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Sample records for layer inline separator

  1. Low Cost Geothermal Separators BLISS Boundary Layer Inline Separator Scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Douglas; Wai, King

    2000-05-26

    A new compact, low cost, and high performance separator is being developed to help reduce the installed and O and M cost of geothermal power generation. This device has been given the acronym ''BLISS'' that stands for ''Boundary Layer Inline Separator Scrubber''. The device is the first of a series of separators, and in the case of injectates, scrubbers to address the cost-reduction needs of the industry. The BLISS is a multi-positional centrifugal separator primarily designed to be simply installed between pipe supports, in a horizontal position. This lower profile reduces the height safety concern for workers, and significantly reduces the total installation cost. The vessel can demand as little as one-quarter (25%) the amount of steel traditionally required to fabricate many large vertical separators. The compact nature and high separating efficiency of this device are directly attributable to a high centrifugal force coupled with boundary layer control. The pseudo isokinetic flow design imparts a self-cleaning and scale resistant feature. This polishing separator is designed to remove moderate amounts of liquid and entrained solids.

  2. Gas-sampling accuracy unaffected by in-line separator

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, V.C.

    1997-01-13

    How sampling accuracy is affected by the use of an in-line separator during the sampling of unprocessed natural gas has been studied at Chevron`s Sand Hills gas plant, in Crane, Texas. In experiments on three pipelines, the in-line separator caused no statistically significant condensation of unprocessed gas. Entrained NGL in the pipeline was observed, however, and gas liquid collected in the separator. The in-line separator is used to remove any liquid entrainment in the sample gas stream to protect the gas chromatograph system. There is a concern, however, that thermodynamic conditions in the in-line separator cause the heavy, gaseous-phase hydrocarbon components to condense. The paper discusses measurement accuracy, test locations, sampling and analysis systems, sampling methods, and operation.

  3. Interaction of in-line twin synthetic jets with a separated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xin; Tang, Hui; Duan, Fei

    2016-04-01

    An experimental investigation is carried out in a water tunnel to investigate the interaction of in-line twin synthetic jets (SJs) with a separated laminar boundary layer over inclined plates. The flow structures induced by the in-line twin SJs at four phase differences and their resulting flow separation delay are examined using dye visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. It is found that, in most of the cases, the heads of hairpin vortices that are produced from the upstream SJ actuator do not change too much, and the vortex legs are highly stretched by the separated shear layer. An exception is the case with 90° phase difference where the combined vortex head appears as a reversed letter "S" and the combined vortex legs are high enough to escape from the influence of the separated flow. Compared to the single SJ, the twin SJs generally exert greater influence on the separated flow regardless of the phase difference. The PIV results in the mid-span plane reveal that the periodic passage of vortex structures influences the separated flow significantly, causing the flapping of the upper edge of the reversed flow region that contributes to the flow separation delay. The delay of separation is also demonstrated by a streak of forward flow protrusion in the wall-parallel PIV results. It is found that the streak varies a lot at different phase differences. Proper orthogonal decomposition analysis is also conducted and two major types of energetic flow structures in the SJ controlled flow are identified: a strip of back-and-forth fluctuation along the upper edge of the reversed flow, and the vortex structures produced by the twin SJs. It is found that the fluctuation strip is most energetic in the single SJ case and the case with 270° phase difference, whereas the convective mode pair is most energetic in the case with 90° phase difference.

  4. In-line coupling SPE and CE for DNA preconcentration and separation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Airong; Tran, Nguyet Thuy; Chen, Chen; Hu, Jiming; Taverna, Myriam; Zhou, Ping

    2011-06-01

    An in-line SPE method coupled to CE was developed for the analysis of DNA. The amino silica monolith was prepared in situ by polymerization of tetraethoxysilane and N-(β-aminoethyl)-γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane in ethanol aqueous solution at the inlet end of a 100 μm id fused-silica capillary, and the remaining part of the capillary was used as separation channel. The procedure for this in-line SPE-CE method was constructed on the basis of investigation on operational conditions such as the introduction mode of sieving matrix, the composition of elution solvent and the elution time. Twenty millimolar ammonium hydroxide was demonstrated to be effective for DNA desorption from the monolith, and linear poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) was used as the separation matrix. The proposed method could achieve limits of detection of 0.065-0.123 ng/mL for six DNA fragments ranging 100-2000 bp. Compared with conventional CE, preconcentration factors of over 100 times were obtained. The applicability of the in-line SPE-CE method was further demonstrated by analyzing plasmid DNA from Escherichia coli crude lysate. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Vortex dynamics of in-line twin synthetic jets in a laminar boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xin; Tang, Hui; Duan, Fei

    2015-08-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted on the vortices induced by twin synthetic jets (SJs) in line with a laminar boundary layer flow over a flat plate. The twin SJs operating at four different phase differences, i.e., Δϕ = 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°, are visualized using a stereoscopic color dye visualization system and measured using a two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. It is found that depending on the phase difference of twin SJs, three types of vortex structures are produced. At Δϕ = 90°, the two hairpin vortices interact in a very constructive way in terms of the vortex size, strength, and celerity, forming one combined vortex. At Δϕ = 270°, the two individual hairpin vortices do not have much interaction, forming two completely separated hairpin vortices that behave like doubling the frequency of the single SJ case. At Δϕ = 0° and 180°, the two hairpin vortices produced by the twin SJ actuators are close enough, with the head of one hairpin vortex coupled with the legs of the other, forming partially interacting vortex structures. Quantitative analysis of the twin SJs is conducted, including the time histories of vortex circulation in the mid-span plane as well as a selected spanwise-wall-normal plane, and the influence of the twin SJs on the boundary layer flow filed. In addition, dynamic mode decomposition analysis of the PIV data is conducted to extract representative coherent structures. Through this study, a better understanding in the vortex dynamics associated with the interaction of in-line twin SJs in laminar boundary layers is achieved, which provides useful information for future SJ-array applications.

  6. Material utilisation when depositing CdTe layers by inline AP-MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrioz, V.; Kartopu, G.; Irvine, S. J. C.; Monir, S.; Yang, X.

    2012-09-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the efficiency of precursors' usage during deposition of cadmium telluride (CdTe) layers via atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapour deposition (AP-MOCVD) for thin film photovoltaic solar cells. Precursors were released from a showerhead assembly normal to the glass substrate 0.7 mm thick (5×7.5 cm2) being deposited which was kept stationary or moved under the showerhead assembly, with speed of upto 2.25 cm/min. In order to estimate the effective precursor utilisation, the weight deposit (layer) was compared against the theoretical values calculated for ideal molar supply. The layer thickness, composition, morphology, and crystallinity were also measured using profilometry, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. It is shown that over 40% material utilisation can be achieved depending on the deposition parameters of substrate temperature and speed, partial pressure of precursors and total gas flow. The activation energy derived from an Arrhenius plot of deposition rate equals 49 kJ mol-1 and is consistent with previous reports of MOCVD CdTe using a horizontal reactor. This confirms that, despite the very different reactor geometry, the alkyl radical homolysis and reaction mechanism applies in the case of the inline injector geometry in the work presented here. These results demonstrate an alternative path to high throughput processing of CdTe thin film solar cells by inline AP-MOCVD.

  7. In-line application of electric field in capillary separation systems: Joule heating, pH and conductivity.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Björn O; Skuland, Inger Lill; Marlin, Nicola D; Andersson, Magnus B O; Blomberg, Lars G

    2008-03-15

    This study concerns the technique electric field-assisted capillary liquid chromatography. In this technique, an electric field is applied over the separation capillary in order to provide an additional selectivity. In this technique, the electric field is applied in-line in the separation capillary and here the electric current is the factor limiting the magnitude of applied electric field. The influence of Joule heating and other factors on the current in such systems has been investigated. The temperature in the capillary was first measured within a standard CE set-up, as function of effect per unit of length. Then the same cooling system was applied to an in-line set-up, to replicate the conditions between the two systems, and thus the temperature. Thus Joule heating effects could then be calculated within the in-line system. It was found that for systems applying an electric field in line, the direct influence from Joule heating was only relatively small. The pH in the capillary was measured in the in-line set-up using cresol red/TRIS solutions as pH probe. Significant changes in pH were observed and the results suggested that electrolysis of water is the dominant electrode reaction in the in-line system. In summary, the observed conductivity change in in-line systems was found to be mainly due to the pH change by hydrolysis of water, but primarily not due the temperature change in the capillary column.

  8. Cyclone separator having boundary layer turbulence control

    DOEpatents

    Krishna, Coimbatore R.; Milau, Julius S.

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone separator including boundary layer turbulence control that is operable to prevent undue build-up of particulate material at selected critical areas on the separator walls, by selectively varying the fluid pressure at those areas to maintain the momentum of the vortex, thereby preventing particulate material from inducing turbulence in the boundary layer of the vortical fluid flow through the separator.

  9. Dense, layered membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOEpatents

    Roark, Shane E.; MacKay, Richard; Mundschau, Michael V.

    2006-02-21

    This invention provides hydrogen-permeable membranes for separation of hydrogen from hydrogen-containing gases. The membranes are multi-layer having a central hydrogen-permeable layer with one or more catalyst layers, barrier layers, and/or protective layers. The invention also relates to membrane reactors employing the hydrogen-permeable membranes of the invention and to methods for separation of hydrogen from a hydrogen-containing gas using the membranes and reactors. The reactors of this invention can be combined with additional reactor systems for direct use of the separated hydrogen.

  10. The effect of different gloss levels on in-line monitoring of the thickness of printed layers by NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mirschel, Gabriele; Savchuk, Olesya; Scherzer, Tom; Genest, Beatrix

    2012-08-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) reflection spectroscopy was used for monitoring the thickness or rather the coating weight of thin printed layers of transparent oil-based offset printing varnishes in a range from 0.5 to 5 g m(-2). Quantitative analysis of the spectral data was carried out with partial least squares regression. Surface properties such as the gloss were found to strongly affect the prediction of the coating weight. This influence was minimized by the development of calibration models, which contained spectra of layers with a broad range of gloss levels. The prediction error of these models was in the order of 0.12 to 0.16 g m(-2). In-line measurements were carried out at a sheet-fed offset printing press in order to test the performance of the models under real process control conditions. Varnishes were applied to paper at printing speeds of 90 or 180 m min(-1). A close correlation between the predictions from in-line NIR spectra and the reference data from gravimetry was observed regardless of the specific degree of gloss of the layers (errors between 0.15 and 0.17 g m(-2)). The results clearly prove the efficiency of NIR reflection spectroscopy for quantitative investigations on thin layers in fast processes such as printing and demonstrate its analytical potential for quality and process control.

  11. Modelling of layered resonators for ultrasonic separation.

    PubMed

    Hill, Martyn; Shen, Yijun; Hawkes, Jeremy J

    2002-05-01

    The potential of ultrasonic techniques for the separation and concentration of particles within a fluid has been investigated in some detail in recent years. Devices for effecting such separation typically consist of a piezoceramic transducer driving into a matching layer, fluid layer and reflector layer. This paper uses an equivalent-circuit transducer model, coupled with acoustic impedance transfer relationships to model such cells with regards to both their electrical characteristics and the strength of the resonance produced under different conditions. The model is compared with experimental results from two different cells and is shown to match experimental values well in terms of electrical characteristics and separator performance. The effects of matching layer thickness are also examined using the model. The importance of the adhesive bonding layer is demonstrated, and it is shown that the model can predict the effects of such a layer. The model is also used to demonstrate the effects of coincident resonances in cell layers and to examine the pressure distribution across cells at key frequencies.

  12. In-line monitoring of the thickness of printed layers by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy at a printing press.

    PubMed

    Mirschel, Gabriele; Heymann, Katja; Savchuk, Olesya; Genest, Beatrix; Scherzer, Tom

    2012-07-01

    In this work, it is demonstrated that the coating weight of printed layers can be determined in-line in a running printing press by near-infrared (NIR) reflection spectroscopy assisted by chemometric methods. Three different unpigmented lacquer systems, i.e., a conventional oil-based printing lacquer, an ultraviolet (UV)-curable formulation, and a water-based dispersion varnish, were printed on paper with coating weights between about 0.5 and 7 g m(-2). NIR spectra for calibration were recorded with a special metal reflector simulating the mounting conditions of the probe head at the printing press. Calibration models were developed on the basis of the partial least squares (PLS) algorithm and evaluated by independent test samples. The prediction performance of the developed models was examined at a sheet-fed offset printing press at line speeds between 90 and 180 m min(-1). Results show an excellent correlation of data predicted in-line from the NIR spectra with reference values obtained off-line by gravimetry. The prediction errors were found to be ≤ 0.2 g m(-2), which confirms the suitability of the developed spectroscopic method for process control in technical printing processes.

  13. Sensitive and predictable separation of microfluidic droplets by size using in-line passive filter.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ruihua; Ung, W Lloyd; Heyman, John A; Weitz, David A

    2017-01-01

    Active manipulation of droplets is crucial in droplet microfluidics. However, droplet polydispersity decreases the accuracy of active manipulation. We develop a microfluidic "droplet filter" that accurately separates droplets by size. The droplet filter has a sharp size cutoff and is capable of distinguishing droplets differing in volume by 20%. A simple model explains the behavior of the droplets as they pass through the filter. We show application of the filter in improving dielectric sorting efficiency.

  14. Near-infrared chemical imaging used for in-line analysis of inside adhesive layers in textile laminates.

    PubMed

    Mirschel, Gabriele; Daikos, Olesya; Scherzer, Tom; Steckert, Carsten

    2016-08-17

    This paper demonstrates for the first time that near-infrared (NIR) chemical imaging can be used for in-line analysis of textile lamination processes. In particular, it was applied for the quantitative determination of the applied coating weight and for monitoring of the spatial distribution of hot melt adhesive layers using chemometric approaches for spectra evaluation. Layers with coating weights between about 25 and 130 g m(-2) were used for the lamination of polyester fabrics and nonwovens as well as for polyurethane foam. It was shown that quantitative data with adequate precision can be actually obtained for layers applied to materials with significantly heterogeneous surface structure such as foam or for hidden layers inside fabric laminates. Even the coating weight and the homogeneity of adhesive layers in composites consisting of black textiles only could be quantitatively analyzed. The prediction errors (RMSEP) determined in an external validation of each calibration model were found to range from about 2 g m(-2) to 6 g m(-2) depending on the specific system under investigation. All calibration models were applied for chemical imaging in order to prove their performance for monitoring the thickness and the homogeneity of adhesive layers in the various textile systems. Moreover, they were used for the detection of irregularities and coating defects. Investigations were carried out with a large hyperspectral camera mounted above a conveyor. Therefore, this method allows large-area monitoring of the properties of laminar materials. Consequently, it is potentially suited for process and quality control during the lamination of fabrics, foams and other materials in field-scale.

  15. A terahertz in-line polarization converter based on through-via connected double layer slot structures

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jeong Min; Hussain, Sajid; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2017-01-01

    A terahertz (THz) in-line polarization converter that yields a polarization conversion ratio as high as 99.9% is demonstrated at 1 THz. It has double-layer slot structures oriented in orthogonal directions that are electrically connected by 1/8-wavelngth-long through-via holes beside the slot structures. The slots on the front metal-plane respond to the incident THz wave with polarization orthogonal to the slots and generates a circulating surface current around the slots. The surface current propagates along a pair of through-via holes that function as a two-wire transmission line. The propagating current generates a surface current around the backside slot structures oriented orthogonal to the slot structures on the front metal layer. The circulating current generates a terahertz wave polarized orthogonal to the backside slot structures and the 90° polarization conversion is completed. The re-radiating THz wave with 90° converted polarization propagates in the same direction as the incident THz wave. PMID:28211498

  16. In-line micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction for simultaneous separation and extraction of Sudan dyes in different spices.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Maryam; Sabzalian, Sedigheh; Barfi, Behruz; Arghavani-Beydokhti, Somayeh; Asghari, Alireza

    2015-12-18

    A novel, simple, fast, and miniaturized method, termed in-line micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (in-line MMSPD), coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of Sudan dyes (i.e. Sudan I-IV, Sudan orange G, Sudan black B, and Sudan red G) with the aid of an experimental design strategy. In this method, a matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) column including a suitable mixture of polar sorbents was inserted in the mobile phase pathway, and while the interfering compounds were retained, the analytes were eluted and entered into the analytical column. In this way, the extraction, elution, and separation of the analytes were performed sequentially. Under the optimal experimental conditions (including the amount of sample, 0.0426g; amount of dispersant phase, 0.0216g of florisil, 0.0227g of silica, 0.0141g of alumina; and blending time, 112s), the limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification, linear dynamic ranges, and recoveries were obtained to be 0.3-15.3μgkg(-1), 1-50μgkg(-1), 50-28,000μgkg(-1), and 94.5-99.1%, respectively. The results obtained showed that determination of the selected Sudan dyes in food samples using an enough sensitive and a simple analytically validated method like in-line MMSPD may offer a suitable screening method, which could be useful for food analysis and adulteration.

  17. Advances in inline quantification of co-eluting proteins in chromatography: Process-data-based model calibration and application towards real-life separation issues.

    PubMed

    Brestrich, Nina; Sanden, Adrian; Kraft, Axel; McCann, Karl; Bertolini, Joseph; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Pooling decisions in preparative liquid chromatography for protein purification are usually based on univariate UV absorption measurements that are not able to differentiate between product and co-eluting contaminants. This can result in inconsistent pool purities or yields, if there is a batch-to-batch variability of the feedstock. To overcome this analytical bottleneck, a tool for selective inline quantification of co-eluting model proteins using mid-UV absorption spectra and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) was presented in a previous study and applied for real-time pooling decisions. In this paper, a process-data-based method for the PLS model calibration will be introduced that allows the application of the tool towards chromatography steps of real-life processes. The process-data-based calibration method uses recorded inline mid-UV absorption spectra that are correlated with offline fraction analytics to calibrate PLS models. In order to generate average spectra from the inline data, a Visual Basic for Application macro was successfully developed. The process-data-based model calibration was established using a ternary model protein system. Afterwards, it was successfully demonstrated in two case studies that the calibration method is applicable towards real-life separation issues. The calibrated PLS models allowed a successful quantification of the co-eluting species in a cation-exchange-based aggregate and fraction removal during the purification of monoclonal antibodies and of co-eluting serum proteins in an anion-exchange-based purification of Cohn supernatant I. Consequently, the presented process-data-based PLS model calibration in combination with the tool for selective inline quantification has a great potential for the monitoring of future chromatography steps and may contribute to manage batch-to-batch variability by real-time pooling decisions.

  18. Separation behavior of boundary layers on three-dimensional wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    An inverse boundary layer procedure for calculating separated, turbulent boundary layers at infinitely long, crabbing wing was developed. The procedure was developed for calculating three dimensional, incompressible turbulent boundary layers was expanded to adiabatic, compressible flows. Example calculations with transsonic wings were made including viscose effects. In this case an approximated calculation method described for areas of separated, turbulent boundary layers, permitting calculation of this displacement thickness. The laminar boundary layer development was calculated with inclined ellipsoids.

  19. Organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-03-27

    An organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers is provided. Each emissive layer may define an exciton formation region, allowing exciton formation to occur across the entire emissive region. By aligning the energy levels of each emissive layer with the adjacent emissive layers, exciton formation in each layer may be improved. Devices incorporating multiple emissive layers with multiple exciton formation regions may exhibit improved performance, including internal quantum efficiencies of up to 100%.

  20. Consequence of Layer Separation on Pavement Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    computer program BISAR ( Bitumen Structures Analy- sis in Roads)4 was used. This program uses elastic layer theory to analyze multilayered systems subjected...horizontal strains in the pavement section directly under one DC-9 wheel for both frictionless slippage and full adhesion between the pavement layers. With no...December 1978). "BISAR ( Bitumen Structures Analysis in Roads), Computer program, User’s Manual (Abbreviated Version) (Koninklijke/Shell-Laboratorium

  1. Application of a Reynolds stress model to separating boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Sung HO

    1993-01-01

    Separating turbulent boundary layers occur in many practical engineering applications. Nonetheless, the physics of separation/reattachment of flows is poorly understood. During the past decade, various turbulence models were proposed and their ability to successfully predict some types of flows was shown. However. prediction of separating/reattaching flows is still a formidable task for model developers. The present study is concerned with the process of separation from a smooth surface. Features of turbulent separating boundary layers that are relevant to modeling include the following: the occurrence of zero wall shear stress, which causes breakdown of the boundary layer approximation; the law of the wall not being satisfied in the mean back flow region; high turbulence levels in the separated region; a significant low-frequency motion in the separation bubble; and the turbulence structure of the separated shear layer being quite different from that of either the mixing layers or the boundary layers. These special characteristics of separating boundary layers make it difficult for simple turbulence models to correctly predict their behavior.

  2. In-line respeciation: an ion-exchange ion chromatographic method applied to the separation of degradation products of chemical warfare nerve agents in soil.

    PubMed

    Vermillion, W D; Crenshaw, M D

    1997-05-16

    The natural background of anions encountered when analyzing soil samples by ion chromatography (IC) present significant problems in the separation, detection and quantification of isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) and methylphosphonic acid (MPA), the degradation products of sarin, a chemical warfare nerve agent. Using chemically-suppressed IC with conductivity detection, a commercially available ion-exchange column, and an isocratic binary eluent system, IMPA and MPA were determined in aqueous extracts of soil at sub-ppm (microgram/g) concentrations without the need for gradient elution or organic solvent eluent modifiers. Common soil anions such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate do not interfere with the analysis method due to the composition of the binary eluent allowing for greater mobilization of multivalent anions (e.g., MPA, carbonate, and sulfate) while monovalent anions (e.g., IMPA and nitrate) are relatively unaffected. Carbonate is selectively removed by in-line respeciation to bicarbonate.

  3. Hypersonic flow separation in shock wave boundary layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, A.; Kumar, Ajay

    1992-01-01

    An assessment is presented for the experimental data on separated flow in shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions at hypersonic and supersonic speeds. The data base consists mainly of two dimensional and axisymmetric interactions in compression corners or cylinder-flares, and externally generated oblique shock interactions with boundary layers over flat plates or cylindrical surfaces. The conditions leading to flow separation and the subsequent changes in the flow empirical correlations for incipient separation are reviewed. The effects of the Mach number, Reynolds number, surface cooling and the methods of detecting separation are discussed. The pertinent experimental data for the separated flow characteristics in separated turbulent boundary layer shock interaction are also presented and discussed.

  4. Hypersonic flow separation in shock wave boundary layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, A.; Kumar, Ajay

    1992-01-01

    An assessment is presented for the experimental data on separated flow in shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions at hypersonic and supersonic speeds. The data base consists mainly of two dimensional and axisymmetric interactions in compression corners or cylinder-flares, and externally generated oblique shock interactions with boundary layers over flat plates or cylindrical surfaces. The conditions leading to flow separation and the subsequent changes in the flow empirical correlations for incipient separation are reviewed. The effects of the Mach number, Reynolds number, surface cooling and the methods of detecting separation are discussed. The pertinent experimental data for the separated flow characteristics in separated turbulent boundary layer shock interaction are also presented and discussed.

  5. The evaluation of layered separators for nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, Randall F.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of using layered separators to achieve the required electrolyte retention and bubble pressure fo nickel-hydrogen cells was evaluated in a boilerplate cell test. Zircar cloth, polyethylene paper and polypropylene felt were combined with a layer of radiation-grafted polyethylene film to achieve the required properties. Three cells of each layered separator were built and tested by characterization cycling and by low earth orbit cycling for 5000 cycles at 80 percent DOD. Three cells containing asbestos separators were used as the reference.

  6. The evaluation of layered separators for nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, Randall F.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of using layered separators to achieve the required electrolyte retention and bubble pressure fo nickel-hydrogen cells was evaluated in a boilerplate cell test. Zircar cloth, polyethylene paper and polypropylene felt were combined with a layer of radiation-grafted polyethylene film to achieve the required properties. Three cells of each layered separator were built and tested by characterization cycling and by low earth orbit cycling for 5000 cycles at 80 percent DOD. Three cells containing asbestos separators were used as the reference.

  7. Radionuclide separations using pillared layered materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, N.C.; Wade, K.L.; Morgan, D.M.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Pillared Layered Materials (PLMs) are layered inorganic ion exchangers propped apart by metal oxide pillars. PLMs have been synthesized to sorb strontium from liquid nuclear wastes. A study that compared over 60 sorbers for their ability to sorb strontium from Hanford simulants showed that PLMs were the best sorbers; strontium distribution coefficients ({sup Sr}K{sub d}) > 20000 mL/g were obtained. In addition, PLMs showed a high degree of selectivity for strontium over cesium, transition metals, lanthanides and actinides. The sorption of strontium is, however, inhibited by complexants (EDTA); {sup Sr}K{sub d} values drop to <20 mL/g when they are present. The most promising PLMs were the Cr, Ti, Zr, and Si pillared tantalum tungstate. The K{sub d} values for Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} show a strong pH dependence; K{sub d} values increase to >10{sup 4} above pH 12. The general surface complexation mechanism explains the sorption of these cations on PLMs.

  8. Experimental measurements of unsteady turbulent boundary layers near separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Investigations conducted to document the behavior of turbulent boundary layers on flat surfaces that separate due to adverse pressure gradients are reported. Laser and hot wire anemometers measured turbulence and flow structure of a steady free stream separating turbulent boundary layer produced on the flow of a wind tunnel section. The effects of sinusoidal and unsteadiness of the free stream velocity on this separating turbulent boundary layer at a reduced frequency were determined. A friction gage and a thermal tuft were developed and used to measure the surface skin friction and the near wall fraction of time the flow moves downstream for several cases. Abstracts are provided of several articles which discuss the effects of the periodic free stream unsteadiness on the structure or separating turbulent boundary layers.

  9. Separation of zirconium by thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Oguma, K

    1969-03-01

    The thin-layer Chromatographie separation of a number of metal ions [Sc, Y, Zr, La, Sm, Th, U(VI), etc.] with solvent mixtures of mesityl oxide, ethanol and 5M nitric acid on silica gel-cellulose (5:1) thin-layer plates is reported. Zirconium remains stationary whilst the other metal ions move with the solvent, thus allowing a selective separation of zirconium from about 20 metal ions in ratios ranging from 100:1 to 1:100. Mixtures of various metal ions can also be separated.

  10. Air Flow in a Separating Laminar Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubauer, G B

    1936-01-01

    The speed distribution in a laminar boundary layer on the surface of an elliptic cylinder, of major and minor axes 11.78 and 3.98 inches, respectively, has been determined by means of a hot-wire anemometer. The direction of the impinging air stream was parallel to the major axis. Special attention was given to the region of separation and to the exact location of the point of separation. An approximate method, developed by K. Pohlhausen for computing the speed distribution, the thickness of the layer, and the point of separation, is described in detail; and speed-distribution curves calculated by this method are presented for comparison with experiment.

  11. The process of separation in the turbulent friction layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruschwitz, E

    1933-01-01

    The separation of the flow which occurs at large angles of attack on the suction side of an airplane wing is attributable to phenomena in the flowing fluid layer adjacent to the surface; the fluid particles slowed up by the friction on the surface can no longer advance against an unduly great pressure rise. It is of vital importance that there exist two types of flow - laminar and turbulent - in the fluid layer flowing in the immediate vicinity of a body. According to Prandtl, by whom the whole theory was developed, we speak in the first case of a laminar boundary layer, in the second, of a turbulent friction layer. (author)

  12. Effect of temperature on layer separation by plasma-hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Di, Zengfeng; Michael, Nastasi A; Wang, Yongqiang

    2008-01-01

    We have studied hydrogen diffusion in plasma hydrogenated Si/SiGe/Si heterostructure at different temperatures. At low temperature, intrinsic point defects in the molecular beam epitaxy grown Si capping layer are found to compete with the buried strain SiGe layer for hydrogen trapping. The interaction of hydrogen with point defects affects the hydrogen long-range diffusion, and restricts the amount of hydrogen available for trapping by the SiGe layer. However, hydrogen trapping by the capping layer is attenuated with increasing hydrogenation temperature allowing more hydrogen to be trapped in the strain SiGe layer with subsequent surface blister formation. A potential temperature window for plasma hydrogenation induced layer separation is identified based on the combined considerations of trap-limited diffusion at low temperature and outdiffusion of H{sub 2} molecule together with the dissociation of Si-H bonds inside of H platelet at high temperature.

  13. Separation criteria for three-dimensional boundary-layer calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raven, H. C.

    1984-04-01

    The behavior of the numerical solution of the boundary-layer equations for 3D viscous flow around streamlined objects in the vicinity of separation-line singularities is investigated. The turbulent boundary layer on a 35-deg swept wing of infinite span is analyzed using the finite-difference-method boundary-layer program described by Raven (1980) and a spanwise-marching approach. A discontinuity in the displacement thickness and other characteristics at the separation line is shown to produce a forbidden region within which the calculated results are grid dependent and may be physically meaningless. The use of local grid refinement to evaluate separation singularities and identify erroneous results is recommended.

  14. Simple turbulence models and their application to boundary layer separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadcock, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements in the boundary layer and wake of a stalled airfoil are presented in two coordinate systems, one aligned with the airfoil chord, the other being conventional boundary layer coordinates. The NACA 4412 airfoil is studied at a single angle of attack corresponding to maximum lift, the Reynolds number based on chord being 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power. Turbulent boundary layer separation occurred at the 85 percent chord position. The two-dimensionality of the flow was documented and the momentum integral equation studied to illustrate the importance of turbulence contributions as separation is approached. The assumptions of simple eddy-viscosity and mixing-length turbulence models are checked directly against experiment. Curvature effects are found to be important as separation is approached.

  15. Investigation of Turbulent Boundary-Layer Separation Using Laser Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modarress, D.; Johnson, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Boundary-layer measurements realized by laser velocimetry are presented for a Much 2.9, two-dimensional, shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction containing an extensive region of separated flow. Mean velocity and turbulent intensity profiles were obtained from upstream of the interaction zone to downstream of the mean reattachment point. The superiority of the laser velocimeter technique over pressure sensors in turbulent separated flows is demonstrated by a comparison of the laser velocimeter data with results obtained from local pilot and static pressure measurements for the same flow conditions. The locations of the mean separation and reattachment points as deduced from the mean velocity measurements are compared to oil-now visualization results. Representative velocity probability density functions obtained in the separated now region are also presented. Critical to the success of this investigation were: the use of Bragg cell frequency shifting and artificial seeding of the now with submicron light-scattering particles.

  16. Separating and turbulent boundary layer calculations using polynomial interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, S. G.; Rivera, S.

    1977-01-01

    Higher order numerical methods derived from polynomial spline interpolation or Hermitian differencing are applied to a separating laminar boundary layer, i.e., the Howarth problem, and the turbulent flat plate boundary layer flow. Preliminary results are presented. It is found that accuracy equal to that of conventional second order accurate finite difference methods is achieved with many fewer mesh points and with reduced computer storage and time requirements.

  17. Determination of perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctanesulfonate in water matrices by inline matrix elimination liquid chromatography with reversed phase separation and suppressed conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, N Harihara; Manigandan, P; Wille, Andrea; Radhakrishnan, Ganga

    2011-09-01

    This work describes a new method for the determination of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in water matrices by suppressed conductivity detection. Separation was achieved by isocratic elution on a reversed-phase column thermostated at 45°C using an aqueous mobile phase containing boric acid and acetonitrile. The PFOA and PFOS content in the water matrix were quantified by a pre-concentration technique. For the concentration range of 1 to 15 ng/mL and 2 to 30 ng/mL, the linear calibration curve for PFOA and PFOS yielded coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 0.9995 and 0.9985, respectively. The relative standard deviations were smaller than 1.5% for PFOA and PFOS. The retention-time precision of four consecutive 12 h injections was smaller than 0.641% and 0.818%, respectively. The presence of common divalent cations, such as calcium, magnesium, and iron in water matrices impairs PFOS recovery. This drawback was overcome by applying inline matrix elimination method. The optimized method was successfully applied for drinking water, ground water, and seawater samples.

  18. Hybrid microfluidics: a digital-to-channel interface for in-line sample processing and chemical separations.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawad, Mohamed; Watson, Michael W L; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2009-04-21

    Microchannels can separate analytes faster with higher resolution, higher efficiency and with lower reagent consumption than typical column techniques. Unfortunately, an impediment in the path toward fully integrated microchannel-based labs-on-a-chip is the integration of pre-separation sample processing. Although possible in microchannels, such steps are challenging because of the difficulty in maintaining spatial control over many reagents simultaneously. In contrast, the alternative format of digital microfluidics (DMF), in which discrete droplets are manipulated on an array of electrodes, is well-suited for carrying out sequential chemical reactions. Here, we report the development of the first digital-channel hybrid microfluidic device for integrated pre-processing reactions and chemical separations. The device was demonstrated to be useful for on-chip labeling of amino acids and primary amines in cell lysate, as well as enzymatic digestion of peptide standards, followed by separation in microchannels. Given the myriad applications requiring pre-processing and chemical separations, the hybrid digital-channel format has the potential to become a powerful new tool for micro total analysis systems.

  19. On the theory of laminar boundary layers involving separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Karman, TH; Millikan, C

    1934-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical discussion of the laminar boundary layer, which was developed with a view of facilitating the investigation of those boundary layers in particular for which the phenomenon of separation occurs. The treatment starts with a slight modification of the form of the boundary layer equation first published by Von Mises. Two approximate solutions of this equation are found, one of which is exact at the outer edge of the boundary layer while the other is exact at the wall. The final solution is obtained by joining these two solutions at the inflection points of the velocity profiles. The final solution is given in terms of a series of universal functions for a fairly broad class of potential velocity distributions outside of the boundary layer. Detailed calculations of the boundary layer characteristics are worked out for the case in which the potential velocity is a linear function of the distance from the upstream stagnation point. Finally, the complete separation point characteristics are determined for the boundary layer associated with a potential velocity distribution made up of two linear functions of the distance from the stagnation point. It appears that extensions of the detailed calculations to more complex potential flows can be fairly easily carried out by using the explicit formulae given in the paper. (author)

  20. Streaming effect of wall oscillation to boundary layer separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, X. H.; Wu, J. Z.; Wu, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary theoretical result on the time averaged streaming effect of local forcing excitation to the boundary layer separation from smooth surface. The problem is formulated as a periodic disturbance to a basic steady breakaway separating flow, for which the data are taken from a numerical triple-deck solution. The ratio of Strouhal number St and Reynolds number Re plays an important role, both being assumed sufficiently high. The analytical and numerical results show that this streaming effect is quite strong at proper values of St/Re exp 1/4, which may delay or even suppress the separation.

  1. The numerical calculation of laminar boundary-layer separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.; Steger, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Iterative finite-difference techniques are developed for integrating the boundary-layer equations, without approximation, through a region of reversed flow. The numerical procedures are used to calculate incompressible laminar separated flows and to investigate the conditions for regular behavior at the point of separation. Regular flows are shown to be characterized by an integrable saddle-type singularity that makes it difficult to obtain numerical solutions which pass continuously into the separated region. The singularity is removed and continuous solutions ensured by specifying the wall shear distribution and computing the pressure gradient as part of the solution. Calculated results are presented for several separated flows and the accuracy of the method is verified. A computer program listing and complete solution case are included.

  2. Direct numerical simulation of a separated turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Y.; Moin, P.

    1998-09-01

    A separated turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate was investigated by direct numerical simulation of the incompressible Navier Stokes equations. A suction-blowing velocity distribution was prescribed along the upper boundary of the computational domain to create an adverse-to-favourable pressure gradient that produces a closed separation bubble. The Reynolds number based on inlet free-stream velocity and momentum thickness is 300. Neither instantaneous detachment nor reattachment points are fixed in space but fluctuate significantly. The mean detachment and reattachment locations determined by three different definitions, i.e. (i) location of 50% forward flow fraction, (ii) mean dividing streamline ([psi]=0), (iii) location of zero wall-shear stress ([tau]w=0), are in good agreement. Instantaneous vorticity contours show that the turbulent structures emanating upstream of separation move upwards into the shear layer in the detachment region and then turn around the bubble. The locations of the maximum turbulence intensities as well as Reynolds shear stress occur in the middle of the shear layer. In the detached flow region, Reynolds shear stresses and their gradients are large away from the wall and thus the largest pressure fluctuations are in the middle of the shear layer. Iso-surfaces of negative pressure fluctuations which correspond to the core region of the vortices show that large-scale structures grow in the shear layer and agglomerate. They then impinge on the wall and subsequently convect downstream. The characteristic Strouhal number St=f[delta]*in/U0 associated with this motion ranges from 0.0025 to 0.01. The kinetic energy budget in the detachment region is very similar to that of a plane mixing layer.

  3. Experimental Study of Unsteady Separation in a Laminar Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacci, Andrew; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Santos, Leo

    2016-11-01

    Separation, caused by an adverse pressure gradient, can be a major problem to aircraft. Reversing flow occurs in separated regions and an investigation of how this backflow forms is of interest due to the fact that this could be used as a means of initiating flow control. Specifically, backflow can bristle shark scales which may be linked to a passive, flow actuated separation control mechanism. An experiment was conducted in a water tunnel to replicate separation, with a focus on the reversing flow development near the wall within a laminar boundary layer. Using a rotating cylinder, an adverse pressure gradient was induced creating a separated region over a flat plate. In this experiment the boundary layer grows to sizes great enough that the scale of the flow is increased, making it more measurable to DPIV. In the future, this research can be utilized to better understand flow control mechanisms such as those enabled by shark skin. Funding from Army Research Office and NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  4. Retention in porous layer pillar array planar separation platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Danielle R.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2016-08-11

    Here, this work presents the retention capabilities and surface area enhancement of highly ordered, high-aspect-ratio, open-platform, two-dimensional (2D) pillar arrays when coated with a thin layer of porous silicon oxide (PSO). Photolithographically prepared pillar arrays were coated with 50–250 nm of PSO via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and then functionalized with either octadecyltrichlorosilane or n-butyldimethylchlorosilane. Theoretical calculations indicate that a 50 nm layer of PSO increases the surface area of a pillar nearly 120-fold. Retention capabilities were tested by observing capillary-action-driven development under various conditions, as well as by running one-dimensional separations on varying thicknesses of PSO. Increasing the thickness of PSO on an array clearly resulted in greater retention of the analyte(s) in question in both experiments. In culmination, a two-dimensional separation of fluorescently derivatized amines was performed to further demonstrate the capabilities of these fabricated platforms.

  5. Retention in porous layer pillar array planar separation platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Danielle R.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2016-08-11

    Here, this work presents the retention capabilities and surface area enhancement of highly ordered, high-aspect-ratio, open-platform, two-dimensional (2D) pillar arrays when coated with a thin layer of porous silicon oxide (PSO). Photolithographically prepared pillar arrays were coated with 50–250 nm of PSO via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and then functionalized with either octadecyltrichlorosilane or n-butyldimethylchlorosilane. Theoretical calculations indicate that a 50 nm layer of PSO increases the surface area of a pillar nearly 120-fold. Retention capabilities were tested by observing capillary-action-driven development under various conditions, as well as by running one-dimensional separations on varying thicknesses of PSO. Increasing the thickness of PSO on an array clearly resulted in greater retention of the analyte(s) in question in both experiments. In culmination, a two-dimensional separation of fluorescently derivatized amines was performed to further demonstrate the capabilities of these fabricated platforms.

  6. Amorphous carbon buffer layers for separating free gallium nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altakhov, A. S.; Gorbunov, R. I.; Kasharina, L. A.; Latyshev, F. E.; Tarala, V. A.; Shreter, Yu. G.

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of using amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) films for self-separation of gallium nitride (GaN) layers grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy has been analyzed. DLC films have been synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition under low pressure on sapphire (Al2O3) substrates with a (0001) crystallographic orientation. The samples have been studied by the methods of Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that thin DLC films affect only slightly the processes of nucleation and growth of gallium nitride films. Notably, the strength of the "GaN film-Al2O3" substrate interface decreases, which facilitates separation of the GaN layers.

  7. Computation of Three-Dimensional Boundary Layers Including Separation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    BOUNDARY LAYERS INCLUDING SEPARATION The material assembled in this book was prepared under the combined sponsorship of the Fluid Dynamics Panel, the...publication has been reproduced directly from material supplied by AGARD or the authors. Published February 1987 Copyright© AGARD 1987 All Rights...precisely, T is proportional to v ’z. Using (1.19), the ratios of scales characterizing the energy-containing eddies (u, 1, 8 ) and the dissipative

  8. Reversing flow development in a separating turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Leonardo; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Bonacci, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Fast swimming sharks have micro-structures on their skin consisting of bristling scales. These scales are hypothesized to bristle in response to backflow generated from the separated turbulent boundary layer (TBL) in regions of adverse pressure gradient (APG) on the shark body. Vortices are trapped in the cavities between the scales, which induce momentum exchange between the higher momentum fluid in the outer flow and that in the separated region. This momentum exchange causes reattachment of the separated TBL, causing the scales to return to the unbristled location, and the cycle continues. The rows of scales have widths that are comparable to the spanwise length scale of the intermittent backflow patches that appear in the region of incipient detachment of TBLs. In this experimental investigation, correlations between the shark scale's width and the spanwise size of the low backflow streaks are examined, as well as details of the incipient detachment region. The experiments are conducted in a water tunnel facility and the flow field is measured using PIV. Turbulent boundary layers are subjected to an APG via a rotating cylinder. Separated TBLs are investigated on a flat plate. The authors would like to greatfully acknowledge the Army Research Office for funding this project.

  9. Inclusion of Separation in Integral Boundary Layer Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Brodie; O'Neill, Charles

    2016-11-01

    An integral boundary layer (IBL) method coupled with a potential flow solver quickly allows simulating aerodynamic flows, allowing for aircraft geometries to be rapidly designed and optimized. However, most current IBL methods lack the ability to accurately model three-dimensional separated flows. Various IBL equations and closure relations were investigated in an effort to develop an IBL capable of modeling separation. Solution techniques, including a Newton's method and the inverse matrix solving program GMRES, as well as methods for coupling an IBL with a potential flow solver were also investigated. Results for two-dimensional attached flow as well as methods for expanding an IBL to model three-dimensional separation are presented. Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  10. Contraction ratio effect on boundary layer separation induced by shockwave boundary layer interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Seongkyun; di Cristina, Giovanni; Do, Hyungrok

    2016-11-01

    Boundary layer separations induced by shockwave boundary layer interaction at various contraction ratios were investigated at a Mach 4.5 flow. Stagnation pressure and temperature condition of 10 bars and 295 K were used, and a high-speed schlieren system visualized the flow features. A shockwave generator with 12 degree wedge generated an impinging shockwave onto a laminar boundary layer on a flat plate. The contraction ratio of the flow was varied by changing the distance between the shockwave generator and the flat plate. The location of the shockwave impingement was fixed while the contraction ratios were changed. Flow visualization showed that the flow separation and its size were influenced by the contraction ratio although overall flow features were similar. At higher contraction ratio, stronger impinging shockwave and more severe flow separation were observed.

  11. Plasmons in spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Mehran; Bahrami, Mousa

    2014-05-01

    Motivated by innovative progresses in designing multi-layer graphene nanostructured materials in the laboratory, we theoretically investigate the Dirac plasmon modes of a spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbon system, made up of a vertically offset armchair and metallic graphene nanoribbon pair. We find striking features of the collective excitations in this novel Coulomb correlated system, where both nanoribbons are supposed to be either intrinsic (undoped/ungated) or extrinsic (doped/gated). In the former, it is shown the low-energy acoustical and the high-energy optical plasmon modes are tunable only by the inter-ribbon charge separation. In the later, the aforementioned plasmon branches are modified by the added doping factor. As a result, our model could be useful to examine the existence of a linear Landau-undamped low-energy acoustical plasmon mode tuned via the inter-ribbon charge separation as well as doping. This study might also be utilized for devising novel quantum optical waveguides based on the Coulomb coupled graphene nanoribbons.

  12. Plasmons in spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bagheri, Mehran; Bahrami, Mousa

    2014-05-07

    Motivated by innovative progresses in designing multi-layer graphene nanostructured materials in the laboratory, we theoretically investigate the Dirac plasmon modes of a spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbon system, made up of a vertically offset armchair and metallic graphene nanoribbon pair. We find striking features of the collective excitations in this novel Coulomb correlated system, where both nanoribbons are supposed to be either intrinsic (undoped/ungated) or extrinsic (doped/gated). In the former, it is shown the low-energy acoustical and the high-energy optical plasmon modes are tunable only by the inter-ribbon charge separation. In the later, the aforementioned plasmon branches are modified by the added doping factor. As a result, our model could be useful to examine the existence of a linear Landau-undamped low-energy acoustical plasmon mode tuned via the inter-ribbon charge separation as well as doping. This study might also be utilized for devising novel quantum optical waveguides based on the Coulomb coupled graphene nanoribbons.

  13. Stacked Ge nanocrystals with ultrathin SiO₂ separation layers.

    PubMed

    Zschintzsch, Manuel; von Borany, Johannes; Jeutter, Nicole M; Mücklich, Arndt

    2011-11-18

    The aim of this work is the tailored growth of Ge nanocrystals (NCs) in (GeO(x)/SiO(2)) multilayers (ML) for photovoltaic applications. For this purpose the fabrication of regularly stacked Ge NCs separated by ultrathin SiO(2) layers is essential to enable charge carrier transport by direct tunnelling. In this paper we report on the fabrication of (GeO(x)/SiO(2))(50) multilayer stacks via reactive dc magnetron sputtering and Ge NCs formation after subsequent annealing. It is shown that magnetron sputtering allows us to deposit very regular ML stacks with a total thickness of about 300 nm, characterized by ultrathin (down to 1 nm) and very smooth (roughness ∼ 0.6 nm) SiO(2) separation layers. A main challenge is to keep these properties for a thermal budget necessary to form Ge NCs. For this reason, the temperature dependence of phase separation. Ge crystallization and ML morphology was investigated by Rutherford backscattering, x-ray scattering, Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of size confined Ge NCs of about 5 nm after annealing of only 550 °C is confirmed. This low thermal budget ensures the suppression of GeO emanation and multilayer stability. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to determine the optical Ge NC bandgap to (1.65 ± 0.5) eV.

  14. Forward marching procedure for separated boundary-layer flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. E.; Wornom, S. F.

    1975-01-01

    A forward-marching procedure for separated boundary-layer flows which permits the rapid and accurate solution of flows of limited extent is presented. The streamwise convection of vorticity in the reversed flow region is neglected, and this approximation is incorporated into a previously developed (Carter, 1974) inverse boundary-layer procedure. The equations are solved by the Crank-Nicolson finite-difference scheme in which column iteration is carried out at each streamwise station. Instabilities encountered in the column iterations are removed by introducing timelike terms in the finite-difference equations. This provides both unconditional diagonal dominance and a column iterative scheme, found to be stable using the von Neumann stability analysis.

  15. Polymer coatings as separator layers for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Valerie J.; Saito, Tomonori; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-03-01

    Membrane separators reduce oxygen flux from the cathode into the anolyte in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but water accumulation and pH gradients between the separator and cathode reduces performance. Air cathodes were spray-coated (water-facing side) with anion exchange, cation exchange, and neutral polymer coatings of different thicknesses to incorporate the separator into the cathode. The anion exchange polymer coating resulted in greater power density (1167 ± 135 mW m-2) than a cation exchange coating (439 ± 2 mW m-2). This power output was similar to that produced by a Nafion-coated cathode (1114 ± 174 mW m-2), and slightly lower than the uncoated cathode (1384 ± 82 mW m-2). Thicker coatings reduced oxygen diffusion into the electrolyte and increased coulombic efficiency (CE = 56-64%) relative to an uncoated cathode (29 ± 8%), but decreased power production (255-574 mW m-2). Electrochemical characterization of the cathodes ex situ to the MFC showed that the cathodes with the lowest charge transfer resistance and the highest oxygen reduction activity produced the most power in MFC tests. The results on hydrophilic cathode separator layers revealed a trade off between power and CE. Cathodes coated with a thin coating of anion exchange polymer show promise for controlling oxygen transfer while minimally affecting power production.

  16. Retention in porous layer pillar array planar separation platforms

    DOE PAGES

    Lincoln, Danielle R.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; ...

    2016-08-11

    Here, this work presents the retention capabilities and surface area enhancement of highly ordered, high-aspect-ratio, open-platform, two-dimensional (2D) pillar arrays when coated with a thin layer of porous silicon oxide (PSO). Photolithographically prepared pillar arrays were coated with 50–250 nm of PSO via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and then functionalized with either octadecyltrichlorosilane or n-butyldimethylchlorosilane. Theoretical calculations indicate that a 50 nm layer of PSO increases the surface area of a pillar nearly 120-fold. Retention capabilities were tested by observing capillary-action-driven development under various conditions, as well as by running one-dimensional separations on varying thicknesses of PSO. Increasing the thicknessmore » of PSO on an array clearly resulted in greater retention of the analyte(s) in question in both experiments. In culmination, a two-dimensional separation of fluorescently derivatized amines was performed to further demonstrate the capabilities of these fabricated platforms.« less

  17. Wall-layer model for LES with massive separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhari, Ahmad; Armenio, Vincenzo; Roman, Federico

    2016-11-01

    Currently, Wall Functions (WF) work well under specific conditions, mostly exhibit drawbacks specially in flows with separation beyond curvatures. In this work, we propose a more general WF which works well in attached and detached flows, in presence and absence of Immersed Boundaries (IB). First we modified an equilibrium stress WF for boundary-fitted geometry making dynamic the computation of the k (von Karman constant) of the log-law; the model was first applied to a periodic open channel flow, and then to the flow over a 2D single hill using uniform coarse grids; the model captured separation with reasonable accuracy. Thereafter IB Method by Roman et al. was improved to avoid momentum loss at the interface between the fluid-solid regions. This required calibration of interfacial eddy viscosity; also a random stochastic forcing was used in wall-normal direction to increase Reynolds stresses and improve mean velocity profile. Finally, to reproduce flow separation, a simplified boundary layer equation was applied to construct velocity at near wall computational nodes. The new scheme was tested on the 2D single hill and periodic hills applying Cartesian and curvilinear grids; good agreement with references was obtained with reduction in cost and complexity. Financial support from project COSMO "CFD open source per opera morta" PAR FSC 2007-2013, Friuli Venezia Giulia.

  18. Calculation of shock-separated turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, B. S.; Rose, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Numerical solutions of the complete, time-averaged conservation equations using several eddy-viscosity models for the Reynolds shear stress to close the equations are compared with experimental measurements in a compressible, turbulent separated flow. An efficient time-splitting, explicit difference scheme was used to solve the two-dimensional conservation equations. The experiment used for comparison was a turbulent boundary layer that was separated by an incident shock wave in a Mach 2.93 flow with a unit Reynolds number of 5.7 x 10 to the seventh power m. Comparisons of predicted and experimental values of surface pressure, shear stress along the wall, and velocity profiles are shown. One of the tested eddy-viscosity models which allows the shear stress to be out of equilibrium with the mean flow produces substantially better agreement with the experimental measurements than the simpler models. A tool is thereby provided for inferring additional information about the flow, such as static pressures in the stream, which might not be directly obtainable from experiments.

  19. Mixed mosaic membranes prepared by layer-by-layer assembly for ionic separations.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Sahadevan; Yan, Yu; Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Gao, Haifeng; Phillip, William A

    2014-12-23

    Charge mosaic membranes, which possess distinct cationic and anionic domains that traverse the membrane thickness, are capable of selectively separating dissolved salts from similarly sized neutral solutes. Here, the generation of charge mosaic membranes using facile layer-by-layer assembly methodologies is reported. Polymeric nanotubes with pore walls lined by positively charged polyethylenimine moieties or negatively charged poly(styrenesulfonate) moieties were prepared via layer-by-layer assembly using track-etched membranes as sacrificial templates. Subsequently, both types of nanotubes were deposited on a porous support in order to produce mixed mosaic membranes. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrates that the facile deposition techniques implemented result in nanotubes that are vertically aligned without overlap between adjacent elements. Furthermore, the nanotubes span the thickness of the mixed mosaic membranes. The effects of this unique nanostructure are reflected in the transport characteristics of the mixed mosaic membranes. The hydraulic permeability of the mixed mosaic membranes in piezodialysis operations was 8 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1). Importantly, solute rejection experiments demonstrate that the mixed mosaic membranes are more permeable to ionic solutes than similarly sized neutral molecules. In particular, negative rejection of sodium chloride is observed (i.e., the concentration of NaCl in the solution that permeates through a mixed mosaic membrane is higher than in the initial feed solution). These properties illustrate the ability of mixed mosaic membranes to permeate dissolved ions selectively without violating electroneutrality and suggest their utility in ionic separations.

  20. Comparison of several methods for predicting separation in a compressible turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhart, P. M.; Bober, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Several methods for predicting the separation point for a compressible turbulent boundary layer were applied to the flow over a bump on a wind-tunnel wall. Measured pressure distributions were used as input. Two integral boundary-layer methods, three finite-difference boundary-layer methods, and three simple methods were applied at five free-stream Mach numbers ranging from 0.354 to 0.7325. Each of the boundary-layer methods failed to explicitly predict separation. However, by relaxing the theoretical separation criteria, several boundary-layer methods were made to yield reasonable separation predictions, but none of the methods accurately predicted the important boundary-layer parameters at separation. Only one of the simple methods consistently predicted separation with reasonable accuracy in a manner consistent with the theory. The other methods either indicated several possible separation locations or only sometimes predicted separation.

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of layer separation tendency of novel three-layered tablets with geometric and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Choi, Du Hyung; Lim, Dae Gon; Son, Hyung Min; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2014-04-25

    The layer separation tendency of a novel three-layered matrix tablet was investigated according to various physical properties and novel experiments. Even though layer separation did not occur during manufacturing process and storage, it was observed during a dissolution test depending on the mid-layer formulation. According to the powder properties of the mid-layer substances, Form A, which had higher porosity and lower density than Form B, displayed a tendency of layer separation. These properties correlated with the degree of absorption of the aqueous medium into the mid-layer, which was evaluated by water uptake and mass loss tests. Water uptake and mass loss profiles of the formulations were similar, but the mass loss property of Form A was about 5% higher at the time points, due to the faster dissolution rate of the mid-layer in the first 0.5h. Using a texture analyzer, the layer separation force of the system and adhesion force between the barrier layers were evaluated to understand the correlation between the geometric property and layer separation tendency. During the first 0.5h, the wrapping property of the swollen barrier layers significantly affected the layer separation tendency. The drug release profiles of two formulations could be divided into three stages on the basis of their geometric property as it showed a sigmoid-type. However, for the first stage (about initial 1h in duration), the drug release of Form A was more than Form B due to the mid-layer's powder properties. The results provided valuable information for detailed understanding of issues in the development of a multi-layered system and indicated the importance of a well-designed tablet formulation and manufacturing process.

  2. On the use of Lagrangian variables in descriptions of unsteady boundary-layer separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, Stephen J.; Vandommelen, Leon L.; Lam, Shui T.

    1990-01-01

    The Lagrangian description of unsteady boundary layer separation is reviewed from both analytical and numerical perspectives. It is explained in simple terms how particle distortion gives rise to unsteady separation, and why a theory centered on Lagrangian coordinates provides the clearest description of this phenomenon. Some of the more recent results for unsteady three dimensional compressible separation are included. The different forms of separation that can arise from symmetries are emphasized. A possible description of separation is also included when the detaching vorticity layer exits the classical boundary layer region, but still remains much closer to the surface than a typical body-lengthscale.

  3. Quantitative analysis of the layer separation risk in bilayer tablets using terahertz pulsed imaging.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Masahiro; Hiraishi, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Norio; Terada, Katsuhide

    2013-08-16

    Layer separation is a critical defect in many bilayer tablets. Despite its importance for product quality, few studies have investigated its root cause. We evaluated bilayer tablets with varying layer separation tendencies using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) in comparison with other analytical methods such as tensile strength measurements, friability testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray computed tomography (XRCT). The layer separation risk was determined by friability testing and shown to be correlated with the final compression pressure used for bilayer tablet fabrication. TPI could nondestructively detect cracks between the component layers that lead to layer separation. The adhesion integrity of the interface was quantified by the interface index, a unique value derived from the time-domain terahertz waveform. The interface index showed good correlation to the layer separation tendency and could distinguish interface quality among seven batches of bilayer tablets. In contrast, SEM and XRCT detected structural defects but could not distinguish batches with high or low layer separation risk. TPI revealed the relationship between compression pressure and interface quality. Thus, TPI can aid in quality control by providing a precise estimate of the layer separation risk and robust quality of bilayer tablet development with better understanding of layer separation.

  4. Membranes having aligned 1-D nanoparticles in a matrix layer for improved fluid separation

    SciTech Connect

    Revanur, Ravindra; Lulevich, Valentin; Roh, Il Juhn; Klare, Jennifer E.; Kim, Sangil; Noy, Aleksandr; Bakajin, Olgica

    2015-12-22

    Membranes for fluid separation are disclosed. These membranes have a matrix layer sandwiched between an active layer and a porous support layer. The matrix layer includes 1-D nanoparticles that are vertically aligned in a porous polymer matrix, and which substantially extend through the matrix layer. The active layer provides species-specific transport, while the support layer provides mechanical support. A matrix layer of this type has favorable surface morphology for forming the active layer. Furthermore, the pores that form in the matrix layer tend to be smaller and more evenly distributed as a result of the presence of aligned 1-D nanoparticles. Improved performance of separation membranes of this type is attributed to these effects.

  5. Control and reduction of unsteady pressure loads in separated shock wave turbulent boundary layer interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolling, David S.; Barter, John W.

    1995-01-01

    The focus was on developing means of controlling and reducing unsteady pressure loads in separated shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions. Section 1 describes how vortex generators can be used to effectively reduce loads in compression ramp interaction, while Section 2 focuses on the effects of 'boundary-layer separators' on the same interaction.

  6. Inter-layer edge tunneling and transport properties in separately contacted double-layer quantum-Hall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Daijiro

    1998-01-01

    A theory of transport in the quantum-Hall regime is developed for separately contacted double-layer electron systems. Inter-layer tunneling provides a channel for equilibration of the distribution functions in the two layers at the edge states. Resistances and transresistances for various configurations of the electrodes are calculated as functions of the inter-layer tunneling amplitude. Induced current in one of the layer by a current in the other is also calculated. It is shown that reflection at the leads causes change in the results for some electrode configurations. The results obtained in this work is consistent with recent experiments.

  7. Responsive Image Inline Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Ian

    2016-10-20

    RIIF is a contributed module for the Drupal php web application framework (drupal.org). It is written as a helper or sub-module of other code which is part of version 8 "core Drupal" and is intended to extend its functionality. It allows Drupal to resize images uploaded through the user-facing text editor within the Drupal GUI (a.k.a. "inline images") for various browser widths. This resizing is already done foe other images through the parent "Responsive Image" core module. This code extends that functionality to inline images.

  8. Supersonic separated turbulent boundary - layer over a wavy wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, A.; Werle, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    A prediction method is developed for calculating distributions of surface heating rates, pressure and skin friction over a wavy wall in a two-dimensional supersonic flow. Of particular interest is the flow of thick turbulent boundary layers. The surface geometry and the flow conditions considered are such that there exists a strong interaction between the viscous and inviscid flow. First, using the interacting turbulent boundary layer equations, the problem is formulated in physical coordinates and then a reformulation of the governing equations in terms of Levy-Lees variables is given. Next, a numerical scheme for solving interacting boundary layer equations is adapted. A number of modifications which led to the improvement of the numerical algorithm are discussed. Finally, results are presented for flow over a train of up to six waves at various flow conditions.

  9. The separated turbulent boundary layer over a wavy wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, A.; Werle, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    A study and application of the fourth order spline collocation procedure, numerical solution of boundary layer like differential equations, is presented. A simple inversion algorithm for the simultaneous solution of the resulting difference equations is given. Particular attention is focused on the boundary condition representation for the spline second derivative approximations. Solutions using the spline procedure, as well as the three point finite difference method, are presented for several model problems in order to assess and improve the spline numerical scheme. Application of the resulting algorithm to the incompressible laminar self similar boundary layer equations is presented.

  10. Development of Techniques for Separating Waterproof Layer from XLPE Cable Sheath by Hot Water Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Masato; Nakade, Masahiko; Okashita, Minoru; Tanimoto, Mihoko

    Waterproof layer is used to prevent penetration of water which is one of the factors of dielectric breakdown in XLPE cables more than 66kV class. A XLPE cable sheath with waterproof layer is done landfill disposal as industrial waste because separation of waterproof layer is difficult for technology and cost. However, around 20 years passes after waterproof layer was introduced, and social consciousness for environment changes during these 20 years, and responsibility of company for environment of a society grows bigger. We report the result that examined techniques for separating waterproof layer.

  11. Incipient separation pressure rise for a Mach 3.8 turbulent boundary layer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, W. C.; Page, R. J.; Childs, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Additional incipient separation data presented cover a range of Reynolds numbers not covered in previous investigations conducted by Seebaugh (1968) and Rose (1972). A novel technique for detecting incipient separation is discussed. Several methods for detecting separation are considered. One method is based on the introduction of alcohol at a minute rate into the boundary layer.

  12. Layer-separable and gap-tunable topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kai-Wei; Ji, Wei; Kaun, Chao-Cheng

    2017-02-01

    The way in which states of a topological insulator (TI) transform from monolayer to bulk is an important issue for applications in spintronics. However, unlike graphite, most layered materials are difficult to exfoliate. Using first-principles calculations, we predict that thallium selenide (TlSe) will be a layered TI with rather weak interlayer coupling and thus it should be exfoliated easily. The evolution of the topological states can also be driven by doping with indium (In) atoms or applying lateral strains. A comparison of TlSe and β-InSe shows that the influences of structural and chemical components on the electronic structures determine the topological phase. Effects of van der Waals interactions in this TlSe material are also addressed.

  13. Deuterium and tritium separation in a tokamak reactor divertor layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokar', M. Z.

    1989-04-01

    It's shown that the plasma isotope composition in a tokamak reactor divertor layer changes along the magnetic field and can notable differ from the gas composition in a pumping chamber. Heavier tritium must concentrate in the hot plasma far from the divertor plate due to thermal force stipulated by mutial collisions of deuterium and tritium ions. This circumstance is favourable from the point of view of tritium cycle optimization and must facilitate solution of the problem of tritium accumulation in the reactor construction elements.

  14. Flow separation in shock wave boundary layer interactions at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, A.

    1990-01-01

    An assessment is presented for the experimental data on separated flow in shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions at hypersonic and supersonic speeds. The data base consists mainly of two dimensional and axisymmetric interactions in compression corners or cylinder-flares, and externally generated oblique shock interactions with boundary layers over flat plates or cylindrical surfaces. The conditions leading to flow separation and the subsequent changes in the flow empirical correlations for incipient separation are reviewed. The effects of the Mach number, Reynolds number, surface cooling and the methods of detecting separation are discussed. The pertinent experimental data for the separated flow characteristics in separated turbulent boundary layer shock interaction are also presented and discussed.

  15. The efficient simulation of separated three-dimensional viscous flows using the boundary-layer equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dalsem, W. R.; Steger, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and computationally efficient algorithm for solving the unsteady three-dimensional boundary-layer equations in the time-accurate or relaxation mode is presented. Results of the new algorithm are shown to be in quantitative agreement with detailed experimental data for flow over a swept infinite wing. The separated flow over a 6:1 ellipsoid at angle of attack, and the transonic flow over a finite-wing with shock-induced 'mushroom' separation are also computed and compared with available experimental data. It is concluded that complex, separated, three-dimensional viscous layers can be economically and routinely computed using a time-relaxation boundary-layer algorithm.

  16. Identification of separate flow features in the shear layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulleners, Karen; Krishna, Swathi; Green, Melissa

    2016-11-01

    Analyzing unsteady flow fields primarily involves the identification of dynamically significant regions of vorticity in the flow. Detection of all the flow features is essential for an accurate description of the physics of the flow, which eventually helps in improving flow modeling and predictions. Eulerian criteria such as λ2 and Γ2 successfully identify large scale structures based on local velocity gradients and topology but do not detect the coherent vortices with the concentrated vorticity in a shear layer. The identification of these smaller structures within the shear layer is important when predicting the overall circulatory contribution to the aerodynamic forces produced, in applications such as flapping wing design. In order to detect the smaller flow features along with the prominent large scale vortices, an alternative method of vortex identification is proposed in which the flow structures are detected based on the vorticity contours. This method is applied to numerical and experimental data of a pitching panel to highlight its robustness. In addition, the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) is calculated to show that the boundaries of the material lines and identified vorticity contours coincide.

  17. Radionuclide separations using pillared layered materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clearfield, A.

    1995-08-31

    The objective of this project is to prepare an all inorganic strontium specific sorbent or ion exchanger for the removal of highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions. A series of clays and layered titanates were pillared and calcined to convert their essentially two dimensional structure to three dimensional porous structures with high surface areas. The pillaring agents were alumina, zirconia, chromia and silica based. The pillared clays, particularly those containing Zr pillars, achieved moderate (Kd as high at 13,700 ml/g with V:m = 28) selectivities for Sr{sup 2+}. In contrast, the silica pillared titanates showed exceptional affinities for Sr{sup 2+} with Kd values in excess of 100,000 ml/g in 5M NaNO{sup 3} + 1M NaOH. These latter results suggest a more detailed study of the pillared titanates in the presence of simulants closely resembling real waste solutions.

  18. Experimental study of two separating turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagabushana, K. A.; Simpson, R. L.; Agarwal, N. K.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed study of two strong adverse pressure gradient flows, one with a free-stream velocity of 35 m/sec, at throat (producing a Re sub theta of 27000 at detachment) and another with free-stream velocity of 22 m/sec, at throat (producing a Re sub theta of 19000 at detachment) is presented. In these examples flows separate slowly and reattach very rapidly over a very short distance in a streamwise direction. In the backflow region, there appears to be a semi-logarithmically flat region in the streamwise fluctuating velocity component, u', which spreads over a definite range of y/delta. In power spectra, the flow variables phi sub upsilon upsilon (kappa sub 1 delta)/ -uv bar sub max vs. kappa sub 1 delta forms a unique set of scaling parameters for adverse pressure gradient flows. Experimental results show good agreement with previous studies.

  19. Separation and Identification of Commonly Used Drugs: A Thin-Layer Chromatography Experiment for Freshman Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonicamp, Judith M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a freshman chemistry experiment in which students separate and identify commonly used drugs by thin-layer chromatography. Materials needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained are included. (JN)

  20. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised. PMID:25731716

  1. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-03-03

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised.

  2. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-03-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised.

  3. Automatic online layer separation for vessel enhancement in X-ray angiograms for percutaneous coronary interventions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hua; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Regar, Evelyn; Niessen, Wiro J; van Walsum, Theo

    2017-07-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention is a minimally invasive procedure that is usually performed under image guidance using X-ray angiograms in which coronary arteries are opacified with contrast agent. In X-ray images, 3D objects are projected on a 2D plane, generating semi-transparent layers that overlap each other. The overlapping of structures makes robust automatic information processing of the X-ray images, such as vessel extraction which is highly relevant to support smart image guidance, challenging. In this paper, we propose an automatic online layer separation approach that robustly separates interventional X-ray angiograms into three layers: a breathing layer, a quasi-static layer and a vessel layer that contains information of coronary arteries and medical instruments. The method uses morphological closing and an online robust PCA algorithm to separate the three layers. The proposed layer separation method ran fast and was demonstrated to significantly improve the vessel visibility in clinical X-ray images and showed better performance than other related online or prospective approaches. The potential of the proposed approach was demonstrated by enhancing contrast of vessels in X-ray images with low vessel contrast, which would facilitate the use of reduced amount of contrast agent to prevent contrast-induced side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancement of capillary electrochromatographic separation performance by conductive polymer in a layer-by-layer fabricated graphene stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Wenpeng; Bao, Tao; Chen, Zilin

    2014-04-25

    In this work, we fabricated a novel graphene-based capillary column for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) by a layer-by-layer strategy. To immobilize graphene onto the inner surface of silica capillary, a bio-inspired method was first used to functionalize the capillary surface with a layer of polydopamine (PDA). Graphene oxide (GO) was then introduced and can covalently react with polydopamine, realizing immobilization of graphene as a result. To enhance the modification efficiency of polydopamine, a conductive polymer, polyaniline (PANI) was introduced to be a sub-layer; polydopamine was then introduced following with GO, to generate a multilayer GO-PDA-PANI@capillary. Interestingly, separation efficiency of the graphene-based capillary was enhanced significantly by using conductive PANI as a sub-layer. The morphology of different layers modified on the capillary column was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electroosmotic flow (EOF) characteristics of capillaries modified with different layers were also investigated by varying the pH value of mobile phase. GO-PDA-PANI@capillary showed good separation efficiency towards alkylbenzenes by OT-CEC mode, with theoretic plate numbers up to 133,918 for benzene. The separation was found to follow a reversed-phase chromatographic retention mechanism. Repeatability of the GO-PDA-PANI@capillary was studied, with relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day runs less than 2.89%, and column-to-column runs less than 6.17%. The separation performance of GO-PDA-PANI@capillary was also compared with that of the reported graphene modified capillary.

  5. Ion Layer Separation and Equilibrium Zonal Winds in Midlatitude Sporadic E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earle, G. D.; Kane, T. J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Bounds, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    In-situ observations of a moderately strong mid-latitude sporadic-E layer show a separation in altitude between distinct sublayers composed of Fe(+), Mg(+), and NO(+). From these observations it is possible to estimate the zonal wind field consistent with diffusive equilibrium near the altitude of the layer. The amplitude of the zonal wind necessary to sustain the layer against diffusive effects is less than 10 meters per second, and the vertical wavelength is less than 10 km.

  6. Three-dimensional separation for interaction of shock waves with turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    For the interaction of shock waves with turbulent boundary layers, obtained experimental three-dimensional separation results and correlations with earlier two-dimensional and three-dimensional data are presented. It is shown that separation occurs much earlier for turbulent three-dimensional than for two-dimensional flow at hypersonic speeds.

  7. Development of optimized mobile phases for protein separation by high performance thin layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Biller, Julia; Morschheuser, Lena; Riedner, Maria; Rohn, Sascha

    2015-10-09

    In recent years, protein chemistry tends inexorably toward the analysis of more complex proteins, proteoforms, and posttranslational protein modifications. Although mass spectrometry developed quite fast correspondingly, sample preparation and separation of these analytes is still a major issue and quite challenging. For many years, electrophoresis seemed to be the method of choice; nonetheless its variance is limited to parameters such as size and charge. When taking a look at traditional (thin-layer) chromatography, further parameters such as polarity and different mobile and stationary phases can be utilized. Further, possibilities of detection are manifold compared to electrophoresis. Similarly, two-dimensional separation can be also performed with thin-layer chromatography (TLC). As the revival of TLC developed enormously in the last decade, it seems to be also an alternative to use high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) for the separation of proteins. The aim of this study was to establish an HPTLC separation system that allows a separation of protein mixtures over a broad polarity range, or if necessary allowing to modify the separation with only few steps to improve the separation for a specific scope. Several layers and solvent systems have been evaluated to reach a fully utilized and optimized separation system.

  8. Evolution of the shear layer during unsteady separation over an experimental wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melius, Matthew; Cal, Raul; Mulleners, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Unsteady flow separation in rotationally augmented flow fields plays a significant role in the aerodynamic performance of industrial wind turbines. Current computational models underestimate the aerodynamic loads due to the inaccurate prediction of the emergence and severity of unsteady flow separation in the presence of rotational augmentation. Through the use of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV), the unsteady separation over an experimental wind turbine blade is examined. By applying Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), perturbation amplitudes and frequencies within the shear-layer are identified. The time dependent EMD results during the dynamic pitching cycle give insight into the spatio-temporal scales that influence the transition from attached to separated flow. The EMD modes are represented as two-dimensional fields and are analyzed together with the spatial distribution of vortices, the location of the separation point, and velocity contours focusing on the role of vortex shedding and shear layer perturbation in unsteady separation and reattachment.

  9. Liquid crystal alignment with a molecular template of imprinted polymer layer during phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hak-Rin; Jung, Jong-Wook; Lee, You-Jin; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2006-03-01

    We developed a liquid crystal (LC) alignment method using a molecular template of an imprinted polymer layer during polymerization-induced phase separation. Our results showed that the nematic ordering of LC is transferred to the polymer chain ordering during an anisotropic phase separation, which produces an anisotropic azimuthal surface anchoring. Using in-plane field treatment during phase separation, a twisted nematic cell is demonstrated.

  10. Unsteady separated boundary layer in a transonic diffuser flow with self-excited oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, T.; Coakley, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical investigation of two-dimensional unsteady boundary layer in a transonic diffuser flow with self-excited oscillations and strong flow separation by solving the compressible, Reynolds-averaged, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations with two-equations turbulence model is described. Three different meshes with constant streamwise mesh distribution and varying vertical mesh distribution were used. Results obtained indicate that a refinement of mesh studied here has minimal effect on the mean boundary layer flow but significantly increases the amplitude of oscillation of all flow variables. Comparisons of unsteady wall pressure, velocity profile, terminal shock, and separation pocket among computations and with experiment are presented.

  11. Measurements in Separated and Transitional Boundary Layers Under Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoil Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volino, Ralph J.; Hultgren, Lennart .

    2000-01-01

    Detailed velocity measurements were made along a flat plate subject to the same dimensionless pressure gradient as the suction side of a modern low-pressure turbine airfoil. Reynolds numbers based on wetted plate length and nominal exit velocity were varied from 50,000 to 300,000, covering cruise to takeoff conditions. Low and high inlet free-stream turbulence intensities (0.2% and 7%) were set using passive grids. The location of boundary-layer separation does not depend strongly on the free-stream turbulence level or Reynolds number, as long as the boundary layer remains non-turbulent prior to separation. Strong acceleration prevents transition on the upstream part of the plate in all cases. Both free-stream turbulence and Reynolds number have strong effects on transition in the adverse pressure gradient region. Under low free-stream turbulence conditions transition is induced by instability waves in the shear layer of the separation bubble. Reattachment generally occurs at the transition start. At Re = 50,000 the separation bubble does not close before the trailing edge of the modeled airfoil. At higher Re, transition moves upstream, and the boundary layer reattaches. With high free-stream turbulence levels, transition appears to occur in a bypass mode, similar to that in attached boundary layers. Transition moves upstream, resulting in shorter separation regions. At Re above 200,000, transition begins before separation. Mean velocity, turbulence and intermittency profiles are presented.

  12. Investigation of supersonic turbulent boundary-layer separation on a compression ramp by an integral method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, D. K.; Czarnecki, K. R.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of using a boundary layer integral method to study the separation of a turbulent boundary layer on a two dimensional ramp at supersonic speeds. The numerical calculations were made for a free stream Mach number of 3, a Reynolds number of 10 million, and over a ramp angle range from 0 deg to 30 deg. For ramp angles where no flow separation was indicated, theoretical calculations were in reasonable agreement with experimental data except for a somewhat belated rise in pressure. For larger ramp angles, where separation was present, the investigation produced results that were not in agreement with experiment or with results calculated by time dependent Navier-Stokes methods. This apparently was true because no provision had been made for a proper shock boundary layer interaction where strong normal pressure gradients are induced within the boundary layer under the shock independent of surface curvature effects.

  13. Solving Nonlinearly Separable Classifications in a Single-Layer Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Conaway, Nolan; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2017-03-01

    Since the work of Minsky and Papert ( 1969 ), it has been understood that single-layer neural networks cannot solve nonlinearly separable classifications (i.e., XOR). We describe and test a novel divergent autoassociative architecture capable of solving nonlinearly separable classifications with a single layer of weights. The proposed network consists of class-specific linear autoassociators. The power of the model comes from treating classification problems as within-class feature prediction rather than directly optimizing a discriminant function. We show unprecedented learning capabilities for a simple, single-layer network (i.e., solving XOR) and demonstrate that the famous limitation in acquiring nonlinearly separable problems is not just about the need for a hidden layer; it is about the choice between directly predicting classes or learning to classify indirectly by predicting features.

  14. Separated Response Function Ratios in Exclusive, Forward π± Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, G. M.; Blok, H. P.; Butuceanu, C.; Gaskell, D.; Horn, T.; Mack, D. J.; Abbott, D.; Aniol, K.; Anklin, H.; Armstrong, C.; Arrington, J.; Assamagan, K.; Avery, S.; Baker, O. K.; Barrett, B.; Beise, E. J.; Bochna, C.; Boeglin, W.; Brash, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Chang, C. C.; Chant, N.; Christy, M. E.; Dunne, J.; Eden, T.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H.; Gibson, E. F.; Gilman, R.; Gustafsson, K.; Hinton, W.; Holt, R. J.; Jackson, H.; Jin, S.; Jones, M. K.; Keppel, C. E.; Kim, P. H.; Kim, W.; King, P. M.; Klein, A.; Koltenuk, D.; Kovaltchouk, V.; Liang, M.; Liu, J.; Lolos, G. J.; Lung, A.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Matsumura, A.; McKee, D.; Meekins, D.; Mitchell, J.; Miyoshi, T.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Mueller, B.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Okayasu, Y.; Pentchev, L.; Perdrisat, C.; Pitz, D.; Potterveld, D.; Punjabi, V.; Qin, L. M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reinhold, J.; Roche, J.; Roos, P. G.; Sarty, A.; Shin, I. K.; Smith, G. R.; Stepanyan, S.; Tang, L. G.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tvaskis, V.; van der Meer, R. L. J.; Vansyoc, K.; Van Westrum, D.; Vidakovic, S.; Volmer, J.; Vulcan, W.; Warren, G.; Wood, S. A.; Xu, C.; Yan, C.; Zhao, W. -X.; Zheng, X.; Zihlmann, B.

    2014-05-05

    The study of exclusive π± electroproduction on the nucleon, including separation of the various structure functions, is of interest for a number of reasons. The ratio RL = σπ-L / σπ+L is sensitive to isoscalar contamination to the dominant isovector pion exchange amplitude, which is the basis for the determination of the charged pion form factor from electroproduction data. A change in the value of RT = σπ-T / σπ+T from unity at small –t, to 1/4 at large –t, would suggest a transition from coupling to a (virtual) pion to coupling to individual quarks. Furthermore, the mentioned ratios may show an earlier approach to perturbative QCD than the individual cross sections. We have performed the first complete separation of the four unpolarized electromagnetic structure functions above the dominant resonances in forward, exclusive π± electroproduction on the deuteron at central Q2 values of 0.6, 1.0, 1.6 GeV2 at W = 1.95 GeV, and Q2 = 2.45 GeV2 at W = 2.22 GeV. In this paper, we present the L and T cross sections, with emphasis on RL and RT, and compare them with theoretical calculations. Finally, results for the separated ratio RL indicate dominance of the pion-pole diagram at low –t, while results for RT are consistent with a transition between pion knockout and quark knockout mechanisms.

  15. Separated Response Function Ratios in Exclusive, Forward π± Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, G. M.; Blok, H. P.; Butuceanu, C.; Gaskell, D.; Horn, T.; Mack, D. J.; Abbott, D.; Aniol, K.; Anklin, H.; Armstrong, C.; Arrington, J.; Assamagan, K.; Avery, S.; Baker, O. K.; Barrett, B.; Beise, E. J.; Bochna, C.; Boeglin, W.; Brash, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Chang, C. C.; Chant, N.; Christy, M. E.; Dunne, J.; Eden, T.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H.; Gibson, E. F.; Gilman, R.; Gustafsson, K.; Hinton, W.; Holt, R. J.; Jackson, H.; Jin, S.; Jones, M. K.; Keppel, C. E.; Kim, P. H.; Kim, W.; King, P. M.; Klein, A.; Koltenuk, D.; Kovaltchouk, V.; Liang, M.; Liu, J.; Lolos, G. J.; Lung, A.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Matsumura, A.; McKee, D.; Meekins, D.; Mitchell, J.; Miyoshi, T.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Mueller, B.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Okayasu, Y.; Pentchev, L.; Perdrisat, C.; Pitz, D.; Potterveld, D.; Punjabi, V.; Qin, L. M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reinhold, J.; Roche, J.; Roos, P. G.; Sarty, A.; Shin, I. K.; Smith, G. R.; Stepanyan, S.; Tang, L. G.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tvaskis, V.; van der Meer, R. L. J.; Vansyoc, K.; Van Westrum, D.; Vidakovic, S.; Volmer, J.; Vulcan, W.; Warren, G.; Wood, S. A.; Xu, C.; Yan, C.; Zhao, W. -X.; Zheng, X.; Zihlmann, B.

    2014-05-01

    The study of exclusive π{sup ±} electroproduction on the nucleon, including separation of the various structure functions, is of interest for a number of reasons. The ratio R{sub L}=σ{sup π{sup -}}{sub L}/σ{sup π{sup +}}{sub L} is sensitive to isoscalar contamination to the dominant isovector pion exchange amplitude, which is the basis for the determination of the charged pion form factor from electroproduction data. A change in the value of R{sub T}=σ{sup π{sup -}}{sub T}/σ{sup π{sup +}}{sub T} from unity at small -t, to 1/4 at large -t, would suggest a transition from coupling to a (virtual) pion to coupling to individual quarks. Furthermore, the mentioned ratios may show an earlier approach to pQCD than the individual cross sections. We have performed the first complete separation of the four unpolarized electromagnetic structure functions above the dominant resonances in forward, exclusive π± electroproduction on the deuteron at central Q{sup 2} values of 0.6, 1.0, 1.6 GeV{sup 2} at W=1.95 GeV, and Q{sup 2}=2.45 GeV{sup 2} at W=2.22 GeV. Here, we present the L and T cross sections, with emphasis on R{sub L} and R{sub T}, and compare them with theoretical calculations. Results for the separated ratio RL indicate dominance of the pion-pole diagram at low -t, while results for R{sub T} are consistent with a transition between pion knockout and quark knockout mechanisms.

  16. 30 CFR 57.22210 - In-line filters (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22210 In-line filters (I-C mines). Filters or separators shall be installed on air-lift fan systems to prevent explosive concentrations of... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-line filters (I-C mines). 57.22210 Section...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22210 - In-line filters (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-line filters (I-C mines). 57.22210 Section... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22210 In-line filters (I-C mines). Filters or separators shall be installed on air-lift fan systems to prevent explosive concentrations of...

  18. Multifunctional walnut shell layer used for oil/water mixtures separation and dyes adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Zhao, Zhihong; Li, Dianming; Tang, Xiaohua; Feng, Hua; Qi, Wei; Wang, Qiong

    2017-10-01

    Functional materials with superwetting property have been extensively used for wastewater treatment. Here, walnut shell powders (WSPs) were accumulated into a layer to separate oil/water mixtures and adsorb organic dyes, avoiding the complex process involved in the fabrication of traditional superhydrophobic or underwater superoleophobic filtering membranes. By making use of the underwater superoleophobicity and low adhesion to oils, the pre-wetted WSPs layer can be used for gravity driven oil/water separation with ultrahigh separation efficiency. Furthermore, the WSPs exhibited excellent adsorption property to the organic dyes including methylene blue, rhodamine B and crystal violet. Finally, the WSPs are agricultural residue to environment, and using it for water remediation not only is a good way to treat water pollution, but also can reduce the pressure to the environment. We believe that such multifunctional material will be an effective approach for separating oil/water separation and adsorbing organic dyes pollution in practical applications.

  19. Injection slot location for boundary-layer control in shock-induced separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanath, P. R.; Sankaran, L.; Sagdeo, P. M.; Narasimha, R.; Prabhu, A.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effect of tangential air injection, when the injection slot is located inside of what would otherwise have been the dead air zone in a separated flow, in controlling shock-induced turbulent boundary layer separation is presented. The experiments were carried out at a free-stream Mach number of 2.5 in the separated flow induced by a compression corner with a 20 deg angle. The observations made were wall static pressures, pitot profiles, and schlieren visualizations of the flow. The results show that the present location for injection is more effective in suppressing boundary-layer separation than the more conventional one, where the slot is located upstream of where separation would occur in the absence of injection.

  20. Improvements to in-line desalting of oligosaccharides separated by high-pH anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Thayer, J R; Rohrer, J S; Avdalovic, N; Gearing, R P

    1998-02-15

    High-pH anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC/PAD) (1) is routinely used to separate neutral and charged oligosaccharides differing by branch, linkage, and positional isomerism. Oligosaccharides are eluted in 0.1 M NaOH with gradients of sodium acetate (up to 0.25 M). Analyses of HPAEC/PAD-purified oligosaccharides generally require neutralization and removal of eluent salts. To facilitate the process, we designed and produced a cation-exchange system to remove sodium ions (Na+) from the eluent after oligosaccharide detection [the Carbohydrate Membrane Desalter (CMD), with a volatile regenerant]. Exchange of >99.5% of eluent Na+ for hydronium ions (H3O+) within the CMD generates dilute acetic acid (removable by vacuum evaporation). The exchange process desalts up to 0.35 M Na+ at 1.0 ml/min. Oligosaccharides collected after on-line desalting, evaporated and resuspended in their original volume of deionized water contained < or = 350 muM residual Na+ when the eluting sodium concentration was 300 mM. This represents a desalting efficiency of >99.8%. Recovery of neutral and sialylated oligosaccharides under these conditions ranged from 75 to 100%. With the CMD system and postcollection evaporation, HPAEC/PAD can purify oligosaccharides ready for further characterization. As a proof test, oligosaccharides from a human monoclonal antibody were separated by HPAEC/PAD, desalted with the CMD system, dried, and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization, time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

  1. Boundary-layer separation on isolated boattail nozzles. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyounis, W. K.

    1978-01-01

    An angle of attack of 0 deg was investigated in the Langley 16 foot transonic tunnel at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.95 to study the phenomenon of separated flow on a series of circular-arc afterbodies. Both high-pressure air and solid circular cylinders with the cylinder diameter equal to the nozzle-exit diameter were used to simulate jet exhausts. The results indicate that boundary-layer separation is most extensive on steep boattails at high Mach numbers. The jet total-pressure ratio changes (jet total pressure to free-stream static pressure) affected the extent of separation very little; however, comparison of the separation data obtained by using the two jet-simulation techniques indicate that entrainment associated with the presence of a jet had a significant effect on the extent of separation. The solid-simulator separation data were also used to evaluate the predictions of eight separation criteria.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Separated and Transitional Boundary Layers Under Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoil Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Volino, Ralph J.

    2002-01-01

    Modern low-pressure turbine airfoils are subject to increasingly stronger pressure gradients as designers impose higher loading in an effort to improve efficiency and to reduce part count. The adverse pressure gradients on the suction side of these airfoils can lead to boundary-layer separation, particularly under cruise conditions. Separation bubbles, notably those which fail to reattach, can result in a significant degradation of engine efficiency. Accurate prediction of separation and reattachment is hence crucial to improved turbine design. This requires an improved understanding of the transition flow physics. Transition may begin before or after separation, depending on the Reynolds number and other flow conditions, has a strong influence on subsequent reattachment, and may even eliminate separation. Further complicating the problem are the high free-stream turbulence levels in a real engine environment, the strong pressure gradients along the airfoils, the curvature of the airfoils, and the unsteadiness associated with wake passing from upstream stages. Because of the complicated flow situation, transition in these devices can take many paths that can coexist, vary in importance, and possibly also interact, at different locations and instances in time. The present work was carried out in an attempt to systematically sort out some of these issues. Detailed velocity measurements were made along a flat plate subject to the same nominal dimensionless pressure gradient as the suction side of a modern low-pressure turbine airfoil ('Pak-B'). The Reynolds number based on wetted plate length and nominal exit velocity, Re, was varied from 50;000 to 300; 000, covering cruise to takeoff conditions. Low, 0.2%, and high, 7%, inlet free-stream turbulence intensities were set using passive grids. These turbulence levels correspond to about 0.2% and 2.5% turbulence intensity in the test section when normalized with the exit velocity. The Reynolds number and free

  3. Tailoring interlayer structure of molecular layer-by-layer assembled polyamide membranes for high separation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Joung-Eun; Lee, Jong Suk; Park, Sang-Hee; Kim, Il Tae; Chan, Edwin P.; Kwon, Young-Nam; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    A molecular layer-by-layer (mLbL) technique was recently developed to fabricate polyamide (PA) thin film composite (TFC) membranes for water purification. In this study, the interlayer structure between the selective and support layers of the mLbL-assembled TFC membrane was tailored to achieve high performance applicable to seawater desalination. Introducing interlayers on porous supports prior to mLbL deposition allowed the effective PA growth by preventing monomer deposition within the support pores. The PA layers were grown via mLbL on supports coated by a series of interlayers: poly(piperazine-amide), cross-linked poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and a polyelectrolyte bilayer of PEI and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (PEI/PAA). The density and distribution of surface carboxyl groups of the interlayer were found to be key parameters that determine the structure and performance of the mLbL-assembled membranes. Among the interlayers examined, the PEI/PAA interlayer not only yielded membranes with superior performance but also with a highly smooth surface beneficial for antifouling.

  4. Rosenbluth Separation of the π0 Electroproduction Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Defurne, M.; Mazouz, M.; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Bellini, V.; Benali, M.; Boeglin, W.; Bertin, P.; Brossard, M.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Chandavar, S.; Chen, C.; Chen, J. -P.; de Jager, C. W.; de Leo, R.; Desnault, C.; Deur, A.; El Fassi, L.; Ent, R.; Flay, D.; Friend, M.; Fuchey, E.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Giusa, A.; Glamazdin, O.; Golge, S.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D.; Holmstrom, T.; Horn, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, M.; Huber, G. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Iqbal, S.; Itard, F.; Kang, Ho.; Kang, Hy.; Kelleher, A.; Keppel, C.; Koirala, S.; Korover, I.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Long, E.; Magne, M.; Mammei, J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Martí Jiménez-Argüello, A.; Meddi, F.; Meekins, D.; Michaels, R.; Mihovilovic, M.; Muangma, N.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nuruzzaman, N.; Paremuzyan, R.; Puckett, A.; Punjabi, V.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Rashad, M. N. H.; Riordan, S.; Roche, J.; Russo, G.; Sabatié, F.; Saenboonruang, K.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Selvy, L.; Shahinyan, A.; Sirca, S.; Solvignon, P.; Sperduto, M. L.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Sutera, C.; Tobias, W. A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Wang, D.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yao, H.; Ye, Z.; Zana, L.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, P.

    2016-12-01

    We present deeply virtual $\\pi^0$ electroproduction cross-section measurements at $x_B$=0.36 and three different $Q^2$--values ranging from 1.5 to 2 GeV$^2$, obtained from experiment E07-007 that ran in the Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The Rosenbluth technique was used to separate the longitudinal and transverse responses. Results demonstrate that the cross section is dominated by its transverse component, and thus is far from the asymptotic limit predicted by perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics. An indication of a non-zero longitudinal contribution is provided by the interference term $\\sigma_{LT}$ also measured. Results are compared with several models based on the leading twist approach of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs). In particular, a fair agreement is obtained with models where the scattering amplitude is described by a convolution of chiral-odd (transversity) GPDs of the nucleon with the twist-3 pion distribution amplitude. Therefore, neutral pion electroproduction may offer the exciting possibility of accessing transversity GPDs through experiment.

  5. Turbine airfoil with dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure

    DOEpatents

    Campbell,; Christian X. , Morrison; Jay, A [Oviedo, FL

    2011-12-20

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure. The compliant structure may be configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand without limitation by the inner layer. The compliant structure may be formed from a plurality of pedestals positioned generally parallel with each other. The pedestals may include a first foot attached to a first end of the pedestal and extending in a first direction aligned with the outer layer, and may include a second foot attached to a second end of the pedestal and extending in a second direction aligned with the inner layer.

  6. Application of DDES and IDDES with shear layer adapted subgrid length-scale to separated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, E. K.; Garbaruk, A. V.; Strelets, M. Kh

    2016-11-01

    A comparative study is conducted of the original versions of Delayed Detached- Eddy Simulation (DDES) and Improved DDES (IDDES) and these approaches combined with “shear-layer-adapted” (SLA) subgrid length-scale proposed recently for resolving the issue of delayed RANS-to-LES transition in separated shear layers in global hybrid RANS-LES approaches. Computations were carried out of two separated flows: a transonic flow past M 219 cavity and a subsonic flow over NASA wall mounted hump. Results of the computations suggest that the use of the SLA subgrid length-scale considerably accelerates transition to resolved three-dimensional turbulence in the separated shear layers and substantially improves agreement with the experimental data.

  7. A fast, uncoupled, compressible, two-dimensional, unsteady boundary layer algorithm with separation for engine inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Robert L.; Nelson, Chris; Sakowski, Barbara; Darling, Douglas; Vandewall, Allan G.

    1992-01-01

    A finite difference boundary layer algorithm was developed to model viscous effects when an inviscid core flow solution is given. This algorithm solved each boundary layer equation separately, then iterated to find a solution. Solving the boundary layer equations sequentially was 2.4 to 4.0 times faster than solving the boundary layer equations simultaneously. This algorithm used a modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, a weighted average of forward and backward differencing of the pressure gradient, and a backward sweep of the pressure. With these modifications, the boundary layer algorithm was able to model flows with and without separation. The number of grid points used in the boundary layer algorithm affected the stability of the algorithm as well as the accuracy of the predictions of friction coefficients and momentum thicknesses. Results of this boundary layer algorithm compared well with experimental observations of friction coefficients and momentum thicknesses. In addition, when used interactively with an inviscid flow algorithm, this boundary layer algorithm corrected for viscous effects to give a good match with experimental observations for pressures in a supersonic inlet.

  8. On the Lagrangian description of unsteady boundary layer separation. Part 2: The spinning sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandommelen, Leon L.

    1989-01-01

    A theory to explain the initial stages of unsteady separation was proposed by Van Dommelen and Cowley (1989). This theory is verified for the separation process that occurs at the equatorial plane of a sphere or a spheroid which is impulsively spun around an axis of symmetry. A Lagrangian numerical scheme is developed which gives results in good agreement with Eulerian computations, but which is significantly more accurate. This increased accuracy, and a simpler structure to the solution, also allows verification of the Eulerian structure, including the presence of logarithmic terms. Further, while the Eulerian computations broke down at the first occurrence of separation, it is found that the Lagrangian computation can be continued. It is argued that this separated solution does provide useful insight into the further evolution of the separated flow. A remarkable conclusion is that an unseparated vorticity layer at the wall, a familiar feature in unsteady separation processes, disappears in finite time.

  9. On the Lagrangian description of unsteady boundary-layer separation. II - The spinning sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dommelen, Leon L.

    1990-01-01

    A theory to explain the initial stages of unsteady separation was proposed by Van Dommelen and Cowley (1989). This theory is verified for the separation process that occurs at the equatorial plane of a sphere or a spheroid which is impulsively spun around an axis of symmetry. A Lagrangian numerical scheme is developed which gives results in good agreement with Eulerian computations, but which is significantly more accurate. This increased accuracy, and a simpler structure to the solution, also allows verification of the Eulerian structure, including the presence of logarithmic terms. Further, while the Eulerian computations broke down at the first occurrence of separation, it is found that the Lagrangian computation can be continued. It is argued that this separated solution does provide useful insight into the further evolution of the separated flow. A remarkable conclusion is that an unseparated vorticity layer at the wall, a familiar feature in unsteady separation processes, disappears in finite time.

  10. On the Lagrangian description of unsteady boundary-layer separation. II - The spinning sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dommelen, Leon L.

    1990-01-01

    A theory to explain the initial stages of unsteady separation was proposed by Van Dommelen and Cowley (1989). This theory is verified for the separation process that occurs at the equatorial plane of a sphere or a spheroid which is impulsively spun around an axis of symmetry. A Lagrangian numerical scheme is developed which gives results in good agreement with Eulerian computations, but which is significantly more accurate. This increased accuracy, and a simpler structure to the solution, also allows verification of the Eulerian structure, including the presence of logarithmic terms. Further, while the Eulerian computations broke down at the first occurrence of separation, it is found that the Lagrangian computation can be continued. It is argued that this separated solution does provide useful insight into the further evolution of the separated flow. A remarkable conclusion is that an unseparated vorticity layer at the wall, a familiar feature in unsteady separation processes, disappears in finite time.

  11. Investigation of shock-induced separation of a turbulent boundary layer using laser velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modarress, D.; Johnson, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Boundary-layer measurements realized by laser velocimetry are presented for a Mach 2.9, two-dimensional, shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction containing an extensive region of separated flow. Mean velocity and turbulent intensity profiles were obtained from upstream of the interaction zone to downstream of the mean reattachment point. The superiority of the laser velocimeter technique over pressure sensors in turbulent separated flows is demonstrated by a comparison of the laser velocimeter data with results obtained from local pitot and static pressure measurements for the same flow conditions. The locations of the mean separation and reattachment points as deduced from the mean velocity measurements are compared to oil-flow visualization results. Representative, velocity probability density functions obtained in the separated flow region are also presented. Critical to the success of this investigation were: (1) the use of Bragg cell frequency shifting and (2) artificial seeding of the flow with submicron light-scattering particles.

  12. Structural characteristics of the shock-induced boundary layer separation extended to the leading edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Y.; Liu, W. D.; Fan, X. Q.; Zhao, Y. L.

    2017-07-01

    For a better understanding of the local unstart of supersonic/hypersonic inlet, a series of experiments has been conducted to investigate the shock-induced boundary layer separation extended to the leading edge. Using the nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering, we recorded the fine structures of these interactions under different conditions and paid more attention to their structural characteristics. According to their features, these interactions could be divided into four types. Specifically, Type A wave pattern is similar to the classic shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction, and Type B wave configuration consists of an overall Mach reflection above the large scale separation bubble. Due to the gradual decrease in the size of the separation bubble, the separation bubble was replaced by several vortices (Type C wave pattern). Besides, for Type D wave configuration which exists in the local unstart inlet, there appears to be some flow spillage around the leading edge.

  13. Activated Transport in the Separate Layers that Form the νT=1 Exciton Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, R. D.; Lok, J. G.; Kraus, S.; Dietsche, W.; von Klitzing, K.; Schuh, D.; Bichler, M.; Tranitz, H.-P.; Wegscheider, W.

    2004-12-01

    We observe the total filling factor νT=1 quantum Hall state in a bilayer two-dimensional electron system with virtually no tunneling. We find thermally activated transport in the balanced system with a monotonic increase of the activation energy with decreasing d/ℓB below 1.65. In the imbalanced system we find activated transport in each of the layers separately, yet the activation energies show a striking asymmetry around the balance point, implying a different excitation spectrum for the separate layers forming the condensed state.

  14. Effect of separating layer thickness on W/Si multilayer replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangfang; Mu, Baozhong; Jin, Huijun; Yang, Xiajun; Zhu, Jingtao; Wang, Zhanshan

    2011-08-15

    The direct replication of W/Si multilayers and the effect of separating layer thickness on the performance of the multilayer before and after replication are investigated systematically. Platinum separating layers with different layer thicknesses were first deposited onto different supersmooth mandrels and then W/Si multilayers with the similar structure were deposited onto these Pt-coated mandrels by using a high vacuum DC magnetron sputtering system. After the deposition, these multilayers were replicated onto the commercially available float glass substrates by epoxy replication technique. These multilayers before and after replication are characterized by grazing-incident X-ray reflectance measurement and atomic force microscope. The measured results show that before and after replication, the reflectivity curves are much similar to those calculated and the surface roughness of each sample is close to that of the mandrel, when the separating layer thickness is larger than 1.5 nm. These results reveal that the W/Si multilayer with the separating layer thickness larger than 1.5 nm can be successfully replicated onto a substrate without modification of the structure, significant increase of surface roughness or apparent change of reflectivity.

  15. Conditionally analyzed mean velocity and turbulence measurements in a plume-induced boundary layer separated flowfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palko, Carl Wayne

    1998-11-01

    A supersonic plume-induced boundary layer separated (PIBLS) flowfield occurs when an underexpanded exhaust plume obstructs the flow around a rocket causing an oblique shock wave to form on the afterbody. The shock oscillates randomly in the streamwise direction causing an unsteady boundary layer separation that complicates prediction and measurement of PIBLS flowfields. This study provides the first turbulence measurements in a PIBLS flowfield and, consequently, the first benchmark data for evaluating future computational models for such flows. Conditionally analyzed two-component laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements were made in a planar, two-dimensional PIBLS flow containing an unsteady oblique shock wave formed by the convergence of two supersonic streams past a thick plate. High-speed wall pressure measurements were used to locate the shock wave and, consequently, allow separation of the effects of shock wave motion from the turbulence fluctuations in the velocity measurements of a shock-separated free shear layer. It was found that isolating the large-scale changes in the shock position from the turbulence reduces the experimental scatter rather than substantially changing the shapes or magnitudes of the turbulent stress profiles. Changes in shock motion direction, however, do significantly alter the turbulent stresses. This is the first evidence of the dependence of turbulence level and structure on shock motion direction and the first direct evidence of the effects of changes in shock wave position on turbulence amplification. The shock-induced separation process was found to dramatically increase the streamwise and transverse Reynolds normal stresses (which both peak near reattachment), the primary shear stress, and the normal stress anisotropy. The shock-separated shear layer consists of only a single layer with a large initial growth rate followed by a much smaller growth rate, instead of the two layers found in rapidly expanded shear layers. The

  16. DNS study of large-scale structures in a separated turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Mizobuchi, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Yuichi

    2011-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of a separated flat-plate turbulent boundary layer have been carried out. The inlet data are prescribed by DNSs of a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer with the rescaling-recycling method; blowing and suction are imposed at the upper boundary for producing a separation bubble. The Reynolds numbers at the inlet are set to be Reθ =300, 600 and 900, where Reθ is the Reynolds number based on the freestream velocity and the momentum thickness. Particular attention is given to large- scale structures existing in a separated region. Results indicate that large-scale organized structures of the streamwise velocity fluctuation appear in a detached shear layer when a large separated region is formed. The latter structures consist of positive and negative regions alternating in the spanwise direction with a spacing of about 2 ~ 3δ99 (δ99 denotes the 99% boundary layer thickness at the inlet), which become more apparent with increasing Reynolds number. They are most likely associated with large-scale spanwise meandering of the separation line. There is also close relationship between the large-scale structures and vortical structures, the latter tending to form vortex clusters where hairpin-like vortices are also observed.

  17. Modifications of the law of the wall and algebraic turbulence modelling for separated boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, B. S.; Maccormack, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Various modifications of the conventional algebraic eddy viscosity turbulence model are investigated for application to separated flows. Friction velocity is defined in a way that avoids singular behavior at separation and reattachment but reverts to the conventional definition for flows with small pressure gradients. This leads to a modified law of the wall for separated flows. The effect on the calculated flow field of changes in the model that affect the eddy viscosity at various distances from the wall are determined by (1) switching from Prandtl's form to an inner layer formula due to Clauser at various distances from the wall, (2) varying the constant in the Van Driest damping factor, (3) using Clauser's inner layer formula all the way to the wall, and (4) applying a relaxation procedure in the evaluation of the constant in Clauser's inner layer formula. Numerical solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to determine the effects of the modifications. Experimental results from shock-induced separated flows at Mach numbers 2.93 and 8.45 are used for comparison. For these cases improved predictions of wall pressure distribution and positions of separation and reattachment are obtained from the relaxation version of the Clauser inner layer eddy viscosity formula.

  18. Laminar and turbulent boundary layer separation control of Mako shark skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afroz, Farhana

    The Shortfin Mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) is one of the fastest swimmers in nature. They have an incredible turning agility and are estimated to achieve speeds as high as ten body lengths per second. Shark skin is known to contain flexible denticles or scales, capable of being actuated by the flow whereby a unique boundary layer control (BLC) method could reduce drag. It is hypothesized that shark scales bristle when the flow is reversed, and this bristling may serve to control flow separation by (1) inhibiting the localized flow reversal near the wall and (2) inducing mixing within the boundary layer by cavities formed between the scales that increases the momentum of the flow near the wall. To test this hypothesis, samples of Mako shark skin have been studied under various amounts of adverse pressure gradient (APG). These samples were collected from the flank region of a Shortfin Mako shark where the scales have the greatest potential for separation control due to the highest bristling angles. An easy technique for inducing boundary layer separation has been developed where an APG can be generated and varied using a rotating cylinder. Both the experimental and numerical studies showed that the amount of APG can be varied as a function of cylinder rotation speed or cylinder gap height for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. This method of generating an APG is used effectively for inducing both laminar and turbulent boundary layer separation over a flat plate. Laminar and turbulent boundary layer separation studies conducted over a smooth plate have been compared with the same setup repeated over shark skin. The time-averaged DPIV results showed that shark scale bristling controlled both laminar and turbulent boundary layer separation to a measurable extent. It shows that the shark scales cause an early transition to turbulence and reduce the degree of laminar separation. For turbulent separation, reverse flow near the wall and inside the boundary layer is

  19. Enhanced charge separation and oxidation kinetics of BiVO4 photoanode by double layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin; Xiong, Yuli; Dong, Hongmei; Peng, Huarong; Zhang, Yunhuai; Xiao, Peng

    2017-03-01

    Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a promising semiconductor for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Here, we developed a facile fabrication of BiVO4 double layer photoanode on the fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate by electrodeposition. The BiVO4 double layer photoanode is composed by a dense BiVO4 film as the inner layer and a nanoporous BiVO4 film as the outer layer. Compared to the BiVO4 single layer photoanode, the optimized BiVO4 double layer photoanode produced a much higher photocurrent of 1.15 mA/cm2 at 0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl under AM 1.5G (100 mW/cm2) illumination. The results of the photoelectric conversion kinetics for different samples revealed that the charge separation and oxidation kinetics efficiencies for the BiVO4 double layer are 47.2% and 51.6% at 0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl, while the values for BiVO4 single layer are 32.3% and 35.8%, respectively. The improved photoelectrochemical performance for BiVO4 double layer is mainly ascribed to the decrease of defect state at the interface after inserting a dense BiVO4 as an inner layer to prevent the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  20. Separation attenuation in swept shock wave-boundary-layer interactions using different microvortex generator geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martis, R. R.; Misra, A.

    2017-09-01

    A numerical study is conducted to determine the effectiveness of six different microvortex generator geometries in controlling swept shock wave/boundary-layer interactions. The geometries considered are base ramp, base ramp with declining angle of 45°, blunt ramp, split ramp, thick vanes, and ramped vanes. Microvortex generators with a gap were found to be better suited for delaying the separation. Thick vanes showed the largest delay in separation among the devices studied.

  1. Thin-layer chromatographie separation of alkaline earth metals on diethylaminoethyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Ishida, K

    1969-12-01

    Thin-layer Chromatographic behaviour of magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium on diethylaminoethyl cellulose has been investigated in methanol-nitric acid mixtures. R(f) values are in the order magnesium > calcium > strontium > barium. The differences in R(f) values are large enough to allow good separations of the four metal ions from each other. The best separation is obtained by the ascending technique with methanol-8M nitric acid (20:1, v v ).

  2. Separation attenuation in swept shock wave-boundary-layer interactions using different microvortex generator geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martis, R. R.; Misra, A.

    2017-03-01

    A numerical study is conducted to determine the effectiveness of six different microvortex generator geometries in controlling swept shock wave/boundary-layer interactions. The geometries considered are base ramp, base ramp with declining angle of 45°, blunt ramp, split ramp, thick vanes, and ramped vanes. Microvortex generators with a gap were found to be better suited for delaying the separation. Thick vanes showed the largest delay in separation among the devices studied.

  3. Comparison Between Navier-Stokes and Thin-Layer Computations for Separated Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, David; Steger, Joseph L.

    1983-01-01

    In the numerical simulation of high Reynolds-number flow, one can frequently supply only enough grid points to resolve the viscous terms in a thin layer. As a consequence, a body-or stream-aligned coordinate system is frequently used and viscous terms in this direction are discarded. It is argued that these terms cannot be resolved and computational efficiency is gained by their neglect. Dropping the streamwise viscous terms in this manner has been termed the thin-layer approximation. The thin-layer concept is an old one, and similar viscous terms are dropped, for example, in parabolized Navier-Stokes schemes. However, such schemes also make additional assumptions so that the equations can be marched in space, and such a restriction is not usually imposed on a thin-layer model. The thin-layer approximation can be justified in much the same way as the boundary-layer approximation; it requires, therefore, a body-or stream-aligned coordinate and a high Reynolds number. Unlike the boundary-layer approximation, the same equations are used throughout, so there is no matching problem. Furthermore, the normal momentum equation is not simplified and the convection terms are not one-sided differenced for marching. Consequently, the thin-layer equations are numerically well behaved at separation and require no special treatment there. Nevertheless, the thin-layer approximation receives criticism. It has been suggested that the approximation is invalid at separation and, more recently, that it is inadequate for unsteady transonic flow. Although previous comparisons between the thin-layer and Navier-Stokes equations have been made, these comparisons have not been adequately documented.

  4. Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) separations and bioassays of plant extracts to identify antimicrobial compounds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A common screen for plant antimicrobial compounds consists of separating plant extracts by paper or thin-layer chromatography (PC or TLC), exposing the chromatograms to microbial suspensions (e.g. fungal spores in nutrient solution or bacteria in liquefied agar), allowing time for the microbes to gr...

  5. Heat Transfer at the Reattachment Zone of Separated Laminar Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Paul M.; Viegas, John R.

    1961-01-01

    The flow and heat transfer are analyzed at the reattachment zone of two-dimensional separated laminar boundary layers. The fluid is considered to be flowing normal to the wall at reattachment. An approximate expression is derived for the heat transfer in the reattachment region and a calculated value is compared with an experimental measurement.

  6. Effects of boundary-layer separation controllers on a desktop fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hsu, Ching Min; Hung, Shuo-Fu

    2016-10-02

    A desktop fume hood installed with an innovative design of flow boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, work surface, and corners was developed and characterized for its flow and containment leakage characteristics. The geometric features of the developed desktop fume hood included a rearward offset suction slot, two side plates, two side-plate boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, a slanted surface on the leading edge of the work surface, and two small triangular plates on the upper left and right corners of the hood face. The flow characteristics were examined using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique. The containment leakages were measured by the tracer gas (sulphur hexafluoride) detection method on the hood face plane with a mannequin installed in front of the hood. The results of flow visualization showed that the smoke dispersions induced by the boundary-layer separations on the leading edges of the side plates and work surface, as well as the three-dimensional complex flows on the upper-left and -right corners of the hood face, were effectively alleviated by the boundary-layer separation controllers. The results of the tracer gas detection method with a mannequin standing in front of the hood showed that the leakage levels were negligibly small (≤0.003 ppm) at low face velocities (≥0.19 m/s).

  7. Thin-Layer Chromatographic Separation of Phenols: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Mark J.

    1986-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and equipment needed are provided for an experiment in which a series of readily available, inexpensive, and relatively nontoxic phenols are separated using thin-layer chromatographic techniques. The experiment permits a discussion of how relative Rf values may be rationalized by considering a molecule's…

  8. Knuckleball and Flying Disk: Boundary Layer Transitions, Separations and Vortex Wakes in Sports Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Hiroshi; Kiura, Toshiro; Goto, Yuichiro; Hiramoto, Riho

    2001-11-01

    In spite of their popularity, flow structures over common baseball and flying disks have not been studied in detail. A slowly rotating baseball is subject to erratic flight paths, and is known as a knuckleball. In the present experiment, the characteristic of force acting on a baseball was obtained and the velocity vector field near the surface of the ball and the wake were measured with the DPIV technique. The seam triggered the boundary layer transition or caused the boundary layer separation itself. The laminar/turbulent boundary layer separations were identified with specific ball orientations. Corresponding three-dimensional wake pattern and the side force result in unpredictable trajectories. In the second part of the talk, flow physics regarding a spin-stabilized flying disk is addressed. The roll-up of trailing vortices was visualized in detail and their vorticity field was measured with the DPIV. The vortical flow over the disk produced flow reattachment at a very high angle of attack. The boundary layer at low angles of attack was affected by the surface motion with asymmetric boundary layer transitions as evidenced by the flow visualization and the hot wire survey. The flow separation and attachment on the underside cavity were also affected by the rotation.

  9. Double-Layer Magnetic Nanoparticle-Embedded Silica Particles for Efficient Bio-Separation.

    PubMed

    Kyeong, San; Jeong, Cheolhwan; Kang, Homan; Cho, Hong-Jun; Park, Sung-Jun; Yang, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Sehoon; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Jun, Bong-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) based nanomaterials have been exploited in various biotechnology fields including biomolecule separation. However, slow accumulation of Fe3O4 NPs by magnets may limit broad applications of Fe3O4 NP-based nanomaterials. In this study, we report fabrication of Fe3O4 NPs double-layered silica nanoparticles (DL MNPs) with a silica core and highly packed Fe3O4 NPs layers. The DL MNPs had a superparamagnetic property and efficient accumulation kinetics under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the magnetic field-exposed DL MNPs show quantitative accumulation, whereas Fe3O4 NPs single-layered silica nanoparticles (SL MNPs) and silica-coated Fe3O4 NPs produced a saturated plateau under full recovery of the NPs. DL MNPs are promising nanomaterials with great potential to separate and analyze biomolecules.

  10. Double-Layer Magnetic Nanoparticle-Embedded Silica Particles for Efficient Bio-Separation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Homan; Cho, Hong-Jun; Park, Sung-Jun; Yang, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Sehoon; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Jun, Bong-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) based nanomaterials have been exploited in various biotechnology fields including biomolecule separation. However, slow accumulation of Fe3O4 NPs by magnets may limit broad applications of Fe3O4 NP-based nanomaterials. In this study, we report fabrication of Fe3O4 NPs double-layered silica nanoparticles (DL MNPs) with a silica core and highly packed Fe3O4 NPs layers. The DL MNPs had a superparamagnetic property and efficient accumulation kinetics under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the magnetic field-exposed DL MNPs show quantitative accumulation, whereas Fe3O4 NPs single-layered silica nanoparticles (SL MNPs) and silica-coated Fe3O4 NPs produced a saturated plateau under full recovery of the NPs. DL MNPs are promising nanomaterials with great potential to separate and analyze biomolecules. PMID:26599084

  11. Control of the boundary layer separation about an airfoil by active surface heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Badavi, Forooz F.; Noonan, Kevin W.

    1988-01-01

    Application of active control to separated flow on the RC(6)-08 airfoil at high angle of attack by localized surface heating is numerically simulated by integrating the compressible two-dimensional nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations solver. Active control is simulated by local modification of the temperature boundary condition over a narrow strip on the upper surface of the airfoil. Both mean and perturbed profiles are favorably altered when excited with the same natural frequency of the shear layer by moderate surface heating for both laminar and turbulent separation. The shear layer is found to be very sensitive to localized surface heating in the vicinity of the separation point. The excitation field at the surface sufficiently altered both the local as well as the global circulation to cause a significant increase in lift and reduction in drag.

  12. Covalent layer-by-layer grafting (LBLG) functionalized superhydrophobic stainless steel mesh for oil/water separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Hongjie; Sun, Yongli; Zhang, Luhong; Xu, Lidong; Hao, Li; Yang, Huawei

    2017-06-01

    A superhydrophobic and superoleophilic stainless steel (SS) mesh for oil/water separation has been developed by using a novel, facile and inexpensive covalent layer-by-layer grafting (LBLG) method. Hierarchical micro/nanostructure surface was formed through grafting the (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (SCA), polyethylenimine (PEI) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) onto the mesh in sequence, accompanied with SiO2 nanoparticles subtly and firmly anchored in multilayers. Superhydrophobic characteristic was realized by self-assembly grafting of hydrophobic groups onto the surface. The as-prepared mesh exhibits excellent superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 159°. Moreover, with a low sliding angle of 4°, it shows the ;lotus effect; for self-cleaning. As for application evaluation, the as-prepared mesh can be used for large-scale separation of oil/water mixtures with a relatively high separation efficiency after 30 times reuse (99.88% for n-octane/water mixture) and a high intrusion pressure (3.58 kPa). More importantly, the mesh exhibited excellent stability in the case of vibration situation, long-term storage as well as saline corrosion conditions, and the compatible pH range was determined to be 1-13. In summary, this work provides a brand new method of modifying SS mesh in a covalent LBLG way, and makes it possible to introduce various functionalized groups onto the surface.

  13. Effect of wakes from moving upstream rods on boundary layer separation from a high lift airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volino, Ralph J.

    2011-11-01

    Highly loaded airfoils in turbines allow power generation using fewer airfoils. High loading, however, can cause boundary layer separation, resulting in reduced lift and increased aerodynamic loss. Separation is affected by the interaction between rotating blades and stationary vanes. Wakes from upstream vanes periodically impinge on downstream blades, and can reduce separation. The wakes include elevated turbulence, which can induce transition, and a velocity deficit, which results in an impinging flow on the blade surface known as a ``negative jet.'' In the present study, flow through a linear cascade of very high lift airfoils is studied experimentally. Wakes are produced with moving rods which cut through the flow upstream of the airfoils, simulating the effect of upstream vanes. Pressure and velocity fields are documented. Wake spacing and velocity are varied. At low Reynolds numbers without wakes, the boundary layer separates and does not reattach. At high wake passing frequencies separation is largely suppressed. At lower frequencies, ensemble averaged velocity results show intermittent separation and reattachment during the wake passing cycle. Supported by NASA.

  14. Review of research on low-profile vortex generators to control boundary-layer separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, John C.

    2002-05-01

    An in-depth review of boundary-layer flow-separation control by a passive method using low-profile vortex generators is presented. The generators are defined as those with a device height between 10% and 50% of the boundary-layer thickness. Key results are presented for several research efforts, all of which were performed within the past decade and a half where the majority of these works emphasize experimentation with some recent efforts on numerical simulations. Topics of discussion consist of both basic fluid dynamics and applied aerodynamics research. The fluid dynamics research includes comparative studies on separation control effectiveness as well as device-induced vortex characterization and correlation. The comparative studies cover the controlling of low-speed separated flows in adverse pressure gradient and supersonic shock-induced separation. The aerodynamics research includes several applications for aircraft performance enhancement and covers a wide range of speeds. Significant performance improvements are achieved through increased lift and/or reduced drag for various airfoils-low-Reynolds number, high-lift, and transonic-as well as highly swept wings. Performance enhancements for non-airfoil applications include aircraft interior noise reduction, inlet flow distortion alleviation inside compact ducts, and a more efficient overwing fairing. The low-profile vortex generators are best for being applied to applications where flow-separation locations are relatively fixed and the generators can be placed reasonably close upstream of the separation. Using the approach of minimal near-wall protuberances through substantially reduced device height, these devices can produce streamwise vortices just strong enough to overcome the separation without unnecessarily persisting within the boundary layer once the flow-control objective is achieved. Practical advantages of low-profile vortex generators, such as their inherent simplicity and low device drag, are

  15. Review of Research on Low-Profile Vortex Generators to Control Boundary-Layer Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, John C.

    2002-01-01

    An in-depth review of boundary-layer flow-separation control by a passive method using low-profile vortex generators is presented. The generators are defined as those with a device height between 10% and 50% of the boundary layer thickness. Key results are presented for several research efforts, all of which were performed within the past decade and a half where the majority of these works emphasize experimentation with some recent efforts on numerical simulations. Topics of discussion consist of both basic fluid dynamics and applied aerodynamics research. The fluid dynamics research includes comparative studies on separation control effectiveness as well as device-induced vortex characterization and correlation. The comparative studies cover the controlling of low-speed separated flows in adverse pressure gradient and supersonic shock-induced separation. The aerodynamics research includes several applications for aircraft performance enhancement and covers a wide range of speeds. Significant performance improvements are achieved through increased lift and/or reduced drag for various airfoils-low-Reynolds number, high-lift, and transonic-as well as highly swept wings. Performance enhancements for non-airfoil applications include aircraft interior noise reduction, inlet flow distortion alleviation inside compact ducts, and a more efficient overwing fairing. The low-profile vortex generators are best for being applied to applications where flow-separation locations are relatively fixed and the generators can be placed reasonably close upstream of the separation. Using the approach of minimal near-wall proturbances through substantially reduced device height, these devices can produce streamwise vortices just strong enough to overcome the separation without unnecessarily persisting within the boundary layer once the flow-control objective is achieved. Practical advantages of low-profile vortex generators, such as their inherent simplicity and low device drag, are

  16. Spontaneous reconnection at a separator current layer: 1. Nature of the reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, J. E. H.; Parnell, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic separators, which lie on the boundary between four topologically distinct flux domains, are prime locations in three-dimensional magnetic fields for reconnection, especially in the magnetosphere between the planetary and interplanetary magnetic fields and also in the solar atmosphere. Little is known about the details of separator reconnection, and so the aim of this paper, which is the first of two, is to study the properties of magnetic reconnection at a single separator. Three-dimensional, resistive magnetohydrodynamic numerical experiments are run to study separator reconnection starting from a magnetohydrostatic equilibrium which contains a twisted current layer along a single separator linking a pair of opposite-polarity null points. The resulting reconnection occurs in two phases. The first is short involving rapid reconnection in which the current at the separator is reduced by a factor of around 2.3. Most (75%) of the magnetic energy is converted during this phase, via Ohmic dissipation, directly into internal energy, with just 0.1% going into kinetic energy. During this phase the reconnection occurs along most of the separator away from its ends (the nulls) but in an asymmetric manner which changes both spatially and temporally over time. The second phase is much longer and involves slow impulsive bursty reconnection. Again, Ohmic heating dominates over viscous damping. Here the reconnection occurs in small localized bursts at random anywhere along the separator.

  17. On the Lagrangian description of unsteady boundary layer separation. Part 1: General theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandommelen, Leon L.; Cowley, Stephen J.

    1989-01-01

    Although unsteady, high-Reynolds number, laminar boundary layers have conventionally been studied in terms of Eulerian coordinates, a Lagrangian approach may have significant analytical and computational advantages. In Lagrangian coordinates the classical boundary layer equations decouple into a momentum equation for the motion parallel to the boundary, and a hyperbolic continuity equation (essentially a conserved Jacobian) for the motion normal to the boundary. The momentum equations, plus the energy equation if the flow is compressible, can be solved independently of the continuity equation. Unsteady separation occurs when the continuity equation becomes singular as a result of touching characteristics, the condition for which can be expressed in terms of the solution of the momentum equations. The solutions to the momentum and energy equations remain regular. Asymptotic structures for a number of unsteady 3-D separating flows follow and depend on the symmetry properties of the flow. In the absence of any symmetry, the singularity structure just prior to separation is found to be quasi 2-D with a displacement thickness in the form of a crescent shaped ridge. Physically the singularities can be understood in terms of the behavior of a fluid element inside the boundary layer which contracts in a direction parallel to the boundary and expands normal to it, thus forcing the fluid above it to be ejected from the boundary layer.

  18. Flowfield measurements in a separated and reattached flat plate turbulent boundary layer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, W.P.

    1987-03-01

    The separation and reattachment of a large-scale, two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer at low subsonic speed on a flat plate has been studied experimentally. The separation bubble was 55 cm long and had a maximum bubble thickness, measured to the height of the mean dividing streamline, of 17 cm, which was twice the thickness of the inlet boundary layer. A combination of laser velocimetry, hot-wire anemometry, pneumatic probing techniques, and flow visualization were used as diagnostics. Principal findings were that an outer inviscid rotational flow was defined which essentially convected over the blockage associated with the inner, viscously dominated bubble recirculation region. A strong backflow region in which the flow moved upstream 100 percent of the time was measured near the test surface over the central 35 percent of the bubble. A laminar backflow boundary layer having pseudo-turbulent characteristics including a log-linear velocity profile was generated under the highly turbulent backflow. Velocity profile shapes in the reversed flow region matched a previously developed universal backflow profile at the upstream edge of the separation region but not in the steady backflow region downstream. A smoke flow visualization movie and hot-film measurements revealed low frequency nonperiodic flapping at reattachment. However, forward flow fraction data at reattachment and mean velocity profiles in the redeveloping boundary layer downstream of reattachment correlated with backward-facing step data when the axial dimension was scaled by the distance from the maximum bubble thickness to reattachment.

  19. Controlling turbulent boundary layer separation using biologically inspired 2D transverse grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Amy; Jones, Emily; Afroz, Farhana

    2013-11-01

    It is theorized that the presence of grooves, such as the sinusoidal ones found on dolphin skin or the cavities that form between bristled shark skin scales, can lead to induced boundary layer mixing and result in the control of turbulent boundary layer separation. To test this hypothesis, a series of water tunnel experiments using DPIV studied the characteristics of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer whereby a rotating cylinder was used to induce an adverse pressure gradient and resulting flow separation. The experiments were repeated with the use of a plate covered with two types of grooves, rectangular and sinusoidal, with a spacing of 2 mm in size. Flow similarity of the cavity flow was preserved between the experiments and flow over bristled shark skin scales. Both geometries resulted in a reduction of flow separation as measured by backflow coefficient. In addition, Reynolds stress profiles showed that as the pressure gradient was increased, the sinusoidal geometry outperformed the rectangular grooves in terms of increased mixing close to the wall. The sinusoidal plate also generated a lower momentum deficit within the boundary layer which would indicate a smaller drag penalty. Support from NSF grant CBET 0932352 and a UA Graduate Council Fellowship is gratefully acknowledged.

  20. Flowfield measurements in a separated and reattached flat plate turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, William P.

    1987-01-01

    The separation and reattachment of a large-scale, two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer at low subsonic speed on a flat plate has been studied experimentally. The separation bubble was 55 cm long and had a maximum bubble thickness, measured to the height of the mean dividing streamline, of 17 cm, which was twice the thickness of the inlet boundary layer. A combination of laser velocimetry, hot-wire anemometry, pneumatic probing techniques, and flow visualization were used as diagnostics. Principal findings were that an outer inviscid rotational flow was defined which essentially convected over the blockage associated with the inner, viscously dominated bubble recirculation region. A strong backflow region in which the flow moved upstream 100 percent of the time was measured near the test surface over the central 35 percent of the bubble. A laminar backflow boundary layer having pseudo-turbulent characteristics including a log-linear velocity profile was generated under the highly turbulent backflow. Velocity profile shapes in the reversed flow region matched a previously developed universal backflow profile at the upstream edge of the separation region but not in the steady backflow region downstream. A smoke flow visualization movie and hot-film measurements revealed low frequency nonperiodic flapping at reattachment. However, forward flow fraction data at reattachment and mean velocity profiles in the redeveloping boundary layer downstream of reattachment correlated with backward-facing step data when the axial dimension was scaled by the distance from the maximum bubble thickness to reattachment.

  1. Separation control in a hypersonic shock wave / turbulent boundary-layer interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreyer, Anne-Marie; Bermejo-Moreno, Ivan; Kim, Jeonglae; Urzay, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Hypersonic vehicles play a key role for affordable access to space. The associated flow fields are strongly affected by shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions, and the inherent separation causes flow distortion and low-frequency unsteadiness. Microramp sub-boundary layer vortex generators are a promising means to control separation and diminish associated detrimental effects. We investigate the effect of a microramp on the low-frequency unsteadiness in a fully separated interaction. A large eddy simulation of a 33 ∘ -compression-ramp interaction was performed for an inflow Mach number of 7.2 and a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of Reθ = 3500 , matching the experiment of Schreyer et al. (2011). For the control case, we introduced a counter-rotating vortex pair, as induced by a single microramp, into the boundary layer through the inflow conditions. We applied a dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) on both cases to identify coherent structures that are responsible for the dynamic behavior. Based on the DMD, we discuss the reduction of the separation zone and the stabilization of the shock motion achieved by the microramp, and contribute to the description of the governing mechanisms. Pursued during the 2016 CTR Summer Program at Stanford University.

  2. Design of bandpass filters composed of dielectric layers separated by gratings of strip conductors.

    PubMed

    Belyaev, B A; Tyurnev, V V

    2016-02-01

    We derive the design formulas for novel multilayer bandpass filters in which every dielectric layer (resonator) is separated from the adjacent layer or external medium by a grating of strip conductors. Every grating acts as a semi-reflecting mirror. Such novel filters have wide stop bands compared to conventional filters with multilayer dielectric mirrors between resonators at the same passband width. The parameters of the lowpass, lumped-element prototype filter, as well as the theory of resonator-coupling coefficients, are considered in our approach. The computed frequency response of the fifth-order Chebyshev filter that was synthesized using the proposed formulas is also presented.

  3. Turbulent boundary-layer separation due to a forward-facing step

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czarnecki, K. R.; Jackson, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    Pressure distribution tests were made at Mach numbers of 1.61 and 2.20, over a step-height range from 0 to 2.54 centimeters, and an effective Reynolds number range from about 8 to 150 million. The results were compared with some obtained at higher Mach numbers at approximately comparable boundary-layer conditions. The comparison showed several unexplainable anomalies, and pointed up the lack of boundary-layer information necessary for a proper analysis. An analysis of the data indicates the existence of a transverse vortex in the separated-flow region which weakens with increases in Reynolds and Mach number and significantly affects the pressure distributions.

  4. Functional separator consisted of polyimide nonwoven fabrics and polyethylene coating layer for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chuan; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Shaohua; He, Xinyi; Yang, Pingting; Wu, Dezhi; Sun, Daoheng; Zhao, Jinbao

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a composite membrane with nonwoven polyimide (PI) membrane as structural support and polyethylene (PE) particles coating layer as a thermal shutdown layer, is fabricated as the separator for lithium-ion battery. Different from PI nonwoven membrane, the PE coating PI nonwoven composite membrane (PE-PI-S) not only shows excellent thermal shutdown function, similar to traditional multilayer PP/PE/PP separator, but also exhibits much higher thermal stability, better wettability to the polar electrolyte and lower internal resistance than the PP/PE/PP separator. The electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of PE-PI-S increase from 58%, 0.84 mS cm-1 to 400%, 1.34 mS cm-1, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal shutdown function of PE-PI-S can be controlled widely in the temperature range from 120 °C to more than 200 °C while the multilayer PP/PE/PP separator only with a shutdown temperature range from 130 °C to 160 °C. Lithium ion battery with PE-PI-S nonwoven separator also shows excellent stable cycling and good rate performance.

  5. Physical causes of separation shock unsteadiness in shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erengil, Mehmet Erdal

    The purpose of this study was first to determine the effects of sweep back on unsteady separation in compression ramp interactions, and second to examine separation shock unsteadiness in different interactions and determine whether a universal model describing the unsteadiness could be developed. In the first phase, wall pressure fluctuation measurements were different in interactions generated by unswept, and 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, and 50 deg swept compression ramp models in a high Reynolds number, Mach 5 turbulent boundary layer. The streamwise ramp angle was 28 deg in all cases. The results showed that: (1) In highly swept interactions the rms distributions of pressure fluctuations as well as the mean distributions are essentially quasi-conically symmetric. The rms levels decrease globally with increasing sweep as does the maximum rms generated by the translating separation shock. (2) The length of the intermittent region, over which the separation shock foot translates, decreases with increasing sweep. In a given interaction, the length of the intermittent region grows spanwise. (3) Dominant separation shock frequencies increase with increasing sweep, whereas in a given interaction, they decrease spanwise. (4) The higher frequencies are shown to be a direct result of the decrease in the intermittent region length. In the second phase, wall pressure fluctuation measurements were made in interactions generated by unswept and 25 deg swept compression ramp models, and by 8 and 30 deg swept blunt-fin models. Using conditional sampling algorithms, the separation shock unsteadiness was characterized in terms of its position and velocity histories. These quantities were then correlated with conditionally extracted static pressure ratio histories, and with wall pressure measurements made upstream and downstream of the region of shock motion in each of these interactions. Results show that separation shock unsteadiness can be caused by two different physical phenomena. The

  6. Three-layer interactive method for computing supersonic laminar separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandeis, J.; Rom, J.

    1980-01-01

    An interactive model for numerical computation of complicated two-dimensional flowfields including regions of reversed flow is proposed. The present approach is one of dividing the flowfield into three regions, in each of which a simplified mathematical model is applied: (1) outer, supersonic flow for which the full potential equation (hyperbolic) is used; (2) viscous, laminar layer in which the compressible boundary-layer model (parabolic) is used; and (3) recirculating flow modeled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations (elliptic). For matching of the numerical solutions in the three layers, two interaction models are developed: one for pressure interaction, the other for interaction between the shear layer and the recirculating flow. The uniform solution for the whole flowfield is then obtained by iteration of the local solutions under the constraints imposed by matching. The three-layer interactive model is used for solution of the flowfield past an asymmetric cavity. The method is shown to be capable of dealing with backflow without encountering problems at separation, characteristic to the boundary-layer approach.

  7. Three-layer interactive method for computing supersonic laminar separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandeis, J.; Rom, J.

    1980-01-01

    An interactive model for numerical computation of complicated two-dimensional flowfields including regions of reversed flow is proposed. The present approach is one of dividing the flowfield into three regions, in each of which a simplified mathematical model is applied: (1) outer, supersonic flow for which the full potential equation (hyperbolic) is used; (2) viscous, laminar layer in which the compressible boundary-layer model (parabolic) is used; and (3) recirculating flow modeled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations (elliptic). For matching of the numerical solutions in the three layers, two interaction models are developed: one for pressure interaction, the other for interaction between the shear layer and the recirculating flow. The uniform solution for the whole flowfield is then obtained by iteration of the local solutions under the constraints imposed by matching. The three-layer interactive model is used for solution of the flowfield past an asymmetric cavity. The method is shown to be capable of dealing with backflow without encountering problems at separation, characteristic to the boundary-layer approach.

  8. Impact of boundary-layer separation on local exhaust design and worker exposure

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.K.; Flynn, M.R.; Goodman, R.

    1990-01-01

    Flow visualization and tracer gas studies were conducted in a wind tunnel with a mannequin, to examine the phenomenon of boundary layer separation as it relates to a worker's breathing zone concentration. A simple conceptual model was used which was based on mass transport by vortex shedding. The model provided a reasonable estimate of the mannequin breathing zone concentration. An empirical model was developed which then related the measured concentration to the distance from the source to the breathing zone for conditions where the contaminant was released downstream in a uniform flow. The results of the mannequin experiments suggested that boundary layer separation plays a significant part in determining the concentration of contaminant in the breathing zone. The interaction of the separated boundary layer with a contaminant source downstream of a person in uniform flow can pull contaminant back into the breathing zone of the person. The amount of contaminant observed in the breathing zone was much less when the mannequin was positioned such that the air could flow from the side. The turbulent mixing zone was formed more to the side of the mannequin and thus has less opportunity to interact with the contaminant source. These results suggested that in situations such as paint booths where a worker is immersed in a uniform flow, a higher level of control may be achieved by standing to the side of the workpiece.

  9. A time-dependent approach for calculating steady inverse boundary-layer flows with separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebeci, T.

    1983-01-01

    An unsteady inverse boundary-layer method is developed which can be used to calculate steady flows with separation. Two versions of Keller's box method with the Mechul function formulation developed by Cebeci (1976) are employed, depending on the complexity of the flow. The regular box is employed in regions of positive streamwise velocity component u, whereas the zigzag box is employed in regions where u becomes negative (t greater than 0). The regular box with the FLARE approximation is employed when t = 0 and u becomes negative in some region across the layer. Results of calculations show that the use of a time-dependent inverse boundary-layer method in which time is used as an iteration parameter provides a good approach in improving the accuracy of the solutions obtained from the FLARE approximation.

  10. A documentation of two- and three-dimensional shock-separated turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. D.; Brown, J. L.; Kussoy, M. I.

    1988-01-01

    A shock-related separation of a turbulent boundary layer has been studied and documented. The flow was that of an axisymmetric turbulent boundary layer over a 5.02-cm-diam cylinder that was aligned with the wind tunnel axis. The boundary layer was compressed by a 30 deg half-angle conical flare, with the cone axis inclined at an angle alpha to the cylinder axis. Nominal test conditions were P sub tau equals 1.7 atm and M sub infinity equals 2.85. Measurements were confined to the upper-symmetry, phi equals 0 deg, plane. Data are presented for the cases of alpha equal to 0. 5. and 10 deg and include mean surface pressures, streamwise and normal mean velocities, kinematic turbulent stresses and kinetic energies, as well as reverse-flow intermittencies. All data are given in tabular form; pressures, streamwise velocities, turbulent shear stresses, and kinetic energies are also presented graphically.

  11. Eliminating Flow Separation and Reducing Viscous Drag Through Boundary Layer Analysis and Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oser, Matthew D.

    1995-01-01

    As both computers and flow-analyzing equations have increased in sophistication, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has evolved into a fixture for advanced aircraft design. While CFD codes have improved in accuracy and efficiency, their ability to encompass viscous effects is lacking in certain areas. For example, current CFD codes cannot accurately predict or correct for the increased drag due to these viscous effects at some flow conditions. However, by analyzing an airfoil's turbulent boundary layer, one can predict not only flow separation via the shape factor parameter, but also viscous drag via the momentum thickness. Various codes have been written which can calculate turbulent boundary layer parameters. The goal of my research is to develop procedures for modifying an airfoil (via its local pressure distribution) to eliminate boundary layer separation and/or to reduce viscous drag. The modifications to the local pressure distribution necessary to achieve these objectives will be determined using a direct-iterative method installed into a turbulent boundary layer analyzer. Furthermore, the modifications should preserve the basic characteristics of the original airfoil.

  12. Control of Shock-Induced Boundary Layer Separation by using Pulsed Plasma Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Benton R.; Clemens, Noel T.; Micka, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Shock-induced turbulent boundary layer separation can have many detrimental effects in supersonic flow including flow instability, fatigue of structural panels, and unstart in supersonic inlets. Pulsed plasma jets (or ``spark jets''), which are characterized by high bandwidth and the ability to direct momentum into the flow, are one promising method of reducing shock-induced separation. The current study is focused on investigating the efficacy of plasma jets to reduce the separated flow induced by a compression ramp in a Mach 3 flow. Three different 3-jet actuator configurations are tested: 20° pitched, 45° pitched, and 22° pitched and 45° skewed. The jets are pulsed at frequencies between 2 kHz and 4 kHz with duty cycles between 5 and 15%. The shock wave is generated using a 20° compression ramp, and the location of the shock-induced separation is visualized using surface oil streak visualization as well as particle image velocimetry. The results of the study show that of the three configurations, the plasma jets pitched at 20° from the streamwise direction cause the greatest reduction in separation, and when pulsed at a frequency of 3.2 kHz and 12% duty cycle can reduce the size of the separation region by up to 40%. This work is supported by AFRL under SBIR contract.

  13. Theoretical analysis of control mechanisms for boundary layer separation on rotocraft blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaofeng

    High maneuverability is one of the major goals in rotorcraft design. In practice, this goal is limited by unsteady (dynamic) stall near blade leading edges. Here studies of three-dimensional boundary layer separation on a rotating blade are made. For hovering flight, the blade twist and downwash are included in the effective angle of attack. For forward flight, high angles of attack are used to simulate the most severe situation at the retreating blade. Because of the disparate scales of the leading edge radius and the blade radius, separation is found to be quasi two-dimensional, and local singular behaviors at separation are very similar to the two-dimensional case. Most of the results are obtained using an Eulerian approach, but a Lagrangian formulation is used to study the behavior near the separation singularity. Control mechanisms based on suction and blade oscillations are examined. It is found that oscillations, with a tuned frequency and amplitude, can delay separation. Leading edge suction/injection is also effective in delaying separation for particular (optimized) slot locations.

  14. Boundary Layer Separation and Reattachment Detection on Airfoils by Thermal Flow Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Hannes; Dumstorff, Gerrit; Busche, Peter; Westermann, Dieter; Lang, Walter

    2012-01-01

    A sensor concept for detection of boundary layer separation (flow separation, stall) and reattachment on airfoils is introduced in this paper. Boundary layer separation and reattachment are phenomena of fluid mechanics showing characteristics of extinction and even inversion of the flow velocity on an overflowed surface. The flow sensor used in this work is able to measure the flow velocity in terms of direction and quantity at the sensor's position and expected to determine those specific flow conditions. Therefore, an array of thermal flow sensors has been integrated (flush-mounted) on an airfoil and placed in a wind tunnel for measurement. Sensor signals have been recorded at different wind speeds and angles of attack for different positions on the airfoil. The sensors used here are based on the change of temperature distribution on a membrane (calorimetric principle). Thermopiles are used as temperature sensors in this approach offering a baseline free sensor signal, which is favorable for measurements at zero flow. Measurement results show clear separation points (zero flow) and even negative flow values (back flow) for all sensor positions. In addition to standard silicon-based flow sensors, a polymer-based flexible approach has been tested showing similar results. PMID:23202160

  15. Fluctuations and massive separation in three-dimensional shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussoy, M. I.; Brown, J. D.; Brown, J. L.; Lockman, W. K.; Horstman, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    Shock-wave unsteadiness was observed in rapidly compressed supersonic turbulent boundary layer flows with significant separation. A Mach 2.85 shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer flow was set up over a series of cylinder-flare bodies in the High Reynolds Number Channel 1. The transition from fully attached to fully separated flow was studied using axisymmetric flares with increasing compression angles. In the second phase, the 30 deg flare was inclined relative to the cylinder axis, so that the effect on a separated flow of increasing 3 dimensionality could be observed. Two 3-D separated cases are examined. A simple conditional sampling technique is applied to the data to group them according to an associated shock position. Mean velocities and turbulent kinetic energies, computed from the conditionally samples data, are compared to those from the unsorted data and to computed values. Three basic questions were addressed: can conditional sampling be used to provide snapshots of the flow; are averaged turbulence quantities dominated by the bimodal nature of the interaction; and is the shock unsteadiness really important to computational accuracy.

  16. Investigation of Shock-Induced Laminar Separation Bubble in a Supersonic Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasubramanian, Jayahar; Fasel, Hermann

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between an impinging oblique shock and a laminar boundary-layer on a flat plate is investigated using DNS. In particular, the two-dimensional separation bubble resulting from the shock/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) at freestream Mach number of 2.0 is investigated in detail. The flow parameters used for the present investigation match the laboratory conditions in the experiments by Hakkinen et al. The skin friction and pressure distribution from the simulations are compared to the experimental measurements and numerical results available in the literature. Our results confirm the asymmetric nature of the separation bubble as reported in the literature. In addition to the steady flow field calculations, the response to low-amplitude disturbances is investigated in order to study the linear stability behavior of the separation bubble. For comparison, both the development of two-dimensional and three-dimensional (oblique) disturbances are studied with and without the impinging oblique shock. Furthermore, the effects of the shock incidence angle and Reynolds number are also investigated. Finally, three-dimensional simulations were performed in order to explore the laminar-turbulent transition process in the presence of a laminar separation bubble. Funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant FA9550-14-1-0195.

  17. Active control of Boundary Layer Separation & Flow Distortion in Adverse Pressure Gradient Flows via Supersonic Microjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvi, Farrukh S.; Gorton, Susan (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    Inlets to aircraft propulsion systems must supply flow to the compressor with minimal pressure loss, flow distortion or unsteadiness. Flow separation in internal flows such as inlets and ducts in aircraft propulsion systems and external flows such as over aircraft wings, is undesirable as it reduces the overall system performance. The aim of this research has been to understand the nature of separation and more importantly, to explore techniques to actively control this flow separation. In particular, the use of supersonic microjets as a means of controlling boundary layer separation was explored. The geometry used for the early part of this study was a simple diverging Stratford ramp, equipped with arrays of supersonic microjets. Initial results, based on the mean surface pressure distribution, surface flow visualization and Planar Laser Scattering (PLS) indicated a reverse flow region. We implemented supersonic microjets to control this separation and flow visualization results appeared to suggest that microjets have a favorable effect, at least to a certain extent. However, the details of the separated flow field were difficult to determine based on surface pressure distribution, surface flow patterns and PLS alone. It was also difficult to clearly determine the exact influence of the supersonic microjets on this flow. In the latter part of this study, the properties of this flow-field and the effect of supersonic microjets on its behavior were investigated in further detail using 2-component (planar) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results clearly show that the activation of microjets eliminated flow separation and resulted in a significant increase in the momentum of the fluid near the ramp surface. Also notable is the fact that the gain in momentum due to the elimination of flow separation is at least an order of magnitude larger (two orders of magnitude larger in most cases) than the momentum injected by the microjets and is accomplished with very

  18. First Signs of Flow Reversal Within a Separated Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerton, Jared; Lang, Amy

    2015-11-01

    A shark's skin is covered in millions of microscopic scales that have been shown to be able to bristle in a reversing flow. The motive of this project is to further explore a potential bio-inspired passive separation control mechanism which can reduce drag. To better understand this mechanism, a more complete understanding of flow reversal within the turbulent boundary layer is required. In order to capture this phenomenon, water tunnel testing at The University of Alabama was conducted. Using a long flat plate and a rotating cylinder, a large turbulent boundary layer and adverse pressure gradient were generated. Under our testing conditions the boundary layer had a Reynolds number of 200,000 and a boundary layer height in the testing window of 5.6 cm. The adverse pressure gradient causes the viscous length scale to increase and thus increase the size of the individual components of the turbulent boundary layer. This will make the low speed streaks approximately 1 cm in width and thus large enough to measure. Results will be presented that test our hypothesis that the first signs of flow reversal will occur within the section of lowest momentum located furthest from the wall, or within the low speed streaks. This Project was funded by NSF REU Site Award 1358991.

  19. Characterization of an incipiently separated shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreyer, A.-M.; Dussauge, J.-P.; Krämer, E.

    2017-03-01

    The turbulence structure in a shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction at incipient separation was investigated in order to get insight into turbulence generation and amplification mechanisms in such flow fields. The flow along a two-dimensional 11.5° compression corner was studied experimentally at a Mach number of M=2.53 and with a momentum-thickness Reynolds number of Re_{θ }=5370. From hot-wire boundary layer traverses and surface heat-flux density fluctuation measurements with the fast-response atomic layer thermopile, the turbulence structure and amplification was described. Space-time correlations of the mass-flux fluctuations across the boundary layer and the surface heat-flux density fluctuations were measured to further characterize the development of the turbulence structure across the interaction. The large-scale boundary layer structures are concealed by shock-related effects in the strongly disturbed shock-foot region. Shortly downstream, however, large-scale structures dominate the signal again, just as in the incoming flow. A mechanism explaining this behavior is suggested.

  20. Phase-separated, epitaxial composite cap layers for electronic device applications and method of making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Polat, Ozgur

    2012-07-17

    An electronic component that includes a substrate and a phase-separated layer supported on the substrate and a method of forming the same are disclosed. The phase-separated layer includes a first phase comprising lanthanum manganate (LMO) and a second phase selected from a metal oxide (MO), metal nitride (MN), a metal (Me), and combinations thereof. The phase-separated material can be an epitaxial layer and an upper surface of the phase-separated layer can include interfaces between the first phase and the second phase. The phase-separated layer can be supported on a buffer layer comprising a composition selected from the group consisting of IBAD MgO, LMO/IBAD-MgO, homoepi-IBAD MgO and LMO/homoepi-MgO. The electronic component can also include an electronically active layer supported on the phase-separated layer. The electronically active layer can be a superconducting material, a ferroelectric material, a multiferroic material, a magnetic material, a photovoltaic material, an electrical storage material, and a semiconductor material.

  1. Control of unsteady shock-induced turbulent boundary layer separation upstream of blunt fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleifges, K.; Dolling, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Fluctuating wall pressure measurements have been made on centerline upstream of blunt fins in a Mach 5 turbulent boundary layer. Standard time series analysis and conditional sampling algorithms have been used to examine the effects of leading edge sweepback, leading edge shape, and fin root modifications on the fluctuating pressures. Leading edge sweep considerably reduces the mean and rms pressure loading at the fin root, the extent of the region of unsteady separation shock motion, and the separation length. The frequency of pressure fluctuations in the intermittent region increases with leading edge sweepback, while the spectral content of pressure fluctuations in the separated region is virtually unchanged by leading edge sweep. A swept hemicylindrically blunted root fillet reduces the centerline upstream influence and intermittent region length by 50 percent, and reduces the mean and rms pressure loading at the fin root by about 75 percent and 95 percent respectively. Experiments using hemicylindrical, wedge shaped and flat leading edges show that while separated flow scales increase with increasing 'bluntness', intermittent region length and root loading decrease, and separation shock frequency increases.

  2. Flexible single-layer ionic organic–inorganic frameworks towards precise nano-size separation

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Liang; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ding; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bao; Wu, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Consecutive two-dimensional frameworks comprised of molecular or cluster building blocks in large area represent ideal candidates for membranes sieving molecules and nano-objects, but challenges still remain in methodology and practical preparation. Here we exploit a new strategy to build soft single-layer ionic organic–inorganic frameworks via electrostatic interaction without preferential binding direction in water. Upon consideration of steric effect and additional interaction, polyanionic clusters as connection nodes and cationic pseudorotaxanes acting as bridging monomers connect with each other to form a single-layer ionic self-assembled framework with 1.4 nm layer thickness. Such soft supramolecular polymer frameworks possess uniform and adjustable ortho-tetragonal nanoporous structure in pore size of 3.4–4.1 nm and exhibit greatly convenient solution processability. The stable membranes maintaining uniform porous structure demonstrate precisely size-selective separation of semiconductor quantum dots within 0.1 nm of accuracy and may hold promise for practical applications in selective transport, molecular separation and dialysis systems. PMID:26923611

  3. Flexible single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks towards precise nano-size separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Liang; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ding; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bao; Wu, Lixin

    2016-02-01

    Consecutive two-dimensional frameworks comprised of molecular or cluster building blocks in large area represent ideal candidates for membranes sieving molecules and nano-objects, but challenges still remain in methodology and practical preparation. Here we exploit a new strategy to build soft single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks via electrostatic interaction without preferential binding direction in water. Upon consideration of steric effect and additional interaction, polyanionic clusters as connection nodes and cationic pseudorotaxanes acting as bridging monomers connect with each other to form a single-layer ionic self-assembled framework with 1.4 nm layer thickness. Such soft supramolecular polymer frameworks possess uniform and adjustable ortho-tetragonal nanoporous structure in pore size of 3.4-4.1 nm and exhibit greatly convenient solution processability. The stable membranes maintaining uniform porous structure demonstrate precisely size-selective separation of semiconductor quantum dots within 0.1 nm of accuracy and may hold promise for practical applications in selective transport, molecular separation and dialysis systems.

  4. LS Channel Estimation and Signal Separation for UHF RFID Tag Collision Recovery on the Physical Layer

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Hanjun; Wu, Haifeng; Zeng, Yu; Chen, Yuebin

    2016-01-01

    In a passive ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) system, tag collision is generally resolved on a medium access control (MAC) layer. However, some of collided tag signals could be recovered on a physical (PHY) layer and, thus, enhance the identification efficiency of the RFID system. For the recovery on the PHY layer, channel estimation is a critical issue. Good channel estimation will help to recover the collided signals. Existing channel estimates work well for two collided tags. When the number of collided tags is beyond two, however, the existing estimates have more estimation errors. In this paper, we propose a novel channel estimate for the UHF RFID system. It adopts an orthogonal matrix based on the information of preambles which is known for a reader and applies a minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE) criterion to estimate channels. From the estimated channel, we could accurately separate the collided signals and recover them. By means of numerical results, we show that the proposed estimate has lower estimation errors and higher separation efficiency than the existing estimates. PMID:27023560

  5. LS Channel Estimation and Signal Separation for UHF RFID Tag Collision Recovery on the Physical Layer.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hanjun; Wu, Haifeng; Zeng, Yu; Chen, Yuebin

    2016-03-26

    In a passive ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) system, tag collision is generally resolved on a medium access control (MAC) layer. However, some of collided tag signals could be recovered on a physical (PHY) layer and, thus, enhance the identification efficiency of the RFID system. For the recovery on the PHY layer, channel estimation is a critical issue. Good channel estimation will help to recover the collided signals. Existing channel estimates work well for two collided tags. When the number of collided tags is beyond two, however, the existing estimates have more estimation errors. In this paper, we propose a novel channel estimate for the UHF RFID system. It adopts an orthogonal matrix based on the information of preambles which is known for a reader and applies a minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE) criterion to estimate channels. From the estimated channel, we could accurately separate the collided signals and recover them. By means of numerical results, we show that the proposed estimate has lower estimation errors and higher separation efficiency than the existing estimates.

  6. Micro vortex generator control of axisymmetric high-speed laminar boundary layer separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estruch-Samper, D.; Vanstone, L.; Hillier, R.; Ganapathisubramani, B.

    2015-09-01

    Interest in the development of micro vortex generators (MVGs) to control high-speed flow separation has grown in the last decade. In contrast to conventional vortex generators, MVGs are fully submerged in the boundary layer and have the potential of inducing surface flow mixing with marginal drag penalty when suitably designed. Also, they do not result in undesired reduced mass flow such as with suction methods. The flow mechanisms at the location of MVGs are not yet fully understood, and optimal designs are difficult to establish given that both numerical predictions and experiments are particularly challenged for short element heights, yet optimal MVGs are generally expected to be at least shorter than half the local boundary layer thickness. The present work aims at investigating experimentally the fundamental flow physics concerning an individual MVG element (of `canonical' or simplified geometry) at a range of near-wall heights. A fully laminar base flow is considered so as to isolate the effect of incoming turbulence as well as the more complex physics that may occur when specific and/or multiple elements are used. Tests were performed in a gun tunnel at a freestream Mach number of 8.9 and Reynolds number of /m, and the basic test model consisted of a blunt-nosed cylinder which produced an axisymmetric laminar boundary layer with an edge Mach number of 3.4 and Reynolds number of /m at the MVG location. A laminar shock-wave/boundary layer interaction with separation was induced by a flare located further downstream on the model. Measurements consisted of time-resolved surface heat transfer obtained in the axial direction immediately downstream of the MVG and along the interaction, together with simultaneous high-speed schlieren imaging. The height () of the MVG element used in a `diamond' configuration (square planform with one vertex facing the flow) was adjusted between tests ranging from = 0.03 to 0.58, where the local undisturbed boundary layer thickness

  7. Separation and quantification of double- and triple-layered rotavirus-like particles by CZE.

    PubMed

    Castro-Acosta, Ricardo M; Revilla, Alma L; Ramírez, Octavio T; Palomares, Laura A

    2010-04-01

    Virus-like particles have been successfully used as safe vaccines, as their structure is identical to their native counterparts but devoid of the viral genetic material. However, production of these complex structures is not easy, as recombinant proteins must assemble into virus-like particles. Techniques to differentiate assembled and soluble proteins, as well as assembly intermediaries often present in a sample, are required. An example of complex virus-like particles mixture occurs when rotavirus proteins are recombinantly expressed. Rotavirus-like particles (RLP) can be single (sl), double (dl), or triple layered (tl). The use of RLP preparations as vaccines requires their complete characterization, including separation and quantification of each RLP in a sample. In this work, CZE was evaluated for the separation and quantification of dl and triple-layered rotavirus-like particles (tlRLP). A fused-silica capillary with a deoxycholate running buffer efficiently separated dl and tlRLP in RLP preparations, as they migrated in two discrete peaks with electrophoretic mobilities of 1.24+/-0.04 and 2.95+/-0.03 Ti, respectively. Standard curves for dl and tlRLP were generated, and the response was linearly proportional to analyte concentration. The methodology developed was quantitative, specific, accurate, precise, and reproducible. CZE allowed the quantitative characterization of RLP preparations, which is required for evaluation of immunogens, for process development, and for quality control protocols.

  8. Separation of thick HVPE-GaN films from GaN templates using nanoporous GaN layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zengyin; Yang, Ruixia; Zhang, Song; Wang, Zaien; Chen, Jianli; Li, Xun

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we have succeeded in growing an approximate 2-inch self-separated thick GaN wafer by hydride vapor phase epitaxy with an introduction of a sacrificial layer of nanoporous GaN. Such nanoporous GaN layer is invented by using the HVPE growth of thin GaN layer on the spin-coating silica nanosphere layer followed by a hydrofluoric acid etching to the silica nanosphere layer. It has been found that the nanoporous GaN layer, enabling a reduction of stickiness between thick GaN films and the substrates, plays a significant role in the self-separation of thick GaN films during the cooling process. However, the thickness of the nanoporous GaN layer is another key issue to achieve good quality self-separated GaN thick films. In our study, we suggest that the nanoporous GaN layer with a thickness of approximately 150-240 nm can best serve as the sacrificial layer in self-separation process. Raman spectroscopy also indicates the self-separated thick GaN films by using the proposed approach are virtually strain-free.

  9. Pointwise and scanning laser anemometer measurements in steady and unsteady separated turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. L.; Chehroudi, B.; Shivaprasad, B. G.

    1982-01-01

    The physical features of steady and unsteady freestream separating turbulent boundary layers that have been determined by pointwise laser anemometer measurements are outlined. It is seen that the large-scale structures control the outer region's backflow behavior. Near the wall, the mean backflow velocity profile for both the steady and unsteady cases is found to scale on the maximum negative mean velocity and its distance from the wall. A description is given of a scanning laser anemometer that produces nearly instantaneous velocity profiles for examing the temporal features of these large-scale structures. Also described is a 'zero-wake' seeder that supplies particles to the outer shear layer and freestream flow with a minimal disturbance.

  10. Separated effects of ions, metastables and photons on the properties of barrier layers on polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biskup, Beatrix; Boeke, Marc; Benedikt, Jan; von Keudell, Achim

    2016-09-01

    Analyses of a-C:H /a-Si:H multilayers on polymer substrates indicated that prolonged ion bombardment influences negatively the properties of the barrier layer, while a short plasma pretreatment can improve the barrier effect. This work is motivated by these results and investigates the influence of different reactive plasma components, namely ions, metastables and VUV-photons, on the properties of the grown barrier layer. To separate the different species and their influence on plasma pretreatment and film growth, we build a grid system, which repels the ions from the substrate, so that only metastables and VUV-photons have an effect on the layer. An integral part of this investigation is, to measure the photon fluxes to the substrate by an intensity calibrated VUV monochromator. For that, a differentially pumped monochromator with a spectral range 30 - 300 nm is used, where the two most prominent argon lines at 104.9 and 106.8 nm can be measured. In this approach we are able to study the different effects of the plasma species and also possible synergy effects, to improve the properties of the barrier layer. This work is supported by the DFG within the SFB-TR 87.

  11. The separation of grain and grain boundary impedance in thin yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layers

    PubMed Central

    Gerstl, M.; Navickas, E.; Friedbacher, G.; Kubel, F.; Ahrens, M.; Fleig, J.

    2011-01-01

    An improved electrode geometry is proposed to study thin ion conducting films by impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that long, thin, and closely spaced electrodes arranged interdigitally allow a separation of grain and grain boundary effects also in very thin films. This separation is shown to be successful for yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layers thinner than 20 nm. In a series of experiments it is demonstrated that the extracted parameters correspond to the YSZ grain boundary and grain bulk resistances or to grain boundary and substrate capacitances. Results also show that our YSZ films produced by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) on sapphire substrates exhibit a bulk conductivity which is very close to that of macroscopic YSZ samples. PMID:27570327

  12. Separation properties of saccharides on a hydrophilic stationary phase having hydration layer formed zwitterionic copolymer.

    PubMed

    Kamichatani, Waka; Inoue, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    A novel water-holding adsorbent bonded with a zwitterionic polymer, diallylamine-maleic acid copolymer, was developed. With this adsorbent, hydrophilic solutes are partitioned by a hydration layer that forms on the zwitterions, as a main separating force. When the adsorbent was used to separate saccharides by normal-phase partition chromatography, the saccharides eluted in the order, mono-, di- and trisaccharide. The elution profile for mono- and di-saccharides was similar but not identical to that on anion exchange columns. This indicated that the adsorbent exhibited a complex retention behavior by the existence of both anion and cation exchange moieties in the functional polymer. Selecting Na(+) as a counter-ion of the maleate moiety enhanced the retention of saccharide. When used in an high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system with gradient elution, the adsorbent enabled the simultaneous analysis of mono-, di- and oligosaccharides.

  13. Separation of catechins and O-methylated (-)-epigallocatechin gallate using polyamide thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kunbo; Chen, Qincao; Lin, Yong; Yu, Shuangshang; Lin, Haiyan; Huang, Jianan; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-04-01

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method for the separation and quantitative determination of seven related compounds: (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3″Me) and (-)-epigallocatechin- 3-O-(4-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG4″Me) has been developed. The above-mentioned seven compounds have been resolved using polyamide TLC plates using a double-development with methanol followed by acetone/acetic acid (2:1, v/v). In addition, separation of the phenolic acids namely gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid was achieved using the same solvent system. The applicability of the method was checked by screening of extracts of green, black, oolong, white tea and tea cultivars leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. MEMS flexible thermal flow sensor for measurement of boundary layer separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jui-Ming; Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Miau, Jiun-Jih; Chen, Shih-Jiun

    2016-05-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) thermal flow sensors featured with high spatial resolutions, fast frequency response and minimal interference with fluid flow have been applied widely in boundary-layer studies and aerodynamic flow sensing and control due to the inherent outstanding performances. In this study, MEMS thermal flow sensors were designed and fabricated on a flexible skin using the MEMS technology. The dimension of a single sensing element was 200 μm × 260 μm, which had a resistance of about 200 Ω after annealing. By configuring thermal flow sensors in either a single thermal flow sensor and a thermal tuft sensor, separation points of a two-dimensional (2D) LS(1) 0417 airfoil at various angles of attack could be precisely detected. The experimental results show good agreement with the hot wire sensor and particle traced flow visualization in detecting the separation point on the suction surface of the airfoil.

  15. Boundary layer separation and vortex creation in superflow through small orifices

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.; Srivastava, A.M.

    1996-03-01

    The authors report numerical solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for two dimensional flow is a superfluid condensate through a small orifice. When the superfluid velocity in the center of the orifice exceeds about 60% of the speed of sound, the flow in the throat of the orifice becomes unstable to a form of boundary layer separation. Low condensate-density regions bulge away from the walls and form the cores of singly quantized vortices. These detach from the boundary and are convected downstream.

  16. The separation of TM and TE wave in multi-layer metamaterial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lijuan; Yu, Guanxia; Wang, Qian

    2014-02-01

    A mixed-structure form of one-dimensional metamaterial structure composed of single negative permittivity material and anisotropic metamaterial has been investigated in this paper. Such a multi-layer metamaterial structure constitutes special resonant structures, which can be used to control wave propagation and realize the complete separation of TM and TE wave by choosing specific parameters. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculations have been performed to confirm the above results. Specifically, augments in incident angles of TM and TE waves make complete transmission frequencies right shift, and the thicknesses of this resonant structure determine propagation modes and propagation frequencies.

  17. Study of the Pressure Rise Across Shock Waves Required to Separate Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, Coleman Dup; Lange, Roy H

    1952-01-01

    Results are presented of a dimensional study and an experimental investigation of the pressure rise across a shock wave which causes separation of the boundary layer on a flat plate. The experimental part of the investigation was conducted at a Mach number of 3.03 for a Reynolds number range of 2 x 10 (sup) 6 to 19 x 10 (sup) 6. The available experimental data are compared with the predictions of the present study, and the significance of the results obtained is discussed relative to certain practical design problems.

  18. Dielectric barrier discharge ionization in characterization of organic compounds separated on thin-layer chromatography plates.

    PubMed

    Cegłowski, Michał; Smoluch, Marek; Babij, Michał; Gotszalk, Teodor; Silberring, Jerzy; Schroeder, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    A new method for on-spot detection and characterization of organic compounds resolved on thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates has been proposed. This method combines TLC with dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI), which produces stable low-temperature plasma. At first, the compounds were separated on TLC plates and then their mass spectra were directly obtained with no additional sample preparation. To obtain good quality spectra the center of a particular TLC spot was heated from the bottom to increase volatility of the compound. MS/MS analyses were also performed to additionally characterize all analytes. The detection limit of proposed method was estimated to be 100 ng/spot of compound.

  19. Turbulent boundary layer separation over a rearward facing ramp and its control through mechanical excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinzie, Daniel J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A vane oscillating about a fixed point at the inlet to a two-dimensional 20 degree rearward facing ramp has proven effective in delaying the separation of a turbulent boundary layer. Measurements of the ramp surface static pressure coefficient obtained under the condition of vane oscillation and constant inlet velocity revealed that two different effects occurred with surface distance along the ramp. In the vicinity of the oscillating vane, the pressure coefficients varied as a negative function of the vane's trailing edge rms velocity; the independent variable on which the rms velocity depends are the vane's oscillation frequency and its displacement amplitude. From a point downstream of the vane to the exit of the ramp; however, the pressure coefficient varied as a more complex function of the two independent variables. That is, it was found to vary as a function of the vane's oscillation frequency throughout the entire range of frequencies covered during the test, but over only a limited range of the trailing edge displacement amplitudes covered. More specifically, the value of the pressure coefficient was independent of increases in the vane's displacement amplitude above approximately 35 inner wall units of the boundary layer. Below this specific amplitude it varied as a function of the vane's trailing edge rms velocity. This height is close to the upper limit of the buffer layer. A parametric study was made to determine the variation of the maximum static pressure recovery as a function of the vane's oscillation frequency, for several ramp inlet velocities and a constant displacement amplitude of the vane's trailing edge. The results indicate that the phenomenon producing the optimum delay of separation may be Strouhal number dependent. Corona anemometer measurements obtained in the inner wall regions of the boundary layer for the excited case reveal a large range of unsteadiness in the local velocities. These measurements imply the existence of inflections

  20. Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) separations and bioassays of plant extracts to identify antimicrobial compounds.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Isabelle A; Flythe, Michael D

    2014-03-27

    A common screen for plant antimicrobial compounds consists of separating plant extracts by paper or thin-layer chromatography (PC or TLC), exposing the chromatograms to microbial suspensions (e.g. fungi or bacteria in broth or agar), allowing time for the microbes to grow in a humid environment, and visualizing zones with no microbial growth. The effectiveness of this screening method, known as bioautography, depends on both the quality of the chromatographic separation and the care taken with microbial culture conditions. This paper describes standard protocols for TLC and contact bioautography with a novel application to amino acid-fermenting bacteria. The extract is separated on flexible (aluminum-backed) silica TLC plates, and bands are visualized under ultraviolet (UV) light. Zones are cut out and incubated face down onto agar inoculated with the test microorganism. Inhibitory bands are visualized by staining the agar plates with tetrazolium red. The method is applied to the separation of red clover (Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland) phenolic compounds and their screening for activity against Clostridium sticklandii, a hyper ammonia-producing bacterium (HAB) that is native to the bovine rumen. The TLC methods apply to many types of plant extracts and other bacterial species (aerobic or anaerobic), as well as fungi, can be used as test organisms if culture conditions are modified to fit the growth requirements of the species.

  1. Spontaneous reconnection at a separator current layer: 2. Nature of the waves and flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, J. E. H.; Parnell, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Sudden destabilizations of the magnetic field, such as those caused by spontaneous reconnection, will produce waves and/or flows. Here we investigate the nature of the plasma motions resulting from spontaneous reconnection at a 3-D separator. In order to clearly see these perturbations, we start from a magnetohydrostatic equilibrium containing two oppositely signed null points joined by a generic separator along which lies a twisted current layer. The nature of the magnetic reconnection initiated in this equilibrium as a result of an anomalous diffusivity is discussed in detail in Stevenson and Parnell (2015). The resulting sudden loss of force balance inevitably generates waves that propagate away from the diffusion region carrying the dissipated current. In their wake a twisting stagnation flow, in planes perpendicular to the separator, feeds flux back into the original diffusion site (the separator) in order to try to regain equilibrium. This flow drives a phase of slow weak impulsive bursty reconnection that follows on after the initial fast-reconnection phase.

  2. Thin-layer Chromatographic (TLC) Separations and Bioassays of Plant Extracts to Identify Antimicrobial Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Isabelle A.; Flythe, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    A common screen for plant antimicrobial compounds consists of separating plant extracts by paper or thin-layer chromatography (PC or TLC), exposing the chromatograms to microbial suspensions (e.g. fungi or bacteria in broth or agar), allowing time for the microbes to grow in a humid environment, and visualizing zones with no microbial growth. The effectiveness of this screening method, known as bioautography, depends on both the quality of the chromatographic separation and the care taken with microbial culture conditions. This paper describes standard protocols for TLC and contact bioautography with a novel application to amino acid-fermenting bacteria. The extract is separated on flexible (aluminum-backed) silica TLC plates, and bands are visualized under ultraviolet (UV) light. Zones are cut out and incubated face down onto agar inoculated with the test microorganism. Inhibitory bands are visualized by staining the agar plates with tetrazolium red. The method is applied to the separation of red clover (Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland) phenolic compounds and their screening for activity against Clostridium sticklandii, a hyper ammonia-producing bacterium (HAB) that is native to the bovine rumen. The TLC methods apply to many types of plant extracts and other bacterial species (aerobic or anaerobic), as well as fungi, can be used as test organisms if culture conditions are modified to fit the growth requirements of the species. PMID:24747583

  3. Improved separation and analysis of glycolipids by Iatroscan thin-layer chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Gašparović, Blaženka; Kazazić, Snježana P; Cvitešić, Ana; Penezić, Abra; Frka, Sanja

    2015-08-28

    We demonstrate improved power of Iatroscan thin layer chromatography/flame ionization detection (TLC-FID) technique for analysis of complex marine lipid mixture by developing protocol for the separation and analysis of glycolipids including sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG), monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDG). We have modified the common protocol used so far for the analysis of lipid classes by replacing the elution step which uses pure acetone for the elution of acetone mobile polar lipids, with the elution step containing chloroform-acetone (72:28, v:v) for separation of MGDG and DGDG. To separate SQDG from the complex lipid matrix we introduced solvent mixture acetone-chloroform-methanol-formic acid (33:33:33:0.6, v:v:v:v). Quantification of glycolipid classes was performed after calibration with glycolipid standards for the masses between 0.2 and 2.7-5.0μg. With this new protocol we have successfully separated three glycolipids from the complex particulate lipid mixture of the seawater samples. Such an approach extends the power of existing protocol for the analysis of lipids which altogether ensure detection and quantification of 18 lipid classes what was demonstrated on seawater samples. This enables to gain a very broad system overview of the particularly complex environments as are seas, oceans and freshwaters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. ASA-FTL: An adaptive separation aware flash translation layer for solid state drives

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Wei; Chen, Yong; Roth, Philip C

    2016-11-03

    Here, the flash-memory based Solid State Drive (SSD) presents a promising storage solution for increasingly critical data-intensive applications due to its low latency (high throughput), high bandwidth, and low power consumption. Within an SSD, its Flash Translation Layer (FTL) is responsible for exposing the SSD’s flash memory storage to the computer system as a simple block device. The FTL design is one of the dominant factors determining an SSD’s lifespan and performance. To reduce the garbage collection overhead and deliver better performance, we propose a new, low-cost, adaptive separation-aware flash translation layer (ASA-FTL) that combines sampling, data clustering and selectivemore » caching of recency information to accurately identify and separate hot/cold data while incurring minimal overhead. We use sampling for light-weight identification of separation criteria, and our dedicated selective caching mechanism is designed to save the limited RAM resource in contemporary SSDs. Using simulations of ASA-FTL with both real-world and synthetic workloads, we have shown that our proposed approach reduces the garbage collection overhead by up to 28% and the overall response time by 15% compared to one of the most advanced existing FTLs. We find that the data clustering using a small sample size provides significant performance benefit while only incurring a very small computation and memory cost. In addition, our evaluation shows that ASA-FTL is able to adapt to the changes in the access pattern of workloads, which is a major advantage comparing to existing fixed data separation methods.« less

  5. ASA-FTL: An adaptive separation aware flash translation layer for solid state drives

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Wei; Chen, Yong; Roth, Philip C

    2016-11-03

    Here, the flash-memory based Solid State Drive (SSD) presents a promising storage solution for increasingly critical data-intensive applications due to its low latency (high throughput), high bandwidth, and low power consumption. Within an SSD, its Flash Translation Layer (FTL) is responsible for exposing the SSD’s flash memory storage to the computer system as a simple block device. The FTL design is one of the dominant factors determining an SSD’s lifespan and performance. To reduce the garbage collection overhead and deliver better performance, we propose a new, low-cost, adaptive separation-aware flash translation layer (ASA-FTL) that combines sampling, data clustering and selective caching of recency information to accurately identify and separate hot/cold data while incurring minimal overhead. We use sampling for light-weight identification of separation criteria, and our dedicated selective caching mechanism is designed to save the limited RAM resource in contemporary SSDs. Using simulations of ASA-FTL with both real-world and synthetic workloads, we have shown that our proposed approach reduces the garbage collection overhead by up to 28% and the overall response time by 15% compared to one of the most advanced existing FTLs. We find that the data clustering using a small sample size provides significant performance benefit while only incurring a very small computation and memory cost. In addition, our evaluation shows that ASA-FTL is able to adapt to the changes in the access pattern of workloads, which is a major advantage comparing to existing fixed data separation methods.

  6. The effects of laser plasma discharge on a separating boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, Kevin Patrick

    Modification of the separation and drag characteristics of a laminar airfoil using a remotely located high-power laser was experimentally investigated in a low speed, low-turbulence wind tunnel. It was proposed that pulsed laser energy could be used to cause a disturbance in the boundary layer of a laminar airfoil thus modifying the flow by inducing a cross exchange of momentum within the boundary layer. The result is a unique zero net mass flux and zero net momentum flux actuator for delaying separation. A 500 mm chord length laminar airfoil was designed and fabricated to closely emulate in the wind tunnel the flight characteristics of a Cessna 177 at cruise speed. At zero degrees angle of attack the airfoil was determined to have an incipient laminar separation bubble on its lifting surface between 67 and 80% chord. By focusing the collimated laser beam emitted from a 900mW Q-switched YAG laser a strong plasma pulse was generated from the optical breakdown of the air. The plasma was focused to a location approximately 2 mm in front of the airfoil. High temperature plasma produced by each pulse generates a shockwave and volume of heated turbulent air which interacts with the airfoil and travels along its lifting surface. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used as the primary data collection method. Determining the effects of the plasma on the flow over the airfoil requires measuring the behavior deep within the boundary layer which is typically less than 2 mm thick. Custom optics were used to capture flow behavior in a 6 mm x 6 mm field of view along the centerline of the airfoil. The PIV system was electronically triggered by the plasma laser. By varying the trigger delay time a range of data captured the onset, peak and decay of the plasma with fine spatial resolution. Results of this investigation show that a burst of turbulence generated by the pulsed plasma exchanges significant momentum between the freestream and the incipient separation bubble

  7. Boundary layer and separation control on wings at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shanling

    Results on boundary layer and separation control through acoustic excitation at low Re numbers are reported. The Eppler 387 profile is specifically chosen because of its pre-stall hysteresis and bi-stable state behavior in the transitional Re regime, which is a result of flow separation and reattachment. External acoustic forcing on the wing yields large improvements (more than 70%) in lift-to-drag ratio and flow reattachment at forcing frequencies that correlate with the measured anti-resonances in the wind tunnel. The optimum St/Re1/2 range for Re = 60,000 matches the proposed optimum range in the literature, but there is less agreement for Re = 40,000, which suggests that correct St scaling has not been determined. The correlation of aerodynamic improvements to wind tunnel resonances implies that external acoustic forcing is facility-dependent, which inhibits practical application. Therefore, internal acoustic excitation for the same wing profile is also pursued. Internal acoustic forcing is designed to be accomplished by embedding small speakers inside a custom-designed wing that contains many internal cavities and small holes in the suction surface. However, initial testing of this semi-porous wing model shows that the presence of the small holes in the suction surface completely transforms the aerodynamic performance by changing the mean chordwise separation location and causing an originally separated, low-lift state flow to reattach into a high-lift state. The aerodynamic improvements are not caused by the geometry of the small holes themselves, but rather by Helmholtz resonance that occurs in the cavities, which generate tones that closely match the intrinsic flow instabilities. Essentially, opening and closing holes in the suction surface of a wing, perhaps by digital control, can be used as a means of passive separation control. Given the similarity of wing-embedded pressure tap systems to Helmholtz resonators, particular attention must be given to the

  8. Platform for 3D inline process control in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preissler, Marc; Zhang, Chen; Rosenberger, Maik; Notni, Gunther

    2017-06-01

    3D - Inline - Process - Control is getting more attention in any fields of manufacturing processes to increase productivity and quality. Sensor systems are necessary to capture the currently process status and are basement for Inline-Process- Control. The presented work is a possibility to get inline information's about the additive manufacturing process Fused Filament Fabrication. The requirement is the ability to manipulate the machine code to get free field of view to the topside of the object after every manufactured layer. The adaptable platform layout makes possible to create different approaches for inline process control. One approach is the single camera layout from bird view to get 2,5D information's about the manufactured object and the other one is the active stereoscopic camera layout with pattern projection. Both approaches are showing a possibility to get information's of the manufactured object in process. Additional this cases allow a view inside the manufactured object and defects can be located. Deviations in the manufacturing process can be corrected and relevant parameters can be adapted during slicing process to increase the manufacturing quality.

  9. Thermophoretic motion behavior of submicron particles in boundary-layer-separation flow around a droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ao; Song, Qiang; Ji, Bingqiang; Yao, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    As a key mechanism of submicron particle capture in wet deposition and wet scrubbing processes, thermophoresis is influenced by the flow and temperature fields. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations were conducted to quantify the characteristics of the flow and temperature fields around a droplet at three droplet Reynolds numbers (Re) that correspond to three typical boundary-layer-separation flows (steady axisymmetric, steady plane-symmetric, and unsteady plane-symmetric flows). The thermophoretic motion of submicron particles was simulated in these cases. Numerical results show that the motion of submicron particles around the droplet and the deposition distribution exhibit different characteristics under three typical flow forms. The motion patterns of particles are dependent on their initial positions in the upstream and flow forms. The patterns of particle motion and deposition are diversified as Re increases. The particle motion pattern, initial position of captured particles, and capture efficiency change periodically, especially during periodic vortex shedding. The key effects of flow forms on particle motion are the shape and stability of the wake behind the droplet. The drag force of fluid and the thermophoretic force in the wake contribute jointly to the deposition of submicron particles after the boundary-layer separation around a droplet.

  10. Novel polydopamine imprinting layers coated magnetic carbon nanotubes for specific separation of lysozyme from egg white.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruixia; Zhang, Lili; Hao, Yi; Cui, Xihui; Liu, Dechun; Zhang, Min; Tang, Yuhai

    2015-11-01

    Novel core-shell nanocomposites, consisting of magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) core surrounded by a thin polydopamine (PDA) imprinting shell for specific recognition of lysozyme (Lyz), were fabricated for the first time. The obtained products were characterized and the results showed that the PDA layer was successfully attached onto the surface of MCNTs and the corresponding thickness of imprinting layer was just about 10nm which could enable the template access the recognition cavities easily. The polymerization conditions and adsorption performance of the resultant nanomaterials were investigated in detail. The results indicated that the obtained imprinted polymers showed fast kinetic and high affinity towards Lyz and could be used to specifically separate Lyz from real egg white. In addition, the prepared materials had excellent stability and no obvious deterioration after five adsorption-regeneration cycles. Easy preparation, rapid separation, high binding capacity, and satisfactory selectivity for the template protein make this polymer attractive in biotechnology and biosensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A new turbulence closure model for boundary layer flows with strong adverse pressure gradients and separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. A.; King, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    A new turbulence closure model designed specifically to treat two-dimensional, turbulent boundary layers with strong adverse pressure gradients and attendant separation, is presented. The influence of history effects are modeled by using an ordinary differential equation (ODE) derived from the turbulence kinetic-energy equation, to describe the streamwise development of the maximum Reynolds shear stress in conjunction with an assumed eddy-viscosity distribution which has as its velocity scale the maximum Reynolds shear stress. In the outer part of the boundary layer, the eddy viscosity is treated as a free parameter which is adjusted in order to satisfy the ODE for the maximum shear stress. Because of this, the model s not simply an eddy-viscosity model, but contains features of a Reynolds-stress model. Comparisons with experiments are presented which clearly show the proposed model to be superior to the Cebeci-Smith model in treating strongly retarded and separated flows. In contrast to two-equation, eddy-viscosity models, it requires only slightly more computational effort than simple models like the Cebeci-Smith model.

  12. Discontinuous Inter-Granular Separations (DIGS) in the Gas Nitride Layer of ISS Race Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figert, John; Dasgupta, Rajib; Martinez, James

    2010-01-01

    The starboard solar alpha rotary joint (SARJ) race ring on the International space station (ISS) failed due to severe spalling of the outer diameter, 45 degree (outer canted) nitrided surface. Subsequent analysis at NASA-KSC revealed that almost all of the debris generated due to the failure was nitrided 15-5 stainless steel. Subsequent analysis of the nitride control coupons (NCC) at NASA-JSC revealed the presence of discontinuous inter-granular separations (DIGS) in the gas nitride layer. These DIGS were present in the inter-granular networking located in the top 2 mils of the nitride layer. The manufacturer's specification requires the maximum white structure to be 0.0003 inches and intergranular networking below the allowable white structure depth to be cause for rejection; a requirement that the NCCs did not meet. Subsequent testing and analysis revealed that lower DIGS content significantly lowered the probability of nitride spalling in simulated, dry condition runs. One batch of nitride samples with DIGS content similar to the port SARJ (did not fail on orbit) which exhibited almost no nitride spalling after being run on one test rig. Another batch of nitride samples with DIGS content levels similar to the starboard SARJ exhibited significant nitride spalling on the same test rig with the same load under dry conditions. Although DIGS were not the root cause of starboard race ring failure, testing indicates that increased DIGS reduced the robustness of the gas nitride layer under dry operating conditions.

  13. Discontinuous Inter-Granular Separations (DIGS) in the Gas Nitride Layer of ISS Race Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figert, John; Dasgupta, Rajib; Martinez, James

    2010-01-01

    The starboard solar alpha rotary joint (SARJ) race ring on the International space station (ISS) failed due to severe spalling of the outer diameter, 45 degree (outer canted) nitrided surface. Subsequent analysis at NASA-KSC revealed that almost all of the debris generated due to the failure was nitrided 15-5 stainless steel. Subsequent analysis of the nitride control coupons (NCC) at NASA-JSC revealed the presence of discontinuous inter-granular separations (DIGS) in the gas nitride layer. These DIGS were present in the inter-granular networking located in the top 2 mils of the nitride layer. The manufacturer's specification requires the maximum white structure to be 0.0003 inches and intergranular networking below the allowable white structure depth to be cause for rejection; a requirement that the NCCs did not meet. Subsequent testing and analysis revealed that lower DIGS content significantly lowered the probability of nitride spalling in simulated, dry condition runs. One batch of nitride samples with DIGS content similar to the port SARJ (did not fail on orbit) which exhibited almost no nitride spalling after being run on one test rig. Another batch of nitride samples with DIGS content levels similar to the starboard SARJ exhibited significant nitride spalling on the same test rig with the same load under dry conditions. Although DIGS were not the root cause of starboard race ring failure, testing indicates that increased DIGS reduced the robustness of the gas nitride layer under dry operating conditions.

  14. Convergence of separate orbits for enhanced thermoelectric performance of layered ZrS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guangqian; Chen, Jinfeng; Yao, Kailun; Gao, Guoying

    2017-07-01

    Minimizing the band splitting energy to approach orbital degeneracy has been shown as a route to improved thermoelectric performance. This represents an open opportunity in some promising layered materials where there is a separation of p orbitals at the valence band edge due to the crystal field splitting. In this work, using ab initio calculations and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory, we try to figure out how orbital degeneracy influences the thermoelectric properties of layered transition-metal dichalcogenide ZrS2. We tune the splitting energy by applying compressive biaxial strain, and find out that near-degeneration at the {{Γ }} point can be achieved for around 3% strain. As expected, the enhanced density-of-states effective mass results in an increased power factor. Interestingly, we also find a marked decline in the lattice thermal conductivity due to the effect of strain on phonon velocities and scattering. The two effects synergetically enhance the figure of merit. Our results highlight the convenience of exploring this optimization route in layered thermoelectric materials with band structures similar to that of ZrS2.

  15. The structure of a separating turbulent boundary layer. IV - Effects of periodic free-stream unsteadiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. L.; Shivaprasad, B. G.; Chew, Y.-T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements were obtained of the sinusoidal unsteadiness of the free stream velocity during the separation of the turbulent boundary layer. Data were gathered by single wire and cross-wire, anemometry upstream of flow detachment, by laser Doppler velocimetry to detect the movement of the flow in small increments, and by a laser anemometer in the detached zone to measure turbulence and velocities. The study was restricted to a sinusoidal instability frequency of 0.61 and a ratio of oscillation amplitude to mean velocity of 0.3. Large amplitude and phase variations were found after the detachment, with unsteady effects producing hysteresis in the relationships between flow parameters. The detached shear layer decreased in thickness with increasing free-stream velocity and increases in the Reynolds shear stress. Deceleration of the free stream velocity caused thickening in the shear layer and upstream movement of the flow reversal location. The results are useful for studies of compressor blade and helicopter rotors in transition.

  16. Layered double hydroxide functionalized textile for effective oil/water separation and selective oil adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Ge, Lei; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiuzhong; Li, Feng

    2015-01-14

    The removal of oil and organic pollutants from water is highly desired due to frequent oil spill accidents, as well as the increase of industrial oily wastewater. Here, superhydrophobic and superoleophilic textile has been successfully prepared for the application of effective oil/water separation and selective oil adsorption. This textile was fabricated by functionalizing the commercial textile with layered double hydroxide (LDH) microcrystals and low surface energy molecules. The LDH microcrystals were immobilized on the microfibers of the textile through an in situ growth method, and they formed a nestlike microstructure. The combination of the hierarchical structure and the low surface energy molecules made the textile superhydrophobic and superoleophilic. Further experiments demonstrated that the as-prepared textile not only can be applied as effective membrane materials for the separation of oil and water mixtures with high separation efficiency (>97%), but also can be used as a bag for the selective oil adsorption from water. Thus, such superhydrophobic and superoleophilic textile is a very promising material for the application of oil spill cleanup and industrial oily wastewater treatment.

  17. Hot Microbubble Injection in Thin Liquid Film Layers for Ammonia-Water Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Pratik; Zimmerman, William

    2015-11-01

    140 MT of NH3 produced p.a. barely keeps up with the global usage of this ubiquitously used commodity. NH3 manufacture & later remediation from landfill leachate to lower eco-toxicity makes further demands on the energy utilised for this ``NH3 cycle.'' Moreover, current methods for lowering eco-toxicity destroy NH3 rather than recovering it. Air stripping is a widely employed low energy industrial process used for NH3 recovery but has a long processing time- ≅24h for 60% efficiency & 100h for 95% efficiency. The solution presented herein is based on hot microbubble injection in thin liquid film layers designed to separate NH3 from NH3-H2O solutions. The transport phenomena exhibited by the microbubbles helps them separate volatile liquids effectively with negligible sensible heat transfer. This process is nearly isothermal simply because evaporation by microbubbles is controlled by internal mixing, which is fast relative to sensible heat transfer, when limited to short contact times in thin films. A 1000-3000-fold increase in mass transfer, over conventional stripping, and a 100% separation efficiency achieved in a processing time of 30 minutes is observed, potentially, if persisting with industrial scale up, resulting in a 200-fold reduction in processing time. The authors would like to acknowledge contributions from Michael Turley MEng - University of Sheffield and Richard Robinson from Viridor for their help and support as well as EPSRC Grant Number EP/K001329/1 - ``4CU''.

  18. Active Control of Airfoil Boundary Layer Separation and Wake using Ns-DBD Plasma Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durasiewicz, Claudia; Castro Maldonado, Jorge; Little, Jesse

    2016-11-01

    Nanosecond pulse driven dielectric barrier discharge (ns-DBD) plasma actuators are employed to control boundary layer separation and the wake of a NACA 0012 airfoil having aspect ratio of three. Ns-DBD plasma actuators are known to operate via a thermal mechanism in contrast to ac-DBDs which are momentum-based devices. Nominally 2D forcing is applied to the airfoil leading edge with pulse energy of 0.35 mJ/cm. Experiments are conducted at a Reynolds number of 0 . 74 ×106 primarily at 18° incidence which is well within the stalled regime. Baseline and controlled flow fields are studied using surface pressure measurements, constant temperature anemometry (CTA) and PIV. Forcing at a dimensionless frequency of F+ = fc /U∞ = 1 . 14 results in reattachment of nominally separated flow to the airfoil surface. Lower frequency forcing is less optimal for separation control, but produces strong fluctuations in the wake which are intended for use in the study of vortex body interaction in the future. Actuation below F+ = 0 . 23 shows behavior consistent with an impulse-like response while forcing in the range 0 . 23

  19. Use of Dimples to Suppress Boundary Layer Separation on a Low Pressure Turbine Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouser, Kurt P.

    2002-12-01

    Flow separation on a low pressure turbine blade is explored at Reynolds numbers of 25k, 45k and 100k, Experimental data is collected in a low-speed, draw-down wind tunnel using a cascade of eight Pak-B blades, Flow is examined from measurements of blade surface pressures, boundary layer parameters, exit velocities, and total pressure losses across the blade, Two recessed dimple shapes are assessed for suppressing flow separation and associated losses, One dimple is spherical, and the second is asymmetric, formed from a full dimple spanwise half-filled, A single row of each dimple shape is tested at 50%, 55% and 65% axial chord, Symmetric dimples reduce separation losses by as much as 28%, while asymmetric dimples reduce losses by as much as 23%, A complementary three-dimensional computational study is conducted to visualize local flow structure, Computational analysis uses Gridgen v13,3 as a mesh generator, Fluent v6,O as a flow solver and FIELDVIEW - v8,0 for graphic display and analysis, Computational results for Pak-B blades at a Reynolds number of 25k indicate that both dimple shapes cause a span-wise vortex to rollup within the dimple and provide a localized pressure drop,

  20. Numerical study of secondary separation in glancing shock/turbulent boundary layer interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaras, Argyris G.; Stanewsky, Egon

    1992-07-01

    Experimentally it has been found that in moderate strength glancing shock/turbulent boundary layer interactions, as they occur, e.g., in supersonic and hypersonic intakes, a secondary separation line appears in the surface flow pattern. In the present paper, a flow of this type, studied at the Pennsylvania State University, is simulated numerically. It is shown that if the turbulence model of Baldwin and Lomax is applied according to the physics of the flow, the resulting solution agrees very well with the experimental evidence (wall pressure, skin friction, flow angle). Then, post-processing of the solution reveals that in this type of interaction the secondary separation phenomenon is similar to that observed in flows around bodies at high incidence. Furthermore, it has been found that the secondary separation adversely affects the conical nature of the flow. The dynamic characteristics of the conical vortex which are known to appear in these types of flow change in such a way that the various flow parameters exhibit a variation along conical rays in the region of the conical vortex, instead of remaining constant, a requirement for a purely conical flow.

  1. Automated multiple development thin-layer chromatography for separation of opiate alkaloids and derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pothier, Jacques; Galand, Nicole

    2005-07-08

    There are three types of opiate alkaloids. First, the poppy alkaloids: morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine and papaverine; then, the semi-synthetic and synthetic derivatives used in therapy as antitussives and analgesics, such as pholcodine, ethylmorphine and dextromethorphan; at last narcotic compounds, diacetylmorphine (heroin) and opiates employed as substitutes in treatment of addiction: buprenorphine and methadone. For classical thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of opium alkaloids, it is necessary to use complex eluents with strong alkaline substances to obtain a clean separation between morphinan and isoquinoline compounds. This study purposes the planar chromatographic analysis of these substances by the automated multiple development (AMD) compared with results obtained by classical TLC method. The aim of this work was to achieve the best separation of these opiate alkaloids and derivatives by this modern technique of planar chromatography. The AMD system provided a clean separation for each of three opiates groups studied and the best results have been obtained with universal gradient: methanol 100, methanol-dichloromethane 50/50, dichloromethane 100, dichloromethane 100, hexane 100 for opium alkaloids and with gradient A: 5% of 28% ammonia in methanol 100, acetone 100, acetone 100, ethyl acetate-dichloromethane 50/50, dichloromethane 100 for antitussives and substitutes. Two reagents were used for the detection of alkaloids by spraying: Dragendorff and iodoplatinate reagents. The detection limits with these two reagents were 1 microg for ethylmorphine, thebaine, papaverine, codeine, and 2 microg for morphine and noscapine and other alkaloids.

  2. Separation of estrogens and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high performance thin-layer chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib, S.

    1986-01-01

    High performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) combined with scanning densitometry was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental samples and for the separation of clinically important estrogenic hormones. Chromatographic and spectroscopic conditions were optimized for the analysis of the PAHs including the selection of the stationary phase, mobile phase composition, development technique, emission response ratios, and the conditions employed for scanning densitometry. The best results were obtained using octadesiylsilanized silica gel plates, methanol/water/acetonitrile (5:1:1) as the mobile phase, and applying multiple development with the plate cutting technique. Emission response ratios and normalized emission ratios were used for qualitative identification, and normal calibration and two-point calibration methods were applied for quantitative measurement. The PAHs were isolated from environmental samples by Soxhlet or ultrasonic extraction procedures, followed by liquid-liquid distribution between dimethylsulfoxide and hexane, and final sample fractionation by silica gel chromatography. The separation conditions for a mixture of nine mammalian estrogens by HPTLC were also optimized. This mixture was separated using silica gel plates, a mobile phase composed of cyclohexane/ethyl acetate or cyclohexane/tetrahydrofuran (3:1), and by using the multiple development with plate cutting technique.

  3. Separated and Recovering Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow Behind a Backward Facing Step For Different Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovic, Srba; Kutler, Paul F. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Experimental results for a two-dimensional separated turbulent boundary layer behind a backward facing step for five different Reynolds numbers are reported. Results are presented in the form of tables, graphs and a floppy disk for an easy access of the data. Reynolds number based on the step height was varied by changing the reference velocity upstream of the step, U(sub o), and the step height, h. Hot-wire measurement techniques were used to measure three Reynolds stresses and four triple-velocity correlations. In addition, surface pressure and skin friction coefficients were measured. All hot-wire measurements were acquired in a measuring domain which excluded recirculating flow region due to the directional insensitivity of hot-wires. The downstream extent of the domain from the step was 51 h for the largest and I 14h for the smallest step height. This significant downstream length permitted extensive study of the flow recovery. Prediction of perturbed flows and their recovery is particularly attractive for popular turbulence models since variations of turbulence length and time scales and flow interactions in different regions are generally inadequately predicted. The data indicate that the flow in the free shear layer region behaves like the plane mixing layer up to about 2/3 of the mean reattachment length when the flow interaction with the wall commences the flow recovery to that of an ordinary turbulent boundary layer structure. These changes of the flow do not occur abruptly with the change of boundary conditions. A reattachment region represents a transitional region where the flow undergoes the most dramatic adjustments to the new boundary conditions. Large eddies, created in the upstream free-shear layer region, are being torn, recirculated, reentrained back into the main stream interacting with the incoming flow structure. It is foreseeable that it is quite difficult to describe the physics of this region in a rational and quantitative manner other

  4. Shifted knife-edge aperture digital in-line holography for fluid velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Palero, Virginia; Lobera, Julia; Andrés, Nieves; Arroyo, M Pilar

    2014-06-01

    We describe a digital holography technique that, with the simplicity of an in-line configuration, produces holograms where the real and virtual images are completely separated, as in an off-axis configuration. An in-line setup, in which the object is imaged near the sensor, is modified by placing a shifted knife-edge aperture that blocks half the frequency spectrum at the focal plane of the imaging lens. This simple modification of the in-line holographic configuration allows discriminating the virtual and real images. As a fluid velocimetry technique, the use of this aperture removes the minimum defocusing distance requisite and reduces the out-of-plane velocity measurement errors of classical in-line holography. Results with different test objects are shown.

  5. Methods for calculating the transonic boundary layer separation for V/STOL inlets at high incidence angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, D. C.; Lee, H. C.; Luidens, R. W.; Stockman, N. O.

    1978-01-01

    A semi-empirical scheme for the prediction of transonic pressure distribution on the surface of V/STOL inlets at high incidence angles has been developed. The investigation is intended to improve the boundary layer calculation and separation prediction by including the effects of shock wave-boundary layer interaction into the Lewis Inlet Viscous Computer Program. Wind-tunnel results and theoretical pressure calculation for critical cases are used in constructing the transonic pressure distribution. The program, which describes the development of the boundary layer and predicts the possible flow separation, can handle the cases of inlets at high incidence angles where local supersonic region may occur in the flow.

  6. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ionization in Characterization of Organic Compounds Separated on Thin-Layer Chromatography Plates

    PubMed Central

    Cegłowski, Michał; Smoluch, Marek; Babij, Michał; Gotszalk, Teodor; Silberring, Jerzy; Schroeder, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    A new method for on-spot detection and characterization of organic compounds resolved on thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates has been proposed. This method combines TLC with dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI), which produces stable low-temperature plasma. At first, the compounds were separated on TLC plates and then their mass spectra were directly obtained with no additional sample preparation. To obtain good quality spectra the center of a particular TLC spot was heated from the bottom to increase volatility of the compound. MS/MS analyses were also performed to additionally characterize all analytes. The detection limit of proposed method was estimated to be 100 ng/spot of compound. PMID:25170762

  7. Observations and Large-Eddy Simulations of Wave-Induced Boundary-Layer Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubisic, V.; Serafin, S.; Strauss, L.

    2011-12-01

    Wave-induced boundary-layer separation in flow over orography has received significant attention in recent years, especially in relation to the formation of atmospheric rotors. Traditionally depicted as horizontal eddies in the lee of mountain ranges, rotors are characterized by intense turbulence and pose a known threat to aviation. This study focuses on the first observationally documented case of wave-induced boundary-layer separation, which occurred on Jan 26 2006 in the lee of the Medicine Bow Mountains in SE Wyoming. Observations from the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) aircraft, in particular, the remote sensing measurements with the dual-Doppler Wyoming Cloud Radar (WCR), indicate strong wave activity, downslope winds in excess of 30 m s-1 within 200 m above the ground, and near-surface flow reversal in the lee of the mountain range. The fine resolution of WCR data (on the order of 40x40 m2 for two-dimensional velocity fields) reveals fine-scale coherent vortical structures which are embedded within the rotor zone and whose intensity contributes to the severity of turbulence therein. A series of semi-idealized three-dimensional large-eddy simulations of the Medicine Bow case was carried out using the CM1 model. Simulations represent the flow of an air mass with invariant profiles of wind speed and potential temperature over an isolated mountain ridge: the atmospheric soundings match the available observations and the ridge has the same size and shape as the Medicine Bow range. Model runs consider a simplified two-dimensional geometry where the complex topographic obstacle is represented as a smooth linear mountain ridge, but they are fully three-dimensional allowing for realistic turbulence dynamics. The simulated flow field is strikingly similar to the observed, with the simulations reproducing strong downslope flow detaching from the ground, with a patch of considerably lower wind intensities and embedded reverse flow further downstream. The near

  8. Rigorous waveguiding analysis of the separated multiclad-layer stripe-geometry laser

    SciTech Connect

    Armann, M.C.

    1986-10-01

    The waveguide modes of separated multiclad-layer (SML) laser diodes are calculated accurately by means of laterally-coupled mode equations. Thereby, it is shown that the mode losses are appreciably higher as compared to previous calculations. In particular, enhancement of the mode losses in narrow-stripe SML lasers (..omega.. less than or equal to 5 ..mu..m) may explain the relatively high threshold currents and low efficiencies reported so far for AlGaAs-GaAs and InGaAsP-InP SML lasers. A detailed investigation of various geometries reveals this laser structure to equal the related channeled substrate planar (CSP) laser with respect to the waveguide losses.

  9. Boundary layer separation on isolated boattail nozzles. M.S. Thesis; [conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyounis, W. K.

    1977-01-01

    The phenomenon of separated flow on a series of circular-arc afterbodies was investigated using the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.95 at 0 deg angle of attack. Both high-pressure air and solid circular cylinders with a diameter equal to the nozzle exit diameter were used to simulate jet exhausts. A detailed data base of boundary layer separation locations was obtained using oil-flow techniques. The results indicate that boundary layer separation is most extensive on steep boattails at high Mach numbers.

  10. Context-sensitive trace inlining for Java.

    PubMed

    Häubl, Christian; Wimmer, Christian; Mössenböck, Hanspeter

    2013-12-01

    Method inlining is one of the most important optimizations in method-based just-in-time (JIT) compilers. It widens the compilation scope and therefore allows optimizing multiple methods as a whole, which increases the performance. However, if method inlining is used too frequently, the compilation time increases and too much machine code is generated. This has negative effects on the performance. Trace-based JIT compilers only compile frequently executed paths, so-called traces, instead of whole methods. This may result in faster compilation, less generated machine code, and better optimized machine code. In the previous work, we implemented a trace recording infrastructure and a trace-based compiler for [Formula: see text], by modifying the Java HotSpot VM. Based on this work, we evaluate the effect of trace inlining on the performance and the amount of generated machine code. Trace inlining has several major advantages when compared to method inlining. First, trace inlining is more selective than method inlining, because only frequently executed paths are inlined. Second, the recorded traces may capture information about virtual calls, which simplify inlining. A third advantage is that trace information is context sensitive so that different method parts can be inlined depending on the specific call site. These advantages allow more aggressive inlining while the amount of generated machine code is still reasonable. We evaluate several inlining heuristics on the benchmark suites DaCapo 9.12 Bach, SPECjbb2005, and SPECjvm2008 and show that our trace-based compiler achieves an up to 51% higher peak performance than the method-based Java HotSpot client compiler. Furthermore, we show that the large compilation scope of our trace-based compiler has a positive effect on other compiler optimizations such as constant folding or null check elimination.

  11. The structure of a separating turbulent boundary layer. V Frequency effects on periodic unsteady free-stream flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. L.; Shivaprasad, B. G.

    1983-01-01

    The results of experimental trials to obtain measurements of the effects of frequency on the sinusoidal variations in the free stream velocity over a separating turbulent boundary layer are reported. An oscillation frequency of 0.596 Hz was examined, in conjunction with a free stream velocity of 10.18 m/sec. Hot-wire anemometers measured the velocity upstream of the separation and the phase-averaged skin friction, while the velocities in the detached flow zone and the downstream velocity were assayed with a laser anemometer. Large amplitude and phase variations developed at the beginning of separation, producing hysteresis in the relationships between flow parameters. Increases in the free stream velocity decreased the detached shear layer thickness, while in the deceleration segment of the cycle the separated shear layer grew thicker. The results are in a frequency range that are significant for axial compressor blades and helicopter blades.

  12. In-line thermoelectric module

    DOEpatents

    Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

    2000-01-01

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions may be perpendicular to the direction of current flow through the module.

  13. EPA Region 2 NPDES Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System Outfalls (MS4) GIS Layer

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This ArcGIS 10.3 point feature class contains identification, location, and outfall attributes including outfall size and receiving water body, and class information for New York City Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System Outfall (MS4). The information was collected by New York City in the Long Term Control Plan (LTCP) portion of the SPDES draft permit submission to NYSDEC. This information layer, and all R2 GIS layers, are maintained in a SQLServer 2012 geodatabase. The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program is implemented by NYSDEC via the compliance and enforcement elements of the State Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (SPDES) permit program.The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program is authorized by the Clean Water Act. The Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) for NPDES data exchange allows Partners to provide ICIS-NPDES data to EPA in an XML format and provides processing results to assist Partners with correcting common errors that may occur with their submissions.

  14. Nano-organized collagen layers obtained by adsorption on phase-separated polymer thin films.

    PubMed

    Zuyderhoff, Emilienne M; Dupont-Gillain, Christine C

    2012-01-31

    The organization of adsorbed type I collagen layers was examined on a series of polystyrene (PS)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) heterogeneous surfaces obtained by phase separation in thin films. These thin films were prepared by spin coating from solutions in either dioxane or toluene of PS and PMMA in different proportions. Their morphology was unraveled combining the information coming from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and water contact angle measurements. Substrates with PMMA inclusions in a PS matrix and, conversely, substrates with PS inclusions in a PMMA matrix were prepared, the inclusions being either under the form of pits or islands, with diameters in the submicrometer range. The organization of collagen layers obtained by adsorption on these surfaces was then investigated. On pure PMMA, the layer was quite smooth with assemblies of a few collagen molecules, while bigger assemblies were found on pure PS. On the heterogeneous surfaces, it appeared clearly that the diameter and length of collagen assemblies was modulated by the size and surface coverage of the PS domains. If the PS domains, either surrounding or surrounded by the PMMA phase, were above 600 nm wide, a heterogeneous distribution of collagen was found, in agreement with observations made on pure polymers. Otherwise, fibrils could be formed, that were longer compared to those observed on pure polymers. Additionally, the surface nitrogen content determined by XPS, which is linked to the protein adsorbed amount, increased roughly linearly with the PS surface fraction, whatever the size of PS domains, suggesting that adsorbed collagen amount on heterogeneous PS/PMMA surfaces is a combination of that observed on the pure polymers. This work thus shows that PS/PMMA surface heterogeneities can govern collagen organization. This opens the way to a better control of collagen supramolecular organization at interfaces, which could in turn allow cell

  15. On-line overpressure thin-layer chromatographic separation and electrospray mass spectrometric detection of glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Chai, Wengang; Leteux, Christine; Lawson, Alexander M; Stoll, Mark S

    2003-01-01

    On-line thin-layer chromatographic separation and electrospray mass spectrometry (TLC/ESI-MS) has been accomplished by direct linking of a commercial overpressure TLC instrument, OPLC 50, and a Q-TOF mass spectrometer. Mass spectrometric detection sensitivity and chromatographic resolution achieved by this configuration were assessed using acidic glycolipids as examples. Under the optimized conditions, a sensitivity of 5 pmol of glycosphingolipid was readily demonstrated for TLC/ESI-MS and 20 pmol for TLC/ESI-MS/MS production scanning to derive the saccharide sequence and long chain base/fatty acid composition of the ceramide. Initial preconditioning of TLC plates is necessary to achieve high sensitivity detection by reducing chemical background noise. Plates can be used repeatedly (at least 10 times) for analysis, although this may result in a minor reduction in TLC resolution. Following solvent development, separated components on the TLC plates can be detected in the conventional way by nondestructive staining or UV absorption or fluorescence and can be stored for on-line TLC/ESI-MS analysis at a later stage without reduction in mass spectrometric detection sensitivity and chromatographic resolution. Aspects for further improvement of OPLC instrumentation include use of narrower TLC plate dimensions and refined design of the eluate exit system.

  16. An experimental study of surface pressure fluctuations in a separating turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Roger L.; Ghodbane, M.; Mcgrath, B. E.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of streamwise velocity fluctuation and surface pressure fluctuation spectra and wavespeeds are reported for a well-documented separating turbulent boundary layer. Because a portion of the acoustic pressure fluctuations is the same across the nominally two-dimensional turbulent flow, it is possible to decompose two microphone signals and obtain directly the turbulent flow contributions to the surface pressure spectra. The rms surface pressure fluctuation p' and spectra phi(omega) increase through the adverse pressure gradient attached flow region and the detached flow zone and scale on the maximum turbulent shearing stress tau(M); p'/tau(M) increases to the detachment location and decreases downstream due to the rapid movement of the pressure-fluctuation-producing motions away from the wall after the beginning of intermittent backflow. At lower frequencies for the attached flow phi(omega) is approximately omega to the -0.7 while phi(omega) is approximately omega to the -3 at higher frequencies. After the beginning of intermittent backflow, phi(omega) varies with omega at low frequencies and omega to the -3 at high frequencies; farther downstream the lower frequency range varies with omega to the 2.4. The surface pressure fluctuation celerity for the attached flow increases with frequency and agrees with the semi-logarithmic overlap equation of Panton and Linebarger. After the beginning of the separation process, the wavespeed decreases because of the oscillation of the instantaneous wavespeed direction and the streamwise coherence decreases drastically.

  17. Investigation of void formation beneath thin AlN layers by decomposition of sapphire substrates for self-separation of thick AlN layers grown by HVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Yoshinao; Enatsu, Yuuki; Ishizuki, Masanari; Kubota, Yuki; Tajima, Jumpei; Nagashima, Toru; Murakami, Hisashi; Takada, Kazuya; Koukitu, Akinori

    2010-09-01

    Void formation at the interface between thick AlN layers and (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrates was investigated to form a predefined separation point of the thick AlN layers for the preparation of freestanding AlN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). By heating 50-200 nm thick intermediate AlN layers above 1400 °C in a gas flow containing H 2 and NH 3, voids were formed beneath the AlN layers by the decomposition reaction of sapphire with hydrogen diffusing to the interface. The volume of the sapphire decomposed at the interface increased as the temperature and time of the heat treatment was increased and as the thickness of the AlN layer decreased. Thick AlN layers subsequently grown at 1450 °C after the formation of voids beneath the intermediate AlN layer with a thickness of 100 nm or above self-separated from the sapphire substrates during post-growth cooling with the aid of voids. The 79 μm thick freestanding AlN substrate obtained using a 200 nm thick intermediate AlN layer had a flat surface with no pits, high optical transparency at wavelengths above 208.1 nm, and a dislocation density of 1.5×10 8 cm -2.

  18. Separation of transition and heavy metals using stationary phase gradients and thin layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Stegall, Stacy L; Ashraf, Kayesh M; Moye, Julie R; Higgins, Daniel A; Collinson, Maryanne M

    2016-05-13

    Stationary phase gradients for chelation thin layer chromatography (TLC) have been investigated as a tool to separate a mixture of metal ions. The gradient stationary phases were prepared using controlled rate infusion (CRI) from precursors containing mono-, bi-, and tri-dentate ligands, specifically 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] ethylenediamine, and N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] diethylenetriamine. The presence and the extent of gradient formation were confirmed using N1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results showed that the degree of modification was dependent on the aminosilane precursor, its concentration, and the rate of infusion. The separation of four transition and heavy metals (Co(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+)) on gradient and uniformly modified plates was compared using a mobile phase containing a stronger chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The retention of the metal ions was manipulated by varying the surface concentration of the chelating ligands. The order of retention on unmodified plates and on plates modified with a monodentate ligand was Fe(3+)>Cu(2+)∼Pb(2+)∼Co(2+), while the order of retention on plates modified with bi- and tri-dentate ligands was Fe(3+)>Cu(2+)>Pb(2+)∼Co(2+). Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) were much more sensitive to the concentration of chelating ligand on the surface (displaying lower Rf values with increasing ligand concentration) than Pb(2+) and Co(2+). Complete separation was achieved using a high concentration of the tridentate ligand coupled with a longer time for modification, yielding a retention order of Fe(3+)>Cu(2+)>Co(2+)>Pb(2+). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An ODE for boundary layer separation on a sphere and a hyperbolic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chi Hin; Czubak, Magdalena; Yoneda, Tsuyoshi

    2014-07-01

    Ma and Wang derived an equation linking the separation location and times for the boundary layer separation of incompressible fluid flows. The equation gave a necessary condition for the separation (bifurcation) point. The purpose of this paper is to generalize the equation to other geometries, and to phrase it as a simple ODE. Moreover we consider the Navie-Stokes equation with the Coriolis effect, which is related to the presence of trade winds on Earth. A ∂-singular point (bifurcation point) occurs at t0 iff a function α1(t) satisfies α1(t0)=0. The above result is a generalization of [10] which is considered in the Euclidean space R2. We can regard α1(t), α2(t) and α3(t) as a part of the inflow profile. However η(t) is not. Let us be more precise. Choose p˜∈∂K close to p0∈∂K, and let K˜≔{p∈M-K:d(p,p˜)0. It is reasonable to assume uθ does not grow polynomially for the r direction (this is due to the observation of the "boundary layer", since the flow should be a uniform one away from the boundary). Thus, it should be reasonable to focus on the following two cases: (Poiseuille type profile) -k2α1(t)+2kα2(t)<0 (α1(t)>0, α2(t)<0) and α3(t) is small comparing with α1(t) and α2(t). (Before separation profile) 2kα2(t)+α3(t)<0 (α2(t)>0, α3(t)<0) and α1(t) is small comparing with α2(t) and α3(t). In this point of view, the well-known physical phenomena of "adverse

  20. Monolithic Superhydrophobic Polymer Layer with Photopatterned Virtual Channel for the Separation of Peptides Using Two-Dimensional Thin Layer Chromatography-Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yehua; Levkin, Pavel; Abarientos, Irene; Liu, Huwei; Svec, Frantisek; Fréchet, Jean M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Superhydrophobic monolithic porous polymer layers with a photopatterned hydrophilic channel have been prepared. These layers were used for two-dimensional thin layer chromatography of peptides. The 50 μm thin poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) layers supported onto 4.0 × 3.3 cm glass plates were prepared using UV-initiated polymerization in a simple glass mold. Photografting of a mixture of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate carried out through a mask afforded a 600 μm wide virtual channel along one side of the layer. This channel, which contains ionizable functionalities, enabled the first dimension separation in ion exchange mode. The aqueous mobile phase migrates only through the channel due to the large difference in surface tension at the interface of the hydrophilic channel and the superhydrophobic monolith. The unmodified part of the layer featuring hydrophobic chemistry was then used for the reversed phase separation in the orthogonal second dimension. Practical application of our technique was demonstrated with a rapid 2D separation of a mixture of model peptides differing in hydrophobicity and isoelectric point using a combination of ion-exchange and reversed phase modes. In the former mode, the peptides migrated 11 mm in less than 1 min. Detection of fluorescently labeled peptides was achieved through UV light visualization. Separation of the native peptides was monitored directly using a desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) source coupled to a mass spectrometer. Unidirectional surface scanning with the DESI source was found suitable to determine both the location of each separated peptide and its molecular mass. PMID:20151661

  1. Open-loop control of noise amplification in a separated boundary layer flow

    SciTech Connect

    Boujo, E. Gallaire, F.; Ehrenstein, U.

    2013-12-15

    Linear optimal gains are computed for the subcritical two-dimensional separated boundary-layer flow past a bump. Very large optimal gain values are found, making it possible for small-amplitude noise to be strongly amplified and to destabilize the flow. The optimal forcing is located close to the summit of the bump, while the optimal response is the largest in the shear layer. The largest amplification occurs at frequencies corresponding to eigenvalues which first become unstable at higher Reynolds number. Nonlinear direct numerical simulations show that a low level of noise is indeed sufficient to trigger random flow unsteadiness, characterized here by large-scale vortex shedding. Next, a variational technique is used to compute efficiently the sensitivity of optimal gains to steady control (through source of momentum in the flow, or blowing/suction at the wall). A systematic analysis at several frequencies identifies the bump summit as the most sensitive region for control with wall actuation. Based on these results, a simple open-loop control strategy is designed, with steady wall suction at the bump summit. Linear calculations on controlled base flows confirm that optimal gains can be drastically reduced at all frequencies. Nonlinear direct numerical simulations also show that this control allows the flow to withstand a higher level of stochastic noise without becoming nonlinearly unstable, thereby postponing bypass transition. In the supercritical regime, sensitivity analysis of eigenvalues supports the choice of this control design. Full restabilization of the flow is obtained, as evidenced by direct numerical simulations and linear stability analysis.

  2. Open-loop control of noise amplification in a separated boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boujo, E.; Ehrenstein, U.; Gallaire, F.

    2013-12-01

    Linear optimal gains are computed for the subcritical two-dimensional separated boundary-layer flow past a bump. Very large optimal gain values are found, making it possible for small-amplitude noise to be strongly amplified and to destabilize the flow. The optimal forcing is located close to the summit of the bump, while the optimal response is the largest in the shear layer. The largest amplification occurs at frequencies corresponding to eigenvalues which first become unstable at higher Reynolds number. Nonlinear direct numerical simulations show that a low level of noise is indeed sufficient to trigger random flow unsteadiness, characterized here by large-scale vortex shedding. Next, a variational technique is used to compute efficiently the sensitivity of optimal gains to steady control (through source of momentum in the flow, or blowing/suction at the wall). A systematic analysis at several frequencies identifies the bump summit as the most sensitive region for control with wall actuation. Based on these results, a simple open-loop control strategy is designed, with steady wall suction at the bump summit. Linear calculations on controlled base flows confirm that optimal gains can be drastically reduced at all frequencies. Nonlinear direct numerical simulations also show that this control allows the flow to withstand a higher level of stochastic noise without becoming nonlinearly unstable, thereby postponing bypass transition. In the supercritical regime, sensitivity analysis of eigenvalues supports the choice of this control design. Full restabilization of the flow is obtained, as evidenced by direct numerical simulations and linear stability analysis.

  3. Thermal stability and separation characteristics of anti-sticking layers of Pt/Cr films for the hot slumping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shuang; Wen, Ming-Wu; Wang, Zhan-Shan

    2016-07-01

    The thermal stability and separation characteristics of anti-sticking layers of Pt/Cr films are studied in this paper. Several types of adhesion layers were investigated: 10.0 nm Pt, 1.5 nm Cr + 50.0 nm Pt, 2.5 nm Cr + 50.0 nm Pt and 3.5 nm Cr + 50.0 nm Pt fabricated using direct current magnetron sputtering. The variation of layer thickness, roughness, crystallization and surface topography of Pt/Cr films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry, large angle X-ray diffraction and optical profiler before and after heating. 2.5 nm Cr + 50.0 nm Pt film exhibits the best thermal stability and separation characteristics according to the heating and hot slumping experiments. The film was also applied as an anti-sticking layer to optimize the maximum temperature of the hot slumping technique. Supported by CAS XTP project XDA04060605

  4. High-rate/high-temperature capability of a single-layer zicar-separator nickel-hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.

    1995-01-01

    A 50 Ampere-hour nickel-hydrogen cell with a single-layer Zircar separator stack design was fully charged and then discharged at a 2C current rate to an end voltage of 1 volt. This extreme test resulted in high temperatures which were recorded at three locations on the cell, i.e., the cell wall, the boss (barrel of the compression seal), and a terminal. The results provide new information about the high-temperature and high-discharge-rate capabilities of nickel-hydrogen cells. This information also adds to the growing data base for single-layer zirconium-oxide-cloth (Zircar) separator cell designs.

  5. Reliability and Validity of the Inline Skating Skill Test

    PubMed Central

    Radman, Ivan; Ruzic, Lana; Padovan, Viktoria; Cigrovski, Vjekoslav; Podnar, Hrvoje

    2016-01-01

    different skating proficiency repeated the skill test in four separate occasions. The results suggest that evaluated test is reliable and valid to evaluate inline skating skill in amateur skaters. PMID:27803616

  6. Separation of sperm through a 12-layer percoll column decreases the percentage of sperm staining with quinacrine.

    PubMed

    Check, M L; Bollendorf, A; Check, J H; Hourani, W; Long, R; McMonagle, K

    2000-01-01

    Previous methods of enriching sperm with a higher percentage of Y-bearing sperm have been questioned because the claims that Y enrichment was present were based on quinacrine staining of the Y chromosome, and the enrichment was not confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. A technique was evaluated that theoretically could increase the percentage of X-bearing sperm by isolating a fraction of the "heaviest" sperm by passing them through 12 layers of discontinuous Percoll gradient. Initially 12 specimens were checked both before and then after separation with 12 layers of Percoll for percentage of Y sperm. The median for baseline Y percentage was 49% and after processing the percentage of Y dropped to 10%. An additional 19 specimens were checked after separation only. The median was 19%. The sample with the lowest preseparation % of quinacrine staining sperm was 45% and the highest was 54%. After 12-layer Percoll, the lowest percentage was 3% and the highest was 24%. There have been claims that quinacrine staining can falsely increase apparent Y-bearing sperm enrichment following certain separation procedures, e.g.. albumin separation, by nonspecific staining of autosomal chromosomes. If anything, then, it should falsely decrease X-bearing sperm enrichment. Thus, 12-layer Percoll separation may actually enrich for X-bearing sperm or possibly this procedure somehow nonspecifically inhibits the ability of quinacrine to stain the Y chromosome.

  7. A Resonant Pulse Detonation Actuator for High-Speed Boundary Layer Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, B. T.; Cutler, A. D.; Drummond, J. P.; Jones, S. B.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of different types of actuators have been previously investigated as flow control devices. Potential applications include the control of boundary layer separation in external flows, as well as jet engine inlet and diffuser flow control. The operating principles for such devices are typically based on either mechanical deflection of control surfaces (which include MEMS flap devices), mass injection (which includes combustion driven jet actuators), or through the use of synthetic jets (diaphragm devices which produce a pulsating jet with no net mass flow). This paper introduces some of the initial flow visualization work related to the development of a relatively new type of combustion-driven jet actuator that has been proposed based on a pulse detonation principle. The device is designed to utilize localized detonation of a premixed fuel (Hydrogen)-air mixture to periodically inject a jet of gas transversely into the primary flow. Initial testing with airflow successfully demonstrated resonant conditions within the range of acoustic frequencies expected for the design. Schlieren visualization of the pulsating air jet structure revealed axially symmetric vortex flow, along with the formation of shocks. Flow visualization of the first successful sustained oscillation condition is also demonstrated for one configuration of the current test section. Future testing will explore in more detail the onset of resonant combustion and the approach to conditions of sustained resonant detonation.

  8. Separation of non-stationary sound fields with single layer pressure-velocity measurements.

    PubMed

    Bi, Chuan-Xing; Geng, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Zheng

    2016-02-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of extracting the non-stationary sound field generated by a target source in the presence of disturbing source from single layer pressure-velocity measurements. Unlike the method described in a previous paper [Bi, Geng, and Zhang, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135(6), 3474-3482 (2014)], the proposed method allows measurements of pressure and particle velocity signals on a single plane instead of pressure signals on two planes, and the time-dependent pressure generated by the target source is extracted by a simple superposition of the measured pressure and the convolution between the measured particle velocity and the corresponding impulse response function. Because the particle velocity here is measured directly, the error caused by the finite difference approximation can be avoided, which makes it possible to perform the separation better than the previous method. In this paper, a Microflown pressure-velocity probe is used to perform the experimental measurements, and the calibration procedure of the probe in the time domain is given. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in extracting the desired non-stationary sound field generated by the target source from the mixed one in both time and space domains, and it obtains more accurate results than the previous method.

  9. A simple and residual-layer-free solute-solvent separation soft lithography method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xianglu; Xie, Huimin

    2015-09-01

    A solute-solvent separation soft lithography (3S soft lithography) is reported in this paper, which aims at offering a residual-layer-free micromachining technique that can be realized in an ordinary laboratory conveniently. In 3S soft lithography, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) block containing micro-structure relief serves as the stamp, and the resist (as the solute) is dissolved in a solvent to form a solution before being molded by the stamp. During the molding process, the stamp absorbs the solvent and filters the resist; as a result, the resist can solidify on the substrate and replicate the pattern on the stamp. To improve the global geometric uniformity of the duplicated pattern, a hybrid PDMS stamp whose effectiveness is verified by the finite element analysis is used. Moreover, the liquid bridge phenomenon is creatively applied to remove the bubble defects caused during the molding process. The pattern transfer fidelity of 3S soft lithography is analyzed, and some suggestions are summarized for performing a high quality 3S soft lithography based on the experimental results. Verified by our experiment, the micro-structure fabricated by 3S soft lithography can serve as a mask for the following etching, and a lattice with minimum line width of 200 nm has been successfully fabricated on the silicon wafer in our study.

  10. Verification of a two-layer inverse Monte Carlo absorption model using multiple source-detector separation diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manu; Hennessy, Ricky; Markey, Mia K.; Tunnell, James W.

    2013-01-01

    A two-layer Monte Carlo lookup table-based inverse model is validated with two-layered phantoms across physiologically relevant optical property ranges. Reflectance data for source-detector separations of 370 μm and 740 μm were collected from these two-layered phantoms and top layer thickness, reduced scattering coefficient and the top and bottom layer absorption coefficients were extracted using the inverse model and compared to the known values. The results of the phantom verification show that this method is able to accurately extract top layer thickness and scattering when the top layer thickness ranges from 0 to 550 μm. In this range, top layer thicknesses were measured with an average error of 10% and the reduced scattering coefficient was measured with an average error of 15%. The accuracy of top and bottom layer absorption coefficient measurements was found to be highly dependent on top layer thickness, which agrees with physical expectation; however, within appropriate thickness ranges, the error for absorption properties varies from 12–25%. PMID:24466475

  11. Verification of a two-layer inverse Monte Carlo absorption model using multiple source-detector separation diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manu; Hennessy, Ricky; Markey, Mia K; Tunnell, James W

    2013-12-02

    A two-layer Monte Carlo lookup table-based inverse model is validated with two-layered phantoms across physiologically relevant optical property ranges. Reflectance data for source-detector separations of 370 μm and 740 μm were collected from these two-layered phantoms and top layer thickness, reduced scattering coefficient and the top and bottom layer absorption coefficients were extracted using the inverse model and compared to the known values. The results of the phantom verification show that this method is able to accurately extract top layer thickness and scattering when the top layer thickness ranges from 0 to 550 μm. In this range, top layer thicknesses were measured with an average error of 10% and the reduced scattering coefficient was measured with an average error of 15%. The accuracy of top and bottom layer absorption coefficient measurements was found to be highly dependent on top layer thickness, which agrees with physical expectation; however, within appropriate thickness ranges, the error for absorption properties varies from 12-25%.

  12. In-line ion detector

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R.; Kester, O.

    2008-02-15

    An in-line particle detector (IPD) uses secondary electrons for the detection of multiply charged ions with low to medium energy (10-10 keV). The ion detector does not physically intercept the ion beam line and is fully transparent to ions without applied voltages. The activation of the detector is performed by applying appropriate voltages to electrodes, which avoids any physical movement. Equipped with a channel electron multiplier, single particle counting is possible as well as measurement of currents. This detector therefore has a large dynamical range from about 10{sup -17} to 10{sup -3} A. The basic principle also allows for ion beam diagnostics.

  13. In-line ion detectora)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, R.; Kester, O.

    2008-02-01

    An in-line particle detector (IPD) uses secondary electrons for the detection of multiply charged ions with low to medium energy (10-10keV). The ion detector does not physically intercept the ion beam line and is fully transparent to ions without applied voltages. The activation of the detector is performed by applying appropriate voltages to electrodes, which avoids any physical movement. Equipped with a channel electron multiplier, single particle counting is possible as well as measurement of currents. This detector therefore has a large dynamical range from about 10-17to10-3A. The basic principle also allows for ion beam diagnostics.

  14. On the molecular mechanisms for the H2/CO2 separation performance of zeolite imidazolate framework two-layered membranes.

    PubMed

    Cacho-Bailo, Fernando; Matito-Martos, Ismael; Perez-Carbajo, Julio; Etxeberría-Benavides, Miren; Karvan, Oğuz; Sebastián, Víctor; Calero, Sofía; Téllez, Carlos; Coronas, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Double-layered zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes were fabricated inside polyimide P84 hollow fibers by a step-synthesis conducted by microfluidic technology and applied to pre-combustion gas separation. Our hypothesis, based on the information provided by a combination of molecular simulation and experiments, is that a CO2 adsorption reduction on the surface of the ZIF-9 would enhance the molecular sieving effect of this ZIF-9 layer and therefore the selectivity in the H2/CO2 mixture separation of the entire membrane. This reduction would be achieved by means of a less-CO2-adsorptive methylimidazolate-based ZIF-67 or ZIF-8 layer coating the ZIF-9. ZIF-8/ZIF-9 and ZIF-67/ZIF-9 double-layered membranes were prepared and characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, FIB, TEM and EDS. This unprecedented strategy led to a H2/CO2 separation selectivity of 9.6 together with a 250 GPU H2 permeance at 150 °C, showing a significant improvement with respect to the pure ZIF-9 membrane. Double-layered membranes also showed higher apparent CO2 activation energies than single-layered membranes, attributable to a diminished adsorption.

  15. In-Line Thermoelectric Module

    SciTech Connect

    Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

    1998-07-28

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an-in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions maybe perpendicular to the direction-of current flow through the module.

  16. In-line NIR monitoring of key characteristics of enteric coated pellets.

    PubMed

    Marković, Snezana; Poljanec, Ksenija; Kerc, Janez; Horvat, Matej

    2014-11-01

    We describe the development of an in-line monitoring approach for the fluid-bed drying and coating steps for the production of enteric coated pellets by NIR. Our results show that key pellet characteristics can be monitored in-line. Likewise, the finished product acidic resistance is in excellent agreement to the in-line NIR predictions. Samples were collected at regular intervals and analyzed by several reference methods to characterize both process steps. In-line NIR models for pellets size sieve fractions, residual solvent content, and amount of coating layer have been constructed. Both the pellet coating layer amount and the in-vitro enteric performance demonstrate low variability which represents a challenge to the usual chemometric model development approach. To overcome this challenge a hierarchical PLS model for predicting acidic resistance was successfully constructed using time-evolving spectral data from 22 batches. Moreover, a novel multivariate meta-analysis of the PLS loadings of individual in-line models and the hierarchical PLS model has identified which pellet characteristics correlate most significantly with the observed enteric performance of the finished product. Additionally, the meta-analysis pointed toward the presence of further mechanisms unrelated to studied characteristics that also significantly influence the acidic resistance.

  17. Facet growth of self-separated GaN layers through HVPE on large square-patterned template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Yanping; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Zhide; Xu, Wei; Li, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xinzhong; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-05-01

    A self-separated GaN layer was prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) on a square-patterned template with large periodicity. Self-separation was completed by breakage of the fragile layer because of the thermal stresses generated during the cooling process after HVPE growth. The GaN layer exhibited graphical surface comprising the terrace and the concave, the shapes of which were corresponding with the mask pattern. The terrace came from the growth on window openings, and had Ga-polarity by wet etching and micro-Raman measurement. The concave over the mask was composed of large inclined facets, and was demonstrated to have N-polarity. The growth on large square-patterned template was considered to be facet growth. The polarity inversion was related to dislocation accumulation. The strain distribution regularly varied, which was interpreted based on the facet growth mode.

  18. Computation of unsteady turbulent boundary layers with flow reversal and evaluation of two separate turbulence models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebeci, T.; Carr, L. W.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure which solves the governing boundary layer equations within Keller's box method was developed for calculating unsteady laminar flows with flow reversal. This method is extended to turbulent boundary layers with flow reversal. Test cases are used to investigate the proposition that unsteady turbulent boundary layers also remain free of singularities. Turbulent flow calculations are performed. The governing equations for both models are solved. As in laminar flows, the unsteady turbulent boundary layers are free from singularities, but there is a clear indication of rapid thickening of the boundary layer with increasing flow reversal. Predictions of both turbulence models are the same for all practical purposes.

  19. Fabrication of PVDF-based blend membrane with a thin hydrophilic deposition layer and a network structure supporting layer via the thermally induced phase separation followed by non-solvent induced phase separation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiguo; Cui, Zhenyu; Li, Tianyu; Qin, Shuhao; He, Benqiao; Han, Na; Li, Jianxin

    2017-10-01

    A simple strategy of thermally induced phase separation followed by non-solvent induced phase separation (TIPS-NIPS) is reported to fabricate poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based blend membrane. The dissolved poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (SMA) in diluent prevents the crystallization of PVDF during the cooling process and deposites on the established PVDF matrix in the later extraction. Compared with traditional coating technique, this one-step TIPS-NIPS method can not only fabricate a supporting layer with an interconnected network structure even via solid-liquid phase separation of TIPS, but also form a uniform SMA skin layer approximately as thin as 200 nm via surface deposition of NIPS. Besides the better hydrophilicity, what's interesting is that the BSA rejection ratio increases from 48% to 94% with the increase of SMA, which indicates that the separation performance has improved. This strategy can be conveniently extended to the creation of firmly thin layer, surface functionalization and structure controllability of the membrane.

  20. Dynamic layer-by-layer self-assembly of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on quartz wool for on-line separation of lysozyme in egg white.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhuo; Zhang, Suling; Zhou, Chanyuan; Liu, Miao; Li, Gongke

    2012-05-30

    The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) coated quartz wool (MWNTs/QW) prepared by dynamic layer-by-layer self-assembly was used as solid-phase extraction (SPE) absorbent for on-line separation and preconcentration of lysozyme in egg white. The coating procedures were performed continuously in a flow system operated by a set of sequential injection devices. The quartz wool was placed in a microcolumn forming a loose packing to guarantee the minimized flow impedance and the intimate contact between proteins and absorbent surface. Various parameters affecting SPE efficiency including the volume, pH, ionic strength and flow rate of sample and eluent were systematically studied. The feasibility of the proposed method was validated by successfully applied to the separation of lysozyme in egg white.

  1. Reliable recovery of the optical properties of multi-layer turbid media by iteratively using a layered diffusion model at multiple source-detector separations.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Kai; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2014-03-01

    Accurately determining the optical properties of multi-layer turbid media using a layered diffusion model is often a difficult task and could be an ill-posed problem. In this study, an iterative algorithm was proposed for solving such problems. This algorithm employed a layered diffusion model to calculate the optical properties of a layered sample at several source-detector separations (SDSs). The optical properties determined at various SDSs were mutually referenced to complete one round of iteration and the optical properties were gradually revised in further iterations until a set of stable optical properties was obtained. We evaluated the performance of the proposed method using frequency domain Monte Carlo simulations and found that the method could robustly recover the layered sample properties with various layer thickness and optical property settings. It is expected that this algorithm can work with photon transport models in frequency and time domain for various applications, such as determination of subcutaneous fat or muscle optical properties and monitoring the hemodynamics of muscle.

  2. Boundary-Layer Separation Control under Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoil Conditions using Glow-Discharge Plasma Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Ashpis, David E.

    2003-01-01

    Modem low-pressure turbines, in general, utilize highly loaded airfoils in an effort to improve efficiency and to lower the number of airfoils needed. Typically, the airfoil boundary layers are turbulent and fully attached at takeoff conditions, whereas a substantial fraction of the boundary layers on the airfoils may be transitional at cruise conditions due to the change of density with altitude. The strong adverse pressure gradients on the suction side of these airfoils can lead to boundary-layer separation at the latter low Reynolds number conditions. Large separation bubbles, particularly those which fail to reattach, cause a significant degradation of engine efficiency. A component efficiency drop of the order 2% may occur between takeoff and cruise conditions for large commercial transport engines and could be as large as 7% for smaller engines at higher altitude. An efficient means of of separation elimination/reduction is, therefore, crucial to improved turbine design. Because the large change in the Reynolds number from takeoff to cruise leads to a distinct change in the airfoil flow physics, a separation control strategy intended for cruise conditions will need to be carefully constructed so as to incur minimum impact/penalty at takeoff. A complicating factor, but also a potential advantage in the quest for an efficient strategy, is the intricate interplay between separation and transition for the situation at hand. Volino gives a comprehensive discussion of several recent studies on transition and separation under low-pressure-turbine conditions, among them one in the present facility. Transition may begin before or after separation, depending on the Reynolds number and other flow conditions. If the transition occurs early in the boundary layer then separation may be reduced or completely eliminated. Transition in the shear layer of a separation bubble can lead to rapid reattachment. This suggests using control mechanisms to trigger and enhance early

  3. Boundary-Layer Separation Control under Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoil Conditions using Glow-Discharge Plasma Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Ashpis, David E.

    2003-01-01

    Modem low-pressure turbines, in general, utilize highly loaded airfoils in an effort to improve efficiency and to lower the number of airfoils needed. Typically, the airfoil boundary layers are turbulent and fully attached at takeoff conditions, whereas a substantial fraction of the boundary layers on the airfoils may be transitional at cruise conditions due to the change of density with altitude. The strong adverse pressure gradients on the suction side of these airfoils can lead to boundary-layer separation at the latter low Reynolds number conditions. Large separation bubbles, particularly those which fail to reattach, cause a significant degradation of engine efficiency. A component efficiency drop of the order 2% may occur between takeoff and cruise conditions for large commercial transport engines and could be as large as 7% for smaller engines at higher altitude. An efficient means of of separation elimination/reduction is, therefore, crucial to improved turbine design. Because the large change in the Reynolds number from takeoff to cruise leads to a distinct change in the airfoil flow physics, a separation control strategy intended for cruise conditions will need to be carefully constructed so as to incur minimum impact/penalty at takeoff. A complicating factor, but also a potential advantage in the quest for an efficient strategy, is the intricate interplay between separation and transition for the situation at hand. Volino gives a comprehensive discussion of several recent studies on transition and separation under low-pressure-turbine conditions, among them one in the present facility. Transition may begin before or after separation, depending on the Reynolds number and other flow conditions. If the transition occurs early in the boundary layer then separation may be reduced or completely eliminated. Transition in the shear layer of a separation bubble can lead to rapid reattachment. This suggests using control mechanisms to trigger and enhance early

  4. Algae separation from urban landscape water using a high density microbubble layer enhanced by micro-flocculation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuwen; Xu, Jingcheng; Liu, Jia; Wei, Qiaoling; Li, Guangming; Huang, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication of raw water results in outbreaks of algae, which hinders conventional water treatment. In this study, high density microbubble layers combined with micro-flocculation was adopted to remove algae from urban landscape water, and the effects of pressure, hydraulic loading, microbubble layer height and flocculation dosage on the removal efficiency for algae were studied. The greatest removal efficiency for algae, chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorus was obtained at 0.42 MPa with hydraulic loading at 5 m/h and a flocculation dosage of 4 mg/L using a microbubble layer with a height of 130 cm. Moreover, the size, clearance distance and concentration of microbubbles were found to be affected by pressure and the height of the microbubble layer. Based on the study, this method was an alternative for algae separation from urban landscape water and water purification.

  5. A potential-flow/boundary-layer method for calculating subsonic and transonic airfoil flow with trailing-edge separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnwell, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a potential-flow/boundary-layer method for calculating subsonic and transonic turbulent flow past airfoils with trailing-edge separation is reported. A moment-of-momentum integral boundary-layer method is used which employs the law-of-the-wall/law-of-the-wake velocity profile and a two-layer eddy-viscosity model and ignores the laminar sublayer. All integrals across the boundary layer are obtained in closed form. Separation is assumed to occur when the shearing-stress velocity vanishes. A closed-form solution is derived for separated-flow regions where the shearing stress is negligible. In the potential-flow method, the exact form of the airfoil boundary condition is used, but it is applied at the chord line rather than the airfoil surface. This allows the accurate computation of flow about airfoils at large angles of attack but permits the use of body-oriented Cartesian computational grids. The governing equation for the perturbation velocity potential contains several terms in addition to the classical small-disturbance terms.

  6. Thin-layer chromatographic specification and separation of Cu(1+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), and Co(2+) cations.

    PubMed

    Savasci, Sahin; Akçay, Mehmet; Ergül, Soner

    2010-07-01

    The M(PyDTC)(2) (M: Cu, Co, or Ni) and CuPyDTC complexes, prepared by reactions of ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate with metal nitrates, are examined for qualitative analysis, speciation, and mutual separation using thin-layer chromatography systems. These complexes and their mixtures are spotted to the activated and non-activated thin layers of silica gel 60GF(254) (Si-60GF(254)) with a 250-microm thickness. Toluene-dichloromethane mixtures (4:1, 1:1, 1:4 v/v) are used as mobile phases for running of the complexes. All of these chromatographic systems are successfully used for speciation of Cu(2+) and Cu(1+) cations. The best analytical separation for the qualitative analysis of corresponding metal cations and mutual separation of components in M(PyDTC)(2) and CuPyDTC complexes are obtained when using pure toluene-dichloromethane (1:1 v/v) on the activated layer. This study shows that it is possible to qualitatively analyze and satisfactorily separate a mixture of Cu(1+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), and Co(2+) cations on cited chromatographic systems. These results may be also said for the adaptability or validity on column chromatography.

  7. Development of separation due to interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer perturbed by rarefaction waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheltovodov, A. A.; Shilejn, Eh. KH.; Horstman, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    The interaction of a turbulent boundary layer with rarefaction and shock waves in flows past inclined steps was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experiments were carried out in supersonic wind tunnels with test sections of 0.6 x 0.6 m and 0.2 x 0.2 m, with adiabatic conditions on the surface model. Based on detailed measurements of pressure fields, velocity, and surface friction, combined with results of optical visualization and analysis of limiting flow lines, three characteristic flow regimes are identified. These are (1) nonseparated flow at small step angles, (2) formation of a local separation zone with a free separation point at moderate step angles, and (3) formation of a large-scale separated flow with a fixed separation point at sufficiently large step angles. The quantitative gasdynamic schemes and surface pressure distributions for these flow regimes are shown for Mach 2.85.

  8. Separation of pigment formulations by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with automated multiple development.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Constanze; Dietzel, Sylvia; Endress, Marc; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2016-09-02

    Food packaging is designed to provide sufficient protection for the respective filling, legally binding information for the consumers like nutritional facts or filling information, and an attractive appearance to promote the sale. For quality and safety of the package, a regular quality control of the used printing materials is necessary to get consistently good print results, to avoid migration of undesired ink components into the food and to identify potentially faulty ink batches. Analytical approaches, however, have hardly been considered for quality assurance so far due to the lack of robust, suitable methods for the analysis of rarely soluble pigment formulations. Thus, a simple and generic high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the separation of different colored pigment formulations was developed on HPTLC plates silica gel 60 by automated multiple development. The gradient system provided a sharp resolution for differently soluble pigment constituents like additives and coating materials. The results of multi-detection allowed a first assignment of the differently detectable bands to particular chemical substance classes (e.g., lipophilic components), enabled the comparison of different commercially available pigment batches and revealed substantial variations in the composition of the batches. Hyphenation of HPTLC with high resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy allowed the characterization of single unknown pigment constituents, which may partly be responsible for known quality problems during printing. The newly developed, precise and selective HPTLC method can be used as part of routine quality control for both, incoming pigment batches and monitoring of internal pigment production processes, to secure a consistent pigment composition resulting in consistent ink quality, a faultless print image and safe products. Hyphenation of HPTLC with the A. fischeri bioassay gave first information on the bioactivity or rather

  9. Competitive separation of di- vs. mono-valent cations in electrodialysis: effects of the boundary layer properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younggy; Walker, W Shane; Lawler, Desmond F

    2012-05-01

    In electrodialysis desalination, the boundary layer near ion-exchange membranes is the limiting region for the overall rate of ionic separation due to concentration polarization over tens of micrometers in that layer. Under high current conditions, this sharp concentration gradient, creating substantial ionic diffusion, can drive a preferential separation for certain ions depending on their concentration and diffusivity in the solution. Thus, this study tested a hypothesis that the boundary layer affects the competitive transport between di- and mono-valent cations, which is known to be governed primarily by the partitioning with cation-exchange membranes. A laboratory-scale electrodialyzer was operated at steady state with a mixture of 10mM KCl and 10mM CaCl(2) at various flow rates. Increased flows increased the relative calcium transport. A two-dimensional model was built with analytical solutions of the Nernst-Planck equation. In the model, the boundary layer thickness was considered as a random variable defined with three statistical parameters: mean, standard deviation, and correlation coefficient between the thicknesses of the two boundary layers facing across a spacer. Model simulations with the Monte Carlo method found that a greater calcium separation was achieved with a smaller mean, greater standard deviation, or more negative correlation coefficient. The model and experimental results were compared for the cationic transport number as well as the current and potential relationship. The mean boundary layer thickness was found to decrease from 40 to less than 10 μm as the superficial water velocity increased from 1.06 to 4.24 cm/s. The standard deviation was greater than the mean thickness at slower water velocities and smaller at faster water velocities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer experiments - A separate effects study on a convexly-curved wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.

    1981-08-01

    Surface heat transfer rates have been measured for several different flows on an isothermal, convexly curved surface. The freestream velocity, boundary layer thickness, acceleration parameter, and unheated starting length were varied systematically, and both turbulent and transitional boundary layers were studied. The effect of convex curvature on heat transfer rates is significant with Stanton numbers reduced 20-25% below flat wall values for the same enthalpy thickness Reynolds number. Heat transfer rates recovered slowly on a flat wall downstream of the curved wall, and after 60 cm, the Stanton numbers were still 15-20% below flat wall values. The behavior of the boundary layer suggests the existence of an asymptotic condition. Boundary layer thickness, freestream velocity, and boundary layer maturity affect the initial response to the introduction of curvature and the rate at which the asymptotic state is approached. Convex curvature appears to increase the boundary layer's sensitivity to acceleration; it also delays and retards transition. Near-laminar or early-transitional boundary layers recover from curvature rapidly, whereas late-transitional and mature boundary layers recover slowly.

  11. A Laboratory Demonstration of the Three-Dimensional Nature of In-Line Holography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Albert V.; Castro, George

    1999-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which two semi-transparent reticles and a photographic plate separated by several centimeters are illuminated by a monochromatic point source in a typical in-line configuration that results in a hologram that contains information from both reticles. (Author/WRM)

  12. Drag Reduction by Suction of the Boundary Layer Separated Behind Shock Wave Formation at High Mach Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenscheit, B.

    1947-01-01

    With an approach of the velocity of flight of a ship to the velocity of sound, there occurs a considerable increase of the drag. The reason for this must be found in the boundary layer separation caused by formation of shock waves. It will be endeavored to reduce the drag increase by suction of the boundary layer. Experimental results showed that drag increase may be considerably reduced by this method. It was, also, observed that, by suction, the position of shock waves can be altered to a considerable extent.

  13. Fabrication of Direct Silicon Bonded Hybrid Orientation Substrate by Separation by Implanted Oxygen Layer Transfer and Oxide Dissolution Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xing; Xue, Zhongying; Wu, Aimin; Cao, Gongbai; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Chenglu; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Xi

    2011-03-01

    The quasi direct Si bonded (DSB) hybrid orientation substrate with a 3 nm interfacial oxide layer between the (100) superficial Si and the (110) handle wafer is fabricated by the separation by implanted oxygen layer transfer (SLT) process. The quasi DSB hybrid orientation substrates are annealed in oxygen-containing and oxygen-free ambient. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) results show the oxide-free (100) Si/(110) Si bonding interface, indicating that the direct Si-Si bonded structure is realized by these two processes. The anisotropic bonding interface morphology of the DSB hybrid orientation substrates is observed, and the formation mechanism is discussed in detail.

  14. Separation and identification of water-soluble food dyes by ion-exchange and soap thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lepri, L; Desideri, P G; Coas, V

    1978-11-21

    Eighteen water-soluble food dyes have been studied by chromatography on thin layers of anion-exchange (AG 1-X4, DEAE-cellulose, PAB-cellulose and chitosan) and cation-exchange (Dowex 50-X4, Rexyn 102 and humic acid) materials; layers of silanised silica gel impregnated with cationic or anionic detergent were also used. Fourteen of the dyes were separated, but the two orange and the two black dyes were not. Some applications of the techniques to commercial products are reported.

  15. Separation and electrical properties of self-organized graphene/graphite layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailian, Manuel R.; Mailian, Aram R.

    2015-02-01

    Intrinsic layered structure of graphite is the source of ongoing and expanding search of ways of obtaining low-cost and promising graphite thin layers. We report on a novel method of obtaing and seperating rubbed graphite sheets by using water soluble NaCl substrate. The electrical behavior of sheets was characterized by current-voltage measurements. An in-plane electrical anisotropy depending on rubbing direction is discovered. Optical microscopy observations combined with discovered non-linear electrical behavior revealed that friction leads to the formation of sheet makeup which contain an optically transparent lamina of self-organized few-layer graphene.

  16. Computation of the shock-wave boundary layer interaction with flow separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardonceau, P.; Alziary, T.; Aymer, D.

    1980-01-01

    The boundary layer concept is used to describe the flow near the wall. The external flow is approximated by a pressure displacement relationship (tangent wedge in linearized supersonic flow). The boundary layer equations are solved in finite difference form and the question of the presence and unicity of the solution is considered for the direct problem (assumed pressure) or converse problem (assumed displacement thickness, friction ratio). The coupling algorithm presented implicitly processes the downstream boundary condition necessary to correctly define the interacting boundary layer problem. The algorithm uses a Newton linearization technique to provide a fast convergence.

  17. Electrospun Fibrous Mat with pH-Switchable Superwettability That Can Separate Layered Oil/Water Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Jin; Zhou, Yin-Ning; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Luo, Zheng-Hong

    2016-12-20

    Oil/water separation has inspired much research interest because of the damages caused to our natural environment due to oily wastewater. As a leader of advanced separation materials, electrospun polymeric fibrous mats having the properties of special surface wettability, high specific surface area, and high porosity will be a good membrane material for the separation of oily wastewater. Herein, we first prepared pH-responsive polymer poly(dimethylsiloxane)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PDMS-b-P4VP) mat using electrospinning technology. The PDMS-b-P4VP fibrous mat with a thickness of around 250 μm exhibits good pH-switchable oil/water wettability and is able to effectively separate oil or water from layered oil/water mixtures by gravity driven through adjusting the pH value. Stemming from its porous structure and pH-switchable superwettability, the electrospun PDMS-b-P4VP fibrous mat achieved controllable separations with high fluxes of approximately 9000 L h(-1) m(-2) for oil (hexane) and 27 000 L h(-1) m(-2) for water. In addition, extended studies on the polymer/silica nanoparticulate (silica NP) composite fibrous mats show that the addition of an inorganic component improves the thermal stability, pH-switchable wettability, and separation performance of the fibrous mats (approximately 9000 L h(-1) m(-2) for hexane and 32 000 L h(-1) m(-2) for water). It can be concluded from the results that both polymer fibrous mats and silica-filled composite fibrous mats are good candidates for on-demand layered oil/water mixture separation.

  18. Disassembly and physical separation of electric/electronic components layered in printed circuit boards (PCB).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeryeong; Kim, Youngjin; Lee, Jae-chun

    2012-11-30

    Although printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain various elements, only the major elements (i.e., those with content levels in wt% or over grade) of and precious metals (e.g., Ag, Au, and platinum groups) contained within PCBs can be recycled. To recover other elements from PCBs, the PCBs should be properly disassembled as the first step of the recycling process. The recovery of these other elements would be beneficial for efforts to conserve scarce resources, reuse electric/electronic components (EECs), and eliminate environmental problems. This paper examines the disassembly of EECs from wasted PCBs (WPCBs) and the physical separation of these EECs using a self-designed disassembling apparatus and a 3-step separation process of sieving, magnetic separation, and dense medium separation. The disassembling efficiencies were evaluated by using the ratio of grinding area (E(area)) and the weight ratio of the detached EECs (E(weight)). In the disassembly treatment, these efficiencies were improved with an increase of grinder speed and grinder height. 97.7% (E(area)) and 98% (E(weight)) could be accomplished ultimately by 3 repetitive treatments at a grinder speed of 5500 rpm and a grinder height of 1.5mm. Through a series of physical separations, most groups of the EECs (except for the diode, transistor, and IC chip groups) could be sorted at a relatively high separation efficiency of about 75% or more. To evaluate the separation efficiency with regard to the elemental composition, the distribution ratio (R(dis)) and the concentration ratio (R(conc)) were used. 15 elements could be separated with the highest R(dis) and R(conc) in the same separated division. This result implies that the recyclability of the elements is highly feasible, even though the initial content in EECs is lower than several tens of mg/kg.

  19. Monolithic polymer layer with gradient of hydrophobicity for separation of peptides using two-dimensional thin layer chromatography and MALDI-TOF-MS detection.

    PubMed

    Urbanova, Iva; Svec, Frantisek

    2011-08-01

    Superhydrophobic monolithic porous polymer layers supported onto glass plates with a gradient of hydrophobicity have been prepared and used for 2-D thin layer chromatography of peptides. The 50 μm-thin poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) layers prepared using UV-initiated polymerization in a simple mold were first hydrolyzed using dilute sulfuric acid and then hydrophilized via two-step grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate to obtain superhydrophilic plates. The hydrophobicity was then formed by photografting of lauryl methacrylate. The exposure to UV light that initiates photografting was spatially controlled using moving shutter that enabled forming of the diagonal gradient of hydrophobicity. This new concept enables the solutes to encounter the gradient for each of the two sequential developments. Practical application of our novel plates was demonstrated with a rapid 2-D separation of a mixture of model peptides gly-tyr, val-tyr-val, leucine enkephalin, and oxytocin in dual reversed-phase mode using different mobile phases in each direction. Detection of fluorescent-labeled peptides was achieved through UV light visualization while separation of native leucine enkephalin and oxytocin was monitored directly using MALDI mass spectrometry.

  20. Role of secondary flows on flow separation induced by shock/boundary layer interaction in supersonic inlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morajkar, Rohan

    Flow separation in the scramjet air intakes is one of the reasons of failure of these engines which rely on shock waves to achieve flow compression. The shock waves interact with the boundary layers (Shock/ Boundary Layer Interaction or SBLI) on the intake walls inducing adverse pressure gradients causing flow separation. In this experimental study we investigate the role of secondary flows associated with the corners of ducted flows and identify the mechanisms by which they affect flow separation induced by a shock wave interacting with the boundary layers developing along supersonic inlets. The coupling between flow three-dimensionality, shock waves and secondary flows is in fact a key aspect that limits the performance and control of supersonic inlets. The study is conducted at the University of Michigan Glass Supersonic Wind Tunnel (GSWT). This facility replicates some of the features of the three-dimensional (3D) flow-field in a low aspect ratio supersonic inlet. The study uses stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) to measure the three-component (3C) velocity field on several orthogonal planes, and thus allows us to identify the length scales of separation, its locations and statistical properties. Furthermore, these measurements allow us to extract the 3D structure of the underlying vortical features, which are important in determining the overall structure of separated regions and their dynamics. The measurements and tools developed are used to study flow fields of three cases: (1) Moderately strong SBLI (Mach 2.75 with 6° deflection), (2) weak SBLI (Mach 2.75 with 4.6° deflection) and (3) secondary corner flows in empty channels. In the configuration of the initial work (moderately strong SBLI), the shock wave system interacts with the boundary layers on the sidewall and the floor of the duct (inlet), thus generating both a swept-shock and an incident-shock interactions. Furthermore, the swept-shock interaction taking place on the sidewalls

  1. On the Use of Lagrangian Variables in Descriptions of Unsteady Boundary- Layer Separation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    appear in each term of (5.7c, d) when the relevant governing equations are solved, are fixed either by matching with the Hiemenz layer adjacent to the...perturbed Hiemenz front stagnation point boundary-layer profile exists: v , vo(’) + 7- 1vI(y) + 7- 2v2(y) + 7- 3V3(Y) +... (5.8a) where Y - 3o , (5.8b...and 030 - 0.64790 is the Hiemenz displacement thickness. Runge-Kutta solutions of the governing equations for the vj, using the following asymptotic

  2. Thermodynamical effects accompanied freezing of two water layers separated by sea ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogorodsky, Petr; Marchenko, Aleksey

    2014-05-01

    The process of melt pond freezing is very important for generation of sea ice cover thermodynamic and mass balance during winterperiod. However, due to significant difficulties of field measurements the available data of model estimations still have no instrumental confirmation. In May 2009 the authors carried out laboratory experiment on freezing of limited water volume in the University Centre in Svalbard ice tank. In the course of experiment fresh water layer of 27.5 cm thickness at freezing point poured on the 24 cm sea ice layer was cooled during 50 hours at the temperature -10º C and then once again during 60 hours at -20º C. For revealing process typical characteristics the data of continuous measurements of temperature and salinity in different phases were compared with data of numerical computations obtained with thermodynamic model which was formulated in the frames of 1-D equation system (infinite extension of water freezing layer) and adapted to laboratory conditions. The known surprise of the experiment became proximity of calculated and measured estimates of process dynamics that confirmed the adequacy of the problem mathematical statement (excluding probably process finale stage). This effect can be explained by formation of cracks on the upper layer of ice at sharp decreases of air temperature, which temporary compensated hydrostatic pressure growth during freezing of closed water volume. Another compensated mechanism can be migration of brine through the lower layer of ice under influence of vertical pressure gradient and also rejection of gas dissolved in water which increased its compressibility. During 110 hours cooling thickness of water layer between ice layers reduced approximately to 2 cm. According to computations this layer is not chilled completely but keeps as thin brine interlayer within ice body whose thickness (about units of mm) is determined by temperature fluctuations of cooled surface. Nevertheless, despite good coincidence of

  3. What Factors Affect the Separation of Substances Using Thin-Layer Chromatography? An Undergraduate Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, John J.; Meyer, Jeanne A.; Everson, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Rx values in thin-layer chromatography (TLC) depend strongly on the solvent saturation of the atmosphere above the liquid in the TLC developing chamber. Presents an experiment illustrating the potentially dramatic effects on TLC Rx values of not equilibrating the solvent atmosphere during development. (ASK)

  4. What Factors Affect the Separation of Substances Using Thin-Layer Chromatography? An Undergraduate Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, John J.; Meyer, Jeanne A.; Everson, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Rx values in thin-layer chromatography (TLC) depend strongly on the solvent saturation of the atmosphere above the liquid in the TLC developing chamber. Presents an experiment illustrating the potentially dramatic effects on TLC Rx values of not equilibrating the solvent atmosphere during development. (ASK)

  5. Sub-optimal control of unsteady boundary layer separation and optimal control of Saltzman-Lorenz model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardesai, Chetan R.

    The primary objective of this research is to explore the application of optimal control theory in nonlinear, unsteady, fluid dynamical settings. Two problems are considered: (1) control of unsteady boundary-layer separation, and (2) control of the Saltzman-Lorenz model. The unsteady boundary-layer equations are nonlinear partial differential equations that govern the eruptive events that arise when an adverse pressure gradient acts on a boundary layer at high Reynolds numbers. The Saltzman-Lorenz model consists of a coupled set of three nonlinear ordinary differential equations that govern the time-dependent coefficients in truncated Fourier expansions of Rayleigh-Renard convection and exhibit deterministic chaos. Variational methods are used to derive the nonlinear optimal control formulations based on cost functionals that define the control objective through a performance measure and a penalty function that penalizes the cost of control. The resulting formulation consists of the nonlinear state equations, which must be integrated forward in time, and the nonlinear control (adjoint) equations, which are integrated backward in time. Such coupled forward-backward time integrations are computationally demanding; therefore, the full optimal control problem for the Saltzman-Lorenz model is carried out, while the more complex unsteady boundary-layer case is solved using a sub-optimal approach. The latter is a quasi-steady technique in which the unsteady boundary-layer equations are integrated forward in time, and the steady control equation is solved at each time step. Both sub-optimal control of the unsteady boundary-layer equations and optimal control of the Saltzman-Lorenz model are found to be successful in meeting the control objectives for each problem. In the case of boundary-layer separation, the control results indicate that it is necessary to eliminate the recirculation region that is a precursor to the unsteady boundary-layer eruptions. In the case of the

  6. Separation of the Carotenoid Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Thin-Layer and Column Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullagh, James V.; Ramos, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment the carotenoid bixin is isolated from annatto ("Bixa orellana") seeds using column chromatography. The experiment has several key advantages over previous pigment separation experiments. First, unlike other experiments significant quantities of the carotenoid (typically 20 to 25 mg) can be isolated from small quantities of plant…

  7. Separation of the Carotenoid Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Thin-Layer and Column Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullagh, James V.; Ramos, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment the carotenoid bixin is isolated from annatto ("Bixa orellana") seeds using column chromatography. The experiment has several key advantages over previous pigment separation experiments. First, unlike other experiments significant quantities of the carotenoid (typically 20 to 25 mg) can be isolated from small quantities of plant…

  8. Numerical study of the primary instability in a separated boundary layer transition under elevated free-stream turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langari, Mostafa; Yang, Zhiyin

    2013-07-01

    Numerical studies of laminar-to-turbulent transition in a separation bubble subjected to two free-stream turbulence levels (FST) have been performed using Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). Separation of the laminar boundary layer occurs at a curvature change over a plate with a semi-circular leading edge at Re = 3450 based on the plate thickness and the uniform inlet velocity. A numerical trip is used to produce the targeted free-stream turbulence levels and the decay of free-stream turbulence is well predicted. A dynamic sub-grid-scale model is employed in the current study and a good agreement has been obtained between the LES results and the experimental data. Detailed analysis of the LES data has been carried out to investigate the primary instability mechanism. The flow visualisations and spectral analysis of the separated shear layer reveal that the 2D Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mode, well known to occur at low FST levels, is bypassed at higher levels leading to earlier breakdown to turbulence.

  9. 7 CFR 993.106 - In-line inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false In-line inspection. 993.106 Section 993.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.106 In-line inspection. In-line inspection...

  10. 7 CFR 993.504 - In-line inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false In-line inspection. 993.504 Section 993.504 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... CALIFORNIA Pack Specification as to Size Definitions § 993.504 In-line inspection. In-line inspection means...

  11. Formation of separating layers under conditions of the thermal aging of sorbents modified by fluorinated polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovleva, E. Yu.; Shundrina, I. K.; Gerasimov, E. Yu.; Vaganova, T. A.

    2014-03-01

    Thermogravimetry, elemental analysis, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, high-resolution electron microscopy, and gas chromatography are used to study the effect of the content of perfluorinated polyimide when used as a stationary phase for modifying Chromosorb P NAW diatomite supports and aluminum oxide, and the effect of thermal aging conditions on changes in their texture and chromatographic characteristics. It is shown that Chromosorb P NAW + 5 wt % of polyimide (PI) adsorbent thermally aged at 700°C in a flow of inert gas exhibits properties of carbon molecular sieves, while aluminum oxide impregnated with 10 wt % of PI and thermally aged at 250°C allows us to selectively separate permanent and organic gases, as well separate saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Upstream Boundary Layer Acceleration on Unsteadiness of Shock-Induced Separation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Experimental Study of the Driving Mechanism and Control of the Unsteady Shock Induced Turbulent Separation in a Mach 5 compression Corner Flow...University of Tokyo, Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan, Oct. 25-29, 1987. 12 Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the test section with compression...ramp. Seeding System Optics FLOW CCD Cameras Dual-Cavity Nd: Yag Laser Photodiode Beam Splitter Timing Electronics ``` FLC Shutter Controller

  13. Transition to Turbulence in the Separated Shear Layers of Yawed Circular Cylinders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-15

    where her hot - wire anemometer measurements found their streamwise appearance (after separation) to be inversely proportional to the cylinder Reynolds...Smith (1986) conducted hot - wire anemometer measurements where they reported expo- nents b = 0.87 and b = 0.773, respectively, for the Bloor power- law...measured when using anemometry . Prasad and Wil- liamson (1996) compiled their anemometer measurements along with those of Bloor as well as Wei and

  14. The Delay of Turbulent Boundary Layer Separation by Oscillatory Active Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-04

    lift generated by airfoils and the maximum divergence angles of efficient diffusers are limited by flow separation. Consequently, even a partial... signal , and the data were ensemble-aver- aged in order to remove the free stream turbulence of the wind tunnel and other sources of random disturbances...shape factor H a! 6*/0 = 1.6 for Re 6 . 800). The maximum turbulent intensity, u’/U is approximately 7% 50 mm upstream of the hinge and it increases to

  15. Improved thin-layer chromatographic separation of gangliosides by automated multiple development.

    PubMed

    Müthing, J

    1994-07-01

    Automated multiple development chromatography has been utilized to enhance separation of gangliosides on silica-gel precoated high-performance TLC plates. Three-fold chromatography of a complex mixture of neolacto-series monosialogangliosides in the solvent chloroform-methanol-water (120:85:14, v/v, 2 mM CaCl2) resulted in a ca. three-fold increase in separation distance of e.g. alpha 2-3 and alpha 2-6 sialylated ganglioside isomers compared to conventional single chromatography in the standard solvent chloroform-methanol-water (120:85:20, v/v, 2 mM CaCl2). An extremely heterogenous murine disialoganglioside mixture was developed three times in chloroform-methanol-water (120:85:16, v/v, 2 mM CaCl2) leading to a more than two-fold increase in separation distance. Chloroform-methanol-water (120:85:22, v/v, 2 mM CaCl2) was the solvent of choice for multiple chromatography of ganglio-series polysialogangliosides from embryonic chicken brain.

  16. The influence of free-stream turbulence on separation of turbulent boundary layers in incompressible, two-dimensional flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. Leith; Barnett, R. Joel; Fisher, Carl E.; Koukousakis, Costas E.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine if free-stream turbulence scale affects separation of turbulent boundary layers. In consideration of possible interrelation between scale and intensity of turbulence, the latter characteristic also was varied and its role was evaluated. Flow over a 2-dimensional airfoil in a subsonic wind tunnel was studied with the aid of hot-wire anemometry, liquid-film flow visualization, a Preston tube, and static pressure measurements. Profiles of velocity, relative turbulence intensity, and integral scale in the boundary layer were measured. Detachment boundary was determined for various angles of attack and free-stream turbulence. The free-stream turbulence intensity and scale were found to spread into the entire turbulent boundary layer, but the effect decreased as the airfoil surface was approached. When the changes in stream turbulence were such that the boundary layer velocity profiles were unchanged, detachment location was not significantly affected by the variations of intensity and scale. Pressure distribution remained the key factor in determining detachment location.

  17. Long-range coupling of electron-hole pairs in spatially separated organic donor-acceptor layers

    PubMed Central

    Nakanotani, Hajime; Furukawa, Taro; Morimoto, Kei; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    Understanding exciton behavior in organic semiconductor molecules is crucial for the development of organic semiconductor-based excitonic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells, and the tightly bound electron-hole pair forming an exciton is normally assumed to be localized on an organic semiconducting molecule. We report the observation of long-range coupling of electron-hole pairs in spatially separated electron-donating and electron-accepting molecules across a 10-nanometers-thick spacer layer. We found that the exciton energy can be tuned over 100 megaelectron volts and the fraction of delayed fluorescence can be increased by adjusting the spacer-layer thickness. Furthermore, increasing the spacer-layer thickness produced an organic light-emitting diode with an electroluminescence efficiency nearly eight times higher than that of a device without a spacer layer. Our results demonstrate the first example of a long-range coupled charge-transfer state between electron-donating and electron-accepting molecules in a working device. PMID:26933691

  18. Rational Integration of Polypropylene/Graphene Oxide/Nafion as Ternary-Layered Separator to Retard the Shuttle of Polysulfides for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ting-Zhou; Huang, Jia-Qi; Peng, Hong-Jie; He, Lian-Yuan; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Chen, Cheng-Meng; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-20

    The reversible electrochemical transformation from lithium (Li) and sulfur (S) into Li2 S through multielectron reactions can be utilized in secondary Li-S batteries with very high energy density. However, both the low Coulombic efficiency and severe capacity degradation limits the full utilization of active sulfur, which hinders the practical applications of Li-S battery system. The present study reports a ternary-layered separator with a macroporous polypropylene (PP) matrix layer, graphene oxide (GO) barrier layer, and Nafion retarding layer as the separator for Li-S batteries with high Coulombic efficiency and superior cyclic stability. In the ternary-layered separator, ultrathin layer of GO (0.0032 mg cm(-2) , estimated to be around 40 layers) blocks the macropores of PP matrix, and a dense ion selective Nafion layer with a very low loading amount of 0.05 mg cm(-2) is attached as a retarding layer to suppress the crossover of sulfur-containing species. The ternary-layered separators are effective in improving the initial capacity and the Coulombic efficiency of Li-S cells from 969 to 1057 mAh g(-1) , and from 80% to over 95% with an LiNO3 -free electrolyte, respectively. The capacity degradation is reduced from 0.34% to 0.18% per cycle within 200 cycles when the PP separator is replaced by the ternary-layered separators. This work provides the rational design strategy for multifunctional separators at cell scale to effective utilizing of active sulfur and retarding of polysulfides, which offers the possibility of high energy density Li-S cells with long cycling life. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Unsteady inflow effects on the wake shed from a high-lift LPT blade subjected to boundary layer laminar separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satta, Francesca; Ubaldi, Marina; Zunino, Pietro

    2012-04-01

    An experimental investigation on the near and far wake of a cascade of high-lift low-pressure turbine blades subjected to boundary layer separation over the suction side surface has been carried out, under steady and unsteady inflows. Two Reynolds number conditions, representative of take-off/landing and cruise operating conditions of the real engine, have been tested. The effect of upstream wake-boundary layer interaction on the wake shed from the profile has been investigated in a three-blade large-scale linear turbine cascade. The comparison between the wakes shed under steady and unsteady inflows has been performed through the analysis of mean velocity and Reynolds stress components measured at midspan of the central blade by means of a two-component crossed miniature hot-wire probe. The wake development has been analyzed in the region between 2% and 100% of the blade chord from the central blade trailing edge, aligned with the blade exit direction. Wake integral parameters, half-width and maximum velocity defects have been evaluated from the mean velocity distributions to quantify the modifications induced on the vane wake by the upstream wake. Moreover the thicknesses of the two wake shear layers have been considered separately in order to identify the effects of Reynolds number and incoming flow on the wake shape. The self-preserving state of the wake has been looked at, taking into account the different thicknesses of the two shear layers. The evaluation of the power density spectra of the velocity fluctuations allowed the study of the wake unsteady behavior, and the detection of the effects induced by the different operating conditions on the trailing edge vortex shedding.

  20. In situ Silver Spot Preparation and on-Plate Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection in Thin Layer Chromatography Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, K.; Mircescu, N. E.; Szabo, L.; Leopold, L. F.; Chiş, V.; Leopold, N.

    2013-05-01

    An improved approach for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of mixture constituents after thin layer chromatography (TLC) separation is presented. A SERS active silver substrate was prepared under open air conditions, directly on the thin silica film by photo-reduction of silver nitrate, allowing the detection of binary mixtures of cresyl violet, bixine, crystal violet, and Cu(II) complex of 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. The recorded SERS spectrum provides a unique spectral fingerprint for each molecule; therefore the use of analyte standards is avoided, thus rendering the presented procedure advantageous compared to the conventional detection methodology in TLC.

  1. Anomalous acoustoelectric effect in semiconductor layered structures using separated medium configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedin, M. N.; Strashilov, V. L.; Das, P.

    1990-01-01

    An anomalous acoustoelectric effect is observed in semiconductor layered structures and bulk semiconductors due to semiconductor surface conditions. We report preliminary results of this effect in semiconductors using the nondestructive surface acoustic wave (SAW) technique. The magnitude and polarity of the acoustoelectric voltages in GaAs/AlAs superlattices exhibit strong SAW frequency dependencies, a phenomenon that is not observed in bulk semiconductors. The anomalous acoustoelectric voltage (AAV) is detected in high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) and also bulk semiconductors as a function of bias voltage.

  2. Unsteady boundary layer separated stagnation-point flow towards a permeable shrinking sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yian, Lok Yian; Ahmad, Syakila

    2014-07-01

    A study of the unsteady separated stagnation-point flow with constant suction towards a shrinking sheet is presented. A similarity transformation reduces the governing partial differential equation to the third order nonlinear ordinary differential equation which the terms of unsteady effect are clearly shown. The problem is solved numerically where the influences of shrinking and suction parameters on flow are studied. It is found that two solutions exist, one representing an attached flow while the other a reverse flow. It is found that adequate suction is necessary for the solutions to exist.

  3. Direct separation of faradaic and double layer charging current in potential step voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jiarun; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2013-11-15

    Double layer charging current in electrochemical systems has been a challenging problem in the last several decades because it causes interference to the accurate measurement of faradaic current. A method for extracting faradaic current and double layer charging current directly from the measured total current in potential step voltammetry is developed by using iterative target transformation factor analysis (ITTFA). The method constructs initial target vectors based on the theoretical formulae of faradaic and charging current, and then calculates the weights of faradaic and charging current in the measured signal via the iterative transformation of the initial vectors. Therefore, the two currents in one experiment can be obtained simultaneously without any assumption. The potential step voltammetric signals of potassium ferricyanide, copper sulfate and paracetamol were analyzed with the proposed method. The results show that the shape of the obtained voltammogram is an ideal sigmoid curve with horizontal straight baseline and plateaus, and the intensity of the signal is greatly enhanced. Therefore, the method provides a new way to measure the pure faradic current in the potential step voltammetric experiment, and may provide an alternative for improving the sensitivity of quantitative analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of turbulence models for prediction of separated turbulent boundary layer under unsteady adverse pressure gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junshin; You, Donghyun

    2014-11-01

    Predicitive capabilites of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) techniques for separated flow under unsteady adverse pressure gradients have been assessed using SST k - ω model and Spalart-Allmaras model by comparing their results with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. Both DNS and RANS have been conducted with a zero pressure gradient, a steady adverse pressure gradient, and an unsteady adverse pressure gradient, respectively. Comparative studies show that both RANS models predict earlier separation and fuller velocity profiles at the reattachment zone than DNS in the unsteady case, while reasonable agreements with DNS are observed for steady counterparts. Causes for differences in the predictive capability of RANS for steady and unsteady cases, are explained by examining the Reynolds stress term and eddy viscosity term in detail. The Reynolds stress and eddy viscosity are under-predicted by both RANS models in the unsteady case. The origin of the under-prediction of the Reynolds stress with both RANS models is revealed by investigating Reynolds stress budget terms obtained from DNS. Supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant NRF-2012R1A1A2003699 and the Brain Korea 21+ program.

  5. Spatially Distributed Forcing for Boundary Layer Separation Control on a Wall Mounted Hump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgmann, David; Little, Jesse; Woszidlo, Rene

    2016-11-01

    Numerous successful efforts on controlling flow separation have been demonstrated using spatially distributed actuators. These include both steady and unsteady forcing from discrete locations in the vicinity of separation. Despite this, there are many open questions on the actual flow control mechanism. A canonical hump model is used to investigate these physics in a subsonic wind tunnel. Reynolds number independence is achieved above 0.72 ×106 and testing is performed up to 2.2 ×106. The efficacy of discrete steady jets is studied as a function of spacing, momentum coefficient, velocity ratio and mass flux. Highly-resolved surface pressure data for the controlled flow are compared to an inviscid solution establishing a figure of merit. Results indicate the inviscid limit is reached for a momentum coefficient of 1% with actuator spacing of 0.5% span. A comparison of steady discrete jets with sweeping jets actuators of equivalent cross-sectional area is undertaken. Surface flow visualization and PIV are employed to extract detailed information on the baseline and controlled flow field. This importance of establishing critical baseline features is also discussed with respect to establishing proper boundary conditions for accompanying numerical simulations. Supported by The Boeing Company.

  6. Passive Boundary Layer Separation Control on a NACA2415 Airfoil at High Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, Agastya; Hultmark, Marcus

    2016-11-01

    The design and analysis of a passive flow control system for a NACA2415 airfoil is undertaken. There exists a vast body of knowledge on airfoil boundary layer control with the use of controlled mass flux, but there is little work investigating passive mass flux-based methods. A simple duct system that uses the upper surface pressure gradient to force blowing near the leading edge and suction near the trailing edge is proposed and evaluated. 2D RANS analyses at Rec 1 . 27 ×106 were used to generate potential configurations for experimental tests. Initial computational results suggest drag reductions of approximately 2 - 7 % as well as lift increases of 4 - 5 % at α = 10 .0° and α = 12 .5° . A carbon composite-aluminum structure model that implements the most effective configurations, according to the CFD predictions, has been designed and fabricated. Experiments are being performed to evaluate the CFD results and the feasibility the duct system.

  7. Predictions of Separated and Transitional Boundary Layers Under Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoil Conditions Using an Intermittency Transport Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzen, Y. Bora; Huang, P. G.; Hultgren, Lennart S.; Ashpis, David E.

    2001-01-01

    A new transport equation for the intermittency factor was proposed to predict separated and transitional boundary layers under low-pressure turbine airfoil conditions. The intermittent behavior of the transitional flows is taken into account and incorporated into computations by modifying the eddy viscosity, mu(sub t), with the intermittency factor, gamma. Turbulent quantities are predicted by using Menter's two-equation turbulence model (SST). The intermittency factor is obtained from a transport equation model, which not only can reproduce the experimentally observed streamwise variation of the intermittency in the transition zone, but also can provide a realistic cross-stream variation of the intermittency profile. In this paper, the intermittency model is used to predict a recent separated and transitional boundary layer experiment under low pressure turbine airfoil conditions. The experiment provides detailed measurements of velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and intermittency profiles for a number of Reynolds numbers and freestream turbulent intensity conditions and is suitable for validation purposes. Detailed comparisons of computational results with experimental data are presented and good agreements between the experiments and predictions are obtained.

  8. Predictions of Separated and Transitional Boundary Layers Under Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoil Conditions Using an Intermittency Transport Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Hultgren, Lennart S.; Ashpis, David E.

    2003-01-01

    A new transport equation for the intermittency factor was proposed to predict separated and transitional boundary layers under low-pressure turbine airfoil conditions. The intermittent behavior of the transitional flows is taken into account and incorporated into computations by modifying the eddy viscosity, t , with the intermittency factor, y. Turbulent quantities are predicted by using Menter s two-equation turbulence model (SST). The intermittency factor is obtained from a transport equation model, which not only can reproduce the experimentally observed streamwise variation of the intermittency in the transition zone, but also can provide a realistic cross-stream variation of the intermittency profile. In this paper, the intermittency model is used to predict a recent separated and transitional boundary layer experiment under low pressure turbine airfoil conditions. The experiment provides detailed measurements of velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and intermittency profiles for a number of Reynolds numbers and freestream turbulent intensity conditions and is suitable for validation purposes. Detailed comparisons of computational results with experimental data are presented and good agreements between the experiments and predictions are obtained.

  9. Unsteady separation in sharp fin-induced shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction at Mach 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmisseur, J. D.; Dolling, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    Fluctuating wall-pressure measurements are made in shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions generated by sharp/unswept fins at angles of attack of 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, and 28 degrees at Mach 5. The experiment was conducted under approximately adiabatic wall temperature conditions. The mean and rms pressure distributions can be collapsed in conical coordinates. The wall-pressure signal near separation is intermittent for all angles of attack (16-28 deg) and is qualitatively similar to that measured in unswept flows. However, the shock frequencies are higher - about 5 kHz compared to 0.5-1 kHz. Over the range of sweepbacks examined, from 25-55 deg, the spectral content of the fluctuating pressures does not change. Thus, the increase in separation-shock frequency from 1 to 5 kHz occurs at lower interaction sweepback and is not a continuous process with increasing sweepback. Power spectra at the position of maximum rms in the intermittent region for interactions in different incoming boundary layers have the same center frequency. The maximum rms in the intermittent region correlates with interaction sweepback, not with overall inviscid pressure rise.

  10. Aerodynamics of wings at low Reynolds numbers: Boundary layer separation and reattachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArthur, John

    Due to advances in electronics technology, it is now possible to build small scale flying and swimming vehicles. These vehicles will have size and velocity scales similar to small birds and fish, and their characteristic Reynolds number will be between 104 and 105. Currently, these flying and swimming vehicles do not perform well, and very little research has been done to characterize them, or to explain why they perform so poorly. This dissertation documents three basic investigations into the performance of small scale lifting surfaces, with Reynolds numbers near 104. Part I. Low Reynolds number aerodynamics. Three airfoil shapes were studied at Reynolds numbers of 1 and 2x104: a flat plate airfoil, a circular arc cambered airfoil, and the Eppler 387 airfoil. Lift and drag force measurements were made on both 2D and 3D conditions, with the 3D wings having an aspect ratio of 6, and the 2D condition being approximated by placing end plates at the wing tips. Comparisons to the limited number of previous measurements show adequate agreement. Previous studies have been inconclusive on whether lifting line theory can be applied to this range of Re, but this study shows that lifting line theory can be applied when there are no sudden changes in the slope of the force curves. This is highly dependent on the airfoil shape of the wing, and explains why previous studies have been inconclusive. Part II. The laminar separation bubble. The Eppler 387 airfoil was studied at two higher Reynolds numbers: 3 and 6x10 4. Previous studies at a Reynolds number of 6x104 had shown this airfoil experiences a drag increase at moderate lift, and a subsequent drag decrease at high lift. Previous studies suggested that the drag increase is caused by a laminar separation bubble, but the experiments used to show this were conducted at higher Reynolds numbers and extrapolated down. Force measurements were combined with flow field measurements at Reynolds numbers 3 and 6x104 to determine whether

  11. Numerical simulation and experimental visualization of the separated cavitating boundary layer over NACA2412

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozák, Jiří; Rudolf, Pavel; Sedlář, Milan; Habán, Vladimír; Hudec, Martin; Huzlík, Rostislav

    2015-05-01

    Cavitation is physical phenomenon of crucial impact on the operation range and service lifetime of the hydraulic machines (pumps, turbines, valves etc.). Experimental measurement of cavitation is expensive and time consuming process, while some important characteristic of the flow are difficult to measure due to the nature of the phenomenon. Current possibilities of computational fluid dynamics provide a way for deeper understanding of cavitation which is important for many applications in the hydraulic machines industry such as expanding operation range or extending lifetime of the hydraulic machines. Simplified model consists of NACA 2412 hydrofoil with 8 degrees angle of attack fixed in between the walls of cavitation tunnel. Present investigation focuses on comparison of vapor volume fractions obtained by 3D CFD simulations and high speed visualization of the real cavitation phenomena. Several operating regimes corresponding to different cavitation numbers are studied with aim to assess the dynamics of the separated cavitating sheets/clouds

  12. Interactions between vortex generators and a flat plate boundary layer. Application to the control of separated flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duriez, T.; Thiria, B.; Cambonie, T.; Wesfreid, J. E.; Aider, J. L.

    Vortex generators (VG) are among the most popular actuators for flow control. more or less interact with each other depending on many parameters like the size of the VGs or the spacing between each VG (Betterton et al. (2000); Godard ' Stanislas (2006)). From a general point of view, the 3D steady (or unsteady) perturbations induced by the VG are used to modify a boundary layer in order to control some global properties of the flow like heat transfer or aerodynamic forces (Lin (2002); Duriez et al. (2008)). One of the main difficulty in using VG is the large number of parameters the experimentalist has to choose: the type of VG (mechanical or fluidic, stationary or time-dependant), the dimensions, the spacing, the location relative to the flow to be controlled. In this paper we propose a short review describing the structures of the flows produced by two different mechanical VG (trapezoidal blades and cylinders) and continuous jets in a flat-plate boundary layer. The drawback and advantages of each of them will be underlined. The way the longitudinal structures interact with a flat plate boundary layer will also be discussed. In the case of small cylinders it will be shown that one can define new physical properties that can be helpful to choose the proper parameters in the perspective of control of flow separation.

  13. In-line powder coating of pultrusions

    SciTech Connect

    Spoo, K.; Smith, G.

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the pros and cons of an in-line powder coating process that applies an acrylic modified polyurethane powder to pultruded window lineals. The system applies the finish to the pultruded part downstream from the pultrusion die. Capital costs, direct costs, and mechanics of the process are discussed.

  14. Characteristics of a separating confluent boundary layer and the downstream wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adair, Desmond; Horne, W. Clifton

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of pressure and velocity characteristics are presented and analyzed for flow over and downstream of a NACA 4412 airfoil equipped with a NACA 4415 single-slotted flap at high angle of attack and close to maximum lift. The flow remained attached over the main element while a large region of recirculating flow occurred over the aft 61 percent of the flap. The airfoil configuration was tested at a Mach number of 0.09 and a chord Reynolds number of 1.8x10 to the 6th power in the NASA Ames Research Center 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. Measurement of mean and fluctuation velocities were obtained in regions of recirculation and high turbulence intensity using 3-D laser velocimetry. In regions where the flow had a preferred direction and relatively low turbulence intensity, hot-wire anemometry was used. Emphasis was placed on obtaining characteristics in the confluent boundary layer, the region of recirculating flow, and in the downstream wake. Surface pressure measurements were made on the main airfoil, flap, wind tunnel roof and floor. It is thought likely that because the model is large when compared to the wind tunnel cross section, the wind tunnel floor and ceiling interference should be taken into account when the flow field is calculated.

  15. Flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow combined with laser ablation for direct analysis of compounds separated by thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cegłowski, Michał; Smoluch, Marek; Reszke, Edward; Silberring, Jerzy; Schroeder, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    A thin-layer chromatography-mass spectrometry (TLC-MS) setup for characterization of low molecular weight compounds separated on standard TLC plates has been constructed. This new approach successfully combines TLC separation, laser ablation, and ionization using flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) source. For the laser ablation, a low-priced 445-nm continuous-wave diode laser pointer, with a power of 1 W, was used. The combination of the simple, low-budget laser pointer and the FAPA ion source has made this experimental arrangement broadly available, also for small laboratories. The approach was successfully applied for the characterization of low molecular weight compounds separated on TLC plates, such as a mixture of pyrazole derivatives, alkaloids (nicotine and sparteine), and an extract from a drug tablet consisting of paracetamol, propyphenazone, and caffeine. The laser pointer used was capable of ablating organic compounds without the need of application of any additional substances (matrices, staining, etc.) on the TLC spots. The detection limit of the proposed method was estimated to be 35 ng/cm(2) of a pyrazole derivative.

  16. Organic phototransistors with nanoscale phase-separated polymer/polymer bulk heterojunction layers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyemin; Kim, Hwajeong; Nam, Sungho; Bradley, Donal D C; Ha, Chang-Sik; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2011-05-01

    Low-cost detectors for sensing photons at a low light intensity are of crucial importance in modern science. Phototransistors can deliver better signals of low-intensity light by electrical amplification, but conventional inorganic phototransistors have a limitation owing to their high temperature processes in vacuum. In this work, we demonstrate organic phototransistors with polymer/polymer bulk heterojunction blend films (mixtures of p-type and n-type semiconducting polymers), which can be fabricated by inexpensive solution processes at room temperature. The key idea here is to effectively exploit hole charges (from p-type polymer) as major signaling carriers by employing p-type transistor geometry, while the n-type polymer helps efficient charge separation from excitons generated by incoming photons. Results showed that the present organic transistors exhibited proper functions as p-type phototransistors with ∼4.3 A W(-1) responsivity at a low light intensity (1 µW cm(-2)), which supports their encouraging potential to replace conventional cooled charge coupled devices (CCD) for low-intensity light detection applications.

  17. Open and closed-loop experiments to identify the separated flow dynamics of a thick turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaqarin, T.; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.; Stanislas, M.

    2013-02-01

    Open and closed-loop flow control experiments were performed on the transient attachment and separation mechanisms of a thick turbulent boundary layer (TBL). Without actuation, the TBL is subjected to an adverse pressure gradient and separates downstream of a sharp variation in the wall geometry. Departing from a given geometry and steady operations of vortex generator actuators, the control objective was to attach the flow in the separated region with a minimum of injected fluid using adaptation of the closed-loop control. The large scale of the facility (i.e., δ = 20 cm upstream of separation) induces large time scales and large Reynolds numbers of the flow to be controlled. It is found to consequently induce large time scales of the separation/attachment mechanisms, making the dynamic closed-loop implementation easier. Open-loop tests were first performed to extract the adequate input/output variables for closed-loop implementations. The chosen input variable was the Duty Cycle, DC, which enables sending of a control action at least 10 times faster than the time scales of the attachment/separation process. The chosen output variable was the voltage signal from a hot-film probe located on the flap which characterizes the degree of separation. In open loop, both the large scale (i.e., large time scales) of the present facility (Carlier and Stanislas in J Fluid Mech 535(36):143-188, 2005) and the well-defined excitation (Braud and Dyment in Phys Fluids 24:047102, 2012) help to extract the different time scales involved and to identify the whole system (actuators, baseline flow and sensor). Three Reynolds numbers based on the momentum thickness of the boundary layer near the actuators and upstream of separation were investigated ( Re θ = 7,500, 10,500 and 12,600) through variation of the free-stream velocity ( U ∞ = 5, 8, 10 m/s). These three systems were found to behave like first-order linear systems, with coefficients that need to be adapted depending on the

  18. Decreased Adherence and Spontaneous Separation of Fetal Membrane Layers--Amnion and Choriodecidua—a Possible Part of the Normal Weakening Process

    PubMed Central

    Strohl, Anna; Kumar, Deepak; Novince, Ryan; Shaniuk, Paul; Smith, Jessica; Bryant, Kayla; Moore, Robert M; Novak, Jillian; Stetzer, Bradley; Mercer, Brian M; Mansour, Joseph M.; Moore, John J

    2009-01-01

    The fetal membrane (FM) layers, amnion and choriodecidua, are frequently noted to have varying degrees of separation following delivery. FM layers normally separate prior to rupture during in vitro biomechanical testing. We hypothesized that the adherence between amnion and choriodecidua decreases prior to delivery resulting in separation of the FM layers and facilitating FM rupture. METHODS FM from 232 consecutively delivered patients were examined to determine the extent of spontaneous separation of the FM layers at delivery. Percent separation was determined by the weight of separated FM tissue divided by the total FM weight. Separately, the adherence between intact FM layers was determined. FM adherence was tested following term vaginal delivery (13), term unlabored cesarean section (10), and preterm delivery (6). RESULTS Subjects enrolled in the two studies had similar demographic and clinical characteristics. FM separation was present in 92.1% of membranes. Only 4.3% of FM delivered following spontaneous rupture of the fetal membranes (SROM) had no detectable separation. 64.7% of FM had greater than 10% separation. FM from term vaginal deliveries had significantly more separation and were less adherent than FM of term unlabored, elective cesarean section (39.0 ± 34.4% vs 22.5 ± 30.9%, p=.046 and 0.041 ± 0.018 N/cm vs 0.048 ± 0.019 N/cm, p< .005). Preterm FM had less separation and were more adherent than term FM (9.95 ± 17.7% vs 37.5 ± 34.4% and 0.070 ± 0.040 N/cm vs 0.044 ± 0.020 N/cm; both p< .001). CONCLUSIONS Separation of the amnion from choriodecidua at delivery is almost universal. Increased separation is associated with decreased adherence as measured in vitro. Increased separation and decreased adherence are seen both with increasing gestation and with labor suggesting both biochemical and mechanical etiologies. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that FM layer separation is part of the FM weakening process during normal parturition

  19. Ion Exchange and Thin Layer Chromatographic Separation and Identification of Amino Acids in a Mixture: An Experiment for General Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunauer, Linda S.; Caslavka, Katelyn E.; Van Groningen, Karinne

    2014-01-01

    A multiday laboratory exercise is described that is suitable for first-year undergraduate chemistry, biochemistry, or biotechnology students. Students gain experience in performing chromatographic separations of biomolecules, in both a column and thin layer chromatography (TLC) format. Students chromatographically separate amino acids (AA) in an…

  20. Ion Exchange and Thin Layer Chromatographic Separation and Identification of Amino Acids in a Mixture: An Experiment for General Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunauer, Linda S.; Caslavka, Katelyn E.; Van Groningen, Karinne

    2014-01-01

    A multiday laboratory exercise is described that is suitable for first-year undergraduate chemistry, biochemistry, or biotechnology students. Students gain experience in performing chromatographic separations of biomolecules, in both a column and thin layer chromatography (TLC) format. Students chromatographically separate amino acids (AA) in an…

  1. A novel in-line NIR spectroscopy application for the monitoring of tablet film coating in an industrial scale process.

    PubMed

    Möltgen, C-V; Puchert, T; Menezes, J C; Lochmann, D; Reich, G

    2012-04-15

    Film coating of tablets is a multivariate pharmaceutical unit operation. In this study an innovative in-line Fourier-Transform Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) application is described which enables real-time monitoring of a full industrial scale pan coating process of heart-shaped tablets. The tablets were coated with a thin hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) film of up to approx. 28 μm on the tablet face as determined by SEM, corresponding to a weight gain of 2.26%. For a better understanding of the aqueous coating process the NIR probe was positioned inside the rotating tablet bed. Five full scale experimental runs have been performed to evaluate the impact of process variables such as pan rotation, exhaust air temperature, spray rate and pan load and elaborate robust and selective quantitative calibration models for the real-time determination of both coating growth and tablet moisture content. Principal Component (PC) score plots allowed each coating step, namely preheating, spraying and drying to be distinguished and the dominating factors and their spectral effects to be identified (e.g. temperature, moisture, coating growth, change of tablet bed density, and core/coat interactions). The distinct separation of HPMC coating growth and tablet moisture in different PCs enabled a real-time in-line monitoring of both attributes. A PLS calibration model based on Karl Fischer reference values allowed the tablet moisture trajectory to be determined throughout the entire coating process. A 1-latent variable iPLS weight gain calibration model with calibration samples from process stages dominated by the coating growth (i.e. ≥ 30% of the theoretically applied amount of coating) was sufficiently selective and accurate to predict the progress of the thin HPMC coating layer. At-line NIR Chemical Imaging (NIR-CI) in combination with PLS Discriminant Analysis (PLSDA) verified the HPMC coating growth and physical changes at the core/coat interface during the initial

  2. Anodic etching of GaN based film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer: Mechanism and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qingxue; Liu, Rong; Xiao, Hongdi; Cao, Dezhong; Liu, Jianqiang; Ma, Jin

    2016-11-01

    A strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer, which consists of multiple quantum wells (MQW) and superlattices (SL) layers and can produce a blue wavelength spectrum, has been grown on n-GaN thin film, and then fabricated into nanoporous structures by electrochemical etching method in oxalic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique reveals that the etching voltage of 8 V leads to a vertically aligned nanoporous structure, whereas the films etched at 15 V show branching pores within the n-GaN layer. Due to the low doping concentration of barriers (GaN layers) in the InGaN/GaN layer, we observed a record-low rate of etching (<100 nm/min) and nanopores which are mainly originated from the V-pits in the phase-separated layer. In addition, there exists a horizontal nanoporous structure at the interface between the phase-separated layer and the n-GaN layer, presumably resulting from the high transition of electrons between the barrier and the well (InGaN layer) at the interface. As compared to the as-grown MQW structure, the etched MQW structure exhibits a photoluminescence (PL) enhancement with a partial relaxation of compressive stress due to the increased light-extracting surface area and light-guiding effect. Such a compressive stress relaxation can be further confirmed by Raman spectra.

  3. Investigation of blown boundary layers with an improved wall jet system. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Technical Report, 1 Jul. 1978 - Dec. 1979; [to prevent turbulent boundary layer separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saripalli, K. R.; Simpson, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of two dimensional incompressible turbulent wall jets submerged in a boundary layer when they are used to prevent boundary layer separation on plane surfaces is investigated. The experimental set-up and instrumentation are described. Experimental results of zero pressure gradient flow and adverse pressure gradient flow are presented. Conclusions are given and discussed.

  4. Silica-decorated polypropylene microfiltration membranes with a mussel-inspired intermediate layer for oil-in-water emulsion separation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao-Cheng; Pi, Jun-Ke; Liao, Kun-Jian; Huang, He; Wu, Qing-Yun; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2014-08-13

    Silica-decorated polypropylene microfiltration membranes were fabricated via a facile biomimetic silicification process on the polydopamine/polyethylenimine-modified surfaces. The membranes exhibit superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity derived from the inherent hydrophilicity and the well-defined micronanocomposite structures of the silica-decorated surfaces. They can be applied in varieties of oil-in-water emulsions separation with high permeate flux (above 1200 L/m(2)h under 0.04 MPa) and oil rejection (above 99%). The membranes also have relatively high oil breakthrough pressure reaching 0.16 MPa due to the microporous structure, showing great potential for practical applications. Furthermore, such mussel-inspired intermediate layer provides us a convenient and powerful tool to fabricate organic-inorganic hybrid membranes for advanced applications.

  5. An experimental and numerical investigation of shock-wave induced turbulent boundary-layer separation at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, J. G.; Horstman, C. C.; Rubesin, M. W.; Coakley, T. J.; Kussoy, M. I.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment designed to test and guide computations of the interaction of an impinging shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer is described. Detailed mean flow-field and surface data are presented for two shock strengths which resulted in attached and separated flows, respectively. Numerical computations, employing the complete time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations along with algebraic eddy-viscosity and turbulent Prandtl number models to describe shear stress and heat flux, are used to illustrate the dependence of the computations on the particulars of the turbulence models. Models appropriate for zero-pressure-gradient flows predicted the overall features of the flow fields, but were deficient in predicting many of the details of the interaction regions. Improvements to the turbulence model parameters were sought through a combination of detailed data analysis and computer simulations which tested the sensitivity of the solutions to model parameter changes. Computer simulations using these improvements are presented and discussed.

  6. In-line assay monitor for uranium hexafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, S.A.

    1980-03-21

    An in-line assay monitor for determining the content of uranium-235 in a uranium hexafluoride gas isotopic separation system is provided which removes the necessity of complete access to the operating parameters of the system for determining the uranium-235 content. The method and monitor for carrying out the method involve cooling of a radiation pervious chamber connected in fluid communication with the selected point in the system to withdraw a specimen and solidify the specimen in the chamber. The specimen is irradiated by means of an ionizing radiation source of energy different from that of the 185 keV gamma emissions from uranium-235. The uranium-235 content of the specimen is determined from comparison of the accumulated 185 keV energy counts and reference energy counts. The latter is used to measure the total uranium isotopic content of the specimen.

  7. Driving vertical phase separation in a bulk-heterojunction by inserting a poly(3-hexylthiophene) layer for highly efficient organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jin Young; Jang, Woo Soon; Lee, Tae Il; Myoung, Jae-Min; Baik, Hong Koo

    2011-01-10

    A desirable vertical phase separation of a bulk-heterojunction was achieved by inserting a P3HT layer between the blend layer and the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layer. According to the high (PEDOT:PSS) and low (P3HT) surface energies of substrate, it might be possible to modulate the vertical phase separation in the bulk-heterojunction. The result of vertical phase separation was determined using time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectroscopy analysis. A controlled thickness of 50 nm for the inserted P3HT layer prevented undesirable light absorption and the power conversion efficiency of this condition was increased by 44% compared to that of a reference device.

  8. Intermittent Behavior of the Separated Boundary Layer along the Suction Surface of a Low Pressure Turbine Blade under Periodic Unsteady Flow Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeztuerk, B; Schobeiri, M. T.; Ashpis, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The paper experimentally and theoretically studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and aerodynamic characteristics on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds number of 110,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). For one steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, intermittency behaviors were experimentally and theoretically investigated. The current investigation attempts to extend the intermittency unsteady boundary layer transition model developed in previously to the LPT cases, where separation occurs on the suction surface at a low Reynolds number. The results of the unsteady boundary layer measurements and the intermittency analysis were presented in the ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms. The analysis of the boundary layer experimental data with the flow separation, confirms the universal character of the relative intermittency function which is described by a Gausssian function.

  9. Direct numerical simulation of a self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer at the verge of separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitsios, V.; Sekimoto, A.; Atkinson, C.; Sillero, J. A.; Borrell, G.; Gungor, A. G.; Jiménez, J.; Soria, J.

    2017-10-01

    The statistical properties are presented for the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a self-similar adverse pressure gradient (APG) turbulent boundary layer (TBL) at the verge of separation. The APG TBL has a momentum thickness based Reynolds number range from $Re_{\\delta_2}=570$ to $13800$, with a self-similar region from $Re_{\\delta_2} = 10000$ to $12300$. Within this domain the average non-dimensional pressure gradient parameter $\\beta=39$, where for a unit density $\\beta=\\delta_1 P_e^\\prime / \\tau_w$, with $\\delta_1$ the displacement thickness, $\\tau_w$ the mean shear stress at the wall, and $P_e^\\prime$ the farfield pressure gradient. This flow is compared to previous zero pressure gradient (ZPG) and mild APG TBL ($\\beta=1$) results of similar Reynolds number. All flows are generated via the DNS of a TBL on a flat surface with farfield boundary conditions tailored to apply the desired pressure gradient. The conditions for self-similarity, and the appropriate length and velocity scales are derived. The mean and Reynolds stress profiles are shown to collapse when non-dimensionalised on the basis of these length and velocity scales. As the pressure gradient increases the flow has properties less like a ZPG TBL and more akin to a free shear layer.

  10. Effect of Permeate Drag Force on the Development of a Biofouling Layer in a Pressure-Driven Membrane Separation System▿

    PubMed Central

    Eshed, L.; Yaron, S.; Dosoretz, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of permeate flux on the development of a biofouling layer on cross-flow separation membranes was studied by using a bench-scale system consisting of two replicate 100-molecular-weight-cutoff tubular ultrafiltration membrane modules, one that allowed flow of permeate and one that did not (control). The system was inoculated with Pseudomonas putida S-12 tagged with a red fluorescent protein and was operated using a laminar flow regimen under sterile conditions with a constant feed of diluted (1:75) Luria-Bertani medium. Biofilm development was studied by using field emission scanning electron microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy and was subsequently quantified by image analysis, as well as by determining live counts and by permeate flux monitoring. Biofilm development was highly enhanced in the presence of permeate flow, which resulted in the buildup of complex three-dimensional structures on the membrane. Bacterial transport toward the membrane by permeate drag was found to be a mechanism by which cross-flow filtration contributes to the buildup of a biofouling layer that was more dominant than transport of nutrients. Cellular viability was found to be not essential for transport and adhesion under cross-flow conditions, since the permeate drag overcame the effect of bacterial motility. PMID:18931284

  11. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, Marcus B.; Thompson, Cyril V.

    1998-01-01

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds.

  12. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, M.B.; Thompson, C.V.

    1998-07-14

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds. 3 figs.

  13. Sixty-four-Channel Inline Cable Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Faults in wiring are a serious concern for the aerospace and aeronautics (commercial, military, and civil) industries. A number of accidents have occurred because faulty wiring created shorts or opens that resulted in the loss of control of the aircraft or because arcing led to fires and explosions. Some of these accidents have resulted in the massive loss of lives (such as in the TWA Flight 800 accident). Circuits on the Space Shuttle have also failed because of faulty insulation on wiring. STS-93 lost power when a primary power circuit in one engine failed and a second engine had a backup power circuit fault. Cables are usually tested on the ground after the crew reports a fault encountered during flight. Often such failures result from vibration and cannot be replicated while the aircraft is stationary. It is therefore important to monitor faults while the aircraft is in operation, when cables are more likely to fail. Work is in progress to develop a cable fault tester capable of monitoring up to 64 individual wires simultaneously. Faults can be monitored either inline or offline. In the inline mode of operation, the monitoring is performed without disturbing the normal operation of the wires under test. That is, the operations are performed unintrusively and are essentially undetectable for the test signal levels are below the noise floor. A cable can be monitored several times per second in the offline mode and once a second in the inline mode. The 64-channel inline cable tester not only detects the occurrence of a fault, but also determines the type of fault (short/open) and the location of the fault. This will enable the detection of intermittent faults that can be repaired before they become serious problems.

  14. Efficient instruction sequencing with Inline Target Insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Wen-Mei W.; Chang, Pohua P.

    1992-01-01

    Inline target insertion, a specific compiler and pipeline implementation method for delayed branches with squashing, is defined. The method is shown to offer two important features not discovered in previous studies. First, branches inserted into branch slots are correctly executed. Second, the execution returns correctly from interrupts or exceptions with only one program counter. These two features result in better performance and less software/hardware complexity than conventional delayed branching mechanisms.

  15. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements of a Two/Three-dimensional Separating/Reattaching Boundary Layer Downstream of an Axisymmetric Backward-facing Step

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudy, Laura M.; Naguib, Ahmed M.; Humphreys, William M.; Bartram, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Planar Particle Image Velocimetry measurements were obtained in the separating/reattaching flow region downstream of an axisymmetric backward-facing step. Data were acquired for a two-dimensional (2D) separating boundary layer at five different Reynolds numbers based on step height (Re(sub h)), spanning 5900-33000, and for a three-dimensional (3D) separating boundary layer at Re(sub h) = 5980 and 8081. Reynolds number effects were investigated in the 2D cases using mean-velocity field, streamwise and wall-normal turbulent velocity, and Reynolds stress statistics. Results show that both the reattachment length (x(sub r)) and the secondary separation point are Reynolds number dependent. The reattachment length increased with rising Re(sub h) while the secondary recirculation region decreased in size. These and other Re(sub h) effects were interpreted in terms of changes in the separating boundary layer thickness and wall-shear stress. On the other hand, in the 3D case, it was found that the imposed cross-flow component was relatively weak in comparison to the streamwise component. As a result, the primary influences of three dimensionality only affected the near-separation region rather than the entire separation bubble.

  16. Layering

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-01

    At the bottom of this image from NASA Mars Odyssey is the cliff-face that is the sidewall of Ophir Chasma. Layering is easily visible in the upper cliff wall, with the thickness of the surface clearly visible.

  17. Twist on protein microarrays: layering wax-patterned nitrocellulose to create customizable and separable arrays of multiplexed affinity columns.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Victoria; Vörös, János

    2014-05-06

    We developed the simple and inexpensive FoRe microarray to simultaneously test several 1 μL samples for multiple proteins. By combining forward and reverse phase microarrays into an innovative three-dimensional format, the FoRe array exploits the advantages and eliminates several drawbacks of the traditional approaches (i.e., large sample volumes, protein loss, and cross-reactivity between detection antibodies). Samples are pipetted into an array of separable, multiplexed affinity columns. Several nitrocellulose membranes, each functionalized with a different capture antibody, are stacked to create a customizable affinity column. The nitrocellulose is patterned with wax to form 25 isolated microspots on each layer, allowing us to analyze multiple samples in parallel. After running the immunoassay, the stacks are quickly disassembled, revealing 2D microarrays of different fractions from multiple samples. By combining the stack-and-separate technique with wax patterning, we keep the arrays low cost and easily tailored to a variety of applications. We successfully performed 3D multiplexing using a model system with mouse and rabbit IgG. Binding proved to be independent of the position in the stack, and the limit of detection for a mouse IgG sandwich assay was 7.3 pM in BSA and 15 pM in human plasma. The FoRe microarray makes it possible to identify protein expression patterns across several minute volume samples; for example, it could be used to analyze cell lysate in drug response studies or pricks of blood from small animal studies.

  18. A general integral form of the boundary-layer equation for incompressible flow with an application to the calculation of the separation point of turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tetervin, Neal; Lin, Chia Chiao

    1951-01-01

    A general integral form of the boundary-layer equation, valid for either laminar or turbulent incompressible boundary-layer flow, is derived. By using the experimental finding that all velocity profiles of the turbulent boundary layer form essentially a single-parameter family, the general equation is changed to an equation for the space rate of change of the velocity-profile shape parameter. The lack of precise knowledge concerning the surface shear and the distribution of the shearing stress across turbulent boundary layers prevented the attainment of a reliable method for calculating the behavior of turbulent boundary layers.

  19. Single-layer centrifugation separates spermatozoa from diploid cells in epididymal samples from gray wolves, Canis lupus (L.).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Linde Forsberg, Catharina; Vilà, Carles; Morrell, Jane M

    2014-09-15

    Sperm samples may be used for assisted reproductive technologies (e.g., farmed or endangered species) or as a source of haploid DNA or sperm-specific RNA. When ejaculated spermatozoa are not available or are very difficult to obtain, as is the case for most wild endangered species, the epididymides of dead animals (e.g., animals that have been found dead, shot by hunters or poachers, or that that require euthanasia in zoological collections) can be used as a source of sperm. Such epididymal sperm samples are usually contaminated with cellular debris, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and sometimes also bacteria. These contaminants may be sources of reactive oxygen species that damage spermatozoa during freezing or contribute undesired genetic material from diploid cells. We used single-layer centrifugation through a colloid formulation, Androcoll-C, to successfully separate wolf epididymal spermatozoa from contaminating cells and cellular debris in epididymal samples harvested from carcasses. Such a procedure may potentially be applied to epididymal sperm samples from other species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. On the use of kriging for enhanced data reconstruction in a separated transitional flat-plate boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunes, Hasan; Rist, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    Kriging method for data reconstruction and spatial enhancement of stereo-particle image velocimetry (S-PIV) data for a transitional boundary layer with a laminar separation bubble is investigated. Particularly, the effect of various variogram models and their parameters are studied in detail. In addition, we show that missing data clusters, or black zones, which often occur in PIV measurements, can be estimated using kriging provided the data are well correlated. An important issue in PIV measurements is that built-in PIV data processing software might have problems to detect or to correct spurious erroneous vectors called "outliers." It is shown that these outliers can be eliminated or greatly alleviated using kriging. λ2 isosurface and stream traces show that noisy vortical structures are eliminated but the main coherent structures are well preserved and smoothed, thus procedures for the detection and tracking of vortex core lines can be effectively applied on kriged data. Analytical test data for a more quantitative evaluation of the performance of kriging are given in the Appendices.

  1. Grafting effect on the wetting and electrochemical performance of carbon cloth electrode and polypropylene separator in electric double layer capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepniak, Izabela; Ciszewski, Aleksander

    Activated carbon (AC) fiber cloths and hydrophobic microporous polypropylene (PP) membrane, both modified by plasma-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) under UV irradiation, and filled with saturated lithium hydroxide solution were used as electrodes, a separator and electrolyte in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). The modification process changed the hydrophobic character of AC and PP materials to hydrophilic, made them wettable and serviceable as components of an electrochemical capacitor. The presence of poly(acrylic acid) on the AC and PP surface was confirmed by SEM and XPS methods. Electrochemical characteristics of EDLCs were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycle tests and also by impedance spectroscopy. At the 1000th cycle of potential cycling (1 A g -1) the specific capacitance of 110 F g -1 was obtained with a specific energy of 11 Wh kg -1 at power density of 1 kW kg -1. The above results provide valuable information which may be used when developing novel compositions of EDLCs.

  2. Few-layer graphene sheets/poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites prepared by a water vapor induced phase separation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Konghu; Wang, Hua; Su, Zheng; He, Jing; Tian, Xingyou; Huang, Weiqi; Guo, Yulan

    2017-04-01

    Few-layer graphene sheets/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (FGS/PVDF) composites were prepared by a water vapor induced phase separation (WVIPS) method. The composites were investigated by SEM, TEM, FTIR, Raman, XRD, TG, analysis. The analytical results showed that the FGS were uniformly distributed in the PVDF forming continuous network structure in the PVDF matrix, as a direct result of the WVIPS method. The introduction of FGS was found to endow the PVDF with satisfactory electrical conductivity and good electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE). The composites with 15 wt% FGS content exhibited an electrical conductivity of 1.68 S cm-1. In addition, the same composites showed the excellent EMI SE in the X-band frequency region (high as 45.6 dB at 10 GHz). The proposed preparation process was found to be an easy, convenient and efficient synthetic route to prepare FGS/PVDF composites, that prove useful in the preparation of similar FGS/polymer composites.

  3. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  4. Thin layer chromatographic separation and spectrodensitometric determination of higher and lower sulfonated subsidiary dyes in FD&C Yellow No. 6.

    PubMed

    Bell, S

    1975-07-01

    A thin layer chromatographic method is presented by which higher and lower sulfonated subsidiary dyes are simultaneously separated from FD&C Yellow No. 6. After separation, the colors are quantitated directly, using a spectrodensitometer. Recoveries of 1, 2, and 5% of added 1-(4-sulfophenylazo)-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid ranged from 92 to 111%. Recoveries of 1, 2, and 5% of added 1-(4-sulfophenylazo)-2-naphthol ranged from 90 to 110%.

  5. Experimental Investigation of the Pressure Rise Required for the Incipient Separation of Turbulent Boundary Layers in Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, Donald M.

    1959-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made of turbulent boundary-layer separation associated with compression corners, curved surfaces of various radii, and incident shock waves. The purpose of the investigation was to provide design information, and to define significant physical trends, which would aid in the prediction of turbulent separation for various aerodynamic devices, such as compressor blades, flaps, spoilers, and diffusers. A characteristic change in the longitudinal static-pressure distribution (i.e., a change from a curve with one inflection point to a curve with three inflection points) was employed to detect the occurrence of separation. The effects of Reynolds number (10(exp 6) to 10(exp 7) per foot or l.5 x 10(exp 4) to 7.5 x 10(exp 4) based upon boundary-layer thickness) and Mach number (1.6 to 4.2) on the onset of turbulent boundary-layer separation were investigated. The pressure gradient of the boundary-layer flow ahead of the interaction region was essentially zero. The results show a considerable effect of Mach number on the pressure rise for incipient separation for all configurations. For a curved-surface model, the static pressure-rise ratio required to cause separation varied from about 2.5, at a Mach number of 2 to about 16, at a Mach number of 3.5. A substantial effect of Reynolds number on the pressure rise for incipient separation was observed in the upper Mach number range and in the lower Reynolds number range; namely, the pressure rise required for separation decreased with increasing Reynolds number. For low Mach numbers and high Reynolds numbers, there appeared to be no Reynolds number effect. The effects of Mach number and of Reynolds number were similar for all models. Model shape was also found to be an important variable affecting the onset of separation. Large gains were realized in the pressure-rise ratio with no separation when the radius of curvature of the model surface was increased. At a Mach number of 3.4, for

  6. Separating semiconductor devices from substrate by etching graded composition release layer disposed between semiconductor devices and substrate including forming protuberances that reduce stiction

    DOEpatents

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Nielson, Gregory N; Cederberg, Jeffrey G; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2015-05-12

    A method includes etching a release layer that is coupled between a plurality of semiconductor devices and a substrate with an etch. The etching includes etching the release layer between the semiconductor devices and the substrate until the semiconductor devices are at least substantially released from the substrate. The etching also includes etching a protuberance in the release layer between each of the semiconductor devices and the substrate. The etch is stopped while the protuberances remain between each of the semiconductor devices and the substrate. The method also includes separating the semiconductor devices from the substrate. Other methods and apparatus are also disclosed.

  7. A study of three dimensional turbulent boundary layer separation and vortex flow control using the reduced Navier Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Farokhi, Saeed

    1991-01-01

    A reduced Navier Stokes (RNS) initial value space marching solution technique was applied to vortex generator and separated flow problems and demonstrated good predictions of the engine face flow field. This RNS solution technique using FLARE approximations can adequately describe the topological and topographical structure flow separation associated with vortex liftoff, and this conclusion led to the concept of a subclass of separations which can be called vorticity separations: separations dominated by the transport of vorticity. Adequate near wall resolution of vorticity separations appears necessary for good predictions of these flows.

  8. Cobalt Ferrite Bearing Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Layers Spatially Separated with Microporous Carbon as Efficient Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Varchaswal; Singh, Santosh K; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2016-08-17

    The present work discloses how high-quality dispersion of fine particles of cobalt ferrite (CF) could be attained on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (CF/N-rGO) and how this material in association with a microporous carbon phase could deliver significantly enhanced activity toward electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Our study indicates that the microporous carbon phase plays a critical role in spatially separating the layers of CF/N-rGO and in creating a favorable atmosphere to ensure the seamless distribution of the reactants to the active sites located on CF/N-rGO. In terms of the ORR current density, the heat-treated hybrid catalyst at 150 °C (CF/N-rGO-150) is found to be clearly outperforming (7.4 ± 0.5 mA/cm(2)) the state-of-the-art 20 wt % Pt-supported carbon catalyst (PtC) (5.4 ± 0.5 mA/cm(2)). The mass activity and stability of CF-N-rGO-150 are distinctly superior to PtC even after 5000 electrochemical cycles. As a realistic system level exploration of the catalyst, testing of a primary zinc-air battery could be demonstrated using CF/N-rGO-150 as the cathode catalyst. The battery is giving a galvanostatic discharge time of 15 h at a discharge current density of 20 mA/cm(2) and a specific capacity of ∼630 mAh g(-1) in 6 M KOH by using a Zn foil as the anode. Distinctly, the battery performance of this system is found to be superior to that of PtC in less concentrated KOH solution as the electrolyte.

  9. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from the fat layer on the density gradient separated bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Insausti, Carmen L; Blanquer, Miguel Blanquer; Olmo, Luis Meseguer; López-Martínez, María C; Ruiz, Xavier Férez; Lozano, Francisco J Rodríguez; Perianes, Valentín Cabañas; Funes, Consuelo; Nicolás, Francisco J; Majado, María J; Jiménez, José M Moraleda

    2012-01-20

    The density gradient centrifugation method was originally designed for the isolation of mononuclear peripheral blood cells and rapidly adapted to fractionate bone marrow (BM) cells. This method involves the use of gradient density solutions with low viscosity and low osmotic pressure that allows erythrocytes and more mature cells gravitate to the bottom at a density fraction superior to 1.080 g/dL; mononuclear cells (MNCs) held in the plasma-solution to interphase at a density between 1.053 and 1.073 g/dL; plasma, dilution medium and anticoagulant to occupy a density less than 1.050 g/dL and the fat cells to float due to their very low density. BM-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are usually obtained after the separation and cultures of BM-MNCs from the plasma-solution interphase, which is traditionally considered the only source of progenitor cells (hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic). In this study evidences that MSCs could be isolated from the very low-density cells of the fat layer are presented. In addition, we demonstrated that the MSCs obtained from these cells have similar immunophenotypic characteristics, and similar proliferative and differentiation potential to those obtained from the MNCs at plasma-solution interphase. The method represents a simple and cost effective way to increase the MSCs yield from each BM donor, without the need to look for other sources, additional manipulation of cells, and risks of contamination or disturbances of the potential of differentiation. These cells might serve as a complementary source of MSCs to facilitate preclinical and clinical application in tissue engineering and cell therapy.

  10. Effect of Reynolds Number and Periodic Unsteady Wake Flow Condition on Boundary Layer Development, Separation, and Intermittency Behavior Along the Suction Surface of a Low Pressure Turbine Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schobeiri, M. T.; Ozturk, B.; Ashpis, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The paper experimentally studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds numbers on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experimental investigations were performed on a large scale, subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility at Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL) of Texas A&M University. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 110,000 and 150,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). One steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities were investigated. The reduced frequencies chosen cover the operating range of LP turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, surface pressure measurements were performed. The inception, onset, and the extent of the separation bubble information collected from the pressure measurements were compared with the hot wire measurements. The results presented in ensemble-averaged, and the contour plot forms help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds number. It was found that the suction surface displayed a strong separation bubble for these three different reduced frequencies. For each condition, the locations defining the separation bubble were determined carefully analyzing and examining the pressure and mean velocity profile data. The location of the boundary layer separation was dependent of the Reynolds number. It is observed that starting point of the separation bubble and the re-attachment point move further downstream by increasing Reynolds number from 110,000 to 150,000. Also, the size of the separation bubble is smaller when compared to that for Re=110,000.

  11. Influence of hydrogen on local phase separation in InGaN thin layers and properties of light-emitting structures based on them

    SciTech Connect

    Tsatsulnikov, A. F. Lundin, W. V.; Zavarin, E. E.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Sakharov, A. V.; Sizov, V. S.; Usov, S. O.; Musikhin, Yu. G.; Gerthsen, D.

    2011-02-15

    Results of studies of hydrogen addition during the growth of thin ({approx}2-3 nm) InGaN layers on their structural properties and properties of light-emitting structures that contain InGaN/GaN heterostructures in the active region are reported. It is shown that, with the known effect of a decrease in the average content of In, hydrogen addition leads to varying the local phase separation in the InGaN layers. Hydrogen addition during the growth of the InGaN layers initially causes suppression of the local phase separation, while hydrogen addition during interruptions of the growth after deposition of the InGaN films leads to a decrease in the size of the formed local In-enriched regions and to a certain increase in the local content of the In atoms.

  12. Wall-pressure-array measurements beneath a two/three-dimensional separating/reattaching boundary layer over an axisymmetric backward-facing-step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudy, Laura; Naguib, Ahmed; Humphreys, J. R.; Bartram, Scott

    2003-11-01

    The surface-pressure signature of the structure within a separated flow region was investigated using a microphone array in the NASA Langley Subsonic Basic Research Tunnel. The experimental set-up consisted of an axisymmetric backward-facing step with a section upstream of the step that could rotate to create a 3D boundary layer at separation. In the flow region, 32 flush-mounted Emkay electret microphones detected the pressure signature and 56 static pressure taps characterized the mean pressure. The taps were also used to align the model in the tunnel. Data were acquired for 2D and 3D flow configurations for Reynolds numbers of 5250 and 10500, based on the step height. A spatio-temporal analysis of the data revealed the dominant flow modes in the separating shear layer and their convective characteristics for both the 2D and 3D cases. Furthermore, similarities and differences between the two situations were investigated.

  13. In-lab in-line digital holography for cloud particle measurement experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huaiqi; Ji, Feng; Li, Liang; Li, Baosheng; Ma, Fei

    2016-10-01

    In terms of climate science, getting the accurate cloud particle sizes, shape and number distributions is necessary for searching the influence of cloud on the environment, radiative transfer, remote sensing measurements and understanding precipitation formation. Many methods and instruments have been developed to measure cloud particles, yet there is still restricted to one-dimensional or two-dimensional projections of particle positions, unable to get the three-dimensional information of the spatial distribution of particles. In-line holography is particularly useful for particles field measurements, because it can directly get the three-dimensional information of the particles and quickly access and storage holographic image. In this paper, the main work is using digital in-line holographic system to measure simulated cloud particles in the laboratory. For digital recording hologram reconstructing, we consider the image intensity in conjunction with the edge sharpness of the particles, to obtain an automatically selected threshold of each particle. Using the threshold, we can get a binary image to identify the particles and separate the particles from background, and then get the information such as the location, shape, particle size of particles. The experimental results show that the in-line digital holography can be used to detect the cloud particles, which can gain many parameters of the simulated cloud particles in the plane perpendicular to the optical axis, and can estimate volume parameters of the simulated cloud particles. This experiment is a basis for the further in situ detection of atmospheric cloud particles.

  14. High Reynolds number tests of a C-141A aircraft semispan model to investigate shock-induced separation. [boundary layer separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackerby, W. T.; Cahill, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    Results from a high Reynolds number transonic wind tunnel investigation are presented. Wing chordwise pressure distributions were measured over a matrix of Mach numbers and angles-of-attack for which shock-induced separations are known to exist. The range of Reynolds number covered by these data nearly spanned the gap between previously available wind tunnel and flight test data. The results are compared with both flight and low Reynolds number data, and show that use of the semispan test technique produced good correlation with the prior data at both ends of the Reynolds number range, but indicated strong sensitivity to details of the test setup.

  15. Use of separate ZnTe interface layers to form OHMIC contacts to p-CdTe films

    DOEpatents

    Gessert, Timothy A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of improving electrical contact to a thin film of a p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor comprising: depositing a first undoped layer of ZnTe on a thin film of p-type tellurium containing II-VI semiconductor with material properties selected to limit the formation of potential barriers at the interface between the p-CdTe and the undoped layer, to a thickness sufficient to control diffusion of the metallic-doped ZnTe into the p-type tellurim-containing II-VI semiconductor, but thin enough to minimize affects of series resistance; depositing a second heavy doped p-type ZnTe layer to the first layer using an appropriate dopant; and depositing an appropriate metal onto the outer-most surface of the doped ZnTe layer for connecting an external electrical conductor to an ohmic contact.

  16. Use of separate ZnTe interface layers to form ohmic contacts to p-CdTe films

    DOEpatents

    Gessert, T.A.

    1999-06-01

    A method of is disclosed improving electrical contact to a thin film of a p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor comprising: depositing a first undoped layer of ZnTe on a thin film of p-type tellurium containing II-VI semiconductor with material properties selected to limit the formation of potential barriers at the interface between the p-CdTe and the undoped layer, to a thickness sufficient to control diffusion of the metallic-doped ZnTe into the p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor, but thin enough to minimize affects of series resistance; depositing a second heavy doped p-type ZnTe layer to the first layer using an appropriate dopant; and depositing an appropriate metal onto the outer-most surface of the doped ZnTe layer for connecting an external electrical conductor to an ohmic contact. 11 figs.

  17. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These advanced cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Today, sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection is application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive IR sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Stirling 1-Stage (CI-RS1), Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage (RS1 or RP1) and 2-stage (RSP2) cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single cooler module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (>20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (≤25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing

  18. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T.

    2014-01-29

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These advanced cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Today, sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection is application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive IR sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Stirling 1-Stage (CI-RS1), Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage (RS1 or RP1) and 2-stage (RSP2) cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single cooler module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (>20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (≤25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing

  19. Workflow for multi-analyte bioprocess monitoring demonstrated on inline NIR spectroscopy of P. chrysogenum fermentation.

    PubMed

    Luoma, Pekka; Golabgir, Aydin; Brandstetter, Markus; Kasberger, Jürgen; Herwig, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis has been applied in bioprocesses for a couple of decades. Nevertheless the papers published in this field are case-specific and do not focus on providing the community generic workflows to conduct experiments, especially as a standard Design of Experiment (DoE) for a multi-analyte process might require overwhelming amount of measurements. In this paper, a workflow for feasibility studies and inline implementation of FT-NIR spectrometer in multi-analyte fermentation processes is presented. The workflow is applied to Penicillium crysogenum fermentation, where the similarities in chemical structures and growth trends between the key analytes together with the aeration and growing fungi make the task challenging: first, the pure analytes are measured off-line with FT-NIR and clustered using principal component analysis. To study the separability of the gained clusters, a DoE approach by spiking is applied. The multivariate modelling of the separable analytes is conducted using the off-line and inline data followed by a comparison of the properties of the different models. Finally, the model output constraints are set by means of outlier diagnostics. As a result, biomass, penicillin (PEN), phenoxyacetic acid (POX), ammonia and biomass were shown to be separable with root mean square error of predictions of 2.62 g/l, 0.34 g/l, 0.51 g/l and 18.3 mM, respectively. Graphical abstract Flowchart illustrating the workflow for feasibility studies and implementation of models for inline monitoring of Ammonia, Biomass, Phenoxyacetic acid and Penicillin.

  20. A new wavelet-based reconstruction algorithm for twin image removal in digital in-line holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattay, Jamel; Belaid, Samir; Aguili, Taoufik; Lebrun, Denis

    2016-07-01

    Two original methods are proposed here for digital in-line hologram processing. Firstly, we propose an entropy-based method to retrieve the focus plane which is very useful for digital hologram reconstruction. Secondly, we introduce a new approach to remove the so-called twin images reconstructed by holograms. This is achieved owing to the Blind Source Separation (BSS) technique. The proposed method is made up of two steps: an Adaptive Quincunx Lifting Scheme (AQLS) and a statistical unmixing algorithm. The AQLS tool is based on wavelet packet transform, whose role is to maximize the sparseness of the input holograms. The unmixing algorithm uses the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) tool. Experimental results confirm the ability of convolutive blind source separation to discard the unwanted twin image from in-line digital holograms.

  1. Continuous inline blending of antimisting kerosene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P.; Yavrouian, A.; Sarohia, V.

    1985-01-01

    A continuous inline blender was developed to blend polymer slurries with a stream of jet A fuel. The viscosity of the slurries ranged widely. The key element of the blender was a static mixer placed immediately downstream of the slurry injection point. A positive displacement gear pump for jet A was employed, and a progressive cavity rotary screw pump was used for slurry pumping. Turbine flow meters were employed for jet A metering while the slurry flow rate was calibrated against the pressure drop in the injection tube. While using one of the FM-9 variant slurries, a provision was made for a time delay between the addition of slurry and the addition of amine sequentially into the jet A stream.

  2. D0 Cryogenic In-Line Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerst, J.D.; /Fermilab

    1988-10-04

    The DO cryogenic system utilizes liquid argon (serving as the detector ionizing medium) and liquid nitrogen (refrigerant for the argon). In order to keep these fluids pure and minimize the likelihood of plugged instrumentation due to contamination, in-line filters will be installed on the following lines (see Cryogenic Flow Diagram, drawing 3740-ME-222394): 445LN, 412LN, 447LA, 427LA. and 422GA. The lines referred to by these labels are argon dewar LN2 supply, cryostat LN2 supply, LAr dewar fill/drain line, cryostat LAr fill/drain line, and dewar-to-cryostat argon gas line, respectively. Five filters are required. As of this writing, one has been built and tested. The others are to be identical in concept and construction.

  3. Continuous inline blending of antimisting kerosene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P.; Yavrouian, A.; Sarohia, V.

    1985-01-01

    A continuous inline blender was developed to blend polymer slurries with a stream of jet A fuel. The viscosity of the slurries ranged widely. The key element of the blender was a static mixer placed immediately downstream of the slurry injection point. A positive displacement gear pump for jet A was employed, and a progressive cavity rotary screw pump was used for slurry pumping. Turbine flow meters were employed for jet A metering while the slurry flow rate was calibrated against the pressure drop in the injection tube. While using one of the FM-9 variant slurries, a provision was made for a time delay between the addition of slurry and the addition of amine sequentially into the jet A stream.

  4. In-line assay monitor for uranium hexafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Steven A.

    1981-01-01

    An in-line assay monitor for determining the content of uranium-235 in a uranium hexafluoride gas isotopic separation system is provided which removes the necessity of complete access to the operating parameters of the system for determining the uranium-235 content. The monitor is intended for uses such as safeguard applications to assure that weapons grade uranium is not being produced in an enrichment cascade. The method and monitor for carrying out the method involve cooling of a radiation pervious chamber connected in fluid communication with the selected point in the system to withdraw a specimen and solidify the specimen in the chamber. The specimen is irradiated by means of an ionizing radiation source of energy different from that of the 185 keV gamma emissions from the uranium-235 present in the specimen. Simultaneously, the gamma emissions from the uranium-235 of the specimen and the source emissions transmitted through the sample are counted and stored in a multiple channel analyzer. The uranium-235 content of the specimen is determined from the comparison of the accumulated 185 keV energy counts and the reference energy counts. The latter is used to measure the total uranium isotopic content of the specimen. The process eliminates the necessity of knowing the system operating conditions and yet obtains the necessary data without need for large scintillation crystals and sophisticated mechanical designs.

  5. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T.

    2013-09-01

    Infrared sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection has become application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive infrared (IR) sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage and 2-stage cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single mechanical module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (<20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (<=25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing techniques and hardware can be utilized to null all motion along the common axis. Low vibration translates to better sensor performance resulting in simpler, more direct mechanical mounting configurations, eliminating the need for convoluted, expensive, massive, long lead damping hardware.

  6. Inline screw feeding vacuum arc thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronhaus, Igal; Laterza, Matteo; Maor, Yonatan

    2017-04-01

    A new type of micropropulsion device for nanosatellite applications is presented—the inline-screw-feeding vacuum-arc thruster (ISF-VAT). This thruster couples a conventional "triggerless" ignition geometry with a feeding mechanism that maintains a steady state discharge performance. The feeding mechanism implements a screw action on a central cathode rod. At a predetermined rate, a complete and uniform erosion of the cathodes tip is obtained as well as "healing" of the insulator coating. The inline feeding of the cathode forces the arc to emerge on the tip of the cathode, flush with the exit plane of the anode. This enables the plasma plume to efficiently accelerate away from the thruster, eliminating the need for an additional ion acceleration stage. The ISF-VAT feeding mechanism is computer controlled and offers reliable operation of the thruster over a large number of pulses. Characterization of the ISF-VAT performance is presented, conducted on an experimental prototype in the Aerospace Plasma Laboratory, Technion. Measurement results of the mass flow rate, electrical parameters of the discharge, and thrust are presented. Using a Ti cathode at a discharge power of 3 W, a mass flow rate of ≈1.8 ×10-9 kg/s and a thrust level ≈ 7 μN were measured. More than 106 pulses were demonstrated in a single run, accumulating a total impulse of 0.2 Ns. The thruster prototype dimensions are 15 × 15 × 65 mm3 and are ≈ 60 g in mass.

  7. Inline screw feeding vacuum arc thruster.

    PubMed

    Kronhaus, Igal; Laterza, Matteo; Maor, Yonatan

    2017-04-01

    A new type of micropropulsion device for nanosatellite applications is presented-the inline-screw-feeding vacuum-arc thruster (ISF-VAT). This thruster couples a conventional "triggerless" ignition geometry with a feeding mechanism that maintains a steady state discharge performance. The feeding mechanism implements a screw action on a central cathode rod. At a predetermined rate, a complete and uniform erosion of the cathodes tip is obtained as well as "healing" of the insulator coating. The inline feeding of the cathode forces the arc to emerge on the tip of the cathode, flush with the exit plane of the anode. This enables the plasma plume to efficiently accelerate away from the thruster, eliminating the need for an additional ion acceleration stage. The ISF-VAT feeding mechanism is computer controlled and offers reliable operation of the thruster over a large number of pulses. Characterization of the ISF-VAT performance is presented, conducted on an experimental prototype in the Aerospace Plasma Laboratory, Technion. Measurement results of the mass flow rate, electrical parameters of the discharge, and thrust are presented. Using a Ti cathode at a discharge power of 3 W, a mass flow rate of ≈1.8×10(-9) kg/s and a thrust level ≈ 7 μN were measured. More than 10(6) pulses were demonstrated in a single run, accumulating a total impulse of 0.2 Ns. The thruster prototype dimensions are 15 × 15 × 65 mm(3) and are ≈ 60 g in mass.

  8. Comparison of experimental and theoretical boundary-layer separation for inlets at incidence angle at low-speed conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felderman, E. J.; Albers, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Comparisons between experimental and theoretical Mach number distributions and separation locations are presented for the internal surfaces of four different subsonic inlet geometries with exit diameters of 13.97 centimeters. The free stream Mach number was held constant at 0.127, the one-dimensional throat Mach number ranged from 0.49 to 0.71, and the incidence angle ranged from 0 deg to 50 deg. Generally good agreement was found between the theoretical and experimental surface Mach number distributions as long as no flow separation existed. At high incidence angles, where separation was obvious in the experimental data, the theory predicted separation on the lip. At lower incidence angles, the theoretical results indicated diffuser separation which was not obvious from the experimental surface Mach number distributions. As incidence angle was varied from 0 deg to 50 deg, the predicted separation location shifted from the diffuser region to the inlet highlight. Relatively small total pressure losses were obtained when the predicted separation location was greater than 0.6 of the distance between the highlight and the diffuser exit.

  9. Separate and combined effects of static stability and shear variation on the baroclinic instability of a two-layer current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyun, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Quasi-geostrophic disturbance instability characteristics are studied in light of a linearized, two-layer Eady model in which both the static stability and the zonal current shear are uniform but different in each layer. It is shown that the qualitative character of the instability is determined by the sign of the basic-state potential vorticity gradient at the layer interface, and that there is a qualitative similarity between the effects of Richardson number variations due to changes in static stability and those due to changes in shear. The two-layer model is also used to construct an analog of the Williams (1974) continuous model of generalized Eady waves, the basic state in that case having zero potential vorticity gradient in the interior. The model results are in good agreement with the earlier Williams findings.

  10. 49. View of unlined canal near inline stream gaging station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. View of unlined canal near in-line stream gaging station, looking west. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  11. Comparison Of Several Metrology Techniques For In-line Process Monitoring Of Porous SiOCH

    SciTech Connect

    Fossati, D.; Imbert, G.; Beitia, C.; Yu, L.; Plantier, L.; Volpi, F.

    2007-09-26

    As porous SiOCH is a widely used inter-metal dielectric for 65 nm nodes and below, the control of its elaboration process by in-line monitoring is necessary to guarantee successful integration of the material. In this paper, the sensitivities of several non-destructive metrology techniques towards the film elaboration process drifts are investigated. It appears that the two steps of the process should be monitored separately and that corona charge method is the most sensitive technique of the review for this application.

  12. Fundamental Studies of the Structure of Hypersonic Attached and Separated Boundary Layers Over Smooth, Rough and Transpiration-Cooled Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    effectiveness of transpiration cooling. For these high blowing levels, Iwhere (in the extremes) boundary layer blowoff occurs, boundary layer theory ...of injection rates and gas properties on the heat transfer and skin friction are presented in terms of the relevant non- dimensional parameters. These...the basic mechanisms that control momentum and three- dimensional roughness elements? Is the structure I energy exchange. Our experience with

  13. Feasibility of correlating separation of ternary mixtures of neutral analytes via thin layer chromatography with supercritical fluid chromatography in support of green flash separations.

    PubMed

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Yan, Q; Akin, A; Riley, F; Aurigemma, C; Taylor, L T

    2015-10-30

    Method development for normal phase flash liquid chromatography traditionally employs preliminary screening using thin layer chromatography (TLC) with conventional solvents on bare silica. Extension to green flash chromatography via correlation of TLC migration results, with conventional polar/nonpolar liquid mixtures, and packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) retention times, via gradient elution on bare silica with a suite of carbon dioxide mobile phase modifiers, is reported. Feasibility of TLC/SFC correlation is individually described for eight ternary mixtures for a total of 24 neutral analytes. The experimental criteria for TLC/SFC correlation was assumed to be as follows: SFC/UV/MS retention (tR) increases among each of the three resolved mixture components; while, TLC migration (Rf) decreases among the same resolved mixture components. Successful correlation of TLC to SFC was observed for most of the polar organic solvents tested, with the best results observed via SFC on bare silica with methanol as the CO2 modifier and TLC on bare silica with a methanol/dichloromethane mixture.

  14. STC-SAB program users manual for the turbulent boundary layer and turbulent separation prediction methods employed in the NASA Langley streamtube curvature computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The streamtube curvature program (STC) has been developed to predict the inviscid flow field and the pressure distribution about nacelles at transonic speeds. The effects of boundary layer are to displace the inviscid flow and effectively change the body shape. Thus, the body shape must be corrected by the displacement thickness in order to calculate the correct pressure distribution. This report describes the coupling of the Stratford and Beavers boundary layer solution with the inviscid STC analysis so that all nacelle pressure forces, friction drag, and incipient separation may be predicted. The usage of the coupled STC-SAB computer program is outlined and the program input and output are defined. Included in this manual are descriptions of the principal boundary layer tables and other revisions to the STC program. The use of the viscous option is controlled by the engineer during program input definition.

  15. In-line pressure within a HOTLINE® Fluid Warmer, under various flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Midoriko; Yamaura, Ken; Matsubara, Yukie; Fukudome, Takuya; Hoka, Sumio

    2015-04-01

    Roller pump infusion devices are widely used for rapid infusion, and may be combined with separate warming devices. There may be instances however, where the pressures generated by the roller pump may not be compatible with the warming device. We assessed a commonly used roller pump in combination with a HOTLINE® Fluid Warmer, and found that it could generate pressures exceeding the HOTLINE® manufacturers specifications. This was of concern because the HOTLINE® manufacturer guideline states that not for use with pressure devices generating over 300 mmHg. Pressure greater than 300 mmHg may compromise the integrity of the HOTLINE® Fluid Warming Set. The aim of this study was to compare in-line pressure within a HOTLINE® Fluid Warmer at different infusion rates of a roller pump using various sizes of intravenous cannulae. The rapid infusion system comprised a 500 mL-normal saline bag, roller pump type infusion device, HOTLINE® Fluid Warmer (blood and fluid warmer system), and six different sizes of intravenous cannulae. In-line pressure was measured proximal to the HOTLINE® (pre-warmer) and proximal to the cannula (post-warmer), at flow rate of 50-160 mL/min. The in-line pressures increased significantly with increasing flow rate. The pre-warmer pressures exceeded 300 mmHg when the flow rate was ≥120 mL/min with 20-gauge, 48 mm length cannula, 130 with 20-gauge, 25 mm cannula, and 160 mL/min with 18-gauge, 48 mm cannula. However, they were <300 mmHg at any flow rates with 18-gauge, 30 mm cannula and 16-gauge cannulae. The post-warmer pressures exceeded 300 mmHg at the flow rate of 140 mL/min with 20-gauge, 48 mm cannula, and 160 mL/min with 20-gauge, 25 mm cannula, while they were <300 mmHg at any flow rates with 18 and 16-gauge cannulae. The in-line pressure within a HOTLINE® could exceed 300 mmHg, depending on the flow rate and size and length of cannula. It is important to pay attention to the size and length of cannulae and flow rate to keep the maximum

  16. Lagrangian transport characteristics of a class of three-dimensional inline-mixing flows with fluid inertia

    SciTech Connect

    Speetjens, M. F. M.; Demissie, E. A.; Metcalfe, G.; Clercx, H. J. H.

    2014-11-15

    Laminar mixing by the inline-mixing principle is a key to many industrial fluids-engineering systems of size extending from micrometers to meters. However, insight into fundamental transport phenomena particularly under the realistic conditions of three-dimensionality (3D) and fluid inertia remains limited. This study addresses these issues for inline mixers with cylindrical geometries and adopts the Rotated Arc Mixer (RAM) as a representative system. Transport is investigated from a Lagrangian perspective by identifying and examining coherent structures that form in the 3D streamline portrait. 3D effects and fluid inertia introduce three key features that are not found in simplified configurations: transition zones between consecutive mixing cells of the inline-mixing flow; local upstream flow (in certain parameter regimes); transition/inertia-induced breaking of symmetries in the Lagrangian equations of motion (causing topological changes in coherent structures). Topological considerations strongly suggest that there nonetheless always exists a net throughflow region between inlet and outlet of the inline-mixing flow that is strictly separated from possible internal regions. The Lagrangian dynamics in this region admits representation by a 2D time-periodic Hamiltonian system. This establishes one fundamental kinematic structure for the present class of inline-mixing flows and implies universal behavior in that all states follow from the Hamiltonian breakdown of one common integrable state. A so-called period-doubling bifurcation is the only way to eliminate transport barriers originating from this state and thus is a necessary (yet not sufficient) condition for global chaos. Important in a practical context is that a common simplification in literature, i.e., cell-wise fully-developed Stokes flow (“2.5D approach”), retains these fundamental kinematic properties and deviates from the generic 3D inertial case only in a quantitative sense. This substantiates its

  17. In-line coupled single drop liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction with capillary electrophoresis for determining fluoroquinolones in water samples.

    PubMed

    Springer, Valeria H; Lista, Adriana G

    2015-07-01

    A simple in-line single drop liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (SD-LLLME) coupled with CE for the determination of two fluoroquinolones was developed. The method is capable to quantify trace amount of analytes in water samples and to improve the sensitivity of CE detection. For the SD-LLLME, a thin layer of organic phase was used to separate a drop of 0.1 M NaOH hanging at the inlet of the capillary from the aqueous donor phase. By this way, the analytes were extracted to the acceptor phase through the organic layer based on their acidic/basic dissociation equilibrium. The drop was immersed into the organic phase during 10 min for extraction and then it is directly injected into the capillary for the analysis. Parameters such as type and volume of organic solvent phase, aqueous donor, and acceptor phases and extraction time and temperature were optimized. The enrichment factor was calculated, resulting 40-fold for enrofloxacin (ENR) and sixfold for ciprofloxacin (CIP). The linear range were 20-400 μg/L for ENR and 60-400 μg/L for CIP. The detection limits were 10.1 μg/L and 55.3 μg/L for ENR and CIP, respectively, and a good reproducibility was obtained (4.4% for ENR and 5.6% for CIP). Two real water samples were analysed applying the new method and the obtained results presented satisfactory recovery percentages (90-100.3%). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Layered Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)/Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) Membranes with Enhanced Water Separation Selectivity and Performance.

    PubMed

    Soto Puente, J A; Fatyeyeva, K; Chappey, C; Marais, S; Dargent, E

    2017-02-22

    A three-layered membrane based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and hydrolyzed EVA-poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH), was elaborated by the surface hydrolysis of a dense EVA membrane. Because of the chemical modifications, the three-layered EVOH/EVA/EVOH membrane was characterized by the particular microstructure (amorphous EVA and semicrystalline EVOH) and the tunable hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance. Also, these modifications led to the membrane with the selective barrier properties compared with the pure EVA and completely hydrolyzed EVOH membranes. The water barrier behavior was related to the strong hydrogen-bond interactions of water and vinyl alcohol groups, whereas the weak chemical interactions were revealed for gases (N2 and O2). Furthermore, the influence of the polymer rubbery or glassy state on the permeation kinetics was established. In the case of the three-layered membrane, the considerably high selectivity values were obtained for H2O/O2 (∼11 900) and H2O/N2 (∼48 000) at 25 °C. In addition to these highly selective properties, the three-layered structure does not present delamination features due to its elaboration procedure. Thus, these new layered membranes are very promising as selective materials for the water and gas separation and can be potentially used in food packaging or for the gas dehydration.

  19. Electric Double Layer Composed of an Antagonistic Salt in an Aqueous Mixture: Local Charge Separation and Surface Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabunaka, Shunsuke; Onuki, Akira

    2017-09-01

    We examine an electric double layer containing an antagonistic salt in an aqueous mixture, where the cations are small and hydrophilic but the anions are large and hydrophobic. In this situation, a strong coupling arises between the charge density and the solvent composition. As a result, the anions are trapped in an oil-rich adsorption layer on a hydrophobic wall. We then vary the surface charge density σ on the wall. For σ >0 the anions remain accumulated, but for σ <0 the cations are attracted to the wall with increasing |σ |. Furthermore, the electric potential drop Ψ (σ ) is nonmonotonic when the solvent interaction parameter χ (T ) exceeds a critical value χc determined by the composition and the ion density in the bulk. This leads to a first-order phase transition between two kinds of electric double layers with different σ and common Ψ . In equilibrium such two-layer regions can coexist. The steric effect due to finite ion sizes is crucial in these phenomena.

  20. Electric Double Layer Composed of an Antagonistic Salt in an Aqueous Mixture: Local Charge Separation and Surface Phase Transition.

    PubMed

    Yabunaka, Shunsuke; Onuki, Akira

    2017-09-15

    We examine an electric double layer containing an antagonistic salt in an aqueous mixture, where the cations are small and hydrophilic but the anions are large and hydrophobic. In this situation, a strong coupling arises between the charge density and the solvent composition. As a result, the anions are trapped in an oil-rich adsorption layer on a hydrophobic wall. We then vary the surface charge density σ on the wall. For σ>0 the anions remain accumulated, but for σ<0 the cations are attracted to the wall with increasing |σ|. Furthermore, the electric potential drop Ψ(σ) is nonmonotonic when the solvent interaction parameter χ(T) exceeds a critical value χ_{c} determined by the composition and the ion density in the bulk. This leads to a first-order phase transition between two kinds of electric double layers with different σ and common Ψ. In equilibrium such two-layer regions can coexist. The steric effect due to finite ion sizes is crucial in these phenomena.

  1. Enhanced thin-layer chromatographic separation of GM1b-type gangliosides by automated multiple development.

    PubMed

    Müthing, J; Ziehr, H

    1996-12-13

    Enhancement in separation of gangliosides on silica gel precoated high-performance TLC plates has been obtained by automated multiple development chromatography. A less polar mixture of the standard solvent chloroform-methanol-20 mM aqueous CaCl2 (120:85:20, v/v) was used. Lowering the water content achieved separation of two complex monosialoganglioside fractions, isolated from murine YAC 1 T lymphoma and MDAY-D2 lymphoreticular cells. Three-fold chromatography in the solvent chloroform-methanol-20 mM aqueous CaCl2 (120:85:14, v/v) resulted in TLC separation of GM1b-type gangliosides, substituted with C24 and C16 fatty acids and with Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc as well, which could not be achieved by unidirectional standard chromatography. Compared to conventional single chromatography, the technique described allows high-resolution separation of extremely heterogenous ganglioside mixtures and offers a convenient tool for both analytical and preparative TLC.

  2. Three-dimensional inversion of in-line resistivity data for monitoring a groundwater recharge experiment in a pyroclastic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Keisuke; Nakazato, Hiroomi; Kubota, Tomijiro; Takeuchi, Mutsuo; Sugimoto, Yoshihiro; Kim, Hee Joon; Furue, Koji

    2017-06-01

    An artificial groundwater recharge experiment was conducted in a pyroclastic plateau in Kagoshima Prefecture in Japan, and time-lapse electrical resistivity data were collected to monitor the recharge process. In the experiment, time-efficient in-line resistivity surveys were performed along four intersecting lines, because a large amount of water was released from two recharge areas and a relatively fast migration of water into the vadose zone was expected. The migration of recharged water may be estimated from changes in electrical resistivity because resistivity in the vadose zone is largely controlled by water saturation variations there. The geological setting at the experiment site was interpreted from the resistivity distribution inverted from the in-line survey data, which were obtained before the recharge experiment. The resistivity distribution showed an approximately layered structure, which could be correlated with four borehole logs in the area. Three-dimensional (3D) distributions of the resistivity change ratio were derived through constrained nonlinear ratio inversion. Three-dimensional inversion of the in-line resistivity data was more suitable than two-dimensional inversion to describe the 3D phenomena associated with groundwater recharge. During the recharge experiment, the zones of decreased resistivity shifted with time, indicating non-uniform penetration of water from the recharge areas into the ground and a horizontal flow of the recharged water, especially in the secondary Shirasu layer, which comprises lacustrine or marine sediments of pyroclastic origin. These interpretations agree with the variation in water content observed in a borehole.

  3. Quantitative imaging of the microbubble concentrations by using an in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype: a preliminary phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Ghani, Muhammad U.; Wong, Molly D.; Li, Yuhua; Yang, Kai; Chen, Wei R.; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Hong

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis system to quantitatively imaging microbubbles in a tissue simulating phantom under a limited radiation dose. The imaging system used in the investigation was a bench top in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype operated under 120 kVp tube voltage and 0.5 mA tube current. A prime beam filter made of 2.3 mm Cu, 0.8 mm Pb and 1.0 mm Al was employed to obtain as large as possible portion of x-ray photon energy higher than 60 keV. The tissue simulating phantom was built by three acrylic slabs and a wax slab to mimic a 40 mm thick compressed breast. There were two tiny-sized structures with average 1 mm depth engraved on the two different layers. The microbubble suspensions with different concentrations were injected into those tiny structures. The inline phase contrast angular projections acquired were used to reconstruct the in-plane slices of the tiny structures on different layers. The CNRs vs microbubble concentrations were investigated. As the result, the microbubble suspensions were clearly visible, showing higher CNR when compared with the areas with no microbubble. Furthermore, a monotonously increasing relation between CNRs and microbubble concentrations was observed after calculating the area CNR of the phase contrast tomosynthesis slices.

  4. A three-dimensional boundary-layer method for flow over delta wings with leading-edge separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodson, S. H.; Dejarnette, F. R.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional, laminar boundary-layer method is applied to the incompressible flow over a slender delta wing at incidence. The predictor-corrector finite-difference scheme of Matsuno is used to difference the governing equations. The method has the advantages that no iterations are required to advance the solution and the cross-flow derivatives are formed independent of the cross-field direction. The difference scheme is demonstrated to yield accurate numerical results when compared to the exact solution of the three-dimensional boundary-layer equations for parabolic flow over a moving flat plate. The method is applied to delta wings of various sweep angles at angles of attack up to 20 deg., with the inviscid solution determined using a higher-order, three-dimensional panel method.

  5. Automated Sampling and Imaging of Analytes Separated on Thin-Layer Chromatography Plates Using Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2006-01-01

    Modest modifications to the atmospheric sampling capillary of a commercial electrospray mass spectrometer and upgrades to an in-house developed surface positioning control software package (HandsFree TLC/MS ) were used to enable the automated sampling and imaging of analytes on and/or within large area surface substrates using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Sampling and imaging of rhodamine dyes separated on TLC plates were used to illustrate some of the practical applications of this system. Examples are shown for user-defined spot sampling from separated bands on a TLC plate (one or multiple spots), scanning of a complete development lane (one or multiple lanes), or imaging of analyte bands in a development lane (i.e. multiple lane scans with close spacing). The post data processing and data display aspects of the software system are also discussed.

  6. Embedded computer controlled premixing inline injection system for air-assisted variable-rate sprayers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improvements to reduce chemical waste and environmental pollution for variable-rate sprayers used in orchards and ornamental nurseries require inline injection techniques. A microprocessor controlled premixing inline injection system implementing a ceramic piston chemical metering pump and two small...

  7. Application of different modes of thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry for the separation and detection of large and small biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Tuzimski, Tomasz

    2011-12-09

    Biomolecules are widespread throughout the world. A biomolecule is any organic molecule produced by a living organism, including large polymeric molecules such as proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids. Many sample preparation techniques are used in biomolecule analysis; the method selected depends on the complexity of the sample, the nature of the matrix and the analytes, and the analytical technique available. This review covers the current state of knowledge on thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry for qualitative analysis of biomolecules. In the first part of the paper the reader will gain useful information to avoid some problems about performing various modes of thin-layer chromatography combined with mass spectrometry experiments and in the second part he will find useful information for application of these techniques for separation, detection, and qualitative investigation of structures and quantitative determination of biomolecules such as proteins, peptides, oligonucleotides, amino acids, DNA, RNA, and lipids.

  8. Separation and determination of polyether carboxylic antibiotics from Streptomyces hygroscopicus NRRL B 1865 by thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Auboiron, S; Bauchart, D; David, L

    1991-06-28

    Thin-layer chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection was used to develop a method to separate and to determine simultaneously three polyether carboxylic ionophore antibiotics (abierixin, nigericin and grisorixin) produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus NRRL B 1865. Various proportions of chloroform, methanol and formic acid (or acetic acid as a substitute for formic acid) were used in the developing solvent to determine changes in RF values of the antibiotics and to allow conditions for maximum resolution to be obtained. Development on Chromarods SII with chloroform-methanol-formic acid (97:4:0.6, v/v/v) gave satisfactory and reliable separations of the three polyether antibiotics. Under these conditions, the internal standard methyl desoxycholate was found to be suitable for their simultaneous determination in the lipid extracts of Streptomyces hygroscopicus NRRL B 1865.

  9. Problem of soot aggregates separation and purification for Carbon isotopic composition analyses - burning experiment and real black layers from speleothems examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hercman, Helena; Zawidzki, Pawel; Majewska, Agata

    2015-04-01

    Burning products are often used as an indicator of fire or prehistoric men activities. When it consists of macroscopically visible black layer it may be studied by different methods. When it is dispersed within sediment it is necessary to apply method for burning product separation. Soot aggregates as a result of incomplete combustion of organic materials are most reliable indication of burning. Size of soot particles is too small to observe by optical microscopy. There are two main advantages of application of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for investigations of samples formed as a result of organic materials (like wood) combustion. First, it makes possible to investigate not only morphology but also its interior structure. The carbon layers arrangement is characteristic for particles obtained from combustion processes, and it directly confirm that these particles were formed that way. And second, analysis of chemical composition using of EDS spectroscopy in transmission microscope are precise and it spatial resolution is about a few nanometers. Burning chamber for wood burning experiments was constructed. It allows wood burning with controlling of burning temperature, carbon isotopic composition in carbon dioxide of burning atmosphere and carbon dioxide originated during burning. Burning products are collected on the plates with controlling of plates material, temperature and distance from flame. Two types of samples were studied. The first type of samples consisted the products of recent wood burning. The second type of samples consisted of black layers collected from speleothems. Soot aggregates were chemically separated from other burning products collected on plates. Process of chemical separation and purity of soot material were tested by TEM observations. Isotopic carbon composition at each step of soot separation as well as original wood fragments was analysed at the Isotopic Laboratory for Dating and Palaeoenvironment Studies, Polish Academy of

  10. Approximate expression for the potential energy of the double-layer interaction between two parallel ion-penetrable membranes at small separations in an electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2010-10-01

    An approximate expression for the potential energy of the double-layer interaction between two parallel similar ion-penetrable membranes in a symmetrical electrolyte solution is derived via a linearization method, in which the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equations in the regions inside and outside the membranes are linearized with respect to the deviation of the electric potential from the Donnan potential. This approximation works quite well for small membrane separations h for all values of the density of fixed charges in the membranes (or the Donnan potential) and gives a correct limiting form of the interaction energy (or the interaction force) as h-->0.

  11. Experimental study of separated ramp-induced shock/boundary-layer interaction with upstream micro-vortex generator at Mach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Yusi

    Shock wave/boundary layer interactions (SBLIs) are important issues for high-speed vehicles. SBLIs reduce the performance of aerodynamic surfaces and engine inlets, amongst a number of adverse effects. Micro-vortex generators (MVGs) are a flow control method with strong potential to mitigate the effects of SBLI by energizing the boundary layer through momentum transfers from the freestream. They have been implemented in actual configurations at low speeds. The present research includes a combined experimental and theoretical analysis of the evolution of the perturbation downstream the MVG, the formation of vortices, and their interaction with the shock front. Experiments were performed with a baseline MVG configuration of 90° trailing edge on flat plate, ramp alone, and also with MVG mounted ahead of a 20° ramp. The surface flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) results are presented; the surface flow visualization shows a substantial suppression of SBLIs. A new method to quantify the effectiveness of the MVG on the shock recompression is presented. Moreover, the PIV results were used as the initial input values for the simulation work. A theoretical analysis of the interaction of the MVG perturbation with the boundary layer is performed by assuming linear dynamics of the perturbation. The major assumption is that the interaction between MVG perturbation and the shear flow is affected by transient growth as a result of the non-orthogonality of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. A new method to perform the projection of the measured perturbation on the continuous modes of the boundary layer is presented. The method takes advantage of the biorthogonality of the direct and adjoint modes. The implementation of such a method using both the Chebyshev polynomials and a shooting algorithm is discussed. The results of the theoretical analysis are encouraging and display a similar trend as the experiments. Both experimental and theoretical results

  12. Terahertz inline wall thickness monitoring system for plastic pipe extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, J.; Stich, D.; Heidemeyer, P.; Bastian, M.; Hochrein, T.

    2014-05-01

    Conventional and commercially available inline wall thickness monitoring systems for pipe extrusion are usually based on ultrasonic or x-ray technology. Disadvantages of ultrasonic systems are the usual need of water as a coupling media and the high damping in thick walled or foamed pipes. For x-ray systems special safety requirements have to be taken into account because of the ionizing radiation. The terahertz (THz) technology offers a novel approach to solve these problems. THz waves have many properties which are suitable for the non-destructive testing of plastics. The absorption of electrical isolators is typically very low and the radiation is non-ionizing in comparison to x-rays. Through the electromagnetic origin of the THz waves they can be used for contact free measurements. Foams show a much lower absorption in contrast to acoustic waves. The developed system uses THz pulses which are generated by stimulating photoconductive switches with femtosecond laser pulses. The time of flight of THz pulses can be determined with a resolution in the magnitude of several ten femtoseconds. Hence the thickness of an object like plastic pipes can be determined with a high accuracy by measuring the time delay between two reflections on materials interfaces e.g. at the pipe's inner and outer surface, similar to the ultrasonic technique. Knowing the refractive index of the sample the absolute layer thickness from the transit time difference can be calculated easily. This method in principle also allows the measurement of multilayer systems and the characterization of foamed pipes.

  13. Terahertz inline wall thickness monitoring system for plastic pipe extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hauck, J. E-mail: d.stich@skz.de E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de Stich, D. E-mail: d.stich@skz.de E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de Heidemeyer, P. E-mail: d.stich@skz.de E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de Bastian, M. E-mail: d.stich@skz.de E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de Hochrein, T. E-mail: d.stich@skz.de E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de

    2014-05-15

    Conventional and commercially available inline wall thickness monitoring systems for pipe extrusion are usually based on ultrasonic or x-ray technology. Disadvantages of ultrasonic systems are the usual need of water as a coupling media and the high damping in thick walled or foamed pipes. For x-ray systems special safety requirements have to be taken into account because of the ionizing radiation. The terahertz (THz) technology offers a novel approach to solve these problems. THz waves have many properties which are suitable for the non-destructive testing of plastics. The absorption of electrical isolators is typically very low and the radiation is non-ionizing in comparison to x-rays. Through the electromagnetic origin of the THz waves they can be used for contact free measurements. Foams show a much lower absorption in contrast to acoustic waves. The developed system uses THz pulses which are generated by stimulating photoconductive switches with femtosecond laser pulses. The time of flight of THz pulses can be determined with a resolution in the magnitude of several ten femtoseconds. Hence the thickness of an object like plastic pipes can be determined with a high accuracy by measuring the time delay between two reflections on materials interfaces e.g. at the pipe's inner and outer surface, similar to the ultrasonic technique. Knowing the refractive index of the sample the absolute layer thickness from the transit time difference can be calculated easily. This method in principle also allows the measurement of multilayer systems and the characterization of foamed pipes.

  14. Separation optimization of long porous-layer open-tubular columns for nano-LC-MS of limited proteomic samples.

    PubMed

    Rogeberg, Magnus; Vehus, Tore; Grutle, Lene; Greibrokk, Tyge; Wilson, Steven Ray; Lundanes, Elsa

    2013-09-01

    The single-run resolving power of current 10 μm id porous-layer open-tubular (PLOT) columns has been optimized. The columns studied had a poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) porous layer (~0.75 μm thickness). In contrast to many previous studies that have employed complex plumbing or compromising set-ups, SPE-PLOT-LC-MS was assembled without the use of additional hardware/noncommercial parts, additional valves or sample splitting. A comprehensive study of various flow rates, gradient times, and column length combinations was undertaken. Maximum resolution for <400 bar was achieved using a 40 nL/min flow rate, a 400 min gradient and an 8 m long column. We obtained a 2.3-fold increase in peak capacity compared to previous PLOT studies (950 versus previously obtained 400, when using peak width = 2σ definition). Our system also meets or surpasses peak capacities obtained in recent reports using nano-ultra-performance LC conditions or long silica monolith nanocolumns. Nearly 500 proteins (1958 peptides) could be identified in just one single injection of an extract corresponding to 1000 BxPC3 beta catenin (-/-) cells, and ~1200 and 2500 proteins in extracts of 10,000 and 100,000 cells, respectively, allowing detection of central members and regulators of the Wnt signaling pathway.

  15. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  16. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  18. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  20. Ultrasound Based In-Line Rheometry of Complex Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiklund, Johan; Stading, Mats

    2008-07-01

    A method for in-line rheometry combining the Doppler-based Ultrasound Velocity Profiling (UVP) technique with Pressure Difference (PD) measurements, commonly known as UVP-PD, has recently been developed. It has advantages over commercially available process rheometers and off-line instruments in being non-invasive, applicable to opaque and concentrated suspensions containing large particles and giving radial velocity profiles and rheological parameters, e.g. yield stress in real-time. The UVP-PD methodology and system developed at SIK has been successfully applied to a range of model and industrial fluids and suspensions, including fluids containing large particles and fibers. UVP-PD can be used to monitor rapid industrial unit operations such as start-up or shutdown of the process, liquid displacements during rinsing or product change and in-line mixing. It is also an interesting option for real-time in-line process monitoring and control.

  1. In-line digital holographic imaging in volume holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiaomin; Lin, Wei-Tang; Chen, Hsi-Hsun; Wang, Po-Hao; Yeh, Li-Hao; Tsai, Jui-Chang; Singh, Vijay Raj; Luo, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    A dual-plane in-line digital holographic imaging method incorporating volume holographic microscopy (VHM) is presented to reconstruct objects in a single shot while eliminating zero-order and twin-image diffracted waves. The proposed imaging method is configured such that information from different axial planes is acquired simultaneously using multiplexed volume holographic imaging gratings, as used in VHM, and recorded as in-line holograms where the corresponding reference beams are generated in the fashion of Gabor's in-line holography. Unlike conventional VHM, which can take axial intensity information only at focal depths, the proposed method digitally reconstructs objects at any axial position. Further, we demonstrate the proposed imaging technique's ability to effectively eliminate zero-order and twin images for single-shot three-dimensional object reconstruction.

  2. Remifentanil and propofol undergo separation and layering when mixed in the same syringe for total intravenous anesthesia.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Sean; Zhang, Yan Ling; Christians, Uwe; Morrison, John E; Friesen, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    Propofol and remifentanil can be combined to deliver total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). Propofol and remifentanil are sometimes mixed in the same syringe. Since remifentanil is a solution and propofol is an emulsion, we hypothesized that they would separate over time when mixed in the same syringe. Nine 60-ml polypropylene syringes were prepared as follows: Group A: 1.25 ml of remifentanil solution (1 mg·ml(-1) ) was added to 48.75 ml of propofol (10 mg·ml(-1) ) in three syringes. Group B: 2.5 ml of remifentanil (1 mg·ml(-1) ) was added to 47.5 ml of propofol (10 mg·ml(-1) ) in three syringes. Group C: 5 ml of remifentanil (1 mg·ml(-1) ) was added to 45 ml of propofol (10 mg·ml(-1) ) in three syringes. The remifentanil lyophilized powder was reconstituted with sterile water and added to the propofol by injection through the port on the bottom of the syringe. The syringe was then inverted five times in succession to mix the drugs. The syringes were mounted in an upright vertical position (plunger on top, port on bottom) with wire on a pegboard. Samples of the mixture were taken from the bottom port (via a 3-way stopcock) and from the top of the syringe (via a stopcock on an 18-gauge needle placed 5 mm through the plunger) at the following time intervals (min) from baseline: T0, T10, T30, T60, T120, T180, T240, T300. Remifentanil and propofol were quantified using specific and validated HPLC/MS/MS assays with automated online sample preparation. Concentrations of remifentanil were significantly greater at the top than the bottom of the syringes in groups A and B. Concentrations of propofol were significantly greater at the bottom than the top of the syringes in all groups. Our data indicate that remifentanil solution and propofol emulsion are immiscible: remifentanil separates from propofol and rises to the top. Thus, concentrations of remifentanil and propofol delivered to patients from the same syringe during TIVA are not those expected and cannot be

  3. Inline Electrical Connector Mate/Demate Pliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yutko, Brian; Dininny, Michael; Moscoso, Gerand; Dokos, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Military and aerospace industries use Mil-Spec type electrical connections on bulkhead panels that require inline access for mate and demate operations. These connectors are usually in tight proximity to other connectors, or recessed within panels. The pliers described here have been designed to work in such tight spaces, and consist of a mirrored set of parallel handles, two cross links, two return springs, and replaceable polyurethane-coated end effectors. The polyurethane eliminates metal-to-metal contact and provides a high-friction surface between the jaw and the connector. Operationally, the user would slide the pliers over the connector shell until the molded polyurethane lip makes contact with the connector shell edge. Then, by squeezing the handles, the end effector jaws grip the connector shell, allowing the connector to be easily disconnected by rotating the pliers. Mating the connector occurs by reversing the prescribed procedure, except the connector shell is placed into the jaws by hand. The molded lip within the jaw allows the user to apply additional force for difficult-to-mate connectors. Handle design has been carefully examined to maximize comfort, limit weight, incorporate tether locations, and improve ergonomics. They have been designed with an off-axis offset for wiring harness clearance, while placing the connector axis of rotation close to the user s axis of wrist rotation. This was done to eliminate fatigue during multiple connector panel servicing. To limit handle opening width, with user ergonomics in mind, the pliers were designed using a parallel jaw mechanism. A cross-link mechanism was used to complete this task, while ensuring smooth operation.

  4. In-line phase shift tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hammonds, Jeffrey C.; Price, Ronald R.; Pickens, David R.; Donnelly, Edwin F.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to (1) demonstrate laboratory measurements of phase shift images derived from in-line phase-contrast radiographs using the attenuation-partition based algorithm (APBA) of Yan et al.[Opt. Express 18(15), 16074–16089 (2010)], (2) verify that the APBA reconstructed images obey the linearity principle, and (3) reconstruct tomosynthesis phase shift images from a collection of angularly sampled planar phase shift images.Methods: An unmodified, commercially available cabinet x-ray system (Faxitron LX-60) was used in this experiment. This system contains a tungsten anode x-ray tube with a nominal focal spot size of 10 μm. The digital detector uses CsI/CMOS with a pixel size of 50 × 50 μm. The phantoms used consisted of one acrylic plate, two polystyrene plates, and a habanero pepper. Tomosynthesis images were reconstructed from 51 images acquired over a ±25° arc. All phase shift images were reconstructed using the APBA.Results: Image contrast derived from the planar phase shift image of an acrylic plate of uniform thickness exceeded the contrast of the traditional attenuation image by an approximate factor of two. Comparison of the planar phase shift images from a single, uniform thickness polystyrene plate with two polystyrene plates demonstrated an approximate linearity of the estimated phase shift with plate thickness (−1600 rad vs −2970 rad). Tomographic phase shift images of the habanero pepper exhibited acceptable spatial resolution and contrast comparable to the corresponding attenuation image.Conclusions: This work demonstrated the feasibility of laboratory-based phase shift tomosynthesis and suggests that phase shift imaging could potentially provide a new imaging biomarker. Further investigation will be needed to determine if phase shift contrast will be able to provide new tissue contrast information or improved clinical performance.

  5. An interfacial instability in a transient wetting layer leads to lateral phase separation in thin spin-cast polymer-blend films.

    PubMed

    Heriot, Sasha Y; Jones, Richard A L

    2005-10-01

    Spin-coating is a very widely used technique for making uniform thin polymer films. For example, the active layers in most experimental semiconducting polymer-based devices, such as light-emitting diodes and photovoltaics, are made this way. The efficiency of such devices can be improved by using blends of polymers; these phase separate during the spin-coating process, creating the complex morphology that leads to performance improvements. We have used time-resolved small-angle light scattering and light reflectivity during the spin-coating process to study the development of structure directly. Our results provide evidence that a blend of two polymers first undergoes vertical stratification; the interface between the stratified layers then becomes unstable, leading to the final phase-separated thin film. This has given us the basis for establishing a full mechanistic understanding of the development of morphology in thin mixed polymer films, allowing a route to the rational design of processing conditions so as to achieve desirable morphologies by self-assembly.

  6. Porous TiO2 Nanotubes with Spatially Separated Platinum and CoOx Cocatalysts Produced by Atomic Layer Deposition for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiankang; Yu, Zhuobin; Gao, Zhe; Ge, Huibin; Zhao, Shichao; Chen, Chaoqiu; Chen, Shuai; Tong, Xili; Wang, Meihua; Zheng, Zhanfeng; Qin, Yong

    2017-01-16

    Efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes, and associated surface reactions, is a crucial aspect of efficient semiconductor photocatalytic systems employed for photocatalytic hydrogen production. A new CoOx /TiO2 /Pt photocatalyst produced by template-assisted atomic layer deposition is reported for photocatalytic hydrogen production on Pt and CoOx dual cocatalysts. Pt nanoclusters acting as electron collectors and active sites for the reduction reaction are deposited on the inner surface of porous TiO2 nanotubes, while CoOx nanoclusters acting as hole collectors and active sites for oxidation reaction are deposited on the outer surface of porous TiO2 nanotubes. A CoOx /TiO2 /Pt photocatalyst, comprising ultra-low concentrations of noble Pt (0.046 wt %) and CoOx (0.019 wt %) deposited simultaneously with one atomic layer deposition cycle, achieves remarkably high photocatalytic efficiency (275.9 μmol h(-1) ), which is nearly five times as high as that of pristine TiO2 nanotubes (56.5 μmol h(-1) ). The highly dispersed Pt and CoOx nanoclusters, porous structure of TiO2 nanotubes with large specific surface area, and the synergetic effect of the spatially separated Pt and CoOx dual cocatalysts contribute to the excellent photocatalytic activity.

  7. Improving biogas separation and methane storage with multilayer graphene nanostructure via layer spacing optimization and lithium doping: a molecular simulation investigation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Xue-Liang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2012-09-18

    Methane is a desirable alternative to conventional fossil fuels, and also a main component of biogas from anaerobic fermentation of organic wastes. However, its relatively lower purity and poor storage by existing adsorbent materials negatively affect its wide application. Thus, efficient, cost-effective, and safe adsorbent materials for methane purification and storage are highly desired. In this study, multilayer graphene nanostructures (MGNs) with optimized structure are investigated as a potential adsorbent for this purpose. The effects of layer distance and Li doping on MGN performance in terms of methane storage and acid gas (H(2)S and CO(2)) separation from biogas are examined by molecular simulations. The mechanisms for the interactions between gas molecules and substrates are elucidated by analyzing the binding energy, geometric structures, and charge distribution from the first-principles calculations. The results show that nonhydrocarbons in biogas can be effectively separated using Li-doped MGNs with the optimal layer distance of 0.68 nm, and then the pure methane gas can be stored in MGNs with capacity satisfying the DOE target. This work offers a molecular-level insight into the interactions between gas molecules and MGNs and might provide useful information for development of new materials for methane purification and storage.

  8. Imaging the Phase Separation in Atomically Thin Buried SrTiO3 Layers by Electron Channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourkoutis, L. Fitting; Hellberg, C. Stephen; Vaithyanathan, V.; Li, Hao; Parker, M. K.; Andersen, K. E.; Schlom, D. G.; Muller, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    A phase-separation instability, resulting in the dewetting of thin SrTiO3 films grown on Si(100) is shown by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Plan-view imaging of 1-nm thick, buried SrTiO3 films was achieved by exploiting electron channeling through the substrate to focus the incident 0.2 nm beam down to a 0.04 nm diameter, revealing a nonuniform coverage by epitaxial SrTiO3 islands and 2×1 Sr-covered regions. Density-functional calculations predict the ground state is a coexistence of 2×1 Sr-reconstructed Si and Sr-deficient SrTiO3, in correspondence with the observed islanding.

  9. Automated defect cross-sectioning with an in-line DualBeam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Coquand, Stephanie; Hinschberger, Benoit; Rouchouze, Eric; Sicurani, Emmanuel; Castagna, Marc; Weschler, Matthew; Dworkin, Larry; Renard, Didier; Panyasak, Atsavinn

    2004-05-01

    Shrinking design rules and the introduction of new materials and processes in the formation of Cu interconnects in damascene modules have given rise to new and previously unknown killer defect mechanisms. These failure mechanisms are very challenging to detect, identify, and eliminate. The ability to characterize buried defects, such as defective vias, previous layer defects, or integration issues detected by optical defect inspection tools as well as electron-beam inspection tools has become mandatory. Out of the several cross-section tools available to the lab, the one that best addresses the in-line applications requirements is known as the DualBeam (FIB/SEM). The ion beam allows cross-sectioning while a coincident electron beam allows for high resolution imaging of the cross-section. Using the FEI Defect Analyzer 300 DualBeam system, this process has been automated for in-line usage. Defects can be navigated to using defect files generated by the inspection tools. The wafer production line is now enabled to easily mill cross sections in-line and determine root causes, something that is often not possible from top down information alone. For volume in-line use on defects, additional requirements must also be met: compatibility with clean room environment, navigation on full wafers to relocate the defects detected by the inspection tools, throughput, ease of use, low impact on wafers so that they can be returned to the line. All of this must allow the gathering of data at numerous cross-sections on buried defects in order to perform the same type of Pareto analysis as is traditionally done after defect review of top-down visible defects. Example use cases will be presented to demonstrate how this methodology is being developed in a manufacturing environment to help understand previously unexplained yield losses and to deliver results with a rapid response time. Applications on defects detected with electron beam inspection in copper or tungsten interconnects

  10. In-line sensor for accurate rf power measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahan, D.; Hopkins, M. B.

    2005-10-01

    An in-line sensor has been constructed with 50Ω characteristic impedance to accurately measure rf power dissipated in a matched or unmatched load with a view to being implemented as a rf discharge diagnostic. The physical construction and calibration technique are presented. The design is a wide band, hybrid directional coupler/current-voltage sensor suitable for fundamental and harmonic power measurements. A comparison with a standard wattmeter using dummy load impedances shows that this in-line sensor is significantly more accurate in mismatched conditions.

  11. In-line extreme ultraviolet polarizer with hybrid configuration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minghong; Tong, Xinling; Sun, Yan; Jiang, Desheng; Zhou, Ciming; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2009-03-01

    A novel hybrid Au-multilayer-Au in-line extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical polarizer is presented in this paper. Different from all-Mo/Si multilayer EUV polarizer, this polarizer is based on the concept that Au surfaces work as reflecting elements for in-line optics routine, while polarization effect is realized by polarizing multilayer. Simulation shows that the proposed polarizer with 80 degrees-70 degrees-80 degrees angle configuration has about 30% of transmission and 12 eV of bandwidth half maximum, which enables more throughput and broader bandwidth than the all-multilayer one.

  12. An efficient solution technique for shockwave-boundary layer interactions with flow separation and slot suction effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Jack R.; Mcrae, D. Scott

    1991-01-01

    An efficient method for computing two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes flow fields is presented. The solution algorithm is a fully-implicit approximate factorization technique based on an unsymmetric line Gauss-Seidel splitting of the equation system Jacobian matrix. Convergence characteristics are improved by the addition of acceleration techniques based on Shamanskii's method for nonlinear equations and Broyden's quasi-Newton update. Characteristic-based differencing of the equations is provided by means of Van Leer's flux vector splitting. In this investigation, emphasis is placed on the fast and accurate computation of shock-wave-boundary layer interactions with and without slot suction effects. In the latter context, a set of numerical boundary conditions for simulating the transpiration flow in an open slot is devised. Both laminar and turbulent cases are considered, with turbulent closure provided by a modified Cebeci-Smith algebraic model. Comparisons with computational and experimental data sets are presented for a variety of interactions, and a fully-coupled simulation of a plenum chamber/inlet flowfield with shock interaction and suction is also shown and discussed.

  13. MOCVD for solar cells, a transition towards a chamberless inline process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrioz, V.; Monir, S.; Kartopu, G.; Lamb, D. A.; Brooks, W.; Siderfin, P.; Jones, S.; Clayton, A. J.; Irvine, S. J. C.

    2015-03-01

    MOCVD has been associated with batch processing of III-V opto-electronic devices for decades, with epitaxial structures deposited on up to 200 mm diameter wafers. Recent development in thin film PV has seen the gap in conversion efficiencies closing in on that of the commonly found multicrystalline Si wafer based PV. To further improve the conversion efficiency of thin film PV towards the theoretical limits of single junction solar cells requires a technique such as MOCVD with scalability potential. Preliminary results on the development of a chamberless inline process are reported for up to 15 cm wide float glass, progressively coating each layer in the CdTe solar cell as the heated substrate passes under each coating head in turn and entirely at atmospheric pressure. Emphasis is made on ensuring that the chamberless coating heads can be operated safely using a combination of nitrogen curtain flows and a balanced exhaust pressure system. Results are also presented on the exclusion of oxygen and moisture from the coating area, achieved using the same gas flow isolation process. This paper also reviews the achievements made to-date in the transfer of the high efficiency batch MOCVD produced CdTe solar cell to the chamberless inline process demonstrating device quality thin films deposition.

  14. Visualization of boundary layer separation and passive flow control on airfoils and bodies in wind-tunnel and in-flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popelka, Lukas; Kuklova, Jana; Simurda, David; Souckova, Natalie; Matejka, Milan; Uruba, Vaclav

    2012-04-01

    Infrared camera, Particle Image Velocimetry, smoke-wire, tuft filaments and oil-flow visualization techniques were used for wind-tunnel and in-flight investigation of boundary layer separation, both stall and separation bubbles, related to the low-Reynolds numbers transition mechanism. Airfoils of Wortmann FX66 series and FX66 series wing-fuselage interaction, as well as modern airfoils and their wing-fuselage geometry were subject to study. The presence of previously identified structures in the CFD modelling, such as horse-shoe vortices, was confirmed in the flow. Wind-tunnels and in-flight measurements on sailplanes were carried out and effect of passive flow control devices - vortex generators - was surveyed; namely counter-rotating vortex generators and Zig-zag type turbulators were applied. Separation suppression and consequent drag coefficient reduction of test aircrafts was reached. PIV investigation was further extended by Time-Resolved techniques. An important study on structure of the turbulent flow in the lower atmosphere, creating an environment of the soaring flight, was presented.

  15. Magnetic phase separation in double layer ruthenates Ca3(Ru1−xTix)2O7

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jin; Liu, J. Y.; Hu, J.; Mao, Z. Q.; Zhang, F. M.; Wu, X. S.

    2016-01-01

    A phase transition from metallic AFM-b antiferromagnetic state to Mott insulating G-type antiferromagnetic (G-AFM) state was found in Ca3(Ru1−xTix)2O7 at about x = 0.03 in our previous work. In the present, we focused on the study of the magnetic transition near the critical composition through detailed magnetization measurements. There is no intermediate magnetic phases between the AFM-b and G-AFM states, which is in contrasted to manganites where a similar magnetic phase transition takes place through the presence of several intermediate magnetic phases. The AFM-b-to-G-AFM transition in Ca3(Ru1−xTix)2O7 happens through a phase separation process in the 2–5% Ti range, whereas similar magnetic transitions in manganites are tuned by 50–70% chemical substitutions. We discussed the possible origin of such an unusual magnetic transition and compared with that in manganites. PMID:26771083

  16. Effects of ovarian steroids upon responses mediated by adrenoceptors in separated layers of the myometrium and in the costo-uterine muscle of the guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Margaret L.; Pennefather, Jocelyn N.; Story, Margot E.

    1983-01-01

    1 This study describes the effects of ovarian steroid hormones upon the responses to adrenoceptor agonists of isolated myometrium, separated into its longitudinal and circular layers, and of costo-uterine muscle from guinea-pigs. The preparations were field-stimulated at 100 s intervals, and the adrenoceptor agonists phenylephrine and isoprenaline produced enhancement or inhibition of the evoked contractions. 2 Isoprenaline produced propranolol-sensitive inhibitory effects in longitudinal and circular myometrium and costo-uterine muscle preparations from animals from all experimental groups: i.e. from nonsteroid-treated animals (ovariectomized and intact); intact animals treated with either oestrogen or progesterone alone; ovariectomized animals treated with oestrogen; ovariectomized and intact animals treated with progesterone following oestrogen priming; and from animals 1-4 days post-partum. Longitudinal myometrial preparations from progesterone-treated oestrogen-primed and from post-partum animals were most sensitive to this agonist. 3 Phenylephrine produced phentolamine-sensitive excitatory effects in circular myometrial and costo-uterine muscle preparations from animals from all the experimental groups. In contrast, propranolol-sensitive inhibitory responses to phenylephrine occurred in longitudinal myometrial preparations taken from animals treated with progesterone following oestrogen priming, and from post-partum animals. Longitudinal myometrium from animals from the remaining experimental groups exhibited phentolamine-sensitive excitatory responses to phenylephrine. 4 The basis for the selective effect upon the longitudinal myometrium of exposure to progesterone following a period of oestrogen priming, is discussed. The results described are consistent with the possibility that in the longitudinal layer of guinea-pig uterus exposed to progesterone following oestrogen priming there is an increase in the proportion of β-adrenoceptors in this layer. This

  17. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate E. coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells (RBCs) shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care (POC) sepsis diagnostic device.

  18. Combined urea-thin layer chromatography and silver nitrate-thin layer chromatography for micro separation and determination of hard-to-detect branched chain fatty acids in natural lipids.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xingguo; Liu, Yijun; Xiang, Jingying; Wang, Xiaosan; Zhang, Huijun; Yao, Yunping; Liu, Ruijie; Zou, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Jianhua; Jin, Qingzhe

    2015-12-18

    A simple, fast and efficient procedure was developed for micro separation and enrichment of branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) from natural products using successive thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique coupling novel urea-TLC with AgNO3-TLC, which rely on the formation of urea adduction and AgNO3 bonding in methanol. These natural lipids contain a significant amount of straight chain fatty acids (FA). Fresh and fast urea-TLC and AgNO3-TLC plate making techniques were developed with more even coating and less coating material contamination before being utilized for separation. Goat milk fat was used as a model. Various experimental parameters that affect urea-TLC and AgNO3-TLC separation of BCFA were investigated and optimized, including coating of urea, concentration of original oil sample, mobile phase and sample application format. High efficiency of removal of straight chain FA was achieved with a low amount of sample in an easy and fast way. A total BCFA mix with much higher purity than previous studies was successfully achieved. The developed method has also been applied for the concentration and analysis of BCFA in cow milk fat and Anchovy oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Functional biostructure of colonic microbiota (central fermenting area, germinal stock area and separating mucus layer) in healthy subjects and patients with diarrhea treated with Saccharomyces boulardii].

    PubMed

    Swidsinski, A; Loening-Baucke, V; Kirsch, S; Doerffel, Y

    2010-09-01

    The colonic content can be compared to a spatially structured high output bioreactor composed of three functionally different regions: a separating mucus layer, a germinal stock area, and a central fermenting area. The stool mirrors this structure and can be used for diagnosis in health and disease. In a first part, we introduce a novel method based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of sections of punched-out stool cylinders, which allows quantitatively monitor microbiota in the mucus, the germinal stock and the central fermenting areas. in a second part, we demonstrate the practical implementation of this method, describing the biostructure of stool microbiota in healthy subjects and patients with chronic idiopathic diarrhea treated with Saccharomyces boulardii. Punched stool cylinders from 20 patients with chronic idiopathic diarrhea and 20 healthy controls were investigated using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Seventy-three bacterial groups were evaluated. Fluctuations in assembly of 11 constitutive bacterial groups were monitored weekly for 3 weeks prior to, 3 weeks during, and 3 weeks after oral Saccharomyces boulardii supplementation. Typical findings in healthy subjects were a 5-60 μm mucus separating layer; homogeneous distribution and fluorescence, high concentrations (>10 × 10(10) bacterial/mL) of the three habitual bacterial groups: Bacteroides, Roseburia and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii; and low concentrations of the occasional bacterial groups. The diarrhea could be described in terms of increased separating effort, purging, decontamination, bacterial substitution. Typical findings in diarrhea were: increased thickness of the protective mucus layer, its incorporation in the stool, absolute reduction in concentrations of the habitual bacterial groups, suppression of bacterial metabolism in the central fermenting area (hybridization silence), stratification of the stool structure by watery ingredients, and substitutive increase in the

  20. Single channel in-line multimodal digital holography.

    PubMed

    Rivenson, Yair; Katz, Barak; Kelner, Roy; Rosen, Joseph

    2013-11-15

    We present a new single channel in-line setup for holographic recording that can properly record various objects that cannot be recorded by the Gabor holographic method. This configuration allows the recording of holograms based on several modalities while addressing important issues of the original Gabor setup, including the well-known twin-image problem and the weak scattering condition.

  1. Updates to In-Line Calculation of Photolysis Rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    How photolysis rates are calculated affects ozone and aerosol concentrations predicted by the CMAQ model and the model?s run-time. The standard configuration of CMAQ uses the inline option that calculates photolysis rates by solving the radiative transfer equation for the needed ...

  2. Updates to In-Line Calculation of Photolysis Rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    How photolysis rates are calculated affects ozone and aerosol concentrations predicted by the CMAQ model and the model?s run-time. The standard configuration of CMAQ uses the inline option that calculates photolysis rates by solving the radiative transfer equation for the needed ...

  3. In-line SPE-CE using a fritless bead string design--application for the analysis of organic sulfonates including inline SPE-CE-MS for APTS-labeled glycans.

    PubMed

    Jooß, Kevin; Sommer, Johannes; Bunz, Svenja-Catharina; Neusüß, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Despite many advantages like high separation efficiency CE comprises the main limitation of low concentration sensitivity, when compared to HPLC. In-line SPE is an efficient way to increase concentration sensitivity. Here, a fritless in-line-SPE-CE-MS method was developed in order to analyze anions of strong acids. Mixed-mode (weak anion exchange and RP) particles were used for enrichment and an acidic BGE was applied for separation. Different particle and capillary sizes were tested. A novel bead string design with a 100 μm id column filled with particles of 90 μm followed by a separation capillary with 50 μm id was easy to prepare and showed the best performance with respect to separation efficiency and reproducibility. Three aromatic sulfonic acids were employed in an in-line SPE-CE-UV approach for method development. Method validation was performed with respect to reproducibility, robustness, and linearity. Thereafter the method was transferred to SPE-CE-MS and applied to the analysis of glycans labeled with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid. Lower limits of detection in the low nM range were achieved injecting about 10 μL of sample. This corresponds to an enrichment factor of more than 800 compared to the corresponding CE-MS method without preconcentration. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Inline Transmitter/Receiver System without Direct Receiving of Transmitted Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Masayuki; Okubo, Kan; Tagawa, Norio

    2009-07-01

    It is important to obtain finer images in ultrasound imaging, especially in intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. We have developed an inline transmitter/receiver system using tissue harmonic imaging (THI) and a pulse compression technique (PCT) to obtain images with a high resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. This system consists of a Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal (PZN-PT) layer, a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film as an echo receiver on the transmission side of the PZN-PT layer, and another PVDF film as a reference receiver on the reverse side of the PZN-PT layer. In this system, a transmitted chirp signal from the PZN-PT layer, passing through both PVDF films, is propagated to both sides of the PZN-PT layer. Although in previous studies we confirmed the usefulness of the system, we did not consider the effect of echo signals received by the reference PVDF film. Considering the actual use of IVUS, we need to prevent echo signals from the reverse side of the transmission from being received by the reference PVDF film. In this study, using a finite element method (FEM) simulator, we propose and evaluate some methods that can remove undesirable echo signals, and investigate the entire system.

  5. Reducing the Drag and Damage of a High-Speed Train by Analyzing and Optimizing its Boundary Layer Separation and Roll-up into Wake Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Marcus, Philip

    2012-11-01

    We present numerical calculations of the boundary layers and shed wake vortices behind several aerodynamic bodies and generic models of high-speed trains. Our calculations illustrate new visual diagnostics that we developed that clearly show where the separation of a boundary layer occurs and where, how, and with what angles (with respect to the stream-wise direction) the wake vortices form. The calculations also illustrate novel 3D morphing and mesh ``pushing and pulling'' techniques that allow us to change the shapes of aerodynamic bodies and models in a controlled and automated manner without spurious features appearing. Using these tools we have examined the patterns of the shed vortices behind generic bodies and trains and correlated them with the changes in the drag as well as with the effects of the shed vortices on the environment. In particular, we have applied these techniques to the end car of a next-generation, high-speed train in order to minimize the drag and to minimize the adverse effects of the shed vortices on the track ballast.

  6. The alpha and beta subunits of the metalloprotease meprin are expressed in separate layers of human epidermis, revealing different functions in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Höwel, Markus; Walker, Tatjana; Vlad, Annica; Aufenvenne, Karin; Oji, Vinzenz; Lottaz, Daniel; Sterchi, Erwin E; Debela, Mekdes; Magdolen, Viktor; Traupe, Heiko; Stöcker, Walter

    2007-05-01

    The zinc endopeptidase meprin (EC 3.4.24.18) is expressed in brush border membranes of intestine and kidney tubules, intestinal leukocytes, and certain cancer cells, suggesting a role in epithelial differentiation and cell migration. Here we show by RT-PCR and immunoblotting that meprin is also expressed in human skin. As visualized by immunohistochemistry, the two meprin subunits are localized in separate cell layers of the human epidermis. Meprin alpha is expressed in the stratum basale, whereas meprin beta is found in cells of the stratum granulosum just beneath the stratum corneum. In hyperproliferative epidermis such as in psoriasis vulgaris, meprin alpha showed a marked shift of expression from the basal to the uppermost layers of the epidermis. The expression patterns suggest distinct functions for the two subunits in skin. This assumption is supported by diverse effects of recombinant meprin alpha and beta on human adult low-calcium high-temperature keratinocytes. Here, beta induced a dramatic change in cell morphology and reduced the cell number, indicating a function in terminal differentiation, whereas meprin alpha did not affect cell viability, and may play a role in basal keratinocyte proliferation.

  7. Improvement in the Iatroscan thin-layer chromatographic-flame ionisation detection analysis of marine lipids. Separation and quantitation of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols in standards and natural samples.

    PubMed

    Striby, L; Lafont, R; Goutx, M

    1999-07-23

    Mono- and diacylglycerols are important intermediates in glycerolipid biodegradation and intracellular signalling pathways. A method for mass determination of these lipid classes in marine particles was developed using the Iatroscan, which combines thin layer chromatography (TLC) and flame ionisation detection (FID) techniques. We improved existing protocols by adding two elution steps: hexane-diethyl-ether-formic acid (70:30:0.2, v/v/v) after triacylglycerol and free fatty acid scan, and acetone 100% followed by chloroform-acetone-formic acid (99:1:0.2, v/v/v) after 1,2 diacylglycerols. Diacylglycerol isomers 1,2 and 1,3 were separated from each other, as well as from free sterols in standards and marine lipids from sediment trap particles. Monoacylglycerols were separated from pigments and galactosyl-lipids in the same trap samples and in a rich pigment phytoplankton extract of Dunaliella viridis. Quantitation of each class in samples was performed after calibration with 0.5 to 2 micrograms of standards. As many as 17 lipid classes can be identified and quantified in samples using this proposed six-step development.

  8. Stochastic estimation of a two/three-dimensional separating/reattaching boundary layer flow field downstream of an axisymmetric backward-facing step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudy, Laura; Naguib, Ahmed; Humphreys, William; Bartram, Scott

    2004-11-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of a separating/reattaching flow region were investigated. The experimental set-up consisted of an axisymmetric backward-facing step with a section upstream of the step that could rotate to create a 3D boundary layer at separation. Beneath the flow region, 32 flush-mounted microphones detected the pressure signature that was acquired simultaneously with PIV measurements, which captured the velocity field above the surface. Data were obtained for different Reynolds numbers (Re), based on step height: five Re for the 2D flow case, ranging from 6100 to 33200, and two Re, 6100 and 8300, for the 3D case. Multi-point stochastic estimation was used to estimate the dominant flow structures above the wall from the wall-pressure signature and the results were compared with the instantaneous structures obtained from the PIV measurements. In addition, Re effects were explored in the 2D case. Supported by NSF grant CTS0116907 and partial support from ONR

  9. Thin layer chromatography/plasma assisted multiwavelength laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for facile separation and selective identification of low molecular weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jialing; Zhou, Zhigui; Yang, Jianwang; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2012-02-07

    A novel plasma assisted multiwavelength (1064, 532, and 355 nm) laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (PAMLDI-MS) system was fabricated and applied in the analysis of low molecular weight compounds through combination with thin layer chromatography (TLC). The TLC/PAMLDI-MS system successfully integrated TLC, the multiwavelength laser ablation, and the excitated state plasma from direct analysis in real time (DART) and was proved to be effective in the facile separation and selective identification of low molecular weight compounds. An automated three-dimensional platform was utilized to facilitate the analysis procedures with all the parameters of the TLC/PAMLDI-MS systematically optimized, and the desorption/ionization mechanisms were discussed. The successful combination of three-wavelength laser with DART based system extended the range of the analytes and provided broad possibilities for the compound desorption from the TLC. The experimental results clearly showed that the laser desorption was wavelength dependent. The PAMLDI-MS system was successfully applied in the detection of low molecular weight compounds from different kinds of samples separated on a normal-phase silica gel, such as dye mixtures, drug standards, and tea extract, with the detection level of 5 ng/mm(2).

  10. Photonic crystal fiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer for explosive detection.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chuanyi; Wei, Heming; Feng, Wenlin

    2016-02-08

    We report a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer used as a gas sensor device which exhibits high sensitivity to the explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT). The interferometric sensor head is formed by embedding a segment of large-mode-area/grapefruit PCF between standard single-mode fibers via butt coupling, which produces two small air gaps in between terminated fiber ends with ceramic ferrule connectors as coupling regions, which also serve as inlet/outlet for the gas. The spectral response of the interferometer is investigated in terms of its wavelength spectrum. The selectivity to TNT vapor is achieved by immobilizing a molecular recognition ployallylamine layer on the inner surface of the holey region of the PCF. The TNT-induced variations of the interference fringes are measured and the sensing capability of the proposed sensor is demonstrated experimentally.

  11. Inline sorting with hyperspectral imaging in an industrial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatzer, Petra; Panner, Thomas; Wolf, Markus; Traxler, Gerhard

    2005-02-01

    Spectral imaging becomes more and more interesting not only for agricultural use but also for industrial application. Especially wavelength in the near infrared (NIR) range can be used for materials classification. Today sorting systems for plastics are available in different variations, utilizing single-point spectroscopy and the different characteristics of plastics in the SWIR band. Sorting systems for paper and cardboard will have increased significance because better sorting can increase the price of the secondary material and reduce the need of chemicals in paper production. However, sorting paper qualities is a very difficult task due to the close similarities between the materials. The present work describes the development of an unique industrial inline material sorting system using spectral imaging technique focusing on classification for cellulose based materials such as pulp, paper and cardboard. It deals with the hardware requirements for industrial use of spectral imaging solutions as well as with adjustment and calibration techniques. Due to needed classification speed the software design and classification methods are described under this focus. To cope with the vast amount of spectral data and to implement a stable and reliable classification algorithm for different materials chemometric standard methods are used. The PCA is used to reduce data and obtain as much information of the samples's characteristics as possible by transforming the original multidimensional data-space into a space with lower dimensions. However PCA is no method to discriminate between classes, it allows to separate cellulose-based materials from plastics. For further discrimination an LDA-Algorithm is used. All chemometric methods need training data sets of well defined samples. To classify an unknown spectra, it is necessary to create models for the classes to be distinguished from each other inside the transformed data-space. Training spectra have to be carefully selected

  12. Influence of imaging geometry on noise texture in quantitative in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Chou, Cheng-Ying; Anastasio, Mark A

    2009-08-17

    Quantitative in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods seek to reconstruct separate images that depict an object's projected absorption and refractive properties. An understanding of the statistical properties of the reconstructed images can facilitate the identification of optimal imaging parameters for specific diagnostic tasks. However, the statistical properties of quantitative X-ray phase-contrast imaging remain largely unexplored. In this work, we derive analytic expressions that describe the second-order statistics of the reconstructed absorption and phase images. Concepts from statistical decision theory are applied to demonstrate how the statistical properties of images corresponding to distinct imaging geometries can influence signal detectability.

  13. Advanced in-line metrology strategy for self-aligned quadruple patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Robin; Breton, Mary; L'herron, Benoit; Mendoza, Brock; Muthinti, Raja; Nelson, Florence; De La Pena, Abraham; Le, Fee li; Miller, Eric; Sieg, Stuart; Demarest, James; Gin, Peter; Wormington, Matthew; Cepler, Aron; Bozdog, Cornel; Sendelbach, Matthew; Wolfling, Shay; Cardinal, Tom; Kanakasabapathy, Sivananda; Gaudiello, John; Felix, Nelson

    2016-03-01

    geometry and must be used carefully. A successful implementation of SAQP process control for yield improvement requires the metrology issues to be addressed. By optimizing the measurement parameters and beam configurations, CDSEM measurements distinguish each of the spaces corresponding to the upstream mandrel processes and report their CDs separately to feed back to the process team for the next development cycle. We also utilize the unique capability in scatterometry to measure the structure details in-line and implement a "predictive" process control, which shows a good correlation between the "predictive" measurement and the cross-sections from our design of experiments (DOE). The ability to measure the pitch walk in scatterometry was also demonstrated. This work also explored the frontier of in-line XRD capability by enabling an automatic RSM fitting on tool to output pitch walk values. With these advances in metrology development, we are able to demonstrate the impacts of in-line monitoring in the SAQP process, to shorten the patterning development learning cycle to improve the yield.

  14. Age group athletes in inline skating: decrease in overall and increase in master athlete participation in the longest inline skating race in Europe – the Inline One-Eleven

    PubMed Central

    Teutsch, Uwe; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated in endurance and ultraendurance races in swimming, cycling, running, and triathlon, but not in long-distance inline skating. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in participation, age, and performance in the longest inline race in Europe, the Inline One-Eleven over 111 km, held between 1998 and 2009. Methods The total number, age distribution, age at the time of the competition, and race times of male and female finishers at the Inline One-Eleven were analyzed. Results Overall participation increased until 2003 but decreased thereafter. During the 12-year period, the relative participation in skaters younger than 40 years old decreased while relative participation increased for skaters older than 40 years. The mean top ten skating time was 199 ± 9 minutes (range: 189–220 minutes) for men and 234 ± 17 minutes (range: 211–271 minutes) for women, respectively. The gender difference in performance remained stable at 17% ± 5% across years. Conclusion To summarize, although the participation of master long-distance inline skaters increased, the overall participation decreased across years in the Inline One-Eleven. The race times of the best female and male skaters stabilized across years with a gender difference in performance of 17% ± 5%. Further studies should focus on the participation in the international World Inline Cup races. PMID:23690697

  15. In-line beam current monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A. Jr.; Frost, C.A.

    1984-11-13

    An intense relativistic electron beam current monitor for a gas neutralized beam transport line includes a first foil for conducting plasma current to the wall where it is measured as it traverses an inductive loop formed by a cavity in the wall. An insulator foil separates the first foil from a second conducting foil which returns the current to the plasma environment.

  16. In-line beam current monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl A.; Frost, Charles A.

    1986-01-01

    An intense relativistic electron beam current monitor for a gas neutralized beam transport line includes a first foil for conducting plasma current to the wall where it is measured as it traverses an inductive loop formed by a cavity in the wall. An insulator foil separates the first foil from a second conducting foil which returns the current to the plasma environment.

  17. Metrology challenges for in-line process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    The future of in-line process control is challenged by the incoming revolution of 3D architecture and complex integration schemes. CD and thin film metrology challenges being already covered [1], this paper will focus on overlay metrology challenge for in-line process control. . After an overview of the existing techniques, we will discuss the dominant errors, real and artificial. Then we will discuss of the importance of consistency vs accuracy. After few words about the importance of sampling, we will show that accuracy, if desirable, is not reachable to the last nanometer. To enable a good process control the efforts of our industry must remained focus on consistency of overlay metrology versus process effects.

  18. Slantingly cross loading sample system enables simultaneous performance of separation and mixture to detect molecular interactions on thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shimizu-Yumoto, Hiroko; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Ichimura, Kazuo; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2012-07-06

    Anthocyanins are major flower pigments that can be affected by copigments, colorless compounds that can modify anthocyanin coloration to more intense and bluer. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is an available technique to separate and analyze anthocyanins and copigments. To easily and comprehensively detect copigments, we added function of mixture of compounds to TLC; by slantingly cross loading samples on TLC, compounds are symmetrically developed at various angle lines from the upper origin to individual R(f) values and cross each other in an orderly fashion, where mixture is simultaneously performed with separation. Occurrence of copigments can be detected as a coloration change on the developed line of anthocyanin. Pink sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus L.) petals were analyzed by the cross-TLC and a more intense spot and a paler spot on the anthocyanin line were detected. As each spot overlapped with an ultraviolet absorbance line, each of these ultraviolet absorption compounds was purified and identified as kaempferol 3-rhamnoside and 2-cyanoethyl-isoxazolin-5-one, respectively. Whereas kaempferol 3-rhamnoside is a flavonoid and had a general copigment effect of more intense and bluer coloration change, 2-cyanoethyl-isoxazolin-5-one is a compound whose structure is outside of conventional categories of copigments and had a novel effect to change anthocyanin coloration paler while maintaining color tone. We determined that the search for copigments should be carried out without pre-existing prediction of structures and effects. We have shown that slantingly cross loading samples system on plate-type chromatography is an effective technique for such comprehensive analysis of molecular interaction. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation and application of the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model in two-dimensional, unsteady, compressible boundary layers with and without separation in engine inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakowski, Barbara; Darling, Douglas; Roach, Robert L.; Vandewall, Allan

    1992-01-01

    There is a practical need to model high speed flows that exist in jet engine inlets. The boundary layers that form in these inlets may be turbulent or laminar and either separated or attached. Also, unsteady supersonic inlets may be subject to frequent changes in operating conditions. Some changes in the operating conditions of the inlets may include varying the inlet geometry, bleeds and bypasses, and rotating or translating the centerbody. In addition, the inlet may be either started or unstarted. Therefore, a CFD code, used to model these inlets, may have to run for several different cases. Also, since the flow conditions through an unsteady inlet may be continually fluctuating, the CFD code which models these flows may have to be run over many time steps. Therefore, it would be beneficial that the code run quickly. Many turbulence models, however, are cumbersome to implement and require a lot of computer time to run, since they add to the number of differential equations to be solved to model a flow. The Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model is a popular model. It is an algebraic, eddy viscosity model. The Baldwin-Lomax model is used in many CFD codes because it is quick and easy to implement. In this paper, we will discuss implementing the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model for both steady and unsteady compressible flows. In addition, these flows may be either separated or attached. In order to apply this turbulence model to flows which may be subjected to these conditions, certain modifications should be made to the original Baldwin-Lomax model. We will discuss these modifications and determine whether the Baldwin-Lomax model is a viable turbulence model that produces reasonably accurate results for high speed flows that can be found in engine inlets.

  20. Retractable pin dual in-line package test clip

    DOEpatents

    Bandzuch, Gregory S.; Kosslow, William J.

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a Dual In-Line Package (DIP) test clip for use when troubleshooting circuits containing DIP integrated circuits. This test clip is a significant improvement over existing DIP test clips in that it has retractable pins which will permit troubleshooting without risk of accidentally shorting adjacent pins together when moving probes to different pins on energized circuits or when the probe is accidentally bumped while taking measurements.

  1. Fiber in-line Michelson Interferometer for refractive index sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, C. R.; Wang, D. N.; Wang, Min; Yang, Minghong; Wang, Yiping

    2013-09-01

    A fiber in-line Michelson interferometer based on open micro-cavity is demonstrated, which is fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining and thin film coating technique. In refractive index sensing, this interferometer operates in a reflection mode of detection, exhibits compact sensor head, good mechanical reliability, wide operation range and high sensitivity of 975nm/RIU (refractive index unit) at the refractive index value of 1.484.

  2. Fiber inline Michelson interferometer fabricated by a femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lei; Wei, Tao; Han, Qun; Wang, Hanzheng; Huang, Jie; Jiang, Lan; Xiao, Hai

    2012-11-01

    A fiber inline Michelson interferometer was fabricated by micromachining a step structure at the tip of a single-mode optical fiber using a femtosecond laser. The step structure splits the fiber core into two reflection paths and produces an interference signal. A fringe visibility of 18 dB was achieved. Temperature sensing up to 1000°C was demonstrated using the fabricated assembly-free device.

  3. Red Cell Apheresis with Automated In-Line Filtration

    PubMed Central

    Matthes, Gert; Ingilizov, Marin; Dobao, Maria Luz; Marques, Susana; Callaert, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to provide data on concurrent red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) apheresis with RBC in-line leukoreduction and automated addition of saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) using the new version (V6.0) of Trima Accel®. Methods In this two-center paired study, each subject completed a test and a control procedure with an interval of 9 weeks between procedures. In the test arm, single RBC and PLT units were collected on the Trima Accel V6.0 (in-line leukofiltration and automated addition of SAGM). In the control arm, they were collected on Trima Accel V5.1/V5.2 (post-collection leukoreduction, manual SAGM addition). RBC percent hemolysis, potassium concentration and adenosine triphosphate over storage, hemoglobin (Hb) yield, and residual white blood cells (WBC) were determined. Results 34 subjects successfully completed both test and control procedures. Post-storage hemolysis was similar in both groups, and all values were less than 0.8% for both arms. Residual WBC counts in all RBC units were less than 1 × 106/unit. In-line processed RBC units (V6.0) have a significantly higher volume and more Hb/unit due to filtration recovery improvements. All procedures were well tolerated by the subjects. Conclusion In-line filtration and automated addition of storage solution on Trima Accel V6.0 allows collection of ready-to-use RBC units that meet EU requirements. PMID:24847185

  4. Retractable pin dual in-line package test clip

    SciTech Connect

    Bandzuch, G.S.; Kosslow, W.J

    1993-12-31

    This invention is a Dual In-line Package (DIP) test clip for use when troubleshooting circuits containing DIP integrated circuits. This test clip is a significant improvement over existing DIP test clips in that it has retractable pins which will permit troubleshooting without risk of accidentally shorting adjacent pins together when moving probes to different pins on energized circuits or when the probe is accidentally bumped while taking measurements.

  5. In-line interferometric femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dobner, Sven; Groß, Petra; Fallnich, Carsten

    2013-06-28

    We present in-line interferometric femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (II-FSRS), a new method to measure the spectral Raman intensity and phase over a broad spectral range, potentially in a single shot. An analytic model is developed, that excellently reproduces the measured spectra. Additionally, the performance of II-FSRS is directly compared in experiments to two established techniques, namely femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering and femtosecond Raman induced Kerr-effect spectroscopy.

  6. Pixel super-resolution in digital in-line holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingjun; Feng, Shaodong; Wu, Jigang

    2016-10-01

    We report a new holographic microscope using pixel super-resolution algorithm. In our method, a sequence of low resolution images are acquired by a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor in digital inline holography system and the resolution is limited by the sensor pixel size. Then the super-resolution algorithm is applied to the low resolution images to get the image with much higher resolution that beyond the Nyquist criteria. We perform both numerical simulation and experiments to demonstrate our method with US Air Force Target used as the sample. The sample is randomly moved in the sample plane and a set of holograms are captured by the camera in inline holographic system. We use two methods to reconstruct the sample image. In the first method, super-resolution algorithm is applied with the low resolution holograms to get the high resolution hologram. Then the high resolution hologram is reconstructed using auto-focusing algorithm to get the high resolution sample image. In the second method, the raw holograms are directly reconstructed to get a set of low resolution sample images, then the super-resolution algorithm is applied to get the high resolution sample image. We observed that the above mentioned two methods can get similar results in both numerical stimulation and experiments. We believe that the combination of pixel super-resolution algorithm and digital in-line holography can be very useful to implement a compact low-cost microscope with high resolution.

  7. Lensless microscope based on iterative in-line holographic reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jigang

    2014-11-01

    We propose a lensless microscopic imaging technique based on iteration algorithm with known constraint for image reconstruction in digital in-line holography. In our method, we introduce a constraint on the sample plane as known part in the lensless microscopy for iteration algorithm in order to eliminate the twin-image effect of holography and thus lead to better performance on microscopic imaging. We evaluate our method by numerical simulation and built a prototype in-line holographic imaging system and demonstrated its capability by preliminary experiments. In our proposed setup, a carefully designed photomask used to hold the sample is under illumination of a coherent light source. The in-line hologram is then recorded by a CMOS sensor. In the reconstruction, the known information of the illumination beam and the photomask is used as constraints in the iteration process. The improvement of image quality because of suppression of twin-images can be clearly seen by comparing the images obtained by direct holographic reconstruction and our iterative method.

  8. Characterization of a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Yan, Aimin; Li, Yuhua; Wong, Molly D.; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this research, a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype was developed and characterized through quantitative investigations and phantom studies. Methods: The prototype system consists of an x-ray source, a motorized rotation stage, and a CMOS detector with a pixel pitch of 0.05 mm. The x-ray source was operated at 120 kVp for this study, and the objects were mounted on the rotation stage 76.2 cm (R1) from the source and 114.3 cm (R2) from the detector. The large air gap between the object and detector guarantees sufficient phase-shift effects. The quantitative evaluation of this prototype included modulation transfer function and noise power spectrum measurements conducted under both projection mode and tomosynthesis mode. Phantom studies were performed including three custom designed phantoms with complex structures: a five-layer bubble wrap phantom, a fishbone phantom, and a chicken breast phantom with embedded fibrils and mass structures extracted from an ACR phantom. In-plane images of the phantoms were acquired to investigate their image qualities through observation, intensity profile plots, edge enhancement evaluations, and/or contrast-to-noise ratio calculations. In addition, the robust phase-attenuation duality (PAD)-based phase retrieval method was applied to tomosynthesis for the first time in this research. It was utilized as a preprocessing method to fully exhibit phase contrast on the angular projection before reconstruction. Results: The resolution and noise characteristics of this high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype were successfully investigated and demonstrated. The phantom studies demonstrated that this imaging prototype can successfully remove the structure overlapping in phantom projections, obtain delineate interfaces, and achieve better contrast-to-noise ratio after applying phase retrieval to the angular projections. Conclusions: This research successfully demonstrated a high-energy in-line

  9. Characterization of a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Yan, Aimin; Li, Yuhua; Wong, Molly D; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-05-01

    In this research, a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype was developed and characterized through quantitative investigations and phantom studies. The prototype system consists of an x-ray source, a motorized rotation stage, and a CMOS detector with a pixel pitch of 0.05 mm. The x-ray source was operated at 120 kVp for this study, and the objects were mounted on the rotation stage 76.2 cm (R1) from the source and 114.3 cm (R2) from the detector. The large air gap between the object and detector guarantees sufficient phase-shift effects. The quantitative evaluation of this prototype included modulation transfer function and noise power spectrum measurements conducted under both projection mode and tomosynthesis mode. Phantom studies were performed including three custom designed phantoms with complex structures: a five-layer bubble wrap phantom, a fishbone phantom, and a chicken breast phantom with embedded fibrils and mass structures extracted from an ACR phantom. In-plane images of the phantoms were acquired to investigate their image qualities through observation, intensity profile plots, edge enhancement evaluations, and/or contrast-to-noise ratio calculations. In addition, the robust phase-attenuation duality (PAD)-based phase retrieval method was applied to tomosynthesis for the first time in this research. It was utilized as a preprocessing method to fully exhibit phase contrast on the angular projection before reconstruction. The resolution and noise characteristics of this high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype were successfully investigated and demonstrated. The phantom studies demonstrated that this imaging prototype can successfully remove the structure overlapping in phantom projections, obtain delineate interfaces, and achieve better contrast-to-noise ratio after applying phase retrieval to the angular projections. This research successfully demonstrated a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis

  10. In-line fiber optic interferometric sensors in single-mode fibers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Wu, Di; Liu, Min; Duan, De-Wen

    2012-01-01

    In-line fiber optic interferometers have attracted intensive attention for their potential sensing applications in refractive index, temperature, pressure and strain measurement, etc. Typical in-line fiber-optic interferometers are of two types: Fabry-Perot interferometers and core-cladding-mode interferometers. It's known that the in-line fiber optic interferometers based on single-mode fibers can exhibit compact structures, easy fabrication and low cost. In this paper, we review two kinds of typical in-line fiber optic interferometers formed in single-mode fibers fabricated with different post-processing techniques. Also, some recently reported specific technologies for fabricating such fiber optic interferometers are presented.

  11. a Numerical Study of Unsteady Fluid Flow in In-Line and Staggered Tube Banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, S. B.; Spalding, D. B.

    1999-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the results of numerical calculations for transient flow in in-line-square and rotated-square tube banks with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 2:1, in the Reynolds number range of 30-3000. Transient-periodic behaviour is induced by the consideration of two or more modules, with a sinusoidal span-wise perturbation being applied in the upstream module. There is a triode-like effect, whereby the downstream response to the stimulus is amplified, and there is a net gain in the crosswise flow component. When an appropriate feedback mechanism is provided, a stable transient behaviour is obtained, with alternate vortices being shed from each cylinder. Flow visualization studies of the results of the calculations are presented together with quantitative details of pressure drop, lift, drag and heat transfer. For the staggered bank, a wake-switching or Coanda effect was observed as the serpentine-shaped wake attached to alternate sides of the downstream cylinder. The induced response is independent of the amplitude and frequency of the applied disturbance, including the case of spontaneous behaviour with no excitation mechanism. For the in-line case where each cylinder is in the shadow of the previous one, the motion is less pronounced; however, a shear-layer instability associated with the alternating spin of shed vortices was observed. In this case, the response was found to be somewhat dependent on the frequency of the applied disturbance, and a transient motion could not be induced spontaneously in the absence of an explicit feedback mechanism. Calculated Strouhal numbers were in fair agreement with experimental data: for the staggered geometry, they had values of between 0.26 and 0.35, or from -21 to +6% higher than measured values, while for the in-line geometry, the Strouhal numbers ranged between 0.09 and 0.12, or about 20-40% lower than experimental values.

  12. TCP Congestion Control Mechanisms for Achieving Predictable Throughput Using Inline Network Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Go; Yamanegi, Kana; Murata, Masayuki

    Recently, real-time media delivery services such as video streaming and VoIP have rapidly become popular. For these applications requiring high-level QoS guarantee, our research group has proposed a transport-layer approach to provide predictable throughput for upper-layer applications. In the present paper, we propose a congestion control mechanism of TCP for achieving predictable throughput. It does not mean we can guarantee the throughput, while we can provide the throughput required by an upper-layer application at high probability when network congestion level is not so high by using the inline network measurement technique for available bandwidth of the network path. We present the evaluation results for the proposed mechanism obtained in simulation and implementation experiments, and confirm that the proposed mechanism can assure a TCP throughput if the required bandwidth is not so high compared to the physical bandwidth, even when other ordinary TCP (e.g., TCP Reno) connections occupy the link.

  13. The Impact of Surface Friction on Boundary Layer Separation for Different Mountain Flow Regimes: An Analysis Based on Large-Eddy-Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachsperger, Johannes; Serafin, Stefano; Grubišić, Vanda

    2014-05-01

    Boundary layer separation (BLS) may occur when a strong external adverse pressure gradient force is imposed on the boundary layer flow, leading to detachment of streamlines from the surface due to a strong deceleration of the flow within the boundary layer. This process commonly occurs at the salient edge of very sharp obstacles. In stably stratified flows pressure perturbations strong enough to cause BLS can also be induced by internal gravity waves. A well-known phenomenon related to wave-induced BLS is that of atmospheric rotors that form on the lee side of mountain ranges. Rotors are boundary-layer zones characterized by strong turbulence, surface wind reversals, large values of spanwise vorticity and neutral stability. Due to the high intensity of turbulence, atmospheric rotors are known to pose a hazard for general aviation and road traffic and can significantly impact the energy yield of wind parks in mountainous terrain. Hence, the onset of BLS and formation of rotors have been extensively investigated in recent years. However, only a few systematic studies of the processes involved in the formation of rotors are available in the literature. In this study, the CM1 model is used to explore the impact of different mountain flow regimes (from hydrostatic to non-hydrostatic and from weakly to strongly non-linear) and the surface exchange coefficient for momentum on the size and strength of rotors. In addition to that, a feedback mechanism of BLS onto the larger-scale flow is investigated. The results show that the governing flow regime has a strong impact on the strength and size of atmospheric rotors, whereas friction mainly influences the rotor interior structure. The most intense rotors, as measured by the strength of surface reversed flow, are found to occur in strongly non-linear and non-hydrostatic flows. The largest rotors instead do not necessarily occur in the strongest non-linear flow regime, in which the largest amplitudes of mountain waves are to be

  14. Separating liquid and solid products of liquefaction of coal or like carbonaceous materials

    DOEpatents

    Malek, John M.

    1979-06-26

    Slurryform products of coal liquefaction are treated with caustic soda in presence of H.sub.2 O in an inline static mixer and then the treated product is separated into a solids fraction and liquid fractions, including liquid hydrocarbons, by gravity settling preferably effected in a multiplate settling separator with a plurality of settling spacings.

  15. Effect of Reynolds Number and Periodic Unsteady Wake Flow Condition on Boundary Layer Development, Separation, and Re-attachment along the Suction Surface of a Low Pressure Turbine Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozturk, B.; Schobeiri, M. T.; Ashpis, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The paper experimentally studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds numbers on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experimental investigations were performed on a large scale, subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility at Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL) of Texas A&M University. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 110,000 and 150,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). One steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities were investigated. The reduced frequencies chosen cover the operating range of LP turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, surface pressure measurements were performed. The inception, onset, and the extent of the separation bubble information collected from the pressure measurements were compared with the hot wire measurements. The results presented in ensemble-averaged, and the contour plot forms help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds number. It was found that the suction surface displayed a strong separation bubble for these three different reduced frequencies. For each condition, the locations defining the separation bubble were determined carefully analyzing and examining the pressure and mean velocity profile data. The location of the boundary layer separation was dependent of the Reynolds number. It is observed that starting point of the separation bubble and the re-attachment point move further downstream by increasing Reynolds number from 110,000 to 150,000. Also, the size of the separation bubble is smaller when compared to that for Re=110,000.

  16. Safety shutdown separators

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  17. Novel in-line effective fiber polarizer based on chromium and gold nano metal films: design and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyaei, Bahareh; Panahi, Omid; Malekmohamadi, Sedighe; Mousavi, Mahdi; Mardiha, Mahdi; Kheyrollahi, Mehrdad

    2017-01-01

    The performance of the magnesium fluoride/chromium/gold in-line fiber optic polarizer on the thickness of magnesium fluoride buffer layer and chromium metal thin film was theoretically investigated. To prove the theoretical study, the magnesium fluoride/chromium/gold polarizer was made based on the simulation results. The obtained polarizer showed an extinction ratio of about 40 dB which is in a good agreement with the theoretical result at the corresponding thicknesses. Both theoretical and experimental results showed that by covering the side polished single mode fiber with the optimum layer thicknesses, a novel and an efficient fiber polarizer with the high extinction ratio could be obtained. This is the first time that this type of polarizer has been made.

  18. In-line digital holography with double knife edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Claudio; Iemmi, Claudio; Campos, Juan

    2015-06-01

    We study and test a new technique for in-line digital holography which avoids the formation of the conjugate images. Inline digital holography is based in a common path configuration. In this case, the hologram is produced by the interference between the reference wave front and the diffracted wave front by an almost transparent object. Twin images are obtained with obscured rings that difficult the determination of the best focusing plane. To avoid the conjugated image, the information of the magnitude and phase of the wave front are needed. In a recent work a new in-line digital holography technique was proposed. In this method the object is illuminated with a collimated wave front. A plane, close to the particles distribution is imaged onto a CCD by means of a convergent lens and at the same time, a knife edge is placed in the focal plane of the lens in order to block half of spatial frequency spectrum. In this way, by means of a numerical processing performed on the Fourier plane, it is possible to eliminate one of the components (real or conjugate) of the reconstructed images nevertheless it is observed a tiny deformation of the resulting hologram image. To compensate this effect, we propose a new configuration in which we implement the knife edge technique on both parts of the spectrum at the same time. Finally in the computer, we process the holograms to build one complete without deformation. This hologram is used to recover the wave front at different planes without the influence of the conjugate image.

  19. Compact in-line laser radial shear interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, R. P.; Moghbel, M.; Venkateswarlu, P.

    1992-01-01

    A compact in-line radial shearing interferometer using laser as a light source is presented. The interferometer is made out of a cube-type beam splitter so that the two opposite surfaces are generated with different curvatures while the normal to the entrance and exit surfaces are in the same line. The interferometer is simple to make and easy to align. Aberration analysis of the interferometer is also presented. Some applications of the interferometer for testing lenses and infrared optical systems and for accessing the quality of an emerging wave front from the exit slit of a monochromator are suggested.

  20. Final Technical Report - In-line Uranium Immunosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Diane A.

    2006-07-05

    In this project, personnel at Tulane University and Sapidyne Instruments Inc. developed an in-line uranium immunosensor that could be used to determine the efficacy of specific in situ biostimulation approaches. This sensor was designed to operate autonomously over relatively long periods of time (2-10 days) and was able to provide near real-time data about uranium immobilization in the absence of personnel at the site of the biostimulation experiments. An alpha prototype of the in-line immmunosensor was delivered from Sapidyne Instruments to Tulane University in December of 2002 and a beta prototype was delivered in November of 2003. The beta prototype of this instrument (now available commercially from Sapidyne Instruments) was programmed to autonomously dilute standard uranium to final concentrations of 2.5 to 100 nM (0.6 to 24 ppb) in buffer containing a fluorescently labeled anti-uranium antibody and the uranium chelator, 2,9-dicarboxyl-1,10-phenanthroline. The assay limit of detection for hexavalent uranium was 5.8 nM or 1.38 ppb. This limit of detection is well below the drinking water standard of 30 ppb recently promulgated by the EPA. The assay showed excellent precision; the coefficients of variation (CV’s) in the linear range of the assay were less than 5% and CV’s never rose above 14%. Analytical recovery in the immunosensors-based assay was assessed by adding variable known quantities of uranium to purified water samples. A quantitative recovery (93.75% - 108.17%) was obtained for sample with concentrations from 7.5 to 20 nM (2-4.75 ppb). In August of 2005 the sensor was transported to Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for testing of water samples at the Criddle test site (see Wu et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 40:3978-3985 2006 for a description of this site). In this first on-site test, the in-line sensor was able to accurately detect changes in the concentrations of uranium in effluent samples from this site. Although the absolute values for the

  1. Simple refractometer based on in-line fiber interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, Ó.; Martínez Manuel, R.; Shlyagin, M. G.

    2015-09-01

    A very simple but accurate optical fiber refractometer based on the Fresnel reflection in the fiber tip and two in-line low-reflective mirrors for light intensity referencing is reported. Each mirror was generated by connecting together 2 fiber sections with FC/PC and FC/APC connectors using the standard FC/PC mating sleeve. For the sensor interrogation, a standard DFB diode laser pumped with a sawtooth-wave current was used. A resolution of 6 x 10-4 was experimentally demonstrated using different liquids. A simple sensor construction and the use of low cost components make the reported system interesting for many applications.

  2. Lens-free in-line optical isolators.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Sun, J; Kasahara, R; Kawakami, S

    1999-10-01

    We constructed a lens-free in-line optical isolator by embedding an isolator chip in a thermally expanded core (TEC) fiber without complicated optical alignment. The chip consists of two pairs of rutile wedges and garnet plates. We fabricated the TEC fibers by heating a single-mode fiber with a 200-mum outer diameter; low loss and a spot diameter as large as 49 mum were successfully obtained. The fabricated isolator has excellent optical properties, an insertion loss of 0.45 dB, and an isolation of more than 50 dB at a 1.55-mum wavelength, which confirms the usefulness of the integration techniques.

  3. Digital in-line holography for biological applications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenbo; Jericho, M. H.; Meinertzhagen, I. A.; Kreuzer, H. J.

    2001-01-01

    Digital in-line holography with numerical reconstruction has been developed into a new tool, specifically for biological applications, that routinely achieves both lateral and depth resolution, at least at the micron level, in three-dimensional imaging. The experimental and numerical procedures have been incorporated into a program package with a very fast reconstruction algorithm that is now capable of real-time reconstruction. This capability is demonstrated for diverse objects, such as suspension of microspheres and biological samples (diatom, the head of Drosophila melanogaster), and the advantages are discussed by comparing holographic reconstructions with images taken by using conventional compound light microscopy. PMID:11572982

  4. Use of in-line inspection data for integrity management

    SciTech Connect

    Vieth, P.H.; Rust, S.W.; Ashworth, B.P.

    1999-07-01

    In-line inspection is a proven technology used by pipeline operators to monitor the integrity of their pipeline. The information provided by the inspection can be used to identify immediate integrity concerns and can be used in the development of long term integrity plans. This paper provides a case history of methods developed and implemented for one pipeline operator to ensure the short-term and long-term integrity of their pipelines. The focus of this paper is the use of high resolution magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection tools in the detection, and sizing, and assessment of corrosion-caused metal loss.

  5. Microbial population dynamics by digital in-line holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frentz, Zak; Kuehn, Seppe; Hekstra, Doeke; Leibler, Stanislas

    2010-08-01

    Measurements of population dynamics are ubiquitous in experiments with microorganisms. Studies with microbes elucidating adaptation, selection, and competition rely on measurements of changing populations in time. Despite this importance, quantitative methods for measuring population dynamics microscopically, with high time resolution, across many replicates remain limited. Here we present a new noninvasive method to precisely measure microbial spatiotemporal population dynamics based on digital in-line holographic (DIH) microscopy. Our inexpensive, replicate DIH microscopes imaged hundreds of swimming algae in three dimensions within a volume of several microliters on a time scale of minutes over periods of weeks.

  6. Fourier transform light scattering angular spectroscopy using digital inline holography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun

    2012-10-01

    A simple and practical method for measuring the angle-resolved light scattering (ARLS) from individual objects is reported. Employing the principle of inline holography and a Fourier transform light scattering technique, both the static and dynamic scattering patterns from individual micrometer-sized objects can be effectively and quantitatively obtained. First, the light scattering measurements were performed on individual polystyrene beads, from which the refractive index and diameter of each bead were retrieved. Also, the measurements of the static and dynamic light scattering from intact human red blood cells are demonstrated. Using the present method, an existing microscope can be directly transformed into a precise instrument for ARLS measurements.

  7. Lensless multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope.

    PubMed

    Ryle, James P; McDonnell, Susan; Sheridan, John T

    2011-12-01

    An compact multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope (DIHM) is developed that emulates Gabor's original holographic principle. Using sources of varying spatial coherence (laser, LED), holographic images of objects, including optical fiber, latex microspheres, and cancer cells, are successfully captured and numerically processed. Quantitative measurement of cell locations and percentage confluence are estimated, and pseudocolor images are also presented. Phase profiles of weakly scattering cells are obtained from the DIHM and are compared to those produced by a commercially available off-axis digital holographic microscope.

  8. Lensless multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryle, James P.; McDonnell, Susan; Sheridan, John T.

    2011-12-01

    An compact multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope (DIHM) is developed that emulates Gabor's original holographic principle. Using sources of varying spatial coherence (laser, LED), holographic images of objects, including optical fiber, latex microspheres, and cancer cells, are successfully captured and numerically processed. Quantitative measurement of cell locations and percentage confluence are estimated, and pseudocolor images are also presented. Phase profiles of weakly scattering cells are obtained from the DIHM and are compared to those produced by a commercially available off-axis digital holographic microscope.

  9. Microbial population dynamics by digital in-line holographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Frentz, Zak; Kuehn, Seppe; Hekstra, Doeke; Leibler, Stanislas

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of population dynamics are ubiquitous in experiments with microorganisms. Studies with microbes elucidating adaptation, selection, and competition rely on measurements of changing populations in time. Despite this importance, quantitative methods for measuring population dynamics microscopically, with high time resolution, across many replicates remain limited. Here we present a new noninvasive method to precisely measure microbial spatiotemporal population dynamics based on digital in-line holographic (DIH) microscopy. Our inexpensive, replicate DIH microscopes imaged hundreds of swimming algae in three dimensions within a volume of several microliters on a time scale of minutes over periods of weeks. PMID:20815617

  10. Microfabrication, separations, and detection by mass spectrometry on ultrathin-layer chromatography plates prepared via the low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride onto carbon nanotube templates.

    PubMed

    Kanyal, Supriya S; Häbe, Tim T; Cushman, Cody V; Dhunna, Manan; Roychowdhury, Tuhin; Farnsworth, Paul B; Morlock, Gertrud E; Linford, Matthew R

    2015-07-24

    Microfabrication of ultrathin-layer chromatography (UTLC) plates via conformal deposition of silicon nitride by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition onto patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) scaffolds was demonstrated. After removal of the CNTs and hydroxylation, the resulting UTLC phase showed no expansion or distortion of their microfeatures and the absence/reduction of remaining nitrogenic species. Developing time of a mixture of lipophilic dyes on this UTLC plates was 86% shorter than on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) plates. A water-soluble food dye mixture was also separated resulting in low band broadening and reduced developing time compared to HPTLC. For the latter example, mobile phase optimization on a single UTLC plate consisted of 14 developments with different mobile phases, each preceded by a plate prewashing step. The same plate was again reused for additional 11 separations under varying conditions resulting in a development procedure with a mean separation efficiency of 233,000theoretical plates/m and a reduced mobile phase consumption of only 400μL. This repeated use proved the physical robustness of the ultrathin layer and its resistance to damage. The layer was highly suited for hyphenation to ambient mass spectrometry, including desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging and direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry.

  11. Polymerase chain reaction-capillary electrophoresis genetic analysis microdevice with in-line affinity capture sample injection.

    PubMed

    Thaitrong, Numrin; Toriello, Nicholas M; Del Bueno, Nadia; Mathies, Richard A

    2009-02-15

    An integrated polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-capillary electrophoresis (CE) microdevice with an efficient in-line affinity-based injector has been developed for genetic analysis. Double stranded DNA PCR amplicons generated in an integrated 250 nL PCR reactor are captured, purified, and preconcentrated by an oligonucleotide probe immobilized in an in situ polymerized gel matrix followed by thermal release and injection into the CE-separation channel. This in-column injector employs a photopolymerized oligonucleotide-modified acrylamide capture gel to eliminate band broadening and increase the injection efficiency to 100%. The on-chip generated PCR amplicons processed on this microdevice exhibit a 3-5 fold increase in signal intensities and improved resolution compared to our previous T-shaped injector. Multiplex analysis of 191-bp amplicons from Escherichia coli O157 and 256-bp amplicons from E. coli K12 is achieved with a 6-fold increase in resolution. These advances are exploited to successfully detect E. coli O157 in a 500-fold higher background of E. coli K12. This microdevice with in-line affinity capture gel injection provides an improved platform for low-volume, high sensitivity, fully integrated genetic analysis.

  12. Raman spectroscopy for in-line and off-line quantification of poorly soluble drugs in strip films.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Ying, Ye; Pielecha-Safira, Barbara; Bilgili, Ecevit; Ramachandran, Rohit; Romañach, Rodolfo; Davé, Rajesh N; Iqbal, Zafar

    2014-11-20

    Raman spectroscopy was used as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for in-line measurement of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content during continuous manufacturing of strip films containing nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble APIs. Fenofibrate and naproxen were used as model APIs, whose concentrations ranged from 3% to 26% (w/w) in the model calibration. For both in-line and off-line measurements, calibration models employed partial least square (PLS) analysis, yielding correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.9946 and root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC) of about 0.44%, indicating the validity and accuracy of the calibration. The robustness of Raman spectroscopy as a PAT tool was established by considering three processing parameters after substrate interference correction: sensing location, substrate speed and film thickness. Calibration models for each API were validated using a separate batch of strip films by predicting the API concentrations to within ±1.3%. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to explain the interactions between processing variables and calibration models, which suggest that besides API concentration, film thickness could also be monitored using Raman spectroscopy. The results demonstrate the potential of Raman spectroscopy as an effective PAT tool for novel strip film manufacturing process, facilitating detection of drug form and concentration in real-time.

  13. Towards Fast In-line Measurement of Water Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J.; Andreasen, M. B.; Pedersen, M.; Rasmussen, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    Water activity is widely used as a key parameter in controlling the quality of food and feed products, among others. For determining the water activity, the material is sampled from the manufacturing process and measured in the laboratory with water activity analyzers. The sampling procedure can lead to non-representative measurements, the measurement process is time consuming, and much of the produced material may be wasted before the measurement results are available. To reduce waste and to be able to optimize production processes, industry requires in-line measurement of relevant quality determining parameters, hereunder the water activity. In cooperation with a manufacturer of systems for automatic in-line sampling and measurement of moisture, density, and the size of items, a project was defined to also enable the manufacturer's existing products to perform automatic measurement of the water activity in a sample. The aim was to develop a measurement system with the ability to operate in an industrial environment, which in the end would increase the measurement speed significantly and minimize the problems related to the handling of samples. In the paper the selection and characterization of the sensors, the design of a measurement chamber, and various issues of modeling and methods to reduce measurement time are discussed. The paper also presents water activity measurements obtained from food and feed products with the system, and shows that reliable results can be obtained in a few minutes with a proper design of the measurement chamber and selection of a model.

  14. Inline quality prognosis of material condition induced process variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzler, Felix A.; Wortberg, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    The main variation in a good quality production are induced by material condition. Processing technical polymers like PA, ABS or PBT possible influences are residual moisture conditions of the material or minor variations of raw material charges. Small changes in the material properties are difficult to detect at first quality controls and can be within the property tolerances. But even these small differences cause defects. The effects range from viscosity variations to varied crystalline properties. The influence of material properties on the processing have to be detected inline and combined with material analysis to a quality prognosis. The equipped sensors at injection molding machines enable an adequate process performance. The recently available solutions for power consumption monitoring enhance the available process control opportunities. Because of the high process speed of injection molding machines, the required sampling rate has to be minimal 500 Hz. A setup of high bandwidth data processing linked to the machine control enables precise characterization of the production. Identified index numbers, energetic data and characteristic development of measured process figures enable a high resolution detection of material induced variations. This prognosis enables inline classification of the produced parts and a compensation by correlating quality requirements with adjusted filling and packing parameters.

  15. In-line particle field holography at Pegasus

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, D.S.; Obst, A.; King, N.S.P.

    1995-09-01

    An in-line holographic imaging system has been developed for hydrodynamic experiments at the Pegasus facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Holography offers the unique capability to record distributions of particles over a three dimensional volume. The system to be discussed is used to measure particle distributions of ejecta emitted after a cylindrical aluminum liner (5.0 cm in diameter, 2.0 cm high) impacts a target (3.0 cm in diameter). The ejecta emerges from the target traveling up to 7mm/{micro}s and moves toward the axial center of the system where the holographic imaging is performed. In-line holography is particularly suited for the Pegasus pulsed power facility where the geometry restrictions make off axis holography impractical. In order to record the fast moving particles a frequency-doubled Nd:-YAG laser system has been implemented which produces a 80 ps 20 millijoule pulse at 532 nm. An optical relay system composed of a Fourier optical lens pair has been developed which is placed 4.0 cm from the center of the region of interest. This relay lens pair forms an intermediate image 32 cm from the object plane and the hologram is placed 4cm downstream of the intermediate image. The holographic system and resolution capability are discussed.

  16. In-line ultrasonic monitoring of waste slurry suspended solids

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, H.-T.; Sheen, S.-H.; Raptis, A. C.

    2000-05-25

    During the transport of tank waste, it is very important to quantitatively measure the percent solids concentration (PSC) of the waste, which indicates the flow conditions and the extent of solids settling. At Argonne National Laboratory, an in-line, real-time, a nonintrusive ultrasonic monitoring system has been developed to measure the PSC and flow density of tank waste by measuring sound velocity and attenuation in the flow. This system consists of a pair of longitudinal transducers bonded to waveguides on the opposite sides of the pipe and operating at IMHz simultaneously in pulse-and-echo and pitch-and-catch modes. The PSC measurement is provided by attenuation, while the density measurement is calculated by impedance and sound velocity. A thermocouple is attached to one of the waveguides for automatic temperature correction of the measurements. This system was one of four evaluated for in-line measurement of slurry at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1998. The results indicate that the measurements are in good agreement with a Coriolis meter and that the system can be used to monitor PSC up to 40 wt.%. However, the system is greatly affected by entrained air bubbles within the solid flow during Puisair mixing. A different mixing mechanism will solve this problem.

  17. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOEpatents

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  18. Automated Process Initialization of Laser Surface Structuring Processes by Inline Process Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R.; Mallmann, G.; Winands, K.; Pothen, M.

    Laser micro machining as well as laser surface structuring are innovative manufacturing technologies with a wide range of machinable materials and a high level of flexibility. These techniques are characterized by different machine, workpiece and environmental parameters. The large amount of process dependencies lead however to a time consuming process initialization and a complex process control. Currently no automated solution exists to achieve material specific process parameters, nor does a sufficient inline process control exist to adapt processing parameters or strategies inline. Therefore a novel scanner based inline metrology solution and an automated process initialization strategy has been developed.

  19. Evaluation of in-line electron beam system requirements and capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Galloway, R.

    2004-09-01

    Medical device manufacturers have recently began to study and implement in-line electron beam irradiators for device sterilization instead of relying heavily on centralized locations serving multiple manufacturing sites. Before deciding to install such a system, the sterilization needs should be systematically considered. The evaluation includes Technical specifications for in-line systems, including energy requirements balanced against size and shielding requirements. Economics of in-line systems, balancing capital expenditure and increased operational costs at a single location versus costs of transporting products to the central location and the operational costs, including institutional and quality assurance requirements on operating a system.

  20. Accurate in-line CD metrology for nanometer semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perng, Baw-Ching; Shieh, Jyu-Horng; Jang, S.-M.; Liang, M.-S.; Huang, Renee; Chen, Li-Chien; Hwang, Ruey-Lian; Hsu, Joe; Fong, David

    2006-03-01

    The need for absolute accuracy is increasing as semiconductor-manufacturing technologies advance to sub-65nm nodes, since device sizes are reducing to sub-50nm but offsets ranging from 5nm to 20nm are often encountered. While TEM is well-recognized as the most accurate CD metrology, direct comparison between the TEM data and in-line CD data might be misleading sometimes due to different statistical sampling and interferences from sidewall roughness. In this work we explore the capability of CD-AFM as an accurate in-line CD reference metrology. Being a member of scanning profiling metrology, CD-AFM has the advantages of avoiding e-beam damage and minimum sample damage induced CD changes, in addition to the capability of more statistical sampling than typical cross section metrologies. While AFM has already gained its reputation on the accuracy of depth measurement, not much data was reported on the accuracy of CD-AFM for CD measurement. Our main focus here is to prove the accuracy of CD-AFM and show its measuring capability for semiconductor related materials and patterns. In addition to the typical precision check, we spent an intensive effort on examining the bias performance of this CD metrology, which is defined as the difference between CD-AFM data and the best-known CD value of the prepared samples. We first examine line edge roughness (LER) behavior for line patterns of various materials, including polysilicon, photoresist, and a porous low k material. Based on the LER characteristics of each patterning, a method is proposed to reduce its influence on CD measurement. Application of our method to a VLSI nanoCD standard is then performed, and agreement of less than 1nm bias is achieved between the CD-AFM data and the standard's value. With very careful sample preparations and TEM tool calibration, we also obtained excellent correlation between CD-AFM and TEM for poly-CDs ranging from 70nm to 400nm. CD measurements of poly ADI and low k trenches are also

  1. Separation and tentative identification of the main pigment fraction of raisins by thin-layer chromatography-Fourier transform infrared and high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Cserháti, T; Forgács, E; Candeias, M; Vilas-Boas, L; Bronze, R; Spranger, I

    2000-04-01

    The soluble color pigments of raisin are separated by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and the capacity of TLC-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) with both on-line and off-line coupling is assessed for the identification of the main fraction. TLC has also been used as a pilot technique for the development of a gradient elution method for the separation of pigments by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). On-line TLC-FTIR cannot be used for identification because of the strong adsorbance of the stationary phase. Off-line TLC-FTIR combined with the retention behavior of the main pigment fraction indicates that it is a polymer, caramel-like compound composed of erythrose and fructose monomers. Baseline separation of pigments is achieved by HPLC using TLC as a pilot method.

  2. In-line determination of the conversion in acrylate coatings after UV curing using near-infrared reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherzer, Tom; Müller, Sabine; Mehnert, Reiner; Volland, Arne; Lucht, Hartmut

    2005-07-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) reflection spectroscopy was used to determine the conversion of acrylic double bonds after UV photopolymerization. Quantitative analysis of the spectra was performed with chemometric methods using FTIR spectroscopy for calibration. Moreover, it was shown that the calibration of the PLS algorithm can also be performed directly to specific properties of the coatings such as their hardness which responds extremely sensitively even to small changes of the conversion. In-line monitoring of the conversion by NIR spectroscopy was carried out for acrylate coatings with a thickness of some micrometers applied to polymer foils and panels and for thick layers of UV-curable adhesives on the basis of acrylic hot-melts. The effect of changes of the irradiation dose, the emission spectrum of the UV source and other parameters on the conversion was studied.

  3. Heterogeneous Pyrolysis: A Route for Epitaxial Growth of hBN Atomic Layers on Copper Using Separate Boron and Nitrogen Precursors.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Gene; Ciobanu, Cristian V; Narayanan, Badri; Snure, Michael; Badescu, Stefan C

    2017-04-12

    Growth of hBN on metal substrates is often performed via chemical vapor deposition from a single precursor (e.g., borazine) and results in hBN monolayers limited by the substrates catalyzing effect. Departing from this paradigm, we demonstrate close control over the growth of mono-, bi-, and trilayers of hBN on copper using triethylborane and ammonia as independent sources of boron and nitrogen. Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and reactive force field molecular dynamics, we show that the key factor enabling the growth beyond the first layer is the activation of ammonia through heterogeneous pyrolysis with boron-based radicals at the surface. The hBN layers grown are in registry with each other and assume a perfect or near perfect epitaxial relation with the substrate. From atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization, we observe a moiré superstructure in the first hBN layer with an apparent height modulation and lateral periodicity of ∼10 nm. While this is unexpected given that the moiré pattern of hBN/Cu(111) does not have a significant morphological corrugation, our DFT calculations reveal a spatially modulated interface dipole layer which determines the unusual AFM response. These findings have improved our understanding of the mechanisms involved in growth of hBN and may help generate new growth methods for applications in which control over the number of layers and their alignment is crucial (such as tunneling barriers, ultrathin capacitors, and graphene-based devices).

  4. In-line chemical sensor deployment in a tritium plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.S.; Hope, D.T.; Torres, R.D.; Peters, B.; Tovo, L.L.

    2015-03-15

    The Savannah River Tritium Plant (TP) relies on well understood but aging sensor technology for process gas analysis. The use of alternative sensing and detection technologies for in-line and real-time analysis would aid process control and optimization. The TP upgrading follows a 2-phase projects. In the first phase, TP sensing requirements were determined by a team of process experts. Meanwhile, Savannah River National Laboratory sensor experts identified candidate technologies and related them to the TP processing requirements. The resulting road-map links the candidate technologies to actual plant needs. In the second phase an instrument demonstration station was established within a TP glove box in order to provide accurate assessments of how a candidate sensor technology would perform in a contaminated process environment.

  5. Lensfree in-line holographic detection of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poher, V.; Allier, C. P.; Coutard, J. G.; Hervé, L.; Dinten, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    Due to low light scattering, bacteria are difficult to detect using lensless imaging systems. In order to detect individual bacteria, we report a method based on a thin wetting film imaging that produces a micro-lens effect on top of each bacterium when the sample dries up. The imaging using a high-end CMOS sensor is combined with an in-line holographic reconstruction to improve positive detection rate up to 95% with micron-sized beads at high density of ~103 objects/mm2. The system allows detecting from single bacterium to densely packed objects (103 bacteria/μl) within 10μl sample. As an example, E.coli, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringiensis, has been successfully detected with strong signal to noise ratio across a 24mm2 field of view.

  6. DOT`s perspective on in-line inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, L.W.

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Transportation and its Office of Pipeline Safety have been involved with in-line inspection (ILI) pigs since the construction of the Alaska crude oil pipeline in the early 1970s. Two Congressionally mandated reports concerning ILI pigs and a regulation requiring new and replaced pipe and components to be designed and constructed to accommodate ILI pigs have been issued by the Department. Although there is no present federal requirement to run ILI pigs, they are required by the Office of Pipeline Safety in selected compliance cases. The Department will continue to use ILI pigs in compliance cases. It also supports future ILI pig research, and the use of ILI pig surveys incorporated in any pipeline operator`s future risk management plans developed as safety alternatives to the established pipeline safety regulations. The Department also in the future may require ILI pigs to be run on some pipelines.

  7. DOT`s perspective on in-line inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, L.W.

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Transportation (DOT) and its Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) have been involved with in-line inspection (ILI) pigs since the construction of the Alaska crude oil pipeline. Congressionally mandated reports concerning ILI pigs, and a regulation requiring new and replaced pipe and components be designed and constructed to accommodate ILI pigs, were issued by DOT. DOT also may mandate ILI pigs to be run on some pipelines. There is no current federal requirement to run ILI pigs. They are required by OPS in selected compliance cases. DOT supports future ILI pig research. The use of ILI pig surveys, incorporated in pipeline operators` future risk management plans developed as safety alternatives to the established pipeline safety regulations, will be supported.

  8. IEMDC - In-Line Electric Motor Driven Compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Crowley

    2004-03-31

    This report covers the fifth quarter (01/01/04 to 03/31/04) of the In-Line Electric Motor Driven Compressor (IEMDC) project. Design efforts on the IEMDC continued with compressor efforts focused on performing aerodynamic analyses. These analyses were conducted using computational fluid dynamics. Compressor efforts also entailed developing mechanical designs of components through the use of solid models and working on project deliverables. Electric motor efforts focused on the design of the magnetic bearing system, motor pressure housing, and the motor-compressor interface. The mechanical evaluation of the main interface from both the perspective of the compressor manufacturer and electric motor manufacturer indicates that an acceptable design has been achieved. All mechanical and aerodynamic design efforts have resulted in considerable progress being made towards the completion of the compressor and electric motor design and towards the successful completion of the IEMDC unit.

  9. In-line flow control blocks risky leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    Excess flow valves work alone or in conjunction with expensive monitoring equipment to prevent accidental releases of hazardous materials. Recently in Boynton Beach, Florida, 500 pounds of chlorine gas was accidentally released from a water treatment plant. This accident forced the 4,000 residents of Boynton Beach to evacuate their homes. Area schools also shut down as the cloud drifted west and another 1,000 residents left the area. Investigators blamed the chlorine gas leak on a line failure. The chlorine ate a hole in a copper plug in a gas regulator. Workers were unable to detect the leak until it became dangerous. The in-line device stops accidental releases used in process flow industries. The operation of the valve and applications are discussed.

  10. Embedded Doppler system for industrial in-line rheometry.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Stefano; Liard, Maxime; Birkhofer, Beat; Lootens, Didier; Bruhwiler, Armin; Tortoli, Piero

    2012-07-01

    Rheological fluid behavior characterization is crucial for the industrial production of cosmetics, food, pharmaceutics, adhesive, sealants, etc. For example, the measurement of specific rheological features at every step of the production chain is critical for product quality control. Such measurements are often limited to laboratory tests on product specimens because of technical difficulties. In this work, we present an embedded system suitable for in-line rheometric evaluation of highly filled polyurethane-based adhesives. This system includes an ultrasound front-end and a digital signal processing section integrated in a low-cost field-programmable gate array. The system measures the real-time velocity profile developed in the pipe by the fluid, employing a Doppler multigate technique. The high-resolution velocity profile, combined with a pressure drop measurement, allows an accurate evaluation of the flow consistency index, K, and the flow behavior index, n, of the interrogated fluid.

  11. In-line unit for large-scale condensate pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Tazetdinov, A.G.

    1983-09-01

    An in-line unit has been tested in the VNIIAEN for a screw centrifugal stage, Three alternative preincorporated axial impellers designed by the Voznesenskii-Pekin method for the sleeve action were tested with two types of centrifugal impellers. The optimum values of relative vortex current, mean peripheral component of the absolute velocity, and mean peripheral velocity are obtained. The existence of an optimum value for the mean relative vortex is explained. Results of tests lead to the design of a third alternative CI and AI No. 4 as specified. As a result of the tests, a screw centrifugal state with high energy and cavitational indices, a unit needed for the development of large scale condensate pumps, was obtained.

  12. In-line balanced detection stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Crisafi, Francesco; Kumar, Vikas; Scopigno, Tullio; Marangoni, Marco; Cerullo, Giulio; Polli, Dario

    2017-09-06

    We introduce a novel configuration for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, called In-line Balanced Detection (IBD), which employs a birefringent plate to generate a time-delayed polarization-multiplexed collinear replica of the probe, acting as a reference. Probe and reference cross the sample at the same position, thus maintaining their balance during image acquisition. IBD can be implemented in any conventional SRS setup, by adding a few simple elements, bringing its sensitivity close to the shot-noise limit even with a noisy laser. We tested IBD with a fiber-format laser system and observed signal-to-noise ratio improvement by up to 30 dB.

  13. Inline SAW RFID tag using time position and phase encoding.

    PubMed

    Härmä, Sanna; Arthur, Wesley G; Hartmann, Clinton S; Maev, Roman G; Plessky, Victor P

    2008-08-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags are encoded according to partial reflections of an interrogation signal by short metal reflectors. The standard encryption method involves time position encoding that uses time delays of response signals. However, the data capacity of a SAW RFID tag can be significantly enhanced by extracting additional phase information from the tag responses. In this work, we have designed, using FEM-BEM simulations, and fabricated, on 128 degrees -LiNbO3, inline 2.44-GHz SAW RFID tag samples that combine time position and phase encoding. Each reflective echo has 4 possible time positions and a phase of 0 degrees , -90 degrees , -180 degrees , or -270 degrees. This corresponds to 16 different states, i.e., 4 bits of data, per code reflector. In addition to the enhanced data capacity, our samples also exhibit a low loss level of -38 dB for code reflections.

  14. Point Source Digital In-Line Holographic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jericho, Manfred H.; Jürgen Kreuzer, H.

    Point source digital in-line holography with numerical reconstruction has been developed into a new microscopy, specifically for microfluidic and biological applications, that routinely achieves both lateral and depth resolution at the submicron level in 3-D imaging. This review will cover the history of this field and give details of the theoretical and experimental background. Numerous examples from microfluidics and biology will demonstrate the capabilities of this new microscopy. The motion of many objects such as living cells in water can be tracked in 3-D at subsecond rates. Microfluidic applications include sedimentation of suspensions, fluid motion around micron-sized objects in channels, motion of spheres, and formation of bubbles. Immersion DIHM will be reviewed which effectively does holography in the UV. Lastly, a submersible version of the microscope will be introduced that allows the in situ study of marine life in real time in the ocean and shows images and films obtained in sea trials.

  15. Steel surface in-line inspection using machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hsiao-Wei; Lan, Yu-Ying; Lee, Han-Wen; Liu, Ding-Kun

    2016-07-01

    A roll of steel might have various defects of scratch, stains, and chisel mark after slitting process. However, the traditional steel surface inspection method is via the human inspection that not only takes amount of time but also causes inconsistent inspection consequences. As a result, this paper proposed an in-line visual inspection hardware and software system. The hardware is composed of upper and lower optical module. The defect inspection algorithm includes automatic region of interesting (ROI) searching and defect detection by using Sobel method. Experimentations revealed that the successful detection rate is up to 80% and the inspection speed of per image with 3K in width and 1K in length is less than 80 milliseconds. The contribution is that the proposed method can provide suitable inspection results of the steel surface defect and meet the steel industry demands.

  16. Coexistence of magnetism and superconductivity in separate layers of the iron-based superconductor Li1 -xFex(OH ) Fe1 -ySe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, C. V.; Kirschner, F. K. K.; Blundell, S. J.; Baker, P. J.; Woodruff, D. N.; Schild, F.; Sun, H.; Clarke, S. J.

    2017-04-01

    The magnetic properties attributed to the hydroxide layer of Li1 -xFex(OH )Fe1 -ySe have been elucidated by the study of superconducting and nonsuperconducting members of this family of compounds. Both ac magnetometry and muon spin relaxation measurements of nonsuperconductors find a magnetic state existing below ≈10 K which exhibits slow relaxation of magnetization. This magnetic state is accompanied by a low-temperature heat capacity anomaly present in both superconducting and nonsuperconducting variants suggesting that the magnetism persists into the superconducting state. The estimated value of magnetic moment present within the hydroxide layer supports a picture of a glassy magnetic state, probably comprising clusters of iron ions of varying cluster sizes distributed within the lithium hydroxide layer.

  17. Multiscale analysis of the effect of micro-phase separation on the charge transfer at the PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM layer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min

    2015-09-01

    The influence of micro phase behavior on the charge transfer at the interface between PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM layers was studied using multiscale analysis. Calculated Flory- Huggins parameters indicated that the PEDOT attracts P3HT and repulses PCBM that agrees well with the experimental observation of the development of P3HT rich interface during the BHJ layer formation. Based on the calculated Flory-Huggins parameters, mesoscale DPD simulations were conducted for PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM layers. Results were mapped to the CG (coarse grained) and then atomistic scales where atomistic details of the interface were studied. The density of nonbonding close contacts including that from reorientation between PEDOT and P3HT was quantified, vibronic coupling and carrier transfer efficiency were discussed.

  18. In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    De Caro, L.; Giannini, C.; Guagliardi, A.; Mocuta, C.; Metzger, T. H.; Cedola, A.; Burkeeva, I.; Lagomarsino, S.

    2008-02-15

    A Fresnel coherent diffraction imaging experiment with hard x rays is here presented, using two planar crossed waveguides as optical elements, leading to a virtual pointlike source. The coherent wave field obtained with this setup is used to illuminate a micrometric single object having the shape of a butterfly. A digital two-dimensional in-line holographic reconstruction of the unknown object at low resolution (200 nm) has been obtained directly via fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the raw data. The object and its twin image are well separated because suitable geometrical conditions are satisfied. A good estimate of the incident wave field phase has been extracted directly from the FFT of the raw data. A partial object reconstruction with 50 nm spatial resolution was achieved by fast iterative phase retrieval, the major limitation for a full reconstruction being the nonideal structure of the guided beam. The method offers a route for fast and reliable phase retrieval in x-ray coherent diffraction.

  19. Terahertz in-line digital holographic multiplane imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haochong; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Li, Weihua; Wang, Yunxin

    2017-05-01

    Terahertz waves of which frequency spans from 0.1 to 10 THz bridge the gap between the infrared spectrum and microwaves. Owing to the special features of terahertz wave, such as penetrability and non-ionizing, terahertz imaging technique is a very significant and important method for inspections and detections. Digital holography can reconstruct the amplitude and phase distributions of a sample without scanning and it already has many successful applications in the area of visible and infrared light. The terahertz in-line digital holographic multi-plane imaging system which is presented in this paper is the combination of a continuous-wave terahertz source and the in-line scheme of digital holography. In order to observe a three dimensional (3D) shape sample only a portion of which appears in good focus, the autofocusing algorithm is brought to the data process. The synthetic aperture method is also applied to provide the high resolution imaging effect in the terahertz waveband. Both intrinsic twin images and defocused objective images confuse the quality of the image in an individual reconstructed plane. In order to solve this issue, phase retrieval iteration algorithm is used for the reconstruction. In addition, the reconstructed amplitude image in each plane multiplies the mask of which the threshold depends on the values of the autofocusing curve. A sample with simple artificial structure is observed which verifies that the present method is an authentic tool to acquire the multi-plane information of a target in terahertz waves. It can expect a wide application in terahertz defect detecting, terahertz medical inspection and other important areas in the future.

  20. In-Line Fiber Optic Interferometric Sensors in Single-Mode Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tao; Wu, Di; Liu, Min; Duan, De-Wen

    2012-01-01

    In-line fiber optic interferometers have attracted intensive attention for their potential sensing applications in refractive index, temperature, pressure and strain measurement, etc. Typical in-line fiber-optic interferometers are of two types: Fabry-Perot interferometers and core-cladding-mode interferometers. It's known that the in-line fiber optic interferometers based on single-mode fibers can exhibit compact structures, easy fabrication and low cost. In this paper, we review two kinds of typical in-line fiber optic interferometers formed in single-mode fibers fabricated with different post-processing techniques. Also, some recently reported specific technologies for fabricating such fiber optic interferometers are presented. PMID:23112608

  1. Using MPEG- [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] at the Consumer Terminal in Broadcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearmain, Alan; Lalmas, Mounia; Moutogianni, Ekaterina; Papworth, Damien; Healey, Pat; Rölleke, Thomas

    2002-12-01

    The European Union IST research programme SAMBITS (System for Advanced Multimedia Broadcast and IT Services) project is using Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), the DVB Multimedia Home Platform (MHP) standard, MPEG- [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] and MPEG- [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] in a studio production and multimedia terminal system to integrate broadcast data and Internet data. This involves using data delivery over multiple paths and the use of a back channel for interaction. MPEG- [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is being used to identify programme content and to construct queries to allow users to identify and retrieve interesting related content. Searching for content is being carried out using the HySpirit search engine. The paper deals with terminal design issues, the use of MPEG- [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] for broadcasting applications and using a consumer broadcasting terminal for searching for material related to a broadcast.

  2. On the Solution of the Rational Matrix Equation[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Peter; Faßbender, Heike

    2007-12-01

    We study numerical methods for finding the maximal symmetric positive definite solution of the nonlinear matrix equation[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], where[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is symmetric positive definite and[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is nonsingular. Such equations arise for instance in the analysis of stationary Gaussian reciprocal processes over a finite interval. Its unique largest positive definite solution coincides with the unique positive definite solution of a related discrete-time algebraic Riccati equation (DARE). We discuss how to use the butterfly[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] algorithm to solve the DARE. This approach is compared to several fixed-point and doubling-type iterative methods suggested in the literature.

  3. In-line interferometer based on intermodal coupling of a multicore fiber.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Min-Seok; Lee, Sang-Bae; Han, Young-Geun

    2015-07-13

    An in-line interferometer based on the intermodal coupling of a multicore fiber (MCF) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The in-line interferometer is fabricated by adiabatically tapering the MCF. The intermodal coupling of the in-line interferometer is strongly affected by the waist diameter of the MCF, which changes the evanescent field and the pitch size. The effect of the waist diameters of the MCF on the intermodal coupling in the in-line interferometer is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The transmission oscillations of the multiple core modes resulting from the intermodal coupling and interference substantially become stronger as the waist diameter decreases. The extinction ratio and the oscillation periodicity of the transmissions oscillations are changed by the waist diameter.

  4. Examination of optimal separator shape of polymer electrolyte fuel cell with numerical analysis including the effect of gas flow through gas diffusion layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Gen; Matsukuma, Yosuke; Minemoto, Masaki

    This work concentrates on the effects of channel depth and separator shape on cell output performance, current density distribution and gas flow condition in various conditions with PEFC numerical analysis model including gas flow through GDL. When GDL effective porosity was small, the effect of gas flow through GDL which was changed by channel depth on cell output performance became large. However, current density distribution was ununiform. As GDL permeability became larger, cell output density increased, but current density and gas flow rate distribution were ununiform. From the results of changing the gas flow rate, it was found that the ratio of the minimum gas flow rate to the inlet flow rate depended on channel depth. Furthermore, the optimal separator, which increased output density and made the current density distribution and gas flow rate distribution uniform, was examined. It was also found that cell performance had possible to be developed by improving the turning point of the serpentine separator.

  5. Inline Monitoring of Free Water and Particulate Contamination of Jet A Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-10

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED INLINE MONITORING OF FREE WATER AND PARTICULATE CONTAMINATION OF JET A FUEL INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 466...world flow conditions. The sensors were subjected to a range of water and particulate contamination and the results were compared to standard...developmental, in-line fuel sensors under real-world flow conditions. The sensors were subjected to a range of water and particulate contamination

  6. Geometric Properties of Grassmannian Frames for[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] and[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, John J.; Kolesar, Joseph D.

    2006-12-01

    Grassmannian frames are frames satisfying a min-max correlation criterion. We translate a geometrically intuitive approach for two- and three-dimensional Euclidean space ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] and[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]) into a new analytic method which is used to classify many Grassmannian frames in this setting. The method and associated algorithm decrease the maximum frame correlation, and hence give rise to the construction of specific examples of Grassmannian frames. Many of the results are known by other techniques, and even more generally, so that this paper can be viewed as tutorial. However, our analytic method is presented with the goal of developing it to address unresovled problems in[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-dimensional Hilbert spaces which serve as a setting for spherical codes, erasure channel modeling, and other aspects of communications theory.

  7. RACORO Continental Boundary Layer Cloud Investigations: 3. Separation of Parameterization Biases in Single-Column Model CAM5 Simulations of Shallow Cumulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Wuyin; Liu, Yangang; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann; Endo, Satoshi; Song, Hua; Feng, Sha; Toto, Tami; Li, Zhijin; Zhang, Minghua

    2015-01-01

    Climatically important low-level clouds are commonly misrepresented in climate models. The FAst-physics System TEstbed and Research (FASTER) Project has constructed case studies from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plain site during the RACORO aircraft campaign to facilitate research on model representation of boundary-layer clouds. This paper focuses on using the single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (SCAM5) simulations of a multi-day continental shallow cumulus case to identify specific parameterization causes of low-cloud biases. Consistent model biases among the simulations driven by a set of alternative forcings suggest that uncertainty in the forcing plays only a relatively minor role. In-depth analysis reveals that the model's shallow cumulus convection scheme tends to significantly under-produce clouds during the times when shallow cumuli exist in the observations, while the deep convective and stratiform cloud schemes significantly over-produce low-level clouds throughout the day. The links between model biases and the underlying assumptions of the shallow cumulus scheme are further diagnosed with the aid of large-eddy simulations and aircraft measurements, and by suppressing the triggering of the deep convection scheme. It is found that the weak boundary layer turbulence simulated is directly responsible for the weak cumulus activity and the simulated boundary layer stratiform clouds. Increased vertical and temporal resolutions are shown to lead to stronger boundary layer turbulence and reduction of low-cloud biases.

  8. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations: 3. Separation of parameterization biases single-column model CAM5 simulations of shallow cumulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wuyin; Liu, Yangang; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann; Endo, Satoshi; Song, Hua; Feng, Sha; Toto, Tami; Li, Zhijin; Zhang, Minghua

    2015-06-01

    Climatically important low-level clouds are commonly misrepresented in climate models. The FAst-physics System TEstbed and Research (FASTER) Project has constructed case studies from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plain site during the RACORO aircraft campaign to facilitate research on model representation of boundary-layer clouds. This paper focuses on using the single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (SCAM5) simulations of a multi-day continental shallow cumulus case to identify specific parameterization causes of low-cloud biases. Consistent model biases among the simulations driven by a set of alternative forcings suggest that uncertainty in the forcing plays only a relatively minor role. In-depth analysis reveals that the model's shallow cumulus convection scheme tends to significantly under-produce clouds during the times when shallow cumuli exist in the observations, while the deep convective and stratiform cloud schemes significantly over-produce low-level clouds throughout the day. The links between model biases and the underlying assumptions of the shallow cumulus scheme are further diagnosed with the aid of large-eddy simulations and aircraft measurements, and by suppressing the triggering of the deep convection scheme. It is found that the weak boundary layer turbulence simulated is directly responsible for the weak cumulus activity and the simulated boundary layer stratiform clouds. Increased vertical and temporal resolutions are shown to lead to stronger boundary layer turbulence and reduction of low-cloud biases.

  9. RACORO Continental Boundary Layer Cloud Investigations: 3. Separation of Parameterization Biases in Single-Column Model CAM5 Simulations of Shallow Cumulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Wuyin; Liu, Yangang; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann; Endo, Satoshi; Song, Hua; Feng, Sha; Toto, Tami; Li, Zhijin; Zhang, Minghua

    2015-01-01

    Climatically important low-level clouds are commonly misrepresented in climate models. The FAst-physics System TEstbed and Research (FASTER) Project has constructed case studies from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plain site during the RACORO aircraft campaign to facilitate research on model representation of boundary-layer clouds. This paper focuses on using the single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (SCAM5) simulations of a multi-day continental shallow cumulus case to identify specific parameterization causes of low-cloud biases. Consistent model biases among the simulations driven by a set of alternative forcings suggest that uncertainty in the forcing plays only a relatively minor role. In-depth analysis reveals that the model's shallow cumulus convection scheme tends to significantly under-produce clouds during the times when shallow cumuli exist in the observations, while the deep convective and stratiform cloud schemes significantly over-produce low-level clouds throughout the day. The links between model biases and the underlying assumptions of the shallow cumulus scheme are further diagnosed with the aid of large-eddy simulations and aircraft measurements, and by suppressing the triggering of the deep convection scheme. It is found that the weak boundary layer turbulence simulated is directly responsible for the weak cumulus activity and the simulated boundary layer stratiform clouds. Increased vertical and temporal resolutions are shown to lead to stronger boundary layer turbulence and reduction of low-cloud biases.

  10. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. 3. Separation of parameterization biases in single-column model CAM5 simulations of shallow cumulus

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wuyin; Liu, Yangang; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann; Endo, Satoshi; Song, Hua; Feng, Sha; Toto, Tami; Li, Zhijin; Zhang, Minghua

    2015-06-19

    Climatically important low-level clouds are commonly misrepresented in climate models. The FAst-physics System TEstbed and Research (FASTER) project has constructed case studies from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plain site during the RACORO aircraft campaign to facilitate research on model representation of boundary-layer clouds. This paper focuses on using the single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (SCAM5) simulations of a multi-day continental shallow cumulus case to identify specific parameterization causes of low-cloud biases. Consistent model biases among the simulations driven by a set of alternative forcings suggest that uncertainty in the forcing plays only a relatively minor role. In-depth analysis reveals that the model's shallow cumulus convection scheme tends to significantly under-produce clouds during the times when shallow cumuli exist in the observations, while the deep convective and stratiform cloud schemes significantly over-produce low-level clouds throughout the day. The links between model biases and the underlying assumptions of the shallow cumulus scheme are further diagnosed with the aid of large-eddy simulations and aircraft measurements, and by suppressing the triggering of the deep convection scheme. It is found that the weak boundary layer turbulence simulated is directly responsible for the weak cumulus activity and the simulated boundary layer stratiform clouds. Increased vertical and temporal resolutions are shown to lead to stronger boundary layer turbulence and reduction of low-cloud biases.

  11. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. 3. Separation of parameterization biases in single-column model CAM5 simulations of shallow cumulus

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Wuyin; Liu, Yangang; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; ...

    2015-06-19

    Climatically important low-level clouds are commonly misrepresented in climate models. The FAst-physics System TEstbed and Research (FASTER) project has constructed case studies from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plain site during the RACORO aircraft campaign to facilitate research on model representation of boundary-layer clouds. This paper focuses on using the single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (SCAM5) simulations of a multi-day continental shallow cumulus case to identify specific parameterization causes of low-cloud biases. Consistent model biases among the simulations driven by a set of alternative forcings suggest that uncertainty in the forcing plays only amore » relatively minor role. In-depth analysis reveals that the model's shallow cumulus convection scheme tends to significantly under-produce clouds during the times when shallow cumuli exist in the observations, while the deep convective and stratiform cloud schemes significantly over-produce low-level clouds throughout the day. The links between model biases and the underlying assumptions of the shallow cumulus scheme are further diagnosed with the aid of large-eddy simulations and aircraft measurements, and by suppressing the triggering of the deep convection scheme. It is found that the weak boundary layer turbulence simulated is directly responsible for the weak cumulus activity and the simulated boundary layer stratiform clouds. Increased vertical and temporal resolutions are shown to lead to stronger boundary layer turbulence and reduction of low-cloud biases.« less

  12. Transient hydrodynamics of in-line valves in viscoelastic pressurized pipes: long-period analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meniconi, Silvia; Brunone, Bruno; Ferrante, Marco; Massari, Christian

    2012-07-01

    The literature contains few reports devoted to the analysis of the effects of a partially closed in-line valve on the characteristics of transients in viscoelastic pressurized pipes. In this paper a contribution to the analysis of the long-period behavior of pressure is offered from both the experimental and numerical modeling point of view. In the first part, laboratory tests and the related results—noticeably extensive with respect to the existing literature—are examined. More precisely, the dependance of the damping of the dimensionless pressure maximum values on the initial conditions and in-line valve local head loss coefficient is shown. In the second part, a 1-D numerical model is developed by determining its parameters within a physically based procedure. Model parameters are obtained by considering transients in a constant-diameter pipe (single pipe) and then exported to the case of pipes with a partially closed in-line valve (in-line valve pipe). Moreover, particular attention is devoted to the modalities of specifying boundary conditions. In particular, the quasi-steady-state approach is followed for determining the transient local head loss due to the partially closed in-line valve and the actual supply conditions and characteristics of the maneuver are taken into account. Finally, the effect of unsteady friction and viscoelasticity is examined in both single and in-line valve pipes.

  13. Experience of validation and tuning of turbulence models as applied to the problem of boundary layer separation on a finite-width wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babulin, A. A.; Bosnyakov, S. M.; Vlasenko, V. V.; Engulatova, M. F.; Matyash, S. V.; Mikhailov, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    Modern differential turbulence models are validated by computing a separation zone generated in the supersonic flow past a compression wedge lying on a plate of finite width. The results of three- and two-dimensional computations based on the ( q-ω), SST, and Spalart-Allmaras turbulence models are compared with experimental data obtained for 8°, 25°, and 45° wedges by A.A. Zheltovodov at the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. An original law-of-the-wall boundary condition and modifications of the SST model intended for improving the quality of the computed separation zone are described.

  14. Fluid Dynamics Panel Working Group 10 on Calculation of 3D Separate Turbulent Flows in Boundary Layer Limit (Le Calcul des Ecoulements Turbulents, Decolles Tridimensionnels en Couche Limite)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    sufficient inspiration to appreciate the work performed by the various members of the Working Group and their co-workers. The participants’ names are given...Depuis la premiere reunion, organis&c vera la fin de l’annee 1985, un certain nombre de problimes d’ordre technique et logistique se sont poses et le...96503-0007 1. INTRODUCTION Flow separation plays a dominant role in the high lift performance of combat aircraft, invariably limiting takeoff and

  15. GaInN light-emitting diodes using separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region to attain polarization-inverted electron-blocking layer, reduced electron leakage, and improved hole injection

    SciTech Connect

    Meyaard, David S. Lin, Guan-Bo; Ma, Ming; Fred Schubert, E.; Cho, Jaehee; Han, Sang-Heon; Kim, Min-Ho; Shim, HyunWook; Sun Kim, Young

    2013-11-11

    A GaInN light-emitting diode (LED) structure is analyzed that employs a separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region, i.e., the AlGaN electron-blocking layer (EBL) and p-type GaN cladding layer, followed by wafer or chip bonding. Such LED structure has a polarization-inverted EBL and allows for uncompromised epitaxial-growth optimization of the p-type region, i.e., without the need to consider degradation of the quantum-well active region during p-type region growth. Simulations show that such an LED structure reduces electron leakage, reduces the efficiency droop, improves hole injection, and has the potential to extend high efficiencies into the green spectral region.

  16. The offline combination of thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and micrOTOF-Q mass spectrometry for the separation and identification of spinochromes from sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) shells.

    PubMed

    Shikov, Alexander N; Ossipov, Vladimir I; Martiskainen, Olli; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Ivanova, Svetlana A; Makarov, Valery G

    2011-12-16

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with off-line high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and micrOTOF-Q mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) resulted in the successful fractionation, separation and identification of spinochrome pigments from sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) shells. Two fractions of pigments were separated by TLC and eluted with methanol using a TLC-MS interface. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of the fractions indicated the presence of six sea urchin pigments: spinochrome monomers B and D, three spinochrome dimers (anhydroethylidene-6,6'-bis(2,3,7-trihydroxynaphthazarin) and its isomer and ethylidene-6,6'-bis(2,3,7-trihydroxynaphthazarin)), and one pigment that was preliminary identified as a spinochrome dimer with the structural formula C(22)H(16)O(16).

  17. Separated Shoulder

    MedlinePlus

    Separated shoulder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A separated shoulder is an injury to the ligaments that hold your collarbone (clavicle) to your shoulder blade. In a mild separated shoulder, the ligaments ...

  18. Predictor variables of performance in recreational male long-distance inline skaters.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the associations between selected anthropometric and training characteristics with race time in 84 recreational male long-distance inline skaters at the longest inline marathon in Europe, the 'Inline One-eleven' over 111 km in Switzerland, using bi- and multivariate analysis. The mean (s) race time was 264 (41) min. The bivariate analysis showed that age (r = 0.30), body mass (r = 0.42), body mass index (r = 0.35), circumference of upper arm (r = 0.32), circumference of thigh (r = 0.29), circumference of calf (r = 0.38), skin-fold of thigh (r = 0.22), skin-fold of calf (r = 0.27), the sum of skin-folds (r = 0.43), percent body fat (r = 0.45), duration per training unit in inline skating (r = 0.33), and speed during training (r = -0.46) were significantly and positively correlated to race time. Stepwise multiple regression showed that duration per training unit (P = 0.003), age (P = 0.029) and percent body fat (P = 0.016) were the best correlated with race time. Race time in a long-distance inline race such as the 'Inline One-eleven' over 111 km with a mean race time of ∼260 min might be predicted by the following equation (r(2) = 0.41): Race time (min) = 114.91 + 0:51* (duration per training unit, min) + 0:85* (age, years) +3:78* (body fat, %) for recreational long-distance inline skaters.

  19. Direct coupling of thin-layer chromatography-bioautography with electrostatic field induced spray ionization-mass spectrometry for separation and identification of lipase inhibitors in lotus leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shi, Jiyao; Tang, Jihe; Cheng, Zhihong; Lu, Xiaohui; Kong, Yao; Wu, Tao

    2017-05-15

    In situ profiling compounds in complex matrices is important technology to develop in analytic chemistry. The aim of this study is to develop a direct coupling method of thin layer chromatography (TLC) to mass spectrometry (MS) via electrostatic field induced spray ionization (EFISI). We proposed a surface treatment method of normal-phase thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates with dimethyl silicone oil coating which successfully allowed TLC to couple to MS via EFISI. Different parameters affecting the ionization efficiency were investigated and optimized, including silicone oil concentrations, air-drying times, applied voltages, and TLC plate types. This optimized TLC-EFISI-MS method was successfully applied to examine lipase inhibitory components present in lotus leaves. Six active alkaloids including three aporphines and three benzylisoquinolines were profiled with their MS(n) (n = 4) data, or with a comparison with reference substances. This is the first report on the coupling EFISI-MS to TLC or TLC bioautography for in situ identification of active natural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensitivity enhancement for the analysis of naproxen in tap water by solid-phase extraction coupled in-line to capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Macià, Alba; Borrull, Francesc; Calull, Marta; Benavente, Fernando; Hernández, Elena; Sanz-Nebot, Victòria; Barbosa, José; Aguilar, Carme

    2008-03-01

    SPE coupled in-line to CE, as the strategy to enhance the concentration sensitivity in CE, has been used to enrich naproxen in tap water samples. In this study, a microcartridge containing an octadecyl silica (C18) sorbent was placed near the inlet within the separation capillary column. The optimum conditions were obtained when naproxen in an acidic aqueous solution (pH 3.5) was loaded into the capillary at 930 mbar for 30 min, and 20 mM ammonium acetate in methanol/water (70:30 v/v) was used as both an elution solution and a separation BGE. Under these conditions, the sensitivity was enhanced 1820-fold with respect to normal hydrodynamic injection, and the LOD achieved was 0.2 microg/L. To show the capability of the in-line SPE-CE method, tap water samples were analysed after a pretreatment consisting in an off-line C18-SPE procedure. The recovery of this procedure was higher than 80%. Under these conditions, naproxen could be detected at a concentration of 10 ng/L; so the potential of the procedure for the sensitive analysis of this type of drugs in water samples was demonstrated. Afterwards, these results were compared with those previously obtained for naproxen in water samples using different sample stacking techniques.