmosphere exchange.

  2. Growth kinetics of CaF2/Si(111) heteroepitaxy: An x-ray photoelectron diffraction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denlinger, J. D.; Rotenberg, Eli; Hessinger, U.; Leskovar, M.; Olmstead, Marjorie A.

    1995-02-01

    Kinetic variations of the initial stages of CaF2 growth on Si(111) by molecular-beam epitaxy are studied with the in situ combination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffraction. After the formation of a chemically reacted interface layer, the morphology of the subsequent bulk layers is found to be dependent on the substrate temperature and incident flux rate, as well as the initial interface structure. For substrate temperatures above ~600 °C, subsequent layers do not easily wet the interface layer, and a transition is observed from a three-dimensional island formation at low flux to a laminar growth following the coalescence of bilayer islands at higher flux. At lower substrate temperatures (~450 °C), a different stoichiometry and structure of the interface layer leads to laminar growth at all fluxes, but with a different bulk nucleation behavior. Crystalline heteroepitaxy is not observed when growth initiates at room temperature, but homoepitaxy does proceed at room temperature if the first few layers are deposited at a high temperature. The different growth regimes are discussed in terms of a kinetic model separating step and terrace nucleation where, contrary to homoepitaxy, step nucleation leads to islanded growth.

  3. Kinetic limitation of chemical ordering in Bi2Te3-x Se x layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreyeck, S.; Brunner, K.; Kirchner, A.; Bass, U.; Grauer, S.; Schumacher, C.; Gould, C.; Karczewski, G.; Geurts, J.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2016-04-01

    We study the chemical ordering in Bi2Te3-x Se x grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates. We produce films in the full composition range from x  =  0 to 3, and determine their material properties using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. By fitting the parameters of a kinetic growth model to these results, we obtain a consistent description of growth at a microscopic level. Our main finding is that despite the incorporation of Se in the central layer being much more probable than that of Te, the formation of a fully ordered Te-Bi-Se-Bi-Te layer is prevented by kinetic of the growth process. Indeed, the Se concentration in the central layer of Bi2Te2Se1 reaches a maximum of only  ≈75% even under ideal growth conditions. A second finding of our work is that the intensity ratio of the 0 0 12 and 0 0 6 x-ray reflections serves as an experimentally accessible quantitative measure of the degree of ordering in these films.

  4. Kinetic limitation of chemical ordering in Bi2Te3-x Se x layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Schreyeck, S; Brunner, K; Kirchner, A; Bass, U; Grauer, S; Schumacher, C; Gould, C; Karczewski, G; Geurts, J; Molenkamp, L W

    2016-04-13

    We study the chemical ordering in Bi2Te3-x Se x grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates. We produce films in the full composition range from x = 0 to 3, and determine their material properties using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. By fitting the parameters of a kinetic growth model to these results, we obtain a consistent description of growth at a microscopic level. Our main finding is that despite the incorporation of Se in the central layer being much more probable than that of Te, the formation of a fully ordered Te-Bi-Se-Bi-Te layer is prevented by kinetic of the growth process. Indeed, the Se concentration in the central layer of Bi2Te2Se1 reaches a maximum of only ≈ 75% even under ideal growth conditions. A second finding of our work is that the intensity ratio of the 0 0 12 and 0 0 6 x-ray reflections serves as an experimentally accessible quantitative measure of the degree of ordering in these films.

  5. Kinetics of Denitrifying Growth by Fast-Growing Cowpea Rhizobia

    PubMed Central

    El Hassan, G. A.; Zablotowicz, R. M.; Focht, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    Two fast-growing strains of cowpea rhizobia (A26 and A28) were found to grow anaerobically at the expense of NO3−, NO2−, and N2O as terminal electron acceptors. The two major differences between aerobic and denitrifying growth were lower yield coefficients (Y) and higher saturation constants (Ks) with nitrogenous oxides as electron acceptors. When grown aerobically, A26 and A28 adhered to Monod kinetics, respectively, as follows: Ks, 3.4 and 3.8 μM; Y, 16.0 and 14.0 g · cells eq−1; μmax, 0.41 and 0.33 h−1. Yield coefficients for denitrifying growth ranged from 40 to 70% of those for aerobic growth. Only A26 adhered to Monod kinetics with respect to growth on all three nitrogenous oxides. The apparent Ks values were 41, 270, and 460 μM for nitrous oxide, nitrate, and nitrite, respectively; the Ks for A28 grown on nitrate was 250 μM. The results are kinetically and thermodynamically consistent in explaining why O2 is the preferred electron acceptor. Although no definitive conclusions could be drawn regarding preferential utilization of nitrogenous oxides, nitrite was inhibitory to both strains and effected slower growth. However, growth rates were identical (μmax, 0.41 h−1) when A26 was grown with either O2 or NO3− as an electron acceptor and were only slightly reduced when A28 was grown with NO3− (0.25 h−1) as opposed to O2 (0.33 h−1). PMID:16346745

  6. Plasma interfacial mixing layers: Comparisons of fluid and kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vold, Erik; Yin, Lin; Taitano, William; Albright, B. J.; Chacon, Luis; Simakov, Andrei; Molvig, Kim

    2016-10-01

    We examine plasma transport across an initial discontinuity between two species by comparing fluid and kinetic models. The fluid model employs a kinetic theory approximation for plasma transport in the limit of small Knudsen number. The kinetic simulations include explicit particle-in-cell simulations (VPIC) and a new implicit Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, iFP. The two kinetic methods are shown to be in close agreement for many aspects of the mixing dynamics at early times (to several hundred collision times). The fluid model captures some of the earliest time dynamic behavior seen in the kinetic results, and also generally agrees with iFP at late times when the total pressure gradient relaxes and the species transport is dominated by slow diffusive processes. The results show three distinct phases of the mixing: a pressure discontinuity forms across the initial interface (on times of a few collisions), the pressure perturbations propagate away from the interfacial mixing region (on time scales of an acoustic transit) and at late times the pressure relaxes in the mix region leaving a non-zero center of mass flow velocity. The center of mass velocity associated with the outward propagating pressure waves is required to conserve momentum in the rest frame. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the LANS, LLC, Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396. Funding provided by the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program.

  7. Kinetic model for microbial growth and desulphurisation with Enterobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Guo, Zhiguo; Lu, Jianjiang; Xu, Xiaolin

    2015-02-01

    Biodesulphurisation was investigated by using Enterobacter sp. D4, which can selectively desulphurise and convert dibenzothiophene into 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP). The experimental values of growth, substrate consumption and product generation were obtained at 95 % confidence level of the fitted values using three models: Hinshelwood equation, Luedeking-Piret and Luedeking-Piret-like equations. The average error values between experimental values and fitted values were less than 10 %. These kinetic models describe all the experimental data with good statistical parameters. The production of 2-HBP in Enterobacter sp. was by "coupled growth".

  8. Growth and bacteriocin production kinetics of Leuconostoc mesenteroides E131.

    PubMed

    Drosinos, E H; Mataragas, M; Nasis, P; Galiotou, M; Metaxopoulos, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pH, temperature, sodium chloride, type and level of sugar used in fermented sausages, on the occurrence and the concentration of the maximum bacteriocin activity, in order to optimize the bacteriocin synthesis during the growth cycle of Leuconostoc mesenteroides E131. In order to study the effect of the environmental factors on growth and bacteriocin production of Leuc. mesenteroides E131 fermentations were carried out in fermentor as well as in flasks. Mathematical equations were used to describe the kinetic parameters of the strain. When the micro-organism was grown in lower pH value (5.5) than optimum for growth (pH 6.5) the bacteriocin production was enhanced. On the contrary, bacteriocin production was favoured when the micro-organism was grown at temperatures close to the optimum for growth (25 degrees C). Finally, the level and the type of the sugar used as carbon source affected both growth and bacteriocin production with glucose being better source for biomass production and fructose more suitable for bacteriocin production. Leuconostoc mesenteroides E131 has a potential use as protective culture or its bacteriocin as protective agent in combination with another starter culture in fermented meats. Better understanding of the influence of environmental factors, such as pH, temperature and carbon source on the kinetic behaviour of Leuc. mesenteroides E131.

  9. Growth morphologies of wax in the presence of kinetic inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetervak, Alexander A.

    Driven by the need to prevent crystallization of normal alkanes from diesel fuels in cold climates, the petroleum industry has developed additives to slow the growth of these crystals and alter their morphologies. Although the utility of these kinetic inhibitors has been well demonstrated in the field, few studies have directly monitored their effect at microscopic morphology, and the mechanisms by which they act remain poorly understood. Here we present a study of the effects of such additives on the crystallization of long-chain n-alkanes from solution. The additives change the growth morphology from plate-like crystals to a microcrystalline mesh. When we impose a front velocity by moving the sample through a temperature gradient, the mesh growth may form a macroscopic banded pattern and also exhibit a burst-crystallization behavior. In this study, we characterize these crystallization phenomena and also two growth models: a continuum model that demonstrates the essential behavior of the banded crystallization, and a simple qualitative cellular automata model that captures basics of the burst-crystallization process. Keywords: solidification; mesh crystallization; kinetic inhibitor; burst growth.

  10. Role of Transport and Kinetics in Growth of Renal Stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Iskovitz, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    Renal stone disease is not only a concern on earth but could conceivably pose as a serious risk to the astronauts health and safety in Space. In this paper, a combined transport-kinetics model for growth of calcium oxalate crystals is presented. The model is used to parametrically investigate the growth of renal calculi in urine with a focus on the coupled effects of transport and surface reaction on the ionic concentrations at the surface of the crystal and their impact on the resulting growth rates. It is shown that under nominal conditions of low solution supersaturation and low Damkohler number that typically exist on Earth, the surface concentrations of calcium and oxalate approach their bulk solution values in the urine and the growth rate is most likely limited by the surface reaction kinetics. But for higher solution supersaturations and larger Damkohler numbers that may be prevalent in the microgravity environment of Space, the calcium and oxalate surface concentrations tend to shift more towards their equilibrium or saturation values and thus the growth process may be limited by the transport through the medium. Furthermore, parametric numerical studies suggest that changes to the renal biochemistry of astronauts due in space may promote development of renal calculi during long duration space expeditions.

  11. Solution Chemistry Effect on the Kinetics of Calcite Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, M.; Teng, H.

    2013-12-01

    Calcite is one of the commonly chosen model systems to study crystallization due to the easiness to acquire data in simple experimental settings and the high relevance to mineralization in inorganic and biological environments. While the thermodynamic driving force for calcite growth is well-understood and can be precisely controlled via changing saturation levels of solutions, the parameters that govern the growth kinetics have often been the subject of significant controversy. Different studies reported different degree of step speed dependence on supersaturation and different views on the effects of ionic strength, solution pH, as well as solution stoichiometry (i.e. activity ratio of Ca2+/CO32-). A literature search finds that most of the previous studies did not fully control solution chemistry during growth experiments, suggesting that the observed effect of individual solution chemistry parameters was more likely not properly isolated. To get a clear view of the kinetic controls for calcite growth, we conducted a series of growth experiments to interrogate the step kinetics by systematically varying solution chemistry parameters including ionic strength, pH, and solution stoichiometry. Experiments were conducted at constant supersaturation conditions and with only one of the three solution chemistry parameter allowed to change. Step speed measurements were collected for both the acute and the obtuse steps on calcite cleavage surfaces and the results showed the two directions respond differently to changes in solution chemistry. The pH effect, instead of showing a monotonic trend as reported before, changes directions around pHpzc (9.5). For example, obtuse steps maintain a rather constant growth rate when pH increased from 7.5 to 9.5, but propagate much faster afterwards; meanwhile, acute steps is retarded with the same pH change but the growth also speeds up once pH>9.5. Ionic strength was reported to have negligible or positive effect on calcite growth

  12. Role of Step and Terrace Nucleation in Heteroepitaxial Growth Morphology: Growth Kinetics of CaF2/Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessinger, Uwe; Leskovar, M.; Olmstead, Marjorie A.

    1995-09-01

    The thickness uniformity and the spatial distribution of lattice relaxation in thin ( <8 nm) CaF2/Si(111) films, observed with photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, are seen to depend strongly on the initial nucleation kinetics. We develop a general model for heteroepitaxial growth that explains both these and literature results. Terrace or step nucleation leads to laminar films, although with different relaxation patterns; combined step and terrace nucleation leads to rough films due to different upper-layer nucleation rates on the differently sized islands.

  13. Physiological adaptation of growth kinetics in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, M; Takács, I; Tränckner, J

    2015-11-15

    Physiological adaptation as it occurs in bacterial cells at variable environmental conditions influences characteristic properties of growth kinetics significantly. However, physiological adaptation to growth related parameters in activated sludge modelling is not yet recognised. Consequently these parameters are regarded to be constant. To investigate physiological adaptation in activated sludge the endogenous respiration in an aerobic degradation batch experiment and simultaneous to that the maximum possible respiration in an aerobic growth batch experiment was measured. The activated sludge samples were taken from full scale wastewater treatment plants with different sludge retention times (SRTs). It could be shown that the low SRT sludge adapts by growth optimisation (high maximum growth rate and high decay rate) to its particular environment where a high SRT sludge adapts by survival optimization (low maximum growth rate and low decay rate). Thereby, both the maximum specific growth rate and the decay rate vary in the same pattern and are strongly correlated to each other. To describe the physiological state of mixed cultures like activated sludge quantitatively a physiological state factor (PSF) is proposed as the ratio of the maximum specific growth rate and the decay rate. The PSF can be expressed as an exponential function with respect to the SRT.

  14. Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth

    DOEpatents

    Findikoglu, Alp T.; Matias, Vladimir

    2007-10-30

    A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

  15. Analysis of Network Topologies Underlying Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Aaron M.; McCollough, Forest W.; Eldreth, Bryan L.; Binder, Brad M.; Abel, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Most models for ethylene signaling involve a linear pathway. However, measurements of seedling growth kinetics when ethylene is applied and removed have resulted in more complex network models that include coherent feedforward, negative feedback, and positive feedback motifs. The dynamical responses of the proposed networks have not been explored in a quantitative manner. Here, we explore (i) whether any of the proposed models are capable of producing growth-response behaviors consistent with experimental observations and (ii) what mechanistic roles various parts of the network topologies play in ethylene signaling. To address this, we used computational methods to explore two general network topologies: The first contains a coherent feedforward loop that inhibits growth and a negative feedback from growth onto itself (CFF/NFB). In the second, ethylene promotes the cleavage of EIN2, with the product of the cleavage inhibiting growth and promoting the production of EIN2 through a positive feedback loop (PFB). Since few network parameters for ethylene signaling are known in detail, we used an evolutionary algorithm to explore sets of parameters that produce behaviors similar to experimental growth response kinetics of both wildtype and mutant seedlings. We generated a library of parameter sets by independently running the evolutionary algorithm many times. Both network topologies produce behavior consistent with experimental observations, and analysis of the parameter sets allows us to identify important network interactions and parameter constraints. We additionally screened these parameter sets for growth recovery in the presence of sub-saturating ethylene doses, which is an experimentally-observed property that emerges in some of the evolved parameter sets. Finally, we probed simplified networks maintaining key features of the CFF/NFB and PFB topologies. From this, we verified observations drawn from the larger networks about mechanisms underlying ethylene

  16. Wetting and domain-growth kinetics in confined geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monette, Liza; Liu, Andrea J.; Grest, Gary S.

    1992-12-01

    In this paper, we review the theoretical and experimental progress in understanding the controversial phase behavior of binary liquids in dense porous media. Experimental observation of metastability and hysteresis in the phase-separation behavior has led to two widely different theoretical interpretations: the random-field Ising picture and the single-pore picture. We argue that the random-field model is inapplicable to binary liquids in low-porosity media such as Vycor, and discuss the available experimental evidence on such systems. Next, we present Monte Carlo studies of phase-separation kinetics of an Ising model in a pore. We find that the domain-growth kinetics slow down dramatically once the domain size becomes comparable to the pore size, as predicted by the single-pore model. In addition, we examine the influence of temperature and interfacial phase transitions on the kinetics, and show that the domain-growth rate slows down as the temperature moves further into the two-phase region. Finally, our results for small pores, only 20 spins across, suggest that macroscopic descriptions are surprisingly successful, even at short length scales.

  17. Solution growth kinetics and mechanism: Prismatic face of ADP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, A. A.; Rashkovich, L. N.; Mkrtchan, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    Laser Michelson interferometry has been applied to in situ study the (001) ADP growth kinetics in aqueous solution in the kinetic regime. The technique allows one to simultaneously measure the slope p of a growth hillock and normal growth rate R provided by this hillock. From these data, the average step growth rate v=R/p has been determined as a function of relative supersaturation σ. The dependencev(σ) is found to be linear, demonstrating the unimportance of surface and bulk diffusion. The direct incorporation at steps is characterized by the step kinetic coefficient βl=(5.1-6.4)X10-3 cm/s. The specific step free energy αl=(1.2-1.9) X10-6 erg/cm was determined from the measured linear dependence of the hillock slope on supersaturation for the hillock around presumably single elementary dislocation. For complex dislocation sources with large total Burgers vectors, the tendency to saturationin the hillock slope-supersaturation curves has been found. The curve perfectly fits the BCF expression which takes into account the perimeter 2L of the region occupied by the points in which the dislocation of the complex step source cross the growing face. For two dislocation sources,L=0.92 μm andL=0.31 μm and total Burgers vectors ⋍12h and 6h (h=7.53Å) have been found. The supersaturation dependence of activities for various complex dislocation sources have been directly demonstrated.

  18. Kinetics of growth and aniline degradation by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    SciTech Connect

    Zissi, U.S.; Lyberatos, G.C.

    1999-01-01

    A pure bacterial culture of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, capable of using aniline as a sole carbon source, was isolated. Kinetic experiments were conducted to develop a mathematical model that describes accurately the growth and utilization rates of the microorganism on the aniline and an alternate carbon source (glucose) individually and on their mixture. The growth of microorganisms and substrate utilization could be well described by using Monod expressions for limiting substrates. The presence of glucose in the culture medium did not repress aniline catabolism but simultaneous utilization was observed. When both substrates were present, the utilization of one substrate had a considerable effect on the utilization of the other. These effects were shown to be predicted by a mathematical model based on a modified Monod expression. The proposed model was found capable of describing accurately cellular growth as well as aniline and glucose biodegradation.

  19. In Situ μGISAXS: II. Thaumatin Crystal Growth Kinetic

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt, Ronald; Pechkova, Eugenia; Riekel, Christian; Nicolini, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    The formation of thaumatin crystals by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film nanotemplates was studied by the hanging-drop technique in a flow-through cell by synchrotron radiation micrograzing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The kinetics of crystallization was measured directly on the interface of the LB film crystallization nanotemplate. The evolution of the micrograzing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering patterns suggests that the increase in intensity in the Yoneda region is due to protein incorporation into the LB film. The intensity variation suggests several steps, which were modeled by system dynamics based on first-order differential equations. The kinetic data can be described by two processes that take place on the LB film, a first, fast, process, attributed to the crystal growth and its detachment from the LB film, and a second, slower process, attributed to an unordered association and conversion of protein on the LB film. PMID:20713011

  20. Kinetic study on hot-wire-assisted atomic layer deposition of nickel thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Guangjie Shimizu, Hideharu; Momose, Takeshi; Shimogaki, Yukihiro

    2014-01-15

    High-purity Ni films were deposited using hot-wire-assisted atomic layer deposition (HW-ALD) at deposition temperatures of 175, 250, and 350 °C. Negligible amount of nitrogen or carbon contamination was detected, even though the authors used NH{sub 2} radical as the reducing agent and nickelocene as the precursor. NH{sub 2} radicals were generated by the thermal decomposition of NH{sub 3} with the assist of HW and used to reduce the adsorbed metal growth precursors. To understand and improve the deposition process, the kinetics of HW-ALD were analyzed using a Langmuir-type model. Unlike remote-plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, HW-ALD does not lead to plasma-induced damage. This is a significant advantage, because the authors can supply sufficient NH{sub 2} radicals to deposit high-purity metallic films by adjusting the distance between the hot wire and the substrate. NH{sub 2} radicals have a short lifetime, and it was important to use a short distance between the radical generation site and substrate. Furthermore, the impurity content of the nickel films was independent of the deposition temperature, which is evidence of the temperature-independent nature of the NH{sub 2} radical flux and the reactivity of the NH{sub 2} radicals.

  1. In situ atomic force microscopy studies of surface morphology, growth kinetics, defect structure and dissolution in macromolecular crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, A. J.; Kuznetsov, Yu. G.; McPherson, A.

    1999-01-01

    Surface morphologies of thaumatin, catalase, lysozyme and xylanase crystals were investigated using in situ atomic force microscopy. For thaumatin, lysozyme and xylanase crystals, growth steps having a height equal to the unit cell parameter were produced both by screw dislocations and two-dimensional nuclei. Growth of catalase crystals proceeded in alternating patterns exclusively by two-dimensional nucleation and the successive deposition of distinctive growth layers, each having a step height equal to half the unit cell parameter. The shapes of islands on successive layers were related by 2-fold rotation axes along the <0 0 1> direction. Experiments revealed that step bunching on crystalline surfaces occurred either due to two- or three-dimensional nucleation on the terraces of vicinal slopes or as a result of uneven step generation by complex dislocation sources. Growth kinetics for thaumatin and catalase crystals were investigated over wide supersaturation ranges. Strong directional kinetic anisotropy in the tangential step growth rates in different directions was seen. From the supersaturation dependencies of tangential step rates and the rates of two-dimensional nucleation, the kinetic coefficients of the steps and the surface free energy of the step edge were calculated. Adsorption of impurities which formed filaments on the surfaces of catalase and thaumatin crystals was recorded. Cessation of growth of xylanase and lysozyme crystals was also observed and appeared to be a consequence of the formation of dense impurity adsorption layers. Crystal growth resumed upon scarring of the impurity adsorption layer and clearing of the crystal surface with the AFM tip. Adsorption of three-dimensional clusters, which consequently developed into either properly aligned multilayer stacks or misaligned microcrystals was recorded. For catalase crystals, incorporation of misoriented microcrystals as large as 50×3×0.1 μm 3 produced elastic deformations in growth layers

  2. Growth kinetics and processings of copper indium diselenide-based thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Suku

    CuInSe2 (CIS)-based compound semiconductors are increasingly important absorber layer materials for thin film solar cells. A better understanding of the growth kinetics of CuInSe2 thin films as a function of the process parameters would benefit the development of this technology. The reaction kinetics for formation of CuInSe2 from the bilayer structure InSe/CuSe was studied in-situ by high-temperature X-ray diffraction. The reaction pathway produces a diffusion barrier layer that can be schematically represented as InSe|CuSe → InSe|CuInSe 2|CuSe. Two different analyses based on the Avrami and the parabolic rate laws suggest that the reaction is one-dimensional diffusion controlled. The estimated apparent activation energy from each model is 66.0 and 65.2 kJ/mol, respectively. The result demonstrates that the time-resolved high temperature X-ray diffraction provides a powerful method for studying the reaction kinetics of CuInSe2 growth. The thermodynamic driving force for formation of copper selenide phase and the grain size distribution in CuInSe2 films was investigated. Large grains (˜a few mum) were observed in the CuInSe2 films annealed with a CuSe layer while films annealed without this layer exhibited very small grain size (<0.2 mum). This result suggests a secondary grain growth mechanism driven by the surface-energy anisotropy is responsible for the increased grain size. Epitaxial growth of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 on (001) GaAs substrates was attempted. The result shows that the crystalline structure and its quality strongly depends on the film stoichiometry, especially the [Cu]/[III] atomic ratio, with Cu-rich compositions showing higher crystalline quality. A two-dimensional model of heat transfer in the growth reactor was developed for a rotating platen/substrate in the molecular beam epitaxial reactor that was used for film growth. Time-varying view factors were included in the model to solve the problem dynamically and to account for the fact that the

  3. A kinetic chain growth algorithm in coarse-grained simulations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zhu, You-Liang; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2016-11-15

    We propose a kinetic chain growth algorithm for coarse-grained (CG) simulations in this work. By defining the reaction probability, it delivers a description of consecutive polymerization process. This algorithm is validated by modeling the process of individual styrene monomers polymerizing into polystyrene chains, which is proved to correctly reproduce the properties of polymers in experiments. By bridging the relationship between the generic chain growth process in CG simulations and the chemical details, the impediment to reaction can be reflected. Regarding to the kinetics, it models a polymerization process with an Arrhenius-type reaction rate coefficient. Moreover, this algorithm can model both the gradual and jump processes of the bond formation, thus it readily encompasses several kinds of previous CG models of chain growth. With conducting smooth simulations, this algorithm can be potentially applied to describe the variable macroscopic features of polymers with the process of polymerization. The algorithm details and techniques are introduced in this article. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Growth Kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in Cut Produce.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Joelle K; Sahu, Surasri N; Hildebrandt, Ian M; Zhang, Lijie; Qi, Yan; Liggans, Girvin; Datta, Atin R; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2017-08-01

    Cut produce continues to constitute a significant portion of the fresh fruit and vegetables sold directly to consumers. As such, the safety of these items during storage, handling, and display remains a concern. Cut tomatoes, cut leafy greens, and cut melons, which have been studied in relation to their ability to support pathogen growth, have been specifically identified as needing temperature control for safety. Data are needed on the growth behavior of foodborne pathogens in other types of cut produce items that are commonly offered for retail purchase and are potentially held without temperature control. This study assessed the survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cut produce items that are commonly offered for retail purchase, specifically broccoli, green and red bell peppers, yellow onions, canned green and black olives, fresh green olives, cantaloupe flesh and rind, avocado pulp, cucumbers, and button mushrooms. The survival of L. monocytogenes strains representing serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b was determined on the cut produce items for each strain individually at 5, 10, and 25°C for up to 720 h. The modified Baranyi model was used to determine the growth kinetics (the maximum growth rates and maximum population increases) in the L. monocytogenes populations. The products that supported the most rapid growth of L. monocytogenes, considering the fastest growth and resulting population levels, were cantaloupe flesh and avocado pulp. When stored at 25°C, the maximum growth rates for these products were 0.093 to 0.138 log CFU/g/h and 0.130 to 0.193 log CFU/g/h, respectively, depending on the strain. Green olives and broccoli did not support growth at any temperature. These results can be used to inform discussions surrounding whether specific time and temperature storage conditions should be recommended for additional cut produce items.

  5. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOEpatents

    Chaiken, Alison; Michel, Richard P.

    1998-01-01

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bia layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200.degree. C., the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 .ANG./sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous.

  6. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOEpatents

    Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P.

    1998-07-21

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bias layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200 C, the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 {angstrom}/sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous. 4 figs.

  7. Kinetic model of impurity poisoning during growth of calcite

    SciTech Connect

    DeYoreo, J; Wasylenki, L; Dove, P; Wilson, D; Han, N

    2004-05-18

    The central role of the organic component in biologically controlled mineralization is widely recognized. These proteins are characterized by a high proportion of acidic amino acid residues, especially aspartate, Asp. At the same time, biomineralization takes place in the presence of a number of naturally-occurring, inorganic impurities, particularly Mg and Sr. In an attempt to decipher the controls on calcite growth imposed by both classes of modifiers, we have used in situ AFM to investigate the dependence of growth morphology and step kinetics on calcite in the presence of Sr{sup 2+}, as well as a wide suite of Aspartic acid-bearing polypeptides. In each case, we observe a distinct and step-specific modification. Most importantly, we find that the step speed exhibits a characteristic dependence on impurity concentration not predicted by existing crystal growth models. While all of the impurities clearly induce appearance of a 'dead zone,' neither the width of that dead zone nor the dependence of step speed on activity or impurity content can be explained by invoking the Gibbs-Thomson effect, which is the basis for the Cabrera-Vermilyea model of impurity poisoning. Common kink-blocking models also fail to explain the observed dependencies. Here we propose a kinetic model of inhibition based on a 'cooperative' effect of impurity adsorption at adjacent kink sites. The model is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results in that it predicts a non-linear dependence of dead zone width on impurity concentration, as well as a sharp drop in step speed above a certain impurity content. However, a detailed model of impurity adsorption kinetics that give quantitative agreement with the data has yet to be developed.

  8. Glass susceptibility: Growth kinetics and saturation under shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2016-07-01

    We study the growth kinetics of glassy correlations in a structural glass by monitoring the evolution, within mode-coupling theory, of a suitably defined three-point function χC(t ,tw) with time t and waiting time tw. From the complete wave-vector-dependent equations of motion for domain growth, we pass to a schematic limit to obtain a numerically tractable form. We find that the peak value χCP of χC(t ,tw) , which can be viewed as a correlation volume, grows as tw0.5, and the relaxation time as tw0.8, following a quench to a point deep in the glassy state. These results constitute a theoretical explanation of the simulation findings of Parisi [J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 4128 (1999), 10.1021/jp983967m] and Kob and Barrat [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4581 (1997), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.4581], and they are also in qualitative agreement with Parsaeian and Castillo [Phys. Rev. E 78, 060105(R) (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevE.78.060105]. On the other hand, if the quench is to a point on the liquid side, the correlation volume grows to saturation. We present a similar calculation for the growth kinetics in a p -spin spin glass mean-field model where we find a slower growth, χCP˜tw0.13 . Further, we show that a shear rate γ ˙ cuts off the growth of glassy correlations when tw˜1 /γ ˙ for quench in the glassy regime and tw=min(tr,1 /γ ˙) in the liquid, where tr is the relaxation time of the unsheared liquid. The relaxation time of the steady-state fluid in this case is ∝γ˙-0.8 .

  9. Kinetic growth walk on critical percolation clusters and lattice animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, P. M.; Zhang, Z. Q.

    1984-03-01

    The statistics of recently proposed kinetic growth walk (KGW) model for linear polymers (or growing self avoiding walk (GSAW)) on two dimensional critical percolation clusters and lattice animals are studied using real-space renormalization group method. The correlation length exponents ν's are found to be ν{KGW/ Pc } = 0.68 and ν{KGW/LA} respectively for the critical percolation clusters and lattice animals. Close agreements are found between these results and a generalized Flory formula for linear polymers at theta point ν{KGW/F} = 2/bar d+1),, wherebar d is the fractal dimension of the fractal object F.

  10. Parametric Investigation of the Isothermal Kinetics of Growth of Graphene on a Nickel Catalyst in the Process of Chemical Vapor Deposition of Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futko, S. I.; Shulitskii, B. G.; Labunov, V. A.; Ermolaeva, E. M.

    2016-11-01

    A kinetic model of isothermal synthesis of multilayer graphene on the surface of a nickel foil in the process of chemical vapor deposition, on it, of hydrocarbons supplied in the pulsed regime is considered. The dependences of the number of graphene layers formed and the time of their growth on the temperature of the process, the concentration of acetylene, and the thickness of the nickel foil were calculated. The regime parameters of the process of chemical vapor deposition, at which single-layer graphene and bi-layer graphene are formed, were determined. The dynamics of growth of graphene domains at chemical-vapor-deposition parameters changing in wide ranges was investigated. It is shown that the time dependences of the rates of growth of single-layer graphene and bi-layer graphene are nonlinear in character and that they are determined by the kinetics of nucleation and growth of graphene and the diffusion flow of carbon atoms in the nickel foil.

  11. Troilite formation kinetics and growth mechanism in the solar nebula. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Troilite formation via the reaction Fe(s) + H2S(g) + H2(g) is the major mechanism for S retention in grains in the solar nebula. Thermodynamic calculations predict that troilite condenses from a solar composition gas. We present experimental results on the kinetics and growth of troilite crystals on Fe metal at temperature (450-650 C) and composition (50-1000 ppm H2S in H2) conditions similar to those in the solar nebula. The fraction of Fe reacted (based on gravimetric data) is plotted at 450, 505, 575, and 650 C. The thickness change of unreacted iron (measured by optical microscopy) is plotted at 575 and 650 C vs. time. the weight change per unit area varies as the square root of time at the lower temperatures and varies linearly with time at the highest temperature. The growth behavior along the lower isotherms is due to diffusion. This behavior suggests sulfide diffusion to the metal-sulfide interface and suggests Fe(2+) diffusion to the sulfide-gas interface. The reaction along the highest isotherm appears to be interface controlled. The formation of troilite crystals is a rapid process forming measurable layers in a few hours. The crystalgrowth is complicated. Initially there are intergrowths of troilite into the pure Fe metal. As the reaction progresses two distinct layers of troilite crystals form. One is in contact with the Fe metal and consists of small randomly oriented crystals with pore space between them. The outermost layer contains large crystals that are all oriented in the same direction. The intergrowth layer is much smaller at 650 C than at 575 C. This suggest that FeS nucleation is inhibited at the higher temperature, accounting for the initially slower reaction rate. Once nucleated, the reaction kinetics are apparently controlled by the growth of the crystals at the interface.

  12. Domain and rim growth kinetics in stratifying foam films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiran; Yilixiati, Subinuer; Sharma, Vivek

    Foam films are freely standing thin liquid films that typically consist of two surfactant-laden surfaces that are ~5 nm - 10 micron apart. Sandwiched between these interfacial layers is a fluid that drains primarily under the influence of viscous and interfacial forces, including disjoining pressure. Interestingly, a layered ordering of micelles inside the foam films (thickness <100 nm) leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification, which results in a thickness-dependent variation in reflected light intensity, visualized as progressively darker shades of gray. Thinner, darker domains spontaneously grow within foam films. During the initial expansion, a rim forms near the contact line between the growing thinner domain and the surrounding region, which influences the dynamics of domain growth as well as stratification Using newly developed interferometry digitial imaging optical microscopy (IDIOM) technique, we capture the rim evolution dynamics. Finally, we also develop a theoretical model to describe both rim evolution and domain growth dynamics.

  13. Kinetic 15N-isotope effects on algal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriukonis, Eivydas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Stable isotope labeling is a standard technique for tracing material transfer in molecular, ecological and biogeochemical studies. The main assumption in this approach is that the enrichment with a heavy isotope has no effect on the organism metabolism and growth, which is not consistent with current theoretical and empirical knowledge on kinetic isotope effects. Here, we demonstrate profound changes in growth dynamics of the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata grown in 15N-enriched media. With increasing 15N concentration (0.37 to 50 at%), the lag phase increased, whereas maximal growth rate and total yield decreased; moreover, there was a negative relationship between the growth and the lag phase across the treatments. The latter suggests that a trade-off between growth rate and the ability to adapt to the high 15N environment may exist. Remarkably, the lag-phase response at 3.5 at% 15N was the shortest and deviated from the overall trend, thus providing partial support to the recently proposed Isotopic Resonance hypothesis, which predicts that certain isotopic composition is particularly favorable for living organisms. These findings confirm the occurrence of KIE in isotopically enriched algae and underline the importance of considering these effects when using stable isotope labeling in field and experimental studies.

  14. Kinetic 15N-isotope effects on algal growth

    PubMed Central

    Andriukonis, Eivydas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling is a standard technique for tracing material transfer in molecular, ecological and biogeochemical studies. The main assumption in this approach is that the enrichment with a heavy isotope has no effect on the organism metabolism and growth, which is not consistent with current theoretical and empirical knowledge on kinetic isotope effects. Here, we demonstrate profound changes in growth dynamics of the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata grown in 15N-enriched media. With increasing 15N concentration (0.37 to 50 at%), the lag phase increased, whereas maximal growth rate and total yield decreased; moreover, there was a negative relationship between the growth and the lag phase across the treatments. The latter suggests that a trade-off between growth rate and the ability to adapt to the high 15N environment may exist. Remarkably, the lag-phase response at 3.5 at% 15N was the shortest and deviated from the overall trend, thus providing partial support to the recently proposed Isotopic Resonance hypothesis, which predicts that certain isotopic composition is particularly favorable for living organisms. These findings confirm the occurrence of KIE in isotopically enriched algae and underline the importance of considering these effects when using stable isotope labeling in field and experimental studies. PMID:28281640

  15. Kinetically controlled growth of gallium on stepped Si (553) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Pasha, Syed Khalid; Govind

    2013-10-01

    Kinetically controlled growth of gallium (Ga) metal has been reported on high index stepped Si (553) surface and its thermal stability with various novel superstructural phases has been analyzed. Auger electron spectroscopy studies revealed that the adsorption of Ga at room temperature (RT) follows Frank-van der Merwe (FM) growth mode while for higher substrate temperature, Ga adsorption remains within the submonolayer range. Thermal desorption and low energy electron diffraction studies investigated the formation of thermally stable Ga-islands and the various Ga induced superstructural phase on Si (553). During room temperature adsorption, (1 1 1)7 × 7 facet of Si (553) reconstructed into (1 1 1)6 × 6 facet while during desorption process, stable (1 1 1)6 × 6 and (1 1 1)√3 × √3-R30° surface reconstructions has been observed.

  16. Enhanced charge separation and oxidation kinetics of BiVO4 photoanode by double layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin; Xiong, Yuli; Dong, Hongmei; Peng, Huarong; Zhang, Yunhuai; Xiao, Peng

    2017-03-01

    Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a promising semiconductor for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Here, we developed a facile fabrication of BiVO4 double layer photoanode on the fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate by electrodeposition. The BiVO4 double layer photoanode is composed by a dense BiVO4 film as the inner layer and a nanoporous BiVO4 film as the outer layer. Compared to the BiVO4 single layer photoanode, the optimized BiVO4 double layer photoanode produced a much higher photocurrent of 1.15 mA/cm2 at 0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl under AM 1.5G (100 mW/cm2) illumination. The results of the photoelectric conversion kinetics for different samples revealed that the charge separation and oxidation kinetics efficiencies for the BiVO4 double layer are 47.2% and 51.6% at 0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl, while the values for BiVO4 single layer are 32.3% and 35.8%, respectively. The improved photoelectrochemical performance for BiVO4 double layer is mainly ascribed to the decrease of defect state at the interface after inserting a dense BiVO4 as an inner layer to prevent the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  17. Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

    1992-04-15

    A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

  18. Continuous growth kinetics of Candida utilis in pineapple cannery effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Candida utilis was grown on a pineapple cannery effluent as the sole carbon and energy source in a chemostat at dilution rates between 0.10 and 0.62 h/sup -1/ to determine the growth kinetics. The principal sugars in the effluent were sucrose, glucose, and fructose. The cell yield coefficient on carbohydrate varied with dilution rate and a maximum value of 0.63 was observed at a dilution rate of 0.33 h/sup -1/. The steady-state concentrations of carbohydrate, reducing sugar, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) appeared to follow Monod saturation kinetics with increasing dilution rate, although none of the measured parameters represented a pure substrate. The maximum specific growth rate and reducing sugar saturation constant were 0.64 h/sup -1/ and 0.060 g/L, respectively. A maximum cell mass productivity of 2.3 g/L h was observed at a dilution rate of 0.51 h/sup -1/. At this dilution rate, only 68% of the COD was removed. A 95% COD removal was attained at a dilution rate of 0.10 h/sup -1/. Optimal yeast productivity and COD reduction occurred at a dilution rate of 0.33 h/sup -1/.

  19. Boundary-layer analysis for the convection/diffusion transition in dendritic growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, M. E.; Huang, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    The supercooling dependence of dendritic growth kinetics under the influence of convective heat transport is investigated theoretically and experimentally with emphasis on theoretical prediction of the supercooling level at which the transition from diffusion-controlled to convection-controlled dendritic growth occurs. It is shown that the crossover between diffusive and convective transport depends on the relative thickness of the Stefan length compared with the thermal boundary layer. These lengths become equal at a supercooling which may be calculated from diffusion theory and fluid mechanics. It is also shown that the crossover supercooling varies weakly with the gravitational acceleration, melt viscosity, and the volumetric expansion coefficient.

  20. Kinetics of growth and sugar consumption in yeasts.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, J P; Weusthuis, R A; Pronk, J T

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the steady- and transient state kinetics of growth and formation of metabolic byproducts in yeasts. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is strongly inclined to perform alcoholic fermentation. Even under fully aerobic conditions, ethanol is produced by this yeast when sugars are present in excess. This so-called 'Crabtree effect' probably results from a multiplicity of factors, including the mode of sugar transport and the regulation of enzyme activities involved in respiration and alcoholic fermentation. The Crabtree effect in S. cerevisiae is not caused by an intrinsic inability to adjust its respiratory activity to high glycolytic fluxes. Under certain cultivation conditions, for example during growth in the presence of weak organic acids, very high respiration rates can be achieved by this yeast. S. cerevisiae is an exceptional yeast since, in contrast to most other species that are able to perform alcoholic fermentation, it can grow under strictly anaerobic conditions. 'Non-Saccharomyces' yeasts require a growth-limiting supply of oxygen (i.e. oxygen-limited growth conditions) to trigger alcoholic fermentation. However, complete absence of oxygen results in cessation of growth and therefore, ultimately, of alcoholic fermentation. Since it is very difficult to reproducibly achieve the right oxygen dosage in large-scale fermentations, non-Saccharomyces yeasts are therefore not suitable for large-scale alcoholic fermentation of sugar-containing waste streams. In these yeasts, alcoholic fermentation is also dependent on the type of sugar. For example, the facultatively fermentative yeast Candida utilis does not ferment maltose, not even under oxygen-limited growth conditions, although this disaccharide supports rapid oxidative growth.

  1. The Study of Kinetics of Diffusion and Phase Formation in the Layered Iron-Beryllium System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuterbekov, K. A.; Nurkenov, S. A.; Kislitsin, S. B.; Kuketayev, T. A.; Nurakhmetov, T. N.

    2017-02-01

    The methods of Mössbauer spectroscopy with X-ray phase analysis and Rutherford backscattering of protons were used to study the kinetics of diffusion and phase transformations in the layered iron-beryllium system. For the first time, the authors suggested and implemented a method for retardation of diffusion and phase formation processes in the layered iron-beryllium system using the barrier layer. It was established that the barrier layer limits the zone of beryllium dissolution in the area of implanted layer. The impact of the barrier layer on kinetics of thermally induced processes of diffusion and phase transformations in the layered Fe-Be system was determined using the example of Fe (10 μm): O+ - Be (0.7 μm) - 57Fe (0.1 μm). The authors suggested and implemented a method for recovery of the distribution function of the admixture atom concentration in the solid matrix-admixture solution on the basis of the X-ray diffraction data. The kinetics of mutual diffusion was determined for Fe and Be atoms in the α-Fe(Be) solution for both sides of the layered systems with a barrier layer and without it using the suggested method for recovery of the distribution function of the Be atom concentration. It was established that for the system without a barrier layer, the share of iron atoms ends at tann 5 h on the coating side and at tann 7.5 h on the iron side, while for the barrier layer case - at tann 20 h on the coating side and at tann 40 h on the iron side.

  2. Thermodynamic-kinetic simulation of constrained dendrite growth in steels

    SciTech Connect

    Miettinen, J.

    2000-04-01

    A model of constrained dendritic growth for steels, based on thermodynamic and kinetic theory, is presented. The model links thermodynamic chemical potential-equality equations to an existing, approximate treatment of constrained dendritic growth in multicomponent steels, taking into account the deviation from the local thermodynamic equilibrium of the phase interface caused by interface friction, capillarity, and solute trapping. Due to the thermodynamic approach, with a thermodynamic model and recently assessed data, the present treatment yields a more accurate determination of phase stabilities than the earlier methods. Depending on the steel composition and the growth conditions (growth rate and temperature gradient), the model determines the dendrite tip undercooling, the primary solid phase (ferrite or austenite), the stability of that phase, certain dimensions of the microstructure, and the solute accumulation ahead of the dendrite tip. A special optional calculations is that of the equally probable formation of ferrite and austenite in stainless steels. Calculations for testing the model and for validation it with experimental data are presented.

  3. Kinetics of ice particles growth in the polar summer mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasetsky, A. Y.; Petelina, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The growth kinetics of ice particles in the polar summer mesosphere is discussed. The particle growth time is calculated using the temperature, water vapor density, and ice number density simultaneously measured by the infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer on the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE-FTS) satellite. The formation rate for ice particles is a very strong function of temperature and water vapor concentration. We found the equilibrium radius of ice particles to be in the range from 20 to 70 nm, and the formation time - from about 2 hours at 150 K to about 18 hours at 125 K. Our results imply that in addition to the commonly accepted particle growth during their sedimentation from higher altitudes, in-situ growth to radii of 50-70 nm at mesospheric temperatures near 150 K in two hours or less may also be possible. Our analysis of possible shapes for mesospheric ice particles using the band shape of ice absorption feature measured by ACE-FTS suggests that cubes or compact hexagonal prisms (with an aspect ratio of 1.1) are the best candidates to represent the crystalline ice particles in the polar summer mesosphere.

  4. Theoretical consideration of the growth kinetics for GaAs and GaSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, T.; Asahi, H.; Gonda, S.

    1992-05-01

    An extended MOMBE growth kinetics model is proposed, based on the Robertson model, to explain both the GaAs growth rate variation and modulated beam mass spectroscopy data reported by Martin and Whitehouse. In this model, we assume that (1) MEGa molecules react with ethyl-radicals to form DEGa, (2) excessive group-V molecules on the surface suppress the decomposition of DEGa and enhance the desorption of DEGa, (3) reaction of DEGa with ethyl-radicals to form TEGa is negligible, and (4) effective surface coverage of excessive group-V atoms during growth is determined by the double layer adsorption model including desorption parameters for group-V molecules. The first assumption (1) is found to be a dominant process to explain the behaviour of DEGa desorption at high temperatures. This model can reproduce the dependences of both growth rate and desorbing rate of Ga alkyls on substrate temperature during GaAs MOMBE growth. The use of Sb instead of As produces a significant change in the growth rate variation with substrate temperature and group-V flux for the growth of GaSb, in spite of the use of the same TEGa flow rate. This can be rationalized by the difference in the desorption parameters for Sb and As.

  5. Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in a Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vyas, Manan A.; Waindim, Mbu; Gaitonde, Datta V.

    2016-01-01

    Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Quantities present in the exact equation of the turbulent kinetic energy transport were accumulated and used to calculate terms like production, dissipation, molecular diffusion, and turbulent transport. The present results for a turbulent boundary layer were validated by comparison with direct numerical simulation data. It was found that a longer development domain was necessary for the boundary layer to reach an equilibrium state and a finer mesh resolution would improve the predictions. In spite of these findings, trends of the present budget match closely with that of the direct numerical simulation. Budgets for the SBLI region are presented at key axial stations. These budgets showed interesting dynamics as the incoming boundary layer transforms and the terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget change behavior within the interaction region.

  6. Rethinking growth and decay kinetics in activated sludge - towards a new adaptive kinetics approach.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Michael; Jimenez, Jose; Pruden, Amy; Miller, Jennifer H; Metch, Jacob; Takács, Imre

    2017-02-01

    Growth kinetics in activated sludge modelling (ASM) are typically assumed to be the result of intrinsic growth and decay properties and thus process parameters are deemed to be constant. The activity change in a microbial population is expressed in terms of variance of the active biomass fraction and not actual shifts in bacterial cellular activities. This approach is limited, in that it does not recognise the reality that active biomass is highly physiologically adaptive. Here, a strong correlation between maximum specific growth rate (μmax) and decay rate (be) of ordinary heterotrophic organisms was revealed in both low solids retention times (SRT) and high SRT activated sludge systems. This relationship is indicative of physiological adaptation either for growth (high μmax and be) or survival optimization (low μmax and be). Further, the nitrifier decay process was investigated using molecular techniques to measure decay rates of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrite oxidizing bacteria over a range of temperatures. This approach revealed decay rates 10-12% lower than values previously accepted and used in ASM. These findings highlight potential benefits of incorporating physiological adaptation of heterotrophic and nitrifying populations in future ASM.

  7. Influence of hydrodynamics on the growth kinetics of glass-adhering Pseudomonas putida cells through a parallel plate flow chamber.

    PubMed

    Mbaye, S; Séchet, P; Pignon, F; Martins, J M F

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of hydrodynamics on the growth kinetics of surface-adhering Pseudomonas putida cells. The results showed in particular that under non substrate-limiting conditions, the early step of bacterial apparent growth rate is lower than those measured with suspended cells. Contrary to previously cited authors which explain this behavior to the different adhesive properties of the "daughter"-cells (which makes more probable the detachment of these daughter-cells), in our experimental conditions, that explanation does not hold and we show a clear dependence of growth kinetics with flow conditions, due to the formation of boundary layer concentration at low Reynolds number. These results revealed that using Monod law in the modeling of biofilm growth in fixed-biomass processes should be performed with care.

  8. Selective growth of graphene in layer-by-layer via chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaehyun; An, Hyosub; Choi, Dong-Chul; Hussain, Sajjad; Song, Wooseok; An, Ki-Seok; Lee, Won-Jun; Lee, Naesung; Lee, Wan-Gyu; Jung, Jongwan

    2016-07-01

    Selective and precise control of the layer number of graphene remains a critical issue for the practical applications of graphene. First, it is highly challenging to grow a continuous and uniform few-layer graphene since once the monolayer graphene fully covers a copper (Cu) surface, the growth of the second layer stops, resulting in mostly nonhomogeneous films. Second, from the selective adlayer growth point of view, there is no clear pathway for achieving this. We have developed the selective growth of a graphene adlayer in layer-by-layer via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) which makes it possible to stack graphene on a specific position. The key idea is to deposit a thin Cu layer (~40 nm thick) on pre-grown monolayer graphene and to apply additional growth. The thin Cu atop the graphene/Cu substrate acts as a catalyst to decompose methane (CH4) gas during the additional growth. The adlayer is grown selectively on the pre-grown graphene, and the thin Cu is removed through evaporation during CVD, eventually forming large-area and uniform double layer graphene. With this technology, highly uniform graphene films with precise thicknesses of 1 to 5 layers and graphene check patterns with 1 to 3 layers were successfully demonstrated. This method provides precise LBL growth for a uniform graphene film and a technique for the design of new graphene devices.Selective and precise control of the layer number of graphene remains a critical issue for the practical applications of graphene. First, it is highly challenging to grow a continuous and uniform few-layer graphene since once the monolayer graphene fully covers a copper (Cu) surface, the growth of the second layer stops, resulting in mostly nonhomogeneous films. Second, from the selective adlayer growth point of view, there is no clear pathway for achieving this. We have developed the selective growth of a graphene adlayer in layer-by-layer via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) which makes it possible to stack graphene

  9. Kinetics of droplet growth observed in recent field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, F.; Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can indirectly influence global climate budget by changing the microphysical structure, lifetime, and coverage of clouds. While it is generally agreed that aerosol indirect effects act to cool the Earth-atmosphere system by increasing cloud reflectivity and coverage, the magnitudes of the indirect effects are poorly understood. The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles is kinetically controlled by the availability of water vapor, equilibrium water vapor pressure above the growing droplet surface, and both the gas phase and aerosol phase mass transfer resistances. It has been hypothesized that the formation of surface organic films or the delay in dissolution of solute could significantly delay the growth of cloud droplets. Such delay could lead to a higher maximum supersaturation within a rising cloud parcel, therefore higher droplet number concentration and smaller droplet size at constant liquid water content. When only a subset of the droplets experiences significant growth delay, the overall droplet size spectrum will be broadened, which facilitates the formation of precipitation. During three recent field campaigns (CalNex-LA, CARES, and Aerosol Intensive Observation Period at Brookhaven National Laboratory), the CCN activity and droplet growth of size selected particles ranging from 25 to 320 nm were characterized by a CCN counter under supersaturations from 0.1% to 0.8%. The three campaigns allow us to examine the droplet growth for many representative organic aerosol types, including biogenic SOA, anthropogenic SOA, and organic aerosols from biomass burning. The droplet growth of size-selected ambient particles inside the CCN counter was found to be influenced by a number of parameters, including particle critical supersaturation, heterogeneity in particle composition, and particle concentration. For example, reduced droplet growth due to water vapor depletion was observed when particle concentration was higher than 200 cm

  10. Release Kinetics of Paclitaxel and Cisplatin from Two and Three Layered Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    England, Christopher G.; Miller, M. Clarke; Kuttan, Ashani; Trent, John O.; Frieboes, Hermann B.

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles functionalized with biologically-compatible layers may achieve stable drug release while avoiding adverse effects in cancer treatment. We study cisplatin and paclitaxel release from gold cores functionalized with hexadecanethiol (TL) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) to form two-layer nanoparticles, or TL, PC, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) to form three-layer nanoparticles. Drug release was monitored for 14 days to assess long term effects of the core surface modifications on release kinetics. Release profiles were fitted to previously developed kinetic models to differentiate possible release mechanisms. The hydrophilic drug (cisplatin) showed an initial (5-hr.) burst, followed by a steady release over 14 days. The hydrophobic drug (paclitaxel) showed a steady release over the same time period. Two layer nanoparticles released 64.0 ± 2.5% of cisplatin and 22.3 ± 1.5% of paclitaxel, while three layer nanoparticles released the entire encapsulated drug. The Korsmeyer-Peppas model best described each release scenario, while the simplified Higuchi model also adequately described paclitaxel release from the two layer formulation. We conclude that functionalization of gold nanoparticles with a combination of TL and PC may help to modulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drug release kinetics, while the addition of HDL may enhance long term release of hydrophobic drug. PMID:25753197

  11. Growth Kinetics and Morphology of Barite Crystals Derived from Face-Specific Growth Rates

    DOE PAGES

    Godinho, Jose R. A.; Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-03-30

    Here we investigate the growth kinetics and morphology of barite (BaSO4) crystals by measuring the growth rates of the (001), (210), (010), and (100) surfaces using vertical scanning interferometry. Solutions with saturation indices 1.1, 2.1, and 3.0 without additional electrolyte, in 0.7 M NaCl, or in 1.3 mM SrCl2 are investigated. Face-specific growth rates are inhibited in the SrCl2 solution relative to a solution without electrolyte, except for (100). Contrarily, growth of all faces is promoted in the NaCl solution. The variation of face-specific rates is solution-specific, which leads to a. change of the crystal morphology and overall growth ratemore » of crystals. The measured face-specific growth rates are used to model the growth of single crystals. Modeled crystals have a morphology and size similar to those grown from solution. Based on the model the time dependence of surface area and growth rates is analyzed. Growth rates change with time due to surface area normalization for small crystals and large growth intervals. By extrapolating rates to crystals with large surfaces areas, time-independent growth rates are 0.783, 2.96, and 0.513 mmol∙m-2∙h-1, for saturation index 2.1 solutions without additional electrolyte, NaCl, and SrCl2, respectively.« less

  12. Growth Kinetics and Morphology of Barite Crystals Derived from Face-Specific Growth Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Godinho, Jose R. A.; Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-03-30

    Here we investigate the growth kinetics and morphology of barite (BaSO4) crystals by measuring the growth rates of the (001), (210), (010), and (100) surfaces using vertical scanning interferometry. Solutions with saturation indices 1.1, 2.1, and 3.0 without additional electrolyte, in 0.7 M NaCl, or in 1.3 mM SrCl2 are investigated. Face-specific growth rates are inhibited in the SrCl2 solution relative to a solution without electrolyte, except for (100). Contrarily, growth of all faces is promoted in the NaCl solution. The variation of face-specific rates is solution-specific, which leads to a. change of the crystal morphology and overall growth rate of crystals. The measured face-specific growth rates are used to model the growth of single crystals. Modeled crystals have a morphology and size similar to those grown from solution. Based on the model the time dependence of surface area and growth rates is analyzed. Growth rates change with time due to surface area normalization for small crystals and large growth intervals. By extrapolating rates to crystals with large surfaces areas, time-independent growth rates are 0.783, 2.96, and 0.513 mmol∙m-2∙h-1, for saturation index 2.1 solutions without additional electrolyte, NaCl, and SrCl2, respectively.

  13. Arabidopsis thaliana root growth kinetics and lunisolar tidal acceleration.

    PubMed

    Fisahn, Joachim; Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Klingele, Emile; Barlow, Peter

    2012-07-01

    • All living organisms on Earth are continually exposed to diurnal variations in the gravitational tidal force due to the Sun and Moon. • Elongation of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings maintained at a constant temperature was monitored for periods of up to 14 d using high temporal- and spatial-resolution video imaging. The time-course of the half-hourly elongation rates exhibited an oscillation which was maintained when the roots were placed in the free-running condition of continuous illumination. • Correlation between the root growth kinetics collected from seedlings initially raised under several light protocols but whose roots were subsequently in the free-running condition and the lunisolar tidal profiles enabled us to identify that the latter is the probable exogenous determinant of the rhythmic variation in root elongation rate. Similar observations and correlations using roots of Arabidopsis starch mutants suggest a central function of starch metabolism in the response to the lunisolar tide. The periodicity of the lunisolar tidal signal and the concomitant adjustments in root growth rate indicate that an exogenous timer exists for the modulation of root growth and development. • We propose that, in addition to the sensitivity to Earthly 1G gravity, which is inherent to all animals and plants, there is another type of responsiveness which is attuned to the natural diurnal variations of the lunisolar tidal force.

  14. Kinetics of faceting of crystals in growth, etching, and equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, D. G.; Schmidt, L. D.; Aris, R.

    1993-03-01

    The faceting of crystals in equilibrium with the gas phase and also during crystal growth and etching conditions is studied using the Monte Carlo method. The dynamics of the transformation of unstable crystallographic orientations into hill and valley structures and the spatial patterns that develop are examined as functions of surface temperature, crystallographic orientation, and strength of interatomic potential for two transport processes: adsorption-desorption and surface diffusion. The results are compared with the continuum theory for facet formation. Thermodynamically unstable orientations break into hill and valley structures, and faceting exhibits three time regimes: disordering, facet nucleation, and coarsening of small facets to large facets. Faceting is accelerated as temperature increases, but thermal roughening can occur at high temperatures. Surface diffusion is the dominant mechanism at short times and small facets but adsorption-desorption becomes important at long times and large facets. Growth and etching promote faceting for conditions close to equilibrium but induce kinetic roughening for conditions far from equilibrium. Simultaneous irreversible growth and etching conditions with fast surface diffusion result in enhanced faceting.

  15. Cell and tissue kinetics of the subependymal layer in mouse brain following heavy charged particle irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, N.B.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Alpen, E.L.

    1988-12-01

    The following studies investigate the cellular response and cell population kinetics of the subependymal layer in the mouse brain exposed to heavy charged particle irradiation. Partial brain irradiation with helium and neon ions was confined to one cortex of the brain. Both the irradiated and the unirradiated contralateral cortex showed similar disturbances of the cell and tissue kinetics in the subependymal layers. The irradiated hemisphere exhibited histological damage, whereas the unirradiated side appeared normal histologically. This study concerns the cell population and cell cycle kinetics of the subependymal layer in the mouse brain, and the effects of charged particle irradiations on this cell population. Quantitative high resolution autoradiography was used to study the kinetic parameters in this cell layer. This study should help in understanding the effects of these high-energy heavy ions on normal mammalian brain tissue. The response of the mammalian brain exposure to charged particle ionizing radiation may be extremely variable. It varies from minimal physiological changes to overt tissue necrosis depending on a number of factors such as: the administered dose, dose-rate, the volume of the irradiated tissue, and the biological end-point being examined.

  16. Stochastic Kinetic Modeling of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Intracellular Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Sebastian C.; Rawlings, James B.; Yin, John

    2011-01-01

    By building kinetic models of biological networks one may advance the development of new modeling approaches while gaining insights into the biology. We focus here on building a stochastic kinetic model for the intracellular growth of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a well-studied virus that encodes five genes. The essential network of VSV reactions creates challenges to stochastic simulation owing to (i) delayed reactions associated with transcription and genome replication, (ii) production of large numbers of intermediate proteins by translation, and (iii) the presence of highly reactive intermediates that rapidly fluctuate in their intracellular levels. We address these issues by developing a hybrid implementation of the model that combines a delayed stochastic simulation algorithm (DSSA) with Langevin equations to simulate the reactions that produce species in high numbers. Further, we employ a quasi-steady state approximation (QSSA) to overcome the computational burden of small time steps caused by highly reactive species. The simulation is able to capture experimentally observed patterns of viral gene expression. Moreover, the simulation suggests that early levels of a low-abundance species, VSV L mRNA, play a key role in determining the production level of VSV genomes, transcripts, and proteins within an infected cell. Ultimately, these results suggest that stochastic gene expression contribute to the distribution of virus progeny yields from infected cells. PMID:19459014

  17. In situ muGISAXS: II. Thaumatin crystal growth kinetic.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Ronald; Pechkova, Eugenia; Riekel, Christian; Nicolini, Claudio

    2010-08-09

    The formation of thaumatin crystals by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film nanotemplates was studied by the hanging-drop technique in a flow-through cell by synchrotron radiation micrograzing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The kinetics of crystallization was measured directly on the interface of the LB film crystallization nanotemplate. The evolution of the micrograzing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering patterns suggests that the increase in intensity in the Yoneda region is due to protein incorporation into the LB film. The intensity variation suggests several steps, which were modeled by system dynamics based on first-order differential equations. The kinetic data can be described by two processes that take place on the LB film, a first, fast, process, attributed to the crystal growth and its detachment from the LB film, and a second, slower process, attributed to an unordered association and conversion of protein on the LB film. 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Kinetic transition during the growth of proeutectoid ferrite in Fe-C-Mn-Si quaternary steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-Hong; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Song, Eun-Ju; Suh, Dong-Woo

    2013-03-01

    The kinetics of ferrite growth in Fe-0.1C-1.5Mn-0.94Si (mass pct) quaternary steel is investigated through the characterization of isothermal growth behavior, the thermodynamic prediction of kinetic boundary and the diffusional growth simulations using DICTRA. The change in microstructural evolution from slow growth to fast one is consistent with the calculated change of interface condition from the partitioning local equilibrium (PLE) to the negligible partitioning local equilibrium (NPLE). Compared with the DICTRA simulation, the observed growth kinetics of ferrite are between the calculated ones assuming local equilibrium (LE) and paraequilibrium (PE) criterions. At temperatures below the PLE/NPLE kinetic boundary, the observed growth behavior can be reasonably described by kinetic transition from PE to NPLE condition as isothermal time elapses, taking into account the critical velocity of interface at which trans-interface diffusion of subsitutional element permits the transition from PE to NPLE growth.

  19. Maintenance of supersaturation II: indomethacin crystal growth kinetics versus degree of supersaturation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhaval D; Anderson, Bradley D

    2013-05-01

    This study compares the kinetics of crystal growth of indomethacin from supersaturated suspensions at varying degrees of supersaturation (2 ≤ S ≥ 9) in the presence of seed crystals of the γ-form of indomethacin, the lowest energy polymorph. At high S (6 ≤ S ≥ 9), the crystal growth was first order with rate coefficients (kG ) that were nearly constant and consistent with the value predicted for bulk-diffusion control. At lower S (<6), kG values were significantly smaller, decreasing approximately linearly with a decrease in S. The decline in kG at low S was attributed to a prolonged period during the initial stages of crystal growth in which surface integration was rate limiting. The apparent solubility of indomethacin after crystal growth for 3 days increased by ∼1.6-fold at both low (S = 2) and high (S = 6) degrees of supersaturation suggesting that a higher energy surface layer was deposited on the γ-form seed crystals during crystal growth. When growth experiments were repeated at low S in the presence of indomethacin seed crystals isolated from a previous crystal growth experiment (i.e., seed crystals having higher energy surface), kG matched the higher values observed for bulk diffusion-controlled crystal growth. Crystal growth experiments were also conducted at S < 1.6 using a constant infusion of an indomethacin solution in the presence of γ-form seed crystals to obtain kG under conditions where deposition of a higher energy surface could not occur. At these conditions, the smaller value of kG indicative of surface integration control was again observed and the apparent solubility of indomethacin after crystal growth matched that of the γ-form. A quantitative mechanistic understanding of the crystal growth kinetics of indomethacin derived from experiments at high and low S may be useful in future studies aimed at understanding the inhibitory effects of pharmaceutical excipients on the crystal growth of poorly soluble compounds and their

  20. Buoyant production and consumption of turbulence kinetic energy in cloud-topped mixed layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that studies of the entraining planetary boundary layer (PBL) have generally emphasized the role of buoyancy fluxes in driving entrainment. The buoyancy flux is proportional to the rate of conversion of the potential energy of the mean flow into the kinetic energy of the turbulence. It is not unusual for conversion to proceed in both directions simultaneously. This occurs, for instance, in both clear and cloudy convective mixed layers which are capped by inversions. A partitioning of the net conversion into positive parts, generating turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), and negative parts (TKE-consuming), would make it possible to include the positive part in the gross production rate, and closure would be achieved. Three different approaches to partitioning have been proposed. The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of the three partitioning theories. Particular attention is given to the cloud-topped mixed layer because in this case the differences between two partitioning approaches are most apparent.

  1. Buoyant production and consumption of turbulence kinetic energy in cloud-topped mixed layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that studies of the entraining planetary boundary layer (PBL) have generally emphasized the role of buoyancy fluxes in driving entrainment. The buoyancy flux is proportional to the rate of conversion of the potential energy of the mean flow into the kinetic energy of the turbulence. It is not unusual for conversion to proceed in both directions simultaneously. This occurs, for instance, in both clear and cloudy convective mixed layers which are capped by inversions. A partitioning of the net conversion into positive parts, generating turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), and negative parts (TKE-consuming), would make it possible to include the positive part in the gross production rate, and closure would be achieved. Three different approaches to partitioning have been proposed. The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of the three partitioning theories. Particular attention is given to the cloud-topped mixed layer because in this case the differences between two partitioning approaches are most apparent.

  2. Kinetics and mechanisms of crystal growth inhibition of indomethacin by model precipitation inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dhaval

    Supersaturating Drug Delivery Systems (SDDS) could enhance oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs (PWSD). Precipitation inhibitors (PIs) in SDDS could maintain supersaturation by inhibiting nucleation, crystal growth, or both. The mechanisms by which these effects are realized are generally unknown. The goal of this dissertation was to explore the mechanisms underpinning the effects of model PIs including hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrins (HP-beta-CD), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the crystal growth of indomethacin, a model PWSD. At high degrees of supersaturation (S), the crystal growth kinetics of indomethacin was bulk diffusion-controlled, which was attributed to a high energy form deposited on the seed crystals. At lower S, indomethacin growth kinetics was surface integration-controlled. The effect of HP-beta-CD at high S was successfully modeled using the reactive diffusion layer theory. The superior effects of PVP and HPMC as compared to HP-beta-CD at high S were attributed to a change in the rate limiting step from bulk diffusion to surface integration largely due to prevention of the high energy form formation. The effects of PIs at low S were attributed to significant retardation of the surface integration rate, a phenomenon that may reflect the adsorption of PIs onto the growing surface. PVP was selected to further understand the relationship between adsorption and crystal growth inhibition. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm model fit the adsorption isotherms of PVP and N-vinylpyrrolidone well. The affinity and extent of adsorption of PVP were significantly higher than those of N-vinylpyrrolidone, which was attributed to cooperative interactions between PVP and indomethacin. The extent of PVP adsorption on a weight-basis was greater for higher molecular weight PVP but less on a molar-basis indicating an increased percentage of loops and tails for higher molecular weight PVPs. PVP significantly inhibited

  3. Surfactant-mediated layer-by-layer homoepitaxial growth of Cu/In/Cu(100) and Ag/Sb/Ag(111) systems: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Cao, Pei-Lin

    1998-04-01

    Two typical surfactant-mediated homoepitaxial metal systems, Cu/In/Cu(100) and Ag/Sb/Ag(111), are studied by using first-principles calculations and a kinetic Monte Carlo method. Our results confirm the validity of the model that Zhang and Lagally suggested for Cu/In/Cu(100) system. A repulsion model is proposed for the Ag/Sb/Ag(111) system where surface-substitutional Sb atoms repel diffusing Ag adatoms. The layer-by-layer growth for Ag/Sb/Ag(111) system is achieved with a repulsion model in kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. By comparing the two different growth models, the importance of the additional barrier ΔE and effectiveness of two ways of reducing ΔE are confirmed in determining film morphology.

  4. Growth kinetics of Ge islands during Ga-surfactant-mediated ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portavoce, A.; Kammler, M.; Hull, R.; Reuter, M. C.; Copel, M.; Ross, F. M.

    2004-11-01

    The surfactant effect of Ga pre-deposited prior to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of Ge on Si(001) is investigated using in situ transmission electron microscopy. Island shape, nucleation and growth kinetics, and the influence of growth temperature and pressure are studied. When 1 monolayer of Ga covers the surface, Ge island nucleation occurs after a 5-10× longer growth time than without Ga for the same growth temperature and pressure, and the island density then varies with time in a more complex way than for Ga-free growth. The islands formed have a different shape and aspect ratio compared to conventional hut and dome clusters, and the critical lateral size for dislocation nucleation is reduced. Ex situ medium energy ion scattering and x-ray photoelectron scattering measurements of the total amount of Ge deposited before island nucleation demonstrate that the Ga layer decreases the surface reactivity and inhibits Ge growth. We discuss a simple model in which the surfactant-mediated growth kinetics are principally driven by the balance between Ge deposition and Ga desorption. We show that Ga surfactant-mediated UHV CVD can be used to produce Ge quantum dots with a higher surface density and a thinner wetting layer than is possible using conventional CVD.

  5. Exact solutions of kinetic equations in an autocatalytic growth model.

    PubMed

    Jędrak, Jakub

    2013-02-01

    Kinetic equations are introduced for the transition-metal nanocluster nucleation and growth mechanism, as proposed by Watzky and Finke [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 10382 (1997)]. Equations of this type take the form of Smoluchowski coagulation equations supplemented with the terms responsible for the chemical reactions. In the absence of coagulation, we find complete analytical solutions of the model equations for the autocatalytic rate constant both proportional to the cluster mass, and the mass-independent one. In the former case, ξ(k)=s(k)(ξ(1))[proportionality]ξ(1)(k)/k was obtained, while in the latter, the functional form of s(k)(ξ(1)) is more complicated. In both cases, ξ(1)(t)=h(μ)(M(μ)(t)) is a function of the moments of the mass distribution. Both functions, s(k)(ξ(1)) and h(μ)(M(μ)), depend on the assumed mechanism of autocatalytic growth and monomer production, and not on other chemical reactions present in a system.

  6. Deformation kinetics of layered personal protective material under impact via terahertz reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Anis; Rahman, Aunik; Mentzer, Mark A.

    2014-05-01

    Terahertz dynamic scanning reflectometry (TDSR) was used for measuring layered materials' deformation kinetics spectra. Multi-layered materials are used for protective devices such as helmet and body armor. An in-situ measurement of deformation profile and other dynamic characteristics is important when such material is subjected to ballistic impacts. Current instrumentation is limited in their abilities to provide sub-surface information in a non-destructive fashion. A high sensitivity TDSR has been used to measure dynamic surface deformation characteristics in real-time (in-situ) and also at post deformation (ex-situ). Real-time ballistic deformation kinetics was captured with a high speed measurement system. The kinetics spectra was used to compute a number of crucial parameters such as deformation length and its propagation profile, the relaxation position, and the macroscopic vibration profile. In addition, the loss of mass due to impact was quantified for accurate determination of the trauma causing energy. For non-metallic substrates, a transmitted beam was used to calibrate mass loss, a priori, of the laminate layers due to impact. Deformation kinetics information may then be used to formulate trauma diagnosis conditions from blunt hit via the Sturdivan criterion [1]. The basic difference in the proposed approach is that here diagnostic criteria are inferred by measuring the helmet itself; no need to draw blood or any biopsy from the patient.

  7. Gas-phase kinetics during diamond growth: CH4 as-growth species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Stephen J.

    1989-04-01

    We have used a one-dimensional kinetic analysis to model the gas-phase chemistry that occurred during the diamond growth experiments of Chauhan, Angus, and Gardner [J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4746 (1976)]. In those experiments the weight of diamond seed crystals heated by lamps in a CH4/H2 environment was monitored by a microbalance. No filament or electric discharge was present. Our analysis shows that diamond growth occurred in this system by direct reaction of CH4 on the diamond surface. C2H2 and CH3, which have been proposed as diamond growth species, played no significant role there, although our results do not address their possible contributions in other systems such as filament- or plasma-assisted diamond growth.

  8. The boundary layer growth in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Pino, D; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J; Comerón, A; Rocadenbosch, F

    2004-12-01

    The development and maintenance of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) plays a key role in the distribution of atmospheric constituents, especially in a polluted urban area. In particular, the ABL has a direct impact on the concentration and transformation of pollutants. In this work, in order to analyze the different mechanisms which control the boundary layer growth, we have simulated by means of the non-hydrostatic model MM5 several boundary layer observed in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Sensitivity analysis of the modelled ABL is carried out by using various descriptions of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Direct and continuous measurements of the boundary layer depth taken by a lidar are used to evaluate the results obtained by the model.

  9. Multinuclear layer-by-layer growth on Ge(1 1 1) by LPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Takahiro; Matsuda, Keiji; Naritsuka, Shigeya

    2005-02-01

    Aiming at the fabrication of step-free Ge(1 1 1) surfaces of device size, liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) growth was carried out on Ge(1 1 1) mesa structures. Reducing supersaturation by controlling the growth temperature, nearly atomically flat faces were formed on several mesas following LPE growth at less than 480 °C. Taking into account the density of edge, screw and mixed dislocations, these flat faces appear to have formed on the top surface of screw and mixed dislocation-free mesas. Observation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed the presence of a number of triangular hollows with monolayer step depth on the flat faces, indicating "multinuclear layer-by-layer growth". In addition, the number of triangular hollows was found to be exponentially dependent on the reciprocal of growth temperature. Taking into account the step velocity, the mechanism of two-dimensional nucleation on an atomically flat surface is discussed.

  10. Re-interpretation of the logistic equation for batch microbial growth in relation to Monod kinetics.

    PubMed

    Kargi, F

    2009-04-01

    To determine the underlying substrate utilization mechanism in the logistic equation for batch microbial growth by revealing the relationship between the logistic and Monod kinetics. Also, to determine the logistic rate constant in terms of Monod kinetic constants. The logistic equation used to describe batch microbial growth was related to the Monod kinetics and found to be first-order in terms of the substrate and biomass concentrations. The logistic equation constant was also related to the Monod kinetic constants. Similarly, the substrate utilization kinetic equations were derived by using the logistic growth equation and related to the Monod kinetics. It is revaled that the logistic growth equation is a special form of the Monod growth kinetics when substrate limitation is first-order with respect to the substrate concentration. The logistic rate constant (k) is directly proportional to the maximum specific growth rate constant (mu(m)) and initial substrate concentration (S(0)) and also inversely related to the saturation constant (K(s)). The semi-empirical logistic equation can be used instead of Monod kinetics at low substrate concentrations to describe batch microbial growth using the relationship between the logistic rate constant and the Monod kinetic constants.

  11. Determination of kinetic parameters of crystal growth rate of borax in aqueous solution by using the rotating disc technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Omer; Aslan, Fevzi; Ozdemir, Mustafa; Durgun, Mustafa

    2004-10-01

    Growth rate of polycrystalline disc of borax compressed at different pressure and rotated at various speed has been measured in a rotating disc crystallizer under well-defined conditions of supersaturation. It was found that the mass transfer coefficient, K, increased while overall growth rate constant, Kg, and surface reaction constant, kr, decreased with increasing smoothness of the disc. It was also determined that kinetic parameters (kr , r , K , g) of crystal growth rate of borax decreased with increasing rotating speed of the polycrystalline disc. The effectiveness factor was calculated from the growth rate data to evaluate the relative magnitude of the steps in series bulk diffusion through the mass transfer boundary layer and the surface integration. At low rotating speed of disc, the crystal growth rate of borax is mainly controlled by integration. However, both diffusion and integration steps affect the growth rate of borax at higher rotating speed of polycrystalline disc.

  12. Label-free detection of biomolecular interactions using BioLayer interferometry for kinetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, Joy; Witte, Krista; Wartchow, Charles; Choo, Sae; Yao, Danfeng; Persson, Henrik; Wei, Jing; Li, Pu; Heidecker, Bettina; Ma, Weilei; Varma, Ram; Zhao, Lian-She; Perillat, Donald; Carricato, Greg; Recknor, Michael; Du, Kevin; Ho, Huddee; Ellis, Tim; Gamez, Juan; Howes, Michael; Phi-Wilson, Janette; Lockard, Scott; Zuk, Robert; Tan, Hong

    2009-09-01

    The analysis of biomolecular interactions is key in the drug development process. Label-free biosensor methods provide information on binding, kinetics, concentration, and the affinity of an interaction. These techniques provide real-time monitoring of interactions between an immobilized ligand (such as a receptor) to an analyte in solution without the use of labels. Advances in biosensor design and detection using BioLayer Interferometry (BLI) provide a simple platform that enables label-free monitoring of biomolecular interactions without the use of flow cells. We review the applications of BLI in a wide variety of research and development environments for quantifying antibodies and proteins and measuring kinetics parameters.

  13. Structure and charging kinetics of electrical double layers at large electrode voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Cagle, Clint; Feng, Guang; Qiao, Rui; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    The structure and charging kinetics of electrical double layers (EDLs) at interfaces of NaCl solutions and planar electrodes are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) and Poisson Nernst Planck (PNP) simulations. Based on the MD results and prior experimental data, we show that counterion packing in planar EDLs does not reach the steric limit at electrode voltages below 1 V. In addition, we demonstrate that a PNP model, when complemented with a Stern model, can be effectively used to capture the overall charging kinetics. However, the PNP/Stern model can only give a qualitative description of the fine features of the EDL.

  14. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Woehl, Taylor J.; Park, Chiwoo; Evans, James E.; Arslan, Ilke; Ristenpart, William D.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-01-08

    Direct observations of solution-phase nanoparticle growth using in situ liquid transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have demonstrated the importance of “non-classical” growth mechanisms, such as aggregation and coalescence, on the growth and final morphology of nanocrystals at the atomic and single nanoparticle scales. To date, groups have quantitatively interpreted the mean growth rate of nanoparticles in terms of the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) model for Ostwald ripening, but less attention has been paid to modeling the corresponding particle size distribution. Here we use in situ fluid stage scanning TEM to demonstrate that silver nanoparticles grow by a length-scale dependent mechanism, where individual nanoparticles grow by monomer attachment but ensemble-scale growth is dominated by aggregation. Although our observed mean nanoparticle growth rate is consistent with the LSW model, we show that the corresponding particle size distribution is broader and more symmetric than predicted by LSW. Following direct observations of aggregation, we interpret the ensemble-scale growth using Smoluchowski kinetics and demonstrate that the Smoluchowski model quantitatively captures the mean growth rate and particle size distribution.

  15. Phase transitions and kinetic properties of gold nanoparticles confined between two-layer graphene nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Wu, Nanhua; Chen, Jionghua; Wang, Jinjian; Shao, Jingling; Zhu, Xiaolei; Lu, Xiaohua; Guo, Lucun

    2016-11-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors of gold nanoparticles confined between two-layer graphene nanosheets (two-layer-GNSs) are examined and investigated during heating and cooling processes via molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique. An EAM potential is applied to represent the gold-gold interactions while a Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential is used to describe the gold-GNS interactions. The MD melting temperature of 1345 K for bulk gold is close to the experimental value (1337 K), confirming that the EAM potential used to describe gold-gold interactions is reliable. On the other hand, the melting temperatures of gold clusters supported on graphite bilayer are corrected to the corresponding experimental values by adjusting the εAu-C value. Therefore, the subsequent results from current work are reliable. The gold nanoparticles confined within two-layer GNSs exhibit face center cubic structures, which is similar to those of free gold clusters and bulk gold. The melting points, heats of fusion, and heat capacities of the confined gold nanoparticles are predicted based on the plots of total energies against temperature. The density distribution perpendicular to GNS suggests that the freezing of confined gold nanoparticles starts from outermost layers. The confined gold clusters exhibit layering phenomenon even in liquid state. The transition of order-disorder in each layer is an essential characteristic in structure for the freezing phase transition of the confined gold clusters. Additionally, some vital kinetic data are obtained in terms of classical nucleation theory.

  16. Isothermal Ice Crystallization Kinetics in the Gas-Diffusion Layer of a Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dursch, Thomas J.; Ciontea, Monica A.; Radke, Clayton J.; Weber, Adam Z.

    2011-12-01

    Nucleation and growth of ice in the fibrous gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) are studied using isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Isothermal crystallization rates and pseudo-steady-state nucleation rates are obtained as a function of subcooling from heat-flow and induction-time measurements. Kinetics of ice nucleation and growth are studied at two polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) loadings (0 and 10 wt %) in a commercial GDL for temperatures between 240 and 273 K. A nonlinear ice-crystallization rate expression is developed using Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov (JMAK) theory, in which the heat-transfer-limited growth rate is determined from the moving-boundary Stefan problem. Induction times follow a Poisson distribution and increase upon addition of PTFE, indicating that nucleation occurs more slowly on a hydrophobic fiber than on a hydrophilic fiber. The determined nucleation rates and induction times follow expected trends from classical nucleation theory. Finally, a validated rate expression is now available for predicting ice-crystallization kinetics in GDLs.

  17. Isothermal ice crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer of a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Dursch, T J; Ciontea, M A; Radke, C J; Weber, A Z

    2012-01-17

    Nucleation and growth of ice in the fibrous gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) are investigated using isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Isothermal crystallization rates and pseudo-steady-state nucleation rates are obtained as a function of subcooling from heat-flow and induction-time measurements. Kinetics of ice nucleation and growth are studied at two polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) loadings (0 and 10 wt %) in a commercial GDL for temperatures between 240 and 273 K. A nonlinear ice-crystallization rate expression is developed using Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) theory, in which the heat-transfer-limited growth rate is determined from the moving-boundary Stefan problem. Induction times follow a Poisson distribution and increase upon addition of PTFE, indicating that nucleation occurs more slowly on a hydrophobic fiber than on a hydrophilic fiber. The determined nucleation rates and induction times follow expected trends from classical nucleation theory. A validated rate expression is now available for predicting ice-crystallization kinetics in GDLs.

  18. Dynamic layer rearrangement during growth of layered oxide films by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Luo, G; Tung, I C; Chang, S H; Luo, Z; Malshe, M; Gadre, M; Bhattacharya, A; Nakhmanson, S M; Eastman, J A; Hong, H; Jellinek, J; Morgan, D; Fong, D D; Freeland, J W

    2014-09-01

    The A(n+1)B(n)O(3n+1) Ruddlesden-Popper homologous series offers a wide variety of functionalities including dielectric, ferroelectric, magnetic and catalytic properties. Unfortunately, the synthesis of such layered oxides has been a major challenge owing to the occurrence of growth defects that result in poor materials behaviour in the higher-order members. To understand the fundamental physics of layered oxide growth, we have developed an oxide molecular beam epitaxy system with in situ synchrotron X-ray scattering capability. We present results demonstrating that layered oxide films can dynamically rearrange during growth, leading to structures that are highly unexpected on the basis of the intended layer sequencing. Theoretical calculations indicate that rearrangement can occur in many layered oxide systems and suggest a general approach that may be essential for the construction of metastable Ruddlesden-Popper phases. We demonstrate the utility of the new-found growth strategy by performing the first atomically controlled synthesis of single-crystalline La3Ni2O7.

  19. Kinetic-Dominated Charging Mechanism within Representative Aqueous Electrolyte-based Electric Double-Layer Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huachao; Yang, Jinyuan; Bo, Zheng; Chen, Xia; Shuai, Xiaorui; Kong, Jing; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2017-08-03

    The chemical nature of electrolytes has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the charge storage of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), whereas primary mechanisms are still partially resolved but controversial. In this work, a systematic exploration into EDL structures and kinetics of representative aqueous electrolytes is performed with numerical simulation and experimental research. Unusually, a novel charging mechanism exclusively predominated by kinetics is recognized, going beyond traditional views of manipulating capacitances preferentially via interfacial structural variations. Specifically, strikingly distinctive EDL structures stimulated by diverse ion sizes, valences, and mixtures manifest a virtually identical EDL capacitance, where the dielectric nature of solvents attenuates ionic effects on electrolyte redistributions, in stark contradiction with solvent-free counterpart and traditional Helmholtz theory. Meanwhile, corresponding kinetics evolve conspicuously with ionic species, intimately correlated with ion-solvent interactions. The achieved mechanisms are subsequently illuminated by electrochemical measurements, highlighting the crucial interplay between ions and solvents in regulating EDLC performances.

  20. Adsorption of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles within layer-by-layer films: a kinetic study carried out using quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Gustavo B; Paterno, Leonardo G; Afonso, André S; Faria, Ronaldo C; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A; Morais, Paulo C; Soler, Maria A G

    2011-12-28

    The paper reports on the successful use of the quartz crystal microbalance technique to assess accurate kinetics and equilibrium parameters regarding the investigation of in situ adsorption of nanosized cobalt ferrite particles (CoFe(2)O(4)--10.5 nm-diameter) onto two different surfaces. Firstly, a single layer of nanoparticles was deposited onto the surface provided by the gold-coated quartz resonator functionalized with sodium 3-mercapto propanesulfonate (3-MPS). Secondly, the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was used to build multilayers in which the CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticle-based layer alternates with the sodium sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) layer. The adsorption experiments were conducted by modulating the number of adsorbed CoFe(2)O(4)/PSS bilayers (n) and/or by changing the CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticle concentration while suspended as a stable colloidal dispersion. Adsorption of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles onto the 3-MPS-functionalized surface follows perfectly a first order kinetic process in a wide range (two orders of magnitude) of nanoparticle concentrations. These data were used to assess the equilibrium constant and the adsorption free energy. Alternatively, the Langmuir adsorption constant was obtained while analyzing the isotherm data at the equilibrium. Adsorption of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles while growing multilayers of CoFe(2)O(4)/PSS was conducted using colloidal suspensions with CoFe(2)O(4) concentration in the range of 10(-8) to 10(-6) (moles of cobalt ferrite per litre) and for different numbers of cycles n = 1, 3, 5, and 10. We found the adsorption of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles within the CoFe(2)O(4)/PSS bilayers perfectly following a first order kinetic process, with the characteristic rate constant growing with the increase of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticle concentration and decreasing with the rise of the number of LbL cycles (n). Additionally, atomic force microscopy was employed for assessing the LbL film roughness and thickness. We found the film

  1. Direct atomic-scale observation of layer-by-layer oxide growth during magnesium oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, He; Wu, Shujing; Sheng, Huaping; Liu, Chun; Liu, Yu; Cao, Fan; Zhou, Zhichao; Zhao, Dongshan E-mail: dszhao@whu.edu.cn; Wang, Jianbo E-mail: dszhao@whu.edu.cn; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2014-04-07

    The atomic-scale oxide growth dynamics are directly revealed by in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy during the oxidation of Mg surface. The oxidation process is characterized by the layer-by-layer growth of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanocrystal via the adatom process. Consistently, the nucleated MgO crystals exhibit faceted surface morphology as enclosed by (200) lattice planes. It is believed that the relatively lower surface energies of (200) lattice planes should play important roles, governing the growth mechanism. These results facilitate the understanding of the nanoscale oxide growth mechanism that will have an important impact on the development of magnesium or magnesium alloys with improved resistance to oxidation.

  2. Arbitrary amplitude double layers in warm dust kinetic Alfven wave plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gogoi, Runmoni; Devi, Nirupama

    2008-07-15

    Large amplitude electrostatic structures associated with low-frequency dust kinetic Alfvenic waves are investigated under the pressure (temperature) gradient indicative of dust dynamics. The set of equations governing the dust dynamics, Boltzmann electrons, ions and Maxwell's equation have been reduced to a single equation known as the Sagdeev potential equation. Parameter ranges for the existence of arbitrary amplitude double layers are observed. Exact analytical expressions for the energy integral is obtained and computed numerically through which sub-Alfvenic arbitrary amplitude rarefactive double layers are found to exist.

  3. Growth kinetics and inhibition of growth of chemical vapor deposited thin tungsten films on silicon from tungsten hexafluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leusink, G. J.; Kleijn, C. R.; Oosterlaken, T. G. M.; Janssen, G. C. A. M.; Radelaar, S.

    1992-07-01

    The growth kinetics and inhibition of growth of chemical vapor deposited thin W films on Si(100) from WF6 was studied with in situ growth stress and reflectivity measurements and ex situ weight gain measurements. A systematic series of experiments at varying WF6 flow, total pressure, and temperature show that the thickening kinetics and inhibition of the growth are controlled by two processes: WF6 diffusion through the gas phase and Si diffusion through the thickening columnar film. The steady state growth kinetics are controlled by WF6 diffusion in the gas phase whereas inhibition of the growth occurs at the transition from WF6 gas diffusion limited to Si solid state diffusion limited growth. A simple model based on WF6 gas phase diffusion and Si solid state diffusion is presented which gives a quantitative description of the experimental results.

  4. Reactions of allylic radicals that impact molecular weight growth kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Villano, Stephanie M; Dean, Anthony M

    2015-03-07

    The reactions of allylic radicals have the potential to play a critical role in molecular weight growth (MWG) kinetics during hydrocarbon oxidation and/or pyrolysis. Due to their stability (when compared to alkyl radicals), they can accumulate to relatively high concentrations. Thus, even though the rate coefficients for their various reactions are small, the rates of these reactions may be significant. In this work, we use electronic structure calculations to examine the recombination, addition, and abstraction reactions of allylic radicals. For the recombination reaction of allyl radicals, we assign a high pressure rate rule that is based on experimental data. Once formed, the recombination product can potentially undergo an H-atom abstraction reaction followed by unimolecular cyclization and β-scission reactions. Depending upon the conditions (e.g., higher pressures) these pathways can lead to the formation of stable MWG species. The addition of allylic radicals to olefins can also lead to MWG species formation. Once again, cyclization of the adduct followed by β-scission is an important energy accessible route. Since the recombination and addition reactions produce chemically-activated adducts, we have explored the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the overall rate constants as well as that for the multiple product channels. We describe a strategy for estimating these pressure-dependencies for systems where detailed electronic structure information is not available. We also derive generic rate rules for hydrogen abstraction reactions from olefins and diolefins by methyl and allyl radicals.

  5. Coupled simulation of kinetic pedestal growth and MHD ELM crash

    SciTech Connect

    Park, G.; Cummings, J.; Chang, C. S.; Klasky, Scott A; Ku, S.; Podhorszki, Norbert; Pankin, A.; Samtaney, Ravi; Shoshani, A.; Snyder, P.; Strauss, H.; Sugiyama, L.; CPES Team, the

    2007-01-01

    Edge pedestal height and the accompanying ELM crash are critical elements of ITER physics yet to be understood and predicted through high performance computing. An entirely self-consistent first principles simulation is being pursued as a long term research goal, and the plan is planned for completion in time for ITER operation. However, a proof-of-principle work has already been established using a computational tool that employs the best first principles physics available at the present time. A kinetic edge equilibrium code XGC0, which can simulate the neoclassically dominant pedestal growth from neutral ionization (using a phenomenological residual turbulence diffusion motion superposed upon the neoclassical particle motion) is coupled to an extended MHD code M3D, which can perform the nonlinear ELM crash. The stability boundary of the pedestal is checked by an ideal MHD linear peeling-ballooning code, which has been validated against many experimental data sets for the large scale (type I) ELMs onset boundary. The coupling workflow and scientific results to be enabled by it are described.

  6. Coupled simulation of kinetic pedestal growth and MHD ELM crash

    SciTech Connect

    Park, G-Y; Cummings, J.; Chang, C S; Podhorszki, Norbert; Klasky, Scott A; Ku, S.; Pankin, A.; Samtaney, Ravi; Shoshani, A.; Snyder, P.; Sugiyama, L.

    2009-01-01

    Edge pedestal height and the accompanying ELM crash are critical elements of ITER physics yet to be understood and predicted through high performance computing. An entirely self-consistent first principles simulation is being pursued as a long term research goal, and the plan is planned for completion in time for ITER operation. However, a proof-of-principle work has already been established using a computational tool that employs the best first principles physics available at the present time. A kinetic edge equilibrium code XGC0, which can simulate the neoclassically dominant pedestal growth from neutral ionization (using a phenomenological residual turbulence diffusion motion superposed upon the neoclassical particle motion) is coupled to an extended MHD code M3D, which can perform the nonlinear ELM crash. The stability boundary of the pedestal is checked by an ideal MHD linear peeling-ballooning code, which has been validated against many experimental data sets for the large scale (type I) ELMs onset boundary. The coupling workflow and scientific results to be enabled by it are described.

  7. Reduced kinetic mechanism of ignition for nonpremixed hydrogen/air in a supersonic mixing layer

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Y.; Niioka, T. . Inst. of Fluid Science)

    1994-11-01

    Transient ignition processes in a two-dimensional spatially evolving supersonic mixing layer consisting of a parallel nonpremixed airstream and a hydrogen stream both with temperatures higher than 1,000 K were investigated numerically by using the full chemistry and its reduced chemistry. A phenomenon different from that examined in previous studies, in which ignition of hydrogen/oxygen mixtures was considered, was found in the nonpremixed case examined here. It was shown that the concentration of O was greater than that of OH before ignition, but became smaller with the development of ignition process. Fourteen important reactions for ignition were obtained and verified using sensitivity analyses of ignition delay time and radical concentrations. Several different four-step and three-step reduced kinetic mechanisms were then deduced by introducing the steady-state approximation to different species. Comparison of these reduced kinetic mechanisms with the full chemistry showed that the steady-state approximation of O used in previous studies caused serious errors in the prediction of ignition delay time in supersonic flow, in which nonpremixed character is predominant and the transport phenomenon is important. Ignition locations predicted with the proper four-step and three-step reduced kinetic mechanisms were within 5% and 20% of those predicted with the full chemistry. Finally, these two reduced mechanisms were used to evaluate the effect of viscous dissipation on ignition in the supersonic shear layer. Good agreements between the results of the present reduced kinetic mechanisms and those of the full chemistry were obtained.

  8. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    DOEpatents

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  9. Nucleation kinetics and crystal growth with fluctuating rates at the intermediate stage of phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, D. V.; Malygin, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Crystal growth kinetics accompanied by particle growth with fluctuating rates at the intermediate stage of phase transitions is analyzed theoretically. The integro-differential model of governing equations is solved analytically for size-independent growth rates and arbitrary dependences of the nucleation frequency on supercooling/supersaturation. Two important cases of Weber-Volmer-Frenkel-Zel'dovich and Mier nucleation kinetics are detailed. A Fokker-Plank type equation for the crystal-size density distribution function is solved explicitly.

  10. Underpotential deposition-mediated layer-by-layer growth of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jia Xu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-05-19

    A method of depositing contiguous, conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin films with atomic-level control is described. The process involves the use of underpotential deposition of a first element to mediate the growth of a second material by overpotential deposition. Deposition occurs between a potential positive to the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element where a full monolayer of mediating element forms, and a potential which is less than, or only slightly greater than, the bulk deposition potential of the material to be deposited. By cycling the applied voltage between the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element and the material to be deposited, repeated desorption/adsorption of the mediating element during each potential cycle can be used to precisely control film growth on a layer-by-layer basis. This process is especially suitable for the formation of a catalytically active layer on core-shell particles for use in energy conversion devices such as fuel cells.

  11. Synthesis of layer-tunable graphene: A combined kinetic implantation and thermal ejection approach

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Su; ...

    2015-05-04

    Layer-tunable graphene has attracted broad interest for its potentials in nanoelectronics applications. However, synthesis of layer-tunable graphene by using traditional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method still remains a great challenge due to the complex experimental parameters and the carbon precipitation process. Herein, by performing ion implantation into a Ni/Cu bilayer substrate, the number of graphene layers, especially single or double layer, can be controlled precisely by adjusting the carbon ion implant fluence. The growth mechanism of the layer-tunable graphene is revealed by monitoring the growth process is observed that the entire implanted carbon atoms can be expelled towards the substratemore » surface and thus graphene with designed layer number can be obtained. Such a growth mechanism is further confirmed by theoretical calculations. The proposed approach for the synthesis of layer-tunable graphene offers more flexibility in the experimental conditions. Being a core technology in microelectronics processing, ion implantation can be readily implemented in production lines and is expected to expedite the application of graphene to nanoelectronics.« less

  12. Synthesis of layer-tunable graphene: A combined kinetic implantation and thermal ejection approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Su; Xie, Xiaoming; Ding, Guqiao; Wang, Yongqiang; Chu, Paul K.; Gao, Heng; Ren, Wei; Yuan, Qinghong; Zhang, Peihong; Wang, Xi; Di, Zengfeng

    2015-05-04

    Layer-tunable graphene has attracted broad interest for its potentials in nanoelectronics applications. However, synthesis of layer-tunable graphene by using traditional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method still remains a great challenge due to the complex experimental parameters and the carbon precipitation process. Herein, by performing ion implantation into a Ni/Cu bilayer substrate, the number of graphene layers, especially single or double layer, can be controlled precisely by adjusting the carbon ion implant fluence. The growth mechanism of the layer-tunable graphene is revealed by monitoring the growth process is observed that the entire implanted carbon atoms can be expelled towards the substrate surface and thus graphene with designed layer number can be obtained. Such a growth mechanism is further confirmed by theoretical calculations. The proposed approach for the synthesis of layer-tunable graphene offers more flexibility in the experimental conditions. Being a core technology in microelectronics processing, ion implantation can be readily implemented in production lines and is expected to expedite the application of graphene to nanoelectronics.

  13. The Kwinana Coastal Fumigation Study: II Growth of the Thermal Internal Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhar, A.K.; Sawford, B.L.; Hacker, J.M.; Rayner, K.N.

    Aircraft measurements of potential temperature and turbulent kinetic energy are used to examine the growth of the thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) in sea-breeze flows on four selected days of a coastal fumigation study performed in 1995 at Kwinana in Western Australia. The aircraft data, together with radiosonde measurements taken on the same days, show a multi-layered low-level onshore flow in the vertical with a superadiabatic layer extending to about 50 m above the water surface on all four days. On the first three days the layer above the superadiabatic layer was neutral, typically 200 m deep, capped by a stably stratified region, whereas on the remaining day it was fully stable. The occurrence of the neutral layer on most experimental days contrasts with the more usual situation involving an entirely stable onshore flow. A composite approach based on both temperature and turbulence data is used to provide a pragmatic but self-consistent definition of the TIBL height. The data for the first three days indicate that the TIBL grows rapidly into the neutrally stratified region to the top of the region within about 2 km from the coast, with a very slow subsequent growth into the stable stratification aloft. On the other hand, the TIBL grows only to about 200 m within a distance of 7 km from the coast on the fourth day due to a strong stable stratification.An existing numerical TIBL model based on the slab approach, capable of describing the TIBL growth in both neutral and stable environments, and a recent analytical model, more efficient for operational use, are used to simulate the aircraft TIBL observations. The predictions by both models agree reasonably well with the data.

  14. Notes on Interface Growth Kinetics 50 Years after Burton, Cabrera and Frank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    This overview is devoted to some unresolved basic problems in crystal growth kinetics. The density wave approach to propagation of a spatially diffuse interface between a growing crystal and its simple (e.g., metallic) melt is discussed is Section 2. This approach allows for the calculation of kinetic coefficients and is an alternative to the localized interface concept in which each atom belongs to either a solid or a liquid. Sections 3 and 4 deals mainly with layer growth from solution. Mutual retardation of the growth steps via their bulk and d a c e diffusion fields is the major subject. The influence of solution flow on step bunching (Section 4) suggests the essential influence of bulk diffusion on the surface morphology. The flow within the solution boundary layer enhances step-step interaction, influences the step bunching process and the resulting step pattern morphology on the growing surface. Recent experiments on the rates at which strongly polygonized steps on protein and small molecule crystals propagate during growth from solution are analyzed in Section 5 . We have shown that the step segments may be "singular" and that "one-dimensional nucleation" may be the rate limiting stage for the segments that are shorter or comparable in length to the thermodynamically equilibrium interlink distance. In this case, the reciprocal dependence of the segment propagation rate on the segment length that follow from the Gibbs-Thompson law, should be replaced by an abrupt switch from zero to a finite constant velocity. Until recently, the Kossel crystal remained the only model used in crystal growth theory. In such Kossel Gibbs-Thomson law, should be replaced by an abrupt switch &om zero to a finite constant velocity. crystals, all kinks at the steps are identical and the kink rate is a linear function of the supersaturation. In the non-Kossel crystals, there may be several kink configurations characterized by different geometries and energies. These configurations

  15. Notes on Interface Growth Kinetics 50 Years after Burton, Cabrera and Frank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    This overview is devoted to some unresolved basic problems in crystal growth kinetics. The density wave approach to propagation of a spatially diffuse interface between a growing crystal and its simple (e.g., metallic) melt is discussed is Section 2. This approach allows for the calculation of kinetic coefficients and is an alternative to the localized interface concept in which each atom belongs to either a solid or a liquid. Sections 3 and 4 deals mainly with layer growth from solution. Mutual retardation of the growth steps via their bulk and d a c e diffusion fields is the major subject. The influence of solution flow on step bunching (Section 4) suggests the essential influence of bulk diffusion on the surface morphology. The flow within the solution boundary layer enhances step-step interaction, influences the step bunching process and the resulting step pattern morphology on the growing surface. Recent experiments on the rates at which strongly polygonized steps on protein and small molecule crystals propagate during growth from solution are analyzed in Section 5 . We have shown that the step segments may be "singular" and that "one-dimensional nucleation" may be the rate limiting stage for the segments that are shorter or comparable in length to the thermodynamically equilibrium interlink distance. In this case, the reciprocal dependence of the segment propagation rate on the segment length that follow from the Gibbs-Thompson law, should be replaced by an abrupt switch from zero to a finite constant velocity. Until recently, the Kossel crystal remained the only model used in crystal growth theory. In such Kossel Gibbs-Thomson law, should be replaced by an abrupt switch &om zero to a finite constant velocity. crystals, all kinks at the steps are identical and the kink rate is a linear function of the supersaturation. In the non-Kossel crystals, there may be several kink configurations characterized by different geometries and energies. These configurations

  16. Growth of the interaction layer around fuel particles in dispersion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, D.

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion of uranium particles in dispersion fuel by the aluminum matrix produces interaction layers (an intermetallic-compound corrosion product) around the shrinking fuel spheres. The rate of this process was modeled as series resistances due to Al diffusion through the interaction layer and reaction of aluminum with uranium in the fuel particle to produce UAl x. The overall kinetics are governed by the relative rates of these two steps, the slowest of which is reaction at the interface between Al in the interaction layer and U in the fuel particle. The substantial volume change as uranium is transferred from the fuel to the interaction layer was accounted for. The model was compared to literature data on in-reactor growth of the interaction layer and the Al/U gradient in this layer, the latter measured in ex-reactor experiments. The rate constant of the Al-U interface reaction and the diffusivity of Al in the interaction layer were obtained from this fitting procedure. The second feature of the corrosion process is the transfer of fission products from the fuel particle to the interaction layer due to the reaction. It is commonly assumed that the observed swelling of irradiated fuel elements of this type is due to release of fission gas in the interaction layer to form large bubbles. This hypothesis was tested by using the model to compute the quantity of fission gas available from this source and comparing the pressure of the resulting gas with the observed swelling of fuel plates. It was determined that the gas pressure so generated is too small to account for the observed delamination of the fuel.

  17. Exploring growth kinetics of carbon nanotube arrays by in situ optical diagnostics and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Pannala, Sreekanth; Rouleau, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Simple kinetic models of carbon nanotube growth have been able to successfully link together many experimental parameters involved in the growth of carbon nanotubes for practical applications including the prediction of growth rates, terminal lengths, number of walls, activation energies, and their dependences on the growth environment. The implications of recent experiments utilizing in situ monitoring of carbon nanotube growth on our past kinetic model are first reviewed. Then, sub-second pulsed feedstock gas introduction is discussed to explore the nucleation and initial growth of carbon nanotubes in the context of the kinetic model. Moreover, kinetic effects in "pulsed CVD" - using repeated pulsed gas introduction to stop and restart nanotube growth - are explored to understand renucleation, the origin of alignment in nanotube arrays, and incremental growth. Time-resolved reflectivity of the surface is used to remotely understand the kinetics of nucleation and the coordinated growth of arrays. This approach demonstrates that continuous vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes can be grown incrementally by pulsed CVD, and that the first exposure of fresh catalyst to feedstock gas is critical to nanotubes site density required for coordinated growth. Aligned nanotube arrays (as short as 60 nm) are shown to nucleate and grow within single, sub-second gas pulses. The multiple-pulse growth experiments (> 100 pulses) show that a high fraction of nanotubes renucleate on subsequent gas pulses.

  18. Synthetic Control of Kinetic Reaction Pathway and Cationic Ordering in High-Ni Layered Oxide Cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Dawei; Kou, Ronghui; Ren, Yang; ...

    2017-08-25

    Nickel-rich layered transition metal oxides, LiNi1-x(MnCo)xO2 (1-x ≥ 0.5), are appealing candidates for cathodes in next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for electric vehicles and other large-scale applications, due to their high capacity and low cost. However, synthetic control of the structural ordering in such a complex quaternary system has been a great challenge, especially in the presence of high Ni content. Herein, synthesis reactions for preparing layered LiNi0.7Mn0.15Co0.15O2 (NMC71515) by solid-state methods are investigated through a combination of time-resolved in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy measurements. The real-time observation reveals a strong temperature dependence of the kinetics of cationicmore » ordering in NMC71515 as a result of thermal-driven oxidation of transition metals and lithium/oxygen loss that concomitantly occur during heat treatment. Through synthetic control of the kinetic reaction pathway, a layered NMC71515 with low cationic disordering and a high reversible capacity is prepared in air. The findings may help to pave the way for designing high-Ni layered oxide cathodes for LIBs« less

  19. A theoretical study of surfactant action in the layer-by-layer homoepitaxial growth of metals: the case of In on Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Qiu, Min; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Cao, Pei-Lin

    1998-02-01

    A surfactant-mediated homoepitaxial metal system, Cu/In/Cu(111), is studied by using first-principles calculations and the kinetic Monte Carlo method. A new repulsion model is proposed for the Cu/In/Cu(111) system where surface-substitutional In atoms repel diffusing Cu adatoms and build a repulsion network. This repulsion network results in an average increase of terrace barriers for adatoms Cu and enhanced island density. The layer-by-layer growth for the Cu/In/Cu(111) system is achieved with a repulsion model in a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The importance of the additional barrier ΔE is confirmed in determining film morphology.

  20. Model-based predictions of solid state intermetallic compound layer growth in hybrid microelectronic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.; Erickson, K.L.; Hopkins, P.L.

    1997-12-31

    A mathematical model was developed to quantitatively describe the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer growth that takes place between a Sn-based solder and a noble metal thick film conductor material used in hybrid microcircuit (HMC) assemblies. The model combined the reaction kinetics of the solder/substrate interaction, as determined from ancillary isothermal aging experiments, with a 2-D finite element mesh that took account of the porous morphology of the thick film coating. The effect of the porous morphology on the IMC layer growth when compared to the traditional 1-D computations was significant. The previous 1-D calculations under-predicted the nominal IMC layer thickness relative to the 2-D case. The 2-D model showed greater substrate consumption by IMC growth and lesser solder consumption that was determined with the 1-D computation. The new 2-D model allows the design engineer to better predict circuit aging and hence, the reliability of HMC hardware that is placed in the field.

  1. Kinetic Alfven wave in the presence of kappa distribution function in plasma sheet boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, G. Ahirwar, G.; Shrivastava, J.

    2015-07-31

    The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven wave. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in the presence of kappa distribution function. Kinetic effect of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven wave because both are important in the transition region. It is found that the ratio β of electron thermal energy density to magnetic field energy density and the ratio of ion to electron thermal temperature (T{sub i}/T{sub e}), and kappa distribution function affect the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in both cases(warm and cold electron limit).The treatment of kinetic Alfven wave instability is based on assumption that the plasma consist of resonant and non resonant particles. The resonant particles participate in an energy exchange process, whereas the non resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the wave.

  2. Pressure self-multiplication and the kinetics of phase transition in plastic layer experiencing plane deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguslavskii, Yu.; Achmetshackirova, Kh.; Drabkin, S.

    1998-09-01

    Based on the deformation theory of plasticity the problem of pressure distribution in a compressed layer at phase transition experiencing a plane plastic deformation is considered. It is found that in the pressure distribution near the phase boundaries anomalies emerge in the form of a “step” or a local maximum caused by volume jumps at phase transition. It is shown that these anomalies and differences in yield limits of the phases can lead to essential change of pressure in the center of the layer in comparison with its value in absence of phase transition, but under equal external load. The maximal value of external load admitting the considered solution is found. The kinetics of possible isothermal regimes of phase transition leading to change in the time-pressure distribution in the plastic layer is investigated.

  3. Kinetic aspects of the ion current layer in a reconnection outflow exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Zenitani, Seiji; Wada, Tomohide; Shinohara, Iku; Nagai, Tsugunobu

    2013-09-15

    Kinetic aspects of the ion current layer at the center of a reconnection outflow exhaust near the X-type region are investigated by a two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The layer consists of magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions that carry a perpendicular electric current. The ion fluid appears to be nonideal, sub-Alfvénic, and nondissipative. The ion velocity distribution functions contain multiple populations, such as global Speiser ions, local Speiser ions, and trapped ions. The particle motion of the local Speiser ions in an appropriately rotated coordinate system explains the ion fluid properties very well. The trapped ions are the first demonstration of the regular orbits in the chaotic particle dynamics [Chen and Palmadesso, J. Geophys. Res. 91, 1499 (1986)] in self-consistent PIC simulations. They would be observational signatures in the ion current layer near reconnection sites.

  4. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Cepek, Cinzia

    2014-04-14

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  5. Effects of penconazole on two yeast strains: growth kinetics and molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Jawich, Dalal; Lteif, Roger; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Strehaiano, Pierre

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study consisted to evaluate the impact of a pesticide (penconazole) on the growth kinetics and genotoxicity on two yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Metschnikowia pulcherrima). When the penconazole was added at different phases of the growth of M. pulcherrima, no effect was noticed on the kinetics of yeast growth but DNA adducts were observed when penconazole was added in the exponential phase. Increasing doses (1-15 maximum residue limit) of the pesticide added at the beginning of the fermentation did not induce DNA adducts while kinetics were affected.

  6. Phase-field Model for Interstitial Loop Growth Kinetics and Thermodynamic and Kinetic Models of Irradiated Fe-Cr Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-06-15

    Microstructure evolution kinetics in irradiated materials has strongly spatial correlation. For example, void and second phases prefer to nucleate and grow at pre-existing defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and cracks. Inhomogeneous microstructure evolution results in inhomogeneity of microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. Therefore, the simulation capability for predicting three dimensional (3-D) microstructure evolution kinetics and its subsequent impact on material properties and performance is crucial for scientific design of advanced nuclear materials and optimal operation conditions in order to reduce uncertainty in operational and safety margins. Very recently the meso-scale phase-field (PF) method has been used to predict gas bubble evolution, void swelling, void lattice formation and void migration in irradiated materials,. Although most results of phase-field simulations are qualitative due to the lake of accurate thermodynamic and kinetic properties of defects, possible missing of important kinetic properties and processes, and the capability of current codes and computers for large time and length scale modeling, the simulations demonstrate that PF method is a promising simulation tool for predicting 3-D heterogeneous microstructure and property evolution, and providing microstructure evolution kinetics for higher scale level simulations of microstructure and property evolution such as mean field methods. This report consists of two parts. In part I, we will present a new phase-field model for predicting interstitial loop growth kinetics in irradiated materials. The effect of defect (vacancy/interstitial) generation, diffusion and recombination, sink strength, long-range elastic interaction, inhomogeneous and anisotropic mobility on microstructure evolution kinetics is taken into account in the model. The model is used to study the effect of elastic interaction on interstitial loop growth kinetics, the interstitial flux, and sink

  7. Effect of Elastic Strain Fluctuation on Atomic Layer Growth of Epitaxial Silicide in Si Nanowires by Point Contact Reactions.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yi-Chia; Tang, Wei; Chiou, Chien-Jyun; Chen, Kai; Minor, Andrew M; Tu, K N

    2015-06-10

    Effects of strain impact a range of applications involving mobility change in field-effect-transistors. We report the effect of strain fluctuation on epitaxial growth of NiSi2 in a Si nanowire via point contact and atomic layer reactions, and we discuss the thermodynamic, kinetic, and mechanical implications. The generation and relaxation of strain shown by in situ TEM is periodic and in synchronization with the atomic layer reaction. The Si lattice at the epitaxial interface is under tensile strain, which enables a high solubility of supersaturated interstitial Ni atoms for homogeneous nucleation of an epitaxial atomic layer of the disilicide phase. The tensile strain is reduced locally during the incubation period of nucleation by the dissolution of supersaturated Ni atoms in the Si lattice but the strained-Si state returns once the atomic layer epitaxial growth of NiSi2 occurs by consuming the supersaturated Ni.

  8. The influence of crystal morphology on the kinetics of growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan, A.; Sohnel, O.; Grases, F.

    1997-08-01

    The growth of several calcium oxalate monohydrate seeds in the presence and absence of additives (phytate, EDTA and citrate) has been followed by potentiometry measurements. Growth rates have been calculated from precipitate curves by a cubic spline method and represented in logarithmic plots versus supersaturation. Crystal growth kinetics were found to be dependent on crystal morphology, crystal perfection and degree of aggregation. Some seeds were dissolving in supersaturated solutions. Other seeds showed an initial growth phase of high-order kinetics. The effect of the additives was also different on each seed. Three alternative mechanisms for calcium oxalate crystal growth are proposed.

  9. Cell and tissue kinetics of the subependymal layer in mouse brain following heavy charged particle irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    The following studies investigate the cellular response and cell population kinetics of the subependymal layer in the mouse brain exposed to heavy charged particle irradiation. Partial brain irradiation with helium and neon ions was confined to one cortex of the brain. Both the irradiated and the unirradiated contralateral cortex showed similar disturbances of the cell and tissue kinetics in the subependymal layers. The irradiated hemisphere exhibited histological damage, whereas the unirradiated side appeared normal histologically. The decrease in the values of the labeling indices 1 week after charged particle irradiation was dose- and ion-dependent. Mitotic indices 1 week after 10 and 25 Gy helium and after 10 Gy neon were the same as those seen in the control mice. Analysis of cell kinetics 1 week after 10 Gy helium and 10 Gy neon irradiation suggests the presence of a progenitor subpopulation that is proliferating with a shorter cell cycle. Comparison of the responses to the different charged particle beams indicates that neon ions are more effective in producing direct cellular damage than the helium ions, but the surviving proliferating cells several divisions later continue to maintain active cell renewal. Based on the 1 week post-irradiation H{sup 3}-TdR labeling indices, a rough estimate of the RBE for neon ions is at least 2.5 when compared to helium ions.

  10. Modeling growth kinetics and statistical distribution of oligometastases.

    PubMed

    Withers, H Rodney; Lee, Steve P

    2006-04-01

    The kinetics of development of micrometastases, and especially of small numbers of metastases (oligometastases), was explored by using simple assumptions to develop concepts that may be useful for framing future research. The conclusions depend on the assumptions and hence must be considered speculative. It is assumed that beyond a threshold size for initiation of metastatic spread, which varies widely from tumor to tumor, the rate at which a primary tumor sheds new metastases increases exponentially, in parallel with its exponential growth. This increasing rate of release of new metastatic clonogens from the primary tumor is accompanied by a similar exponential growth of each of the micrometastases newly established at a secondary site. This creates a log-log linear relationship between the volume distribution of metastases and number of metastases, there being one largest metastasis followed by an exponentially expanding number of logarithmically smaller micrometastases. For example, if the micrometastases and the primary tumor grew at the same rate for 6 doublings after initiation of the first metastasis, then the primary tumor would have increased its volume by a factor of 64 (2(6)) and would be shedding metastatic clonogens at 64 times the initial rate. The first metastasis would undergo 6 doublings and contain 64 cells; the succeeding 2 metastases, released as the primary doubled in volume, would undergo 5 doublings and each would contain 32 cells; and so forth down to the 64 most recently developed single-cell metastases. However, the growth rate of metastases is expected to be faster than that of the primary tumor so that the rate of increase in volume of the micrometastases would be faster than the rate of increase in their numbers (through release of new metastases from the primary). Thus, although the log-log linear relationship is maintained, the slope of the volume frequency curve is changed; if the micrometastases grew 5 times faster than the primary

  11. Study of oxide and α-Zr(O) growth kinetics from high temperature steam oxidation of Zircaloy-4 cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawarn, Tapan K.; Banerjee, Suparna; Samanta, Akanksha; Rath, B. N.; Kumar, Sunil

    2015-12-01

    Oxidation kinetics of Zircaloy-4 cladding of fuel pins of Indian pressurized heavy water reactors (IPHWRs) under a simulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) condition was investigated. The kinetic rate constants for the oxide and oxygen stabilized α-Zr phase growth were established from the isothermal metal-steam reaction at high temperatures (900-1200 °C) with soaking periods in the range of 60-900 s. Oxide and α-Zr(O) layer thickness were measured to derive the respective growth rates. The observed rates obeyed a parabolic law and Arrhenius expressions of rate constants were established. Percentage equivalent clad reacted (%ECR) was calculated using Baker-Just equation. Hydrogen estimation was carried out on the oxidized samples using inert gas fusion technique. The hydrogen pick up was found to be in the range 10-30 ppm. The measured values of oxide and α-Zr(O) layer thickness were compared with the results obtained using OXYCON, an indigenously developed model. The model predicts the oxide growth reasonably well but under predicts the α-Zr(O) growth significantly at thickness values higher than 80 μm.

  12. Notes on Interface Growth Kinetics 50 Years After Burton, Cabrera and Frank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    This is an overview of basic problems of crystal growth kinetics controlled by processes on the crystal interface with solution and melt. Included, also, are results on fundamental issues concerning morphological stability of crystal-solution interface that engage both interface kinetics and mass transport by diffusion and convection.

  13. A model for studying the kinetics of the formation of Fe 2B boride layers at the surface of a gray cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddam, M.; Chegroune, R.

    2010-06-01

    The present work estimates, using a kinetic model, the growth kinetics of Fe 2B boride layers generated at the surface of a gray cast iron via the powder-pack boriding considering three different temperatures (1173, 1223 and 1273 K) and four treatment times (2, 4, 6 and 8 h). By the use of the mass balance equation at the (Fe 2B/substrate) interface under certain assumptions and considering the effect of the boride incubation time, it was possible to estimate the corresponding parabolic growth constant in terms of two parameters αCupFeB and β( T) depending on the boron content in the Fe 2B phase and on the process temperature, respectively. The mass gain at the material surface and the instantaneous velocity of the (Fe 2B/substrate) interface were also estimated. A fairly good agreement was observed between the experimental parabolic growth constants taken from a reference work (Campos-Silva et al., Characterization of boride layers formed at the surface of gray cast irons, Kovove Mater. 47 (2009) 1-7.) and the simulated values of the parabolic growth constants. Furthermore, the boride layer thicknesses were predicted and experimentally verified for three process temperatures and four treatment times.

  14. In situ thermal oxidation kinetics in few layer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Rahul; E Islam, Ahmad; Campbell, Philip M.; Vogel, Eric M.; Maruyama, Benji

    2017-06-01

    It is important to understand the thermal and chemical stability of mono- and few-layer MoS2 for their use in applications. Oxidative environments are of particular interest due to the potential for use of MoS2 in electronics, sensing and energy storage. Here we present an in situ study of the oxidation kinetics of few-layer MoS2 over a wide range of temperatures. In situ monitoring of the MoS2 Raman spectra during oxidation revealed a decrease in the intensity of peaks following sigmoidal decay kinetics, which was initiated at temperatures as low as 300 °C. Ex situ resonance Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy analysis indicated breaking up and thinning of the MoS2 films down to p-doped mono- and bi-layer regions. From analysis of the temperature-dependent decay rates and resonance Raman spectroscopy, we correlate oxidation rates to structural defects in the MoS2 films, and find a reaction energy of 0.54  ±  0.14 eV for the oxidation process.

  15. Modified energetics and growth kinetics on H-terminated GaAs (110)

    SciTech Connect

    Galiana, B.; Benedicto, M.; Díez-Merino, L.; Tejedor, P.; Lorbek, S.; Hlawacek, G.; Teichert, C.

    2013-10-28

    Atomic hydrogen modification of the surface energy of GaAs (110) epilayers, grown at high temperatures from molecular beams of Ga and As{sub 4}, has been investigated by friction force microscopy (FFM). The reduction of the friction force observed with longer exposures to the H beam has been correlated with the lowering of the surface energy originated by the progressive de-relaxation of the GaAs (110) surface occurring upon H chemisorption. Our results indicate that the H-terminated GaAs (110) epilayers are more stable than the As-stabilized ones, with the minimum surface energy value of 31 meV/Å{sup 2} measured for the fully hydrogenated surface. A significant reduction of the Ga diffusion length on the H-terminated surface irrespective of H coverage has been calculated from the FFM data, consistent with the layer-by-layer growth mode and the greater As incorporation coefficient determined from real-time reflection high-energy electron diffraction studies. Arsenic incorporation through direct dissociative chemisorption of single As{sub 4} molecules mediated by H on the GaAs (110) surface has been proposed as the most likely explanation for the changes in surface kinetics observed.

  16. Layer-by-Layer Epitaxial Growth of Scalable WSe2 on Sapphire by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masaki; Wang, Yue; Kashiwabara, Yuta; Matsuoka, Hideki; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2017-09-13

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) provides a simple but powerful way to synthesize large-area high-quality thin films and heterostructures of a wide variety of materials including accomplished group III-V and II-VI semiconductors as well as newly developing oxides and chalcogenides, leading to major discoveries in condensed-matter physics. For two-dimensional (2D) materials, however, main fabrication routes have been mechanical exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition by making good use of weak van der Waals bonding nature between neighboring layers, and MBE growth of 2D materials, in particular on insulating substrates for transport measurements, has been limited despite its fundamental importance for future advanced research. Here, we report layer-by-layer epitaxial growth of scalable transition-metal dichalocogenide (TMDC) thin films on insulating substrates by MBE and demonstrate ambipolar transistor operation. The proposed growth protocol is broadly applicable to other TMDCs, providing a key milestone toward fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures with various 2D materials for novel properties and functionalities.

  17. Island growth as a growth mode in atomic layer deposition: A phenomenological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puurunen, Riikka L.; Vandervorst, Wilfried

    2004-12-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has recently gained world-wide attention because of its suitability for the fabrication of conformal material layers with thickness in the nanometer range. Although the principles of ALD were realized about 40 years ago, the description of many physicochemical processes that occur during ALD growth is still under development. A constant amount of material deposited in an ALD reaction cycle, that is, growth-per-cycle (GPC), has been a paradigm in ALD through decades. The GPC may vary, however, especially in the beginning of the ALD growth. In this work, a division of ALD processes to four classes is proposed, on the basis of how the GPC varies with the number of ALD reaction cycles: linear growth, substrate-enhanced growth, and substrate-inhibited growth of type 1 and type 2. Island growth is identified as a likely origin for type 2 substrate-inhibited growth, where the GPC increases and goes through a maximum before it settles to a constant value characteristic of a steady growth. A simple phenomenological model is developed to describe island growth in ALD. The model assumes that the substrate is unreactive with the ALD reactants, except for reactive defects. ALD growth is assumed to proceed symmetrically from the defects, resulting islands of a conical shape. Random deposition is the growth mode on the islands. The model allows the simulation of GPC curves, surface fraction curves, and surface roughness, with physically significant parameters. When the model is applied to the zirconium tetrachloride/water and the trimethylaluminum/water ALD processes on hydrogen-terminated silicon, the calculated GPC curves and surface fractions agree with the experiments. The island growth model can be used to assess the occurrence of island growth, the size of islands formed, and point of formation of a continuous ALD-grown film. The benefits and limitations of the model and the general characteristics of type 2 substrate-inhibited ALD are

  18. Is cancer a pure growth curve or does it follow a kinetics of dynamical structural transformation?

    PubMed

    González, Maraelys Morales; Joa, Javier Antonio González; Cabrales, Luis Enrique Bergues; Pupo, Ana Elisa Bergues; Schneider, Baruch; Kondakci, Suleyman; Ciria, Héctor Manuel Camué; Reyes, Juan Bory; Jarque, Manuel Verdecia; Mateus, Miguel Angel O'Farril; González, Tamara Rubio; Brooks, Soraida Candida Acosta; Cáceres, José Luis Hernández; González, Gustavo Victoriano Sierra

    2017-03-07

    Unperturbed tumor growth kinetics is one of the more studied cancer topics; however, it is poorly understood. Mathematical modeling is a useful tool to elucidate new mechanisms involved in tumor growth kinetics, which can be relevant to understand cancer genesis and select the most suitable treatment. The classical Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami as well as the modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models to describe unperturbed fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor growth are used and compared with the Gompertz modified and Logistic models. Viable tumor cells (1×10(5)) are inoculated to 28 BALB/c male mice. Modified Gompertz, Logistic, Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami classical and modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models fit well to the experimental data and agree with one another. A jump in the time behaviors of the instantaneous slopes of classical and modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models and high values of these instantaneous slopes at very early stages of tumor growth kinetics are observed. The modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation can be used to describe unperturbed fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor growth. It reveals that diffusion-controlled nucleation/growth and impingement mechanisms are involved in tumor growth kinetics. On the other hand, tumor development kinetics reveals dynamical structural transformations rather than a pure growth curve. Tumor fractal property prevails during entire TGK.

  19. Lateral epitaxial growth of two-dimensional layered semiconductor heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xidong; Wang, Chen; Shaw, Jonathan C; Cheng, Rui; Chen, Yu; Li, Honglai; Wu, Xueping; Tang, Ying; Zhang, Qinling; Pan, Anlian; Jiang, Jianhui; Yu, Ruqing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-12-01

    Two-dimensional layered semiconductors such as MoS₂ and WSe₂ have attracted considerable interest in recent times. Exploring the full potential of these layered materials requires precise spatial modulation of their chemical composition and electronic properties to create well-defined heterostructures. Here, we report the growth of compositionally modulated MoS₂-MoSe₂ and WS₂-WSe₂ lateral heterostructures by in situ modulation of the vapour-phase reactants during growth of these two-dimensional crystals. Raman and photoluminescence mapping studies demonstrate that the resulting heterostructure nanosheets exhibit clear structural and optical modulation. Transmission electron microscopy and elemental mapping studies reveal a single crystalline structure with opposite modulation of sulphur and selenium distributions across the heterostructure interface. Electrical transport studies demonstrate that the WSe₂-WS₂ heterojunctions form lateral p-n diodes and photodiodes, and can be used to create complementary inverters with high voltage gain. Our study is an important advance in the development of layered semiconductor heterostructures, an essential step towards achieving functional electronics and optoelectronics.

  20. Nanostaircases: An atomic shadowing instability during epitaxial CrN(001) layer growth

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, J.R.; Gall, D.

    2005-08-01

    Epitaxial CrN(001) layers, 57 and 230 nm thick, were grown on MgO(001) at 700 deg. C by ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputter deposition in pure N{sub 2} discharges. An oblique deposition angle {alpha}=80 deg. was utilized to purposely increase the effect of atomic shadowing on surface morphological and microstructural evolution. The layers are single crystals with a surface morphology that is characterized by dendritic ridge patterns extending along orthogonal <110> directions superposed by square-shaped supermounds with <100> edges. The ridge patterns are due to a two-dimensional growth instability related to a gradient in the adatom density while the supermounds form due to atomic shadowing. The supermounds protrude out of the surface and capture a larger deposition flux than the surrounding layer. This leads to both vertical and lateral growth and the formation of inverted pyramids that are epitaxially embedded in a single crystalline matrix. The inverted pyramids are terminated by 1-3-nm-wide tilted voids that form nanostaircases due to kinetic faceting along orthogonal {l_brace}100{r_brace} planes.

  1. Kinetic model for an auroral double layer that spans many gravitational scale heights

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Scott

    2014-12-15

    The electrostatic potential profile and the particle densities of a simplified auroral double layer are found using a relaxation method to solve Poisson's equation in one dimension. The electron and ion distribution functions for the ionosphere and magnetosphere are specified at the boundaries, and the particle densities are found from a collisionless kinetic model. The ion distribution function includes the gravitational potential energy; hence, the unperturbed ionospheric plasma has a density gradient. The plasma potential at the upper boundary is given a large negative value to accelerate electrons downward. The solutions for a wide range of dimensionless parameters show that the double layer forms just above a critical altitude that occurs approximately where the ionospheric density has fallen to the magnetospheric density. Below this altitude, the ionospheric ions are gravitationally confined and have the expected scale height for quasineutral plasma in gravity.

  2. Growth kinetics and bulk growth of inversely soluble lithium sulfate monohydrate single crystals and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silambarasan, A.; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-06-01

    To facilitate controlled nucleation rate to grow good quality inversely soluble LSMH single crystals, the nucleation kinetics was studied. The number of molecules in a critical nucleus and nucleation rate in LSMH crystallization process have been determined from experimentally measured induction period using classical nucleation theory. A good quality bulk size single crystal of Lithium sulfate monohydrate (LSMH) has been grown with higher growth rate by modified Sankaranarayanan - Ramasamy (SR) method. A systematic investigation on UV-Vis-NIR transmittance, second harmonic generation and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of LSMH single crystals has been carried out to evaluate the optical behavior of the LSMH single crystal. This work also investigates the third order nonlinear optical properties of the LSMH single crystals. Finally thermal behavior of the grown crystal was studied to know the first order phase transition in the grown LSMH single crystals.

  3. Simulation of the growth kinetics of the (FeB/Fe 2B) bilayer obtained on a borided stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddam, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to simulate the growth kinetics of the (FeB/Fe 2B) bilayer grown on a substrate made of AISI 316 stainless steel by the application of the powder-pack boriding process, and using four different temperatures (1123, 1173, 1223 and 1273 K) and five exposure times (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h). The adopted diffusion model solves the mass balance equation at each growth front: (FeB/Fe 2B or FeB/substrate) under certain assumptions and without considering the diffusion zone. To consider the effect of the incubation times for the borides formation, the temperature-dependent function ϕ( T) was incorporated in the model. To validate this model, a computer code written in Matlab (version 6.5), was developed with the purpose of simulating the kinetics of the boride layers. This computer code uses the following parameters as input data: (the boriding temperature, the treatment time, the upper and lower limits of boron concentration in each iron boride, the diffusion coefficients of boron in the FeB and Fe 2B phases as well as the ϕ( T) parameter). The outputs of the computer code are the parabolic growth constant at each growth front and the thicknesses of the FeB and Fe 2B layers. A good agreement was obtained between the experimental parabolic growth constants taken from a reference work [I. Campos-Silva et al., Formation and kinetics of FeB/Fe 2B layers and diffusion zone at the surface of AISI 316 borided steels, Surf. Coat Technol., 205 (2010) 403-412] and the simulated values of the parabolic growth constants ( kFeB and k1). The present model was also able to predict the thicknesses of the FeB and Fe 2B layers at a temperature of 1243 K during 3 and 5 h. In addition, the mass gain at the material surface was also estimated as a function of the time and the upper boron content in each iron boride phase. It was shown that the simulated values of the generated mass gain are very sensitive to the increase of both temperature and the upper boron

  4. Layer-by-layer growth of Ag on Ag(111) induced by enhanced nucleation: A model study for surfactant-mediated growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Georg; Servaty, Roland; Teichert, Christian; Poelsema, Bene; Comsa, George

    1993-08-01

    It has been reported that the growth mode of Ag on Ag(111), which is usually multilayer (3D), changes to layer-by-layer (2D) growth if Sb is used as a surfactant. In a model study on the clean system Ag/Ag(111) (without any surfactant) we find that two-dimensional layers do grow, if the substrate is prepared with an anomalously high density of Ag nuclei. As an enhanced density of nuclei is also observed in the presence of Sb, this effect may explain the mechanism for surfactant-induced layer-by-layer growth.

  5. Pulsed laser deposition of adherent hexagonal/cubic boron nitride layer systems at high growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weißmantel, Steffen; Reiße, Günter

    2002-09-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) films were prepared by ion-beam-assisted pulsed laser deposition (IAPLD) using a KrF excimer laser for ablation. The c-BN growth rates of 50 nm/min at relatively low substrate temperatures of 250 °C were achieved by using high laser energy densities of more than 30 J/cm 2 and at ion beam energies of 600-700 eV. Main advantage of IAPLD for the deposition of c-BN films is that at high laser energy densities the ratio of ions from the ion beam to ablated atoms and ions necessary for cubic film growth can be reduced to 0.14, since the ablated boron and nitrogen species themselves have high mean kinetic energies of 130-180 eV. By using pulsed laser deposited h-BN intermediate layers, 300-420 nm thick well-adherent c-BN films can be prepared on Si and WC hard metal substrates. The maximum c-BN film thickness of some 0.5 μm is limited by the accumulation of particulates, formed during the ablation process, in the films. The microstructure, stress, hardness and adhesion of such layer systems deposited at high growth rates are presented.

  6. Kinetics of drug release from ointments: Role of transient-boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Rahman, Ziyaur; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-10-15

    In the current work, an in vitro release testing method suitable for ointment formulations was developed using acyclovir as a model drug. Release studies were carried out using enhancer cells on acyclovir ointments prepared with oleaginous, absorption, and water-soluble bases. Kinetics and mechanism of drug release was found to be highly dependent on the type of ointment bases. In oleaginous bases, drug release followed a unique logarithmic-time dependent profile; in both absorption and water-soluble bases, drug release exhibited linearity with respect to square root of time (Higuchi model) albeit differences in the overall release profile. To help understand the underlying cause of logarithmic-time dependency of drug release, a novel transient-boundary hypothesis was proposed, verified, and compared to Higuchi theory. Furthermore, impact of drug solubility (under various pH conditions) and temperature on drug release were assessed. Additionally, conditions under which deviations from logarithmic-time drug release kinetics occur were determined using in situ UV fiber-optics. Overall, the results suggest that for oleaginous ointments containing dispersed drug particles, kinetics and mechanism of drug release is controlled by expansion of transient boundary layer, and drug release increases linearly with respect to logarithmic time. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Kinetics of the WF 6 and Si 2H 6 surface reactions during tungsten atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elam, J. W.; Nelson, C. E.; Grubbs, R. K.; George, S. M.

    2001-05-01

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of tungsten (W) films has been demonstrated using alternating exposures to tungsten hexafluoride (WF 6) and disilane (Si 2H 6). The present investigation explored the kinetics of the WF 6 and Si 2H 6 surface reactions during W ALD at 303-623 K using Auger electron spectroscopy techniques. The reaction of WF 6 with the Si 2H 6-saturated W surface proceeded to completion at 373-573 K. The WF 6 reaction displayed a reactive sticking coefficient of S=0.4 and required an exposure of 30 L (1 L=1×10 -6 Torr s) to achieve saturation at 573 K. The WF 6 exposures necessary to reach saturation increased with decreasing temperature. At surface temperatures <373 K, the WF 6 reaction did not consume all the silicon (Si) surface species remaining from the previous Si 2H 6 exposure. The reaction of Si 2H 6 with the WF 6-saturated W surface displayed three kinetic regimes. In the first region at low Si 2H 6 exposures⩽50 L, the Si 2H 6 reaction was independent of temperature and had a reactive sticking coefficient of S˜5×10 -2. In the second kinetic region at intermediate Si 2H 6 exposures of 50-300 L, the Si 2H 6 reaction showed an apparent saturation behavior with a Si thickness at saturation that increased with substrate temperature. At high Si 2H 6 exposures of 300-1×10 5 L, additional Si was deposited with an approximately logarithmic dependence on Si 2H 6 exposure. The Si 2H 6 reaction in this third kinetic region had an activation energy E=2.6 kcal/mol and the Si thickness deposited by a 1.6×10 5 L Si 2H 6 exposure increased with temperature from 3.0 Å at 303 K to 6.6 Å at 623 K. These kinetic results should help to explain W ALD growth rates observed at different reactant exposures and substrate temperatures.

  8. Two types of quasi-liquid layers on ice crystals are formed kinetically

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Harutoshi; Sazaki, Gen; Nagashima, Ken; Nakatsubo, Shunichi; Furukawa, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Surfaces of ice are covered with thin liquid water layers, called quasi-liquid layers (QLLs), even below their melting point (0 °C), which govern a wide variety of phenomena in nature. We recently found that two types of QLL phases appear that exhibit different morphologies (droplets and thin layers) [Sazaki G. et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(4):1052−1055]. However, revealing the thermodynamic stabilities of QLLs remains a longstanding elusive problem. Here we show that both types of QLLs are metastable phases that appear only if the water vapor pressure is higher than a certain critical supersaturation. We directly visualized the QLLs on ice crystal surfaces by advanced optical microscopy, which can detect 0.37-nm-thick elementary steps on ice crystal surfaces. At a certain fixed temperature, as the water vapor pressure decreased, thin-layer QLLs first disappeared, and then droplet QLLs vanished next, although elementary steps of ice crystals were still growing. These results clearly demonstrate that both types of QLLs are kinetically formed, not by the melting of ice surfaces, but by the deposition of supersaturated water vapor on ice surfaces. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence that supersaturation of water vapor plays a crucially important role in the formation of QLLs. PMID:26831089

  9. Two types of quasi-liquid layers on ice crystals are formed kinetically.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Harutoshi; Sazaki, Gen; Nagashima, Ken; Nakatsubo, Shunichi; Furukawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-16

    Surfaces of ice are covered with thin liquid water layers, called quasi-liquid layers (QLLs), even below their melting point (0 °C), which govern a wide variety of phenomena in nature. We recently found that two types of QLL phases appear that exhibit different morphologies (droplets and thin layers) [Sazaki G. et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(4):1052-1055]. However, revealing the thermodynamic stabilities of QLLs remains a longstanding elusive problem. Here we show that both types of QLLs are metastable phases that appear only if the water vapor pressure is higher than a certain critical supersaturation. We directly visualized the QLLs on ice crystal surfaces by advanced optical microscopy, which can detect 0.37-nm-thick elementary steps on ice crystal surfaces. At a certain fixed temperature, as the water vapor pressure decreased, thin-layer QLLs first disappeared, and then droplet QLLs vanished next, although elementary steps of ice crystals were still growing. These results clearly demonstrate that both types of QLLs are kinetically formed, not by the melting of ice surfaces, but by the deposition of supersaturated water vapor on ice surfaces. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence that supersaturation of water vapor plays a crucially important role in the formation of QLLs.

  10. Dissipation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: Observations and Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumen, W.

    2002-05-01

    Two aspects of atmospheric dissipation will be examined, namely, the measurement of dissipation in frontal zones that are embedded in the boundary layer, and a theoretical examination of the dissipation length, used for parameterization purposes in some numerical models. The observations were acquired during two field programs carried out in southeast Kansas:MICROFRONTS-1995 and CASES-1999. Data were collected by both hot-wire and sonic anemometers. The hot-wire voltages were converted to wind speeds and the dissipation computed under the assumption of local isotropy. Taylor's hypothesis, including correction terms, was applied to convert spatial to time derivatives, since these data were collected on towers and presented as time series. This approach represents the direct dissipation method. The inertial method computes the dissipation from inertial subrange measurements, making use of the Kolmogorov five-thirds law and Taylor's hypothesis. The turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate ɛ increased by over an order of magnitude in the frontal zone that passed the MICROFRONTS tower array, from values of the order of ɛ =0.01m2s-3 in the prefrontal region. After passage of the front the dissipation rate relaxed back to prefrontal values. The dissipation rate within the frontal zone that passed through the CASES site could not be determined because of flow distortion by the tower. Both prefrontal and post frontal dissipation rates were similar in magnitude to those measured during MICROFRONTS.In each case, no significant differences in the magnitudes of ɛ determined by the direct dissipation and inertial dissipation calculations, were evident. Numerical models require a parameterization of the dissipation rate ɛ that is appropriate for the unresolved scales of motion. One approach is to employ the dissipation length l as a surrogate for ɛ , where l=e3/2/ɛ and e is the turbulent kinetic energy. The aim is to represent l as a function of the vertical wind shear and

  11. Effects of Transition-Metal Mixing on Na Ordering and Kinetics in Layered P 2 Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chen; Radhakrishnan, Balachandran; Chu, Iek-Heng; Wang, Zhenbin; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2017-06-01

    Layered P 2 oxides are promising cathode materials for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries. In this work, we systematically investigate the effects of transition-metal (TM) mixing on Na ordering and kinetics in the NaxCo1 -yMnyO2 model system using density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations. The DFT-predicted 0-K stability diagrams indicate that Co-Mn mixing reduces the energetic differences between Na orderings, which may account for the reduction of the number of phase transformations observed during the cycling of mixed-TM P 2 layered oxides compared to a single TM. Using ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations and nudged elastic-band calculations, we show that the TM composition at the Na(1) (face-sharing) site has a strong influence on the Na site energies, which in turn impacts the kinetics of Na diffusion towards the end of the charge. By employing a site-percolation model, we establish theoretical upper and lower bounds for TM concentrations based on their effect on Na(1) site energies, providing a framework to rationally tune mixed-TM compositions for optimal Na diffusion.

  12. Desorption isotherms and mathematical modeling of thin layer drying kinetics of tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belghith, Amira; Azzouz, Soufien; ElCafsi, Afif

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there is an increased demand on the international market of dried fruits and vegetables with significant added value. Due to its important production, consumption and nutrient intake, drying of tomato has become a subject of extended and varied research works. The present work is focused on the drying behavior of thin-layer tomato and its mathematical modeling in order to optimize the drying processes. The moisture desorption isotherms of raw tomato were determined at four temperature levels namely 45, 50, 60 and 65 °C using the static gravimetric method. The experimental data obtained were modeled by five equations and the (GAB) model was found to be the best-describing these isotherms. The drying kinetics were experimentally investigated at 45, 55 and 65 °C and performed at air velocities of 0.5 and 2 m/s. In order to investigate the effect of the exchange surface on drying time, samples were dried into two different shapes: tomato halves and tomato quarters. The impact of various drying parameters was also studied (temperature, air velocity and air humidity). The drying curves showed only the preheating period and the falling drying rate period. In this study, attention was paid to the modeling of experimental thin-layer drying kinetics. The experimental results were fitted with four different models.

  13. Comprehensive kinetic analysis of the plasma-wall transition layer in a strongly tilted magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Tskhakaya, D. D.; Kos, L.

    2014-10-15

    The magnetized plasma-wall transition (MPWT) layer at the presence of the obliquity of the magnetic field to the wall consists of three sub-layers: the Debye sheath (DS), the magnetic pre-sheath (MPS), and the collisional pre-sheath (CPS) with characteristic lengths λ{sub D} (electron Debye length), ρ{sub i} (ion gyro-radius), and ℓ (the smallest relevant collision length), respectively. Tokamak plasmas are usually assumed to have the ordering λ{sub D}≪ρ{sub i}≪ℓ, when the above-mentioned sub-layers can be distinctly distinguished. In the limits of ε{sub Dm}(λ{sub D}/ρ{sub i})→0 and ε{sub mc}(ρ{sub i}/ℓ)→0 (“asymptotic three-scale (A3S) limits”), these sub-layers are precisely defined. Using the smallness of the tilting angle of the magnetic field to the wall, the ion distribution functions are found for three sub-regions in the analytic form. The equations and characteristic length-scales governing the transition (intermediate) regions between the neighboring sub-layers (CPS – MPS and MPS – DS) are derived, allowing to avoid the singularities arising from the ε{sub Dm}→0 and ε{sub mc}→0 approximations. The MPS entrance and the related kinetic form of the Bohm–Chodura condition are successfully defined for the first time. At the DS entrance, the Bohm condition maintains its usual form. The results encourage further study and understanding of physics of the MPWT layers in the modern plasma facilities.

  14. An Estimation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy and Energy Dissipation Rate Based on Atmospheric Boundary Layer Similarity Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jongil; Arya, S. Pal; Shaohua, Shen; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Proctor, Fred H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Algorithms are developed to extract atmospheric boundary layer profiles for turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and energy dissipation rate (EDR), with data from a meteorological tower as input. The profiles are based on similarity theory and scalings for the atmospheric boundary layer. The calculated profiles of EDR and TKE are required to match the observed values at 5 and 40 m. The algorithms are coded for operational use and yield plausible profiles over the diurnal variation of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  15. Mathematical Physics of the Propagation of a Laminar Aerodynamic Boundary Layer, Using the Kinetic Theory of Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deGraffenried, Albert L.

    2002-07-01

    The paper presents a derivation showing the propagation mechanisms fundamental to the growth of the laminar aerodynamic boundary layer. The molecular mechanisms basic to such growth are those presented by James Clerk Maxwell in his classic derivation of mu, the viscosity of a gas, based on the Kinetic Theory of Gases. Maxwell's derivation is modified by moving the scene of the analysis from a free-stream location (where he assumes a linear velocity gradient) to a location immediately adjacent an infinite flat plate, using an unknown velocity profile. Gas, initially quiescent above the flat plate, suddenly jumps to velocity U0 at time t=0+. The resultant growth of a boundary-layer velocity profile, vx)(y,t, is solved for in the following manner: a. Phi-up, the stream momentum crossing an element of area, da=dxdz per second per square centimeter, in an upward (+y) direction, is found by integrating through all volume below da, using an unknown velocity profile, vx)(y,t. Similarly, Phi-down, the stream momentum crossing da in a downward (-y) direction is found by integrating through all volume above da. The net stream momentum, Phy(y) equals Phi-up minus Phi-down. The acceleration, dvx/dt of an element of mass dm, equal to rho times dxdydz is set equal to minus the partial of Phi with respect to y, the net momentum-flux gradient, based on Newton's Law. In cylindrical coordinates, azimuth angle gamma is promptly integrated out. Elevation angle theta is integrated-out numerically, using a short BASIC program on a PC. Separation of Variables is assumed, specifically, vx)(y,t may be set equal to f1(y)f2(t), thus producing two separate integro-differential equations which are each set equal to a common constant, -Beta2. LaPlace transforming these two equations into the sy and st domains, applying the Method of Partial Fractions to the sy equation, the FORM of the solution is found, viz., exponential and hyperbolic functions. Boundary conditions are satisfied in order to

  16. The Effect of Growth Kinetics on the Development of Element- and Isotope Profiles in Single Mineral Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, E. B.; Mueller, T.

    2008-12-01

    The formation of a rock texture is the consequence of multiple interacting processes controlling the crystallization history of minerals, and is typically recorded in several ways and on different scales. Recent advances in microanalysis enable observation of compositional (elemental as well as isotopic) variations on progressively decreasing (sub-mm) scales, and theoretical approaches for simulating realistic, disequilibrium kinetic effects are becoming increasingly sophisticated. Here we present some new perspectives arising from the continuing development of our numerical approach for describing kinetically controlled element uptake and isotope fractionation during diffusion-controlled mineral growth. We assume a spherical grain growing under local equilibrium at the interface with a spherical matrix of a given size and composition. It has been shown previously that the uptake of a component in a growing crystal depends critically upon the ratio of the crystal growth rate (R) to the diffusivity (D) of that component in the growth medium. Highly compatible (or incompatible) elements potentially will be depleted (or accumulated) near the surface of the growing crystal, forming a disequilibrium compositional boundary layer against the advancing interface. Equilibration of this boundary layer with the bulk reservoir depends mainly on D of the species of interest, and because D is now known to vary with mass of an isotope of a given element, signficant isotope fractionation is predicted to occur during progressive mineral growth under some circumstances. In the present study we focus specifically on the role of crystal-growth kinetics [R=f(time)] in controlling isotope profiles recorded in crystals. We show that the amount of fractionation, and especially the shape of the resulting radial isotope profiles, is quite sensitive to the assumed growth law or history. Differences in the initial grain size - as might apply in the case of xenocrysts in magma - have a

  17. Kinetics of nickel silicide growth in silicon nanowires: From linear to square root growth

    SciTech Connect

    Yaish, Y. E.; Beregovsky, M.; Katsman, A.; Cohen, G. M.

    2011-05-01

    The common practice for nickel silicide formation in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) relies on axial growth of silicide along the wire that is initiated from nickel reservoirs at the source and drain contacts. In the present work the silicide intrusions were studied for various parameters including wire diameter (25-50 nm), annealing time (15-120 s), annealing temperature (300-440 deg. C), and the quality of the initial Ni/Si interface. The silicide formation was investigated by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy. The main part of the intrusion formed at 420 deg. C consists of monosilicide NiSi, as was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy STEM, selected area diffraction TEM, and electrical resistance measurements of fully silicided SiNWs. The kinetics of nickel silicide axial growth in the SiNWs was analyzed in the framework of a diffusion model through constrictions. The model calculates the time dependence of the intrusion length, L, and predicts crossover from linear to square root time dependency for different wire parameters, as confirmed by the experimental data.

  18. Equilibrium, chemical kinetic, and transport limitations to diamond growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Edward Anthony

    Because of their extreme properties, diamond films have found some industrial applications, i.e., heat sinks and tool coatings. However, to increase their economic attractiveness, the growth rate must be increased, the deposition temperature must be lowered, and single crystal films must be achieved. We have studied two types of chemical vapor deposition systems, hot-filament and microwave assisted, in order to understand the factors limiting diamond growth rate. From simultaneous microbalance growth rate measurements and mass spectrometer measurements, changes in growth rate are correlated with changes in gas phase composition. Measured reaction orders support the proposal that diamond growth occurs through a single-carbon-atom species, e.g., CHsb3. When a two-carbon atom source gas is used, it is likely that the dissociation to two, single-carbon atom species occurs on the substrate surface (dissociative adsorption). Furthermore, a shift to zero-order suggests that the diamond growth is a surface-site limited process at higher hydrocarbon concentrations. The diamond growth rate maximum with pressure is explained by transport limitations of species within the reaction zone. The reported diamond growth rates in the hot-filament reactor are several times higher than those reported by other research groups. These higher growth rates result from surrounding the substrate with the filament. We have used the measured growth rates, filament temperatures, and thermocouple measurements to calculate activation energies for diamond growth. When the filament temperature is used for the calculation, an activation energy of 73 kcal per mole is obtained; however, based on estimated substrate temperatures, an activation energy of 18 kcal per mole is determined. A dimensional analysis approach was developed to select the most important gas phase reactions occurring during diamond CVD. Steady-state analysis of these reactions and the application of mass transport equations lead to

  19. Growth kinetics of K-alum crystals in relation to the surface supersaturations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuma, K.; Tsukamoto, K.; Sunagawa, I.

    1990-02-01

    The growth rates, the slopes and the step velocities of individual growth hillocks were measured by Michelson interferometer and were related to the surface supersaturations. The anomalies seen in the slope of the hillock and the step velocity versus surface supersaturation relations are due to impurity effects which modify the surface kinetics resistance.

  20. New Observations and Insights into the Morphology and Growth Kinetics of Hydrate Films

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Li; Sun, Chang-Yu; Liu, Bei; Li, Zhi-Yun; Chen, Guang-Jin; Sum, Amadeu K.

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of film growth of hydrates of methane, ethane, and methane-ethane mixtures were studied by exposing a single gas bubble to water. The morphologies, lateral growth rates, and thicknesses of the hydrate films were measured for various gas compositions and degrees of subcooling. A variety of hydrate film textures was revealed. The kinetics of two-dimensional film growth was inferred from the lateral growth rate and initial thickness of the hydrate film. A clear relationship between the morphology and film growth kinetics was observed. The shape of the hydrate crystals was found to favour heat or mass transfer and favour further growth of the hydrate film. The quantitative results on the kinetics of film growth showed that for a given degree of subcooling, the initial film thicknesses of the double hydrates were larger than that of pure methane or ethane hydrate, whereas the thickest hydrate film and the lowest lateral growth rate occurred when the methane mole fraction was approximately 0.6. PMID:24549241

  1. New observations and insights into the morphology and growth kinetics of hydrate films.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Li; Sun, Chang-Yu; Liu, Bei; Li, Zhi-Yun; Chen, Guang-Jin; Sum, Amadeu K

    2014-02-19

    The kinetics of film growth of hydrates of methane, ethane, and methane-ethane mixtures were studied by exposing a single gas bubble to water. The morphologies, lateral growth rates, and thicknesses of the hydrate films were measured for various gas compositions and degrees of subcooling. A variety of hydrate film textures was revealed. The kinetics of two-dimensional film growth was inferred from the lateral growth rate and initial thickness of the hydrate film. A clear relationship between the morphology and film growth kinetics was observed. The shape of the hydrate crystals was found to favour heat or mass transfer and favour further growth of the hydrate film. The quantitative results on the kinetics of film growth showed that for a given degree of subcooling, the initial film thicknesses of the double hydrates were larger than that of pure methane or ethane hydrate, whereas the thickest hydrate film and the lowest lateral growth rate occurred when the methane mole fraction was approximately 0.6.

  2. Time-Lapse Imaging to Examine the Growth Kinetics of Arabidopsis Seedlings in Response to Ethylene.

    PubMed

    Binder, Brad M

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene is well known to inhibit the growth of dark-grown eudicot seedlings. Most studies examine this inhibition after several days of exposure to ethylene. However, such end-point analysis misses transient responses and the dynamic nature of growth regulation. Here, high-resolution, time-lapse imaging is described as a method to gather data about ethylene growth kinetics and movement responses of the hypocotyls of dark-grown seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. These methods allow for the characterization of short-term kinetic responses and can be modified for the analysis of roots and seedlings from other species.

  3. Modeling of scale-dependent bacterial growth by chemical kinetics approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Haydee; Sánchez, Joaquín; Cruz, José-Manuel; Ayala, Guadalupe; Rivera, Marco; Buhse, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We applied the so-called chemical kinetics approach to complex bacterial growth patterns that were dependent on the liquid-surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V) of the bacterial cultures. The kinetic modeling was based on current experimental knowledge in terms of autocatalytic bacterial growth, its inhibition by the metabolite CO2, and the relief of inhibition through the physical escape of the inhibitor. The model quantitatively reproduces kinetic data of SA/V-dependent bacterial growth and can discriminate between differences in the growth dynamics of enteropathogenic E. coli, E. coli JM83, and Salmonella typhimurium on one hand and Vibrio cholerae on the other hand. Furthermore, the data fitting procedures allowed predictions about the velocities of the involved key processes and the potential behavior in an open-flow bacterial chemostat, revealing an oscillatory approach to the stationary states.

  4. Chemical beam epitaxy growth of GaAs/Ga 0.5In 0.5P heterostructures: growth kinetics, electrical and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J. C.; Maurel, P.; Bove, P.; Hirtz, J. P.; Barski, A.

    1991-05-01

    We report the growth kinetics, together with electrical and optical properties of undoped chemical beam epitaxy GaAs/GaInP structures grown triethylgallium (TEGa), trimethylindium (TMIn), arsine and phosphine as starting materials for group III and group V elements. Undoped GaAs layers were found to be p-type, independent of the gallium-to-arsenic ratio, with free hole concentration ranging from 1×10 15 to 9×10 15 cm -3. depending on the growth temperature. Undoped GaAs/GaInP heterojunctions exhibit a two-dimensional electron gas with T=4 K mobilitiesf ranging from 20,000 to 25,000 cm 2/V⋯s. The optical characteristics of GaAs/GaInP multiquantum wells as a function of growth interrupts at the interfaces were investigated by photolumiscence measurements. The growth kinetics of GaAs and GaInP were studied by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) oscillations. The composition of GaInP was found to be controlled mainly by the growth rate dependence of the binaries (GaP, InP) on growth parameters. The indium composition was found to be proportional to the flux of TMIn at a fixed TEGa flow. A lattice matching better than 5×10 -4 can be routinely obtained. However, the composition exhibits a strong dependence on temperature. At temperatures above 510°C indium desorption occurs and the composition tends a Ga-rich phase, while below 510°C, the indium composition is enhanced by the decrease of the binary GaP growth rate. The PH 3 also affects significantly the ternary growth rate, mainly through indium incorporation modification. At low PH 3 flow (1-5 SCCM), the indium concentration decreases. This fact is attributed to the preferential Ga-P compared to In-P bond formation.

  5. Effect of Cross-Interaction between Ni and Cu on Growth Kinetics of Intermetallic Compounds in Ni/Sn/Cu Diffusion Couples during Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, K. K.; Ryu, J. B.; Park, C. Y.; Huh, J. Y.

    2008-01-01

    The solid-state, cross-interaction between the Ni layer on the component side and the Cu pad on the printed circuit board (PCB) side in ball grid array (BGA) solder joints was investigated by employing Ni(15 μm)/Sn(65 μm)/Cu ternary diffusion couples. The ternary diffusion couples were prepared by sequentially electroplating Sn and Ni on a Cu foil and were aged isothermally at 150, 180, and 200°C. The growth of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer on the Ni side was coupled with that on the Cu side by the mass flux across the Sn layer that was caused by the difference in the Ni content between the (Cu1- x Ni x )6Sn5 layer on the Ni side and the (Cu1- y Ni y )6Sn5 layer on the Cu side. As the consequence of the coupling, the growth rate of the (Cu1- x Ni x )6 Sn5 layer on the Ni side was rapidly accelerated by decreasing Sn layer thickness and increasing aging temperature. Owing to the cross-interaction with the top Ni layer, the growth rate of the (Cu1- y Ni y )6Sn5 layer on the Cu side was accelerated at 150°C and 180°C but was retarded at 200°C, while the growth rate of the Cu3Sn layer was always retarded. The growth kinetic model proposed in an attempt to interpret the experimental results was able to reproduce qualitatively all of the important experimental observations pertaining to the growth of the IMC layers in the Ni/Sn/Cu diffusion couple.

  6. Determining the Kinetic Parameters Characteristic of Microalgal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Sancho, Maria Eugenie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students obtain a growth curve for algae, identify the exponential and linear growth phases, and calculate the parameters which characterize both phases is described. The procedure, a list of required materials, experimental conditions, analytical technique, and a discussion of the interpretations of individual results are…

  7. Nanowire growth kinetics in aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Yi -Chia; Panciera, Federico; Reuter, Mark C.; Stach, Eric A.; Ross, Frances M.

    2016-03-15

    Here, we visualize atomic level dynamics during Si nanowire growth using aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy, and compare with lower pressure results from ultra-high vacuum microscopy. We discuss the importance of higher pressure observations for understanding growth mechanisms and describe protocols to minimize effects of the higher pressure background gas.

  8. Determining the Kinetic Parameters Characteristic of Microalgal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Sancho, Maria Eugenie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students obtain a growth curve for algae, identify the exponential and linear growth phases, and calculate the parameters which characterize both phases is described. The procedure, a list of required materials, experimental conditions, analytical technique, and a discussion of the interpretations of individual results are…

  9. Nanowire growth kinetics in aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Chou, Yi -Chia; Panciera, Federico; Reuter, Mark C.; ...

    2016-03-15

    Here, we visualize atomic level dynamics during Si nanowire growth using aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy, and compare with lower pressure results from ultra-high vacuum microscopy. We discuss the importance of higher pressure observations for understanding growth mechanisms and describe protocols to minimize effects of the higher pressure background gas.

  10. Nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide layers as potential drug delivery systems: Drug release kinetics and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Magdalena; Pawlik, Anna; Szuwarzyński, Michał; Jaskuła, Marian; Sulka, Grzegorz D

    2016-07-01

    Nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide (ATO) layers on Ti foil were prepared via a three step anodization process in an electrolyte based on an ethylene glycol solution with fluoride ions. Some of the ATO samples were heat-treated in order to achieve two different crystallographic structures - anatase (400°C) and a mixture of anatase and rutile (600°C). The structural and morphological characterizations of ATO layers were performed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydrophilicity of ATO layers was determined with contact angle measurements using distilled water. Ibuprofen and gentamicin were loaded effectively inside the ATO nanopores. Afterwards, an in vitro drug release was conducted for 24h under a static and dynamic flow conditions in a phosphate buffer solution at 37°C. The drug concentrations were determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The absorbance of ibuprofen was measured directly at 222nm, whether gentamicin was determined as a complex with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at 394nm. Both compounds exhibited long term release profiles, despite the ATO structure. A new release model, based on the desorption of the drug from the ATO top surface followed by the desorption and diffusion of the drug from the nanopores, was derived. The proposed release model was fitted to the experimental drug release profiles, and kinetic parameters were calculated.

  11. Investigating Zigzag Film Growth Behaviors in Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly of Small Molecules through a High-Gravity Technique.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mengjiao; Jiang, Chao; Luo, Caijun; Zhang, Yajun; Shi, Feng

    2015-08-26

    The zigzag film growth behavior in the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method is a ubiquitous phenomenon for which the growth mechanism was rarely investigated, especially for small molecules. To interpret the zigzag increasing manner, we hypothesized that the desorption kinetics of small molecules was dominant for the film growth behavior and demonstrated this hypotheis by introducing the high-gravity technique into the LbL assembly of a typical polyelectrolyte/small molecule system of polyethylenimine (PEI) and meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine (Por). The results showed that the high-gravity technique remarkably accelerated the desorption process of Por; the high-gravity LbL assembly provides a good platform to reveal the desorption kinetics of Por, which is tedious to study in conventional situation. We found that as much as 50 min is required for Por molecules to reach desorption equilibrium from the substrate to the bulk PEI solution for the conventional dipping method; however, the process could be accelerated and require only 100 s if a high-gravity field is used. Nonequilibrated desorption at 10 min for normal dipping and at 30 s for high-gravity-field-assisted assembly both exhibited a zigzag film growth, but after reaching desorption equilibrium at 100 s under a high-gravity field, film growth began to cycle between assembly and complete disassembly instead of LbL assembly. For the first time we have proven that the high-gravity technique can also accelerate the desorption process and demonstrated the desorption-dependent mechanism of small molecules for zigzag film growth behaviors.

  12. Monoculture parameters successfully predict coculture growth kinetics of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and two Bifidobacterium strains.

    PubMed

    Van Wey, A S; Cookson, A L; Roy, N C; McNabb, W C; Soboleva, T K; Shorten, P R

    2014-11-17

    Microorganisms rarely live in isolation but are most often found in a consortium. This provides the potential for cross-feeding and nutrient competition among the microbial species, which make it challenging to predict the growth kinetics in coculture. In this paper we developed a mathematical model to describe substrate consumption and subsequent microbial growth and metabolite production for bacteria grown in monoculture. The model characterized substrate utilization kinetics of 18 Bifidobacterium strains. Some bifidobacterial strains demonstrated preferential degradation of oligofructose in that sugars with low degree of polymerization (DP) (DP≤3 or 4) were metabolized before sugars of higher DP, or vice versa. Thus, we expanded the model to describe the preferential degradation of oligofructose. In addition, we adapted the model to describe the competition between human colonic bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262 and Bifidobacterium longum LMG 11047 or Bifidobacterium breve Yakult for inulin as well as cross-feeding of breakdown products from the extracellular hydrolysis of inulin by B. thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262. We found that the coculture growth kinetics could be predicted based on the respective monoculture growth kinetics. Using growth kinetics from monoculture experiments to predict coculture dynamics will reduce the number of in vitro experiments required to parameterize multi-culture models.

  13. Atomic kinetic research of ordered quantum dot growth induced by dislocation on the substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chang; Zhao, M.; Wang, Y.; Lv, A. J.; Xing, G. J.; Ma, Y. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the modified effects of stress originating from the dislocation on the substrate to the semiconductor quantum dot growth are investigated by performing an event-based continuous kinetic Monte Carlo simulation, in which the contribution of the dangling bond of the atom is considered. The research results indicate that the change of binding energy initiated by the stress between the deposit atom and the substrate's atoms may significantly influence the atoms' kinetic behaviors, and on the pattern surface the atoms' kinetic effects are very sensitive to the initial condition of the substrate. In addition, the dependence of the atomic kinetics on the growth flux and temperature are also studied. The simulation results are in good qualitative agreement with those of our experiment.

  14. Scrape-off layer modeling with kinetic or diffusion description of charge-exchange atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokar, M. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope atoms, generated by charge-exchange (c-x) of neutral particles recycling from the first wall of a fusion reactor, are described either kinetically or in a diffusion approximation. In a one-dimensional (1-D) geometry, kinetic calculations are accelerated enormously by applying an approximate pass method for the assessment of integrals in the velocity space. This permits to perform an exhaustive comparison of calculations done with both approaches. The diffusion approximation is deduced directly from the velocity distribution function of c-x atoms in the limit of charge-exchanges with ions occurring much more frequently than ionization by electrons. The profiles across the flux surfaces of the plasma parameters averaged along the main part of the scrape-off layer (SOL), beyond the X-point and divertor regions, are calculated from the one-dimensional equations where parallel flows of charged particles and energy towards the divertor are taken into account as additional loss terms. It is demonstrated that the heat losses can be firmly estimated from the SOL averaged parameters only; for the particle loss the conditions in the divertor are of importance and the sensitivity of the results to the so-called "divertor impact factor" is investigated. The coupled 1-D models for neutral and charged species, with c-x atoms described either kinetically or in the diffusion approximation, are applied to assess the SOL conditions in a fusion reactor, with the input parameters from the European DEMO project. It is shown that the diffusion approximation provides practically the same profiles across the flux surfaces for the plasma density, electron, and ion temperatures, as those obtained with the kinetic description for c-x atoms. The main difference between the two approaches is observed in the characteristics of these species themselves. In particular, their energy flux onto the wall is underestimated in calculations with the diffusion approximation by 20 % - 30

  15. Caprine Endometrial Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cell: Multilineage Potential, Characterization, and Growth Kinetics in Breeding and Anestrous Stages

    PubMed Central

    Zarezadeh, Younes; Dianatpour, Mehdi; Zare, Shahrokh

    2017-01-01

    The endometrial layer of the uterus contains a population of cells with similar characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, caprine endometrial mesenchymal stromal stem cells (En-MSCs) characters and differentiation potential to chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic cell lines as well as their growth kinetics in breeding and anestrous stages were evaluated. En-MSCs were enzymatically isolated from endometrial layer of the uterus of adult goats and were cultured and subcultured until passage 4. The growth kinetics and population doubling time (PDT) of caprine En-MSCs in breeding and anestrous stages were determined. En-MSCs in passage 4 were used for the karyotyping and differentiation into chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes. The PDT in anestrus phase was 40.6 h and in cyclic goats was 53 h. En-MSCs were fibroblast-like in all passages. The number of chromosomes was normal (2n = 60) with no chromosomal instability. Chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic differentiation of En-MSCs was confirmed by staining with Alcian blue, Alizarin red, and Oil Red O, respectively. Caprine En-MSCs demonstrated to be an alternative source of MSCs for cell therapy purposes in regenerative medicine. PMID:28357151

  16. Kinetics of Ni2Si growth from pure Ni and Ni(V) films on (111) and (100) Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harith, M. A.; Zhang, J. P.; Campisano, S. U.; Klaar, H.-J.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of Ni2Si growth from pure Ni and from Ni0.93V0.07 films on (111) and (100) silicon has been studied by the combination of He+ backscattering, x-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The activation energies are 1.5 and 1.0 eV for pure Ni and Ni(V) films, respectively while the pre-exponential factors in Ni(V) are 4 5 orders of magnitude smaller than in the pure Ni case. The variations in the measured rates are related to the different grain size of the growing suicide layers. The vanadium is rejected from the silicide layer and piles up at the metalsilicide interface.

  17. Kinetics of monolayer graphene growth by segregation on Pd(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, H. S.; Murata, Y.; Kodambaka, S.; Ebnonnasir, A.; Ciobanu, C. V.; Nie, S.; McCarty, K. F.

    2014-03-10

    Using in situ low-energy electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations, we follow the growth of monolayer graphene on Pd(111) via surface segregation of bulk-dissolved carbon. Upon lowering the substrate temperature, nucleation of graphene begins on graphene-free Pd surface and continues to occur during graphene growth. Measurements of graphene growth rates and Pd surface work functions establish that this continued nucleation is due to increasing C adatom concentration on the Pd surface with time. We attribute this anomalous phenomenon to a large barrier for attachment of C adatoms to graphene coupled with a strong binding of the non-graphitic C to the Pd surface.

  18. Growth kinetics of sodium perborate from batch crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söhnel, O.; Bravi, M.; Chianese, A.; Mazzarotta, B.

    1996-03-01

    The size distribution of sodium perborate crystals was continually monitored using a Malvern sizer during batch crystallization from aqueous solutions carried out under falling supersaturation established at the experiment onset. The growth rate was determined from the time shift of the crystal size distribution expressed in cumulative oversize numbers. The size independent overall growth rate was first order with respect to supersaturation for crystals larger than 150 μm. Crystals between 20 and 150 μm exhibited a significant size-dependent growth rate. Furthermore, the fraction of crystals smaller than 20 μm, formed by primary nucleation, grew extremely slowly or did not grow at all.

  19. Epitaxial growth of tungsten layers on MgO(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Pengyuan; Ozsdolay, Brian D.; Gall, Daniel

    2015-11-15

    Smooth single crystal W(001) layers were grown on MgO(001) substrates by magnetron sputtering at 900 °C. X-ray diffraction ω–2θ scans, ω-rocking curves, pole figures, and reciprocal space maps indicate a 45°-rotated epitaxial relationship: (001){sub W}‖(001){sub MgO} and [010]{sub W}‖[110]{sub MgO}, and a relaxed lattice constant of 3.167 ± 0.001 nm. A residual in-plane biaxial compressive strain is primarily attributed to differential thermal contraction after growth and decreases from −0.012 ± 0.001 to −0.001 ± 0.001 with increasing layer thickness d = 4.8–390 nm, suggesting relaxation during cooling by misfit dislocation growth through threading dislocation glide. The in-plane x-ray coherence length increases from 3.4 to 33.6 nm for d = 4.8–390 nm, while the out-of-plane x-ray coherence length is identical to the layer thickness for d ≤ 20 nm, but is smaller than d for d ≥ 49.7 nm, indicating local strain variations along the film growth direction. X-ray reflectivity analyses indicate that the root-mean-square surface roughness increases from 0.50 ± 0.05 to 0.95 ± 0.05 nm for d = 4.8–19.9 nm, suggesting a roughness exponent of 0.38, but remains relatively constant for d > 20 nm with a roughness of 1.00 ± 0.05 nm at d = 47.9 nm.

  20. Flowtube experiments on diamond formation: separating the growth and nucleation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, L. R.; Hill, Michael W.

    1990-12-01

    We have done a series of experiments on diamond microcrystal formation in flowtubes. The system is designed to separate the discharge used to create atomic hydrogen from the organic molecules used as a carbon source. This creates a simplified chemical environment in which the species concentrations are kinetically rather than thermodynamically controlled. The flowtube enables us to examine kinetics of diamond formation under a variety of conditions and gives us some information about the rate of nucleation independently of the growth rate. 1.

  1. Enhancing surface coverage and growth in layer-by-layer assembly of protein nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Vaishakhi; Patil, Satish

    2013-10-29

    Thin films of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles are fabricated via layer-by-layer assembly. The surface of BSA nanoparticles have two oppositely acting functional groups on the surface: amine (NH2) and carboxylate (COO(-)). The protonation and deprotonation of these functional groups at different pH vary the charge density on the particle surface, and entirely different growth can be observed by varying the nature of the complementary polymer and the pH of the particles. The complementary polymers used in this study are poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) (PDDAC) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The assembly of BSA nanoparticles based on electrostatic interaction with PDDAC suffers from the poor loading of the nanoparticles. The assembly with PAA aided by a hydrogen bonding interaction shows tremendous improvement in the growth of the assembly over PDDAC. Moreover, the pH of the BSA nanoparticles was observed to affect the loading of nanoparticles in the LbL assembly with PAA significantly.

  2. Post-deposition growth kinetics of Ge on Ge(0 0 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinkham, B. P.; Jenichen, B.; Kaganer, V. M.; Shayduk, R.; Braun, W.; Ploog, K. H.

    2008-07-01

    We study the nucleation and growth kinetics on the Ge(0 0 1) surface at elevated temperatures using in situ surface X-ray diffraction. The time evolution of characteristic length scales on the surface is analyzed through the widths of the different components of the integer-order (morphology sensitive) and fractional-order (reconstruction sensitive) diffraction peaks. We find an activation energy of 0.58 eV for Ge island nucleation during homoepitaxy, which implies a diffusion activation energy higher than that obtained for both adatom and dimer diffusion on Ge(0 0 1) in previous studies. Sub-monolayer homoepitaxial Ge islands coarsen according to a power law, with a relatively low time exponent of n=0.2. The coarsening of small 2×1 reconstruction domains on a flat surface prepared by deposition of an integer number of layers shows a strong temperature dependence, whereby the coarsening exponent decreases from 0.41 to 0.2 as the temperature is increased.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of domain growth in the kinetic Ising model on the connection machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, Jacques G.; Sullivan, Francis

    1989-10-01

    A fast multispin algorithm for the Monte Carlo simulation of the two-dimensional spin-exchange kinetic Ising model, previously described by Sullivan and Mountain and used by Amar et al. has been adapted for use on the Connection Machine and applied as a first test in a calculation of domain growth. Features of the code include: (a) the use of demon bits, (b) the simulation of several runs simultaneously to improve the efficiency of the code, (c) the use of virtual processors to simulate easily and efficiently a larger system size, (d) the use of the (NEWS) grid for last communication between neighbouring processors and updating of boundary layers, (e) the implementation of an efficient random number generator much faster than that provided by Thinking Machines Corp., and (f) the use of the LISP function "funcall" to select which processors to update. Overall speed of the code when run on a (128x128) processor machine is about 130 million attempted spin-exchanges per second, about 9 times faster than the comparable code, using hardware vectorised-logic operations and 64-bit multispin coding on the Cyber 205. The same code can be used on a larger machine (65 536 processors) and should produce speeds in excess of 500 million attempted spin-exchanges per second.

  4. Kinetic simulations of scrape-off layer physics in the DIII-D tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Churchill, Randy M.; Canik, John M.; Chang, C. S.; ...

    2016-12-27

    Simulations using the fully kinetic code XGCa were undertaken to explore the impact of kinetic effects on scrape-off layer (SOL) physics in DIII-D H-mode plasmas. XGCa is a total-f, gyrokinetic code which self-consistently calculates the axisymmetric electrostatic potential and plasma dynamics, and includes modules for Monte Carlo neutral transport. Fluid simulations are normally used to simulate the SOL, due to its high collisionality. However, depending on plasma conditions, a number of discrepancies have been observed between experiment and leading SOL fluid codes (e.g. SOLPS), including underestimating outer target temperatures, radial electric field in the SOL, parallel ion SOL flows atmore » the low field side, and impurity radiation. Many of these discrepancies may be linked to the fluid treatment, and might be resolved by including kinetic effects in SOL simulations. The XGCa simulation of the DIII-D tokamak in a nominally sheath-limited regime show many noteworthy features in the SOL. The density and ion temperature are higher at the low-field side, indicative of ion orbit loss. The SOL ion Mach flows are at experimentally relevant levels (Mi ~0.5), with similar shapes and poloidal variation as observed in various tokamaks. Surprisingly, the ion Mach flows close to the sheath edge remain subsonic, in contrast to the typical fluid Bohm criterion requiring ion flows to be above sonic at the sheath edge. Related to this are the presence of elevated sheath potentials, eΔΦ/Te ~ 3–4, over most of the SOL, with regions in the near-SOL close to the separatrix having eΔΦ/Te > 4. Finally, these two results at the sheath edge are a consequence of non-Maxwellian features in the ions and electrons there.« less

  5. Manipulating the growth of aqueous semiconductor nanocrystals through amine-promoted kinetic process.

    PubMed

    Han, Jishu; Zhang, Hao; Sun, Haizhu; Zhou, Ding; Yang, Bai

    2010-01-14

    In the conventional procedure of the preparation of aqueous semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), the growth of NCs was mainly through the thermodynamics-favored Ostwald ripening process. It required additional energy to promote NC growth, such as reflux, hydrothermal method, microwave irradiation, and sonochemical synthesis. Energy-promoted growth usually led to the decomposition of mercapto-ligands and therewith decreased the quality of NCs. Consequently, in this study, the growth of aqueous semiconductor NCs was designed through an amine-promoted kinetic process, which efficiently shortened the growth duration and avoided the decomposition of ligands, thus providing a universal method for preparing various aqueous binary and ternary NCs.

  6. The kinetics of dewetting ultra-thin Si layers from silicon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouassa, M.; Favre, L.; Ronda, A.; Maaref, H.; Berbezier, I.

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we investigate the kinetically driven dewetting of ultra-thin silicon films on silicon oxide substrate under ultra-high vacuum, at temperatures where oxide desorption and silicon lost could be ruled out. We show that in ultra-clean experimental conditions, the three different regimes of dewetting, namely (i) nucleation of holes, (ii) film retraction and (iii) coalescence of holes, can be quantitatively measured as a function of temperature, time and thickness. For a nominal flat clean sample these three regimes co-exist during the film retraction until complete dewetting. To discriminate their roles in the kinetics of dewetting, we have compared the dewetting evolution of flat unpatterned crystalline silicon layers (homogeneous dewetting), patterned crystalline silicon layers (heterogeneous dewetting) and amorphous silicon layers (crystallization-induced dewetting). The first regime (nucleation) is described by a breaking time which follows an exponential evolution with temperature with an activation energy EH ˜ 3.2 eV. The second regime (retraction) is controlled by surface diffusion of matter from the edges of the holes. It involves a very fast redistribution of matter onto the flat Si layer, which prevents the formation of a rim on the edges of the holes during both heterogeneous and homogeneous dewetting. The time evolution of the linear dewetting front measured during heterogeneous dewetting follows a characteristic power law x ˜ t0.45 consistent with a surface diffusion-limited mechanism. It also evolves as x ˜ h-1 as expected from mass conservation in the absence of thickened rim. When the surface energy is isotropic (during dewetting of amorphous Si) the dynamics of dewetting is considerably modified: firstly, there is no measurable breaking time; secondly, the speed of dewetting is two orders of magnitude larger than for crystalline Si; and thirdly, the activation energy of dewetting is much smaller due to the different driving force

  7. Influence of tall vegetation canopy on turbulence kinetic energy budget in the stable boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babić, Karmen; Rotach, Mathias W.

    2017-04-01

    While a considerable amount of research has been done on turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) budget studies in the surface layer over horizontally homogeneous and flat (HHF) surfaces, little research focused on budgets above heterogeneous and rough surfaces. Only few studies have investigated TKE budgets above fetch-limited forest focusing on statically neutral conditions, while studies in the stable boundary layer (SBL) are still scarce in the literature. Therefore, we present turbulence characteristics above tall, deciduous forest in the wintertime SBL and make a comparison with a well-known results of HHF terrain. Turbulence measurements performed at five levels above the canopy height (approximately h = 18 m) allowed the investigation of combined influence of the roughness sublayer (RSL) found above tall vegetation and the internal boundary layer (IBL) on the TKE budget terms. Each term of the TKE budget is investigated within the framework of local similarity theory. Kolomogorov's similarity hypothesis assumes local isotropy within the inertial subrange. Testing the local isotropy hypothesis more thoroughly resulted in a ratio of the horizontal spectral densities (Sv/Su) approaching the 4/3, while the ratio of the vertical to the longitudinal spectral density (Sw/Su) was less than 1 for all levels indicating an anisotropic turbulence above the canopy. As a consequence, estimated values of TKE dissipation rate (ɛ) for the vertical component (ɛw) were smaller (underestimated) compared to the ɛ estimates obtained from the horizontal velocity components. This finding has a direct influence on the applicability of classical Kansas spectral models valid for HHF terrain as well as on the budget of wind variances. Additionally, the dimensionless wind shear function associated with "Kolmogorov turbulence" (existence of a well-defined inertial subrange with -5/3 slopes) was found to depart from linear prediction suggesting that the stability is a stronger determinant of

  8. Intercalation and adsorption of ciprofloxacin by layered chalcogenides and kinetics study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Rong; Wang, Yun-Xia; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Baoling; Fu, Ming-Lai

    2015-09-01

    The hydrothermally synthesized layered chalcogenide, K(2x)Mn(x)Sn(3-x)S6 (x=0.5-0.95) (KMS-1), was applied to remove ciprofloxacin from aqueous solution. Kinetic data showed the removal reaction followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the rate controlling step was both through external film and intraparticle diffusion. The adsorption of CIP by KMS-1 is endothermic and the maximum adsorption capacity of KMS-1 was 199.6, 230.9 and 269.5 mg/g at temperature of 10, 25 and 40°C, respectively. The heavy metal ions had great effect on the removal efficiency of CIP and the degree of inhibition followed the order: Pb(2+)>Zn(2+)>Cd(2+)>Ni(2+). The shift of Bragg peaks from XRD at various pH accompanying CIP removal and FE-SEM images confirmed that cation exchange is the major mechanism for the adsorption of CIP by KMS-1. In the pH range of 4.0-7.0, the intercalation of cationic CIP adopted a titled orientation of di-molecular CIP in KMS-1 with the titling angle of 68° and 42°, respectively. A vertical arrangement of the zwitterionic CIP adsorbed on the surface of KMS-1 was also confirmed. These results suggested that KMS-1 is an effective adsorbent to remove CIP from water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinetic Evaluation of Lipid Oils Conversion to Biofuel Using Layered Double Hydroxide Doped with Triazabicyclodece Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nato Lopez, Frank D.

    Worldwide, there is an ever increasing need for sustainable, renewable fuels that will accommodate the rapidly increasing energy demand and provide independence from fossil fuels. The search for a sustainable alternative to petroleum based fuels has been a great challenge to the scientific community; therefore, great efforts are being made to overcome the fossil fuels dependence by exploring the prominent field of biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel). Traditional biodiesel is produced from feedstocks such as vegetable oils and animal fats by converting the triglycerides with methanol in the presence of a homogeneous catalyst to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). However, drawbacks of this process are the undesired glycerol byproduct and post reaction processing, including separation from reaction mixture, that results in high costs factors. In the present work, the reaction kinetics of a glycerol-free biodiesel method is studied. This method consists of the transesterification of a vegetable oil (i.e. canola oil) using dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as an alternative methylating agent in presence of layered double hydroxides doped with triazabicyclodecene catalyst (a basic organocatalyst). Furthermore, is theorized that this heterogeneous catalyst (TBD/LDH) simultaneously converts both FFAs and triglycerides due to acid sites formed by Al3+ active sites of the LDH structure. Additionally, the versatility of the Raman in situ technique was used as quantitative analysis tool to monitor the reaction kinetics and collect real time data.

  10. Crystalline Grain Interior Configuration Affects Lithium Migration Kinetics in Li-Rich Layered Oxide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijun; So, Yeong-Gi; Kuwabara, Akihide; Tochigi, Eita; Shibata, Naoya; Kudo, Tetsuichi; Zhou, Haoshen; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-05-11

    The electrode kinetics of Li-ion batteries, which are important for battery utilization in electric vehicles, are affected by the grain size, crystal orientation, and surface structure of electrode materials. However, the kinetic influences of the grain interior structure and element segregation are poorly understood, especially for Li-rich layered oxides with complex crystalline structures and unclear electrochemical phenomena. In this work, cross-sectional thin transmission electron microscopy specimens are "anatomized" from pristine Li1.2Mn0.567Ni0.167Co0.067O2 powders using a new argon ion slicer technique. Utilizing advanced microscopy techniques, the interior configuration of a single grain, multiple monocrystal-like domains, and nickel-segregated domain boundaries are clearly revealed; furthermore, a randomly distributed atomic-resolution Li2MnO3-like with an intergrown LiTMO2 (TM = transitional metals) "twin domain" is demonstrated to exist in each domain. Further theoretical calculations based on the Li2MnO3-like crystal domain boundary model reveal that Li(+) migration in the Li2MnO3-like structure with domain boundaries is sluggish, especially when the nickel is segregated in domain boundaries. Our work uncovers the complex configuration of the crystalline grain interior and provides a conceptual advance in our understanding of the electrochemical performance of several compounds for Li-ion batteries.

  11. Growth of Zircone on Nanoporous Alumina Using Molecular Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Robert A.; George, Steven M.; Kim, Yeongae; Hwang, Woonbong; Samberg, Meghan E.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Narayan, Roger J.

    2014-04-01

    Molecular layer deposition (MLD) is a sequential and self-limiting process that may be used to create hybrid organic/inorganic thin films from organometallic precursors and organic alcohol precursors. In this study, films of a zirconium-containing hybrid organic/inorganic polymer known as zircone were grown on nanoporous alumina using MLD. Scanning electron microscopy data showed obliteration of the pores in zircone-coated nanoporous alumina. An in vitro cell viability study indicated that the growth of human epidermal keratinocytes was the greatest on zircone-coated nanoporous alumina than on uncoated nanoporous alumina. Our results suggest that MLD may be used to create biocompatible coatings for use in many types of medical devices.

  12. Atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo study of atomic layer deposition derived from density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Mahdi; Elliott, Simon D

    2014-01-30

    To describe the atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactions of HfO2 from Hf(N(CH3)2)4 and H2O, a three-dimensional on-lattice kinetic Monte-Carlo model is developed. In this model, all atomistic reaction pathways in density functional theory (DFT) are implemented as reaction events on the lattice. This contains all steps, from the early stage of adsorption of each ALD precursor, kinetics of the surface protons, interaction between the remaining precursors (steric effect), influence of remaining fragments on adsorption sites (blocking), densification of each ALD precursor, migration of each ALD precursors, and cooperation between the remaining precursors to adsorb H2O (cooperative effect). The essential chemistry of the ALD reactions depends on the local environment at the surface. The coordination number and a neighbor list are used to implement the dependencies. The validity and necessity of the proposed reaction pathways are statistically established at the mesoscale. The formation of one monolayer of precursor fragments is shown at the end of the metal pulse. Adsorption and dissociation of the H2O precursor onto that layer is described, leading to the delivery of oxygen and protons to the surface during the H2O pulse. Through these processes, the remaining precursor fragments desorb from the surface, leaving the surface with bulk-like and OH-terminated HfO2, ready for the next cycle. The migration of the low coordinated remaining precursor fragments is also proposed. This process introduces a slow reordering motion (crawling) at the mesoscale, leading to the smooth and conformal thin film that is characteristic of ALD. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Crystallization of lysozyme from lysozyme - ovalbumin mixtures: Separation potential and crystal growth kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maosoongnern, Somchai; Flood, Chalongsri; Flood, Adrian E.; Ulrich, Joachim

    2017-07-01

    Lysozyme was successfully separated from mixtures of lysozyme and ovalbumin by crystallization. The purity of the lysozyme product is more than 98%, the remaining activity is greater than 97%, and the yields of the crystal products were greater than 80%. The experimental conditions used were varied to study the effect of the operating parameters on the growth kinetics of lysozyme crystal and the separation ability of the process. The growth rates of lysozyme are second order with respect to the relative supersaturation. Therefore the growth kinetics of the crystallization process is controlled by the surface integration mechanism. The calculated growth rate constants were 5.4×10-6 cm/h and 2.5×10-6 cm/h for the crystallization process at 20 °C and 10 °C, respectively. There is no significant effect of the ovalbumin impurity up to the concentration of 67.5% ovalbumin (based on total protein) on the growth kinetics of lysozyme. Changing the NaCl concentration from 4% to 3% had no effect on the growth kinetics of lysozyme, although this does change the solubility and therefore the yield. The calculated activation energy was 53.08 kJ/mol which supports the hypothesis that the crystallization process is controlled by the surface integration mechanism.

  14. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for Microbial Growth Kinetics of Mixed Culture System.

    PubMed

    Cotto, Ada; Looper, Jessica K; Mota, Linda C; Son, Ahjeong

    2015-11-01

    Microbial growth kinetics is often used to optimize environmental processes owing to its relation to the breakdown of substrate (contaminants). However, the quantification of bacterial populations in the environment is difficult owing to the challenges of monitoring a specific bacterial population within a diverse microbial community. Conventional methods are unable to detect and quantify the growth of individual strains separately in the mixed culture reactor. This work describes a novel quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based genomic approach to quantify each species in mixed culture and interpret its growth kinetics in the mixed system. Batch experiments were performed for both single and dual cultures of Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli K12 to obtain Monod kinetic parameters (μmax and Ks). The growth curves and kinetics obtained by conventional methods (i.e., dry weight measurement and absorbance reading) were compared with that obtained by qPCR assay. We anticipate that the adoption of this qPCR-based genomic assay can contribute significantly to traditional microbial kinetics, modeling practice, and the operation of bioreactors, where handling of complex mixed cultures is required.

  15. Crystal nucleation and cluster-growth kinetics in a model glass under shear.

    PubMed

    Mokshin, Anatolii V; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    2010-08-01

    Crystal nucleation and growth processes induced by an externally applied shear strain in a model metallic glass are studied by means of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, in a range of temperatures. We observe that the nucleation-growth process takes place after a transient, induction regime. The critical cluster size and the lag-time associated with this induction period are determined from a mean first-passage time analysis. The laws that describe the cluster-growth process are studied as a function of temperature and strain rate. A theoretical model for crystallization kinetics that includes the time dependence for nucleation and cluster growth is developed within the framework of the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami scenario and is compared with the molecular dynamics data. Scalings for the cluster-growth laws and for the crystallization kinetics are also proposed and tested. The observed nucleation rates are found to display a nonmonotonic strain rate dependency.

  16. Growth mode transition of Ni thin films on nanopatterned substrate: Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuhan; Liang, Jingshu; Zhu, Yuan; Jiang, Shaoji

    2012-03-01

    A three-dimension (3D) kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model with Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier is presented. A uniform arranged triangular prism structure is introduced to mimic the nanopatterned substrate. The transition from continuous growth to anisotropic columnar growth has been demonstrated. The kinetic process and the growth exponent are discussed by our KMC model. Results show that the growth exponent is smaller than 0.5 when the film thickness surpasses 70 ML under normal deposition but larger than 0.5 under high oblique angle deposition, such as 77°. We assume that the modulation of nanopatterned substrate reduces more quickly when the film thickness is larger than 70 ML in our model. The growth mode transition can be mainly attributed to difference in the relative importance of diffusion and shadowing with normal and high oblique angle deposition conditions. Besides, the competition and vanishing process during oblique angle deposition are also demonstrated.

  17. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Epitaxial Thin Film Growth: Formation of Submonolayer Islands and Multilayer Mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J. W.; Thiel, P. A.; Li, Maozhi

    2007-06-14

    We consider homoepitaxy (or low-misfit heteroepitaxy) via vapor deposition or MBE under UHV conditions. Thin film growth is initiated by nucleation and growth of 2D islands in the submonolayer regime. For atoms subsequently deposited on top of islands, a step edge barrier often inhibits downward transport and produces kinetic roughening during multilayer growth. Such unstable growth is characterized by the formation of 3D mounds (multilayer stacks of 2D islands). Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation of suitable atomistic lattice-gas models can address fundamental or general issues related to both submonolayer and multilayer film evolution, and can also provide a predictive tool for morphological evolution in specific systems. Examples of the successes of KMC modeling are provided for metal homoepitaxial film growth, specifically for contrasting behavior in the classic Ag/Ag(100) and Ag/Ag(111) systems.

  18. Crystal nucleation and cluster-growth kinetics in a model glass under shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokshin, Anatolii V.; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    2010-08-01

    Crystal nucleation and growth processes induced by an externally applied shear strain in a model metallic glass are studied by means of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, in a range of temperatures. We observe that the nucleation-growth process takes place after a transient, induction regime. The critical cluster size and the lag-time associated with this induction period are determined from a mean first-passage time analysis. The laws that describe the cluster-growth process are studied as a function of temperature and strain rate. A theoretical model for crystallization kinetics that includes the time dependence for nucleation and cluster growth is developed within the framework of the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami scenario and is compared with the molecular dynamics data. Scalings for the cluster-growth laws and for the crystallization kinetics are also proposed and tested. The observed nucleation rates are found to display a nonmonotonic strain rate dependency.

  19. Reactive Dependent Growth Kinetics and Morphology of A-B Ternary Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wen-Qiang; Wang, Kai-Ming; Zhu, Yue-Jin

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we present Monte Carlo simulations of A-B-diblock-copolymer ternary mixtures simultaneously undergoing phase separation and reversible chemical reaction A + B ⇌ C. The results demonstrate that the competition of chemical reaction and thermal diffusion dynamics co-determine the self-assembling morphology and growth kinetics of the reactive ternary mixtures. The role of the chemical reaction on the growth kinetics count mainly on the copolymer-polymer interaction strength Jp. If Jp < 1.0, the introduction of chemical reaction speeds up the domain growth; while for Jp > 1.0, the chemical reaction slows down the domain growth. The domain growth exponent decreases linearly with increasing of the copolymer-polymer interaction strength. At a later stage, <1, 0> and <0, 1> oriented strip pattern formations are observed when Jp is strong.

  20. Growth kinetics evaluation of hydrothermally synthesized β-FeOOH nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Mahabubur; Fester, Veruscha; Kale, Girish

    2014-02-01

    Based on the proposition that a quantitative and qualitative relationship between alcohol surface tension and particle growth exists, the effect of four different organic solvents on the growth kinetics of β-FeOOH (akaganeite) nanorods have been evaluated in this study. Two-stage growth of akaganeite nanorods have been observed in the presence of butanol and propanol as solvents. The first growth stage follows a typical power law representing Ostwald Ripening (OR) kinetic. The second stage of growth was found to be asymptotic and was fitted by the Oriented Attachment (OA) kinetics. HRTEM images of the synthesized nanoparticles also showed crystallographically specific oriented attachment based growth of the nanocrystals. Signs of OA mechanism was not observed from the TEM images of the particles synthesized using ethanol and methanol as solvents. The rate constants for each kinetic was evaluated and the rate constant for OR kinetics, k, was found to be significantly higher than the rate constant for OA kinetics, k, under the reported conditions for the four different solvents used. The rate constants were related to the surface tension of alcohol. A factorial trial was used to evaluate the significance of interaction effects of process parameters. By correlating the surface tension of solvents with different process parameters a generalized correlation has been developed to predict β-FeOOH aspect ratios for the first time. This correlation was validated by an independent study. This correlation takes three different process parameters into consideration in conjunction with the solvent surface tension to predict particle aspect ratios with acceptable confidence.

  1. Reduced-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Isolated Ge Crystals and Suspended Layers on Micrometric Si Pillars.

    PubMed

    Skibitzki, Oliver; Capellini, Giovanni; Yamamoto, Yuji; Zaumseil, Peter; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Schroeder, Thomas; Ballabio, Andrea; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Salvalaglio, Marco; Miglio, Leo; Montalenti, Francesco

    2016-10-05

    In this work, we demonstrate the growth of Ge crystals and suspended continuous layers on Si(001) substrates deeply patterned in high aspect-ratio pillars. The material deposition was carried out in a commercial reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor, thus extending the "vertical-heteroepitaxy" technique developed by using the peculiar low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor, to widely available epitaxial tools. The growth process was thoroughly analyzed, from the formation of small initial seeds to the final coalescence into a continuous suspended layer, by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The preoxidation of the Si pillar sidewalls and the addition of hydrochloric gas in the reactants proved to be key to achieve highly selective Ge growth on the pillars top only, which, in turn, is needed to promote the formation of a continuous Ge layer. Thanks to continuum growth models, we were able to single out the different roles played by thermodynamics and kinetics in the deposition dynamics. We believe that our findings will open the way to the low-cost realization of tens of micrometers thick heteroepitaxial layer (e.g., Ge, SiC, and GaAs) on Si having high crystal quality.

  2. Relationship between kinetics of growth and production of exo-electrons: Case study with Geobacter toluenoxydans.

    PubMed

    Szöllősi, Attila; Narr, László; Kovács, Attila G; Styevkó, Gabriella

    2015-09-01

    Kinetics of growth and product formation of G. toluenoxydans DSMZ 19350 strain were investigated using sodium-acetate as substrate and Fe(3+)-ions and fumarate as electron acceptor. Response surface method was adapted for evaluation of growth of bacteria. Results showed that maximum growth was detected in the case of 2.2 g/L substrate concentration. Application of higher substrate concentration (>2.5 g/L sodium acetate) significantly inhibits the bacterial growth. Luong's model was found to be the most suitable to determine kinetic parameters (μ(max) = 0.033 1/h, KS = 0.205 g/L) of growth of G.toluenoxydans strain, and the growth was completely inhibited at substrate concentration higher than 3.1 g/L. In the case of product formation the Haldane model was used and kinetic parameters are μ(Pmax) = 0.123 mg/h, K(PS)= 0.184 g/L. Correlation between microbial growth and product formation was observed using the Luedeking-Piret empirical method. Both factors (growth and number of cells) affected significantly iron(III)-reduction, thus the product formation. These results are important and open the possibility to design a continuous MFC setting operating with G. toluenoxydans as biocatalyst.

  3. Crystallization of pumpkin seed globulin: growth and dissolution kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, Alexander J.; McPherson, Alexander

    1993-10-01

    Quasi-elastic light scattering was used to investigate the nucleation and crystallization of pumpkin ( Cucurbita) seed globulin. The diameter of the pumpkin globulin monomer was measured to be ≈ 5-6 nm. The supersaturation dependence of critical nucleus size was obtained, and this allowed an estimate of the interfacial free energy to be α ≈ 6.1 x 10 -2 erg/cm 2. The crystallization and dissolution kinetics were investigated for 4.9-16 mg/ml protein solutions containing 1-7% NaCl. The solubility data as a function of precipitant concentration and temperature were obtained and these will be utilized for optimization of the crystallization conditions for the pumpkin globulin.

  4. Dependence of morphometric allometries on the growth kinetics of body parts.

    PubMed

    Nijhout, H Frederik

    2011-11-07

    As overall size varies, the sizes of body parts of many animals often appear to be related to each other by a power law, commonly called the allometric equation. Orderly scaling relationships among body parts are widespread in the animal world, but there is no general agreement about how these relationships come about. Presumably they depend on the patterns of growth of body parts, and simple analyses have shown that exponential growth can lead to size relationships that are well-described by the allometric equation. Exponential growth kinetics also allow for a simple biological interpretation of the coefficients of the power relationship. Nevertheless, many tissues do not grow with exponential kinetics, nor do they grow for the same period of time, and the consequences of more realistic growth patterns on the resulting allometric relationships of body parts are not well understood. In this paper I derive a set of allometric equations that assume different kinetics of growth: linear, exponential and sigmoidal. In these derivations I also include differences in development times as a variable, in addition to differences in the growth rates and initial sizes of the two structures whose allometric relationship is compared. I show how these equations can be used to deduce the effect of different causes of variation in absolute size on the resulting allometry. Variation in size can be due to variation in the duration of development, variation in growth rate or variation in initial size. I show that the meaning of the coefficients of the allometric equation depends on exactly how size variation comes about. I show that if two structures are assumed to grow with sigmoidal kinetics (logistic and Gompertz) the resulting allometric equations do not have a simple and intuitive structure and produce graphs that, over a sufficiently large range of sizes, can vary from linear, to sigmoidal to hump-shaped. Over a smaller range of absolute sizes, these sigmoid growth kinetics can

  5. Kinetic surface roughening and wafer bow control in heteroepitaxial growth of 3C-SiC on Si(111) substrates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Walker, Glenn; Chai, Jessica; Iacopi, Alan; Fernandes, Alanna; Dimitrijev, Sima

    2015-01-01

    A thin, chemically inert 3C-SiC layer between GaN and Si helps not only to avoid the “melt-back” effect, but also to inhibit the crack generation in the grown GaN layers. The quality of GaN layer is heavily dependent on the unique properties of the available 3C-SiC/Si templates. In this paper, the parameters influencing the roughness, crystalline quality, and wafer bow are investigated and engineered to obtain high quality, low roughness 3C-SiC/Si templates suitable for subsequent GaN growth and device processing. Kinetic surface roughening and SiC growth mechanisms, which depend on both deposition temperature and off-cut angle, are reported for heteroepitaxial growth of 3C-SiC on Si substrates. The narrower terrace width on 4° off-axis Si enhances the step-flow growth at 1200 °C, with the roughness of 3C-SiC remaining constant with increasing thickness, corresponding to a scaling exponent of zero. Crack-free 3C-SiC grown on 150-mm Si substrate with a wafer bow of less than 20 μm was achieved. Both concave and convex wafer bow can be obtained by in situ tuning of the deposited SiC layer thicknesses. The 3C-SiC grown on off-axis Si, compared to that grown on on-axis Si, has lower surface roughness, better crystallinity, and smaller bow magnitude. PMID:26487465

  6. An analytical kinetic model for chemical-vapor deposition of pureB layers from diborane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, V.; de Boer, W. B.; Nanver, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, an analytical model is established to describe the deposition kinetics and the deposition chamber characteristics that determine the deposition rates of pure boron (PureB-) layers grown by chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) from diborane (B2H6) as gas source on a non-rotating silicon wafer. The model takes into consideration the diffusion mechanism of the diborane species through the stationary boundary layer over the wafer, the gas phase processes and the related surface reactions by applying the actual parabolic gas velocity and temperature gradient profiles in the reactor. These are calculated theoretically and also simulated with fluent software. The influence of an axial and lateral diffusion of diborane species and the validity of the model for laminar flow in experimental CVD processes are also treated. This model is based on a wide range of input parameters, such as initial diborane partial pressure, total gas flow, axial position on the wafer, deposition temperature, activation energy of PureB deposition from diborane, surface H-coverage, and reactor dimensions. By only adjusting these reactor/process parameters, the model was successfully transferred from the ASM Epsilon One to the Epsilon 2000 reactor which has totally different reactor conditions. The model's predictive capabilities have been verified by experiments performed at 700 °C in these two different ASM CVD reactors.

  7. On role of kinetic fluctuations in laminar-turbulent transition in chemically nonequilibrium boundary layer flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumin, Anatoli

    2015-11-01

    Zavol'skii and Reutov (1983), Luchini (2008, 2010), Fedorov (2010, 2012, 2014) explored potential role of kinetic fluctuations (KF) in incompressible and calorically perfect gas boundary layer flows. The results indicate that role of KF is comparable with other disturbance sources in flight experiments and in quiet wind tunnels. The analysis is based on the Landau and Lifshitz (1957) concept of fluctuating hydrodynamics representing the dissipative fluxes as an average and fluctuating parts. We are extending analysis of the receptivity problem to the fluctuating dissipative fluxes in chemically reacting nonequilibrium boundary layer flows of binary mixtures. There are new terms in the energy, and the species equations. The species conservation equation includes the dissipative diffusion flux and the species generation due to dissociation. The momentum equation includes fluctuating stress tensor. The energy equation includes fluctuating heat flux, energy flux due to diffusion of the species, and fluctuating dissipative flux due to viscosity. The effects are compared for the cases stemming from constraints of the HTV project (Klentzman and Tumin, AIAA Paper 2013-2882). Supported by AFOSR.

  8. Wetting Layer Super-Diffusive Motion and QSE Growth in Pb/Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tringides, M. C.; Hupalo, M.; Man, K. L.; Loy, M. M. T.; Altman, M. S.

    The unusual growth mode of uniform height islands discovered in Pb/Si was related to the electronic energy modulation with island height due to quantum size effects (QSEs). In addition to these energetic reasons provided by QSE, there is also the question of kinetics, i.e., how atoms move at relatively low temperatures (as low as 150 K) to build the islands in the short time of minutes. Controlled experiments with different techniques have shown the intriguing role of the dense wetting layer in transporting mass. STM experiments monitoring how unstable islands transform into stable islands have shown that the wetting layer between the islands moves selectively to the unstable islands, climbs over their sides, forms quickly rings of constant width ˜ 20 nm, and finally it completes the island top, but at a slower rate than the ring completion. This growth is independent of the starting interface, whether it is the amorphous wetting layer on the Si(111) (7 × 7) or the well-ordered Si(111)-Pb α (surd 3× surd 3) surface (except Pb diffusion on the latter interface is faster by a factor of ˜ 5). Real-time low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) observations of mass transport phenomena have confirmed the fast mobility of the wetting layer in Pb/Si and in addition have revealed some unusual features that are unexpected from classical diffusion behavior. The experiment monitors the refilling of a circular vacant area generated by a laser pulse. The concentration profile does not disperse as in normal diffusion, the refilling speed Δ x/Δ t is constant (instead of Δ x/surd Δ t = constant), and the equilibration time diverges below a critical coverage, θ c, as 1/tau ˜ (θ c - θ)^{-kappa}. The absolute value of the refilling speed 0.05 nm/s at 190 K is orders of magnitude higher than what is expected from Pb diffusion on Pb crystals at higher temperatures. These results are compared with predictions of three candidate models: (i) a conventional diffusion model with a

  9. Modified Gompertz equation for electrotherapy murine tumor growth kinetics: predictions and new hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Cabrales, Luis E Bergues; Nava, Juan J Godina; Aguilera, Andrés Ramírez; Joa, Javier A González; Ciria, Héctor M Camué; González, Maraelys Morales; Salas, Miriam Fariñas; Jarque, Manuel Verdecia; González, Tamara Rubio; Mateus, Miguel A O'Farril; Brooks, Soraida C Acosta; Palencia, Fabiola Suárez; Zamora, Lisset Ortiz; Quevedo, María C Céspedes; Seringe, Sarah Edward; Cuitié, Vladimir Crombet; Cabrales, Idelisa Bergues; González, Gustavo Sierra

    2010-10-28

    Electrotherapy effectiveness at different doses has been demonstrated in preclinical and clinical studies; however, several aspects that occur in the tumor growth kinetics before and after treatment have not yet been revealed. Mathematical modeling is a useful instrument that can reveal some of these aspects. The aim of this paper is to describe the complete growth kinetics of unperturbed and perturbed tumors through use of the modified Gompertz equation in order to generate useful insight into the mechanisms that underpin this devastating disease. The complete tumor growth kinetics for control and treated groups are obtained by interpolation and extrapolation methods with different time steps, using experimental data of fibrosarcoma Sa-37. In the modified Gompertz equation, a delay time is introduced to describe the tumor's natural history before treatment. Different graphical strategies are used in order to reveal new information in the complete kinetics of this tumor type. The first stage of complete tumor growth kinetics is highly non linear. The model, at this stage, shows different aspects that agree with those reported theoretically and experimentally. Tumor reversibility and the proportionality between regions before and after electrotherapy are demonstrated. In tumors that reach partial remission, two antagonistic post-treatment processes are induced, whereas in complete remission, two unknown antitumor mechanisms are induced. The modified Gompertz equation is likely to lead to insights within cancer research. Such insights hold promise for increasing our understanding of tumors as self-organizing systems and, the possible existence of phase transitions in tumor growth kinetics, which, in turn, may have significant impacts both on cancer research and on clinical practice.

  10. Modified Gompertz equation for electrotherapy murine tumor growth kinetics: predictions and new hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Electrotherapy effectiveness at different doses has been demonstrated in preclinical and clinical studies; however, several aspects that occur in the tumor growth kinetics before and after treatment have not yet been revealed. Mathematical modeling is a useful instrument that can reveal some of these aspects. The aim of this paper is to describe the complete growth kinetics of unperturbed and perturbed tumors through use of the modified Gompertz equation in order to generate useful insight into the mechanisms that underpin this devastating disease. Methods The complete tumor growth kinetics for control and treated groups are obtained by interpolation and extrapolation methods with different time steps, using experimental data of fibrosarcoma Sa-37. In the modified Gompertz equation, a delay time is introduced to describe the tumor's natural history before treatment. Different graphical strategies are used in order to reveal new information in the complete kinetics of this tumor type. Results The first stage of complete tumor growth kinetics is highly non linear. The model, at this stage, shows different aspects that agree with those reported theoretically and experimentally. Tumor reversibility and the proportionality between regions before and after electrotherapy are demonstrated. In tumors that reach partial remission, two antagonistic post-treatment processes are induced, whereas in complete remission, two unknown antitumor mechanisms are induced. Conclusion The modified Gompertz equation is likely to lead to insights within cancer research. Such insights hold promise for increasing our understanding of tumors as self-organizing systems and, the possible existence of phase transitions in tumor growth kinetics, which, in turn, may have significant impacts both on cancer research and on clinical practice. PMID:21029411

  11. The Kinetic Scale Structure of the Low Latitude Boundary Layer: Initial MMS Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorelli, John; Gershman, Dan; Avanov, Levon; Pollock, Craig; Giles, Barbara; Gliese, Ulrik; Barrie, Alexander; Holland, Matthew; Salo, Chad; Dickson, Charles; Coffey, Victoria; Chandler, Michael; Sato, Yoshifumi; Strangeway, Robert; Russell, Christopher; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Khotyainstev, Yuri; Torbert, Roy; Burch, James

    2016-04-01

    Since its launch in March of 2015, NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has captured thousands of high resolution magnetopause crossings, routinely resolving the sub-Larmor radius structure of the magnetopause boundary layer for the first time. The primary goal of MMS is to understand the microphysics of magnetic reconnection, and it is well on its way to achieving this objective. However, MMS is also making routine measurements of the electron and ion gyroviscous and heat flux tensors with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. This opens up the possibility of directly observing the physical processes that facilitate momentum and energy transport across the magnetopause boundary layer under arbitrary conditions (e.g., magnetic field geometry and flow shear) far from the reconnection X line. Currently, our global magnetosphere fluid models (e.g., resistive or Hall MHD) do not include accurate descriptions of viscosity and heat flow, both of which are known to be critical players at the magnetopause (not just at the reconnection sites), and several groups are attempting to make progress on this difficult fluid closure problem. In this talk, we will address the fluid closure problem in the context of MMS observations of the Low Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL), focusing on high resolution particle observations by the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI). FPI electron bulk velocities are accurate enough to compute current density in both the high density magnetosheath and low density magnetosphere and have already revealed that the LLBL has a complex parallel current structure on the proton Larmor radius scale. We discuss the relationship between these parallel currents and the Hall electric field structures predicted by kinetic models. We also present first observations of the ion and electron gyroviscous and heat flux tensors in the LLBL and discuss implications for the fluid closure problem at Earth's magnetopause.

  12. Kinetics of Ge-Se-In Film Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Stoilova, A.; Petkov, P.; Nedeva, Y.; Monchev, B.

    2010-01-21

    The processes of vacuum evaporation and condensation in the Ge-Se-In system were investigated. Thin amorphous films were deposited by modified thermal evaporation from previously synthesized non-crystalline (GeSe{sub y}){sub 1-x}In{sub x} ingots, where x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and y = 4, 5 and 6. The specific evaporation rate was determined by measuring of the mass of evaporator before evaporation and the mass of empty evaporator after evaporation in temperature range of evaporation (500-800) K. The substrate temperature was varied in the range (300-430) K to study the condensation process and specific condensation rate was determined by measuring of the substrate mass before and after condensation. The condensation energy of the (GeSe{sub y}){sub 1-x}In{sub x} layers steady increases at indium addition.The thin films studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron microdiffraction (EMD) reveal homogeneous and amorphous structure. The layer composition determined by Auger electron spectroscopy is close to that of the corresponded bulk samples.

  13. Phosphate-limited continuous culture of Rhodotorula rubra: kinetics of transport, leakage, and growth.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, B R; Button, D K

    1979-01-01

    The phosphate-limited growth kinetics of Rhodotorula rubra, a small yeast of marine origin, were examined by analysis of 32P distributions in continuous cultures. Isotope relaxation procedures were used to identify unidirectional flows of Pi and organic phosphate among compartments modeled during growth. The concentrations of phosphates in these compartments at various growth rates were used, together with attendant flows, to produce a mathematical model of growth. Both Pi and phosphate-containing metabolic intermediates leaked from cells during growth. Total leakage ranged from 4 to 10% of influx and was comprised mostly of Pi. Transport capacity was at least 10 times that required for growth at saturating Pi concentrations, so that influx was linear with concentration during growth. This led to the realization that the curvature of Monod plots (Kmu = 12 nM mumax = 0.18/h, and the threshold At = 2.5 nM) is due to change in yield with growth rate. Growth rate related to Pi by the affinity, aA (= 0.43 liter/mg of cells.h) of cells for Pi and the growth rate-dependent yield. It was also specified by a series of kinetic constants that specified flow among the various compartments and equilibrium compartment concentrations as they were set by extracellular Pi. The importance of leakage by healthy cells to the organic chemistry of aquatic systems is noted. PMID:37231

  14. Austenite grain growth kinetics in Al-killed plain carbon steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militzer, Matthias; Hawbolt, E. Bruce; Ray Meadowcroft, T.; Giumelli, Alan

    1996-11-01

    Austenite grain growth kinetics have been investigated in three Al-killed plain carbon steels. Experimental results have been validated using the statistical grain growth model by Abbruzzese and Lücke, which takes pinning by second-phase particles into account. It is shown that the pinning force is a function of the pre-heat-treatment schedule. Extrapolation to the conditions of a hot-strip mill indicates that grain growth occurs without pinning during conventional processing. Analytical relations are proposed to simulate austenite grain growth for Al-killed plain carbon steels for any thermal path in a hot-strip mill.

  15. Kinetics Of Bridgmanite To (Mg0.85,Fe0.15)SiO3-Post-Perovskite Towards A Better Comprehension Of The D" Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langrand, Christopher; Hilairet, Nadège; Andraut, Denis; Konopkova, Zuzana; Merkel, Sébastien

    2017-04-01

    Phase transitions are important to constrain the nature of discontinuities in the deep mantle. Among them, the transition from Bridgmanite to (Mg0.85,Fe0.15)SiO3-Post-Perovskite (pPv) is relevant for understanding the thermal and chemical state of the D" layer. Here, we investigate the kinetics of the Bridgmanite to pPv transition by time-series experiments in the Laser Heated Diamond Anvil Cell (LHDAC) conducted at the P02.2 beamline of the PETRA III synchrotron. Product phases and extent of transformation are monitored in-situ as a function of time at pressure and temperature ranging from 126.5 to 130.5 GPa and from 1600 to 2500 K, respectively. The data were analyzed with the Avrami model of nucleation and growth in order to determine the properties of this phase transition. Apparent activation energy could be extracted (Ea≈238 kJ.mol-1). Moreover, based on our data, we will present two possible kinetic models to constrain the dynamics and kinetics of the Bridgmanite to pPv transition at the D" layer P/T conditions.

  16. The logistic growth of duckweed (Lemna minor) and kinetics of ammonium uptake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Chen, You-Peng; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Yun; Shen, Yu; Huang, Lei; Gao, Xu; Guo, Jin-Song

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models have been developed to describe nitrogen uptake and duckweed growth experimentally to study the kinetics of ammonium uptake under various concentrations. The kinetics of duckweed ammonium uptake was investigated using the modified depletion method after plants were grown for two weeks at different ammonium concentrations (0.5-14 mg/L) in the culture medium. The maximum uptake rate and Michaelis-Menten constant for ammonium were estimated as 0.082 mg/(g fresh weight x h) and 1.877 mg/L, respectively. Duckweed growth was assessed when supplied at different total nitrogen (TN) concentrations (1-5 mg/L) in the culture medium. The results showed that the intrinsic growth rate was from 0.22 to 0.26 d(-1), and TN concentrations had no significant influence on the duckweed growth rate.

  17. Kinetic growth mode of epitaxial GaAs on Si(001) micro-pillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamaschini, Roberto; Bietti, Sergio; Castellano, Andrea; Frigeri, Cesare; Falub, Claudiu V.; Scaccabarozzi, Andrea; Bollani, Monica; von Känel, Hans; Miglio, Leo; Sanguinetti, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional, epitaxial GaAs crystals are fabricated on micro-pillars patterned into Si(001) substrates by exploiting kinetically controlled growth conditions in Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The evolution of crystal morphology during growth is assessed by considering samples with increasing GaAs deposit thickness. Experimental results are interpreted by a kinetic growth model, which takes into account the fundamental aspects of the growth and mutual deposition flux shielding between neighboring crystals. Different substrate pattern geometries with dissimilar lateral sizes and periodicities of the Si micro-pillars are considered and self-similar crystal structures are recognized. It is demonstrated that the top faceting of the GaAs crystals is tunable, which can pave the way to locally engineer compound semiconductor quantum structures on Si(001) substrates.

  18. A growth kinetic model of Kluyveromyces marxianus cultures on cheese whey as substrate.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Luís G S; Luvizetto, Débora J; Ferreira, Luciane S; Rech, Rosane; Ayub, Marco A Z; Secchi, Argimiro R

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a multi-route, non-structured kinetic model for determination of microbial growth and substrate consumption in an experimental batch bioreactor in which beta-galactosidase is produced by Kluyveromyces marxianus growing on cheese whey. The main metabolic routes for lactose, and oxygen consumption, cell growth, and ethanol production are derived based on experimental data. When these individual rates are combined into a single growth rate, by rewriting the model equations, the model re-interpretation has a complexity similar to that of the usual variations of the Monod kinetic model, available in the literature. Furthermore, the proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental data for different growth temperatures, being acceptable for dynamic simulations, processes optimization, and implementations of model-based control technologies.

  19. Kinetics and thermodynamics of sucrose crystal growth in the presence of a non-ionic surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. Vasanth; Rocha, F.

    2010-06-01

    Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of Hodag CB6, a non-ionic surfactant, on the growth kinetics of sucrose crystals as a function of supersaturation, impurity concentration and temperature. The growth promoting effect of the added impurity, studied using a recently introduced spiral nucleation model (SNM), was due to the decrease in the surface free energy induced by the added surfactant. The growth process was influenced by both kinetic and thermodynamic effect, the latter being predominant. The coverage of impurity molecules on the sucrose surface followed a Henry type expression according to Langmuir isotherm at studied temperatures. In the case of a pure system, the total active kink density was found to be around 10 16 kinks/m 2. The active growth sites on the crystal surface were found to be two orders of magnitude lower than the total number of sucrose molecules.

  20. Growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes and spoilage microorganisms in fresh-cut cantaloupe.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ting; Liu, Yanhong; Huang, Lihan

    2013-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes and background microorganisms in fresh-cut cantaloupe. Fresh-cut cantaloupe samples, inoculated with three main serotypes (1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b) of L. monocytogenes, were incubated at different temperatures, ranging from 4 to 43 °C, to develop kinetic growth models. During storage studies, the population of both background microorganisms and L. monocytogenes began to increase almost immediately, with little or no lag phase for most growth curves. All growth curves, except for two growth curves of L. monocytogenes 1/2a at 4 °C, developed to full curves (containing exponential and stationary phases), and can be described by a 3-parameter logistic model. There was no significant difference (P = 0.28) in the growth behaviors and the specific growth rates of three different serotypes of L. monocytogenes inoculated to fresh-cut cantaloupe. The effect of temperature on the growth of L. monocytogenes and spoilage microorganisms was evaluated using three secondary models. For L. monocytogenes, the minimum and maximum growth temperatures were estimated by both the Ratkowsky square-root and Cardinal parameter models, and the optimum temperature and the optimum specific growth rate by the Cardinal parameter model. An Arrhenius-type model provided more accurate estimation of the specific growth rate of L. monocytogenes at temperatures <4 °C. The kinetic models developed in this study can be used by regulatory agencies and food processors for conducting risk assessment of L. monocytogenes in fresh-cut cantaloupe, and for estimating the shelf-life of fresh-cut products.

  1. Effect of wall growth on the kinetic modeling of nitrite oxidation in a CSTR.

    PubMed

    Dokianakis, Spiros N; Kornaros, Michael; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2006-03-05

    A simple kinetic model was developed for describing nitrite oxidation by autotrophic aerobic nitrifiers in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), in which mixed (suspended and attached) growth conditions prevail. The CSTR system was operated under conditions of constant nitrite feed concentration and varying volumetric flow rates. Experimental data from steady-state conditions in the CSTR system and from batch experiments were used for the determination of the model's kinetic parameters. Model predictions were verified against experimental data obtained under transient operating conditions, when volumetric flow rate and nitrite feed concentration disturbances were imposed on the CSTR. The presented kinetic modeling procedure is quite simple and general and therefore can also be applied to other mixed growth biological systems.

  2. Critical-layer nonlinearity in the resonance growth of three-dimensional waves in boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankbadi, Reda R.

    1990-01-01

    The nonlinear interactions of a triad of initially linear stability waves are addressed. The triad consisted of a single two-dimensional mode at a given frequency and two oblique modes with equal and opposite spanwise wave numbers. The oblique waves were at half the frequency and streamwise wave number of the two-dimensional mode. Attention was focused on the boundary-layer transition at low frequencies and high Reynolds numbers. A five-zoned structure and low-frequency scaling were used to derive the nonlinear-interaction equations. The initial nonlinear development of the waves was analyzed; the results indicated that the two-dimensional wave behaves according to linear theory. Nonlinear interactions caused exponential-of-an-exponential growth of the oblique modes. This resonant amplification of the subharmonic depended on the initial amplitude of the two-dimensional wave and on the initial phase angle between the two-dimensional wave and the oblique waves. The resonant growth of the oblique modes was more pronounced at lower frequencies than at higher frequencies. The results are in good agreement with experimental results and offer explanations of the observed process.

  3. Dynamics of layer-by-layer growth of a polyelectrolyte multilayer studied in situ using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Nkwantabisah, Silas; Gammana, Madhira; Tripp, Carl P

    2014-10-07

    Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) was used to study the dynamic layer-by-layer (LBL) growth of a sodium polyacrylate (NaPA)/poly(diallydimethylammonium) chloride (PDADMAC) multilayer on TiO2 particles. Molecular weights (Mw) used were 30 and 60 kDa for NaPA and 8.5 and 150 kDa for PDADMAC. IR spectra were recorded in situ as a function of time and were used to obtain the dynamic mass adsorbed and bound fraction of the polymers during each deposition step. For 30 kDa NaPA layers, the dynamics of adsorption show an initial rapid rise in mass followed by a slow increase toward a plateau value upon LBL with 150 kDa PDADMAC. In contrast, the 60 kDa NaPA layers achieve a plateau quickly and do not show a slow increase toward a plateau. In the case of LBL with 150 kDa PDADMAC, the dynamics of the bound fraction of polymer per layer suggest that polymer diffusion and conformational rearrangement occur for the layers of 30 kDa NaPA but not for the 60 kDa NaPA layers. Furthermore, PDADMAC adsorption profiles show that there is no diffusion of the PDADMAC layers and that PDADMAC flattens onto the underlying layer. A linear growth in the mass adsorbed per layer was observed for 150 kDa PDADMAC with both molecular weights of NaPA. In the case of 8.5 kDa PDADMAC, smaller growth increments and the desorption of underlying layers were observed. This work demonstrates the use of ATR-IR in obtaining the dynamics of LBL multilayer formation. Furthermore, it provides an example in which polymer diffusion during LBL film formation does not lead to exponential growth.

  4. Dynamic identification of growth and survival kinetic parameters of microorganisms in foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inverse analysis is a mathematical method used in predictive microbiology to determine the kinetic parameters of microbial growth and survival in foods. The traditional approach in inverse analysis relies on isothermal experiments that are time-consuming and labor-intensive, and errors are accumula...

  5. Mathematical modeling and growth kinetics of Clostridium sporogenes in cooked beef

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 is a common surrogate for proteolytic Clostridium botulinum for thermal process development and validation. However, little information is available concerning the growth kinetics of C. sporogenes in food. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the...

  6. Kinetic Roughening and Energetics of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Growth: A Preliminary Atomic Force Microscopy Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined particulars of crystal growth from measurements obtained at both microscopic and molecular levels. The crystal growth measurements performed at the microscopic level are well characterized by a model that balances the flux of macromolecules towards the crystal surface with the flux of the crystal surface. Numerical evaluation of model with measurements of crystal growth, in time, provided accurate estimates for the average growth velocities. Growth velocities thus obtained were also interpreted using well-established phenomenological theories. Moreover, we find that microscopic measurements of growth velocity measurements obtained as a function of temperature best characterizes changes in crystal growth modes, when present. We also examined the possibility of detecting a change in crystal growth modes at the molecular level using atomic force microscopy, AFM. From preliminary AFM measurements performed at various supersaturations, we find that magnitude of surface height fluctuations, h(x), increases with supersaturation. Further examination of surface height fluctuations using methods established for fluctuation spectroscopy also enabled the discovery of the existence of a characteristic length, c, which may possibly determine the mode of crystal growth. Although the results are preliminary, we establish the non- critical divergence of 5 and the root-mean-square (rms) magnitude of height-height fluctuations as the kinetic roughening transition temperatures are approached. Moreover, we also examine approximate models for interpreting the non-critical behavior of both 6 and rms magnitude of height-height fluctuations, as the solution supersaturation is increased towards the kinetic roughening supersaturation.

  7. Kinetic Roughening and Energetics of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Growth: A Preliminary Atomic Force Microscopy Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined particulars of crystal growth from measurements obtained at both microscopic and molecular levels. The crystal growth measurements performed at the microscopic level are well characterized by a model that balances the flux of macromolecules towards the crystal surface with the flux of the crystal surface. Numerical evaluation of model with measurements of crystal growth, in time, provided accurate estimates for the average growth velocities. Growth velocities thus obtained were also interpreted using well-established phenomenological theories. Moreover, we find that microscopic measurements of growth velocity measurements obtained as a function of temperature best characterizes changes in crystal growth modes, when present. We also examined the possibility of detecting a change in crystal growth modes at the molecular level using atomic force microscopy, AFM. From preliminary AFM measurements performed at various supersaturations, we find that magnitude of surface height fluctuations, h(x), increases with supersaturation. Further examination of surface height fluctuations using methods established for fluctuation spectroscopy also enabled the discovery of the existence of a characteristic length, c, which may possibly determine the mode of crystal growth. Although the results are preliminary, we establish the non- critical divergence of 5 and the root-mean-square (rms) magnitude of height-height fluctuations as the kinetic roughening transition temperatures are approached. Moreover, we also examine approximate models for interpreting the non-critical behavior of both 6 and rms magnitude of height-height fluctuations, as the solution supersaturation is increased towards the kinetic roughening supersaturation.

  8. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of thermally activated magnetization reversal in dual-layer Exchange Coupled Composite recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumer, M. L.; Almudallal, A. M.; Mercer, J. I.; Whitehead, J. P.; Fal, T. J.

    The kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method developed for thermally activated magnetic reversal processes in single-layer recording media has been extended to study dual-layer Exchange Coupled Composition (ECC) media used in current and next generations of disc drives. The attempt frequency is derived from the Langer formalism with the saddle point determined using a variant of Bellman Ford algorithm. Complication (such as stagnation) arising from coupled grains having metastable states are addressed. MH-hysteresis loops are calculated over a wide range of anisotropy ratios, sweep rates and inter-layer coupling parameter. Results are compared with standard micromagnetics at fast sweep rates and experimental results at slow sweep rates.

  9. Novel double-layer titanium boride coating on CP-titanium and titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy: Kinetics of boron diffusion and coating morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikekar, Nishant M.

    2007-12-01

    Commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and its alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, have found widespread use in aerospace, mechanical and biomedical industries due to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness, excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Although these materials provide significant engineering performance, problems such as galling, seizing and poor wear resistance have limited their use. One way of achieving increased wear performance is by modifying their surface properties by deposition of a suitable coating via solid-state diffusion. Hence, this research has been undertaken with the objective of developing a powder-based process for depositing a thick double-layer boride (TiB2 + TiB) coating on Ti-6Al-4V and CP-Ti and a simple solid-state diffusion model to predict the growth kinetics of TiB2 and TiB layers of the coating, based on processing parameters. The powder composition that resulted in maximum double-layer thickness with clean surface finish was found to be: Composition A (where, A = powder mixture of boron source, transport medium and scavenger). Boriding experiments were conducted in the temperature range 950-1200°C on Ti-6Al-4V and 850-1050°C on CP-Ti samples for time periods studied ranging from 3 to 24 hours at different temperatures. The growth kinetics of TiB2 and total (TiB2 + TiB) layers seem to be parabolic. The layer growth kinetics of TiB was found to be nonparabolic. TiB whiskers had different morphologies at temperatures above and below the beta-transus temperatures of Ti-6Al-4V and CP-Ti. For both materials, typically, TiB whiskers were thin below the beta-transus temperature and thicker above it. The theoretical model seems to show good agreement with the experimental data of TiB2 thicknesses on CP-Ti at all the temperatures studied. For total (TiB2 + TiB) coating thicknesses, the model showed good agreement with experimental data at all temperatures, except 1050°C. In case of Ti-6Al-4V, the model showed good agreement

  10. Growth of micro- and nanocrystalline dual layer composite diamond films by microwave plasma CVD: Influence of CO2 concentration on growth of nano-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cong; Wang, Jian-Hua; Weng, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The high quality and smooth micro-and nanocrystalline dual layer composite diamond films were successfully prepared using H2/CH4/Ar/CO2 plasma with a synthesis process of nucleation/MCD growth/nucleation/NCD growth. The carbon dioxide content is demonstrated to be important in controlling the NCD layer grain size and growth rate. The influences of carbon dioxide concentration on the morphology, microstructure and growth rate of the deposited NCD layer are investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the additional carbonaceous sources supplied by CO2 are favourable to increase the growth rate, and meanwhile, the oxygen related species generated would enhance the etching effect not only to eliminate the non-diamond phase of NCD but also to decrease the growth rate. The appropriate addition of CO2 can increase the high quality and growth rate, decrease the surface roughness. It is demonstrated that adding CO2 strongly affects the contents of various reaction species in plasma, which would determine the growth features of NCD layers. The deposited highly smooth and quality micro-/nano-crystal layered diamond film is also expected to be applicable in surface aroustic wave (SAW) devices and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS).

  11. Understanding the isothermal growth kinetics of cdse quantum dots through microfluidic reactor assisted combinatorial synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Basudev; Hong, Myung Hwan; Kang, Lee-Seung; Lee, Chan Gi

    2016-11-01

    With the use of a microfluidic-assisted combinatorial reactor, the synthesis of CdSe quantum dots was optimized by varying one parameter at a time, and the isothermal growth kinetics of CdSe quantum dots using various models was analyzed. To understand precisely the nucleation and growth characteristics of CdSe quantum dots (QDs), we synthesized the CdSe QDs using various experimental conditions. Different model equations, like acceleratory growth-time curves, sigmoidal growth-time curves or Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK), acceleratory growthtime curves based on diffusion, geometric model growth-time curves, and nth order growth-time curves were fitted. Among all growth models, the JMAK model with α = 1 - {e^{ - {{(kt)}^n}}}, and n = 1 was the best fitting model with the MATLAB interactive curve-fitting procedure were used. Errors associated with the best-fitting model and statistics for the goodness of fit were analyzed. Most of the models were not as good as the other than the proposed model. The errors associated with the proposed model were minimal, and the growth kinetics and other associated statistical factors are very similar, for all the variables investigated. The minimal error associated with the reproducibility and the similar data for growth kinetics for all studied parameters indicated that microfluidic-assisted combinatorial synthesis can be used in the industrial production of QDs. By using the proposed model to obtain an understanding of growth of QDs, their size and properties can be managed and simulated.

  12. In-situ ellipsometric characterization of the growth of porous anisotropic nanocrystalline ZnO layers

    SciTech Connect

    Laha, P. Terryn, H.; Ustarroz, J.; Nazarkin, M. Y. Gavrilov, S. A.; Volkova, A. V.; Simunin, M. M.

    2015-03-09

    ZnO films have increasingly been in the spotlight due to their largely varied electro-physical and optical properties. For several applications, porous anisotropic nanocrystalline layers are especially interesting. To study the growth kinetics of such films during different fabrication processes, a powerful non-destructive in-situ technique is required. In this work, both ex-situ and in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry are used along with advanced modelling techniques that are able to take both the anisotropy and the porosity of the films into account. Scanning electron microscopy, along with nitrogen absorption methods for measuring porosity, validated the ellipsometric data and proposed model. The film, grown by chemical bath deposition, was monitored from around 700 to 1800 nm in thickness. This same principle can now be used to monitor any other porous and/or anisotropic structure in an effective in-situ manner, e.g., growth of porous anodic aluminium oxides, nano-porous silica films, etc.

  13. Growth kinetics of three species of Tetrahymena on solid agar

    SciTech Connect

    Dobra, K.W.; McArdle, E.W.; Ehret, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    A nutrient-agar method without liquid overlay has been developed for cultivation of ciliates. Three species of Tetrahymena-T. pyriformis strain W, T. rostrata strain UNI, and T. vorax strain V/sub 2/S, representing the 3 main groups of Tetrahymena species, were used; however the method should apply to other ciliates. Growth on the surface of the agar was facilitated by an optimal surface-to-volume ratio yielding a high density of ciliates and short generation times. At the highest density achieved, the cells became irregularly hexagonal and formed a monolayer tissue on the agar. Ciliates grown on agar were like those in liquid culture, typical oral ciliature, food-vacuole formation, and typical cortical patterns being retained. Advantages of this method include high cell density, easy recovery, and optimal O/sub 2/ supply. The organisms can also be cultivated on the surface of sterile cellulose-nitrate filters, facilitating in situ fixation and staining as well as transfer into different media by transfer of filters with cells, without prior centrifugation and resuspension.

  14. AxBAxB… pulsed atomic layer deposition: Numerical growth model and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneshwar, Triratna; Cadien, Ken

    2016-02-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is widely used for the fabrication of advanced semiconductor devices and related nanoscale structures. During ALD, large precursor doses (>1000 L per pulse) are often required to achieve surface saturation, of which only a small fraction is utilized in film growth while the rest is pumped from the system. Since the metal precursor constitutes a significant cost of ALD, strategies to enhance precursor utilization are essential for the scaling of ALD processes. In the precursor reaction step, precursor physisorption is restricted by steric hindrance (mA1) from ligands on the precursor molecules. On reaction, some of these ligands are removed as by-products resulting in chemisorbed species with reduced steric hindrance (mA1 → mA2, where mA2 < mA1) and some of the initially hindered surface reaction sites becoming accessible for further precursor physisorption. To utilize these additional reaction sites, we propose a generalized AxBAxB… pulsed deposition where the total precursor dose (ΦA) is introduced as multiple x (x > 1, x ∈ I) short-pulses rather than a single pulse. A numerical first-order surface reaction kinetics growth model is presented and applied to study the effect of AxBAxB… pulsed ALD on the growth per cycle (GPC). The model calculations predict higher GPC for AxBAxB… pulsing than with ABAB… deposition. In agreement with the model predictions, with AxBAxB… pulsed deposition, the GPC was found to increase by ˜46% for ZrN plasma enhanced ALD (PEALD), ˜49% for HfO2 PEALD, and ˜8% for thermal Al2O3 ALD with respect to conventional ABAB… pulsed growth.

  15. Analytical solution of Luedeking-Piret equation for a batch fermentation obeying Monod growth kinetics.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Alain; Gaillet, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Not so many fermentation mathematical models allow analytical solutions of batch process dynamics. The most widely used is the combination of the logistic microbial growth kinetics with Luedeking-Piret bioproduct synthesis relation. However, the logistic equation is principally based on formalistic similarities and only fits a limited range of fermentation types. In this article, we have developed an analytical solution for the combination of Monod growth kinetics with Luedeking-Piret relation, which can be identified by linear regression and used to simulate batch fermentation evolution. Two classical examples are used to show the quality of fit and the simplicity of the method proposed. A solution for the combination of Haldane substrate-limited growth model combined with Luedeking-Piret relation is also provided. These models could prove useful for the analysis of fermentation data in industry as well as academia.

  16. Bi-layer kinetic inductance detectors for space observations between 80-120 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, A.; Goupy, J.; le Sueur, H.; Benoit, A.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; D'addabbo, A.; Dumoulin, L.; Levy-Bertrand, F.; Macías-Pérez, J.; Marnieros, S.; Ponthieu, N.; Monfardini, A.

    2015-08-01

    We have developed lumped element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) that are sensitive in the frequency band from 80 to 120 GHz. In this work, we take advantage of the so-called proximity effect to reduce the superconducting gap of aluminium (Al), otherwise strongly suppressing the LEKID response for frequencies smaller than 100 GHz. We designed, produced, and optically tested various fully multiplexed arrays based on multi-layer combinations of Al and titanium (Ti). Their sensitivities were measured using a dedicated closed-circle 100 mK dilution cryostat and a sky simulator, which allowed us to reproduce realistic observation conditions. The spectral response was characterised with a Martin-Puplett interferometer up to THz frequencies and had a resolution of 3 GHz. We demonstrate that Ti-Al LEKID can reach an optical sensitivity of about 1.4 × 10-17 W/Hz0.5 (best pixel), or 2.2 × 10-17 W/Hz0.5 when averaged over the whole array. The optical background was set to roughly 0.4 pW per pixel, which is typical for future space observatories in this particular band. The performance is close to a sensitivity of twice the CMB photon noise limit at 100 GHz, which drove the design of the Planck HFI instrument. This figure remains the baseline for the next generation of millimetre-wave space satellites.

  17. Recyclable Mg-Al layered double hydroxides for fluoride removal: Kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomohito; Oba, Jumpei; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-12-30

    Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) intercalated with NO3(-) (NO3 · Mg-Al LDH) and Cl(-) (Cl · Mg-Al LDH) were found to adsorb fluoride from aqueous solutions. Fluoride is removed by anion exchange in solution with NO3(-) and Cl(-) intercalated in the LDH interlayer. In both cases, the residual F concentration is lower than the effluent standards for F in Japan (8 mg/L). The rate-determining step in the removal of F using NO3 · Mg-Al and Cl · Mg-Al LDH is chemical adsorption involving F(-) anion exchange with intercalated NO3(-) and Cl(-) ions. The removal of F is described by pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics, with Langmuir-type adsorption. The values obtained for the maximum adsorption and the equilibrium adsorption constant are respectively 3.3 mmol g(-1) and 2.8 with NO3 · Mg-Al LDH, and 3.2 mmol g(-1) and 1.5 with Cl · Mg-Al LDH. The F in the F · Mg-Al LDH produced in these reactions was found to exchange with NO3(-) and Cl(-) ions in solution. The regenerated NO3 · Mg-Al and Cl · Mg-Al LDHs thus obtained can be used once more to capture aqueous F. This suggests that NO3 · Mg-Al and Cl · Mg-Al LDHs can be recycled and used repeatedly for F removal.

  18. Kinetic characteristics and modelling of growth and substrate removal by Alcaligenes faecalis strain NR.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Zhao, Bin; An, Qiang; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2016-04-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis strain NR has the capability of simultaneous ammonium and organic carbon removal under sole aerobic conditions. The growth and substrate removal characteristics of A. faecalis strain NR were studied and appropriate kinetic models were developed. The maximum substrate removal rate of NH4 (+)-N and TOC were determined as 2.27 mg NH4 (+)-N/L/h and 30.00 mg TOC/L/h, respectively with initial NH4 (+)-N = 80 mg/L and TOC = 800 mg/L. Single-substrate models and double-substrate models based on Monod, Contois, Moser and Teissier were employed to describe the bioprocess kinetic coefficients. As a result, two double-substrate models, Teissier-Contois and Contois-Contois, were considered to be appropriate to model growth kinetics with both NH4 (+)-N and TOC as limiting substrates. The kinetic constants of maximum growth rate (μ max) and half-saturation constant (K S and B S) were obtained by solving multiple equations with regression. This work can be used to further understand and predict the performance of heterotrophic nitrifiers, and thus provides specific guidance of these functional strains in practical wastewater treatment process.

  19. In vivo imaging reveals sigmoidal growth kinetic of β-amyloid plaques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease is the deposition of amyloid plaques in the brains of affected individuals. Amyloid plaques mainly consist of fibrillar β-amyloid, which is a cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein. The amyloid-cascade-hypothesis postulates Aβ accumulation as the central event in initiating a toxic cascade leading to Alzheimer’s disease pathology and, ultimately, loss of cognitive function. We studied the kinetics of β-amyloid deposition in Tg2576 mice, which overexpress human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation. Utilizing long-term two-photon imaging we were able to observe the entire kinetics of plaque growth in vivo. Essentially, we observed that plaque growth follows a sigmoid-shaped curve comprising a cubic growth phase, followed by saturation. In contrast, plaque density kinetics exhibited an asymptotic progression. Taking into account the fact that a critical concentration of Aβ is required to seed new plaques, we can propose the following kinetic model of β-amyloid deposition in vivo. In the early cubic phase, plaque growth is not limited by Aβ concentration and plaque density increases very fast. During the transition phase, plaque density stabilizes whereas plaque volume increases strongly reflecting a robust growth of the plaques. In the late asymptotic phase, Aβ peptide production becomes rate-limiting for plaque growth. In conclusion, the present study offers a direct link between in vitro and in vivo studies facilitating the translation of Aβ-lowering strategies from laboratory models to patients. PMID:24678659

  20. Characterization of Cu buffer layers for growth of L10-FeNi thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuguchi, M.; Sekiya, S.; Takanashi, K.

    2010-05-01

    A Cu(001) layer was fabricated on a Au(001) layer to investigate the use of Cu as a buffer layer for growing L10-FeNi thin films. The epitaxial growth of a Cu buffer layer was observed using reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The flatness of the layer improved drastically with an increase in the substrate temperature although the layer was an alloy (AuCu3). An FeNi thin film was epitaxially grown on the AuCu3 buffer layer by alternate monatomic layer deposition and the formation of an L10-FeNi ordered alloy was expected. The AuCu3 buffer layer is thus a promising candidate material for the growth of L10-FeNi thin films.

  1. Kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle growth; focusing and de-focusing of size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koolyk, Miriam; Amgar, Daniel; Aharon, Sigalit; Etgar, Lioz

    2016-03-01

    In this work we study the kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle (NP) growth; the focusing and de-focusing of the NP size distribution. Cesium lead halide perovskite NPs are considered to be attractive materials for optoelectronic applications. Understanding the kinetics of the formation of these all-inorganic perovskite NPs is critical for reproducibly and reliably generating large amounts of uniformly sized NPs. Here we investigate different growth durations for CsPbI3 and CsPbBr3 NPs, tracking their growth by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and size distribution analysis. As a result, we are able to provide a detailed model for the kinetics of their growth. It was observed that the CsPbI3 NPs exhibit focusing of the size distribution in the first 20 seconds of growth, followed by de-focusing over longer growth durations, while the CsPbBr3 NPs show de-focusing of the size distribution starting from the beginning of the growth. The monomer concentration is depleted faster in the case of CsPbBr3 than in the case of CsPbI3, due to faster diffusion of the monomers, which increases the critical radius and results in de-focusing of the population. Accordingly, focusing is not observed within 40 seconds of growth in the case of CsPbBr3. This study provides important knowledge on how to achieve a narrow size distribution of cesium lead halide perovskite NPs when generating large amounts of these promising, highly luminescent NPs.In this work we study the kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle (NP) growth; the focusing and de-focusing of the NP size distribution. Cesium lead halide perovskite NPs are considered to be attractive materials for optoelectronic applications. Understanding the kinetics of the formation of these all-inorganic perovskite NPs is critical for reproducibly and reliably generating large amounts of uniformly sized NPs. Here we investigate different growth durations for CsPbI3 and CsPbBr3 NPs, tracking

  2. Diffusivity in turbulent fluid containing two dominant scales, and compressible shear layer according to a kinetic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    The solution of the two nonequilibrium-degree kinetic equation was first determined for the effective length scale and turbulence energy for a spatially homogeneous turbulence field with two characteristic length scales, where the source for one family of eddies exists. This solution was applied to the evaluation of the eddy diffusivity in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. The result was compared with another existing solution. This was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining an effective length-scale equation within the context of the kinetic theory. A formulation and partial solution of the compressible plane shear layer are also presented.

  3. Kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle growth; focusing and de-focusing of size distribution.

    PubMed

    Koolyk, Miriam; Amgar, Daniel; Aharon, Sigalit; Etgar, Lioz

    2016-03-28

    In this work we study the kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle (NP) growth; the focusing and de-focusing of the NP size distribution. Cesium lead halide perovskite NPs are considered to be attractive materials for optoelectronic applications. Understanding the kinetics of the formation of these all-inorganic perovskite NPs is critical for reproducibly and reliably generating large amounts of uniformly sized NPs. Here we investigate different growth durations for CsPbI3 and CsPbBr3 NPs, tracking their growth by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and size distribution analysis. As a result, we are able to provide a detailed model for the kinetics of their growth. It was observed that the CsPbI3 NPs exhibit focusing of the size distribution in the first 20 seconds of growth, followed by de-focusing over longer growth durations, while the CsPbBr3 NPs show de-focusing of the size distribution starting from the beginning of the growth. The monomer concentration is depleted faster in the case of CsPbBr3 than in the case of CsPbI3, due to faster diffusion of the monomers, which increases the critical radius and results in de-focusing of the population. Accordingly, focusing is not observed within 40 seconds of growth in the case of CsPbBr3. This study provides important knowledge on how to achieve a narrow size distribution of cesium lead halide perovskite NPs when generating large amounts of these promising, highly luminescent NPs.

  4. Edge-controlled growth and kinetics of single-crystal graphene domains by chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Teng; Ren, Wencai; Zhang, Xiuyun; Liu, Zhibo; Gao, Yang; Yin, Li-Chang; Ma, Xiu-Liang; Ding, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2013-12-17

    The controlled growth of large-area, high-quality, single-crystal graphene is highly desired for applications in electronics and optoelectronics; however, the production of this material remains challenging because the atomistic mechanism that governs graphene growth is not well understood. The edges of graphene, which are the sites at which carbon accumulates in the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, influence many properties, including the electronic properties and chemical reactivity of graphene, and they are expected to significantly influence its growth. We demonstrate the growth of single-crystal graphene domains with controlled edges that range from zigzag to armchair orientations via growth-etching-regrowth in a chemical vapor deposition process. We have observed that both the growth and the etching rates of a single-crystal graphene domain increase linearly with the slanted angle of its edges from 0° to ∼19° and that the rates for an armchair edge are faster than those for a zigzag edge. Such edge-structure-dependent growth/etching kinetics of graphene can be well explained at the atomic level based on the concentrations of the kinks on various edges and allow the evolution and control of the edge and morphology in single-crystal graphene following the classical kinetic Wulff construction theory. Using these findings, we propose several strategies for the fabrication of wafer-sized, high-quality, single-crystal graphene.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of the kinetic effects on GaAs/GaAs(001) MBE growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, Oleg A.; Solodovnik, Maxim S.; Balakirev, Sergey V.; Mikhaylin, Ilya A.; Eremenko, Mikhail M.

    2017-01-01

    The molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaAs on the GaAs(001)-(2×4) surface is investigated using a kinetic Monte Carlo-based method. The developed algorithm permits to focus on the kinetic effects in a wide range of growth conditions and enables considerable computational speedup. The simulation results show that the growth rate has a dramatic influence upon both the island morphology and Ga surface diffusion length. The average island size reduces with increasing growth rate while the island density increases with increasing growth rate as well as As4/Ga beam equivalent pressure ratio. As the growth rate increases, the island density becomes weaker dependent upon the As4/Ga pressure ratio and approaches to a saturation value. We also discuss three characteristics of Ga surface diffusion, namely a diffusion length of a Ga adatom deposited first, an average diffusion length, and an island spacing as an average distance between islands. The calculations show that the As4/Ga pressure ratio dependences of these characteristics obey the same law, but with different coefficients. An increase of the As4/Ga pressure ratio leads to a decrease in both the diffusion length and island spacing. However, its influence becomes stronger with increasing growth rate for the first Ga adatom diffusion length and weaker for the average diffusion length and for the island spacing.

  6. A Kinetic Model for GaAs Growth by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Kevin L.; Simon, John; Jain, Nikhil; Young, David L.; Ptak, Aaron J.

    2016-11-21

    Precise control of the growth of III-V materials by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) is complicated by the fact that the growth rate depends on the concentrations of nearly all inputs to the reactor and also the reaction temperature. This behavior is in contrast to metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), which in common practice operates in a mass transport limited regime where growth rate and alloy composition are controlled almost exclusively by flow of the Group III precursor. In HVPE, the growth rate and alloy compositions are very sensitive to temperature and reactant concentrations, which are strong functions of the reactor geometry. HVPE growth, particularly the growth of large area materials and devices, will benefit from the development of a growth model that can eventually be coupled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a specific reactor geometry. In this work, we develop a growth rate law using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) analysis, fitting unknown parameters to growth rate data from the literature that captures the relevant kinetic and thermodynamic phenomena of the HVPE process. We compare the L-H rate law to growth rate data from our custom HVPE reactor, and develop quantitative insight into reactor performance, demonstrating the utility of the growth model.

  7. Growth Kinetics of Hyphomicrobium and Thiobacillus spp. in Mixed Cultures Degrading Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanol▿

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Alexander C.; Liss, Steven N.; Allen, D. Grant

    2010-01-01

    The growth kinetics of Hyphomicrobium spp. and Thiobacillus spp. on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methanol (in the case of Hyphomicrobium spp.) in an enrichment culture created from a biofilter cotreating DMS and methanol were studied. Specific growth rates of 0.099 h−1 and 0.11 h−1 were determined for Hyphomicrobium spp. and Thiobacillus spp., respectively, growing on DMS at pH 7. These specific growth rates are double the highest maximum specific growth rate for bacterial growth on DMS reported to date in the literature. When the pH of the medium was decreased from pH 7 to pH 5, the specific growth rate of Hyphomicrobium spp. decreased by 85%, with a near 100-fold decline in the yield of Hyphomicrobium 16S rRNA gene copies in the mixed culture. Through the same pH shift, the specific growth rate and 16S rRNA gene yield of Thiobacillus spp. remained similar. When methanol was used as a substrate, the specific growth rate of Hyphomicrobium spp. declined much less over the same pH range (up to 30%) while the yield of 16S rRNA gene copies declined by only 50%. Switching from an NH4+-N-based source to a NO3−-N-based source resulted in the same trends for the specific growth rate of these microorganisms with respect to pH. This suggests that pH has far more impact on the growth kinetics of these microorganisms than the nitrogen source. The results of these mixed-culture batch experiments indicate that the increased DMS removal rates observed in previous studies of biofilters cotreating DMS and methanol are due to the proliferation of DMS-degrading Hyphomicrobium spp. on methanol at pH levels not conducive to high growth rates on DMS alone. PMID:20562269

  8. Growth kinetics of Hyphomicrobium and Thiobacillus spp. in mixed cultures degrading dimethyl sulfide and methanol.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Alexander C; Liss, Steven N; Allen, D Grant

    2010-08-01

    The growth kinetics of Hyphomicrobium spp. and Thiobacillus spp. on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methanol (in the case of Hyphomicrobium spp.) in an enrichment culture created from a biofilter cotreating DMS and methanol were studied. Specific growth rates of 0.099 h(-1) and 0.11 h(-1) were determined for Hyphomicrobium spp. and Thiobacillus spp., respectively, growing on DMS at pH 7. These specific growth rates are double the highest maximum specific growth rate for bacterial growth on DMS reported to date in the literature. When the pH of the medium was decreased from pH 7 to pH 5, the specific growth rate of Hyphomicrobium spp. decreased by 85%, with a near 100-fold decline in the yield of Hyphomicrobium 16S rRNA gene copies in the mixed culture. Through the same pH shift, the specific growth rate and 16S rRNA gene yield of Thiobacillus spp. remained similar. When methanol was used as a substrate, the specific growth rate of Hyphomicrobium spp. declined much less over the same pH range (up to 30%) while the yield of 16S rRNA gene copies declined by only 50%. Switching from an NH(4)(+)-N-based source to a NO(3)(-)-N-based source resulted in the same trends for the specific growth rate of these microorganisms with respect to pH. This suggests that pH has far more impact on the growth kinetics of these microorganisms than the nitrogen source. The results of these mixed-culture batch experiments indicate that the increased DMS removal rates observed in previous studies of biofilters cotreating DMS and methanol are due to the proliferation of DMS-degrading Hyphomicrobium spp. on methanol at pH levels not conducive to high growth rates on DMS alone.

  9. Kinetics of grain-growth in wadsleyite: implications for point defect chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Y.; Shinmei, T.; Karato, S.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the kinetics of grain-growth in wadsleyite for two reasons. First, grain-growth kinetics controls the grain-size of wadsleyite in the mantle transition zone which in turn controls the rheology in that region. Second, the detailed knowledge of grain-growth kinetics will provide us with important constraints on the defect-related properties of this mineral which may control other properties such as diffusion, electrical conductivity and creep. We carried out the grain-growth experiments by using KIWI 1000-ton Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus installed at Yale University. Starting material was synthesized from powdered San Carlos olivine. The grain-growth experiments were conducted at 15 GPa and 1100-1500° C for 1-24 hours. We used Mo, Ni and Re foil capsules, in order to control the oxygen fugacity by metal-oxide buffer. For ''wet'' experiments (water-saturated), a mixture of talc and brucite was packed into a capsule together with a wadsleyite sample separated by metal foils. We used a Au-Pd outer capsule which is known to be a good barrier for hydrogen diffusion. Water content in each sample was determined after an experiment by FTIR analysis of a doubly polished thin section. Grain-size was measured on a polished section using an intercept method. One of the difficulties in these experiments is to reduce the amount of water in wadsleyite. Even in nominally ''dry'' experiments in which no water is added, a significant amount of water (upto ˜25,000 H/106 Si) was detected, which comes presumably from some components in the sample assembly such as the cement. This water-uptake by wadsleyite can be minimized by surrounding it with a Au-Pd capsule. In this truly ''dry'' sample assembly, the water content of wadsleyite (after an experiment) is reduced to less than ˜100 H/106 Si, a water content similar to typical ''dry'' experiments on olivine. Compared at similar water content, the kinetics of grain-growth in wadsleyite is significantly slower than

  10. Size-Selective Cu Nanocrystals Growth on Single and 2-3 Layers Graphene Films.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Yunfei; Guo, Haijie; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-09-01

    Cu nanoparticles decorated CVD growth single layer and 2-3 layers graphene films have been synthesized by sputtering deposition and annealing process. The wrinkles were observed on single layer graphene due to high annealing temperature (700 degrees C) and rapid cooling process, which were proved by HRSEM and Raman spectra. Smaller mean diameter and narrower size distribution of Cu nanoparticles were observed on 2-3 layers graphene film than that on single layer graphene. The large particles grow at the expense of small particles, and the particle growth was governed by the Ostwald ripening process.

  11. Growth Of Delta-Doped Layer On Silicon CCD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E.; Grunthaner, Paula J.; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Terhune, Robert W.; Hecht, Michael H.

    1995-01-01

    Response to ultraviolet light enhanced. Back-side-illuminated silicon charge-coupled device fabricated exhibiting nearly 100 percent internal quantum efficiency in near ultraviolet, by using molecular beam epitaxy to grow thin crystalline-silicon layer containing high concentration of boron (p-type dopant). By confining dopant atoms to one or few atomic layers in silicon lattice, concentration-vs.-depth profile made to resemble Dirac delta function, and resulting silicon layer said to be "delta-doped."

  12. A kinetic model to simulate protein crystal growth in an evaporation-based crystallization platform

    SciTech Connect

    Talreja, S.; Kenis, P; Zukoski, C

    2007-01-01

    The quality, size, and number of protein crystals grown under conditions of continuous solvent extraction are dependent on the rate of solvent extraction and the initial protein and salt concentration. An increase in the rate of solvent extraction leads to a larger number of crystals. The number of crystals decreases, however, when the experiment is started with an initial protein concentration that is closer to the solubility boundary. Here we develop a kinetic model capable of predicting changes in the number and size of protein crystals as a function of time under continuous evaporation. Moreover, this model successfully predicts the initial condition of drops that will result in gel formation. We test this model with experimental crystal growth data of hen egg white lysozyme for which crystal nucleation and growth rate parameters are known from other studies. The predicted and observed rates of crystal growth are in excellent agreement, which suggests that kinetic constants for nucleation and crystal growth for different proteins can be extracted by applying a kinetic model in combination with observations from a few evaporation-based crystallization experiments.

  13. Kinetics of Vapor-Solid Phase Transitions: Structure, Growth, and Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midya, Jiarul; Das, Subir K.

    2017-04-01

    The kinetics of the separation between low and high density phases in a single component Lennard-Jones model is studied via molecular dynamics simulations, at very low temperatures, in the space dimension d =2 . For densities close to the vapor branch of the coexistence curve, disconnected nanoscale clusters of the high density phase exhibit essentially ballistic motion. Starting from nearly circular shapes, at the time of nucleation, these clusters grow via sticky collisions, gaining filamentlike nonequilibrium structure at a later time, with a very low fractal dimensionality. The origin of the latter is shown to lie in the low mobility of the constituent particles, in the corresponding cluster reference frame, due to the (quasi-long-range) crystalline order. Standard self-similarity in the domain pattern, typically observed in the kinetics of phase transitions, is found to be absent. This invalidates the common method, that provides a growth law comparable to that in solid mixtures, of quantifying growth. An appropriate alternative approach, involving the fractality, quantifies the growth of the characteristic "length" to be a power law with time, the exponent being strongly temperature dependent. The observed growth law is in agreement with the outcome of a nonequilibrium kinetic theory.

  14. Kinetics of growth and caffeine demethylase production of Pseudomonas sp. in bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N; Santhosh, Devarai

    2010-09-01

    The effect of various initial caffeine concentrations on growth and caffeine demethylase production by Pseudomonas sp. was studied in bioreactor. At initial concentration of 6.5 g l(-1) caffeine, Pseudomonas sp. showed a maximum specific growth rate of 0.2 h(-1), maximum degradation rate of 1.1 g h(-1), and caffeine demethylase activity of 18,762 U g CDW(-1) (CDW: cell dry weight). Caffeine degradation rate was 25 times higher in bioreactor than in shake flask. For the first time, we show highest degradation of 75 g caffeine (initial concentration 20 g l(-1)) in 120 h, suggesting that the tested strain has potential for successful bioprocess for caffeine degradation. Growth kinetics showed substrate inhibition phenomenon. Various substrate inhibition models were fitted to the kinetic data, amongst which the double-exponential (R(2) = 0.94), Luong (R(2) = 0.92), and Yano and Koga 2 (R(2) = 0.94) models were found to be the best. The Luedeking-Piret model showed that caffeine demethylase production kinetics was growth related. This is the first report on production of high levels of caffeine demethylase in batch bioreactor with faster degradation rate and high tolerance to caffeine, hence clearly suggesting that Pseudomonas sp. used in this study is a potential biocatalyst for industrial decaffeination.

  15. Electron molecular beam epitaxy: Layer-by-layer growth of complex oxides via pulsed electron-beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Comes, Ryan; Liu Hongxue; Lu Jiwei; Gu, Man; Khokhlov, Mikhail; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2013-01-14

    Complex oxide epitaxial film growth is a rich and exciting field, owing to the wide variety of physical properties present in oxides. These properties include ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, spin-polarization, and a variety of other correlated phenomena. Traditionally, high quality epitaxial oxide films have been grown via oxide molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition. Here, we present the growth of high quality epitaxial films using an alternative approach, the pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. We demonstrate all three epitaxial growth modes in different oxide systems: Frank-van der Merwe (layer-by-layer); Stranski-Krastanov (layer-then-island); and Volmer-Weber (island). Analysis of film quality and morphology is presented and techniques to optimize the morphology of films are discussed.

  16. Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth and Characterization of Thin Layers of Semiconductor Tin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    heating. The α-Sn layers were also characterized with high-resolution X-ray diffraction, Hall, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements...ARL-TR-7838 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth and Characterization of Thin Layers of...Laboratory Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth and Characterization of Thin Layers of Semiconductor Tin by P Folkes, P Taylor, C Rong, B Nichols

  17. Division Cycle of Myxococcus xanthus III. Kinetics of Cell Growth and Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zusman, David; Gottlieb, Peter; Rosenberg, Eugene

    1971-01-01

    The kinetics of cell growth and protein synthesis during the division cycle of Myxococcus xanthus was determined. The distribution of cell size for both septated and nonseptated bacteria was obtained by direct measurement of the lengths of 8,000 cells. The Collins-Richmond equation was modified to consider bacterial growth in two phases: growth and division. From the derived equation, the growth rate of individual cells was computed as a function of size. Nondividing cells (growth phase) comprised 91% of the population and took up 87% of the time of the division cycle. The absolute and specific growth rates of nondividing cells were observed to increase continually throughout the growth phase; the growth rate of dividing cells could not be determined accurately by this technique because of changes in the geometry of cells between the time of septation and physical separation. The rate of protein synthesis during the division cycle was measured by pulselabeling an exponential-phase culture with radio-active valine or arginine and then preparing the cells for quantitative autoradiography. By measuring the size of individual cells as well as the number of grains, the rate of protein synthesis as a function of cell size was obtained. Nondividing cells showed an increase in both the absolute and specific rates of protein synthesis throughout the growth phase; the specific rate of protein synthesis for dividing cells was low when compared to growthphase cells. Cell growth and protein synthesis are compared to the previously reported kinetics of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid synthesis during the division cycle. PMID:4926683

  18. Dissecting seed dormancy and germination in Aquilegia barbaricina, through thermal kinetics of embryo growth.

    PubMed

    Porceddu, M; Mattana, E; Pritchard, H W; Bacchetta, G

    2017-08-01

    Threshold-based thermal time models provide insight into the physiological switch from the dormant to the non-dormant germinating seed. This approach was used to quantify the different growth responses of the embryo of seeds purported to have morphophysiological dormancy (MPD) through the complex phases of dormancy release and germination. Aquilegia barbaricina seeds were incubated at constant temperatures (10-25 °C) and 25/10 °C, without pre-treatment, after warm+cold stratification (W+C) and GA3 treatment. Embryo growth was assessed and the time of testa and endosperm rupture scored. Base temperatures (Tb ) and thermal times for 50% (θ50 ) of embryo growth and seed germination were calculated. W+C enabled slow embryo growth. W+C and GA3 promoted rapid embryo growth and subsequent radicle emergence. The embryo internal growth base temperature (Tbe ) was ca. 5 °C for W+C and GA3 -treated seeds. GA3 treatment also resulted in similar Tb estimates for radicle emergence. The thermal times for embryo growth (θe50 ) and germination (θg50 ) were four- to six-fold longer in the presence of GA3 compared to W+C. A. barbaricina is characterised by a multi-step seed germination. The slow embryo growth during W+C reflects continuation of the maternal programme of development, whilst the thermal kinetics of both embryo and radicle growth after the removal of physiological dormancy are distinctly different. The effects of W+C on the multiphasic germination response in MPD seeds are only partially mimicked by 250 mg·l(-1) GA3 . The thermal time approach could be a valid tool to model thermal kinetics of embryo growth and radicle protrusion. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana root growth kinetics with high temporal and spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Fisahn, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Background Methods exist to quantify the distribution of growth rate over the root axis. However, non-destructive, high-throughput evaluations of total root elongation in controlled environments and the field are lacking in growth studies. A new imaging approach to analyse total root elongation is described. Scope High pixel resolution of the images enables the study of growth in short time intervals and provides high temporal resolution. Using the method described, total root elongation rates are calculated from the displacement of the root tip. Although the absolute root elongation rate changes in response to growth conditions, this set-up enables root growth of Arabidopsis wild-type seedlings to be followed for more than 1 month after germination. The method provides an easy approach to decipher root extension rate and much simpler calculations compared with other methods that use segmental growth to address this question. Conclusions The high temporal resolution allows small modifications of total root elongation growth to be revealed. Furthermore, with the options to investigate growth of various mutants in diverse growth conditions the present tool allows modulations in root growth kinetics due to different biotic and abiotic stimuli to be unravelled. Measurements performed on Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (Col0) plants revealed rhythms superimposed on root elongation. Results obtained from the starchless mutant pgm, however, present a clearly modified pattern. As expected, deviation is strongest during the dark period. PMID:20421235

  20. Growth kinetics and island evolution during double-pulsed molecular beam epitaxy of InN

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, A.; Hein, C.; Bremers, H.; Rossow, U.; Hangleiter, A.

    2016-06-21

    The kinetic processes of InN growth using alternating source fluxes with sub-monolayer In pulses in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated. Growth at various temperatures reveals the existence of two growth regimes. While growth at low temperatures is solely governed by surface diffusion, a combination of decomposition, desorption, and diffusion becomes decisive at growth temperatures of 470 °C and above. At this critical temperature, the surface morphology changes from a grainy structure to a structure made of huge islands. The formation of those islands is attributed to the development of an indium adlayer, which can be observed via reflection high energy electron diffraction monitoring. Based on the growth experiments conducted at temperatures below T{sub Growth} = 470 °C, an activation energy for diffusion of 0.54 ± 0.02 eV has been determined from the decreasing InN island density. A comparison between growth on metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy GaN templates and pseudo bulk GaN indicates that step edges and dislocations are favorable nucleation sites. Based on the results, we developed a growth model, which describes the main mechanisms of the growth.

  1. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Cadmium Carbonate Heteroepitaxial Growth at the Calcite (101¯4) Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Man; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2014-06-01

    Elucidating the kinetics and mechanisms of heteroepitaxial nucleation and growth at mineral-water interfaces is essential to understanding surface reactivity in geochemical systems. In the present work, the formation of heteroepitaxial cadmium carbonate coatings at calcite-water interfaces was investigated by exposing calcite (10-14) surfaces to Cd-bearing aqueous solutions. In situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed as the primary technique. The AFM results indicate that the heteroepitaxial growth of cadmium carbonate proceeds via three different mechanisms depending on the initial supersaturation of the aqueous solution: advancement of existing steps, nucleation and growth of three-dimensional (3D) islands, and nucleation and spread of two-dimensional (2D) nuclei. The 3D islands and 2D nuclei exhibit different morphologies and growth kinetics. The effects of supersaturation on heteroepitaxial growth mechanisms can be interpreted in terms of the free energy barrier for nucleation. At low initial supersaturation, where 3D nucleation dominates, it is hypothesized, from the growth rate and morphology of the 3D islands observed with AFM, that the crystallization of the overgrowth follows a non-classical pathway involving the formation of a surface precursor that is not fully crystalline, whereas high supersaturation favors the formation of crystalline 2D nuclei whose morphology is based on the atomic structure of the calcite substrate. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images reveal that the atomic structure of the interface between the cadmium carbonate coating and calcite shows perfect, dislocation-free epitaxy.

  2. Estimation of the growth kinetics for the cooling crystallisation of paracetamol and ethanol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Niall A.; Ó'Ciardhá, Clifford T.; Frawley, Patrick J.

    2011-08-01

    This work details the estimation of the growth kinetics of paracetamol in ethanol solutions for cooling crystallisation processes, by means of isothermal seeded batch experiments. The growth kinetics of paracetamol crystals were evaluated in isolation, with the growth rate assumed to be size independent. Prior knowledge of the Metastable Zone Width (MSZW) was required, so that supersaturation ratios of 1.7-1.1 could be induced in solution without the occurrence of nucleation. The technique involved the utilisation of two in-situ Process Analytical Techniques (PATs), with a Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement (FBRM ®) utilised to ensure that negligible nucleation occurred and an Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) probe employed for online monitoring of solute concentration. Initial Particle Size Distributions (PSDs) were used in conjunction with desupersaturation profiles to determine the growth rate as a function of temperature and supersaturation. Furthermore, the effects of seed loading and size on the crystal growth rate were investigated. A numerical model, incorporating the population balance equation and the method of moments, was utilised to describe the crystal growth process. Experimental parameters were compared to the model simulation, with the accuracy of the model validated by means of the final product PSDs and solute concentration.

  3. Kinetics and mechanisms of cadmium carbonate heteroepitaxial growth at the calcite (10 1bar 4) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Man; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Kerisit, Sebastien

    2014-06-01

    Elucidating the kinetics and mechanisms of heteroepitaxial nucleation and growth at mineral-water interfaces is essential to understanding surface reactivity in geochemical systems. In the present work, the formation of heteroepitaxial cadmium carbonate coatings at calcite-water interfaces was investigated by exposing calcite (10 1bar 4) surfaces to Cd-bearing aqueous solutions. In situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed as the primary technique. The AFM results indicate that the heteroepitaxial growth of cadmium carbonate proceeds via three different mechanisms depending on the initial supersaturation of the aqueous solution: advancement of existing steps, nucleation and growth of three-dimensional (3D) islands, and nucleation and spread of two-dimensional (2D) nuclei. The 3D islands and 2D nuclei exhibit different morphologies and growth kinetics. The effects of supersaturation on heteroepitaxial growth mechanisms can be interpreted in terms of the free energy barrier for nucleation. At low initial supersaturation, where 3D nucleation dominates, it is hypothesized, from the growth rate and morphology of the 3D islands observed with AFM, that the crystallization of the overgrowth follows a non-classical pathway involving the formation of a surface precursor that is not fully crystalline, whereas high supersaturation favors the formation of crystalline 2D nuclei whose morphology is based on the atomic structure of the calcite substrate. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images reveal that the atomic structure of the interface between the cadmium carbonate coating and calcite shows perfect, dislocation-free epitaxy.

  4. Catastrophic growth of gas hydrates in the presence of kinetic hydrate inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cha, Minjun; Shin, Kyuchul; Seo, Yutaek; Shin, Ju-Young; Kang, Seong-Pil

    2013-12-27

    The effect of the concentration of kinetic hydrate inhibitors, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and polyvinylcaprolactam (PVCap) on the onset and growth of synthetic natural gas hydrates is investigated by measuring the hydrate onset time and gas consumption rate. Although the hydrate onset time is extended by increasing the concentration from 0.5 to 3.0 wt % for both PVP and PVCap, the growth rate of hydrates shows that the different tendency depends on the type of kinetic hydrate inhibitor and its concentration. For PVCap solution, the hydrate growth was slow for more than 1000 min after the onset at the concentration of 0.5 and 1.5 wt %. However, the growth rate becames almost 8 times faster at the concentration of 3.0 wt %, representing the catastrophic growth of hydrate just after the hydrate onset. (13)C NMR spectra of hydrates formed at 3.0 wt % of PVP and PVCap indicate the existence of both structures I and II. Cage occupancy of methane in large cages of structure II decreases significantly when compared to that for pure water. These results suggest that increasing the concentration of KHI up to 3.0 wt % may induce the earlier appearance of catastrophic hydrate growth and the existence of metastable structure I; thus, there needs to be an upper limit for using KHI to manage the formation of gas hydrates.

  5. Quantitative nucleation and growth kinetics of gold nanoparticles via model-assisted dynamic spectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yao; Wang, Huixuan; Lin, Wenshuang; Lin, Liqin; Gao, Yixian; Yang, Feng; Du, Mingming; Fang, Weiping; Huang, Jiale; Sun, Daohua; Li, Qingbiao

    2013-10-01

    Lacking of quantitative experimental data and/or kinetic models that could mathematically depict the redox chemistry and the crystallization issue, bottom-to-up formation kinetics of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) remains a challenge. We measured the dynamic regime of GNPs synthesized by l-ascorbic acid (representing a chemical approach) and/or foliar aqueous extract (a biogenic approach) via in situ spectroscopic characterization and established a redox-crystallization model which allows quantitative and separate parameterization of the nucleation and growth processes. The main results were simplified as the following aspects: (I) an efficient approach, i.e., the dynamic in situ spectroscopic characterization assisted with the redox-crystallization model, was established for quantitative analysis of the overall formation kinetics of GNPs in solution; (II) formation of GNPs by the chemical and the biogenic approaches experienced a slow nucleation stage followed by a growth stage which behaved as a mixed-order reaction, and different from the chemical approach, the biogenic method involved heterogeneous nucleation; (III) also, biosynthesis of flaky GNPs was a kinetic-controlled process favored by relatively slow redox chemistry; and (IV) though GNPs formation consists of two aspects, namely the redox chemistry and the crystallization issue, the latter was the rate-determining event that controls the dynamic regime of the whole physicochemical process.

  6. Turbulent kinetics of a large wind farm and their impact in the neutral boundary layer

    DOE PAGES

    Na, Ji Sung; Koo, Eunmo; Munoz-Esparza, Domingo; ...

    2015-12-28

    High-resolution large-eddy simulation of the flow over a large wind farm (64 wind turbines) is performed using the HIGRAD/FIRETEC-WindBlade model, which is a high-performance computing wind turbine–atmosphere interaction model that uses the Lagrangian actuator line method to represent rotating turbine blades. These high-resolution large-eddy simulation results are used to parameterize the thrust and power coefficients that contain information about turbine interference effects within the wind farm. Those coefficients are then incorporated into the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model in order to evaluate interference effects in larger-scale models. In the high-resolution WindBlade wind farm simulation, insufficient distance between turbines createsmore » the interference between turbines, including significant vertical variations in momentum and turbulent intensity. The characteristics of the wake are further investigated by analyzing the distribution of the vorticity and turbulent intensity. Quadrant analysis in the turbine and post-turbine areas reveals that the ejection motion induced by the presence of the wind turbines is dominant compared to that in the other quadrants, indicating that the sweep motion is increased at the location where strong wake recovery occurs. Regional-scale WRF simulations reveal that although the turbulent mixing induced by the wind farm is partly diffused to the upper region, there is no significant change in the boundary layer depth. The velocity deficit does not appear to be very sensitive to the local distribution of turbine coefficients. However, differences of about 5% on parameterized turbulent kinetic energy were found depending on the turbine coefficient distribution. Furthermore, turbine coefficients that consider interference in the wind farm should be used in wind farm parameterization for larger-scale models to better describe sub-grid scale turbulent processes.« less

  7. Turbulent kinetics of a large wind farm and their impact in the neutral boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Ji Sung; Koo, Eunmo; Munoz-Esparza, Domingo; Jin, Emilia Kyung; Linn, Rodman; Lee, Joon Sang

    2015-12-28

    High-resolution large-eddy simulation of the flow over a large wind farm (64 wind turbines) is performed using the HIGRAD/FIRETEC-WindBlade model, which is a high-performance computing wind turbine–atmosphere interaction model that uses the Lagrangian actuator line method to represent rotating turbine blades. These high-resolution large-eddy simulation results are used to parameterize the thrust and power coefficients that contain information about turbine interference effects within the wind farm. Those coefficients are then incorporated into the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model in order to evaluate interference effects in larger-scale models. In the high-resolution WindBlade wind farm simulation, insufficient distance between turbines creates the interference between turbines, including significant vertical variations in momentum and turbulent intensity. The characteristics of the wake are further investigated by analyzing the distribution of the vorticity and turbulent intensity. Quadrant analysis in the turbine and post-turbine areas reveals that the ejection motion induced by the presence of the wind turbines is dominant compared to that in the other quadrants, indicating that the sweep motion is increased at the location where strong wake recovery occurs. Regional-scale WRF simulations reveal that although the turbulent mixing induced by the wind farm is partly diffused to the upper region, there is no significant change in the boundary layer depth. The velocity deficit does not appear to be very sensitive to the local distribution of turbine coefficients. However, differences of about 5% on parameterized turbulent kinetic energy were found depending on the turbine coefficient distribution. Furthermore, turbine coefficients that consider interference in the wind farm should be used in wind farm parameterization for larger-scale models to better describe sub-grid scale turbulent processes.

  8. Kinetics of dust particles around the scrape off layer in fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S.

    2014-05-01

    A kinetic model based on the balance of charge and energy over the dust particle surface around the scrape off layer (SOL) region in fusion devices has been developed; for describing the dust mass diminution, its temperature evolution and phase change process have been taken into account. The formulation has been utilized to determine the lifetime of cylindrical and spherical dust particles. A realistic situation in fusion devices, when the plasma exhibits meso-thermal flow, has been taken into account; for this purpose a rigorous approach, pioneered by Mott-Smith and Langmuir (1926 Phys. Rev. 28 727), has been adopted to derive the general expressions for the electron (ion) current on cylindrical dust surfaces and the corresponding mean energy of accreting electrons/ions in a flowing plasma. On the basis of analytical modelling the numerical results for the dust electric potential energy and the lifetime of the dust particles corresponding to a typical plasma environment near the SOL region of Mega Ampere Spherical tokamak (MAST)/Joint European Torus (JET) fusion devices have been evaluated for graphite and tungsten dust particles. The results are graphically illustrated as functions of particle size, electron/ion temperature and plasma ionization. It is seen that a large dust particle immersed in low temperature plasma can survive for long time; as an important outcome it is also noticed that the cylindrical particles of tungsten last longer than spherical particles. The findings are of relevance in characterizing and simulating the effects of a variety of dusts for experimental campaigns in large scale (ITER/Demo-like) fusion devices.

  9. Structure and kinetics of formation of interphase layers of synthetic fatty acid aluminum soap at the water/oil interface

    SciTech Connect

    Chalykh, A.E.; Matveev, V.V.; Mityuk, D.Y.; Shal't, S.Y.; Tarasevich, B.N.

    1986-02-01

    The authors investigate the kinetics of formation of interphase layers (IL) at the interface between the phases: a 0.15% solution of aluminum soap of synthetic fatty acids (SFA) (fraction C/sub 17/-C/sub 21/) in n-decane/distilled water. The structure and the morphological properties of IL were investigated by transmission electron spectroscopy. The electron micrographs of the interphase layer of the soap at different stages of its formation show that the formation of a new phase starts with the appearance of small dispersed particles with spherical and fibrillar shapes. The results obtained supplement the authors' concepts about the mechanism of spontaneous microemulsification.

  10. Stepwise crystallization and the layered distribution in crystallization kinetics of ultra-thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Biao; Xu, Jianquan; Sun, Shuzheng; Liu, Yue; Yang, Juping; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xinping

    2016-06-01

    Crystallization is an important property of polymeric materials. In conventional viewpoint, the transformation of disordered chains into crystals is usually a spatially homogeneous process (i.e., it occurs simultaneously throughout the sample), that is, the crystallization rate at each local position within the sample is almost the same. Here, we show that crystallization of ultra-thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films can occur in the heterogeneous way, exhibiting a stepwise crystallization process. We found that the layered distribution of glass transition dynamics of thin film modifies the corresponding crystallization behavior, giving rise to the layered distribution of the crystallization kinetics of PET films, with an 11-nm-thick surface layer having faster crystallization rate and the underlying layer showing bulk-like behavior. The layered distribution in crystallization kinetics results in a particular stepwise crystallization behavior during heating the sample, with the two cold-crystallization temperatures separated by up to 20 K. Meanwhile, interfacial interaction is crucial for the occurrence of the heterogeneous crystallization, as the thin film crystallizes simultaneously if the interfacial interaction is relatively strong. We anticipate that this mechanism of stepwise crystallization of thin polymeric films will allow new insight into the chain organization in confined environments and permit independent manipulation of localized properties of nanomaterials.

  11. A two Turbulence Kinetic Energy model as a scale-adaptive approach to modeling the planetary boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Ritthik; Stevens, Bjorn

    2016-03-01

    A two Turbulence Kinetic Energy (2TKE) model is developed to address the boundary layer "grey zone" problem. The model combines ideas from local and nonlocal models into a single energetically consistent framework. By applying the Reynolds averaging to the large eddy simulation (LES) equations that employ Deardorff's subgrid TKE, we arrive at a system of equations for the boundary layer quantities and two turbulence kinetic energies: one which encapsulates the TKE of large boundary-layer-scale eddies and another which represents the energy of eddies subgrid to the vertical grid size of a typical large-scale model. These two energies are linked via the turbulent cascade of energy from larger to smaller scales and are used to model the mixing in the boundary layer. The model is evaluated for three dry test cases and found to compare favorably to large eddy simulations. The usage of two TKEs for mixing helps reduce the dependency of the model on the vertical grid scale as well as on the free tropospheric stability and facilitates a smoother transition from convective to stable regimes. The usage of two TKEs representing two ranges of scales satisfies the prerequisite for modeling the boundary layer in the "grey zone": an idea that is explored further in a companion paper.

  12. Semirigorous synchronous sublattice algorithm for parallel kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of thin film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Yunsic; Amar, Jacques G.

    2005-03-01

    The standard kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm is an extremely efficient method to carry out serial simulations of dynamical processes such as thin film growth. However, in some cases it is necessary to study systems over extended time and length scales, and therefore a parallel algorithm is desired. Here we describe an efficient, semirigorous synchronous sublattice algorithm for parallel kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The accuracy and parallel efficiency are studied as a function of diffusion rate, processor size, and number of processors for a variety of simple models of epitaxial growth. The effects of fluctuations on the parallel efficiency are also studied. Since only local communications are required, linear scaling behavior is observed, e.g., the parallel efficiency is independent of the number of processors for fixed processor size.

  13. Nonlinear Growth Kinetics of Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Implications for Cancer Stem Cell Targeted Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinfeng; Johnson, Sara; Liu, Shou; Kanojia, Deepak; Yue, Wei; Singn, Udai; Wang, Qian; Wang, Qi; Nie, Qing; Chen, Hexin

    2013-08-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in primary breast cancer tissues and cell lines. The CSC population varies widely among cancerous tissues and cell lines, and is often associated with aggressive breast cancers. Despite of intensive research, how the CSC population is regulated within a tumor is still not well understood so far. In this paper, we present a mathematical model to explore the growth kinetics of CSC population both in vitro and in vivo. Our mathematical models and supporting experiments suggest that there exist non-linear growth kinetics of CSCs and negative feedback mechanisms to control the balance between the population of CSCs and that of non-stem cancer cells. The model predictions can help us explain a few long-standing questions in the field of cancer stem cell research, and can be potentially used to predict the efficicacy of anti-cancer therapy.

  14. Direct observation of kinetic traps associated with structural transformations leading to multiple pathways of S-layer assembly.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seong-Ho; Chung, Sungwook; Sanii, Babak; Comolli, Luis R; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; De Yoreo, James J

    2012-08-07

    The concept of a folding funnel with kinetic traps describes folding of individual proteins. Using in situ Atomic Force Microscopy to investigate S-layer assembly on mica, we show this concept is equally valid during self-assembly of proteins into extended matrices. We find the S-layer-on-mica system possesses a kinetic trap associated with conformational differences between a long-lived transient state and the final stable state. Both ordered tetrameric states emerge from clusters of the monomer phase, however, they then track along two different pathways. One leads directly to the final low-energy state and the other to the kinetic trap. Over time, the trapped state transforms into the stable state. By analyzing the time and temperature dependencies of formation and transformation we find that the energy barriers to formation of the two states differ by only 0.7 kT, but once the high-energy state forms, the barrier to transformation to the low-energy state is 25 kT. Thus the transient state exhibits the characteristics of a kinetic trap in a folding funnel.

  15. Intrinsic Kinetics Fluctuations as Cause of Growth Inhomogeneity in Protein Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vekilov, Peter G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1998-01-01

    Intrinsic kinetics instabilities in the form of growth step bunching during the crystallization of the protein lysozyme from solution were characterized by in situ high-resolution optical interferometry. Compositional variations (striations) in the crystal, which potentially decrease its utility, e.g., for molecular structure studies by diffraction methods, were visualized by polarized light reflection microscopy. A spatiotemporal correlation was established between the sequence of moving step bunches and the striations.

  16. Intrinsic Kinetics Fluctuations as Cause of Growth Inhomogeneity in Protein Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vekilov, Peter G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1998-01-01

    Intrinsic kinetics instabilities in the form of growth step bunching during the crystallization of the protein lysozyme from solution were characterized by in situ high-resolution optical interferometry. Compositional variations (striations) in the crystal, which potentially decrease its utility, e.g., for molecular structure studies by diffraction methods, were visualized by polarized light reflection microscopy. A spatiotemporal correlation was established between the sequence of moving step bunches and the striations.

  17. Linking genes to microbial growth kinetics: an integrated biochemical systems engineering approach.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, Michalis; Kiparissides, Alexandros; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Lam, Ming-Chi; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P; de Lorenzo, Victor; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2011-07-01

    The majority of models describing the kinetic properties of a microorganism for a given substrate are unstructured and empirical. They are formulated in this manner so that the complex mechanism of cell growth is simplified. Herein, a novel approach for modelling microbial growth kinetics is proposed, linking biomass growth and substrate consumption rates to the gene regulatory programmes that control these processes. A dynamic model of the TOL (pWW0) plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 has been developed, describing the molecular interactions that lead to the transcription of the upper and meta operons, known to produce the enzymes for the oxidative catabolism of m-xylene. The genetic circuit model was combined with a growth kinetic model decoupling biomass growth and substrate consumption rates, which are expressed as independent functions of the rate-limiting enzymes produced by the operons. Estimation of model parameters and validation of the model's predictive capability were successfully performed in batch cultures of mt-2 fed with different concentrations of m-xylene, as confirmed by relative mRNA concentration measurements of the promoters encoded in TOL. The growth formation and substrate utilisation patterns could not be accurately described by traditional Monod-type models for a wide range of conditions, demonstrating the critical importance of gene regulation for the development of advanced models closely predicting complex bioprocesses. In contrast, the proposed strategy, which utilises quantitative information pertaining to upstream molecular events that control the production of rate-limiting enzymes, predicts the catabolism of a substrate and biomass formation and could be of central importance for the design of optimal bioprocesses.

  18. Prediction of microbial growth rate versus biomass yield by a metabolic network with kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Adadi, Roi; Volkmer, Benjamin; Milo, Ron; Heinemann, Matthias; Shlomi, Tomer

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the factors that determine microbial growth rate under various environmental and genetic conditions is a major challenge of systems biology. While current genome-scale metabolic modeling approaches enable us to successfully predict a variety of metabolic phenotypes, including maximal biomass yield, the prediction of actual growth rate is a long standing goal. This gap stems from strictly relying on data regarding reaction stoichiometry and directionality, without accounting for enzyme kinetic considerations. Here we present a novel metabolic network-based approach, MetabOlic Modeling with ENzyme kineTics (MOMENT), which predicts metabolic flux rate and growth rate by utilizing prior data on enzyme turnover rates and enzyme molecular weights, without requiring measurements of nutrient uptake rates. The method is based on an identified design principle of metabolism in which enzymes catalyzing high flux reactions across different media tend to be more efficient in terms of having higher turnover numbers. Extending upon previous attempts to utilize kinetic data in genome-scale metabolic modeling, our approach takes into account the requirement for specific enzyme concentrations for catalyzing predicted metabolic flux rates, considering isozymes, protein complexes, and multi-functional enzymes. MOMENT is shown to significantly improve the prediction accuracy of various metabolic phenotypes in E. coli, including intracellular flux rates and changes in gene expression levels under different growth rates. Most importantly, MOMENT is shown to predict growth rates of E. coli under a diverse set of media that are correlated with experimental measurements, markedly improving upon existing state-of-the art stoichiometric modeling approaches. These results support the view that a physiological bound on cellular enzyme concentrations is a key factor that determines microbial growth rate.

  19. Growth kinetics of biopigment production by Thai isolated Monascus purpureus in a stirred tank bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kongruang, Sasithorn

    2011-01-01

    Monascus purpureus is a biopigment-producing fungi whose pigments can be used in many biotechnological and food industries. The growth kinetics of biopigment production were investigated in a liquid fermentation medium in a 5-l stirred tank bioreactor at 30°C, pH 7, for 8 days with 100 rpm agitation and 1.38 × 10(5) N/m(2) aeration. Thai Monascus purpureus strains TISTR 3002, 3180, 3090 and 3385 were studied for color production, growth kinetics and productivity. Citrinin as a toxic metabolite was measured from the Monascus fermentation broth. The biopigment productions were detected from fermentation broth by scanning spectra of each strain produced. Results showed a mixture of yellow, orange and red pigments with absorption peaks of pigments occurring at different wavelengths for the four strains. It was found that for each pigment color, the color production from the strains increased in the order TISTR 3002, 3180, 3090, 3385 with 3385 production being approximately 10 times that of 3002. Similar results were found for growth kinetics and productivity. HPLC results showed that citrinin was not produced under the culture conditions of this study. The L*, a* and b* values of the CIELAB color system were also obtained for the yellow, orange and red pigments produced from the TISTR 3002, 3180, 3090 and 3385 strains. The colors of the pigments ranged from burnt umber to deep red.

  20. Mg doping and its effect on the semipolar GaN(1122) growth kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Lahourcade, L.; Wirthmueller, A.; Monroy, E.; Chauvat, M. P.; Ruterana, P.; Laufer, A.; Eickhoff, M.

    2009-10-26

    We report the effect of Mg doping on the growth kinetics of semipolar GaN(1122) synthesized by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. Mg tends to segregate on the surface, inhibiting the formation of the self-regulated Ga film which is used as a surfactant for the growth of undoped and Si-doped GaN(1122). We observe an enhancement of Mg incorporation in GaN(1122) compared to GaN(0001). Typical structural defects or polarity inversion domains found in Mg-doped GaN(0001) were not observed for the semipolar films investigated in the present study.

  1. Effect of clofibrate on the growth-kinetics of the murine P 1798(sc) lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ubeira, F. M.; Seoane, R.; Puentes, E.; Faro, J.; Regueiro, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Clofibrate (CPIB) is a drug applied as an antilipidaemic agent in mammals. In this work we have tested its efficacy in vivo on the growth kinetics of P 1798(sc) lymphoma transplanted to recipient (BALB/c x AKR)F1 mice. Our results show a facilitation of the tumour growth rate in treated recipients. This fact may be related to an effect of the agent on the recipient which produces a decrease in the immune response as was confirmed on testing CPIB on thymus-dependent antigens in haemolytic plaque assays. Images Figure 3 PMID:6351886

  2. Colloidal nanoparticle size control: experimental and kinetic modeling investigation of the ligand-metal binding role in controlling the nucleation and growth kinetics.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari, Saeed; Li, Wenhui; Thompson, Coogan; Ivanov, Sergei; Seifert, Soenke; Lee, Byeongdu; Kovarik, Libor; Karim, Ayman M

    2017-09-21

    Despite the major advancements in colloidal metal nanoparticles synthesis, a quantitative mechanistic treatment of the ligand's role in controlling their size remains elusive. We report a methodology that combines in situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and kinetic modeling to quantitatively capture the role of ligand-metal binding (with the metal precursor and the nanoparticle surface) in controlling the synthesis kinetics. We demonstrate that accurate extraction of the kinetic rate constants requires using both, the size and number of particles obtained from in situ SAXS to decouple the contributions of particle nucleation and growth to the total metal reduction. Using Pd acetate and trioctylphosphine in different solvents, our results reveal that the binding of ligands with both the metal precursor and nanoparticle surface play a key role in controlling the rates of nucleation and growth and consequently the final size. We show that the solvent can affect the metal-ligand binding and consequently ligand coverage on the nanoparticles surface which has a strong effect on the growth rate and final size (1.4 nm in toluene and 4.3 nm in pyridine). The proposed kinetic model quantitatively predicts the effects of varying the metal concentration and ligand/metal ratio on nanoparticle size for our work and literature reports. More importantly, we demonstrate that the final size is exclusively determined by the nucleation and growth kinetics at early times and not how they change with time. Specifically, the nanoparticle size in this work and many literature reports can be predicted using a single, model independent kinetic descriptor, (growth-to-nucleation rate ratio)(1/3), despite the different metals and synthetic conditions. The proposed model and kinetic descriptor could serve as powerful tools for the design of colloidal nanoparticles with specific sizes.

  3. Colloidal nanoparticle size control: Experimental and kinetic modeling investigation of the ligand-metal binding role in controlling the nucleation and growth kinetics

    DOE PAGES

    Mozaffari, Saeed; Li, Wenhui; Thompson, Coogan; ...

    2017-09-01

    Despite the major advancements in colloidal metal nanoparticles synthesis, a quantitative mechanistic treatment of the ligand’s role in controlling their size remains elusive. We report a methodology that combines in-situ small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and kinetic modeling to quantitatively capture the role of ligand-metal binding (with the metal precursor and the nanoparticle surface) in controlling the synthesis kinetics. We demonstrate that accurate extraction of the kinetic rate constants requires using both, the size and number of particles obtained from in-situ SAXS to decouple the contributions of particle nucleation and growth to the total metal reduction. Using Pd acetate andmore » trioctylphosphine in different solvents, our results reveal that the binding of ligands with both the metal precursor and nanoparticle surface play a key role in controlling the rates of nucleation and growth and consequently the final size. We show that the solvent can affect the metal-ligand binding and consequently ligand coverage on the nanoparticles surface which has a strong effect on the growth rate and final size (1.4 nm in toluene and 4.3 nm in pyridine). The proposed kinetic model quantitatively predicts the effects of varying the metal concentration and ligand/metal ratio on nanoparticle size for our work and literature reports. More importantly, we demonstrate that the final size is exclusively determined by the nucleation and growth kinetics at early times and not how they change with time. Specifically, the nanoparticle size in this work and many literature reports can be predicted using a single, model independent kinetic descriptor, (Growth-to-Nucleation rate ratio)1/3, despite the different metals and synthetic conditions. The proposed model and kinetic descriptor could serve as powerful tools for the design of colloidal nanoparticles with specific sizes.« less

  4. CFD modelling of small particle dispersion: The influence of the turbulence kinetic energy in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlé, C.; van Beeck, J.; Rambaud, P.; Van Tendeloo, G.

    When considering the modelling of small particle dispersion in the lower part of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) using Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes simulations, the particle paths depend on the velocity profile and on the turbulence kinetic energy, from which the fluctuating velocity components are derived to predict turbulent dispersion. It is therefore important to correctly reproduce the ABL, both for the velocity profile and the turbulence kinetic energy profile. For RANS simulations with the standard k- ɛ model, Richards and Hoxey (1993. Appropriate boundary conditions for computational wind engineering models using the k-ɛ turbulence model. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 46-47, 145-153.) proposed a set of boundary conditions which result in horizontally homogeneous profiles. The drawback of this method is that it assumes a constant profile of turbulence kinetic energy, which is not always consistent with field or wind tunnel measurements. Therefore, a method was developed which allows the modelling of a horizontally homogeneous turbulence kinetic energy profile that is varying with height. By comparing simulations performed with the proposed method to simulations performed with the boundary conditions described by Richards and Hoxey (1993. Appropriate boundary conditions for computational wind engineering models using the k-ɛ turbulence model. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 46-47, 145-153.), the influence of the turbulence kinetic energy on the dispersion of small particles over flat terrain is quantified.

  5. Mixing layer growth and background air-quality measurements over the Colorado oil-shale area

    SciTech Connect

    Laulainen, N.S.; Whiteman, C.D.; Davis, W.E.; Thorp, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    The daily growth of convective boundary layers over the complex terrain of the oil shale areas of Colorado is a prominent feature of the meteorology of the region. The development of these layers was investigated using airsondes, rawinsondes, and aircraft. The deep growth of the layers in August, to heights in excess of 5500-m MSL on clear or partly cloudy days, is expected to have important implications for the dispersal of pollutants released in the region as the oil shale resource undergoes future development. Aircraft observations show that the present background air quality is good over the region and that pollutants, when present, become well mixed throughout the depth of the convective boundary layer. The layer therefore represents an important natural means of dilution for pollutants introduced into the atmosphere. Work is proceeding to incorporate the time-dependent convective boundary layer growth into air pollution models for the region.

  6. In situ X-ray diffraction study on the growth kinetics of NiO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Meneses, C T; Almeida, J M A; Sasaki, J M

    2010-05-01

    The growth kinetics of NiO nanoparticles have been studied by in situ X-ray diffraction using two detection systems (conventional and imaging plate). NiO nanoparticles were formed by thermal decomposition after heating of an amorphous compound formed by the coprecipitation method. It was found that the detection method using an imaging plate is more efficient than the conventional detection mode for observing changes in the crystallite growth of nanocrystalline materials. Studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of the heating rates on the particles growth. The results suggest that the growth process of the particles is accelerated when the samples are treated at low heating rates. The evolution of particles size and the diffusion coefficient obtained from X-ray powder diffraction patterns are discussed in terms of the thermal conditions for the two types of detection.

  7. Kinetic simulation of filament growth dynamics in memristive electrochemical metallization devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirkmann, Sven; Ziegler, Martin; Hansen, Mirko; Kohlstedt, Hermann; Trieschmann, Jan; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we report on kinetic Monte-Carlo calculations of resistive switching and the underlying growth dynamics of filaments in an electrochemical metallization device consisting of an Ag/TiO2/Pt sandwich-like thin film system. The developed model is not limited to (i) fast time scale dynamics and (ii) only one growth and dissolution cycle of metallic filaments. In particular, we present results from the simulation of consecutive cycles. We find that the numerical results are in excellent agreement with experimentally obtained data. Additionally we observe an unexpected filament growth mode that is in contradiction to the widely acknowledged picture of filament growth but consistent with recent experimental findings.

  8. Quantifying the Nucleation and Growth Kinetics of Microwave Nanochemistry Enabled by in Situ High-Energy X-ray Scattering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Gao, Min-Rui; Liu, Yuzi; Okasinski, John S; Ren, Yang; Sun, Yugang

    2016-01-13

    The fast reaction kinetics presented in the microwave synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles was quantitatively studied, for the first time, by integrating a microwave reactor with in situ X-ray diffraction at a high-energy synchrotron beamline. Comprehensive data analysis reveals two different types of reaction kinetics corresponding to the nucleation and growth of the Ag nanoparticles. The formation of seeds (nucleation) follows typical first-order reaction kinetics with activation energy of 20.34 kJ/mol, while the growth of seeds (growth) follows typical self-catalytic reaction kinetics. Varying the synthesis conditions indicates that the microwave colloidal chemistry is independent of concentration of surfactant. These discoveries reveal that the microwave synthesis of Ag nanoparticles proceeds with reaction kinetics significantly different from the synthesis present in conventional oil bath heating. The in situ X-ray diffraction technique reported in this work is promising to enable further understanding of crystalline nanomaterials formed through microwave synthesis.

  9. Effects of Alloying on Nanoscale Grain Growth in Substitutional Binary Alloy System: Thermodynamics and Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haoran; Chen, Yuzeng; Liu, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Applying the regular solution model, the Gibbs free energy of mixing for substitutional binary alloy system was constructed. Then, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, e.g., driving force and solute drag force, controlling nanoscale grain growth of substitutional binary alloy systems were derived and compared to their generally accepted definitions and interpretations. It is suggested that for an actual grain growth process, the classical driving force P = γ/D ( γ the grain boundary (GB) energy, D the grain size) should be replaced by a new expression, i.e., P^' = γ /D - Δ P . Δ P represents the energy required to adjust nonequilibrium solute distribution to equilibrium solute distribution, which is equivalent to the generally accepted solute drag force impeding GB migration. By incorporating the derived new driving force for grain growth into the classical grain growth model, the reported grain growth behaviors of nanocrystalline Fe-4at. pct Zr and Pd-19at. pct Zr alloys were analyzed. On this basis, the effect of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters ( i.e., P, Δ P and the GB mobility ( M GB)) on nanoscale grain growth, were investigated. Upon grain growth, the decrease of P is caused by the reduction of γ as a result of solute segregation in GBs; the decrease of Δ P is, however, due to the decrease of grain growth velocity; whereas the decrease of M GB is attributed to the enhanced difference of solute molar fractions between the bulk and the GBs as well as the increased activation energy for GB diffusion.

  10. Altered Cellular Kinetics in Growth Plate according to Alterations in Weight Bearing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hoon; Kong, Sun Young; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of change in weight bearing on the growth plate metabolism, a simulated animal model of weightlessness was introduced and the chondrocytes' cellular kinetics was evaluated. Materials and Methods Unloading condition on the hind-limb of Sprague-Dawley rats was created by fixing a tail and lifting the hind-limb. Six rats aged 6 weeks old were assigned to each group of unloading, reloading, and control groups of unloading or reloading. Unloading was maintained for three weeks, and then reloading was applied for another one week thereafter. Histomorphometry for the assessment of vertical length of the growth plate, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridin immunohistochemistry for cellular kinetics, and biotin nick end labeling transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay for chondrocytes apoptosis in the growth plate were performed. Results The vertical length of the growth plate and the proliferative potential of chondrocytes were decreased in the unloading group compared to those of control groups. Inter-group differences were more significant in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. Reloading increased the length of growth plate and proliferative potential of chondrocytes. However, apoptotic changes in the growth plate were not affected by the alterations of weight bearing. Conclusion Alterations in the weight bearing induced changes in the chondrocytic proliferative potential of the growth plate, however, had no effects on the apoptosis. This may explain why non-weight bearing in various clinical situations hampers normal longitudinal bone growth. Further studies on the factors for reversibility of chondrocytic proliferation upon variable mechanical stresses are needed. PMID:22477008

  11. Growth and overall transformation kinetics above the bay temperature in Fe-C-Mo alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiflet, G. J.; Aaronson, H. I.

    1990-06-01

    The kinetics and morphology of isothermal transformation in the vicinity of the time-temperaturetransformation (TTT) diagram bay have been investigated with optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in 19 Fe-C-Mo alloys at three levels of carbon concentration (approximately 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 wt pct) and at Mo concentrations from 2.3 to 4.3 wt pct, essentially always at temperatures above or at that of the bay, T b . Quantitative metallography yielded no evidence for incomplete transformation (stasis) in any of these alloys at T > T b . Measurements of the thickening kinetics of grain boundary ferrite allotriomorphs (invariably containing either interphase boundary or fibrous Mo2C) demonstrated four different patterns of behavior. The customary parabolic time law for allotriomorph thickening in Fe-C and in many Fe-C-X systems was obtained only at higher temperatures and in the more dilute Fe-C-Mo alloys studied. With decreasing temperature and increasing solute concentrations, a two-stage and then two successive variants of a three-stage thickening process are found. In the most concentrated alloys and at temperatures nearest the bay, the second stage of the three-stage thickening process corresponds to “growth stasis”—the cessation of allotriomorph thickening. Sufficient prolongation of growth stasis presumably leads to “transformation stasis.” A number of models for growth of the carbide-containing allotriomorphs were investigated during attempts to explain the observed kinetics. It was concluded that their growth is controlled by carbon diffusion in austenite but with a driving force drastically reduced by a very strong solute drag-like effect (SDLE) induced by Mo segregation at disordered-type austenite: ferrite boundaries. Carbide growth in the fibrous structure appears to be fed by diffusion of Mo along austenite: ferrite boundaries, whereas carbides in the interphase boundary structure grow primarily by volume diffusion of Mo through

  12. Release kinetics of platelet-derived and plasma-derived growth factors from autologous plasma rich in growth factors.

    PubMed

    Anitua, Eduardo; Zalduendo, Mari Mar; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Orive, Gorka

    2013-10-01

    Many studies have evaluated the biological effects of platelet rich plasma reporting the final outcomes on cell and tissues. However, few studies have dealt with the kinetics of growth factor delivery by plasma rich in growth factors. Venous blood was obtained from three healthy volunteers and processed with PRGF-Endoret technology to prepare autologous plasma rich in growth factors. The gel-like fibrin scaffolds were then incubated in triplicate, in a cell culture medium to monitor the release of PDGF-AB, VEGF, HGF and IGF-I during 8 days of incubation. A leukocyte-platelet rich plasma was prepared employing the same technology and the concentrations of growth factors and interleukin-1β were determined after 24h of incubation. After each period, the medium was collected, fibrin clot was destroyed and the supernatants were stored at -80°C until analysis. The growth factor delivery is diffusion controlled with a rapid initial release by 30% of the bioactive content after 1h of incubation and a steady state release when almost 70% of the growth factor content has been delivered. Autologous fibrin matrix retained almost 30% of the amount of the growth factors after 8 days of incubation. The addition of leukocytes to the formula of platelet rich plasma did not increase the concentration of the growth factors, while it drastically increased the presence of pro-inflammatory IL-1β. Further studies employing an in vitro inflammatory model would be interesting to study the difference in growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines between leukocyte-free and leukocyte-rich platelet rich plasma.

  13. Integrating carbon nanotube forests into polysilicon MEMS: Growth kinetics, mechanisms, and adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Ubnoske, Stephen M.; Radauscher, Erich J.; Meshot, Eric R.; Stoner, Brian R.; Parker, Charles B.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2016-11-19

    The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on polycrystalline silicon substrates was studied to improve the design of CNT field emission sources for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications and vacuum microelectronic devices (VMDs). Microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) was used for CNT growth, resulting in CNTs that incorporate the catalyst particle at their base. The kinetics of CNT growth on polysilicon were compared to growth on Si (100) using the model of Deal and Grove, finding activation energies of 1.61 and 1.54 eV for the nucleation phase of growth and 1.90 and 3.69 eV for the diffusion-limited phase on Si (100) and polysilicon, respectively. Diffusivity values for growth on polysilicon were notably lower than the corresponding values on Si (100) and the growth process became diffusion-limited earlier. Evidence favors a surface diffusion growth mechanism involving diffusion of carbon precursor species along the length of the CNT forest to the catalyst at the base. Explanations for the differences in activation energies and diffusivities were elucidated by SEM analysis of the catalyst nanoparticle arrays and through wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) of CNT forests. As a result, methods are presented to improve adhesion of CNT films during operation as field emitters, resulting in a 2.5× improvement.

  14. Integrating carbon nanotube forests into polysilicon MEMS: Growth kinetics, mechanisms, and adhesion

    DOE PAGES

    Ubnoske, Stephen M.; Radauscher, Erich J.; Meshot, Eric R.; ...

    2016-11-19

    The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on polycrystalline silicon substrates was studied to improve the design of CNT field emission sources for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications and vacuum microelectronic devices (VMDs). Microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) was used for CNT growth, resulting in CNTs that incorporate the catalyst particle at their base. The kinetics of CNT growth on polysilicon were compared to growth on Si (100) using the model of Deal and Grove, finding activation energies of 1.61 and 1.54 eV for the nucleation phase of growth and 1.90 and 3.69 eV for the diffusion-limited phase on Si (100)more » and polysilicon, respectively. Diffusivity values for growth on polysilicon were notably lower than the corresponding values on Si (100) and the growth process became diffusion-limited earlier. Evidence favors a surface diffusion growth mechanism involving diffusion of carbon precursor species along the length of the CNT forest to the catalyst at the base. Explanations for the differences in activation energies and diffusivities were elucidated by SEM analysis of the catalyst nanoparticle arrays and through wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) of CNT forests. As a result, methods are presented to improve adhesion of CNT films during operation as field emitters, resulting in a 2.5× improvement.« less

  15. Kinetics of Si and Ge nanowires growth through electron beam evaporation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Si and Ge have the same crystalline structure, and although Si-Au and Ge-Au binary alloys are thermodynamically similar (same phase diagram, with the eutectic temperature of about 360°C), in this study, it is proved that Si and Ge nanowires (NWs) growth by electron beam evaporation occurs in very different temperature ranges and fluence regimes. In particular, it is demonstrated that Ge growth occurs just above the eutectic temperature, while Si NWs growth occurs at temperature higher than the eutectic temperature, at about 450°C. Moreover, Si NWs growth requires a higher evaporated fluence before the NWs become to be visible. These differences arise in the different kinetics behaviors of these systems. The authors investigate the microscopic growth mechanisms elucidating the contribution of the adatoms diffusion as a function of the evaporated atoms direct impingement, demonstrating that adatoms play a key role in physical vapor deposition (PVD) NWs growth. The concept of incubation fluence, which is necessary for an interpretation of NWs growth in PVD growth conditions, is highlighted. PMID:21711696

  16. Altered hypertrophic chondrocyte kinetics in GDF-5 deficient murine tibial growth plates.

    PubMed

    Mikic, B; Clark, R T; Battaglia, T C; Gaschen, V; Hunziker, E B

    2004-05-01

    The growth/differentiation factors (GDFs) are a subgroup of the bone morphogenetic proteins best known for their role in joint formation and chondrogenesis. Mice deficient in one of these signaling proteins, GDF-5, exhibit numerous skeletal abnormalities, including shortened limb bones. The primary aim of this study was determine whether GDF-5 deficiency would alter the growth rate in growth plates from the long bones in mice and, if so, how this is achieved. Stereologic and cell kinetic parameters in proximal tibial growth plates from 5-week-old female GDF-5 -/- mice and control littermates were examined. GDF-5 deficiency resulted in a statistically significant reduction in growth rate (-14%, p=0.03). The effect of genotype on growth rate was associated with an altered hypertrophic phase duration, with hypertrophic cells from GDF-5 deficient mice exhibiting a significantly longer phase duration compared to control littermates (+25%, p=0.006). These data suggest that one way in which GDF-5 might modulate the rate of endochondral bone growth could be by affecting the duration of the hypertrophic phase in growth plate chondrocytes.

  17. A phase-field model coupled with lattice kinetics solver for modeling crystal growth in furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Guang; Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Henager, Charles H.

    2014-02-02

    In this study, we present a new numerical model for crystal growth in a vertical solidification system. This model takes into account the buoyancy induced convective flow and its effect on the crystal growth process. The evolution of the crystal growth interface is simulated using the phase-field method. Two novel phase-field models are developed to model the crystal growth interface in vertical gradient furnaces with two temperature profile setups: 1) fixed wall temperature profile setup and 2) time-dependent temperature profile setup. A semi-implicit lattice kinetics solver based on the Boltzmann equation is employed to model the unsteady incompressible flow. This model is used to investigate the effect of furnace operational conditions on crystal growth interface profiles and growth velocities. For a simple case of macroscopic radial growth, the phase-field model is validated against an analytical solution. Crystal growth in vertical gradient furnaces with two temperature profile setups have been also investigated using the developed model. The numerical simulations reveal that for a certain set of temperature boundary conditions, the heat transport in the melt near the phase interface is diffusion dominant and advection is suppressed.

  18. Dynamic kinetic analysis of growth of Listeria monocytogenes in a simulated comminuted, non-cured cooked pork product

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to directly construct a tertiary growth model for Listeria monocytogenes in cooked pork and simultaneously determine the kinetic parameters using a combination of dynamic and isothermal growth curves. Growth studies were conducted using a cocktail of 5 strains of L. ...

  19. Synthesis, growth kinetics and optical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticle suspensions and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Eva May

    2000-10-01

    Colloidal chemistry techniques were used to synthesize ZnO particles in the nanometer size regime. The particle aging kinetics were determined by monitoring the optical band edge absorption and using the effective mass model to approximate the particle size as a function of time. The growth kinetics of the ZnO particles were found to follow the Lifshitz, Slyozov, Wagner theory for Ostwald ripening. In this model, the higher curvature and hence chemical potential of smaller particles provides a driving force for dissolution. The larger particles continue to grow by diffusion limited transport of species dissolved in solution. Thin films of ZnO quantum particles were fabricated by electrophoretic deposition from suspensions prepared via a colloidal chemistry synthesis route. Films were prepared at constant current thus eliminating the limited deposition rate associated with constant voltage deposition. The kinetics for the deposition of thin films were determined using optical absorbance techniques in conjunction with atomic absorption spectrometry. The particle velocity during deposition and the charge on the particles were determined from the deposition kinetics. The thin films prepared by electrophoretic deposition exhibited optical properties characteristic of the quantum size particles. The average particle size, and hence the optical properties, were tailored by controlling the aging time and temperature of the suspensions. Both the band-to-band and visible photoluminescence were progressively blue shifted, relative to the bulk value, with decreasing particle size in the film. A linear dependence was found between the band-to-band and visible emission. Finally, particle growth was manipulated by the specific adsorption of a series of capping ligands at the particle surface. The adsorption of the capping ligands was found to produce a diffusion barrier such that particle growth was stunted following incorporation with the extent of this effect being dependent

  20. Evaluation of a kinetic model for computer simulation of growth and fermentation by Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis fed D-xylose

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scheffersomyces (formly Pichia) stipitis is a potential biocatalyst for converting lignocelluloses to ethanol because the yeast natively ferments xylose. An unstructured kinetic model based upon a system of linear differential equations has been formulated that describes growth and ethanol productio...

  1. Kinetics of intramolecular chemical exchange by initial growth rates of spin saturation transfer difference experiments (SSTD NMR).

    PubMed

    Quirós, M Teresa; Angulo, Jesús; Muñoz, María Paz

    2015-06-25

    We report here the Initial Growth Rates SSTD NMR method, as a new powerful tool to obtain the kinetic parameters of intramolecular chemical exchange in challenging small organic and organometallic molecules.

  2. Crystal growth kinetics in Lennard-Jones and Weeks-Chandler-Andersen systems along the solid-liquid coexistence line.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Ronald; Horbach, Jürgen

    2015-07-07

    Kinetics of crystal-growth is investigated along the solid-liquid coexistence line for the (100), (110), and (111) orientations of the Lennard-Jones (LJ) and Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) fcc crystal-liquid interface, using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. A slowing down of the growth kinetics along the coexistence line is observed, which is due to the decrease of the melting enthalpy with increasing coexistence temperature and pressure. Other quantities such as the melting pressure and liquid self-diffusion coefficient have a comparatively lesser impact on the kinetic growth coefficient. Growth kinetics of the LJ and WCA potentials become similar at large values of the melting temperature and pressure, when both resemble a purely repulsive soft-sphere potential. Classical models of crystallization from the melt are in reasonable qualitative agreement with our simulation data. Finally, several one-phase empirical melting/freezing rules are studied with respect to their validity along the coexistence line.

  3. H2-dependent attachment kinetics and shape evolution in chemical vapor deposition graphene growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meca, Esteban; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Lowengrub, John

    2017-09-01

    Experiments on graphene growth through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) involving methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) gases reveal a complex shape evolution and a non-monotonic dependence on the partial pressure of H2 ({{p}{{\\text{H}2}}} ). To explain these intriguing observations, we develop a microkinetic model for the stepwise decomposition of CH4 into mobile radicals and consider two possible mechanisms of attachment to graphene crystals: CH radicals to hydrogen-decorated edges of the crystals and C radicals to bare crystal edges. We derive an effective mass flux and an effective kinetic coefficient, both of which depend on {{p}{{\\text{H}2}}} , and incorporate these into a phase field model. The model reproduces both the non-monotonic dependence on {{p}{{\\text{H}2}}} and the characteristic shapes of graphene crystals observed in experiments. At small {{p}{{\\text{H}2}}} , growth is limited by the kinetics of attachment while at large {{p}{{\\text{H}2}}} growth is limited because the effective mass flux is small. We also derive a simple analytical model that captures the non-monotone behavior, enables the two mechanisms of attachment to be distinguished and provides guidelines for CVD growth of defect-free 2D crystals.

  4. Growth Kinetics of Extremely Halophilic Archaea (Family Halobacteriaceae) as Revealed by Arrhenius Plots

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jessie L.; Pyzyna, Brandy; Atrasz, Rachelle G.; Henderson, Christine A.; Morrill, Kira L.; Burd, Anna Mae; DeSoucy, Erik; Fogleman, Rex E.; Naylor, John B.; Steele, Sarah M.; Elliott, Dawn R.; Leyva, Kathryn J.; Shand, Richard F.

    2005-01-01

    Members of the family Halobacteriaceae in the domain Archaea are obligate extreme halophiles. They occupy a variety of hypersaline environments, and their cellular biochemistry functions in a nearly saturated salty milieu. Despite extensive study, a detailed analysis of their growth kinetics is missing. To remedy this, Arrhenius plots for 14 type species of the family were generated. These organisms had maximum growth temperatures ranging from 49 to 58°C. Nine of the organisms exhibited a single temperature optimum, while five grew optimally at more than one temperature. Generation times at these optimal temperatures ranged from 1.5 h (Haloterrigena turkmenica) to 3.0 h (Haloarcula vallismortis and Halorubrum saccharovorum). All shared an inflection point at 31 ± 4°C, and the temperature characteristics for 12 of the 14 type species were nearly parallel. The other two species (Natronomonas pharaonis and Natronorubrum bangense) had significantly different temperature characteristics, suggesting that the physiology of these strains is different. In addition, these data show that the type species for the family Halobacteriaceae share similar growth kinetics and are capable of much faster growth at higher temperatures than those previously reported. PMID:15659670

  5. Quantum kinetic theory. VI. The growth of a Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. D.; Gardiner, C. W.

    2000-09-01

    A detailed analysis of the growth of a Bose-Einstein condensate is given, based on quantum kinetic theory, in which we take account of the evolution of the occupations of lower trap levels, and of the full Bose-Einstein formula for the occupations of higher trap levels, as well as the Bose-stimulated direct transfer of atoms to the condensate level introduced by Gardiner et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1793 (1997); 81, 5266 (1998)]. We find good agreement with experiment at higher temperatures, but at lower temperatures the experimentally observed growth rate is somewhat more rapid. We also confirm the picture of the ``kinetic'' region of evolution, introduced by Kagan, Svistunov, and Shlyapnikov (Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 101, 528 (1992) [Sov. Phys. JETP 75, 387 (1992)]), for the time up to the initiation of the condensate. The behavior after initiation essentially follows our original growth equation, but with a substantially increased rate coefficient. Our modeling of growth implicitly gives a model of the spatial shape of the density profile of the condensate-vapor system as the condensate grows, and thus provides an alternative to the present phenomenological fitting procedure, based on the sum of a zero-chemical potential vapor and a Thomas-Fermi-shaped condensate. Our method gives substantially different results for condensate numbers and temperatures obtained from phenomenological fits, but fits the published column density data very well.

  6. Temperature-dependent growth kinetics of Escherichia coli ML 30 in glucose-limited continuous culture.

    PubMed Central

    Kovárová, K; Zehnder, A J; Egli, T

    1996-01-01

    Detailed comparison of growth kinetics at temperatures below and above the optimal temperature was carried out with Escherichia coli ML 30 (DSM 1329) in continuous culture. The culture was grown with glucose as the sole limiting source of carbon and energy (100 mg liter(-1) in feed medium), and the resulting steady-state concentrations of glucose were measured as a function of the dilution rate at 17.4, 28.4, 37, and 40 degrees C. The experimental data could not be described by the conventional Monod equation over the entire temperature range, but an extended form of the Monod model [mu = mu(max) x (s - s(min))/(Ks + s - s(min))], which predicts a finite substrate concentration at 0 growth rate (s(min)), provided a good fit. The two parameters mu(max) and s(min) were temperature dependent, whereas, surprisingly, fitting the model to the experimental data yielded virtually identical Ks values (approximately 33 microg liter(-1)) at all temperatures. A model that describes steady-state glucose concentrations as a function of temperature at constant growth rates is presented. In similar experiments with mixtures of glucose and galactose (1:1 mixture), the two sugars were utilized simultaneously at all temperatures examined, and their steady-state concentrations were reduced compared with to growth with either glucose or galactose alone. The results of laboratory-scale kinetic experiments are discussed with respect to the concentrations observed in natural environments. PMID:8755881

  7. Quantum size effects in the low temperature layer-by-layer growth of Pb on Ge(0 0 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floreano, L.; Cvetko, D.; Bruno, F.; Bavdek, G.; Cossaro, A.; Gotter, R.; Verdini, A.; Morgante, A.

    2003-08-01

    The electronic properties of thin metallic films deviate from the corresponding bulk ones when the film thickness is comparable with the wavelength of the electrons at the Fermi level. This phenomenon, referred to as quantum size effect (QSE), is also expected to affect the film morphology and structure leading to the “electronic growth” of metals on semiconductors. Such effect may be observed when metals are grown on substrates held at low temperature and are manifested through the occurrence of “magical” thickness islands or critical thickness for layer-by-layer growth. In particular, layer-by-layer growth of Pb(1 1 1) films has been reported for deposition on Ge(0 0 1) below ∼130 K. An extremely flat morphology is preserved throughout deposition from four up to a dozen of monolayers. These flat films are shown to be metastable and to reorganize into large clusters uncovering the first Pb layer pseudomorphic to the underlying Ge(0 0 1) substrate already at room temperature. Indications of QSE induced structural variations of the growing films have been reported for Pb growth on both Si(1 1 1) and Ge(0 0 1). In the latter case, the apparent height of the Pb(1 1 1) monatomic step was shown to change in an oscillatory fashion by He atom scattering (HAS) during layer-by-layer growth at low temperature. The extent of the structural QSE has been obtained by a comparison of the HAS data with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and reflectivity experiments. Whereas step height variations as large as 20% have been measured by HAS reflectivity, the displacement of the atomic planes from their bulk position, as measured by XRD, has been found to mainly affect the topmost Pb layer, but with a lower extent, i.e. the QSE observed by HAS are mainly due to a perpendicular displacement of the topmost layer charge density. The effect of the variable surface relaxation on the surface vibration has been studied from the acoustic dispersion of the low energy phonons, as measured by

  8. A mathematical model of the kinetics of beta-amyloid fibril growth from the denatured state.

    PubMed Central

    Pallitto, M M; Murphy, R M

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous conversion of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) from soluble monomer to insoluble fibril may underlie the neurodegeneration associated with Alzheimer's disease. A complete description of Abeta self-association kinetics requires identification of the oligomeric species present and the pathway of association, as well as quantitation of rate constants and reaction order. Abeta was rendered monomeric and denatured by dissolution in 8 M urea, pH 10. "Refolding" and fibrillization were initiated by rapid dilution into phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.4. The kinetics of growth were followed at three different concentrations, using size exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering, and static light scattering. A multi-step pathway for fibril formation and growth was postulated. This pathway included 1) rapid commitment to either stable monomer/dimer or unstable intermediate, 2) cooperative association of intermediate into a multimeric "nucleus," 3) elongation of the "nucleus" into filaments via addition of intermediate, 4) lateral aggregation of filaments into fibrils, and 5) fibril elongation via end-to-end association. Differential and algebraic equations describing this kinetic pathway were derived, and model parameters were determined by fitting the data. The utility of the model for identifying toxic Abeta oligomeric specie(s) is demonstrated. The model should prove useful for designing compounds that inhibit Abeta aggregation and/or toxicity. PMID:11509390

  9. Ascorbic-acid-assisted growth of high quality M@ZnO: a growth mechanism and kinetics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yun; Han, Shuhua; Zhou, Guangju; Zhang, Lijie; Li, Xingliang; Zou, Chao; Huang, Shaoming

    2013-11-01

    We present a general route for synthesizing M@ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by using ascorbic acid (AA) to induce deposition of ZnO on various shaped and structured cationic-surfactant-capped NP surfaces (noble, magnetic, semiconductor, rod-like, spherical, cubic, dendrite, alloy, core@shell). The results show that the complexing (AA and Zn2+) and cooperative effects (AA and CTAB) play important roles in the formation of polycrystalline ZnO shells. Besides, the growth kinetics of M@ZnO was systematically studied. It was found that the slow growth rate favors the successful formation of uniform core@ZnO NPs with relatively loose shells. An appropriate growth rate allows achieving high quality M@ZnO NPs with dense shells. However, very fast growth causes significant additional nucleation and the formation of pure ZnO NPs. This general method is suitable for preparing M@ZnO using seed NPs prepared in both water and organic phases. It might be an alternative route for functionalizing NPs for bioapplications (ZnO is biocompatible), modulating material properties as designed, or synthesizing template materials for building other nanostructures.We present a general route for synthesizing M@ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by using ascorbic acid (AA) to induce deposition of ZnO on various shaped and structured cationic-surfactant-capped NP surfaces (noble, magnetic, semiconductor, rod-like, spherical, cubic, dendrite, alloy, core@shell). The results show that the complexing (AA and Zn2+) and cooperative effects (AA and CTAB) play important roles in the formation of polycrystalline ZnO shells. Besides, the growth kinetics of M@ZnO was systematically studied. It was found that the slow growth rate favors the successful formation of uniform core@ZnO NPs with relatively loose shells. An appropriate growth rate allows achieving high quality M@ZnO NPs with dense shells. However, very fast growth causes significant additional nucleation and the formation of pure ZnO NPs. This general method is

  10. Antifreeze effect of carboxylated ε-poly-L-lysine on the growth kinetics of ice crystals.

    PubMed

    Vorontsov, Dmitry A; Sazaki, Gen; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Matsumura, Kazuaki; Furukawa, Yoshinori

    2014-08-28

    Some biological substances control the nucleation and growth of inorganic crystals. Antifreeze proteins, which prohibit ice crystal growth in living organisms, promise are also important as biological antifreezes for medical applications and in the frozen food industries. In this work, we investigated the crystallization of ice in the presence of a new cryoprotector, carboxylated ε-poly-L-lysine (COOH-PLL). In order to reveal the characteristics and the mechanism of its antifreeze effect, free-growth experiments of ice crystals were carried out in solutions with various COOH-PLL concentrations and degrees of supercooling, and the depression of the freezing point and growth rates of the tips of ice dendrites were obtained using optical microscopy. Hysteresis of growth rates and depression of the freezing point was revealed in the presence of COOH-PLL. The growth-inhibition effect of COOH-PLL molecules could be explained on the basis of the Gibbs-Thomson law and the use of Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. Theoretical kinetic curves for hysteresis calculated on the basis of Punin-Artamonova's model were in good agreement with experimental data. We conclude that adsorption of large biological molecules in the case of ice crystallization has a non-steady-state character and occurs more slowly than the process of embedding of crystal growth units.

  11. Modelling the growth kinetics of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in submerged static culture.

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, C D; Legge, R L; Farquhar, G F

    1993-01-01

    The potential commercial application of Phanerochaete chrysosporium requires methods for quantitatively predicting growth and substrate utilization. The growth kinetics of P. chrysosporium INA-12 (CNCM I-398) were investigated and modelled under nonlimiting nitrogen and carbon conditions in submerged static culture. This strain, unlike other strains, does not require nutrient limitation for induction of lignin peroxidase. Maximum levels of lignin peroxidase activity were reached 7 days after culture initiation, when almost 80% of the initial glycerol and 70% of the initial nitrogen were still present. Lignin peroxidase levels then decreased, while biomass levels increased until about day 14. The ratio of cell dry weight to wet weight was constant until the maximum biomass concentration was achieved, after which there was a decrease in the water content. The change in this ratio reflects cell lysis as it correlated with increased concentrations of nitrogen in the media, arising from cell leakage. The suitability of four growth models to predict growth, and in some cases glycerol consumption, was evaluated. A simple linear model and the Emerson model performed poorly for the early stages of growth, while a modified Williams model and the Monod model predicted substrate and biomass concentrations equally well. All models will predict biomass concentrations during the active growth phase, but they should not be used to predict biomass concentrations after the stationary growth phase, when cell lysis becomes significant. PMID:8328805

  12. Interface engineering in epitaxial growth of layered oxides via a conducting layer insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Yu; Meng, Dechao; Wang, Jianlin; Ma, Chao; Zhai, Xiaofang; Huang, Haoliang; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran; Brown, Gail J.; and others

    2015-07-06

    There is a long-standing challenge in the fabrication of layered oxide epitaxial films due to their thermodynamic phase-instability and the large stacking layer number. Recently, the demand for high-quality thin films is strongly pushed by their promising room-temperature multiferroic properties. Here, we find that by inserting a conducting and lattice matched LaNiO{sub 3} buffer layer, high quality m = 5 Bi{sub 6}FeCoTi{sub 3}O{sub 18} epitaxial films can be fabricated using the laser molecular beam epitaxy, in which the atomic-scale sharp interface between the film and the metallic buffer layer explains the enhanced quality. The magnetic and ferroelectric properties of the high quality Bi{sub 6}FeCoTi{sub 3}O{sub 18} films are studied. This study demonstrates that insertion of the conducting layer is a powerful method in achieving high quality layered oxide thin films, which opens the door to further understand the underline physics and to develop new devices.

  13. Interface engineering in epitaxial growth of layered oxides via a conducting layer insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Yu; Ma, Chao; Zhai, Xiaofang; Huang, Haoliang; Meng, Dechao; Wang, Jianlin; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran; Brown, Gail J.; Lu, Yalin

    2015-07-01

    There is a long-standing challenge in the fabrication of layered oxide epitaxial films due to their thermodynamic phase-instability and the large stacking layer number. Recently, the demand for high-quality thin films is strongly pushed by their promising room-temperature multiferroic properties. Here, we find that by inserting a conducting and lattice matched LaNiO3 buffer layer, high quality m = 5 Bi6FeCoTi3O18 epitaxial films can be fabricated using the laser molecular beam epitaxy, in which the atomic-scale sharp interface between the film and the metallic buffer layer explains the enhanced quality. The magnetic and ferroelectric properties of the high quality Bi6FeCoTi3O18 films are studied. This study demonstrates that insertion of the conducting layer is a powerful method in achieving high quality layered oxide thin films, which opens the door to further understand the underline physics and to develop new devices.

  14. Silicon carbon(001) gas-source molecular beam epitaxy from methyl silane and silicon hydride: The effects of carbon incorporation and surface segregation on growth kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foo, Yong-Lim

    Si1-yCy alloys were grown on Si(001) by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy (GS-MBE) from Si2H6/CH3 SiH3 mixtures as a function of C concentration y (0 to 2.6 at %) and deposition temperature Ts (500--600°C). High-resolution x-ray diffraction reciprocal lattice maps show that all layers are in tension and fully coherent with their substrates. Film growth rates R decrease with both y and Ts, and the rate of decrease in R as a function of y increases rapidly with Ts. In-situ isotopically-tagged D2 temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) measurements reveal that C segregates to the second-layer during steady-state Si1-y Cy(001) growth. This, in turn, results in charge-transfer from Si surface dangling bonds to second-layer C atoms, which have a higher electronegativity than Si. From the TPD results, we obtain the coverage θ Si*(y, Ts) of Si* surface sites with C backbonds as well as H2 desorption energies Ed from both Si and Si* surface sites. This leads to an increase in the H2 desorption rate, and hence should yield higher film deposition rates, with increasing y and/or Ts during Si1-yCy(001) growth. The effect, however, is more than offset by the decrease in Si2H 6 reactive sticking probabilities at Si* surface sites. Film growth rates R(Ts, JSi2H6,J CH3SiH3 ) calculated using a simple transition-state kinetic model, together with measured kinetic parameters, were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. At higher growth temperature (725 and 750°C), superlattice structures consisting of alternating Si-rich and C-rich sublayers form spontaneously during the gas-source molecular beam epitaxial growth of Si1-y Cy layers from constant Si2H6 and CH 3SiH3 precursor fluxes. The formation of a self-organized superstructure is due to a complex interaction among competing surface reactions. During growth of the initial Si-rich sublayer, C strongly segregates to the second layer resulting in charge transfer from surface Si atom dangling bonds of to C

  15. Impact of sustaining a controlled residual growth on polyhydroxybutyrate yield and production kinetics in Cupriavidus necator.

    PubMed

    Grousseau, Estelle; Blanchet, Elise; Déléris, Stéphane; Albuquerque, Maria G E; Paul, Etienne; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis

    2013-11-01

    In this study a complementary modeling and experimental approach was used to explore how growth controls the NADPH generation and availability, and the resulting impact on PHB (polyhydroxybutyrate) yields and kinetics. The results show that the anabolic demand allowed the NADPH production through the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, leading to a high maximal theoretical PHB production yield of 0.89 C mole C mole(-1); whereas without biomass production, NADPH regeneration is only possible via the isocitrate dehydrogenase leading to a theoretical yield of 0.67 C mole C mole(-1). Furthermore, the maximum specific rate of NADPH produced at maximal growth rate (to fulfil biomass requirement) was found to be the maximum set in every conditions, which by consequence determines the maximal PHB production rate. These results imply that sustaining a controlled residual growth improves the PHB specific production rate without altering production yield. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nucleation and growth kinetics of struvite in a fluidized bed reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, M. Iqbal H.; Mavinic, D. S.; Beckie, R. D.

    2008-03-01

    Kinetics of struvite crystallization were studied to gain a better understanding of intentional struvite formation in fluidized bed reactors. Mechanisms controlling nucleation were studied in the laboratory by induction time experiments. pH monitoring proved to be an effective method of induction time determination, during the induction period. The induction period, when nucleation was the controlling process for struvite crystal formation, was found to be primarily reaction controlled, with minor transport influence. The metastable region for struvite was explored in this study. The solubility and supersolubility curves, which are the boundaries of the metastable region, were observed to be almost parallel straight lines in the concentration range studied. The growth rate of struvite determined in a fluidized bed reactor was mainly transport controlled. With the determination of the mass-transfer coefficient and surface-reaction coefficient for a specified condition, a two-step linear growth rate model for struvite growth determination in a fluidized bed reactor has been proposed.

  17. Investigation on nucleation kinetics, growth and characterization of urea oxalic acid-ferroelectric single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhivya, R.; Ezhil Vizhi, R.; Rajan Babu, D.

    2017-06-01

    Nucleation and growth kinetics renders the information about the crystal growth process, which can be adopted to grow large size crystals. Urea oxalic acid was synthesized by slow evaporation method. Solubility was analyzed gravimetrically and it was observed that it exhibits positive temperature coefficient of solubility which is suitable for bulk growth. Metastable zonewidth was observed by adopting polythermal method. Induction period was measured by isothermal method for the saturation temperature by varying the degrees of supersaturation. Based on the classical theory of nucleation, the other nucleation parameters such as interfacial energy, Gibbs critical free energy and radius of critical nuclei were calculated. Urea oxalic acid (UOA) was synthesized and subsequently grown by a slow cooling technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirms that the crystal belongs to a monoclinic system. Dielectric analysis affirms the ferroelectric property of the material and the results were further discussed in detail.

  18. Kinetics of crystal nucleation and growth in Pd(40)Ni(40)P(20) glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drehman, A. J.; Greer, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of Pd(40)Ni(40)P(20) glass, produced by cooling the melt at 1 or 800 K/s, are heated in a differential scanning calorimeter to determine the crystallization kinetics. Optical microscopy shows that eutectic crystallization proceeds both by growth from the surface of the samples and by the growth of spherical regions around preexisting nuclei in the interior. A modified Kissinger (1957) analysis is used to obtain the activation energy for crystal growth (3.49 eV). The steady state homogeneous nucleation frequency at 590 K is about 10 million/cu m per sec. This is estimated to be the maximum nucleation frequency: it is too low to account for the observed population of quenched-in nuclei, which are therefore presumed to be heterogeneous. The major practical obstacle to glass formation in this system is heterogeneous nucleation.

  19. Controllable growth of layered selenide and telluride heterostructures and superlattices using molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE PAGES

    Vishwanath, Suresh; Liu, Xinyu; Rouvimov, Sergei; ...

    2016-01-06

    Layered materials are an actively pursued area of research for realizing highly scaled technologies involving both traditional device structures as well as new physics. Lately, non-equilibrium growth of 2D materials using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is gathering traction in the scientific community and here we aim to highlight one of its strengths, growth of abrupt heterostructures, and superlattices (SLs). In this work we present several of the firsts: first growth of MoTe2 by MBE, MoSe2 on Bi2Se3 SLs, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) SLs, and lateral junction between a quintuple atomic layer of Bi2Te3 and a triple atomic layer of MoTe2.more » In conclusion, reflected high electron energy diffraction oscillations presented during the growth of TMD SLs strengthen our claim that ultrathin heterostructures with monolayer layer control is within reach.« less

  20. Growth kinetics of CVD TiO sub 2; Influence of carrier gas

    SciTech Connect

    Siefering, K.L.; Griffin, G.L. )

    1990-04-01

    This paper reports on the growth rate of TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by the decomposition of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in the presence of N{sub 2} carrier gas. Experiments are performed at TTIP partial pressures between 0.005 and 0.7 torr and a substrate temperature of 573 K, conditions where second-order kinetics have previously been observed in the presence of TTIP alone. When 5 torr of N{sub 2} is present as a carrier gas, the kinetics become first order in TTIP concentration. By fitting the observed rates to the rate expression for the bimolecular reaction mechanism proposed in the earlier study, the authors obtain a value of {phi} = 0.43 for the relative efficiency of N{sub 2} for collisional energy transfer, compared to TTIP.

  1. The importance of growth kinetic analysis in determining bacterial susceptibility against antibiotics and silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Theophel, Karsten; Schacht, Veronika J; Schlüter, Michael; Schnell, Sylvia; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana; Schaumann, Reiner; Bunge, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Routine antibiotics susceptibility testing still relies on standardized cultivation-based analyses, including measurement of inhibition zones in conventional agar diffusion tests and endpoint turbidity-based measurements. Here, we demonstrate that common off-line monitoring and endpoint determination after 18-24 h could be insufficient for reliable growth-dependent evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility. Different minimal inhibitory concentrations were obtained in 20- and 48 h microdilution plate tests using an Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate (strain UKI-MB07) as a model organism. Hence, we used an on-line kinetic assay for simultaneous cultivation and time-resolved growth analysis in a 96-well format instead of off-line susceptibility testing. Growth of the Enterococcus test organism was delayed up to 30 h in the presence of 0.25 μg mL(-1) of vancomycin and 8 μg mL(-1) of fosfomycin, after which pronounced growth was observed. Despite the delayed onset of growth, treatment with fosfomycin, daptomycin, fusidic acid, cefoxitin, or gentamicin resulted in higher maximum growth rates and/or higher final optical density values compared with antibiotic-free controls, indicating that growth stimulation and hormetic effects may occur with extended exposure to sublethal antibiotic concentrations. Whereas neither maximum growth rate nor final cell density correlated with antibiotic concentration, the lag phase duration for some antibiotics was a more meaningful indicator of dose-dependent growth inhibition. Our results also reveal that non-temporal growth profiles are only of limited value for cultivation-based antimicrobial silver nanoparticle susceptibility testing. The exposure to Ag(0) nanoparticles led to plasma membrane damage in a concentration-dependent manner and induced oxidative stress in Enterococcus faecium UKI-MB07, as shown by intracellular ROS accumulation.

  2. Altered Cellular Kinetics in the Growth Plate of the Femoral Head of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hoon; Kong, Sun Young

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Pathologic changes in the growth plate remain unknown in Legg-Calvé-Perthes (LCP) disease. Spontaneously hypertensive rats have proven to be a good model for studying LCP disease. This study investigated the histopathologic changes and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the growth plate of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Materials and Methods Sixty SHR rats were divided into two groups: those showing osteonecrosis (SHR+n group: 32), and those showing normal ossification (SHR-n group: 28). Thirty Wister Kyoto rats served as a control. For histomorphological measurement, the length of each zone of the growth plate was measured. Cell kinetics was measured by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridin (BrdU) immunohistochemistry and transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunohistochemistry was used to identify of expression of VEGF. Results The lengths of growth plates of the SHR+n group were significantly shorter in the initial growth period than those of the other groups. The lowest proliferative rate and the highest apoptosis rate were observed in the SHR+n group at the initial growth period. The expression of VEGF in the growth plate of the SHR group was lower than the control group, and it was lower in the SHR+n group than in the SHR-n group. Conclusion The growth plate of the SHR+n group was found to be affected by disease process of ischemic necrosis of the femoral head, and this might explain the relative overgrowth of the greater trochanter in the later stages of LCP disease. PMID:22477009

  3. Anisotropy in growth kinetics of tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrate: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Nada, Hiroki

    2009-04-09

    The growth kinetics of a tetrahydrofuran (THF) clathrate hydrate at the interface between the clathrate and an aqueous THF solution were investigated by means of a molecular dynamic simulation. The simulation was carried out for the interface of both the {100} and {111} planes of the THF clathrate. The simulation indicated the same anisotropic growth as that observed in real systems: the growth of the THF clathrate was much slower at the {111} interface than at the {100} interface. When the THF clathrate grew, THF molecules that were dissolved in the solution first were arranged at both large and small cage sites on the interface. Subsequently, the formation of cages by H(2)O molecules occurred in regions surrounded or sandwiched by those arranged THF molecules. As the formation of cages progressed, the THF molecules that had once been arranged at small cage sites gradually moved away from the sites, and finally the structure of the clathrate was completely formed. Simulation results strongly suggested that the rate-determining process for clathrate growth was the rearrangement of THF molecules at the interface from a disordered state to a state in which THF molecules were ideally arranged at large cage sites only. This rearrangement occurred much more slowly at the {111} interface than at the {100} interface, owing to the formation of a modified structure in which large and small cages were formed at opposite positions of the {111} interface. The anisotropic growth kinetics of the THF clathrate, which were obtained in this study, are consistent with the fact that growth shapes of THF clathrates in real systems are octahedral with flat {111} planes.

  4. Kinetics of gypsum nucleation and crystal growth from Dead Sea brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznik, Itay J.; Gavrieli, Ittai; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2009-10-01

    The Dead Sea brine is supersaturated with respect to gypsum ( Ω = 1.42). Laboratory experiments and evaluation of historical data show that gypsum nucleation and crystal growth kinetics from Dead Sea brine are both slower in comparison with solutions at a similar degree of supersaturation. The slow kinetics of gypsum precipitation in the Dead Sea brine is mainly attributed to the low solubility of gypsum which is due to the high Ca 2+/SO 42- molar ratio (115), high salinity (˜280 g/kg) and to Na + inhibition. Experiments with various clay minerals (montmorillonite, kaolinite) indicate that these minerals do not serve as crystallization seeds. In contrast, calcite and aragonite which contain traces of gypsum impurities do prompt precipitation of gypsum but at a considerable slower rate than with pure gypsum. This implies that transportation inflow of clay minerals, calcite and local crystallization of minerals in the Dead Sea does not prompt significant heterogeneous precipitation of gypsum. Based on historical analyses of the Dead Sea, it is shown that over the last decades, as inflows to the lake decreased and its salinity increased, gypsum continuously precipitated from the brine. The increasing salinity and Ca 2+/SO 42- ratio, which results from the precipitation of gypsum, lead to even slower kinetics of nucleation and crystal growth, which resulted in an increasing degree of supersaturation with respect to gypsum. Therefore, we predict that as the salinity of the Dead Sea brine continues to increase (accompanied by Dead Sea water level decline), although gypsum will continuously precipitate, the degree of supersaturation will increase furthermore due to progressively slower kinetics.

  5. Hafnium nitride buffer layers for growth of GaN on silicon

    DOEpatents

    Armitage, Robert D.; Weber, Eicke R.

    2005-08-16

    Gallium nitride is grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on (111) and (001) silicon substrates using hafnium nitride buffer layers. Wurtzite GaN epitaxial layers are obtained on both the (111) and (001) HfN/Si surfaces, with crack-free thickness up to 1.2 {character pullout}m. However, growth on the (001) surface results in nearly stress-free films, suggesting that much thicker crack-free layers could be obtained.

  6. Does viscosity describe the kinetic barrier for crystal growth from the liquidus to the glass transition?

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marcio Luis Ferreira; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2010-11-07

    An analysis of the kinetic coefficient of crystal growth U(kin), recently proposed by Ediger et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 034709 (2008)], indicates that the Stokes-Einstein/Eyring (SE/E) equation does not describe the diffusion process controlling crystal growth rates in fragile glass-forming liquids. U(kin) was defined using the normal growth model and tested for crystal data for inorganic and organic liquids covering a viscosity range of about 10(4)-10(12) Pa  s. Here, we revisit their interesting finding considering two other models: the screw dislocation (SD) and the two-dimensional surface nucleated (2D) growth models for nine undercooled oxide liquids, in a wider temperature range, from slightly below the melting point down to the glass transition region T(g), thus covering a wider viscosity range: 10(1)-10(13) Pa  s. We then propose and use normalized kinetic coefficients (M(kin)) for the SD and 2D growth models. These new kinetic coefficients restore the ability of viscosity to describe the transport part of crystal growth rates (M(kin)∼1/η and ξ∼1) from low to moderate viscosities (η<10(6) Pa  s), and thus the SE/E equation works well in this viscosity range for all systems tested. For strong glasses, the SE/E equation works well from low to high viscosities, from the melting point down to T(g)! However, for at least three fragile liquids, diopside (kink at 1.08T(g), η=1.6×10(8) Pa  s), lead metasilicate (kink at 1.14T(g), η=4.3×10(6) Pa  s), and lithium disilicate (kink at 1.11T(g), η=1.6×10(8) Pa  s), there are clear signs of a breakdown of the SE/E equation at these higher viscosities. Our results corroborate the findings of Ediger et al. and demonstrate that viscosity data cannot be used to describe the transport part of the crystal growth (via the SE/E equation) in fragile glasses in the neighborhood of T(g).

  7. Surface structure and surface kinetics of InN grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy: A HREELS study

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, Ananta R. E-mail: anantaach@gmail.com; Thoms, Brian D.; Nepal, Neeraj; Eddy, Charles R.

    2015-03-15

    The surface bonding configuration and kinetics of hydrogen desorption from InN grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy have been investigated. High resolution electron energy loss spectra exhibited loss peaks assigned to a Fuchs–Kliewer surface phonon, N-N and N-H surface species. The surface N-N vibrations are attributed to surface defects. The observation of N-H but no In-H surface species suggested N-terminated InN. Isothermal desorption data were best fit by the first-order desorption kinetics with an activation energy of (0.88 ± 0.06) eV and pre-exponential factor of (1.5 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 5 }s{sup −1}.

  8. Defect Reduction in Epitaxial Growth using Superlattice Buffer Layers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    nocrnmr’Y end Wenoy &iV block number) PIEL GROUP SUS. OR. It. ABSTRACT (Coniw~ai. on wfeer ifwem’ end idenet by adacanumbori A A R . P 9 0GI O F O N U )cl...fully used as buffer layers to reduce dislocations originating Lett, 48, 281 (1986). 944 AppI . Phys. Lett., Vol. 49, No. 15. 13 October 1986 Bedair

  9. Defect Reduction in Epitaxial Growth Using Superlattice Buffer Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    Katsuyama, Y. J. Yang and S. M. Bedair, Electron Dev. Lett., vol. 8, p. 240, 1987. 0 -15 -" Journal of (ryOstal (io iih 77 (108(,) ,xQ 9i4 S9 North-I...layer facilitat the csea of Gaosu 3 (5% in H2) + 500 sccm of H , and ed cross-sectional thickness measurements. trimethylgallium (TMG) + 500 sccm of H

  10. Silicide layer growth rates in Mo/Si multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, R.S.; Stearns, D.G. ); Viliardos, M.A.; Kassner, M.E. ); Vernon, S.P. ); Cheng, Y. )

    1993-12-01

    The thermal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si multilayers was investigated by annealing studies at relatively low temperatures ([similar to]250--350 [degree]C) for various times (0.5--3000 h). Two distinct stages of thermally activated Mo/Si interlayer growth were found: a primary surge, followed by a (slower) secondary steady-state growth in which the interdiffusion coefficient is constant. The interdiffusion coefficients for the interlayer formed by deposition of Mo-on-Si are higher than those of the interlayer formed by deposition of Si-on-Mo. Assuming that the activation energy is constant, an extrapolation of our results to ambient temperature finds that interlayer growth is negligible, suggesting long-term thermal stability in soft-x-ray projection lithography applications.

  11. Recrystallization and Grain Growth Kinetics in Binary Alpha Titanium-Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trump, Anna Marie

    Titanium alloys are used in a variety of important naval and aerospace applications and often undergo thermomechanical processing which leads to recrystallization and grain growth. Both of these processes have a significant impact on the mechanical properties of the material. Therefore, understanding the kinetics of these processes is crucial to being able to predict the final properties. Three alloys are studied with varying concentrations of aluminum which allows for the direct quantification of the effect of aluminum content on the kinetics of recrystallization and grain growth. Aluminum is the most common alpha stabilizing alloying element used in titanium alloys, however the effect of aluminum on these processes has not been previously studied. This work is also part of a larger Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) effort whose goal is to combine both computational and experimental efforts to develop computationally efficient models that predict materials microstructure and properties based on processing history. The static recrystallization kinetics are measured using an electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique and a significant retardation in the kinetics is observed with increasing aluminum concentration. An analytical model is then used to capture these results and is able to successfully predict the effect of solute concentration on the time to 50% recrystallization. The model reveals that this solute effect is due to a combination of a decrease in grain boundary mobility and a decrease in driving force with increasing aluminum concentration. The effect of microstructural inhomogeneities is also experimentally quantified and the results are validated with a phase field model for recrystallization. These microstructural inhomogeneities explain the experimentally measured Avrami exponent, which is lower than the theoretical value calculated by the JMAK model. Similar to the effect seen in recrystallization, the addition of aluminum

  12. Relationship between grain boundary complexion and grain growth kinetics in alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Shen J.

    2007-12-01

    This work investigated the effect of different grain boundary phases (complexions) on the grain growth kinetics of doped and undoped aluminas. This was achieved by relating quantitative grain growth kinetics to high-resolution electron microscopy of the grain boundaries. It was found that there are 6 different regimes into which the grain growth kinetics may be categorized. These regimes corresponded to the existence of six different grain boundary complexions. Grain boundaries in alumina were observed to show sub-monolayer adsorption, 'clean' intrinsic behavior, bilayer adsorption, multilayer adsorption, equilibrium thickness intergranular films, and wetting intergranular films. These different grain boundary types are listed in order of increasing grain boundary mobility. In general there is an increase in grain boundary mobility with an increase in the disorder within the core of the grain boundary. This broad range of grain boundaries produces a multiplicity of different microstructural effects that until now have been difficult to understand experimentally or theoretically. For example, abnormal grain growth in alumina simply results from the coexistence of two or more different complexions within the same microstructure. Therefore, there may be multiple distinct types of normal and abnormal grain growth behavior. Transitions from one type of boundary to another are chemically and thermally activated, and depend on the crystallography of the adjacent grains. It is found that the number of transitions that occur increases linearly with increasing grain size, and exponentially with temperature. In this regard, different dopants produce very different effects, which appear to be the major role of most dopants in affecting the grain boundary transport kinetics. Low energy planes and grain boundaries are the least likely to undergo such transitions. This experimental data compliments some theoretical derivations within the literature and has provided new insight

  13. Growth kinetics of a diesel-degrading bacterial strain from petroleum-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, S F A; Yunus, I; Johari, W L W; Shukor, M Y; Halmi, M I E; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2014-03-01

    A diesel-degrading bacterium was isolated from a diesel-contaminated site in Selangor, Malaysia. The isolate was tentatively identified as Acinetobacter sp. strain DRY12 based on partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny and Biolog GN microplate panels and Microlog database. Optimum growth occurred from 3 to 5% diesel and the strain was able to tolerate as high as 8% diesel. The optimal pH that supported growth of the bacterium was between pH 7.5 to 8.0. The isolate exhibited optimal growth in between 30 and 35 degrees C. The best nitrogen source was potassium nitrate (between 0.6 and 0.9% (w/v)) followed by ammonium chloride, sodium nitrite and ammonium sulphate in descending order. An almost complete removal of diesel components was seen from the reduction in hydrocarbon peaks observed using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography analysis after 10 days of incubation. The best growth kinetic model to fit experimental data was the Haldane model of substrate inhibiting growth with a correlation coefficient value of 0.97. The maximum growth rate- micromax was 0.039 hr(-1) while the saturation constant or half velocity constant Ks and inhibition constant Ki, were 0.387% and 4.46%, respectively. MATH assays showed that 75% of the bacterium was found in the hexadecane phase indicating that the bacterium was hydrophobic. The characteristics of this bacterium make it useful for bioremediation works in the Tropics.

  14. Effects of spill-treating agents on growth kinetics of marine microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Murado, Miguel A; Menduiña, Araceli; Fuciños, Pablo; González, Pilar; Mirón, Jesús; Vázquez, José A

    2013-12-15

    The effects of four spill-treating agents (STAs) (CytoSol, Finasol(®) OSR 51, Agma OSD 569 and OD4000) on the growth kinetics of three marine microalgae (Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum) were studied. Chlorophyll a concentration and optical density at 700 nm were assessed to describe the logistic growth of algae in batch cultures. The optical density data were initially analyzed as described for standard algal growth inhibition tests and subsequently modelled by a bivariate model, as a function of time and dose, to assess the toxic effects on growth parameters. Increasing trends in EC50 and EC10 values with time were found with the standard approach. In 8 of the 11 tests, the lag phase (λ) or the time required to achieve half the maximum biomass (τ) was significantly dependent on the STA concentration. A global parameter (EC50,τ) was calculated to summarize the effects of STAs on growth parameters in the bivariate model. The ranking of sensitivity as EC50,τ values was I. galbana>C. gracilis>P. tricornutum. For all species tested, the least toxic agent was Agma OSD 569, followed by CytoSol. The mathematical model allowed successful ecotoxicological evaluation of chemicals on microalgal growth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface Stability and Growth Kinetics of Compound Semiconductors: An Ab Initio-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Toru; Ito, Tomonori; Shiraishi, Kenji; Nakayama, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We review the surface stability and growth kinetics of III-V and III-nitride semiconductors. The theoretical approach used in these studies is based on ab initio calculations and includes gas-phase free energy. With this method, we can investigate the influence of growth conditions, such as partial pressure and temperature, on the surface stability and growth kinetics. First, we examine the feasibility of this approach by comparing calculated surface phase diagrams of GaAs(001) with experimental results. In addition, the Ga diffusion length on GaAs(001) during molecular beam epitaxy is discussed. Next, this approach is systematically applied to the reconstruction, adsorption and incorporation on various nitride semiconductor surfaces. The calculated results for nitride semiconductor surface reconstructions with polar, nonpolar, and semipolar orientations suggest that adlayer reconstructions generally appear on the polar and the semipolar surfaces. However, the stable ideal surface without adsorption is found on the nonpolar surfaces because the ideal surface satisfies the electron counting rule. Finally, the stability of hydrogen and the incorporation mechanisms of Mg and C during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy are discussed. PMID:28811438

  16. Correlation between former alpha boundary growth kinetics and superplastic flow in Zn-22 pct Al

    SciTech Connect

    Yousefiani, A.; Mohamed, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    Former {alpha} boundaries (F{alpha}Bs) are residual grain boundaries that develop in Zn-22 pct Al during a heat treatment, which is normally applied to produce the fine structure necessary for micrograin superplasticity. They represent domains consisting of fine elongated {alpha} grains, which encompass groups of fine {alpha} (Al-rich) and {beta} (Zn-rich) phases (the superplastic microstructure). The results of a detailed investigation conducted on F{alpha}B growth kinetics in five grades of Zn-22 pct Al with various impurity contents reveal a direct correspondence between the level of impurities in the alloy and the characteristics associated with F{alpha}Bs (average size of F{alpha}Bs and the value of the F{alpha} B growth exponent). This correspondence, which, according to available evidence, is the result of impurity segregation at F{alpha}Bs, lends strong support to the interpretation of superplastic behavior at low stresses in terms of phenomena arising from boundary segregation. It is suggested that information on F{alpha}B growth kinetics in Zn-22 pct Al can be utilized to predict the low-stress superplastic characteristics of the alloy, such as the existence of region 1 or the occurrence of extensive cavitation.

  17. Controlling the Growth of Au on Icosahedral Seeds of Pd by Manipulating the Reduction Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Tian; Yang, Xuan; Zheng, Yiqun; Huang, Hongwen; Zhang, Lei; Tao, Jing; Pan, Likun; Xia, Younan

    2016-03-29

    This article reports a systematic study of how Au atoms nucleate and grow on Pd icosahedral seeds with a multiply twinned structure. By manipulating the reduction kinetics, we obtained Pd–Au bimetallic nanocrystals with two distinct shapes and structures. Specifically, Pd@Au core–shell icosahedra were formed when a relatively fast reduction rate was used for the HAuCl4 precursor. At a slow reduction rate, in contrast, the nucleation and growth of Au atoms were mainly confined to one of the vertices of a Pd icosahedral seed, resulting in the formation of a Au icosahedron by sharing five adjacent faces with the Pd seed. The same growth pattern was observed for Pd icosahedral seeds with both sizes of 32 and 20 nm. Also, we have also investigated the effects of other kinetic parameters, including the concentration of reducing agent and reaction temperature, on the growth pathway undertaken by the Au atoms. In conclusion, we believe that the mechanistic insights obtained from this study can be extended to other systems, including the involvement of different metals and/or seeds with different morphologies.

  18. Model-driven experimental evaluation of struvite nucleation, growth and aggregation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, S C; Schneider, P A; Flood, A E

    2014-06-01

    Nutrient stewardship is emerging as an issue of global importance, which will drive the development of nutrient recovery in the near to medium future. This will impact wastewater treatment practices, environmental protection, sustainable agriculture and global food security. A modelling framework for precipitation-based nutrient recovery systems has been developed, incorporating non-ideal solution thermodynamics, a dynamic mass balance and a dynamic population balance to track the development of the precipitating particles. The mechanisms of crystal nucleation and growth and, importantly, aggregation are considered. A novel approach to the population balance embeds the nucleation rate into the model, enabling direct regression of its kinetic parameters. The case study chosen for the modelling framework is that of struvite precipitation, given its wide interest and commercial promise as one possible nutrient recovery pathway. Power law kinetic parameters for nucleation, crystal growth and particle aggregation rates were regressed from an ensemble data set generated from 14 laboratory seeded batch experiments using synthetic solutions. These experiments were highly repeatable, giving confidence to the regressed parameter values. The model successfully describes the dynamic responses of solution pH, the evolving particle size distribution subject to nucleation, growth and aggregation effects and the aqueous magnesium concentration in the liquid phase. The proposed modelling framework could well be extended to other, more complex systems, leading to an improved understanding and commensurately greater confidence in the design, operation and optimisation of large-scale nutrient recovery processes from complex effluents.

  19. Controlling the Growth of Au on Icosahedral Seeds of Pd by Manipulating the Reduction Kinetics

    DOE PAGES

    Lv, Tian; Yang, Xuan; Zheng, Yiqun; ...

    2016-03-29

    This article reports a systematic study of how Au atoms nucleate and grow on Pd icosahedral seeds with a multiply twinned structure. By manipulating the reduction kinetics, we obtained Pd–Au bimetallic nanocrystals with two distinct shapes and structures. Specifically, Pd@Au core–shell icosahedra were formed when a relatively fast reduction rate was used for the HAuCl4 precursor. At a slow reduction rate, in contrast, the nucleation and growth of Au atoms were mainly confined to one of the vertices of a Pd icosahedral seed, resulting in the formation of a Au icosahedron by sharing five adjacent faces with the Pd seed.more » The same growth pattern was observed for Pd icosahedral seeds with both sizes of 32 and 20 nm. Also, we have also investigated the effects of other kinetic parameters, including the concentration of reducing agent and reaction temperature, on the growth pathway undertaken by the Au atoms. In conclusion, we believe that the mechanistic insights obtained from this study can be extended to other systems, including the involvement of different metals and/or seeds with different morphologies.« less

  20. The effect of Co alloying content on the kinetics of reaction zone growth in tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Tien, J. K.; Caulfield, T.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    A Co-free modified superalloy similar in composition to Waspaloy is investigated in an effort to understand the effect of Co on reaction zone growth kinetics and verify the chemistry dependence of reaction zone growth in the matrix of tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composites. The values of the parabolic rate constant, characterizing the kinetics of reaction zone growth, for the Waspaloy matrix and the C-free alloy as well as five other alloys from a previous study confirm the dependence of reaction zone growth kinetics on cobalt content of the matrix. The Co-free alloy composite exhibits the slowest reaction zone growth among all tungsten fiber reinforced composites studied to date.

  1. Kinetic boundary layers in gas mixtures: Systems described by nonlinearly coupled kinetic and hydrodynamic equations and applications to droplet condensation and evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, M.E.; Titulaer, U.M. )

    1993-03-01

    The authors consider a mixture of heavy vapor molecules and a light carrier gas surrounding a liquid droplet. The vapor is described by a variant of the Klein-Kramers equation; the gas is described by the Navier-Stokes equations; the droplet acts as a heat source due to the released heat of condensation. The exchange of momentum and energy between the constituents of the mixture is taken into account by force terms in the kinetic equation and source terms in the Navier-Stokes equations. These are chosen to obtain maximal agreement with the irreversible thermodynamics of a gas mixture. The structure of the kinetic boundary layer around the sphere is determined from the self-consistent solution of this set of coupled equations with appropriate boundary conditions at the surface of the sphere. The kinetic equation is rewritten as a set of coupled moment equations. A complete set of solutions of these moment equations is constructed by numerical integration inward from the region far away from the droplet, where the background inhomogeneities are small. A technique developed earlier is used to deal with the numerical instability of the moment equations. The solutions obtained for given temperature and pressure profiles in the gas are then combined linearly such that they obey the boundary conditions at the droplet surface; from this solution source terms for the Navier-Stokes equation of the gas are constructed and used to determine improved temperature and pressure profiles for the background gas. For not too large temperature differneces between the droplet and the gas at infinity, self-consistency is reached after a few iterations. The method is applied to the condensation of droplets from a supersaturated vapor as well as to strong evaporation of droplets under the influence of an external heat source, where corrections of up to 40% are obtained.

  2. Nutritional versatility and growth kinetics of an Aeromonas hydrophila strain isolated from drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    van der Kooij, D; Hijnen, W A

    1988-01-01

    The nutritional versatility and growth kinetics of Aeromonas hydrophila were studied to determine the nature and the growth-promoting properties of organic compounds which may serve as substrates for the growth of this organism in drinking water during treatment and distribution. As an initial screening, a total of 69 different organic compounds were tested at a concentration of 2.5 g/liter as growth substrates for 10 A. hydrophila strains. Of these strains, strain M800 attained the highest maximum colony counts in various types of drinking water and river water and was therefore used in further measurements of growth at low substrate concentrations. A mixture of 21 amino acids and a mixture of 10 long-chain fatty acids, when added to drinking water, promoted growth of strain M800 at individual compound concentrations as low as 0.1 microgram of C per liter. Mixtures of 18 carbohydrates and 18 carboxylic acids clearly enhanced growth of the organism at individual compound concentrations above 1 microgram of C per liter. Growth measurements with 63 individual substrates at a concentration of 10 micrograms of C per liter gave growth rates of greater than or equal to 0.1/h with two amino acids, nine carbohydrates, and six long-chain fatty acids. Ks values were determined for arginine (less than or equal to 0.3 micrograms of C per liter), glucose (15.9 micrograms of C per liter), acetate (11.1 micrograms of C per liter), and oleate (2.1 micrograms of C per liter). The data obtained indicate that biomass components, such as amino acids and long-chain fatty acids, can promote multiplication of aeromonads in drinking water distribution systems at concentrations as low as a few micrograms per liter. PMID:3214162

  3. A kinetic model for the transport of electrons in a graphene layer

    SciTech Connect

    Fermanian Kammerer, Clotilde; Méhats, Florian

    2016-12-15

    In this article, we propose a new numerical scheme for the computation of the transport of electrons in a graphene device. The underlying quantum model for graphene is a massless Dirac equation, whose eigenvalues display a conical singularity responsible for non-adiabatic transitions between the two modes. We first derive a kinetic model which takes the form of two Boltzmann equations coupled by a collision operator modeling the non-adiabatic transitions. This collision term includes a Landau–Zener transfer term and a jump operator whose presence is essential in order to ensure a good energy conservation during the transitions. We propose an algorithmic realization of the semi-group solving the kinetic model, by a particle method. We give analytic justification of the model and propose a series of numerical experiments studying the influences of the various sources of errors between the quantum and the kinetic models.

  4. A kinetic model for the transport of electrons in a graphene layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermanian Kammerer, Clotilde; Méhats, Florian

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we propose a new numerical scheme for the computation of the transport of electrons in a graphene device. The underlying quantum model for graphene is a massless Dirac equation, whose eigenvalues display a conical singularity responsible for non-adiabatic transitions between the two modes. We first derive a kinetic model which takes the form of two Boltzmann equations coupled by a collision operator modeling the non-adiabatic transitions. This collision term includes a Landau-Zener transfer term and a jump operator whose presence is essential in order to ensure a good energy conservation during the transitions. We propose an algorithmic realization of the semi-group solving the kinetic model, by a particle method. We give analytic justification of the model and propose a series of numerical experiments studying the influences of the various sources of errors between the quantum and the kinetic models.

  5. Layer-by-Layer Polyelectrolyte Assisted Growth of 2D Ultrathin MoS2 Nanosheets on Various 1D Carbons for Superior Li-Storage.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qunting; Qian, Feng; Yang, Siming; Gao, Tian; Liu, Weijie; Shao, Jie; Zheng, Honghe

    2016-01-20

    Transitional metal sulfide/carbon hybrids with well-defined structures could not only maximize the functional properties of each constituent but engender some unique synergistic effects, holding great promise for applications in Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors and for catalysis. Herein, a facile and versatile approach is developed to controllably grow 2D ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets with a large quantity of exposed edges onto various 1D carbons, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), electrospun carbon nanofibers, and Te-nanowire-templated carbon nanofibers. The typical approach involves the employment of layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembled polyelectrolyte, which controls spatially the uniform growth and orientation of ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets on these 1D carbons irrespective of their surface properties. Such unique structures of the as-prepared CNTs@MoS2 hybrid are significantly favorable for the fast diffusions of both Li-ions and electrons, satisfying the kinetic requirements of high-power lithium ion batteries. As a result, CNTs@MoS2 hybrids exhibit excellent electrochemical performances for lithium storage, including a high reversible capacity (1027 mAh g(-1)), high-rate capability (610 mAh g(-1) at 5 C), and excellent cycling stability (negligible capacity loss after 200 continuous cycles).

  6. Heat and turbulent kinetic energy budgets for surface layer cooling induced by the passage of Hurricane Frances (2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Peisheng; Sanford, Thomas B.; Imberger, JöRg

    2009-12-01

    Heat and turbulent kinetic energy budgets of the ocean surface layer during the passage of Hurricane Frances were examined using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. In situ data obtained with the Electromagnetic-Autonomous Profiling Explorer (EM-APEX) floats were used to set up the initial conditions of the model simulation and to compare to the simulation results. The spatial heat budgets reveal that during the hurricane passage, not only the entrainment in the bottom of surface mixed layer but also the horizontal water advection were important factors determining the spatial pattern of sea surface temperature. At the free surface, the hurricane-brought precipitation contributed a negligible amount to the air-sea heat exchange, but the precipitation produced a negative buoyancy flux in the surface layer that overwhelmed the instability induced by the heat loss to the atmosphere. Integrated over the domain within 400 km of the hurricane eye on day 245.71 of 2004, the rate of heat anomaly in the surface water was estimated to be about 0.45 PW (1 PW = 1015 W), with about 20% (0.09 PW in total) of this was due to the heat exchange at the air-sea interface, and almost all the remainder (0.36 PW) was downward transported by oceanic vertical mixing. Shear production was the major source of turbulent kinetic energy amounting 88.5% of the source of turbulent kinetic energy, while the rest (11.5%) was attributed to the wind stirring at sea surface. The increase of ocean potential energy due to vertical mixing represented 7.3% of the energy deposited by wind stress.

  7. Effects of film growth kinetics on grain coarsening and grain shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, F. D. A. Aarão

    2017-04-01

    We study models of grain nucleation and coarsening during the deposition of a thin film using numerical simulations and scaling approaches. The incorporation of new particles in the film is determined by lattice growth models in three different universality classes, with no effect of the grain structure. The first model of grain coarsening is similar to that proposed by Saito and Omura [Phys. Rev. E 84, 021601 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.021601], in which nucleation occurs only at the substrate, and the grain boundary evolution at the film surface is determined by a probabilistic competition of neighboring grains. The surface grain density has a power-law decay, with an exponent related to the dynamical exponent of the underlying growth kinetics, and the average radius of gyration scales with the film thickness with the same exponent. This model is extended by allowing nucleation of new grains during the deposition, with constant but small rates. The surface grain density crosses over from the initial power law decay to a saturation; at the crossover, the time, grain mass, and surface grain density are estimated as a function of the nucleation rate. The distributions of grain mass, height, and radius of gyration show remarkable power law decays, similar to other systems with coarsening and particle injection, with exponents also related to the dynamical exponent. The scaling of the radius of gyration with the height h relative to the base of the grain show clearly different exponents in growth dominated by surface tension and growth dominated by surface diffusion; thus it may be interesting for investigating the effects of kinetic roughening on grain morphology. In growth dominated by surface diffusion, the increase of grain size with temperature is observed.

  8. Hydromagnesite solubility product and growth kinetics in aqueous solution from 25 to 75 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, Quentin; Bénézeth, Pascale; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Schott, Jacques

    2014-08-01

    Hydromagnesite Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O is the most widespread form of hydrated Mg-carbonate minerals. To better understand the factors controlling the precipitation of hydrated Mg-carbonates, we measured hydromagnesite solubility product at 25 and 50 °C and its growth rate between 25 and 75 °C, using natural hydromagnesite from a cave as seed material. The solubility products values derived in this study, Ksp-Hmgs = -37.08 ± 0.50 and -38.90 ± 0.54 at 25 and 50 °C, respectively, are in the upper range of published values. Hydromagnesite growth rate normalized to the BET surface area at 8 ⩽ pH ⩽ 10 is consistent with the direct and reversible attachment of the reactants at the solid surface being rate-limiting. It may be described by: RHmgs=A0·e(ΩHmgs1/5-1) where A0, the pre-exponential factor, and Ea, the activation energy, are equal to 5.12 × 10-7 mol/cm2/s and 45.5 ± 9 kJ/mol, respectively, and ΩHmgs stands for the saturation state of the solution with respect to hydromagnesite. Comparison of hydromagnesite growth rates with recently published magnesite growth rates (Saldi et al., 2009, 2012) show that: (1) hydromagnesite apparent growth activation energy is lower by more than 100 kJ/mol compared to the activation energy for magnesite obtuse step advancement, and (2) hydromagnesite growth rate constant extrapolated to 90 °C is 2.5 orders of magnitude higher than corresponding magnesite growth rate constant. Thus, our results confirm the long-standing hypothesis that the slow dehydration kinetics of the Mg2+ cation is responsible for the sluggish magnesite formation at low temperature, and that the kinetic barrier for hydromagnesite growth is much lower. Nevertheless, simulation of hydromagnesite and magnesite growth rates as a function of solution composition at 50 and 90 °C, and pH 7 and 9 reveal that, because of its much higher solubility, hydromagnesite would grow more quickly than magnesite in natural or industrial environments only at 50 °C and

  9. Growth kinetics of physical vapor transport processes: Crystal growth of the optoelectronic material mercurous chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Duval, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    Physical vapor transport processes were studied for the purpose of identifying the magnitude of convective effects on the crystal growth process. The effects of convection on crystal quality were were studied by varying the aspect ratio and those thermal conditions which ultimately affect thermal convection during physical vapor transport. An important outcome of the present study was the observation that the convection growth rate increased up to a certain value and then dropped to a constant value for high aspect ratios. This indicated that a very complex transport had occurred which could not be explained by linear stability theory. Better quality crystals grown at a low Rayleigh number confirmed that improved properties are possible in convectionless environments.

  10. Effect of grain orientations of Cu seed layers on the growth of <111>-oriented nanotwinned Cu

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chien-Min; Lin, Han-Wen; Lu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Chih

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the growth of Cu films on two different Cu seed layers: one with regular <111>-oriented grains and the other with very strong <111>-preferred orientation. It is found that densely-packed nanotwinned Cu (nt-Cu) can be grown by pulsed electroplating on the strong <111>-oriented Cu seed layer without a randomly-oriented transition layer between the nt-Cu and the Cu seed layer. The electroplated nt-Cu grow almost epitaxially on the seed layer and formed <111>-oriented columnar structures. However, with the regular <111>-oriented Cu seed, there is a randomly-oriented transition layer between the nt-Cu and the regular <111>-oriented Cu seed. The results indicate that the seed layer plays a crucial role on the regularity of <111>-oriented nanotwinned Cu. PMID:25134840

  11. In-situ kinetics study on the growth of expanded austenite in AISI 316L stainless steels by XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh-Michels, Zoltán; Faeht, Alexander; Kleiner, Simon; von Känel, Adrian; Rufer, Jean-Martin; Dommann, Alex; Margraf, Patrick; Tschopp, Gerhard; Neels, Antonia

    2017-07-01

    The formation of expanded austenite in Cr-Ni austenitic stainless steels like AISI 316L is not completely understood despite its technological relevance. In this work, we present an in-situ X-ray diffraction study on the growth kinetics of the expanded austenite. We applied a low-temperature nitrocarburizing treatment using a mixture of NH3, N2, H2, and C2H4 gases at atmospheric pressures in a novel and custom built chamber attached to a Bruker D8 Advance diffractometer. The nitrocarburizing temperature was varied between 340 and 440 °C, and the possible effects of the gas amount were also tested. The thickness of the growing layer was determined from the shrinkage of the unmodified austenite peak. The growth rate coefficient was calculated using the linear-parabolic equation. The resulting coefficients follow the Arrhenius law with the activation energy of 165 ± 12 kJ/mol. This value is in good agreement with the diffusion activation energy for heavy interstitials like carbon and nitrogen. The expanded austenite peak was modelled by a multilayer approach, where each 0.5 μm sublayer has a constant lattice parameter. The lattice expansion is analyzed as a function of the Boltzmann-variable (η = 0.5 × t-1/2). The expanded austenite layer in this metric has a constant width. Furthermore by rescaling with the lattice expansion of the first sublayer, it is possible to create a scale-independent master curve. These findings indicate that thickening of the expanded austenite is purely diffusion controlled, while the extent of strain is set by the uptake rate of the gas atoms.

  12. Chemical etching of copper foils for single-layer graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshihara, Naoki; Noda, Masaru

    2017-10-01

    Chemical etching on copper surface is essential as a pre-treatment for single-layer graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Here, we investigated the effect of chemical etching treatment on copper foils for single-layer graphene CVD growth. The chemical etching conditions, such as the type of chemical etchants and the treatment time, were found to strongly influence the graphene domain size. Moreover, a drastic change in the layer structure of graphene sheets, which was attributed to the surface morphology of the etched copper foil, was confirmed by graphene transmittance and Raman mapping measurements.

  13. The kinetic scale structure of the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer: Implications of collisionless magnetic reconnection and first MMS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorelli, J.; Gershman, D. J.; Avanov, L. A.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Nakamura, R.; Chen, L. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Gliese, U.; Barrie, A. C.; Holland, M. P.; Chandler, M. O.; Coffey, V. N.; MacDonald, E.; Salo, C.; Dickson, C.; Saito, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; Burch, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between magnetic reconnection and the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer (PSBL) is still an open problem in magnetospheric physics. While one can understand observed PSBL velocity distributions on the basis of a simple steady state drift-kinetic model with prescribed electric and magnetic fields (e.g., Onsager et al. [1990,1991]), such models do not incorporate the kinetic scale dynamics at the reconnection site. For example, Shay et al. [2011] have argued that the out-of-plane quadrupole magnetic field pattern at the reconnection site can be viewed as an obliquely propagating kinetic Alfvén wave with very large parallel group velocity, the implication being that the field-aligned current structure should quickly become global, though still confined to field lines connected to the ion diffusion region at the reconnection site. This raises the very interesting question: How would such a global wave structure appear in the PSBL on the kinetic scale? Here, we present some first observations of the PSBL by NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission where Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) Burst Data (30 ms and 150 ms resolution for 3D electron and ion velocity distributions, respectively) is available during intervals where lower resolution (4.5 s) Fast Survey distributions showed evidence of connection to a remote reconnection site. This allows us to test for the first time whether the quadrupole magnetic field structure near the reconnection site -- a local structure already observed by previous spacecraft -- does indeed support a global field-aligned current pattern around the magnetic separatrix. We will also probe for the first time the electron kinetic scale sub-structure of the PSBL and compare with electron-scale features observed near the magnetic separatrix at the dayside magnetopause.

  14. Growth of HgZnTe Layers by LPE Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Solid solution mixtures of a wide band gap II-VI compound with one constituent being the semimetal HgTe may be tuned to yield narrow gap...experimental research into the narrow band gap range of this solid solution . In the present work the LPE of Hg1-xZnxTe was studied, focusing on the...evaluation of this technique as a tool for achieving epitaxial layers of the ’new material’, the solid solution Hg1-xZnxTe, with morphological, crystalline

  15. Three-layered architecture of the popliteal fascia that acts as a kinetic retinaculum for the hamstring muscles.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Masahiro; Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Akira; Hitomi, Jiro; Isogai, Sumio

    2016-09-01

    When patients report pain in the popliteal fossa upon knee extension, the pain is usually localized in the lower region of the popliteal fossa. However, some patients complain of pain in the upper region of the popliteal fossa as the knee is flexed, which motivated us to examine the role of the popliteal fascia as the retinaculum of the hamstring muscles. Thirty-four thighs from 19 Japanese cadavers were dissected. The popliteal fascia was defined as the single aponeurotic sheet covering the popliteal fossa. We found that the fascia acted as a three-layered retinaculum for the flexor muscles of the thigh and provided a secure route for neurovascular structures to the lower leg in any kinetic position of the knee joint. The superficial layer of the popliteal fascia covering the thigh was strongly interwoven with the epimysium of biceps femoris along its lateral aspect and with that of the semimembranosus along its medial aspect, ensuring that the flexor muscles remained in their correct positions. The intermediate layer arose from the medial side of biceps femoris and merged medially with the superficial layer. The profound layer stretched transversely between the biceps femoris and the semimembranosus. Moreover, we investigated the nerve distribution in the popliteal fascia using Sihler's staining and whole-mount immunostaining for neurofilaments. The three-layered fascia was constantly innervated by branches from the posterior femoral cutaneous or saphenous nerve. The nerves were closely related and distributed to densely packed collagen fibers in the superficial layer as free or encapsulated nerve endings, suggesting that the fascia is involved in pain in the upper region of the popliteal fossa.

  16. Determination of outer layer and bulk dehydration kinetics of trehalose dihydrate using atomic force microscopy, gravimetric vapour sorption and near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew D; Beezer, Anthony E; Buckton, Graham

    2008-10-01

    Knowledge of the kinetics of solid state reactions is important when considering the stability of many medicines. Potentially, such reactions could follow different kinetics on the surface of particles when compared with their interior, yet solid state processes are routinely followed using only bulk characterisation techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has previously been shown to be a suitable technique for the investigation of surface processes, but has not been combined with bulk techniques in order to analyse surface and bulk kinetics separately. This report therefore describes the investigation of the outer layer and bulk kinetics of the dehydration of trehalose dihydrate at ambient temperature and low humidity, using AFM, dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR). The use of AFM enabled the dehydration kinetics of the outer layers to be determined both directly and from bulk data. There were no significant differences between the outer layer dehydration kinetics determined using these methods. AFM also enabled the bulk-only kinetics to be analysed from the DVS and NIR data. These results suggest that the combination of AFM and bulk characterisation techniques should enable a more complete understanding of the kinetics of certain solid state reactions to be achieved. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  17. Dynamic Scaling and Island Growth Kinetics in Pulsed Laser Deposition of SrTiO3

    DOE PAGES

    Eres, Gyula; Tischler, J. Z.; Rouleau, C. M.; ...

    2016-11-11

    We use real-time diffuse surface x-ray diffraction to probe the evolution of island size distributions and its effects on surface smoothing in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of SrTiO3. In this study, we show that the island size evolution obeys dynamic scaling and two distinct regimes of island growth kinetics. Our data show that PLD film growth can persist without roughening despite thermally driven Ostwald ripening, the main mechanism for surface smoothing, being shut down. The absence of roughening is concomitant with decreasing island density, contradicting the prevailing view that increasing island density is the key to surface smoothing in PLD.more » We also report a previously unobserved crossover from diffusion-limited to attachment-limited island growth that reveals the influence of nonequilibrium atomic level surface transport processes on the growth modes in PLD. We show by direct measurements that attachment-limited island growth is the dominant process in PLD that creates step flowlike behavior or quasistep flow as PLD “self-organizes” local step flow on a length scale consistent with the substrate temperature and PLD parameters.« less

  18. Dynamic Scaling and Island Growth Kinetics in Pulsed Laser Deposition of SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eres, Gyula; Tischler, J. Z.; Rouleau, C. M.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Christen, H. M.; Zschack, P.; Larson, B. C.

    2016-11-01

    We use real-time diffuse surface x-ray diffraction to probe the evolution of island size distributions and its effects on surface smoothing in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of SrTiO3 . We show that the island size evolution obeys dynamic scaling and two distinct regimes of island growth kinetics. Our data show that PLD film growth can persist without roughening despite thermally driven Ostwald ripening, the main mechanism for surface smoothing, being shut down. The absence of roughening is concomitant with decreasing island density, contradicting the prevailing view that increasing island density is the key to surface smoothing in PLD. We also report a previously unobserved crossover from diffusion-limited to attachment-limited island growth that reveals the influence of nonequilibrium atomic level surface transport processes on the growth modes in PLD. We show by direct measurements that attachment-limited island growth is the dominant process in PLD that creates step flowlike behavior or quasistep flow as PLD "self-organizes" local step flow on a length scale consistent with the substrate temperature and PLD parameters.

  19. Predicting crystal growth via a unified kinetic three-dimensional partition model.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael W; Gebbie-Rayet, James T; Hill, Adam R; Farida, Nani; Attfield, Martin P; Cubillas, Pablo; Blatov, Vladislav A; Proserpio, Davide M; Akporiaye, Duncan; Arstad, Bjørnar; Gale, Julian D

    2017-04-03

    Understanding and predicting crystal growth is fundamental to the control of functionality in modern materials. Despite investigations for more than one hundred years, it is only recently that the molecular intricacies of these processes have been revealed by scanning probe microscopy. To organize and understand this large amount of new information, new rules for crystal growth need to be developed and tested. However, because of the complexity and variety of different crystal systems, attempts to understand crystal growth in detail have so far relied on developing models that are usually applicable to only one system. Such models cannot be used to achieve the wide scope of understanding that is required to create a unified model across crystal types and crystal structures. Here we describe a general approach to understanding and, in theory, predicting the growth of a wide range of crystal types, including the incorporation of defect structures, by simultaneous molecular-scale simulation of crystal habit and surface topology using a unified kinetic three-dimensional partition model. This entails dividing the structure into 'natural tiles' or Voronoi polyhedra that are metastable and, consequently, temporally persistent. As such, these units are then suitable for re-construction of the crystal via a Monte Carlo algorithm. We demonstrate our approach by predicting the crystal growth of a diverse set of crystal types, including zeolites, metal-organic frameworks, calcite, urea and l-cystine.

  20. Influence of heavy metals on microbial growth kinetics including lag time: mathematical modeling and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Sengör, S Sevinç; Barua, Sutapa; Gikas, Petros; Ginn, Timothy R; Peyton, Brent; Sani, Rajesh K; Spycher, Nicolas F

    2009-10-01

    Heavy metals can significantly affect the kinetics of substrate biodegradation and microbial growth, including lag times and specific growth rates. A model to describe microbial metabolic lag as a function of the history of substrate concentration has been previously described by Wood et al. (Water Resour Res 31:553-563) and Ginn (Water Resour Res 35:1395-1408). In the present study, this model is extended by including the effect of heavy metals on metabolic lag by developing an inhibitor-dependent functional to account for the metabolic state of the microorganisms. The concentration of the inhibiting metal is explicitly incorporated into the functional. The validity of the model is tested against experimental data on the effects of zinc on Pseudomonas species isolated from Lake Coeur d'Alene sediments, Idaho, U.S.A., as well as the effects of nickel or cobalt on a mixed microbial culture collected from the aeration tank of a wastewater treatment plant in Athens, Greece. The simulations demonstrate the ability to incorporate the effect of metals on metabolism through lag, yield coefficient, and specific growth rates. The model includes growth limitation due to insufficient transfer of oxygen into the growth medium.

  1. Predicting crystal growth via a unified kinetic three-dimensional partition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Michael W.; Gebbie-Rayet, James T.; Hill, Adam R.; Farida, Nani; Attfield, Martin P.; Cubillas, Pablo; Blatov, Vladislav A.; Proserpio, Davide M.; Akporiaye, Duncan; Arstad, Bjørnar; Gale, Julian D.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding and predicting crystal growth is fundamental to the control of functionality in modern materials. Despite investigations for more than one hundred years, it is only recently that the molecular intricacies of these processes have been revealed by scanning probe microscopy. To organize and understand this large amount of new information, new rules for crystal growth need to be developed and tested. However, because of the complexity and variety of different crystal systems, attempts to understand crystal growth in detail have so far relied on developing models that are usually applicable to only one system. Such models cannot be used to achieve the wide scope of understanding that is required to create a unified model across crystal types and crystal structures. Here we describe a general approach to understanding and, in theory, predicting the growth of a wide range of crystal types, including the incorporation of defect structures, by simultaneous molecular-scale simulation of crystal habit and surface topology using a unified kinetic three-dimensional partition model. This entails dividing the structure into ‘natural tiles’ or Voronoi polyhedra that are metastable and, consequently, temporally persistent. As such, these units are then suitable for re-construction of the crystal via a Monte Carlo algorithm. We demonstrate our approach by predicting the crystal growth of a diverse set of crystal types, including zeolites, metal-organic frameworks, calcite, urea and L-cystine.

  2. Changes in cell-cycle kinetics responsible for limiting somatic growth in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Maria; Parker, Elizabeth A.; Muller, Tessa J. M.; Haenen, Caroline; Mistry, Maanasi; Finkielstain, Gabriela P.; Murphy-Ryan, Maureen; Barnes, Kevin M.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Baron, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, the rate of somatic growth is rapid in early postnatal life but then slows with age, approaching zero as the animal approaches adult body size. To investigate the underlying changes in cell-cycle kinetics, [methyl-3H]thymidine and 5’-bromo-2’deoxyuridine were used to double-label proliferating cells in 1-, 2-, and 3-week-old mice for four weeks. Proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells and hepatocytes decreased with age. The average cell-cycle time did not increase in liver and increased only 1.7 fold in kidney. The fraction of cells in S-phase that will divide again declined approximately 10 fold with age. Concurrently, average cell area increased approximately 2 fold. The findings suggest that somatic growth deceleration primarily results not from an increase in cell-cycle time but from a decrease in growth fraction (fraction of cells that continue to proliferate). During the deceleration phase, cells appear to reach a proliferative limit and undergo their final cell divisions, staggered over time. Concomitantly, cells enlarge to a greater volume, perhaps because they are relieved of the size constraint imposed by cell division. In conclusion, a decline in growth fraction with age causes somatic growth deceleration and thus sets a fundamental limit on adult body size. PMID:18535488

  3. Growth behavior and kinetics of self-assembled silica-carbonate biomorphs.

    PubMed

    Kellermeier, Matthias; Melero-García, Emilio; Glaab, Fabian; Eiblmeier, Josef; Kienle, Lorenz; Rachel, Reinhard; Kunz, Werner; García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2012-02-20

    Upon slow crystallization from silica-containing solutions or gels at elevated pH, alkaline-earth carbonates spontaneously self-assemble into remarkable nanocrystalline ultrastructures. These so-called silica biomorphs exhibit curved morphologies beyond crystallographic symmetry and ordered textures reminiscent of the hierarchical design found in many biominerals. The formation of these fascinating materials is thought to be driven by a dynamic coupling of the components' speciations in solution, which causes concerted autocatalytic mineralization of silica-stabilized nanocrystals over hours. In the present work, we have studied the precipitation kinetics of this unique system by determining growth rates of individual aggregates using video microscopy, and correlated the results with time-dependent data on the concentration of metal ions and pH acquired online during crystallization. In this manner, insight to the evolution of chemical conditions during growth was gained. It is shown that crystallization proceeds linearly with time and is essentially reaction controlled, which fits well in the proposed morphogenetic scenario, and thus, indirectly supports it. Measurements of the silica concentration in solution, combined with analyses of crystal aggregates isolated at distinct stages of morphogenesis, further demonstrate that the fraction of silica coprecipitated with carbonate during active growth is rather small. We discuss our findings with respect to the role of silica in the formation of biomorphs, and moreover, prove that the external silica skins that occasionally sheath the aggregates--previously supposed to be involved in the growth mechanism--originate from secondary precipitation after growth is already terminated.

  4. Kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis growth on high glucose concentrations.

    PubMed

    Berbert-Molina, M A; Prata, A M R; Pessanha, L G; Silveira, M M

    2008-11-01

    The kinetic and general growth features of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis were evaluated. Initial glucose concentration (S0) in fermentation media varied from 10 to 152 g/l. The results afforded to characterize four morphologically and physiologically well-defined culture phases, independent of S0 values: Phase I, vegetative growth; Phase II, transition to sporulation; Phase III, sporulation; and Phase IV, spores maturation and cell lysis. Important process parameters were also determined. The maximum specific growth rates (microX,m) were not affected with S0 up to 75 g/l (1.0-1.1 per hour), but higher glucose concentrations resulted in growth inhibition by substrate, revealed by a reduction in microX,m values. These higher S0 values led to longer Phases III and IV and delayed sporulation. Similar biomass concentrations (Xm=15.2-15.9 g/l) were achieved with S0 over 30.8 g/l, with increasing residual substrate, suggesting a limitation in some other nutrients and the use of glucose to form other metabolites. In this case, with S0 from 30.8 to 152 g/l, cell yield (YX/S) decreased from 0.58 to 0.41 g/g. On the other hand, with S0=10 g/l growth was limited by substrate, and YX/S has shown its maximum value (0.83 g/g).

  5. Unravelling the ``Silicene'' Growth Mechanism Based on a Seeding Layer Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei; Zhou, Miao; Liu, Feng; Feng Liu Team

    Unlike sp2 graphene, silicon atoms prefer to form sp3 hybridized state that gives silicene a buckled geometry. To study how to grow flat silicene, we have investigated the structure and stability of multi-layer ``silicene'' using ab initiomethods by introducing a ``seeding layer'' of silicene on which additional ``silicene'' layers are grown. The buckling height and the isotropic strain of the seeding layer is shown to play a key in affecting the structure, in particular the flatness of the growing layers. A phase diagram in the parameter space of buckling height and in-plane strain of the seeding layer is constructed to guide the growth of additional ``silicene'' layer. Furthermore, in contrast to monolayer silicene growth on Ag substrate which exhibits various patterns, only the √3- √3 pattern is found stable using large supercell calculations. Our calculations suggest that thermodynamically no silicene structures can survive beyond three layers. These results will shed useful lights on experimental growth of flat and low-buckled silicene and help explain existing experimental results. This work was support by NSF-MRSEC (Grant # DMR-1121252) and DOE-BES (Grant # DE-FG02-o4ER46148).

  6. Simulating the growth process of aromatic polyamide layer by monomer concentration controlling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yan; Liang, Songmiao; Wu, Zongce; Cai, Zhiqi; Zhao, Ning

    2014-09-01

    With the wide distribution and gradual increase of TMC concentration (CTMC) from 1 × 10-4 wt% to 2.5 × 10-1 wt%, the main purpose of this work is to simulate the surface structure and properties of polyamide layer of reverse osmosis membranes at its different growth stage. The surface structure and properties of the resulted membranes were then characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, drop shape analysis system and electrokinetic analyzer. The structure growth of polyamide layer underwent in turn three different stages including spherical aggregator, leaf-like and typical ridge-valley structure. Spherical aggregator is the intrinsic structure in the inner layer of polyamide while leaf-like structure is transitional on the outmost polyamide layer. Furthermore, to clarify the effect of the structure change on the properties of polyamide layer, contact angle and zeta potential in the surface of polyamide layer were studied. Hydrophilic surface of polyamide layer is accessible at higher TMC concentration because of the presence of negative charged groups. Performances of the membranes were further measured with an emphasis on studying its structure-performance relationship during the growth process of polyamide layer.

  7. Characterization and growth of epitaxial layers of Gs exhibiting high resistivity for ionic implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Either classical or low temperature epitaxial growth techniques can be used to control the deposition of buffer layers of GaAs on semiconducting substrates and to obtain the resistivity and purity desired. Techniques developed to study, as a function of thickness, the evolution of mobilities by photoHall, and the spectroscopy of shallow and deep centers by cathodoluminescence and current transients reveal one very pure layer of medium resistivity and high mobility, and another "dead layer" of elevated resistivity far from the surface. The highly resistive layer remains pure over several microns, which appears interesting for implantation.

  8. Growth and Magnetic Properties of Mn-doped Germanium near the Kinetic Solubility Limit

    SciTech Connect

    Ozer, Mustafa M; Thompson, James R; Weitering, Harm H

    2012-01-01

    Growth of high-quality dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) material is often compromised by the low solubility of magnetic dopants, leading to formation of precipitates. Here, we explore the feasibility of growing precipitate-free Mn-doped Ge at doping levels near the kinetic solubility limit. Ge:Mn DMS films were grown at low temperature so as to minimize precipitate formation. Meanwhile, epitaxial quality was maintained by employing a very low growth rate. The magnetic properties of these lightly doped films exhibit both interesting contrasts and similarities with those of heavily-doped DMS reported in the literature, indicating that the substitutional Mn contents are very similar. Films grown at 95 degree C are free of intermetallic precipitates, offering useful opportunities for studying the fundamentals of carrier mediated exchange and metal insulator transitions without complications arising from precipitate formation.

  9. Growth kinetics of racemic heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid nanowires on calcite (104)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einax, Mario; Richter, Tobias; Nimmrich, Markus; Rahe, Philipp; Stará, Irena G.; Starý, Ivo; Kühnle, Angelika; Maass, Philipp

    2016-10-01

    Molecular self-assembly of racemic heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid on a dielectric substrate at room temperature can be used to generate wire-like organic nanostructures consisting of single and double molecular rows. By means of non-contact atomic force microscopy, we investigate the growth of the wire-like pattern after deposition by experimental and theoretical means. From analyzing the time dependence of the mean row length, two distinct regimes were found. At the early post-deposition stage, the mean length grows in time. Subsequently, a crossover to a second regime is observed, where the mean row length remains nearly constant. We explain these findings by a mean-field rate equation approach providing a comprehensive picture of the growth kinetics. As a result, we demonstrate that the crossover between the two distinct regimes is accomplished by vanishing of the homochiral single rows. At later stages only heterochiral double row structures remain.

  10. [Kinetic patterns in the growth of transplantable mouse tumor RShM-1].

    PubMed

    Svinogeeva, T P; Konopliannikov, A G; Shtein, L V

    1976-01-01

    Under study was the kinetics of growth of cervical cancer (CCM-1) transplanted on mice CBA, also the mitotic cycle and diurnal activity of tumor cells division. The tumor growth can well be described with the Hompertz equation, the constants of acceleration and retardation being equal to 0.34 day-1 and 0.004 day-1 accordingly. A linear dependence between the size, weight and number of CCM-1 celos is shown. In the tumor under study a persistant diurnal rhythm of the cell division was found with the maximum at 7 and 19 hours and the minimum at 13. The basis parameters of the mitotic cycle of tumor cells were determined: Tc=17.8 hr., G2 approximately 40 min.; S=9 hr., M approximately 24 min., G1 approximately 18.4 hr. The time of tumor doubling was 48.7 hr. The cell loss factor is as much as 42.1 per cent.

  11. Experimental Studies of the Growth Kinetics of Methane Clathrate Hydrates & Superfluid Hydrodynamics on the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botimer, Jeffrey David

    This thesis details the experimental findings of three distinct research projects. The first studies the growth kinetics of methane clathrate hydrates grown under the influence of multiple factors including surfactants, porous media, substrate wetting properties, and salt content. The second investigates the flow behaviors of superfluid helium through single, high aspect ratio nanopipes. The third models the frequency response of a quartz tuning fork in high pressure normal and superfluid helium and demonstrates how quartz tuning forks can be used as cheap, small, in situ, cryogenic pressure gauges. The first project reports studies of the kinetics of growth of methane hydrates from liquid water containing small amounts of surfactant (<500 ppm of sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS). The kinetics are monitored using simultaneous measurements of the uptake of methane detected by a pressure drop in the gas phase, and either visual observations of the amount of liquid water and solid phase in the reaction vessel, or in situ micro-Raman measurements or in situ NMR measurements. These diagnostics show that the uptake of methane and the conversion of liquid water to a solid phase do not occur simultaneously; the uptake of gas always lags the visual and spectroscopic signatures of the disappearance of liquid water and the formation of solid. The evidence suggests that the SDS causes water to form an intermediate immobile solid-like state before combining with the methane to form hydrate. The growth mechanism is related to the surfactant and disappears for low SDS concentrations (<25 ppm). Also reported are studies of the growth rates of methane hydrates as a function of substrate wetting properties, driving force, and growth media. The second project studies pressure driven flow of superfluid helium through single high aspect ratio glass nanopipes into a vacuum has been studied for a wide range of pressure drop (0--30 atm), reservoir temperature (0.8--2.5K), pipe lengths (1-30mm

  12. Direct dynamic kinetic analysis and computer simulation of growth of Clostridium perfringens in cooked turkey during cooling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research applied a new one-step methodology to directly construct a tertiary model for describing the growth of C. perfringens in cooked turkey meat under dynamically cooling conditions. The kinetic parameters of the growth models were determined by numerical analysis and optimization using mu...

  13. Turbulent kinetic energy budget in the boundary layer developing over an urban-like rough wall using PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Karin; Perret, Laurent; Calmet, Isabelle; Rivet, Cédric

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, a boundary layer developing over a rough-wall consisting of staggered cubes with a plan area packing density λp = 25% is studied within the wind tunnel using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to investigate the Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) budget. To access the full TKE budget, an estimation of the dissipation (ɛ) using both the transport equation of the resolved-scale kinetic energy and Large-Eddy (LE) PIV models based on the use of a subgrid-scale model following the methodology used in large-eddy simulations is employed. A low-pass filter, larger than the Taylor microscale, is applied to the data prior to the computation of the velocity gradients ensuring a clear cutoff in the inertial range where the models are valid. The presence of the cube roughness elements has a significant influence on the TKE budget due to the region of strong shear that develops over the cubes. The shear layer is shown to produce and dissipate energy, as well as transport energy through advection, turbulent transport, and pressure transport. The recirculation region that forms through the interaction of the shear layer and the canopy layer, which is the region below the height of the cube roughness, creates rapid longitudinal evolution of the mean flow thereby inducing weak production. Finally, through stochastic estimation of the conditional average, it is shown that localized regions of backscatter (energy transfer from unresolved to resolved scales) and forward scatter (energy transfer from resolved to unresolved scales) occur as a result of coherent vortical structures.

  14. Spiral growth of few-layer MoS{sub 2} by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, X.; Yan, C.; Tomer, D.; Li, L.; Li, C. H.

    2016-08-01

    Growth spirals exhibit appealing properties due to a preferred layer stacking and lack of inversion symmetry. Here, we report spiral growth of MoS{sub 2} during chemical vapor deposition on SiO{sub 2}/Si and epitaxial graphene/SiC substrates, and their physical and electronic properties. We determine the layer-dependence of the MoS{sub 2} bandgap, ranging from 2.4 eV for the monolayer to a constant of 1.3 eV beyond the fifth layer. We further observe that spirals predominantly initiate at the step edges of the SiC substrate, based on which we propose a growth mechanism driven by screw dislocation created by the coalescence of two growth fronts at steps.

  15. Growth kinetic models of five species of Lactobacilli and lactose consumption in batch submerged culture.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Fazlollah; Ardestani, Fatemeh; Najafpour, Ghasem

    Kinetic behaviors of five Lactobacillus strains were investigated with Contois and Exponential models. Awareness of kinetic behavior of microorganisms is essential for their industrial process design and scale up. The consistency of experimental data was evaluated using Excel software. L. bulgaricus was introduced as the most efficient strain with the highest biomass and lactic acid yield of 0.119 and 0.602gg(-1) consumed lactose, respectively. The biomass and carbohydrate yield of L. fermentum and L. lactis were slightly less and close to L. bulgaricus. Biomass and lactic acid production yield of 0.117 and 0.358 for L. fermentum and 0.114 and 0.437gg(-1) for L.actobacillus lactis were obtained. L. casei and L. delbrueckii had the less biomass yield, nearly 11.8 and 22.7% less than L. bulgaricus, respectively. L. bulgaricus (R(2)=0.9500 and 0.9156) and L. casei (R(2)=0.9552 and 0.8401) showed acceptable consistency with both models. The investigation revealed that the above mentioned models are not suitable to describe the kinetic behavior of L. fermentum (R(2)=0.9367 and 0.6991), L. delbrueckii (R(2)=0.9493 and 0.7724) and L. lactis (R(2)=0.8730 and 0.6451). Contois rate equation is a suitable model to describe the kinetic of Lactobacilli. Specific cell growth rate for L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. fermentum, L. delbrueckii and L. lactis with Contois model in order 3.2, 3.9, 67.6, 10.4 and 9.8-fold of Exponential model.

  16. Prediction of fatigue crack growth kinetics in the plane structural elements of aircraft in the biaxial stress state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanyavskij, A. A.; Karaev, K. Z.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Koronov, M. Z.; Orlov, E. F.

    1991-07-01

    The kinetics of fatigue crack growth in the case of a complex stress state is investigated with particular reference to D16T aluminum alloy. By using simulation models in the form of plane cruciform specimens, the characteristics of fatigue crack growth are investigated under conditions of uniaxial and biaxial tension-compression, with the ratio of the main stresses varying from -1 to 1.5. An algorithm is developed which makes it possible to predict the kinetics of fatigue crack growth and the equivalent stress level under conditions of multiparametric loading.

  17. Graphene Layer Growth Chemistry: Five-Six-Ring Flip Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Whitesides, Russell; Domin, Dominik; Lester Jr., William A.; Frenklach, Michael

    2007-03-24

    A theoretical study revealed a new reaction pathway, in which a fused five and six-membered ring complex on the zigzag edge of a graphene layer isomerizes to reverse its orientation, or 'flips,' after activation by a gaseous hydrogen atom. The process is initiated by hydrogen addition to or abstraction from the surface complex. The elementary steps of the migration pathway were analyzed using density-functional theory (DFT) calculations to examine the region of the potential energy surface associated with the pathway. The DFT calculations were performed on substrates modeled by the zigzag edges of tetracene and pentacene. Rate constants for the flip reaction were obtained by the solution of energy master equation utilizing the DFT energies, frequencies, and geometries. The results indicate that this reaction pathway is competitive with other pathways important to the edge evolution of aromatic species in high temperature environments.

  18. Theory of Crystal Growth, Kinetics of Dissolution and Transformation of Calcium Phosphates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingwu

    The kink density along a (01) step on the (001) face of a Kossel crystal is derived from a kinetic steady state approach by considering the elementary events at the step. When the kink formation energy, epsilon , is very high compared with the thermal energy kT, the kink density, rho, is found to be a function of the saturation ratio, S. For S > 1, rho = 2a-1S^ {1over 2}exp(-epsilon /kT) while for S < 1, rho = 2a^{-1}exp( -epsilon/kT)/(2-S)^ {1over 2}. This finding may provide a theoretical background for interpreting the observed growth kinetics of many sparingly soluble salts in aqueous solutions. The above approach is extended to analyze the configuration of a surface step of an AB crystal with NaCl type of lattice. It is found that the growth rate of an electrolyte crystal cannot be defined solely by the thermodynamic driving forces even when integration is the rate determining step. The rate also depends on the lattice ion activity ratio and relative frequencies of integration of A and B ions into kink sites on a step. At a given driving force, a maximum growth rate can be attained at a certain ratio of lattice ion activities. The dual constant composition (DCC) method is developed which enables the kinetics of phase transformation to be studied at constant driving forces. The applicability of this novel approach is verified in the investigation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) to octacalcium phosphate (OCP) transformation. In these studies, the concentrations of total calcium and phosphate are maintained constant to within 2% with the pH held to within +/-0.003 during the reaction. The dissolution kinetics of DCPD and OCP has been investigated using CC method at 37^circ C over a wide range of experimental conditions. Both processes can be generally described by a combined volume and surface diffusion mechanism with varying degrees of volume resistance at different pH's and solution hydrodynamics. The decrease in the dissolution rate with the extent of

  19. Shape transition of endotaxial islands growth from kinetically constrained to equilibrium regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhi-Peng; Tok, Engsoon; Foo, Yonglim

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • All Fe{sub 13}Ge{sub 8} islands will grow into Ge(0 0 1) substrate at temperatures from 350 to 675 °C. • Shape transition occurred from kinetically constrained to equilibrium regime. • All endotaxial islands can be clarified into two types. • The mechanisms of endotaxial growth and shape transition have been rationalized. - Abstract: A comprehensive study of Fe grown on Ge(0 0 1) substrates has been conducted at elevated temperatures, ranging from 350 to 675 °C. All iron germinide islands, with the same Fe{sub 13}Ge{sub 8} phase, grow into the Ge substrate with the same epitaxial relationship. Shape transition occurs from small square islands (low temperatures), to elongated orthogonal islands or orthogonal nanowires (intermediate temperatures), and then finally to large square orthogonal islands (high temperatures). According to both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations, all islands can be defined as either type-I or type-II. Type-I islands usually form at kinetically constrained growth regimes, like truncated pyramids. Type-II islands usually appear at equilibrium growth regimes forming a dome-like shape. Based on a simple semi-quantitative model, type-II islands have a lower total energy per volume than type-I, which is considered as the dominant mechanism for this type of shape transition. Moreover, this study not only elucidates details of endotaxial growth in the Fe–Ge system, but also suggests the possibility of controlled fabrication of temperature-dependent nanostructures, especially in materials with dissimilar crystal structures.

  20. Biofilm growth kinetics of a monomethylamine producing Alphaproteobacteria strain isolated from an anaerobic reactor.

    PubMed

    Jopia, Paz; Ruiz-Tagle, Nathaly; Villagrán, Marcelo; Sossa, Katherine; Pantoja, Silvio; Rueda, Luis; Urrutia-Briones, Homero

    2010-02-01

    Industrial fishing effluents are characterized by high loads of protein and sulfate that stimulate the activity of proteolytic and sulfate reducing bacteria during anaerobic digestion. Their metabolic products (NH3 and H2S respectively) have a well-known detrimental effect on the activity of methanogens. Since methylamine is a carbon source used by methylaminotrophic methane producing archaea (mMPA) but not by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), enriched mMPA anaerobic biofilms have been developed on ceramics. We propose that methylated amines could be produced in the biofilm by using betaine, a known precursor of methylamine, as a carbon and energy source. We isolated an anaerobic betainotrophic methylaminogenic bacterial strain (bMB) from an anaerobic bioreactor, using betaine as the only carbon and energy source. This strain was identified by a standard biochemical test (API 20NE), cloning, and 16S rDNA sequencing. bMB biofilm structure and biofilm growth kinetic parameters were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the Gompertz growth model, respectively. Monomethylamine production was determined by infrared spectroscopy and by high pressure liquid chromatography. The isolated bMB strain was determined as Stappia stellulata (Proteobacteria phylum). It was able to form biofilm on ceramics and its kinetic growth parameters resulted in: maximum biofilm bacterial count (A) of 6.25 x 10(8) UFC/cm(2) and maximum specific growth rate (mu(m)) of 0.0221/h. Production of monomethylamine was about 4.027 atogram/cell/day (at/cell/day) after 15 days of incubation in biofilms. This study confirms the adhesion capacity of this bMB strain on ceramic supports, assuring that monomethylamine production in biofilms could be enriched with mMPA that use monomethylamine. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetic modeling of the SWNT growth by CO disproportionation on CoMo catalysts.

    PubMed

    Monzon, A; Lolli, G; Cosma, S; Mohamed, S B; Resasco, D E

    2008-11-01

    A kinetic model has been developed to describe the growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) in the CoMoCAT method, which is based on the disproportionation of CO on supported CoMo catalysts. The model attempts to capture mathematically the different stages involved in this method: (i) catalyst activation or in-situ creation of active sites, i.e., reduced Co clusters by transformation of CoMoOx precursor species, or oxidized sites; (ii) CO decomposition over active sites, which increases the surface fugacity of carbon until reaching a certain threshold; (iii) nucleation of ordered forms of carbon; (iv) C diffusion (both across the surface and into the metal particle); (v) SWNT growth; (vi) termination, by either deactivation of the catalyst active sites or by increase in the carbon concentration at the metal/SWNT interface, approaching that of the metal/gas interface and eliminating the driving force for diffusion. Previous investigations have only explained the growth termination by the former. Here, we emphasize the possible contribution of the later and propose a novel "hindrance factor" to quantify the effect of nanotube interaction with its surroundings on the growth termination. To test the kinetic model and obtain typical values of the physical parameters, experiments have been conducted on a CoMo/SiO2 catalyst in a laboratory flow reactor, in which the rate of carbon deposition was continuously evaluated by the direct measurement of the CO2 evolution as a function of time. The experimental data are fitted very well with model.

  2. Investigation of equilibration and growth of stepped surfaces by Kinetic Monte Carlo in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkan, A.; Esen, M.; Tüzemen, A. Türker; Özdemir, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the equilibration and in the case of a particle flux to the surface, the growth of a one dimensional semi-conductor surface of "V" initial shape is investigated by kinetic Monte Carlo method. The initial surface is assumed to consist of atomic height steps separated by terraces. In Monte Carlo simulations, the following processes are considered: the diffusion of free particles on the surface, the attachment/detachment of particles to/from step edges from/to a terrace in front of a step or to a terrace above the step. In the simulations the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier is also taken into account. The equilibration of "V" initial shape at various temperatures is investigated. Moreover, the effect of particle bonding energy on the surface profile and on the evolution of the surface is also investigated. In the case of a particle flux to the surface, the surface profile and its growth kinetics are investigated at various temperatures and flux values.

  3. Macrotransport-solidification kinetics modeling of equiaxed dendritic growth. Part 1: Model development and discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Nastac, L.; Stefanescu, D.M.

    1996-12-01

    An analytical model that describes solidification of equiaxed dendrites has been developed for use in solidification kinetics-macrotransport modeling. It relaxes some of the assumptions made in previous models, such as the Dustin-Kurz, Rappaz-Thevoz, and Kanetkar-Stefanescu models. It is assumed that nuclei grow as unperturbed spheres until the radius of the sphere becomes larger than the minimum radius of instability. Then, growth of the dendrites is related to morphological instability and is calculated as a function of melt undercooling around the dendrite tips, which is controlled by the bulk temperature and the intrinsic volume average concentration of the liquid phase. When the general morphology of equiaxed dendrites is considered, the evolution of the fraction of solid is related to the interdendritic branching and dynamic coarsening (through the evolution of the specific interfacial areas) and to the topology and movement of the dendrite envelope (through the tip growth velocity and dendrite shape factor). The particular case of this model is the model for globulitic an overall solute and thermal balance around a growing equiaxed dendrite grain within a spherical closed system. Overall solute balance in the integral form is obtained by a complete analytical solution of the diffusion field in both liquid and solid phases. The bulk temperature is obtained from the solution of the macrotransport-solidification kinetics problem.

  4. Kinetic Model of Photoautotrophic Growth of Chlorella sp. Microalga, Isolated from the Setúbal Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Josué Miguel; Irazoqui, Horacio Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a kinetic expression relating light availability in the culture medium with the rate of microalgal growth is obtained. This expression, which is valid for low illumination conditions, was derived from the reactions that take part in the light-dependent stage of photosynthesis. The kinetic expression obtained is a function of the biomass concentration in the culture, as well as of the local volumetric rate of absorption of photons, and only includes two adjustable parameters. To determine the value of these parameters and to test the validity of the hypotheses made, autotrophic cultures of the Chlorella sp. strain were carried out in a modified BBM medium at three CO2 concentrations in the gas stream, namely 0.034%, 0.34% and 3.4%. Moreover, the local volumetric rate of photon absorption was predicted based on a physical model of the interaction of the radiant energy with the suspended biomass, together with a Monte Carlo simulation algorithm. The proposed intrinsic expression of the biomass growth rate, together with the Monte Carlo radiation field simulator, are key to scale up photobioreactors when operating under low irradiation conditions, independently of the configuration of the reactor and of its light source. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  5. Controlled growth and kinetics of porous hydroxyapatite spheres by a template-directed method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qian Jun; Huang, Zhi Liang

    2007-03-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) spheres with high purity of phase and well-controlled pore size were grown by a template-directed method. We studied for the initial concentration of Ca-P how to control the chemical component of the products, and for the concentration of template how to control the aperture and the morphology of porous HA spheres. The experimental results indicated that the lower concentration of Ca-P was prone to pure HA phase and the aperture decreased gradually with the increase of the concentration of template. Correspondingly, the crystallization thermodynamics and template-directed growth kinetics were discussed in details. The solubility isotherms of HA and dicalcium phosphate (DCPD) were calculated based on classical crystallization theories of thermodynamics. The results suggested that there was a critical concentration of P=0.048 M in the case of Ca:P=5:3 and thus DCPD could be avoided only when P⩽0.048 M in this given reaction system. Kinetic analysis of HA crystal growth revealed that the template depressed the interfacial potential energy E, then enhanced the roughness on the surface of crystal nucleus and directed HA crystal to selectively grow along the [0 0 0 1] direction, and consequently governed the aperture of porous HA spheres. The experimental results were in agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  6. Growth kinetics of candida biofilm on medical polymers: a long-term in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Leonhard, Matthias; Tobudic, Selma; Moser, Doris; Zatorska, Beata; Bigenzahn, Wolfgang; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2013-03-01

    Recent in vitro models simulating biofilm formation on medical polymers are restricted to only short-term observation periods of 2 hours to 12 days. The goal of this study was to develop an in vitro model to generate a long-term polymicrobial biofilm with Candida albicans (C albicans) and Streptococcus salivarius (S salivarius) on thermoplastic medical grade silicone (TPS) and polyurethane (TPU) and continuous documentation of growth kinetics. Test platelets of TPS and TPU were incubated in well plates in RPMI agar at 37°C. Both microbial specimen were isolated from explanted voice prostheses and added every second day for 28 days. Afterward, only the nutrition solution has been changed regularly. Biofilm kinetics were monitored using a specially designed image analysis software to calculate the percentual surface covering of each platelet. Biofilm architecture was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microbial infiltration was examined by crystal violet staining and thin section microscopy. On both materials tested, a cover of living candida biofilm could be generated over 140 days. Colonization was permanent with at least 10% surface coverage. Initially, both materials showed coverage of up to 80% followed by biofilm detachment, which could be reduced by adding planktonic microbes. SEM confirmed three-dimensional biofilm architecture with dimorphic candida growth. Microbial material infiltration of nonhypheal types was proved in 2 TPU platelets, but not in TPS. The in vitro model presented in this study mimics in vivo events of biofilm formation on medical polymers with continuous monitoring of living biofilm kinetics. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Enhanced Kinetics of Electrochemical Hydrogen Uptake and Release by Palladium Powders Modified by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Benson, David M.; Tsang, Chu F.; Sugar, Joshua Daniel; ...

    2017-04-28

    One method for the formation of nanofilms of materials, is Electrochemical atomic layer deposition (E-ALD), one atomic layer at a time. It uses the galvanic exchange of a less noble metal, deposited using underpotential deposition (UPD), to produce an atomic layer of a more noble element by reduction of its ions. This process is referred to as surface limited redox replacement and can be repeated in a cycle to grow thicker deposits. Previously, we performed it on nanoparticles and planar substrates. In the present report, E-ALD is applied for coating a submicron-sized powder substrate, making use of a new flowmore » cell design. E-ALD is used to coat a Pd powder substrate with different thicknesses of Rh by exchanging it for Cu UPD. Furthermore, cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate an increasing Rh coverage with increasing numbers of deposition cycles performed, in a manner consistent with the atomic layer deposition (ALD) mechanism. Cyclic voltammetry also indicated increased kinetics of H sorption and desorption in and out of the Pd powder with Rh present, relative to unmodified Pd.« less

  8. Manipulating the bioactivity of hydroxyapatite nano-rods structured networks: effects on mineral coating morphology and growth kinetic.

    PubMed

    D'Elía, Noelia L; Gravina, A Noel; Ruso, Juan M; Laiuppa, Juan A; Santillán, Graciela E; Messina, Paula V

    2013-11-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite particles have better bioactivity than the coarse crystals. So, they can be utilized for engineered tissue implants with improved efficiency over other materials. The development of materials with specific bioactive characteristics is still under investigation. The surface properties of four hydroxyapatite materials templated by different micelle-polymer structured network are studied. The synergistic interaction of each block copolymer in contact with CTAB rod-like micelles results in crystalline HAp nano-rods of 25-50nm length organized in hierarchical structures with different micro-rough characteristics. It was observed that the material in vitro bioactivity strongly depends on the surface structure while in a minor extent on their Ca/P ratio. So, MIII and MIV materials with Skewness parameter Rsk>2.62 favored the formation on their surfaces of net-like phase with a high growth kinetic constant; while MI and MII (Rsk≤2.62) induced the appearance of spherulitic-like structures and a growth rate 1.75 times inferior. Material biocompatibility was confirmed by interaction with rat calvarial osteoblasts. The different structures growth is attributed to a dissimilar matching of crystal planes in the material and the apatite layer formed. In specific synthesis conditions, a biocompatible material with a Ca/P ratio close to that for the trabecular bone and a morphology that are considered essential for bone-bonding was obtained. The creation of implantable devices with a specific bioactive characteristic may be useful to manipulate the attachment of cells on mineral coating directly affecting the stability and life of the implant. © 2013.

  9. Influence of atomic layer deposition valve temperature on ZrN plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition growth

    SciTech Connect

    Muneshwar, Triratna Cadien, Ken

    2015-11-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) relies on a sequence of self-limiting surface reactions for thin film growth. The effect of non-ALD side reactions, from insufficient purging between pulses and from precursor self-decomposition, on film growth is well known. In this article, precursor condensation within an ALD valve is described, and the effect of the continuous precursor source from condensate evaporation on ALD growth is discussed. The influence of the ALD valve temperature on growth and electrical resistivity of ZrN plasma enhanced ALD (PEALD) films is reported. Increasing ALD valve temperature from 75 to 95 °C, with other process parameters being identical, decreased both the growth per cycle and electrical resistivity (ρ) of ZrN PEALD films from 0.10 to 0.07 nm/cycle and from 560 to 350 μΩ cm, respectively. Our results show that the non-ALD growth resulting from condensate accumulation is eliminated at valve temperatures close to the pressure corrected boiling point of precursor.

  10. Effects of Kinetic Roughening and Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition on Lysozyme Crystal Growth Velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Konnert, John; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    We measured the growth velocities of the (110) face of tetragonal lysozyme, V (centimeters per second), at four different concentrations, c (milligrams per milliliter), as the solution temperature, T (Centigrade), was reduced. For a broad range of T dependent on c, we find that the growth velocities increased as the solution temperature was reduced. The initial increase in V is well characterized by the 2D nucleation model for crystal growth, yielding the magnitude of an effective barrier for growth, gamma(sub s) = 1.2 plus or minus 0.1 x 10(exp -13) erg/molecule. Below certain temperatures, T(sub cr), dependent on c, however, a kinetic roughening hypothesis that considers the continuous addition of molecules anywhere on the crystal surface better describes the observed growth velocities. The application of the continuous growth model, up to the solution cloud-point temperatures, T(sub cl), enabled the determinations of the crossover concentration, c(sub r), from estimated values of T(sub cr). For all conditions presented, we find that the crossover from growth by 2D nucleation to continuous addition occurs at a supersaturation, sigma (sub c), = 2.0 plus or minus 0.1. Moreover, we find the energy barrier for the continuous addition, E(sub c), within the temperature range T(sub cl) less than T less than T less than T (sub cr), to be 6 plus or minus 1 x 10(exp -13) erg/molecule. Further reduction of T below approximately 2-3 C of T(sub cl), also revealed a rapid slowing of crystal growth velocities. From quasi-elastic light scattering investigations, we find that the rapid diminishment of crystal growth velocities can be accounted for by the phase behavior of lysozyme solutions. Namely, we find the reversible formation of dense fluid proto-droplets comprised of lysozyme molecules to occur below approximately 0.3 C of T(sub cl). Hence, the rapid slowing of growth velocities may occur as a result of the sudden depletion of "mobile" molecules within crystal growth

  11. Effects of Kinetic Roughening and Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition on Lysozyme Crystal Growth Velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Konnert, John; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    We measured the growth velocities of the (110) face of tetragonal lysozyme, V (centimeters per second), at four different concentrations, c (milligrams per milliliter), as the solution temperature, T (Centigrade), was reduced. For a broad range of T dependent on c, we find that the growth velocities increased as the solution temperature was reduced. The initial increase in V is well characterized by the 2D nucleation model for crystal growth, yielding the magnitude of an effective barrier for growth, gamma(sub s) = 1.2 plus or minus 0.1 x 10(exp -13) erg/molecule. Below certain temperatures, T(sub cr), dependent on c, however, a kinetic roughening hypothesis that considers the continuous addition of molecules anywhere on the crystal surface better describes the observed growth velocities. The application of the continuous growth model, up to the solution cloud-point temperatures, T(sub cl), enabled the determinations of the crossover concentration, c(sub r), from estimated values of T(sub cr). For all conditions presented, we find that the crossover from growth by 2D nucleation to continuous addition occurs at a supersaturation, sigma (sub c), = 2.0 plus or minus 0.1. Moreover, we find the energy barrier for the continuous addition, E(sub c), within the temperature range T(sub cl) less than T less than T less than T (sub cr), to be 6 plus or minus 1 x 10(exp -13) erg/molecule. Further reduction of T below approximately 2-3 C of T(sub cl), also revealed a rapid slowing of crystal growth velocities. From quasi-elastic light scattering investigations, we find that the rapid diminishment of crystal growth velocities can be accounted for by the phase behavior of lysozyme solutions. Namely, we find the reversible formation of dense fluid proto-droplets comprised of lysozyme molecules to occur below approximately 0.3 C of T(sub cl). Hence, the rapid slowing of growth velocities may occur as a result of the sudden depletion of "mobile" molecules within crystal growth