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Sample records for layered perovskite structure

  1. Giant magnetoresistance of manganese oxides with a layered perovskite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritomo, Y.; Asamitsu, A.; Kuwahara, H.; Tokura, Y.

    1996-03-01

    MANGANESE oxides with the cubic perovskite structure (typified by LaMnO3) have stimulated considerable interest because of their magnetoresistive properties1-9 they exhibit extremely large changes in electrical resistance in response to applied magnetic fields, a property that is of technological relevance for the development of magnetic memory and switching devices. But for such applications to be viable, great improvements will be needed in both the sensitivity and temperature dependence of the magnetoresistive response. One approach under consideration for optimizing these properties is chemical substitution10. Here we demonstrate an alternative strategy, in which we synthesize layered variants of the cubic perovskite parent compounds that have a controlled number of MnO2 sheets per unit cell. This strategy is structurally analogous to that employed for the systematic exploration of the high-transition-temperature copper oxide superconductors11. We find that the magneto-resistive properties of these materials depend sensitively on the dimensionality of the manganese oxide lattice. Although the properties of our materials are still far from optimal, further exploration of this series of layered perovskites may prove fruitful.

  2. Photodetectors Based on Two-Dimensional Layer-Structured Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskite Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiachen; Chu, Yingli; Huang, Jia

    2016-10-05

    Hybrid lead iodide perovskite semiconductors have attracted intense research interests recently because of their easy fabrication processes and high power conversion efficiencies in photovoltaic applications. Layer-structured materials have interesting properties such as quantum confinement effect and tunable band gap due to the unique two-dimensional crystalline structures. ⟨100⟩-oriented layer-structured perovskite materials are inherited from three-dimensional ABX3 perovskite materials with a generalized formula of (RNH3)2(CH3NH3)n-1MnX3n+1, and adopt the Ruddlesden-Popper type crystalline structure. Here we report the synthesis and investigation of three layer-structured perovskite materials with different layer numbers: (C4H9NH3)2PbI4 (n = 1, one-layered perovskite), (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)Pb2I7 (n = 2, two-layered perovskite) and (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)2Pb3I10 (n = 3, three-layered perovskite). Their photoelectronic properties were investigated in related to their molecular structures. Photodetectors based on these two-dimensional (2D) layer-structured perovskite materials showed tunable photoresponse with short response time in milliseconds. The photodetectors based on three-layered perovskite showed better performances than those of the other two devices, in terms of output current, responsivity, Ilight/Idark ratio, and response time, because of its smaller optical band gap and more condensed microstructure comparing the other two materials. These results revealed the relationship between the molecular structures, film microstructures and the photoresponse properties of 2D layer-structured hybrid perovskites, and demonstrated their potentials as flexible, functional, and tunable semiconductors in optoelectronic applications, by taking advantage of their tunable quantum well molecular structure.

  3. Efficiency Enhancement of Inverted Structure Perovskite Solar Cells via Oleamide Doping of PCBM Electron Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fei; Wu, Qiliang; Zhou, Pengcheng; Li, Yi; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Qing; Zhu, Jun; Dai, Songyuan; Lu, Yalin; Yang, Shangfeng

    2015-06-24

    An amphiphilic surfactant, oleamide, was applied to dope the PCBM electron transport layer (ETL) of inverted structure perovskite solar cells (ISPSCs), resulting in a dramatic efficiency enhancement. Under the optimized oleamide doping ratio of 5.0 wt %, the power conversion efficiency of the CH3NH3PbIxCl(3-x) perovskite-based ISPSC device is enhanced from 10.05% to 12.69%, and this is primarily due to the increases of both fill factor and short-circuit current. According to the surface morphology study of the perovskite/PCBM bilayer film, oleamide doping improves the coverage of PCBM ETL onto the perovskite layer, and this is beneficial for the interfacial contact between the perovskite layer and the Ag cathode and consequently the electron transport from perovskite to the Ag cathode. Such an improved electron transport induced by oleamide doping is further evidenced by the impedance spectroscopic study, revealing the prohibited electron-hole recombination at the interface between the perovskite layer and the Ag cathode.

  4. Electroluminescent devices using a layered organic-inorganic perovskite structure as emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelle, Michael; Bruetting, Wolfgang; Schwoerer, Markus; Yahiro, Masayuki; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2001-02-01

    Self-organizing layered perovskite compounds like (formula available in paper) naturally form a dielectric quantum-well structure in which semiconducting PbI4 layers and organic (C6H5C2H4NH3) layers are alternately piled up. Due to their low- dimensional semiconductor nature they exhibit a strong absorption and sharp photoluminescence from the exciton band. In electroluminescent devices pure green emission peaking at 520 nm with a very narrow half-width of about 10 nm has been reported. As the organic-inorganic layered structure has promising properties for EL-devices, we investigated two- and three layer structures using this perovskite as emitter material in combination with additional hole and electron injection layers. To get more insight into electrical properties and electroluminescence- mechanisms of this material, temperature dependent current- voltage-luminance characteristics have been measured, showing an increasing onset-voltage for current flow from 2.6 V at room temperature to about 8.8 V at 80 K. Electroluminescence is detected at temperatures below 150 K with onset voltages of about 13 V. At liquid nitrogen temperature efficiencies of (formula available in paper) are obtained.

  5. New hybrid lead iodides: From one-dimensional chain to two-dimensional layered perovskite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Kecai; Liu, Wei; Teat, Simon J.; An, Litao; Wang, Hao; Emge, Thomas J.; Li, Jing

    2015-10-15

    Two new hybrid lead halides (H{sub 2}BDA)[PbI{sub 4}] (1) (H{sub 2}BDA=1,4-butanediammonium dication) and (HNPEIM)[PbI{sub 3}] (2) (HNPEIM=N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that compound 1 features a two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layer whereas compound 2 contains one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains. The N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation within compound 2 was generated in-situ under solvothermal conditions. The optical absorption spectra collected at room temperature suggest that both compounds are semiconductors having direct band gaps, with estimated values of 2.64 and 2.73 eV for 1 and 2, respectively. Results from the density functional theory (DFT) calculations are consistent with the experimental data. Density of states (DOS) analysis reveals that in both compounds 1 and 2, the energy states in the valence band maximum region are iodine 5p atomic orbitals with a small contribution from lead 6s, while in the region of conduction band minimum, the major contributions are from the inorganic (Pb 6p atomic orbitals) and organic components (C and N 2p atomic orbitals) in compound 1 and 2, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two new hybrid lead halides built on one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains and two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layers are synthesized and their structural and electronic properties are analyzed. - Highlights: • Two new hybrid lead iodides are designed, synthesized, and characterized. • They are closely related to, but different from, perovskite structures. • The electronic properties of both compounds are analyzed by DFT calculations.

  6. Crystal structure and electrical transport properties of single layered perovskite LaSrCoO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, Abdul; Shukla, D. K.; Rahman, F.; Majid, S.; Tarachand; Okram, G. S.; Phase, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    We present here investigations on the influence of structure on electrical transport properties of polycrystalline LaSrCoO4 that is single layered perovskite with K2NiF4 type structure synthesized using solid state reaction route. Using Reitveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, it is found that the sample is in single phase with tetragonal structure (space group I4/mmm). Electrical resistivity performed in the temperature range 140-300K shows semiconducting character of the sample. Considerable contrasts in the Co-O bond length is associated with the intermediate spin (IS) state of Co ion that correlates the structural and transport properties. Detailed analysis indicates that the temperature dependent electrical resistivity follows the three-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) model in low temperature region below 225K. The high temperature (225-300K) resistivity data has been found to follow the thermally activated behaviour.

  7. Photocatalytic Water Oxidation over Metal Oxide Nanosheets Having a Three-Layer Perovskite Structure.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Takayoshi; Eguchi, Miharu; Maeda, Kazuhiko

    2016-02-19

    Metal oxide nanosheets having a three-layer perovskite structure were studied as photocatalysts for water oxidation in the presence of IO3 (-) as a reversible electron acceptor. This work examined the effects of the lateral dimensions and composition of the nanosheets as well as metal oxide co-catalysts deposited on the restacked nanosheets. Depositing metal oxides capable of promoting reduction reactions on the nanosheets were found to promote the water oxidation activity. In contrast, the lateral dimensions and the degree of crystallinity of the nanosheets had little effect on the activity. Experimental results demonstrated that the reduction of IO3 (-) is the rate-limiting step in this reaction and that nanosheets with less distorted structures are advantageous with regard to increasing both light absorption and the mobility of photoexcited charge carriers.

  8. A two-layer structured PbI2 thin film for efficient planar perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Chao; Shi, Chengwu; Wu, Ni; Zhang, Jincheng; Wang, Mao

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a two-layer structured PbI2 thin film was constructed by the spin-coating procedure using a 0.80 M PbI2 solution in DMF and subsequent close-spaced vacuum thermal evaporation using PbI2 powder as a source. The bottom PbI2 thin film was compact with a sheet-like appearance, parallel to the FTO substrate, and can be easily converted to a compact perovskite thin film to suppress the charge recombination of the electrons of the TiO2 conduction band and the holes of the spiro-OMeTAD valence band. The top PbI2 thin film was porous with nano-sheet arrays, perpendicular to the FTO substrate, and can be easily converted to a porous perovskite thin film to improve the hole migration from the perovskite to spiro-OMeTAD and the charge separation at the perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD interface. The planar perovskite solar cells based on the two-layer structured PbI2 thin film exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 11.64%, along with an open-circuit voltage of 0.90 V, a short-circuit photocurrent density of 19.29 mA cm-2 and a fill factor of 0.67.

  9. A two-layer structured PbI2 thin film for efficient planar perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ying, Chao; Shi, Chengwu; Wu, Ni; Zhang, Jincheng; Wang, Mao

    2015-07-28

    In this paper, a two-layer structured PbI2 thin film was constructed by the spin-coating procedure using a 0.80 M PbI2 solution in DMF and subsequent close-spaced vacuum thermal evaporation using PbI2 powder as a source. The bottom PbI2 thin film was compact with a sheet-like appearance, parallel to the FTO substrate, and can be easily converted to a compact perovskite thin film to suppress the charge recombination of the electrons of the TiO2 conduction band and the holes of the spiro-OMeTAD valence band. The top PbI2 thin film was porous with nano-sheet arrays, perpendicular to the FTO substrate, and can be easily converted to a porous perovskite thin film to improve the hole migration from the perovskite to spiro-OMeTAD and the charge separation at the perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD interface. The planar perovskite solar cells based on the two-layer structured PbI2 thin film exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 11.64%, along with an open-circuit voltage of 0.90 V, a short-circuit photocurrent density of 19.29 mA cm(-2) and a fill factor of 0.67.

  10. Crystal Orientation Control of Bismuth Layer-Structured Dielectric Films Using Interface Layers of Perovskite-Type Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondoh, Yohta; Sasajima, Keiichi; Hayashi, Mari; Kimura, Junichi; Takuwa, Itaru; Ehara, Yoshitaka; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Thin films of SrBi4Ti4O15, a kind of bismuth layer-structured dielectrics (BLSDs), were prepared on platinized silicon wafers buffered by perovskite-type oxide interface layers, (100)LaNiO3/(111)Pt/TiO2/(100)Si and (001)Ca2Nb3O10-nanosheets/(111)Pt/TiO2/(100)Si, by chemical solution deposition (CSD). The Ca2Nb3O10 nanosheets were supported on a (111)Pt/TiO2/(100)Si substrate by dip coating using an aqueous dispersion, while (100)LaNiO3 was prepared by CSD. The (00l) planes of BLSD crystal were preferentially oriented on the surface of both substrates, which is caused by suitable lattice matching between the a-(b-)axis of BLSD and perovskite-type oxide layers. The film deposition on (001)Ca2Nb3O10 nanosheets yielded (001)-oriented BLSD films with higher crystallinity and smaller fluctuation in the tilting angle of the (001)BLSD plane than those on the (100)LaNiO3 interface layer. The dielectric constant (ɛr) of (001)-oriented SrBi4Ti4O15 film on (001)Ca2Nb3O10-nanosheets/(111)Pt/TiO2/(100)Si substrate was approximately 190, which was significantly stable against the change of frequency and bias voltage compared with that of the randomly-oriented SrBi4Ti4O15 film.

  11. Structural characterization of a new acentric Ruddlesden-Popper layered perovskite compound: LiHSrTa2O7.

    PubMed

    Galven, Cyrille; Fourquet, Jean-Louis; Suard, Emmanuelle; Crosnier-Lopez, Marie-Pierre; Le Berre, Françoise

    2010-04-07

    A new n = 2 member acentric Ruddlesden-Popper layered perovskite LiHSrTa(2)O(7) (LiDSrTa(2)O(7)) has been synthesized and structurally characterized from Rietveld treatment of its powder X-ray and high-resolution neutron diffraction data. It can be synthesized by a partial Li(+)/H(+) exchange from the mother phase Li(2)SrTa(2)O(7) either in solid state by NH(4)Cl or in dilute HNO(3) by controlling the amount of H(+). This compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic acentric space group Ama2 (no. 40) with lattice constants a = radical2a(p) approximately 5.5522(1) A, b = radical2a(p) approximately 5.5248(1) A and c approximately 18.7745(4) A. Classically, Ta(5+) ions occupy the octahedral sites of the kinked perovskite blocks and Sr(2+) ions completely fill the perovskite cages while Li(+) and D(+) ions are found in the interlayer spacing. Efficient positive second harmonic generation response, performed at room temperature on a polycrystalline sample, shows unambiguously the acentric character of this new phase. Interestingly, the choice of the acentric Ama2 space group to describe the structure is revealed only by high-resolution neutron diffraction data: in the interlayer spacing, Li(+) and D(+) cations are unequally distributed on different sites (two 4a sites for Li(+) and two 4b sites for D(+) ions).

  12. Doped lanthanum nickelates with a layered perovskite structure as bifunctional cathode catalysts for rechargeable metal-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyu-Nam; Jung, Jong-Hyuk; Im, Won Bin; Yoon, Sukeun; Shin, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Won

    2013-10-23

    Rechargeable metal-air batteries have attracted a great interest in recent years because of their high energy density. The critical challenges facing these technologies include the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen reduction-evolution reactions on a cathode (air electrode). Here, we report doped lanthanum nickelates (La2NiO4) with a layered perovskite structure that serve as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte. Rechargeable lithium-air and zinc-air batteries assembled with these catalysts exhibit remarkably reduced discharge-charge voltage gaps (improved round-trip efficiency) as well as high stability during cycling.

  13. Hierarchically Structured Hole Transport Layers of Spiro-OMeTAD and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyong; Menamparambath, Mini Mol; Hwang, Jae-Yeol; Baik, Seunghyun

    2015-07-20

    The low electrical conductivity of spiro-OMeTAD hole transport layers impedes further enhancements of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells. We embedded multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in spiro-OMeTAD (spiro-OMeTAD/MWNTs) to increase carrier mobility and conductivity. However, direct electrical contact between CH3 NH3 PbI3 and the MWNTs created pathways for undesirable back-electron transfer, owing to the large work function of MWNTs, limiting enhancements of the PCE. A hierarchical structure of pure spiro-OMeTAD and spiro-OMeTAD/MWNTs was designed to block back-electron transfer and fully exploit the enhanced charge transport of spiro-OMeTAD/MWNTs. The enhanced fill factor, short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, and PCE (15.1 %) were achieved by using this hierarchical hole transport layer structure (MWNT concentration=2 wt %). The perovskite solar cells were fabricated by a low-temperature solution process, further decreasing their per-Watt cost.

  14. Structure and dehydration of layered perovskite niobate with bilayer hydrates prepared by exfoliation/self-assembly process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yufeng; Zhao Xinhua; Ma Hui; Ma Shulan; Huang Gailing; Makita, Yoji; Bai Xuedong; Yang Xiaojing

    2008-07-15

    The crystals of an H-form niobate of HCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}.xH{sub 2}O (x=0.5) being tetragonal symmetry (space group P4/mbm) with unit cell parameters a=5.4521(6) and c=14.414(2) A were exfoliated into nanosheets with the triple-layered perovskite structure. The colloid suspension of the nanosheets was put into dialysis membrane tubing and allowed self-assembly in a dilute KCl solution. By this method, a novel layered K-form niobate KCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}.xH{sub 2}O (x=1.3, typically) with bilayer hydrates in the interlayer was produced. The Rieveld refinement and transmission electron microscope (TEM)/selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) observation indicated that the orientations of the a-/b-axis of each nanosheet as well as the c-axis are uniform, and the self-assembled compound had the same symmetry, tetragonal (P4/mbm) with a=5.453(2) and c=16.876(5) A, as the H-form precursor; the exfoliation/self-assembly process does not markedly affect the two-dimensional lattice of the layer. The large basal spacing resulted from the interlayer K{sup +} ions solvated by two layers of water molecules. The interlayer bilayers-water was gradually changed to monolayer when the temperatures higher than 100 deg. C, and all the water molecules lost when over 600 deg. C. Accompanying the dehydration, the crystal structure transformed from tetragonal to orthorhombic symmetry. Water molecules may take an important role for the layer layered compound to adjust the unit cell to tetragonal symmetry. - Graphical abstract: The structure of layered perovskite niobate KCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}.xH{sub 2}O (x=1.3) having a bilayers-hydrates interlayer, obtained via the exfoliation of an H-form precursor and the self-assembly of Ca{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}{sup -} nanosheets, was first discussed in detail and determined to be tetragonal symmetry (P4/mbm). The dehydration resulted in the structural transformation to orthorhombic structure.

  15. Purple photochromism in Sr2SnO4:Eu3+ with layered perovskite-related structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Sunao; Yamada, Hiroshi; Xu, Chao-Nan

    2013-01-01

    We report photochromism (PC) in Sr2SnO4:Eu3+ with layered perovskite-related structure. The Sr2SnO4:Eu3+ turned purple upon irradiation with UV light (λ < 350 nm), and the colored Sr2SnO4:Eu3+ returned to its initial colorless state when visible light (λ = 400-700 nm) was irradiated. Furthermore, the PC was strongly dependent on the firing temperature; purple color upon UV irradiation can be enhanced by increasing the firing temperature, which was attributed to an increase of the Sr vacancies in the host lattice from the results of crystal structure analysis. This suggests that controlling the lattice defect plays an important role for enhancing the PC performance.

  16. Remarkable transition from rocksalt/perovskite layered structure to fluorite/rocksalt layered structure in rapidly cooled Ln₂CuO₄.

    PubMed

    Patabendige, Chami N K; Azad, Abul K; Connor, Paul A; Rolle, Aurélie; Irvine, John T S

    2013-01-01

    Lanthanide cuprates of formula Ln₂CuO₄ exist in two principal forms, T and T' which are renowned for their exhibition at low temperatures of hole and electronic types of superconductivity, respectively. These structures differ primarily in the arrangement of oxygen between the perovskite layers and also in nature of the copper oxygen planes. The Cu-O distance in the T structure (~1.90 Å) is much shorter than the T' (1.97Å), reflecting a transition between partial Cu⁺and partial Cu³⁺ character. In seeking to find compositions that bridge these two structure/electron carrier types, we observed the transition from a T structure to a T' type structure, resulting in the metastable form T″ with slightly larger volume but similar character to T'. This transition from T to T″ is associated with 5% increase in a and a 5% decrease in c parameters of the tetragonal unit cells, which results in disintegration of ceramic bodies.

  17. A nano-grid structure made of perovskite SrTiO3 nanowires for efficient electron transport layers in inverted polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Won; Suh, Yo-han; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Kim, Yong Seok; Kim, Won Bae

    2015-03-14

    A nano-grid structure of perovskite SrTiO3 NWs is developed for a novel electron transport layer in inverted polymer solar cells. Due to the excellent charge transporting properties of the SrTiO3 nano-grid structure, the device employing this nanostructure showed ∼32% enhanced photovoltaic performance, compared to the solar cell using a TiO2 thin film.

  18. Efficient Sky-Blue Perovskite Light-Emitting Devices Based on Ethylammonium Bromide Induced Layered Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Ren, Jie; Peng, Xue-Feng; Ji, Xia-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Hui

    2017-09-06

    Low-dimensional organometallic halide perovskites are actively studied for the light-emitting applications due to their properties such as solution processability, high luminescence quantum yield, large exciton binding energy, and tunable band gap. Introduction of large-group ammonium halides not only serves as a convenient and versatile method to obtain layered perovskites but also allows the exploitation of the energy-funneling process to achieve a high-efficiency light emission. Herein, we investigate the influence of the addition of ethylammonium bromide on the morphology, crystallite structure, and optical properties of the resultant perovskite materials and report that the phase transition from bulk to layered perovskite occurs in the presence of excess ethylammonium bromide. On the basis of this strategy, we report green perovskite light-emitting devices with the maximum external quantum efficiency of ca. 3% and power efficiency of 9.3 lm/W. Notably, blue layered perovskite light-emitting devices with the Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage coordinates of (0.16, 0.23) exhibit the maximum external quantum efficiency of 2.6% and power efficiency of 1 lm/W at 100 cd/m(2), representing a large improvement over the previously reported analogous devices.

  19. Crystal Structure, Defects, Magnetic and Dielectric Properties of the Layered Bi3n+1Ti7Fe3n-3O9n+11 Perovskite-Anatase Intergrowths.

    PubMed

    Batuk, Dmitry; Batuk, Maria; Filimonov, Dmitry S; Zakharov, Konstantin V; Volkova, Olga S; Vasiliev, Alexander N; Tyablikov, Oleg A; Hadermann, Joke; Abakumov, Artem M

    2017-01-17

    The Bi3n+1Ti7Fe3n-3O9n+11 materials are built of (001)p plane-parallel perovskite blocks with a thickness of n (Ti,Fe)O6 octahedra, separated by periodic translational interfaces. The interfaces are based on anatase-like chains of edge-sharing (Ti,Fe)O6 octahedra. Together with the octahedra of the perovskite blocks, they create S-shaped tunnels stabilized by lone pair Bi(3+) cations. In this work, the structure of the n = 4-6 Bi3n+1Ti7Fe3n-3O9n+11 homologues is analyzed in detail using advanced transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The connectivity of the anatase-like chains to the perovskite blocks results in a 3ap periodicity along the interfaces, so that they can be located either on top of each other or with shifts of ±ap along [100]p. The ordered arrangement of the interfaces gives rise to orthorhombic Immm and monoclinic A2/m polymorphs with the unit cell parameters a = 3ap, b = bp, c = 2(n + 1)cp and a = 3ap, b = bp, c = 2(n + 1)cp - ap, respectively. While the n = 3 compound is orthorhombic, the monoclinic modification is more favorable in higher homologues. The Bi3n+1Ti7Fe3n-3O9n+11 structures demonstrate intricate patterns of atomic displacements in the perovskite blocks, which are supported by the stereochemical activity of the Bi(3+) cations. These patterns are coupled to the cationic coordination of the oxygen atoms in the (Ti,Fe)O2 layers at the border of the perovskite blocks. The coupling is strong in the n = 3, 4 homologues, but gradually reduces with the increasing thickness of the perovskite blocks, so that, in the n = 6 compound, the dominant mode of atomic displacements is aligned along the interface planes. The displacements in the adjacent perovskite blocks tend to order antiparallel, resulting in an overall antipolar structure. The Bi3n+1Ti7Fe3n-3O9n+11 materials demonstrate an unusual diversity of structure defects. The n = 4-6 homologues are robust antiferromagnets below TN = 135, 220

  20. Systematic Thermodynamics of Layered Perovskites: Ruddlesden-Popper Phases.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Leslie

    2017-08-07

    Perovskite, CaTiO3, is the prototype of an extensive group of materials. They are capable of considerable chemical modification, with the further capability of undergoing structural modification by the intercalation of thin sheets of intrusive materials (both inorganic and organic) between the cubic perovskite layers, to form a range of "layered" perovskites. These changes bring about alterations in their electronic, structural, and other properties, permitting some "tuning" toward specific ends. This paper collects the limited known thermodynamic data for layered perovskites of various chemical compositions and demonstrates by example that the thermodynamic layer values are substantially additive. This additivity may be exploited by summing properties of the constituent oxides, by adding differences between adjacent compositions within a series, or even by substitution of oxides for one another, thus permitting prediction beyond the known range of compositions. Strict additivity implies full reversibility so that the additive product may be unstable and may undergo structural changes, producing materials with new and potentially useful properties such as ferroelectricity, polarity, giant magnetoresistance, and superconductivity.

  1. How the Structures and Properties of Two-Dimensional Layered Perovskites MAPbI3 and CsPbI3 Vary with the Number of Layers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liang, WanZhen

    2017-03-21

    This work aims to explore the intrinsic properties of two-dimensional (2D)-layered perovskites, (PEA)2PbI4(N) and Cs2PbI4(N), and demonstrating how their structures and properties vary with N. The results reveal that both (PEA)2PbI4(N) and Cs2PbI4(N) are direct bandgap semiconductors, their band/optical gaps and exciton-binding energies vary linearly with 1/N at N ≥ 3, and the effective masses slowly vary with N. Compared to the bulk phases, the structures of ultrathin (PEA)2PbI4(N) are more flexible and deformable than Cs2PbI4(N). The giant spin-coupling effect greatly decreases the band gaps of both 2D materials; however, it only induces the spin splitting in the bands of (PEA)2PbI4(N). This work suggests that the ultrathin 2D materials can be a potential candidate for nano-optoelectronic devices, and that the nanoplates with N ≥ 3 could have similar performances with bulk materials in the carrier migration and exciton separation so that they can be effectively applied in photovoltaic cells.

  2. Interface architecture between TiO2/perovskite, perovskite/hole transport layer, and perovskite grain boundary(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayase, Shuzi; Hirotani, Daisuke; Moriya, Masahiro; Ogomi, Yuhei; Shen, Qing; Yoshino, Kenji; Toyoda, Taro

    2016-09-01

    In order to examine the interface structure of TiO2/perovskite layer, quartz crystal microbalance sensor (QCM) was used. On the QCM sensor, TiO2 layer was fabricated and the PbI2 solution in Dimethylformamide (DMF) was passed on the QCM sensor to estimate the adsorption density of the PbI2 on the titania2. The amount of PbI2 adsorption on TiO2 surface increased as the adsorption time and leveled off at a certain time. PbI2 still remained even after the solvent only (DMF) was passed on the TiO2 layer on QCM (namely rinsing with DMF), suggesting that the PbI2 was tightly bonded on the TiO2 surface. The bonding structure was found to be Ti-O-Pb linkage by XPS analysis. We concluded that the Ti-OH on the surface of TiO2 reacts with I-Pb-I to form Ti-O-Pb-I and HI (Fig.1 B). The surface trap density was measured by thermally stimulated current (TSC) method. Before the PbI2 passivation, the trap density of TiO2 was 1019 cm3. The trap density decreased to 1016/cm3 after the PbI2 passivation, suggesting that the TiO2 surface trap was passivated with I-Pb-I. The passivation density was tuned by the concentration of PbI2 in DMF, by which TiO2 layer was passivated. Perovskite solar cells were fabricated on the passivated TiO2 layer with various PbI2 passivation densities by one step process (mixture of PbI2 + MAI in DMF). It was found that Jsc increased with an increase in the Ti-O-Pb density. We concluded that the interface between TiO2 and perovskite layer has passivation structure consisting of Ti-O-Pb-I which decreases the trap density of the interfaces and supresses charge recombination. The effect of Cl anion on high efficiency is still controversial when perovskite layer is prepared by one step method from the mixture of MAI and PbCl2. It was found that adsorption density of PbCl2 on TiO2 surface was much higher than that of PbI2 from the experiment using QCM sensor. After the surface was washed with DMF, Cl and Pb were detected. These results suggest that the TiO2

  3. Layered hybrid perovskites with micropores created by alkylammonium functional silsesquioxane interlayers.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Sho; Banerjee, Subhabrata; Kawai, Akiko; Kamimura, Yoshihiro; Choi, Jun-Chul; Kodaira, Tetsuya; Sato, Kazuhiko; Endo, Akira

    2015-04-01

    Layered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites that consist of metal halides and organic interlayers are a class of low-dimensional materials. Here, we report the fabrication of layered hybrid perovskites using metal halides and silsesquioxane with a cage-like structure. We used a silsesquioxane as an interlayer to produce a rigid structure and improve the functionality of perovskite layers. Propylammonium-functionalized silsesquioxane and metal halide salts (CuCl2, PdCl2, PbCl2, and MnCl2) were self-assembled to form rigid layered perovskite structures with high crystallinity. The rigid silsesquioxane structure produces micropores between the perovskite layers that can potentially be filled with different molecules to tune the dielectric constants of the interlayers. The obtained silsesquioxane-metal halide hybrid perovskites exhibit some characteristic properties of layered perovskites including magnetic ordering (CuCl4(2-) and MnCl4(2-)) and excitonic absorption/emission (PbCl4(2-)). Our results indicate that inserting silsesquioxane interlayers into hybrid perovskites retains and enhances the low-dimensional properties of the materials.

  4. A nano-grid structure made of perovskite SrTiO3 nanowires for efficient electron transport layers in inverted polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong Won; Suh, Yo-Han; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Kim, Yong Seok; Kim, Won Bae

    2015-02-01

    A nano-grid structure of perovskite SrTiO3 NWs is developed for a novel electron transport layer in inverted polymer solar cells. Due to the excellent charge transporting properties of the SrTiO3 nano-grid structure, the device employing this nanostructure showed ~32% enhanced photovoltaic performance, compared to the solar cell using a TiO2 thin film.A nano-grid structure of perovskite SrTiO3 NWs is developed for a novel electron transport layer in inverted polymer solar cells. Due to the excellent charge transporting properties of the SrTiO3 nano-grid structure, the device employing this nanostructure showed ~32% enhanced photovoltaic performance, compared to the solar cell using a TiO2 thin film. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, HR-TEM images with EDX atomic ratio analysis, FE-SEM images, transmittance spectra and light absorbance spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06720g

  5. p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid structure of highly efficient perovskite solar cells towards improved air stability: synthetic strategies and the role of p-type hole transport layer (HTL) and n-type electron transport layer (ETL) metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Hong, Chang Kook

    2016-05-01

    There has been fast recent progress in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) towards low cost photovoltaic technology. Organometal mixed halide (MAPbX or FAPbX) perovskites are the most promising light absorbing material sandwiched between the electron transport layer (ETL) and hole transport layer (HTL). These two layers play a critical role in boosting the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and maintaining air stability. However, the device stability is a serious issue in regular as well as p-i-n inverted type perovskite solar cells. This mini-review briefly outlines the state-of-art of p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid perovskite solar cells using MAPbX/FAPbX perovskite absorbing layers. Later, we will focus on recent trends, progress and further opportunities in exploring the air stable hybrid planar structure PSCs.

  6. p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid structure of highly efficient perovskite solar cells towards improved air stability: synthetic strategies and the role of p-type hole transport layer (HTL) and n-type electron transport layer (ETL) metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Mali, Sawanta S; Hong, Chang Kook

    2016-05-19

    There has been fast recent progress in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) towards low cost photovoltaic technology. Organometal mixed halide (MAPbX or FAPbX) perovskites are the most promising light absorbing material sandwiched between the electron transport layer (ETL) and hole transport layer (HTL). These two layers play a critical role in boosting the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and maintaining air stability. However, the device stability is a serious issue in regular as well as p-i-n inverted type perovskite solar cells. This mini-review briefly outlines the state-of-art of p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid perovskite solar cells using MAPbX/FAPbX perovskite absorbing layers. Later, we will focus on recent trends, progress and further opportunities in exploring the air stable hybrid planar structure PSCs.

  7. Enhanced Charge Collection with Passivation Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Hui; Luo, Jingshan; Son, Min-Kyu; Gao, Peng; Cho, Kyung Taek; Seo, Jiyoun; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-05-01

    The Al2 O3 passivation layer is beneficial for mesoporous TiO2 -based perovskite solar cells when it is deposited selectively on the compact TiO2 surface. Such a passivation layer suppressing surface recombination can be formed by thermal decomposition of the perovskite layer during post-annealing.

  8. Nano-structured electron transporting materials for perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hefei; Huang, Ziru; Wei, Shiyuan; Zheng, Lingling; Xiao, Lixin; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells have been developing rapidly in the past several years, and their power conversion efficiency has reached over 20%, nearing that of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. Because the diffusion length of the hole in perovskites is longer than that of the electron, the performance of the device can be improved by using an electron transporting layer, e.g., TiO2, ZnO and TiO2/Al2O3. Nano-structured electron transporting materials facilitate not only electron collection but also morphology control of the perovskites. The properties, morphology and preparation methods of perovskites are reviewed in the present article. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between the structure and property will benefit the precise control of the electron transporting process and thus further improve the performance of perovskite solar cells.

  9. Nano-structured electron transporting materials for perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hefei; Huang, Ziru; Wei, Shiyuan; Zheng, Lingling; Xiao, Lixin; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-03-28

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells have been developing rapidly in the past several years, and their power conversion efficiency has reached over 20%, nearing that of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. Because the diffusion length of the hole in perovskites is longer than that of the electron, the performance of the device can be improved by using an electron transporting layer, e.g., TiO2, ZnO and TiO2/Al2O3. Nano-structured electron transporting materials facilitate not only electron collection but also morphology control of the perovskites. The properties, morphology and preparation methods of perovskites are reviewed in the present article. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between the structure and property will benefit the precise control of the electron transporting process and thus further improve the performance of perovskite solar cells.

  10. Characterization of perovskite layer on various nanostructured silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostan, Nur Fairuz Mohd; Sepeai, Suhaila; Ramli, Noor Fadhilah; Azhari, Ayu Wazira; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad; Teridi, Mohd Asri Mat; Ibrahim, Mohd Adib; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    2017-05-01

    Crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell dominates 90% of photovoltaic (PV) market. The c-Si is the most mature of all PV technologies and expected to remain leading the PV technology by 2050. The attractive characters of Si solar cell are stability, long lasting and higher lifetime. Presently, the efficiency of c-Si solar cell is still stuck at 25% for one and half decades. Tandem approach is one of the attempts to improve the Si solar cell efficiency with higher bandgap layer is stacked on top of Si bottom cell. Perovskite offers a big potential to be inserted into a tandem solar cell. Perovskite with bandgap of 1.6 to 1.9 eV will be able to absorb high energy photons, meanwhile c-Si with bandgap of 1.124 eV will absorb low energy photons. The high carrier mobility, high carrier lifetime, highly compatible with both solution and evaporation techniques makes perovskite an eligible candidate for perovskite-Si tandem configuration. The solution of methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) was prepared by single step precursor process. The perovskite layer was deposited on different c-Si surface structure, namely planar, textured and Si nanowires (SiNWs) by using spin-coating technique at different rotation speeds. The nanostructure of Si surface was textured using alkaline based wet chemical etching process and SiNW was grown using metal assisted etching technique. The detailed surface morphology and absorbance of perovskite were studied in this paper. The results show that the thicknesses of MAPbI3 were reduced with the increasing of rotation speed. In addition, the perovskite layer deposited on the nanostructured Si wafer became rougher as the etching time and rotation speed increased. The average surface roughness increased from ˜24 nm to ˜38 nm for etching time range between 5-60 min at constant low rotation speed (2000 rpm) for SiNWs Si wafer.

  11. Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide as Highly Stable Electron Collection Layer for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xingyue; Shen, Heping; Zhang, Ye; Li, Xin; Zhao, Xiaochong; Tai, Meiqian; Li, Jingfeng; Li, Jianbao; Li, Xin; Lin, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Although low-temperature, solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) has been widely adopted as the electron collection layer (ECL) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) because of its simple synthesis and excellent electrical properties such as high charge mobility, the thermal stability of the perovskite films deposited atop ZnO layer remains as a major issue. Herein, we addressed this problem by employing aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) as the ECL and obtained extraordinarily thermally stable perovskite layers. The improvement of the thermal stability was ascribed to diminish of the Lewis acid-base chemical reaction between perovskite and ECL. Notably, the outstanding transmittance and conductivity also render AZO layer as an ideal candidate for transparent conductive electrodes, which enables a simplified cell structure featuring glass/AZO/perovskite/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au. Optimization of the perovskite layer leads to an excellent and repeatable photovoltaic performance, with the champion cell exhibiting an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.94 V, a short-circuit current (Jsc) of 20.2 mA cm(-2), a fill factor (FF) of 0.67, and an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.6% under standard 1 sun illumination. It was also revealed by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence that the AZO/perovskite interface resulted in less quenching than that between perovskite and hole transport material.

  12. (CH3 NH3 )2 PdCl4 : A Compound with Two-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Layered Perovskite Structure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tang Jiao; Thiang, Zhang Xian; Yin, Xuesong; Tang, Chunhua; Qi, Guojun; Gong, Hao

    2016-02-01

    The synthesis of previously unknown perovskite (CH3 NH3 )2 PdCl4 is reported. Despite using an organic cation with the smallest possible alkyl group, a 2D organic-inorganic layered Pd-based perovskites was still formed. This demonstrates that Pd-based 2D perovskites can be obtained even if the size of the organic cation is below the size limit predicted by the Goldschmidt tolerance-factor formula. The (CH3 NH3 )2 PdCl4 phase has a bulk resistivity of 1.4 Ω cm, a direct optical gap of 2.22 eV, and an absorption coefficient on the order of 10(4)  cm(-1) . XRD measurements suggest that the compound is moderately stable in air, an important advantage over several existing organic-inorganic perovskites that are prone to phase degradation problems when exposed to the atmosphere. Given the recent interest in organic-inorganic perovskites, the synthesis of this new Pd-based organic-inorganic perovskite may be helpful in the preparation and understanding of other organic-inorganic perovskites. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Lead-nano-dopings effects on the structural, microstructural, vibrational and thermal properties of Bi 2- xPb xSrV 2O 9 layered perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsabawy, Khaled M.; Abou Sekkina, Morsy M.; Asker, Mohamed A.; El-Newehy, Mohamed H.

    2010-07-01

    The sample with in the general formula Bi 2-xPb xSrV 2O 9, where x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.6 mol were synthesized by the high temperature solid state reaction and firing method. The X-ray diffractograms confirmed the formation of single phased layered perovskite in all samples. TGA and DTA thermal analyses on the green samples included steps of thermal analysis of strontium carbonate, bismuth carbonate, ammonium vanadate, lead oxide and finally on the high temperature solid state formation. The effect of lead dopings on the sintering, structural and micro-structure, properties of 212BiSrV-ceramics were investigated. The infrared absorption spectra show a series of vibrational modes within the range of 400-1600 cm -1.

  14. Synergetic effects of solution-processable fluorinated graphene and PEDOT as a hole-transporting layer for highly efficient and stable normal-structure perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jae-Hun; Lee, Cheol-Ho; Joh, Han-Ik; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Na, Seok-In

    2017-08-08

    We demonstrate that a bi-interlayer consisting of water-free poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and fluorinated reduced graphene oxide (FrGO) noticeably enhances the efficiency and the stability of the normal-structure perovskite solar cells (PeSCs). With simple and low temperature solution-processing, the PeSC employing the PEDOT + FrGO interlayer exhibits a significantly improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.9%. Comprehensive investigations indicate that the enhanced PCE is mostly attributed to the retarded recombination in the devices. The minimized recombination phenomena are related to the interfacial dipoles at the PEDOT/FrGO interface, which facilitates the electron-blocking and the higher built-in potential in the devices. Furthermore, the PEDOT + FrGO device shows a better stability by maintaining 70% of the initial PCE over the 30 days exposure to ambient conditions. This is because the more hydrophobic graphitic sheets of the FrGO on the PEDOT further protect the perovskite films from oxygen/water penetration. Consequently, the introduction of composite interfacial layers including graphene derivatives can be an effective and versatile strategy for high-performing, stable, and cost-effective PeSCs.

  15. New Physical Deposition Approach for Low Cost Inorganic Hole Transport Layer in Normal Architecture of Durable Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Nejand, Bahram Abdollahi; Ahmadi, Vahid; Shahverdi, Hamid Reza

    2015-10-07

    In this work we reported sputter deposited NiOx/Ni double layer as an HTM/contact couple in normal architecture of perovskite solar cell. A perovskite solar cell that is durable for more than 60 days was achieved, with increasing efficiency from 1.3% to 7.28% within 6 days. Moreover, low temperature direct deposition of NiOx layer on perovskite layer was introduced as a potential hole transport material for an efficient cost-effective solar cell applicable for various morphologies of perovskite layers, even for perovskite layers containing pinholes, which is a notable challenge in perovskite solar cells. The angular deposition of NiOx layers by dc reactive magnetron sputtering showed uniform and crack-free coverage of the perovskite layer with no negative impact on perovskite structure that is suitable for nickel back contact layer, surface shielding against moisture, and mechanical damages. Replacing the expensive complex materials in previous perovskite solar cells with low cost available materials introduces cost-effective scalable perovskite solar cells.

  16. Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blancon, J.-C.; Tsai, H.; Nie, W.; Stoumpos, C. C.; Pedesseau, L.; Katan, C.; Kepenekian, M.; Soe, C. M. M.; Appavoo, K.; Sfeir, M. Y.; Tretiak, S.; Ajayan, P. M.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Even, J.; Crochet, J. J.; Mohite, A. D.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding and controlling charge and energy flow in state-of-the-art semiconductor quantum wells has enabled high-efficiency optoelectronic devices. Two-dimensional (2D) Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites are solution-processed quantum wells wherein the band gap can be tuned by varying the perovskite-layer thickness, which modulates the effective electron-hole confinement. We report that, counterintuitive to classical quantum-confined systems where photogenerated electrons and holes are strongly bound by Coulomb interactions or excitons, the photophysics of thin films made of Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites with a thickness exceeding two perovskite-crystal units (>1.3 nanometers) is dominated by lower-energy states associated with the local intrinsic electronic structure of the edges of the perovskite layers. These states provide a direct pathway for dissociating excitons into longer-lived free carriers that substantially improve the performance of optoelectronic devices.

  17. Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites.

    PubMed

    Blancon, J-C; Tsai, H; Nie, W; Stoumpos, C C; Pedesseau, L; Katan, C; Kepenekian, M; Soe, C M M; Appavoo, K; Sfeir, M Y; Tretiak, S; Ajayan, P M; Kanatzidis, M G; Even, J; Crochet, J J; Mohite, A D

    2017-03-24

    Understanding and controlling charge and energy flow in state-of-the-art semiconductor quantum wells has enabled high-efficiency optoelectronic devices. Two-dimensional (2D) Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites are solution-processed quantum wells wherein the band gap can be tuned by varying the perovskite-layer thickness, which modulates the effective electron-hole confinement. We report that, counterintuitive to classical quantum-confined systems where photogenerated electrons and holes are strongly bound by Coulomb interactions or excitons, the photophysics of thin films made of Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites with a thickness exceeding two perovskite-crystal units (>1.3 nanometers) is dominated by lower-energy states associated with the local intrinsic electronic structure of the edges of the perovskite layers. These states provide a direct pathway for dissociating excitons into longer-lived free carriers that substantially improve the performance of optoelectronic devices. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Impact of Interfacial Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, An-Na; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2017-07-23

    Perovskite solar cells (PCSs) are composed of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite as the light harvester. Since the first report on a long-term-durable, 9.7 % efficient, solid-state perovskite solar cell, organic-inorganic halide perovskites have received considerable attention because of their excellent optoelectronic properties. As a result, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 22 % was certified. Controlling the grain size, grain boundary, morphology, and defects of the perovskite layer is important for achieving high efficiency. In addition, interfacial engineering is equally or more important to further improve the PCE through better charge collection and a reduction in charge recombination. In this Review, the type of interfacial layers and their impact on photovoltaic performance are investigated for both the normal and the inverted cell architectures. Four different interfaces of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/electron-transport layer (ETL), ETL/perovskite, perovskite/hole-transport layer (HTL), and HTL/metal are classified, and their roles are investigated. The effects of interfacial engineering with organic or inorganic materials on photovoltaic performance are described in detail. Grain-boundary engineering is also included because it is related to interfacial engineering and the grain boundary in the perovskite layer plays an important role in charge conduction, recombination, and chargecarrier life time. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. First principles study of 2D layered organohalide tin perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraccarollo, Alberto; Canti, Lorenzo; Marchese, Leonardo; Cossi, Maurizio

    2017-06-01

    This article describes the structure and the electronic properties of a series of layered perovskites of a general formula (A+)2(SnX4)-2 where X = I, Br and A+ is an organic cation, either formamidinium, 1-methylimidazolium, or phenylethylammonium. For each system, two conformations are considered, with eclipsed or staggered stacking of the adjacent inorganic layers. Geometry optimizations are performed at the density functional theory level with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional and semiempirical correction for dispersion energies; band profiles and bandgaps are computed including both spin orbit coupling (SOC) and correlation (GW) effects through an additive scheme. The theoretical procedures are validated by reproducing the experimental data of a well known 3D tin iodide perovskite. The results, combined with the calculations previously reported on PbI4 analogues, allow us to discuss the effect of cation, metal, and halide substitution in these systems and in particular to explore the possibility of changing the electronic bandgap as required by different applications. The balance of SOC and GW effects depends on the chemical nature of the studied perovskites and strongly influences the value of the simulated bandgap.

  20. Structure and physical properties of layered double perovskite NdBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.50+{delta}} ({delta} {approx} 0.25)

    SciTech Connect

    Lobanovsky, L. S. Troyanchuk, I. O.; Szymczak, H.; Prokhnenko, O.

    2006-11-15

    Magnetic, electric, and elastic properties of the crystal and magnetic structure of double layered perovskite NdBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.50+{delta}} are studied by the neutron diffraction method at various temperatures. The data are analyzed using two models of crystal structure. In the first model, the sample consists of two crystal-structure phases with ordered and disordered arrangements of oxygen vacancies. In the second model, a new crystal-structure phase is formed in this compound, which is characterized by ordering of oxygen vacancies in the plane of the rare-earth ion in the 1c crystallographic position (0, 0, 1/2) of space group Pmmm. Two crystal-structure models correspond to different types of magnetic ordering (a mixture of a ferromagnetic phase and a G-type antiferromagnetic phase is presumed in the two-phase crystal-structure model, while a canted antiferromagnetic structure is presumed in the one-phase crystal structure model). The behavior of electric and elastic parameters is better described in the first model, while neutron diffraction studies are in better agreement with the second model.

  1. One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Ujwal K.; Kisslinger, Ryan; Shankar, Karthik

    2017-01-01

    The electron diffusion length (Ln) is smaller than the hole diffusion length (Lp) in many halide perovskite semiconductors meaning that the use of ordered one-dimensional (1D) structures such as nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) as electron transport layers (ETLs) is a promising method of achieving high performance halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). ETLs consisting of oriented and aligned NWs and NTs offer the potential not merely for improved directional charge transport but also for the enhanced absorption of incoming light and thermodynamically efficient management of photogenerated carrier populations. The ordered architecture of NW/NT arrays affords superior infiltration of a deposited material making them ideal for use in HPSCs. Photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs) as high as 18% have been demonstrated for HPSCs using 1D ETLs. Despite the advantages of 1D ETLs, there are still challenges that need to be overcome to achieve even higher PCEs, such as better methods to eliminate or passivate surface traps, improved understanding of the hetero-interface and optimization of the morphology (i.e., length, diameter, and spacing of NWs/NTs). This review introduces the general considerations of ETLs for HPSCs, deposition techniques used, and the current research and challenges in the field of 1D ETLs for perovskite solar cells. PMID:28468280

  2. One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Ujwal K; Kisslinger, Ryan; Shankar, Karthik

    2017-04-29

    The electron diffusion length (Ln) is smaller than the hole diffusion length (Lp) in many halide perovskite semiconductors meaning that the use of ordered one-dimensional (1D) structures such as nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) as electron transport layers (ETLs) is a promising method of achieving high performance halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). ETLs consisting of oriented and aligned NWs and NTs offer the potential not merely for improved directional charge transport but also for the enhanced absorption of incoming light and thermodynamically efficient management of photogenerated carrier populations. The ordered architecture of NW/NT arrays affords superior infiltration of a deposited material making them ideal for use in HPSCs. Photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs) as high as 18% have been demonstrated for HPSCs using 1D ETLs. Despite the advantages of 1D ETLs, there are still challenges that need to be overcome to achieve even higher PCEs, such as better methods to eliminate or passivate surface traps, improved understanding of the hetero-interface and optimization of the morphology (i.e., length, diameter, and spacing of NWs/NTs). This review introduces the general considerations of ETLs for HPSCs, deposition techniques used, and the current research and challenges in the field of 1D ETLs for perovskite solar cells.

  3. Structural and physical properties of the high pressure perovskite layered Sr4Cr3O10 chromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanneau, Justin; Lepoittevin, Christophe; Sulpice, André; Kodjikian, Stéphanie; Toulemonde, Pierre; Núñez-Regueiro, Manuel

    2017-07-01

    We report on the structure and physical properties of a bidimensional chromate, Sr4Cr3O10, the n=3 member of the Ruddlesden-Popper Srn+1CrnO3 n+1 series. For the first time, using complementary x-ray powder diffraction and electron diffraction data, we have solved its layered crystallographic structure. Our study shows also that this high pressure phase is insulating and antiferromagnetic below TN=280 K, a similar behavior already observed for n=1, 2 and n=+∞ members.

  4. Development of new layered selenide oxides with perovskite-type oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushiyama, Koichi; Ogino, Hiraku; Kishio, Kohji; Shimoyama, Jun-Ichi

    2010-03-01

    Several Fe-based superconductors with perovskite-type oxide layers, such as Sr2ScFePO3 (Tc ˜ 17 K)^[1], were discovered in our previous study. These compounds are composed of alternate stacking of superconducting layers with antifluorite structure and perovskite-type blocking layers. Since both layers are flexible in terms of chemical composition, development of various new functional materials can be expected from this family. In the present study, we have attempted to synthesize new layered selenide oxides with CuSe layers and discovered more than ten compounds, such as Sr2MCu2Se2O2 (M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) and Sr2MCuSeO3 (M = Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ga, In), thus far. These indicated that the CuSe layer can accommodate various types of blocking layers, which may lead various functions. Among them, Sr2Cu3Se2O2 has a potential as for the mother compound of superconductor, if appropriate concentration of carrier is introduced to the CuO2 layer. Crystal structure and physical properties of these newly found compounds will be reported. [1] H. Ogino et al., Supercond. Sci. Technol. 22 (2009) 075008

  5. Probing the degradation and homogeneity of embedded perovskite semiconducting layers in photovoltaic devices by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hooper, K E A; Lee, H K H; Newman, M J; Meroni, S; Baker, J; Watson, T M; Tsoi, W C

    2017-02-15

    The key challenges for perovskite solar cells include their poor stability and film homogeneity. Studying the degradation and homogeneity of perovskite layers within device structures can be challenging but critical to the understanding of stability and effect of processing in real life conditions. We show that Raman spectroscopy (RS) is a unique and powerful method (simple and fast) to probe the degradation of the perovskite film within the device structure and image perovskite formation. We demonstrate that RS can be used to directly probe chemical (PbI2) and physical (dihydrated phase) degradation of a perovskite film, and estimate the relative amount of the degradation species formed, mapping its distribution with ∼1 μm spatial resolution. This has been applied to mapping a large area perovskite module to characterise the efficacy of PbI2 to perovskite conversion. We also use RS to study the degradation species and kinetics under diverse accelerated degradation conditions (temperature and humidity) in situ. These capabilities are difficult to achieve with other methods, presenting RS as an important tool to gain understanding of the degradation and effect of processing on perovskite-based photovoltaic devices.

  6. Numerical modeling of perovskite solar cells with a planar structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyukov, S. P.; Sayenko, A. V.; Ivanova, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The paper is devoted to the research and development of high-efficiency solar cells with a planar perovskite n-i-p structure. A numerical model of this solar cell in the drift- diffusion approximation based on Poisson equation and continuity equations provided to determine their photoelectric characteristics and design optimization. The author considers the spectral photogeneration, bulk and surface recombination, transport charge carriers in perovskite and their collection by the electron and hole transport layers. As a result of the simulation, it was obtained efficiency dependence on perovskite absorber material thickness and lifetime (diffusion length) of the charge carriers. It is found that in addition to absorption coefficient optimal perovskite thickness is determined largely by the charge carrier diffusion length, and it has the upper limit in thickness of 500-600 nm.

  7. Structures and phase transition in the layered perovskite La0.6Sr0.1TiO3: a new orthorhombic structure solved from high-resolution diffraction in combination with group theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Christopher J.; Zhang, Zhaoming

    2003-07-01

    The crystal structure of the layered perovskite La0.6Sr0.1TiO3 at room temperature has been solved by synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction in combination with group theoretical analysis. The structure is orthorhombic in Cmmm, on a cell with a = 7.7556(1), b = 7.7349(1) and c = 7.7910(1) Å. It is believed that this is also the structure adopted by La2/3TiO3. Pertinent features are the alternation of fully and partly occupied layers of La (Sr) cations, and out-of-phase tilting of the TiO6 octahedra around an axis perpendicular to the direction of the cation ordering. The compound undergoes a second order transition to a tetragonal structure, the transition temperature being estimated as 360 °C.

  8. Physical properties of new iron arsenide oxide with thick perovskite-type oxide layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Naoto; Ogino, Hiraku; Kishio, Koji; Shimoyama, Junichi

    2010-03-01

    Since the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in LaFeAsO, a large number of layered compounds having anti-fluorite type Fe- or Ni-pnictide layer have been discovered. Among them, a series of pnictide oxides having perovskite-type oxide layersfootnotetextH. Ogino et al., Supercond. Sci. Technol. 22 (2009) 075008 are attractive because of their chemical flexibility particularly at the perovskite-type oxide layer, which may results in new compounds. In the present study, various physical properties have been investigated for the new iron pnictide oxides with thick perovskite-type blocking layers, i.e., large interlayer distance between Fe-layers more than 1.7 nm. These samples showed metallic and paramagnetic behaviors in resistivity and magnetization measurements, respectively, down to 2 K without any signs of superconductivity and other anomalies. Relationship among crystal structure, constituent elements and physical properties will be discussed for the newly discovered system.

  9. Compact Layer Free Perovskite Solar Cells with a High-Mobility Hole-Transporting Layer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qianqian; Bao, Xichang; Yu, Jianhua; Zhu, Dangqiang; Qiu, Meng; Yang, Renqiang; Dong, Lifeng

    2016-02-03

    A high-mobility diketopyrrolopyrrole-based copolymer (P) was employed in compact layer free CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells as a hole-transporting layer (HTL). By using the P-HTL, the 6.62% device efficiency with conventional poly-3-hexylthiophene was increased to 10.80% in the simple device configuration (ITO/CH3NH3PbI3/HTL/MoO3/Ag). With improved short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, and fill factor, the higher power conversion efficiency of P-HTL device is ascribed to the higher carrier mobility, more suitable energy level, and lower interfacial charge recombination. Advantages of applying P-HTL to perovskite solar cells, such as low cost, low-temperature processing, and excellent performance with simple cell structure, exhibit a possibility for commercial applications.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of perovskite based solar cells using phthalocyanine and naphthalocyanine as hole-transporting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Yuki; Suzuki, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Oku, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunction solar cells containing CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite compound were fabricated using TiO2 as an electronic transporting layer and spirobifluorence as a hole-transporting layer. The purpose of the present study is to investigate a role of the hole-transporting layer on the photovoltaic properties and microstructures of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. The X-ray diffraction identified crystal structures of the perovskite layer in the solar cells. Optical microscopy showed different surface morphologies, and the perovskite structures on the TiO2 mesoporous structure depended on addition of phthalocyanine into the hole-transporting layer. The photovoltaic properties and hole-transporting behavior was depending on carrier mobility, electron structures of the perovskite crystal and band gaps related with the photovoltaic parameters. Energy diagram and photovoltaic mechanism of the perovskite solar cells using hole-transporting layers were discussed by experimental results. Perovskite based solar cells using phthalocyanines as hole-transporting layers have advantages to provide a high photovoltaic performance with a wide region of optical absorption.

  11. Double Charged Surface Layers in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Smritakshi P; Burlakov, Victor M; Yengel, Emre; Murali, Banavoth; Alarousu, Erkki; El-Zohry, Ahmed M; Yang, Chen; Alias, Mohd S; Zhumekenov, Ayan A; Saidaminov, Makhsud I; Cho, Namchul; Wehbe, Nimer; Mitra, Somak; Ajia, Idris; Dey, Sukumar; Mansour, Ahmed E; Abdelsamie, Maged; Amassian, Aram; Roqan, Iman S; Ooi, Boon S; Goriely, Alain; Bakr, Osman M; Mohammed, Omar F

    2017-03-08

    Understanding defect chemistry, particularly ion migration, and its significant effect on the surface's optical and electronic properties is one of the major challenges impeding the development of hybrid perovskite-based devices. Here, using both experimental and theoretical approaches, we demonstrated that the surface layers of the perovskite crystals may acquire a high concentration of positively charged vacancies with the complementary negatively charged halide ions pushed to the surface. This charge separation near the surface generates an electric field that can induce an increase of optical band gap in the surface layers relative to the bulk. We found that the charge separation, electric field, and the amplitude of shift in the bandgap strongly depend on the halides and organic moieties of perovskite crystals. Our findings reveal the peculiarity of surface effects that are currently limiting the applications of perovskite crystals and more importantly explain their origins, thus enabling viable surface passivation strategies to remediate them.

  12. Ferroelastic switching in a layered-perovskite thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuanshou; Ke, Xiaoxing; Wang, Jianjun; Liang, Renrong; Luo, Zhenlin; Tian, Yu; Yi, Di; Zhang, Qintong; Wang, Jing; Han, Xiu-Feng; van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Chen, Long-Qing; Nan, Ce-Wen; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zhang, Jinxing

    2016-02-01

    A controllable ferroelastic switching in ferroelectric/multiferroic oxides is highly desirable due to the non-volatile strain and possible coupling between lattice and other order parameter in heterostructures. However, a substrate clamping usually inhibits their elastic deformation in thin films without micro/nano-patterned structure so that the integration of the non-volatile strain with thin film devices is challenging. Here, we report that reversible in-plane elastic switching with a non-volatile strain of approximately 0.4% can be achieved in layered-perovskite Bi2WO6 thin films, where the ferroelectric polarization rotates by 90° within four in-plane preferred orientations. Phase-field simulation indicates that the energy barrier of ferroelastic switching in orthorhombic Bi2WO6 film is ten times lower than the one in PbTiO3 films, revealing the origin of the switching with negligible substrate constraint. The reversible control of the in-plane strain in this layered-perovskite thin film demonstrates a new pathway to integrate mechanical deformation with nanoscale electronic and/or magnetoelectronic applications.

  13. Toward Revealing the Critical Role of Perovskite Coverage in Highly Efficient Electron-Transport Layer-Free Perovskite Solar Cells: An Energy Band and Equivalent Circuit Model Perspective.

    PubMed

    Huang, Like; Xu, Jie; Sun, Xiaoxiang; Du, Yangyang; Cai, Hongkun; Ni, Jian; Li, Juan; Hu, Ziyang; Zhang, Jianjun

    2016-04-20

    Currently, most efficient perovskite solar cells (PVKSCs) with a p-i-n structure require simultaneously electron transport layers (ETLs) and hole transport layers (HTLs) to help collecting photogenerated electrons and holes for obtaining high performance. ETL free planar PVKSC is a relatively new and simple structured solar cell that gets rid of the complex and high temperature required ETL (such as compact and mesoporous TiO2). Here, we demonstrate the critical role of high coverage of perovskite in efficient ETL free PVKSCs from an energy band and equivalent circuit model perspective. From an electrical point of view, we confirmed that the low coverage of perovskite does cause localized short circuit of the device. With coverage optimization, a planar p-i-n(++) device with a power conversion efficiency of over 11% was achieved, implying that the ETL layer may not be necessary for an efficient device as long as the perovskite coverage is approaching 100%.

  14. Low-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite: Structure, Properties, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ravi K; Cohen, Bat-El; Iagher, Lior; Etgar, Lioz

    2017-07-13

    Three-dimensional (3 D) perovskite has attracted a lot of attention owing to its success in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. However, one of its major crucial issues lies in its stability, which has limited its commercialization. An important property of organic-inorganic perovskite is the possibility of forming a layered material by using long organic cations that do not fit into the octahedral cage. These long organic cations act as a "barrier" that "caps" 3 D perovskite to form the layered material. Controlling the number of perovskite layers could provide a confined structure with chemical and physical properties that are different from those of 3 D perovskite. This opens up a whole new batch of interesting materials with huge potential for optoelectronic applications. This Minireview presents the synthesis, properties, and structural orientation of low-dimensional perovskite. It also discusses the progress of low-dimensional perovskite in PV solar cells, which, to date, have performance comparable to that of 3 D perovskite but with enhanced stability. Finally, the use of low-dimensional perovskite in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors is discussed. The low-dimensional perovskites are promising candidates for LED devices, mainly because of their high radiative recombination as a result of the confined low-dimensional quantum well. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Advances and Promises of Layered Halide Hybrid Perovskite Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Pedesseau, Laurent; Sapori, Daniel; Traore, Boubacar; Robles, Roberto; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Tsai, Hsinhan; Nie, Wanyi; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Neukirch, Amanda; Tretiak, Sergei; Mohite, Aditya D; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky; Kepenekian, Mikaël

    2016-11-22

    Layered halide hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) have been the subject of intense investigation before the rise of three-dimensional (3D) HOP and their impressive performance in solar cells. Recently, layered HOP have also been proposed as attractive alternatives for photostable solar cells and revisited for light-emitting devices. In this review, we combine classical solid-state physics concepts with simulation tools based on density functional theory to overview the main features of the optoelectronic properties of layered HOP. A detailed comparison between layered and 3D HOP is performed to highlight differences and similarities. In the same way as the cubic phase was established for 3D HOP, here we introduce the tetragonal phase with D4h symmetry as the reference phase for 2D monolayered HOP. It allows for detailed analysis of the spin-orbit coupling effects and structural transitions with corresponding electronic band folding. We further investigate the effects of octahedral tilting on the band gap, loss of inversion symmetry and possible Rashba effect, quantum confinement, and dielectric confinement related to the organic barrier, up to excitonic properties. Altogether, this paper aims to provide an interpretive and predictive framework for 3D and 2D layered HOP optoelectronic properties.

  16. Effects of hole-transporting layers of perovskite-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Kida, Tomoyasu; Takagi, Tatsuru; Oku, Takeo

    2016-02-01

    Fabrication and characterization of the photovoltaic and optical properties, and microstructure of perovskite-based solar cells with lead phthalocyanine (PbPc), zinc phthalocyanine, poly[bis(4-phenyl)(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)amine], and copper(I) thiocyanate as hole-transporting layers were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to identify surface morphologies of the crystal structure and the elemental composition. Introducing PbPc into perovskite solar cells extended the retaining period of photovoltaic activity and performance. The effects of the hole-transporting layer on incident photon-to-current efficiency were investigated. The energy diagram and photovoltaic mechanism of the perovskite solar cells with the hole-transporting layer are discussed.

  17. Effect of Mesostructured Layer upon Crystalline Properties and Device Performance on Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Listorti, Andrea; Juarez-Perez, Emilio J; Frontera, Carlos; Roiati, Vittoria; Garcia-Andrade, Laura; Colella, Silvia; Rizzo, Aurora; Ortiz, Pablo; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2015-05-07

    One of the most fascinating characteristics of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is the retrieved obtainment of outstanding photovoltaic (PV) performances withstanding important device configuration variations. Here we have analyzed CH3NH3PbI3-xClx in planar or in mesostructured (MS) configurations, employing both titania and alumina scaffolds, fully infiltrated with perovskite material or presenting an overstanding layer. The use of the MS scaffold induces to the perovskite different structural properties, in terms of grain size, preferential orientation, and unit cell volume, in comparison to the ones of the material grown with no constraints, as we have found out by X-ray diffraction analyses. We have studied the effect of the PSC configuration on photoinduced absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence, complementary techniques that allow studying charge photogeneration and recombination. We have estimated electron diffusion length in the considered configurations observing a decrease when the material is confined in the MS scaffold with respect to a planar architecture. However, the presence of perovskite overlayer allows an overall recovering of long diffusion lengths explaining the record PV performances obtained with a device configuration bearing both the mesostructure and a perovskite overlayer. Our results suggest that performance in devices with perovskite overlayer is mainly ruled by the overlayer, whereas the mesoporous layer influences the contact properties.

  18. Perovskite-Like Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Lead Iodide with a Large Organic Cation Incorporated within the Layers.

    PubMed

    Que, Chen-Jie; Mo, Chong-Jiao; Li, Zhao-Qi; Zhang, Guang-Lin; Zhu, Qin-Yu; Dai, Jie

    2017-03-06

    A great effort has been made to investigate 2D perovskites to improve the stability and controllability in the fabrication of photoelectronic devices. As far as we know, only small organic cations such as methylammonium can incorporate into the multilayered perovskite structure except the cations sandwiched between the inorganic layers. We report here a new layered lead iodide, (H2Aepz)3Pb4I14 (1), where larger organic cations, bis-protonated 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyrazole (Aepz), not only were sandwiched between the inorganic layers but also were incorporated within the perovskite-like PbI layered structure. Another 2D compound, (H2Aepz)PbI4 (2), was also prepared that was a one-layer perovskite. A simple Schottky device was prepared to investigate the photoelectroresponsive properties of the compounds in comparison with that of a typical organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite. In general, the energy gap is decreased with an increase in the perovskite layers, but the band gap of two-layered 1 is larger than that of one-layered 2. The photocurrent densities of the compounds are in the order of 1 < 2 < (CH3NH3)PbI3, which is discussed based on the crystal structures and band energy gaps.

  19. Anisotropy of Earth's D'' layer and stacking faults in the MgSiO3 post-perovskite phase.

    PubMed

    Oganov, Artem R; Martonák, Roman; Laio, Alessandro; Raiteri, Paolo; Parrinello, Michele

    2005-12-22

    The post-perovskite phase of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 is believed to be the main mineral phase of the Earth's lowermost mantle (the D'' layer). Its properties explain numerous geophysical observations associated with this layer-for example, the D'' discontinuity, its topography and seismic anisotropy within the layer. Here we use a novel simulation technique, first-principles metadynamics, to identify a family of low-energy polytypic stacking-fault structures intermediate between the perovskite and post-perovskite phases. Metadynamics trajectories identify plane sliding involving the formation of stacking faults as the most favourable pathway for the phase transition, and as a likely mechanism for plastic deformation of perovskite and post-perovskite. In particular, the predicted slip planes are {010} for perovskite (consistent with experiment) and {110} for post-perovskite (in contrast to the previously expected {010} slip planes). Dominant slip planes define the lattice preferred orientation and elastic anisotropy of the texture. The {110} slip planes in post-perovskite require a much smaller degree of lattice preferred orientation to explain geophysical observations of shear-wave anisotropy in the D'' layer.

  20. Magnetic coupling at perovskite and rock-salt structured interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Matvejeff, M.; Ahvenniemi, E.; Takahashi, R.; Lippmaa, M.

    2015-10-05

    We study magnetic coupling between hole-doped manganite layers separated by either a perovskite or a rock-salt barrier of variable thickness. Both the type and the quality of the interface have a strong impact on the minimum critical barrier thickness where the manganite layers become magnetically decoupled. A rock-salt barrier layer only 1 unit cell (0.5 nm) thick remains insulating and is able to magnetically de-couple the electrode layers. The technique can therefore be used for developing high-performance planar oxide electronic devices such as magnetic tunnel junctions and quantum well structures that depend on magnetically and electronically sharp heterointerfaces.

  1. Structural and thermal studies of H{sub 2}La{sub 2/3}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7}, a protonated layered perovskite

    SciTech Connect

    Le Berre, F.; Crosnier-Lopez, M.P.; Fourquet, J.L.

    2006-04-13

    We have synthesised the new protonated layered perovskite H{sub 2}La{sub 2/3}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7} which is related to the Ruddlesden-Popper family. This compound is obtained by ionic exchange starting from Li{sub 2}La{sub 2/3}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7} maintained in dilute HNO{sub 3} at 60 deg. C. Thermal X-ray diffraction and DTA/TGA revealed interesting dehydration properties with formation of a layered anhydrous phase leading at higher temperature (1550 deg. C) to La{sub 1/3}TaO{sub 3}. This latter compound exhibits the original lanthanum ordering expected similarly to that of the Li form, while at 900 deg. C a metastable form, presenting a disordered La distribution, is observed.

  2. Solution processed deposition of electron transport layers on perovskite crystal surface-A modeling based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortuza, S. M.; Taufique, M. F. N.; Banerjee, Soumik

    2017-02-01

    The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has reached up to ∼20%. However, structural and chemicals defects that lead to hysteresis in the perovskite based thin film pose challenges. Recent work has shown that thin films of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) deposited on the photo absorption layer, using solution processing techniques, minimize surface pin holes and defects thereby increasing the PCE. We developed and employed a multiscale model based on molecular dynamics (MD) and kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to establish a relationship between deposition rate and surface coverage on perovskite surface. The MD simulations of PCBMs dispersed in chlorobenzene, sandwiched between (110) perovskite substrates, indicate that PCBMs are deposited through anchoring of the oxygen atom of carbonyl group to the exposed lead (Pb) atom of (110) perovskite surface. Based on rates of distinct deposition events calculated from MD, kMC simulations were run to determine surface coverage at much larger time and length scales than accessible by MD alone. Based on the model, a generic relationship is established between deposition rate of PCBMs and surface coverage on perovskite crystal. The study also provides detailed insights into the morphology of the deposited film.

  3. Modelling and loss analysis of meso-structured perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Hansong; Fu, Kunwu; Wong, Lydia Helena; Birgersson, Erik; Stangl, Rolf

    2017-08-01

    A mathematical model for meso-structured perovskite solar cells is derived and calibrated towards measured intensity dependent current-voltage characteristics. This steady-state device model describes the transport of free carriers, carrier recombination and optical generation. The optical part considers internal transmission, reflection, and absorption of light, using a transfer matrix approach. The carrier recombination in the form of radiative, Auger and Shockley-Read-Hall mechanisms is accounted for inside the perovskite capping layer, as well as interfacial recombination between the perovskite and electron/hole-transporting layers. After calibration by best-fitting the unknown parameters towards intensity dependent current-voltage measurements of an in-house fabricated meso-structured perovskite solar cell, we identify the dominant recombination mechanisms and their locations inside the cell. A subsequent loss analysis indicates that, in our fabricated solar cell, the interfacial recombination between the perovskite/mesoporous titanium dioxide within the mesoporous absorber layer constitutes the main loss channel. This interfacial recombination accounts for up to 46% of all recombination losses at maximum power, thereby exceeding the recombination inside the perovskite capping layer with 31% loss. Furthermore, the thickness of the perovskite capping layer and the mesoporous layer is varied by means of simulation between 50 and 500 nm, in order to predict the optimum device geometry for the calibrated recombination parameters.

  4. A new layered nano hybrid perovskite film with enhanced resistance to moisture-induced degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenlong; Ying, Jifei; Zhou, Wei; Shen, Kongchao; Liu, Xing; Gao, Xingyu; Guo, Fuqiang; Gao, Yanmin; Yang, Tieying

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a new layered hybrid perovskite film ((EDA)(MA)2[Pb3I10]) was synthesized through one-step method. Ethylenediamine (EDA) cation was introduced into the perovskite lattice to synthesize a layered structure with improved resistance to degradation by humidity. The effects of humidity and time on crystal structure, composition, morphology and absorption spectra of (EDA)(MA)2[Pb3I10] were analyzed by in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and UV-Vis spectroscope. The results reveal that a (EDA)(MA)2[Pb3I10] film is more moisture resistant than a CH3NH3PbI3 film which is widely used in the perovskite solar cell now. UV-Vis spectroscopy result also shows that the layered structure film is a suitable solar absorber with a bandgap (1.67 eV), which is close to the optimum value for solar photoelectric conversion. Compared to CH3NH3PbI3, the low-cost perovskite structure offers greater tunability on a molecular level for further material optimization and possibility for widely used in the future.

  5. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    DOEpatents

    Krumpel, Michael; Liu, Di-Jia

    2009-03-24

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  6. Effect of the Microstructure of the Functional Layers on the Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fuzhi; Pascoe, Alexander R; Wu, Wu-Qiang; Ku, Zhiliang; Peng, Yong; Zhong, Jie; Caruso, Rachel A; Cheng, Yi-Bing

    2017-02-22

    The efficiencies of the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells have been rapidly approaching the benchmarks held by the leading thin-film photovoltaic technologies. Arguably, one of the most important factors leading to this rapid advancement is the ability to manipulate the microstructure of the perovskite layer and the adjacent functional layers within the device. Here, an analysis of the nucleation and growth models relevant to the formation of perovskite films is provided, along with the effect of the perovskite microstructure (grain sizes and voids) on device performance. In addition, the effect of a compact or mesoporous electron-transport-layer (ETL) microstructure on the perovskite film formation and the optical/photoelectric properties at the ETL/perovskite interface are overviewed. Insight into the formation of the functional layers within a perovskite solar cell is provided, and potential avenues for further development of the perovskite microstructure are identified.

  7. Structural Polymorphism in Al-bearing Magnesiumsilicate Post-perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschauner, O.; Kiefer, B.; Liu, H.; Somayazulu, M.; Luo, S. N.

    2006-12-01

    We show formation of a post-perovskite phase of Al-bearing magnesiummetasilicate which does not assume the CaIrO3 structure [1]. X-ray diffraction data and first principle calculations indicate that the present material assumes a structure composed of kinked SiO2- and MgO layers similar but not identical to topologies of novel post-perovskite phases recently proposed [2]. Minor element chemistry and actual stress regime are plausible reasons of the differences between the present and the previously reported post- perovskite phase. The presence of minor elements could stabilize this "kinked" post-perovskite structure and hence effect elasticity and the interpretations of seismic observations in cold areas of D". Acknowledgements: Supported through the NNSA Cooperative Agreement DE-FC88-01NV14049. Use of the HPCAT facility was supported by DOE-BES, DOE-NNSA, NSF, DOD -TACOM, and the W.M. Keck Foundation. APS is supported by DOE-BES under Contract No. W-31-109-Eng-38. [1] O. Tschauner, B. Kiefer, H.Z. Liu, M. Somayazulu, S.N. Luo, submitted [2] A.R.Oganov, R. Martonak, A. Laio, P. Raiteri, M. Parinello Nature 438, 1142-1144 (2005)

  8. Zintl layer formation during perovskite atomic layer deposition on Ge (001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shen; Lin, Edward L.; Hamze, Ali K.; Posadas, Agham; Wu, HsinWei; Smith, David J.; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2017-02-01

    Using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and density functional theory, we analyzed the surface core level shifts and surface structure during the initial growth of ABO3 perovskites on Ge (001) by atomic layer deposition, where A = Ba, Sr and B = Ti, Hf, Zr. We find that the initial dosing of the barium- or strontium-bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl) precursors on a clean Ge surface produces a surface phase that has the same chemical and structural properties as the 0.5-monolayer Ba Zintl layer formed when depositing Ba by molecular beam epitaxy. Similar binding energy shifts are found for Ba, Sr, and Ge when using either chemical or elemental metal sources. The observed germanium surface core level shifts are consistent with the flattening of the initially tilted Ge surface dimers using both molecular and atomic metal sources. Similar binding energy shifts and changes in dimer tilting with alkaline earth metal adsorption are found with density functional theory calculations. High angle angular dark field scanning transmission microscopy images of BaTiO3, SrZrO3, SrHfO3, and SrHf0.55Ti0.45O3 reveal the location of the Ba (or Sr) atomic columns between the Ge dimers. The results imply that the organic ligands dissociate from the precursor after precursor adsorption on the Ge surface, producing the same Zintl template critical for perovskite growth on Group IV semiconductors during molecular beam epitaxy.

  9. Zintl layer formation during perovskite atomic layer deposition on Ge (001).

    PubMed

    Hu, Shen; Lin, Edward L; Hamze, Ali K; Posadas, Agham; Wu, HsinWei; Smith, David J; Demkov, Alexander A; Ekerdt, John G

    2017-02-07

    Using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and density functional theory, we analyzed the surface core level shifts and surface structure during the initial growth of ABO3 perovskites on Ge (001) by atomic layer deposition, where A = Ba, Sr and B = Ti, Hf, Zr. We find that the initial dosing of the barium- or strontium-bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl) precursors on a clean Ge surface produces a surface phase that has the same chemical and structural properties as the 0.5-monolayer Ba Zintl layer formed when depositing Ba by molecular beam epitaxy. Similar binding energy shifts are found for Ba, Sr, and Ge when using either chemical or elemental metal sources. The observed germanium surface core level shifts are consistent with the flattening of the initially tilted Ge surface dimers using both molecular and atomic metal sources. Similar binding energy shifts and changes in dimer tilting with alkaline earth metal adsorption are found with density functional theory calculations. High angle angular dark field scanning transmission microscopy images of BaTiO3, SrZrO3, SrHfO3, and SrHf0.55Ti0.45O3 reveal the location of the Ba (or Sr) atomic columns between the Ge dimers. The results imply that the organic ligands dissociate from the precursor after precursor adsorption on the Ge surface, producing the same Zintl template critical for perovskite growth on Group IV semiconductors during molecular beam epitaxy.

  10. Multifunctional MgO Layer in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xudong; Dong, Haopeng; Li, Wenzhe; Li, Nan; Wang, Liduo

    2015-06-08

    A multifunctional magnesium oxide (MgO) layer was successfully introduced into perovskite solar cells (PSCs) to enhance their performance. MgO was coated onto the surface of mesoporous TiO(2) by the decomposition of magnesium acetate and, therefore, could block contact between the perovskite and TiO(2). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy showed that the amount of H(2)O/hydroxyl absorbed on the TiO(2) decreased after MgO modification. The UV/Vis absorption spectra of the perovskite with MgO modification revealed an enhanced photoelectric performance compared with that of unmodified perovskite after UV illumination. In addition to the photocurrent, the photovoltage and fill factor also showed an enhancement after modification, which resulted in an increase in the overall efficiency of the cell from 9.6 to 13.9 %. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) confirmed that MgO acts as an insulating layer to reduce charge recombination.

  11. Ab initio modeling of 2D layered organohalide lead perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraccarollo, Alberto; Cantatore, Valentina; Boschetto, Gabriele; Marchese, Leonardo; Cossi, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    A number of 2D layered perovskites A2PbI4 and BPbI4, with A and B mono- and divalent ammonium and imidazolium cations, have been modeled with different theoretical methods. The periodic structures have been optimized (both in monoclinic and in triclinic systems, corresponding to eclipsed and staggered arrangements of the inorganic layers) at the DFT level, with hybrid functionals, Gaussian-type orbitals and dispersion energy corrections. With the same methods, the various contributions to the solid stabilization energy have been discussed, separating electrostatic and dispersion energies, organic-organic intralayer interactions and H-bonding effects, when applicable. Then the electronic band gaps have been computed with plane waves, at the DFT level with scalar and full relativistic potentials, and including the correlation energy through the GW approximation. Spin orbit coupling and GW effects have been combined in an additive scheme, validated by comparing the computed gap with well known experimental and theoretical results for a model system. Finally, various contributions to the computed band gaps have been discussed on some of the studied systems, by varying some geometrical parameters and by substituting one cation in another's place.

  12. Enhancement of Exciton Emission in Lead Halide-Based Layered Perovskites by Cation Mixing.

    PubMed

    Era, Masanao; Komatsu, Yumeko; Sakamoto, Naotaka

    2016-04-01

    Spin-coated films of a lead halide, PbX: X = I and Br, layered perovskites having cyclohexenylethyl ammonium molecule as an organic layer, which were mixed with other metal halide-based layered perovskites consisting of various divalent metal halides (for example, Ca2, Cdl2, FeI2, SnBr2 and so on), were prepared. The results of X-ray diffraction measurements exhibited that solid solution formation between PbX-based layered perovskite and other divalent metal halide-based layered perovskites was observed up to very high molar concentration of 50 molar% in the mixed film samples when divalent cations having ionic radius close to that of Pb2+ were employed. In the solid solution films, the exciton emission was much enhanced at room temperature. Exciton emission intensity of Pbl-based layered perovskite mixed with Cal-based layered perovskite (20 molar%) is about 5 times large that of the pristine Pbl-based layered perovskite, and that of PbBr-based layered perovskite mixed with SnBr-based layered perovskite (20 molar%) was also about 5 times large that of the pristine PbBr-based layered perovskite at room temperature.

  13. Highly efficient electroluminescence from a heterostructure device combined with emissive layered-perovskite and an electron-transporting organic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Toshiaki; Taira, Takahiro; Era, Masanao; Tsutsui, Tetsuo; Saito, Shugu

    1996-05-01

    Two Pbl-based layer perovskite compounds, which possess cyclohexenylethylamine or phenylbutylamine as an organic ammonium layer, were newly found to exhibit efficient exciton emission due to their self-organized quantum well structure where a lead halide semiconducting layer and an organic ammonium dielectric layer are alternately piled up. We prepared heterostructure electroluminescent devices using the combination of the emissive layered perovskite and an electron-transporting oxadiazole. When the heterostructure devices were driven at 110 K, greenish emission, which corresponded well to the exciton emission, was observed. In the device using the perovskite with an organic layer of cyclohexenythylamine, a high luminance exceeding 4000 cd m -2 and high external EL quantum efficiency of 2.8% were attained at a current density of 50 mA cm -2 at an applied voltage of 24 V.

  14. A-site layer terminated perovskite substrate: NdGaO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masashi; Kawasaki, Masashi; Yoshimoto, Mamoru; Koinuma, Hideomi

    1999-04-01

    A perovskite single-crystal substrate, NdGaO3 (001), was thermally annealed in air to give an atomically defined surface structure. From analysis with coaxial impact-collision ion scattering spectroscopy, the terminating atomic layer was identified to be NdO1+δ , i.e., the A-site oxide monolayer in perovskite ABO3. This result is contrary to the B-site oxide (BO2-δ) termination observed in other perovskite surfaces, such as wet etched SrTiO3 and LaAlO3 or annealed (LaAlO3)0.3-(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7 (LSAT).

  15. Improved planar perovskite solar cells using the modified hole transporting layer and solvent annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Shangzheng; Zhang, Chunfu; Chen, Dazheng; Hao, Yue

    2017-06-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskites have been demonstrated as excellent light absorbers for high efficiency solar cell [1]. In this work, Glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/Perovskite/PCBM/Ag planar heterojunction structure was designed and investigated. For the reference cell, the efficiency of 12.5 % was achieved. An relative low J sc was exhibited at the result, mainly owing to the low conductivity of the electric transport layer - PEDOT:PSS. By controlling the amount of DMSO doped in PEDOT:PSS, a superior device was obtained with the efficiency of 13.6% although the roughness of the PEDOT:PSS layer was also increasing with doping DMSO. Furthermore, another key factor for a perovskite solar cell is the high crystallization of the perovskite layer[2]. Solvent annealing was adopted to improve the crystallization in this work. With dropping IPA around the solar cell and annealing for 20 minute, a surprising characteristics of the device with the efficiency of 15%, V OC of 0.99 V, Fill Factor of 67.9%, J SC of 22.3mA/cm2 was obtained.

  16. Layering fabrication, structure, and electromagnetic properties of perovskite phases by hybrid process: self-propagated high-temperature synthesis and selective laser sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkovsky, I.; Morozov, Yu.; Kuznetsov, M.

    2013-11-01

    The paper discusses the fundamentals and the requirements for layer-by-layer manufacturing of three-dimensional porous parts from complex metal oxide systems (piezoceramics PbTi1-xZrxO3; hexaferrites - BaFe12-xCrxO19 and SrFe12O19; spinels - Li0.5Fe2.5-xCrxO4 and high-temperature superconducting ceramics (HTSC) - YBa2Cu3O7-y) and examines the main aspects of the overlapped processes associated with the self-propagated high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and selective laser sintering (SLS). These two techniques presently offered are joined as the original solutions in this external magnetic field. The perovskite phase compositions, morphology, and element distribution of the fabricated samples were analyzed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped the EDX analysis. Optimal regimes for the three-dimensional (3D) parts laser synthesis and some of their electro physical properties were estimated for conducting the concurrent SHS-SLS reactions, both for the case with the applied dc magnetic field and without it.

  17. Efficient methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells with active layers from 300 to 900 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Momblona, C.; Malinkiewicz, O.; Soriano, A.; Gil-Escrig, L.; Bandiello, E.; Scheepers, M.; Bolink, H. J.; Edri, E.

    2014-08-01

    Efficient methylammonium lead iodide perovskite-based solar cells have been prepared in which the perovskite layer is sandwiched in between two organic charge transporting layers that block holes and electrons, respectively. This configuration leads to stable and reproducible devices that do not suffer from strong hysteresis effects and when optimized lead to efficiencies close to 15%. The perovskite layer is formed by using a dual-source thermal evaporation method, whereas the organic layers are processed from solution. The dual-source thermal evaporation method leads to smooth films and allows for high precision thickness variations. Devices were prepared with perovskite layer thicknesses ranging from 160 to 900 nm. The short-circuit current observed for these devices increased with increasing perovskite layer thickness. The main parameter that decreases with increasing perovskite layer thickness is the fill factor and as a result optimum device performance is obtained for perovskite layer thickness around 300 nm. However, here we demonstrate that with a slightly oxidized electron blocking layer the fill factor for the solar cells with a perovskite layer thickness of 900 nm increases to the same values as for the devices with thin perovskite layers. As a result the power conversion efficiencies for the cells with 300 and 900 nm are very similar, 12.7% and 12%, respectively.

  18. Fabrication and characteristics of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells with molybdenum-selenide hole-transport layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lung-Chien; Tseng, Zong-Lieng; Chen, Cheng-Chiang; Hsiung Chang, Sheng; Ho, Cheng-Han

    2016-12-01

    We present a solar cell with an FTO/MoSe2/perovskite/C60/bathocuproine (BCP)/silver structure. The hole-transport material (HTM), active photovoltaic layer, electron-transport layer, and electron-buffer layer were made of MoSe2, perovskite, C60, and BCP, respectively. The domain sizes of the CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite films that were deposited on the MoSe2 HTM films following annealing at 500, 600, and 700 °C were determined to be 23, 25, and 27 nm, respectively, revealing that the domain size of the MAPbI3 perovskite film increased with the annealing temperature of the MoSe2 HTM film under it. Therefore, the crystallinities of the perovskite layers were improved by increasing the annealing temperatures of the HTM layers. Following optimization, the maximum power-conversion efficiency was 8.23%.

  19. All-inorganic inverse perovskite solar cells using zinc oxide nanocolloids on spin coated perovskite layer.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Naoyuki; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Yusa, Shin-Ichi; Fukumoto, Shota; Baranwal, Ajay K; Segawa, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu; Ito, Seigo

    2017-01-01

    We confirmed the influence of ZnO nanoparticle size and residual water on performance of all inorganic perovskite solar cells. By decreasing the size of the ZnO nanoparticles, the short-circuit current density (Jsc) and open circuit photovoltage (Voc) values are increased and the conversion efficiency is improved. Although the Voc value is not affected by the influence of residual water in the solution for preparing the ZnO layer, the Jsc value drops greatly. As a result, it was found that it is important to use the oxide nanoparticles with a small particle diameter and to reduce the water content in the oxide forming material in order to manufacture a highly efficient all inorganic perovskite solar cells.

  20. All-inorganic inverse perovskite solar cells using zinc oxide nanocolloids on spin coated perovskite layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibayama, Naoyuki; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Fukumoto, Shota; Baranwal, Ajay K.; Segawa, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu; Ito, Seigo

    2017-07-01

    We confirmed the influence of ZnO nanoparticle size and residual water on performance of all inorganic perovskite solar cells. By decreasing the size of the ZnO nanoparticles, the short-circuit current density ( Jsc) and open circuit photovoltage ( Voc) values are increased and the conversion efficiency is improved. Although the Voc value is not affected by the influence of residual water in the solution for preparing the ZnO layer, the Jsc value drops greatly. As a result, it was found that it is important to use the oxide nanoparticles with a small particle diameter and to reduce the water content in the oxide forming material in order to manufacture a highly efficient all inorganic perovskite solar cells.

  1. Ferroelastic switching in a layered-perovskite thin film

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Chuanshou; Ke, Xiaoxing; Wang, Jianjun; ...

    2016-02-03

    Here, a controllable ferroelastic switching in ferroelectric/multiferroic oxides is highly desirable due to the non-volatile strain and possible coupling between lattice and other order parameter in heterostructures. However, a substrate clamping usually inhibits their elastic deformation in thin films without micro/nano-patterned structure so that the integration of the non-volatile strain with thin film devices is challenging. Here, we report that reversible in-plane elastic switching with a non-volatile strain of approximately 0.4% can be achieved in layeredperovskite Bi2WO6 thin films, where the ferroelectric polarization rotates by 90 within four in-plane preferred orientations. Phase-field simulation indicates that the energy barrier of ferroelasticmore » switching in orthorhombic Bi2WO6 film is ten times lower than the one in PbTiO3 films, revealing the origin of the switching with negligible substrate constraint. The reversible control of the in-plane strain in this layered-perovskite thin film demonstrates a new pathway to integrate mechanical deformation with nanoscale electronic and/or magnetoelectronic applications.« less

  2. Ferroelastic switching in a layered-perovskite thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chuanshou; Ke, Xiaoxing; Wang, Jianjun; Liang, Renrong; Luo, Zhenlin; Tian, Yu; Yi, Di; Zhang, Qintong; Wang, Jing; Han, Xiu -Feng; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Chen, Long -Qing; Nan, Ce -Wen; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zhang, Jinxing

    2016-02-03

    Here, a controllable ferroelastic switching in ferroelectric/multiferroic oxides is highly desirable due to the non-volatile strain and possible coupling between lattice and other order parameter in heterostructures. However, a substrate clamping usually inhibits their elastic deformation in thin films without micro/nano-patterned structure so that the integration of the non-volatile strain with thin film devices is challenging. Here, we report that reversible in-plane elastic switching with a non-volatile strain of approximately 0.4% can be achieved in layeredperovskite Bi2WO6 thin films, where the ferroelectric polarization rotates by 90 within four in-plane preferred orientations. Phase-field simulation indicates that the energy barrier of ferroelastic switching in orthorhombic Bi2WO6 film is ten times lower than the one in PbTiO3 films, revealing the origin of the switching with negligible substrate constraint. The reversible control of the in-plane strain in this layered-perovskite thin film demonstrates a new pathway to integrate mechanical deformation with nanoscale electronic and/or magnetoelectronic applications.

  3. Facile preparation of smooth perovskite films for efficient meso/planar hybrid structured perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Yu, Hua; Yun, Jung-Ho; Lyu, Miaoqiang; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Lianzhou

    2015-06-21

    Smooth organolead halide perovskite films for meso/planar hybrid structured perovskite solar cells were prepared by a simple compressed air blow-drying method under ambient conditions. The resultant perovskite films show high surface coverage, leading to a device power conversion efficiency of over 10% with an open circuit voltage up to 1.003 V merely using pristine poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a hole transporter.

  4. High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells Engineered by an Ammonia Modified Graphene Oxide Interfacial Layer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shanglei; Yang, Yingguo; Li, Meng; Wang, Jinmiao; Cheng, Zhendong; Li, Jihao; Ji, Gengwu; Yin, Guangzhi; Song, Fei; Wang, Zhaokui; Li, Jingye; Gao, Xingyu

    2016-06-15

    The introduction of an ammonia modified graphene oxide (GO:NH3) layer into perovskite-based solar cells (PSCs) with a structure of indium-tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) ( PSS)-GO: NH3/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx/phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)/(solution Bphen) sBphen/Ag improves their performance and perovskite structure stability significantly. The fabricated devices with a champion PCE up to 16.11% are superior in all the performances in comparison with all the reference devices without the GO:NH3 layer. To understand the improved device performances, synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible absorption measurements have been conducted on perovskite films on different substrates. It was found that these improvements should be partially attributed to the improved crystallization and preferred orientation order of peovskite structure, partially to the improved morphology with nearly complete coverage, partially to the enhanced optical absorption caused by the PSS-GO:NH3 layer, and partially to the better matched energy-level-alignment at the perovskite interface. Furthermore, the device was shown to be more stable in the ambient condition, which is clearly associated with the improved peovskite structure stability by the GO:NH3 layer observed by the GIXRD measurements. All these achievements will promote more applications of chemically modified graphene oxide interfacial layer in the PSCs as well as other organic multilayer devices.

  5. Fine control of perovskite-layered morphology and composition via sequential deposition crystallization process towards improved perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yi; Meng, Fanli; Zhao, Erfei; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Zhou, Yali; Tao, Xia

    2016-04-01

    The ability to prepare high coverage and compact perovskite films via solution-based crystallization manipulation processes still represents a vital issue towards improving the ultimate photoelectric conversion efficiency of devices. In this work, we prepare the active perovskite layer by means of sequential deposition crystallization process i.e. dipping PbI2-infiltrated TiO2 film within CH3NH3I solution from 20s to 60s. The morphology and thickness of the as-prepared perovskite layer, and its overall performance superiority are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that a maximum conversion of PbI2 to perovskite is completed upon applying a sequential deposition crystallization process of 40s. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) demonstrates that the coverage of the perovskite capping layer exhibits a trend from rise to decline in the whole dipping time from 20s to 60s. By fine control of the dipping time, a 620 nm-thickness compact perovskite active layer is obtained at the optimized dipping time of 40s and is verified to possess strong light absorption and high electron extraction efficiency, leading to a higher photocurrent. By further optimizing the mesoporous TiO2 film thickness, a high photocurrent of 23.98 mA cm-2 and an efficiency of 13.47% are achieved.

  6. Perovskite oxide nanowires: synthesis, property and structural characterization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinhua; Liu, Zhiguo; Ming, Naiben

    2010-07-01

    Perovskite oxide materials display a wide spectrum of functional properties, including switchable polarization, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity, and non-linear dielectric behavior. These properties are indispensable for application in electronic devices such as non-volatile memories, sensors, microactuators, infrared detectors, microwave phase filters, and so on. Recent advances in science and technology of perovskite oxide materials have resulted in the feature sizes of perovskite oxides-based electronic devices entering into nanoscale dimensions. At nanoscale perovskite oxide materials exhibit a pronounced size effect manifesting itself in a significant deviation of the properties of low-dimensional structures from the bulk and film counterparts. In the last decade low-dimensional perovskite nanosized oxides have been received much attention because of their superior physical and chemical properties. Among them, perovskite oxide nanowires are especially attractive for nanoscience studies and nanotechnology applications. Compared to other low-dimensional perovskite oxide systems, perovskite oxide nanowires are not only used as the building blocks of future nanodevices, but also they offer fundamental scientific opportunities for investigating the intrinsic size effects of physical properties. In the recent years, much progress has been made both in synthesis and physical property testing of perovskite oxide nanowires, which have a profound impact on the nanoelectronics. In this work, an overview of the state of art in perovskite oxide nanowires is presented, which covers their synthesis, property, and structural characterization. In the first part, the recent literatures for fabricating perovskite oxide nanowires with promising features, are critically reviewed. The second part deals with the recent advances on the physical property testing of perovskite oxide nanowires. The third part summarizes the recent progress on microstructural characterizations of

  7. Architecture of the Interface between the Perovskite and Hole-Transport Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Masahiro; Hirotani, Daisuke; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Ogomi, Yuhei; Shen, Qing; Ripolles, Teresa S; Yoshino, Kenji; Toyoda, Taro; Minemoto, Takashi; Hayase, Shuzi

    2016-09-22

    The interface between the perovskite (PVK, CH3 NH3 PbI3 ) and hole-transport layers in perovskite solar cells is discussed. The device architecture studied is as follows: F-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass/compact TiO2 /mesoporous TiO2 /PVK/2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-MeOTAD)/Au. After a thin layer of 4,4,4-trifluorobutylammonium iodide (TFBA) was inserted at the interface between PVK and Spiro-MeOTAD, the photovoltaic efficiency increased from 11.6-14.5 % to 15.1-17.6 %. TFBA (10 ppm) was added in the PVK solution before coating. Owing to the low surface tension of TFBA, TFBA rose to the surface of the PVK layer spontaneously during spin-coating to make a thin organic layer. The PVK grain boundaries also seemed to be passivated with the addition of TFBA. However, large differences in Urbach energies and valence band energy level were not observed for the PVK layer with and without the addition of TFBA. The charge recombination time constant between the PVK and the Spiro-MeOTAD became slower (from 8.4 to 280 μsec) after 10 ppm of TFBA was added in the PVK. The experimental results using TFBA conclude that insertion of a very thin layer at the interface between PVK and Spiro-MeOTAD is effective for suppressing charge recombination and increasing photovoltaic performances.

  8. Atomically thin two-dimensional materials as hole extraction layers in organolead halide perovskite photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yu Geun; Kwon, Ki Chang; Le, Quyet Van; Hong, Kootak; Jang, Ho Won; Kim, Soo Young

    2016-07-01

    Atomically thin two-dimensional materials such as MoS2, WS2, and graphene oxide (GO) are used as hole extraction layers (HEL) in organolead halide perovskites solar cells (PSCs) instead of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) HEL. MoS2 and WS2 layers with a polycrystalline structure were synthesized by a chemical deposition method using a uniformly spin-coated (NH4)MoS4 and (NH4)WS4 precursor solution. GO was synthesized by the oxidation of natural graphite powder using Hummers' method. The work functions of MoS2, WS2, and GO are measured to be 5.0, 4.95, and 5.1 eV, respectively. The X-ray diffraction spectrum indicated that the synthesized perovskite material is CH3NH3PbI3-xClx. The PSCs with the p-n junction structure were fabricated based on the CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite layer. The power conversion efficiencies of the MoS2, WS2, and GO-based PSCs were 9.53%, 8.02%, and 9.62%, respectively, which are comparable to those obtained from PEDOT:PSS-based devices (9.93%). These results suggest that two-dimensional materials such as MoS2, WS2, and GO can be promising candidates for the formation of HELs in the PSCs.

  9. Structural, electrochemical and magnetic characterization of the layered-type PrBa{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+δ} perovskite

    SciTech Connect

    Azad, Abul K.; Kim, Jung H.; Irvine, John T.S.

    2014-05-01

    Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of the layered cobaltite PrBa{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+δ} have been investigated by means of neutron diffraction, electron diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and SQUID magnetometry. Rietveld analysis of neutron diffraction data shows the ordered distribution of oxygen vacancies in [PrO{sub δ}] planes which doubles the lattice parameters from the simple perovskite cell parameter as a≈2a{sub p} and c≈2a{sub p} (a{sub p} is the cell parameter of the simple Perovskite) yielding tetragonal symmetry in the P4/mmm space group. On heating, above 573 K in air, structural rearrangement takes place and the structure can be defined as a≈a{sub p} and c≈2a{sub p} in the same space group. Oxygen occupancies have been determined as a function of temperature from neutron diffraction results. Initially (≥373 K), oxygen occupancy was increased and then decreased with increasing temperature. It was found that at 973 K the total oxygen loss is calculated about 0.265 oxygen/formula unit. Oxygen vacancy ordering was observed below 573 K, and the oxygen occupancy decreases as cell volume increases with increasing temperature. Area specific resistance (ASR) measurements show a resistance of 0.153 Ωcm{sup 2} and 0.286 Ωcm{sup 2} at 973 K and 923 K, respectively. On cooling, paramagnetic to ferromagnetic and an incomplete ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition takes place. Different behaviours in field cooled and zero-field-cooled measurements leads to a coexistence of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order. - Graphical abstract: Structural phase changes in PrBa{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+δ} at elevated temperatures determined by neutron powder diffraction. Depending on oxygen occupancy it form different phases at different temperatures. This pictures show the schematic 3D diagram of PrBa{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+δ} at 295 K (a), 373 K (b) and 573 K (c). Co atoms are inside the

  10. Recent Advances in the Inverted Planar Structure of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lei; You, Jingbi; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-19

    Inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells research could be traced back to 2009, and initially showed 3.8% efficiency. After 6 years of efforts, the efficiency has been pushed to 20.1%. The pace of development was much faster than that of any type of solar cell technology. In addition to high efficiency, the device fabrication is a low-cost solution process. Due to these advantages, a large number of scientists have been immersed into this promising area. In the past 6 years, much of the research on perovskite solar cells has been focused on planar and mesoporous device structures employing an n-type TiO2 layer as the bottom electron transport layer. These architectures have achieved champion device efficiencies. However, they still possess unwanted features. Mesoporous structures require a high temperature (>450 °C) sintering process for the TiO2 scaffold, which will increase the cost and also not be compatible with flexible substrates. While the planar structures based on TiO2 (regular structure) usually suffer from a large degree of J-V hysteresis. Recently, another emerging structure, referred to as an "inverted" planar device structure (i.e., p-i-n), uses p-type and n-type materials as bottom and top charge transport layers, respectively. This structure derived from organic solar cells, and the charge transport layers used in organic photovoltaics were successfully transferred into perovskite solar cells. The p-i-n structure of perovskite solar cells has shown efficiencies as high as 18%, lower temperature processing, flexibility, and, furthermore, negligible J-V hysteresis effects. In this Account, we will provide a comprehensive comparison of the mesoporous and planar structures, and also the regular and inverted of planar structures. Later, we will focus the discussion on the development of the inverted planar structure of perovskite solar cells, including film growth, band alignment, stability, and hysteresis. In the film growth part, several

  11. Post-perovskite Transition in Anti-structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bosen; Ohgushi, Kenya

    2016-11-01

    The discovery of the post-perovskite transition, which is the structural transition from the perovskite to post-perovskite structure in MgSiO3 under pressure, has aroused great interests in geosciences. Despite of previous extensive studies, key factors of the post-perovsktie transition are still under hot debate primarily due to the big difficulty in performing systematic experiments under extreme conditions. Hence, search for new materials showing the post-perovskite transition under ambient pressure has been highly expected. We here report a new-type of materials Cr3AX (A = Ga, Ge; X = C, N), which exhibits the post-perovskite transition as a function of “chemical pressure” at ambient physical pressure. The detailed structural analysis indicates that the tolerance factor, which is the measure of the ionic radius mismatch, plays the key role in the post-perovskite transition. Moreover, we found a tetragonal perovskite structure with loss of inversion symmetry between the cubic perovskite and orthorhombic post-perovskite structures. This finding stimulates a search for a ferroelectric state in MgSiO3.

  12. Post-perovskite Transition in Anti-structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bosen; Ohgushi, Kenya

    2016-11-30

    The discovery of the post-perovskite transition, which is the structural transition from the perovskite to post-perovskite structure in MgSiO3 under pressure, has aroused great interests in geosciences. Despite of previous extensive studies, key factors of the post-perovsktie transition are still under hot debate primarily due to the big difficulty in performing systematic experiments under extreme conditions. Hence, search for new materials showing the post-perovskite transition under ambient pressure has been highly expected. We here report a new-type of materials Cr3AX (A = Ga, Ge; X = C, N), which exhibits the post-perovskite transition as a function of "chemical pressure" at ambient physical pressure. The detailed structural analysis indicates that the tolerance factor, which is the measure of the ionic radius mismatch, plays the key role in the post-perovskite transition. Moreover, we found a tetragonal perovskite structure with loss of inversion symmetry between the cubic perovskite and orthorhombic post-perovskite structures. This finding stimulates a search for a ferroelectric state in MgSiO3.

  13. Post-perovskite Transition in Anti-structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bosen; Ohgushi, Kenya

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the post-perovskite transition, which is the structural transition from the perovskite to post-perovskite structure in MgSiO3 under pressure, has aroused great interests in geosciences. Despite of previous extensive studies, key factors of the post-perovsktie transition are still under hot debate primarily due to the big difficulty in performing systematic experiments under extreme conditions. Hence, search for new materials showing the post-perovskite transition under ambient pressure has been highly expected. We here report a new-type of materials Cr3AX (A = Ga, Ge; X = C, N), which exhibits the post-perovskite transition as a function of “chemical pressure” at ambient physical pressure. The detailed structural analysis indicates that the tolerance factor, which is the measure of the ionic radius mismatch, plays the key role in the post-perovskite transition. Moreover, we found a tetragonal perovskite structure with loss of inversion symmetry between the cubic perovskite and orthorhombic post-perovskite structures. This finding stimulates a search for a ferroelectric state in MgSiO3. PMID:27901099

  14. Improved Performance and Stability of Inverted Planar Perovskite Solar Cells Using Fulleropyrrolidine Layers.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chengbo; Castro, Edison; Wang, Tan; Betancourt-Solis, German; Rodriguez, Gloria; Echegoyen, Luis

    2016-11-16

    Inverted planar structure perovskite solar cells (PSCs), due to their low-temperature precessing and lack of hysteretic problems, are attracting increased attention by researchers around the world. Fullerene derivatives are the most widely used electron transport materials (ETMs) in inverted planar perovskite solar cells, especially [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PC61BM), which exhibits very good performance. However, to the best of our knowledge, the influence of adducts on fullerene-based PSCs performance has not been fully explored to date. In this work, two fullerene derivatives, 2,5-(dimethyl ester) C60 fulleropyrrolidine (DMEC60) and the analogous C70 derivative (DMEC70), were synthesized in high yield via a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction at room temperature and incorporated into CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells as electron transport materials. Possibly because the attached pyrrolidine ester groups are able to coordinate with the perovskite layer, the devices based on DMEC60 and DMEC70 achieved power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 15.2% and 16.4%, respectively. Not only were both devices' efficiencies higher than those based on PC61BM and PC71BM, but their stabilities were also higher than those for PCBM-based devices. The results suggest that DMEC60 and DMEC70 are better alternatives than PC61BM and PC71BM for the ETMs in PSCs.

  15. A layered hybrid perovskite solar-cell absorber with enhanced moisture stability.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ian C; Hoke, Eric T; Solis-Ibarra, Diego; McGehee, Michael D; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2014-10-13

    Two-dimensional hybrid perovskites are used as absorbers in solar cells. Our first-generation devices containing (PEA)2(MA)2[Pb3I10] (1; PEA=C6H5(CH2)2NH3(+), MA=CH3NH3(+)) show an open-circuit voltage of 1.18 V and a power conversion efficiency of 4.73%. The layered structure allows for high-quality films to be deposited through spin coating and high-temperature annealing is not required for device fabrication. The 3D perovskite (MA)[PbI3] (2) has recently been identified as a promising absorber for solar cells. However, its instability to moisture requires anhydrous processing and operating conditions. Films of 1 are more moisture resistant than films of 2 and devices containing 1 can be fabricated under ambient humidity levels. The larger bandgap of the 2D structure is also suitable as the higher bandgap absorber in a dual-absorber tandem device. Compared to 2, the layered perovskite structure may offer greater tunability at the molecular level for material optimization. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Stability and bandgaps of layered perovskites for one- and two-photon water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Ivano E.; María García-Lastra, Juan; Hüser, Falco; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.

    2013-10-01

    Direct production of hydrogen from water and sunlight requires stable and abundantly available semiconductors with well positioned band edges relative to the water red-ox potentials. We have used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate 300 oxides and oxynitrides in the Ruddlesden-Popper phase of the layered perovskite structure. Based on screening criteria for the stability, bandgaps and band edge positions, we suggest 20 new materials for the light harvesting photo-electrode of a one-photon water splitting device and 5 anode materials for a two-photon device with silicon as photo-cathode. In addition, we explore a simple rule relating the bandgap of the perovskite to the number of octahedra in the layered structure and the B-metal ion. Finally, the quality of the GLLB-SC potential used to obtain the bandgaps, including the derivative discontinuity, is validated against G0W0@LDA gaps for 20 previously identified oxides and oxynitrides in the cubic perovskite structure.

  17. Structural Instabilities Related to Highly Anharmonic Phonons in Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Marronnier, Arthur; Lee, Heejae; Geffroy, Bernard; Even, Jacky; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Roma, Guido

    2017-06-15

    Hybrid perovskites have emerged over the past five years as absorber layers for novel high-efficiency low-cost solar cells combining the advantages of organic and inorganic semiconductors. Unfortunately, electrical transport in these materials is still poorly understood. Employing the linear response approach of density functional theory, we reveal strong anharmonic effects and a double-well phonon instability at the center of the Brillouin zone for both cubic and orthorhombic phases of inorganic CsPbI3. Previously reported soft phonon modes are stabilized at the actual lower-symmetry equilibrium structure, which occurs in a very flat energy landscape, highlighting the strong competition between the different phases of CsPbI3. Factoring these low-energy phonons into electron-phonon interactions and band gap calculations could help better understand the electrical transport properties in these materials. Furthermore, the perovskite oscillations through the corresponding energy barrier could explain the underlying ferroelectricity and the dynamical Rashba effect predicted in halide perovskites for photovoltaics.

  18. Block Copolymer-Tuned Fullerene Electron Transport Layer Enhances the Efficiency of Perovskite Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsi-Kuei; Su, Yu-Wei; Chen, Hsiu-Cheng; Huang, Yi-Jiun; Wei, Kung-Hwa

    2016-09-21

    In this study, we enhanced the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells by employing an electron transfer layer (ETL) comprising [6,6]phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) and, to optimize its morphology, a small amount of the block copolymer polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO), positioned on the perovskite active layer. When incorporating 0.375 wt % PS-b-PEO into PC61BM, the PCE of the perovskite photovoltaic device increased from 9.4% to 13.4%, a relative increase of 43%, because of a large enhancement in the fill factor of the device. To decipher the intricate morphology of the ETL, we used synchrotron grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering for determining the PC61BM cluster size, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for probing the surface, and transmission electron microscopy for observing the aggregation of PC61BM in the ETL. We found that the interaction between PS-b-PEO and PC61BM resulted in smaller PC61BM clusters that further aggregated into dendritic structures in some domains, a result of the similar polarities of the PS block and PC61BM; this behavior could be used to tune the morphology of the ETL. The optimal PS-b-PEO-mediated PC61BM cluster size in the ETL was 17 nm, a large reduction from 59 nm for the pristine PC61BM layer. This approach of incorporating a small amount of nanostructured block copolymer into a fullerene allowed us to effectively tune the morphology of the ETL on the perovskite active layer and resulted in enhanced fill factors of the devices and thus their device efficiency.

  19. Suppressed decomposition of organometal halide perovskites by impermeable electron-extraction layers in inverted solar cells.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, K O; Zhao, J; Pourdavoud, N; Becker, T; Hu, T; Olthof, S; Meerholz, K; Hoffmann, L; Gahlmann, T; Heiderhoff, R; Oszajca, M F; Luechinger, N A; Rogalla, D; Chen, Y; Cheng, B; Riedl, T

    2017-01-09

    The area of thin-film photovoltaics has been overwhelmed by organometal halide perovskites. Unfortunately, serious stability concerns arise with perovskite solar cells. For example, methyl-ammonium lead iodide is known to decompose in the presence of water and, more severely, even under inert conditions at elevated temperatures. Here, we demonstrate inverted perovskite solar cells, in which the decomposition of the perovskite is significantly mitigated even at elevated temperatures. Specifically, we introduce a bilayered electron-extraction interlayer consisting of aluminium-doped zinc oxide and tin oxide. We evidence tin oxide grown by atomic layer deposition does form an outstandingly dense gas permeation barrier that effectively hinders the ingress of moisture towards the perovskite and-more importantly-it prevents the egress of decomposition products of the perovskite. Thereby, the overall decomposition of the perovskite is significantly suppressed, leading to an outstanding device stability.

  20. Suppressed decomposition of organometal halide perovskites by impermeable electron-extraction layers in inverted solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmann, K.O.; Zhao, J.; Pourdavoud, N.; Becker, T.; Hu, T.; Olthof, S.; Meerholz, K.; Hoffmann, L.; Gahlmann, T.; Heiderhoff, R.; Oszajca, M. F.; Luechinger, N. A.; Rogalla, D.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, B.; Riedl, T

    2017-01-01

    The area of thin-film photovoltaics has been overwhelmed by organometal halide perovskites. Unfortunately, serious stability concerns arise with perovskite solar cells. For example, methyl-ammonium lead iodide is known to decompose in the presence of water and, more severely, even under inert conditions at elevated temperatures. Here, we demonstrate inverted perovskite solar cells, in which the decomposition of the perovskite is significantly mitigated even at elevated temperatures. Specifically, we introduce a bilayered electron-extraction interlayer consisting of aluminium-doped zinc oxide and tin oxide. We evidence tin oxide grown by atomic layer deposition does form an outstandingly dense gas permeation barrier that effectively hinders the ingress of moisture towards the perovskite and—more importantly—it prevents the egress of decomposition products of the perovskite. Thereby, the overall decomposition of the perovskite is significantly suppressed, leading to an outstanding device stability. PMID:28067308

  1. Suppressed decomposition of organometal halide perovskites by impermeable electron-extraction layers in inverted solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, K. O.; Zhao, J.; Pourdavoud, N.; Becker, T.; Hu, T.; Olthof, S.; Meerholz, K.; Hoffmann, L.; Gahlmann, T.; Heiderhoff, R.; Oszajca, M. F.; Luechinger, N. A.; Rogalla, D.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, B.; Riedl, T.

    2017-01-01

    The area of thin-film photovoltaics has been overwhelmed by organometal halide perovskites. Unfortunately, serious stability concerns arise with perovskite solar cells. For example, methyl-ammonium lead iodide is known to decompose in the presence of water and, more severely, even under inert conditions at elevated temperatures. Here, we demonstrate inverted perovskite solar cells, in which the decomposition of the perovskite is significantly mitigated even at elevated temperatures. Specifically, we introduce a bilayered electron-extraction interlayer consisting of aluminium-doped zinc oxide and tin oxide. We evidence tin oxide grown by atomic layer deposition does form an outstandingly dense gas permeation barrier that effectively hinders the ingress of moisture towards the perovskite and--more importantly--it prevents the egress of decomposition products of the perovskite. Thereby, the overall decomposition of the perovskite is significantly suppressed, leading to an outstanding device stability.

  2. Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with Reduced Hysteresis and Enhanced Open Circuit Voltage by Using PW12-TiO2 as Electron Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun; Liu, Canjun; Di, Yunxiang; Li, Wenzhang; Liu, Fangyang; Jiang, Liangxing; Li, Jie; Hao, Xiaojing; Huang, Haitao

    2016-04-06

    An electron transport layer is essential for effective operation of planar perovskite solar cells. In this Article, PW12-TiO2 composite was used as the electron transport layer for the planar perovskite solar cell in the device structure of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-glass/PW12-TiO2/perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD/Au. A proper downward shift of the conduction band minimum (CBM) enhanced electron extraction from the perovskite layer to the PW12-TiO2 composite layer. Consequently, the common hysteresis effect in TiO2-based planar perovskite solar cells was significantly reduced and the open circuit voltage was greatly increased to about 1.1 V. Perovskite solar cells using the PW12-TiO2 compact layer showed an efficiency of 15.45%. This work can contribute to the studies on the electron transport layer and interface engineering for the further development of perovskite solar cells.

  3. Influence of void-free perovskite capping layer on the charge recombination process in high performance CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Kunwu; Nelson, Christopher T.; Scott, Mary Cooper; Minor, Andrew; Mathews, Nripan; Wong, Lydia Helena

    2016-02-01

    The stunning rise of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite material as a light harvesting material in recent years has drawn much attention in the photovoltaic community. Here, we investigated in detail the uniform and void-free perovskite capping layer in the mesoscopic perovskite devices and found it to play a critical role in determining device performance and charge recombination process. Compared to the rough surface with voids of the perovskite layer, surface of the perovskite capping layer obtained from sequential deposition process is much more uniform with less void formation and distribution within the TiO2 mesoscopic scaffold is more homogeneous, leading to much improved photovoltaic parameters of the devices. The impact of void free perovskite capping layer surface on the charge recombination processes within the mesoscopic perovskite solar cells is further scrutinized via charge extraction measurement. Modulation of precursor solution concentrations in order to further improve the perovskite layer surface morphology leads to higher efficiency and lower charge recombination rates. Inhibited charge recombination in these solar cells also matches with the higher charge density and slower photovoltage decay profiles measured.The stunning rise of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite material as a light harvesting material in recent years has drawn much attention in the photovoltaic community. Here, we investigated in detail the uniform and void-free perovskite capping layer in the mesoscopic perovskite devices and found it to play a critical role in determining device performance and charge recombination process. Compared to the rough surface with voids of the perovskite layer, surface of the perovskite capping layer obtained from sequential deposition process is much more uniform with less void formation and distribution within the TiO2 mesoscopic scaffold is more homogeneous, leading to much improved photovoltaic parameters of the devices. The impact of

  4. Substrate-dependent electronic structure and film formation of MAPbI3 perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Olthof, Selina; Meerholz, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    We present investigations on the interface formation between the hybrid perovskite MAPbI3 and various substrates, covering a wide range of work functions. The perovskite films are incrementally evaporated in situ while the electronic structure is evaluated using photoelectron spectroscopy. Our results show that there is an induction period in the growth of the perovskite during which volatile compounds are formed, catalyzed by the substrate. The duration of the induction period depends strongly on the nature of the substrate material, and it can take up to 20–30 nm of formal precursor deposition before the surface is passivated and the perovskite film starts forming. The stoichiometry of the 2–3 nm thin passivation layer deviates from the expected perovskite stoichiometry, being rich in decomposition products of the organic cation. During the regular growth of the perovskite, our measurements show a deviation from the commonly assumed flat band condition, i.e., dipole formation and band bending dominate the interface. Overall, the nature of the substrate not only changes the energetic alignment of the perovskite, it can introduce gap states and influence the film formation and morphology. The possible impact on device performance is discussed. PMID:28084313

  5. Substrate-dependent electronic structure and film formation of MAPbI3 perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olthof, Selina; Meerholz, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    We present investigations on the interface formation between the hybrid perovskite MAPbI3 and various substrates, covering a wide range of work functions. The perovskite films are incrementally evaporated in situ while the electronic structure is evaluated using photoelectron spectroscopy. Our results show that there is an induction period in the growth of the perovskite during which volatile compounds are formed, catalyzed by the substrate. The duration of the induction period depends strongly on the nature of the substrate material, and it can take up to 20–30 nm of formal precursor deposition before the surface is passivated and the perovskite film starts forming. The stoichiometry of the 2–3 nm thin passivation layer deviates from the expected perovskite stoichiometry, being rich in decomposition products of the organic cation. During the regular growth of the perovskite, our measurements show a deviation from the commonly assumed flat band condition, i.e., dipole formation and band bending dominate the interface. Overall, the nature of the substrate not only changes the energetic alignment of the perovskite, it can introduce gap states and influence the film formation and morphology. The possible impact on device performance is discussed.

  6. Perovskite oxides: Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  7. Layered Perovskite Nanofibers via Electrospinning for Overall Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Nils C; Soldat, Julia; Marschall, Roland

    2015-05-06

    The (111)-layered perovskite materials Ba5 Ta4 O15 , Ba5 Ta2 Nb2 O15 and Ba5 Nb4 O15 are prepared with nanofiber morphology via electrospinning for the first time. The nanofibers are built up from small single crystals, with up to several micrometers length even after calcination. The formation mechanism is investigated in detail, revealing an intermediate formation of amorphous barium carbonate strengthening the nanofiber morphology for high temperature treatment. All nanofiber compounds are able to generate hydrogen without any co-catalyst in photocatalytic reformation of methanol. After photodeposition of Rh-Cr2 O3 co-catalysts, the nanofibers show better activity in overall water splitting compared to sol-gel-derived powders.

  8. Tailoring a compact and stable Langmuir bi-dimensional PbX-based layered perovskite film at the air-water interface and on solid support.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Carmona, Luisa; García-Espejo, Gonzalo; Martín-Romero, María T; Camacho, Luis

    2017-07-15

    The present work studies the stability of Langmuir organic-inorganic superlattice materials thin films consisting of layered perovskite-based films with controlled 2D framework as well as to design experimental conditions for increasing the efficiency of the organic-inorganic perovskite motif by mechanical stimulus. Therefore, a whole covering of the air/water interface by a compact and stable lead-based layered perovskite structure is pursued. A 2D layered perovskite-type hybrid structure of the form [(CH3(CH2)19NH3)2(PbX4)], X=Cl, and Br, in which, two-dimensional sheets stabilized by a inner bilayer of organic monoammonium cation matrix, is mechanically tailored by successive compression-expansion cycles. The formation of 2D molecular patterns has been characterized by ΔR, BAM, XRD and XPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cooperative tin oxide fullerene electron selective layers for high-performance planar perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Weijun; Zhao, Dewei; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Wang, Changlei; Cimaroli, Alexander J.; Grice, Corey R.; Yang, Mengjin; Li, Zhen; Jiang, Chun -Sheng; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Zhu, Kai; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Fang, Guojia; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-08-17

    Both tin oxide (SnO2) and fullerenes have been reported as electron selective layers (ESLs) for producing efficient lead halide perovskite solar cells. Here, we report that SnO2 and fullerenes can work cooperatively to further boost the performance of perovskite solar cells. We find that fullerenes can be redissolved during perovskite deposition, allowing ultra-thin fullerenes to be retained at the interface and some dissolved fullerenes infiltrate into perovskite grain boundaries. The SnO2 layer blocks holes effectively; whereas, the fullerenes promote electron transfer and passivate both the SnO2/perovskite interface and perovskite grain boundaries. With careful device optimization, the best-performing planar perovskite solar cell using a fullerene passivated SnO2 ESL has achieved a steady-state efficiency of 17.75% and a power conversion efficiency of 19.12% with an open circuit voltage of 1.12 V, a short-circuit current density of 22.61 mA cm-2, and a fill factor of 75.8% when measured under reverse voltage scanning. In conclusion, we find that the partial dissolving of fullerenes during perovskite deposition is the key for fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells based on metal oxide/fullerene ESLs.

  10. Cooperative tin oxide fullerene electron selective layers for high-performance planar perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Weijun; Zhao, Dewei; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Wang, Changlei; Cimaroli, Alexander J.; Grice, Corey R.; Yang, Mengjin; Li, Zhen; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Zhu, Kai; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Fang, Guojia; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-01-01

    Both tin oxide (SnO2) and fullerenes have been reported as electron selective layers (ESLs) for producing efficient lead halide perovskite solar cells. Here, we report that SnO2 and fullerenes can work cooperatively to further boost the performance of perovskite solar cells. We find that fullerenes can be redissolved during perovskite deposition, allowing ultra-thin fullerenes to be retained at the interface and some dissolved fullerenes infiltrate into perovskite grain boundaries. The SnO2 layer blocks holes effectively; whereas, the fullerenes promote electron transfer and passivate both the SnO2/perovskite interface and perovskite grain boundaries. With careful device optimization, the best-performing planar perovskite solar cell using a fullerene passivated SnO2 ESL has achieved a steady-state efficiency of 17.75% and a power conversion efficiency of 19.12% with an open circuit voltage of 1.12 V, a short-circuit current density of 22.61 mA cm-2, and a fill factor of 75.8% when measured under reverse voltage scanning. We find that the partial dissolving of fullerenes during perovskite deposition is the key for fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells based on metal oxide/fullerene ESLs.

  11. Cooperative tin oxide fullerene electron selective layers for high-performance planar perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Ke, Weijun; Zhao, Dewei; Xiao, Chuanxiao; ...

    2016-08-17

    Both tin oxide (SnO2) and fullerenes have been reported as electron selective layers (ESLs) for producing efficient lead halide perovskite solar cells. Here, we report that SnO2 and fullerenes can work cooperatively to further boost the performance of perovskite solar cells. We find that fullerenes can be redissolved during perovskite deposition, allowing ultra-thin fullerenes to be retained at the interface and some dissolved fullerenes infiltrate into perovskite grain boundaries. The SnO2 layer blocks holes effectively; whereas, the fullerenes promote electron transfer and passivate both the SnO2/perovskite interface and perovskite grain boundaries. With careful device optimization, the best-performing planar perovskite solarmore » cell using a fullerene passivated SnO2 ESL has achieved a steady-state efficiency of 17.75% and a power conversion efficiency of 19.12% with an open circuit voltage of 1.12 V, a short-circuit current density of 22.61 mA cm-2, and a fill factor of 75.8% when measured under reverse voltage scanning. In conclusion, we find that the partial dissolving of fullerenes during perovskite deposition is the key for fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells based on metal oxide/fullerene ESLs.« less

  12. Toward tailorable surfaces: A combined theoretical and experimental study of lanthanum niobate layered perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Tommaso, Stefania; Giannici, Francesco; Mossuto Marculescu, Adriana; Martorana, Antonino; Adamo, Carlo; Labat, Frédèric

    2014-07-01

    A comprehensive theoretical investigation of the MLaNb2O7 (M = H, Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) series of ion-exchangeable layered perovskite is presented. These perovskites are in particular interesting in view of their potential applications as inorganic supports for the design of new hybrid inorganic-organic proton conductors. In particular, their structural and electronic properties have been investigated by periodic calculations in the framework of Density Functional Theory, using different exchange-correlation functionals. A general very good agreement with the available experimental (XRD, NPD, and EXAFS) data has been found. The structure of the protonated HLaNb2O7 form has also been further clarified and a new tetragonal space group is proposed for this compound, better reproducing the experimental cell parameters and yielding to a more realistic picture of the system. The electronic investigation highlighted that all the compounds considered are very similar to each other and that the interaction between interlayer cations and perovskite slabs is purely ionic, except for the proton that is, instead, covalently bound.

  13. Toward tailorable surfaces: A combined theoretical and experimental study of lanthanum niobate layered perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Di Tommaso, Stefania E-mail: frederic.labat@chimie-paristech.fr; Giannici, Francesco; Mossuto Marculescu, Adriana; Martorana, Antonino; Adamo, Carlo; Labat, Frédèric E-mail: frederic.labat@chimie-paristech.fr

    2014-07-14

    A comprehensive theoretical investigation of the MLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} (M = H, Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) series of ion-exchangeable layered perovskite is presented. These perovskites are in particular interesting in view of their potential applications as inorganic supports for the design of new hybrid inorganic-organic proton conductors. In particular, their structural and electronic properties have been investigated by periodic calculations in the framework of Density Functional Theory, using different exchange-correlation functionals. A general very good agreement with the available experimental (XRD, NPD, and EXAFS) data has been found. The structure of the protonated HLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} form has also been further clarified and a new tetragonal space group is proposed for this compound, better reproducing the experimental cell parameters and yielding to a more realistic picture of the system. The electronic investigation highlighted that all the compounds considered are very similar to each other and that the interaction between interlayer cations and perovskite slabs is purely ionic, except for the proton that is, instead, covalently bound.

  14. Laser-induced microstructuring of two-dimensional layered inorganic-organic perovskites.

    PubMed

    Kanaujia, Pawan K; Vijaya Prakash, G

    2016-04-14

    Non-contact bi-directional micropatterning of two-dimensional (2D) layered inorganic-organic (IO) perovskite [(R-NH3)2PbI4, R = organic moiety] thin films by direct laser writing (DLW) has been reported. These 2D materials are in the form of natural multiple quantum well (MQW) structures and show excitonic luminescence at room temperature because of quantum and dielectric confinement effects. Systematic optical and structural analyses of these laser processed hybrid systems provide an insight into laser-matter interaction and a pathway to develop technology to define complex 2D material based devices with new functionalities. These laser-matter interaction studies reveal several concurrent processes: single photon absorption, material ablation, melting and agglomeration of nanostructures and chemical/physical modifications. This study also provides an insight into chemical and optical changes in laser processed 2D perovskites which subsequently can be recovered by chemical processing. Apart from controllable feature sizes, the prolonged laser exposure results in material agglomeration in the form of nano-pillars at the laser track boundaries. Low-cost micro/nano-scaffolding of IO perovskites may have several important advantages in scalable optoelectronic devices, the realisation of luminescent photonic architectures (photonic crystals and waveguides), and light harvesting elements for IO LEDs and solar cells.

  15. Tunable Negative Thermal Expansion in Layered Perovskites from Quasi-Two-Dimensional Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liang-Feng; Lu, Xue-Zeng; Rondinelli, James M.

    2016-09-01

    We identify a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) phonon mode in the layered-perovskite Ca3Ti2O7, which exhibits an acoustic branch with quadratic dispersion. Using first-principles methods, we show this mode exhibits atomic displacements perpendicular to the layered [CaTiO3]2 blocks comprising the structure and a negative Grüneisen parameter. Owing to these quasi-2D structural and dynamical features, we find that the mode can be utilized to realize unusual membrane effects, including a tunable negative thermal expansion (NTE) and a rare pressure-independent thermal softening of the bulk modulus. Detailed microscopic analysis shows that the NTE relies on strong intralayer Ti—O covalent bonding and weaker interlayer interactions, which is in contrast to conventional NTE mechanisms for perovskites, such as rigid-unit modes, structural transitions, and electronic or magnetic ordering. The general application of the quasi-2D lattice dynamics opens exciting avenues for the control of lattice dynamical and thermodynamic responses of other complex layered compounds through rational chemical substitution, as we show in A3Zr2O7 (A =Ca , Sr), and by heterostructuring.

  16. Tunable Negative Thermal Expansion in Layered Perovskites from Quasi-Two-Dimensional Vibrations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang-Feng; Lu, Xue-Zeng; Rondinelli, James M

    2016-09-09

    We identify a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) phonon mode in the layered-perovskite Ca_{3}Ti_{2}O_{7}, which exhibits an acoustic branch with quadratic dispersion. Using first-principles methods, we show this mode exhibits atomic displacements perpendicular to the layered [CaTiO_{3}]_{2} blocks comprising the structure and a negative Grüneisen parameter. Owing to these quasi-2D structural and dynamical features, we find that the mode can be utilized to realize unusual membrane effects, including a tunable negative thermal expansion (NTE) and a rare pressure-independent thermal softening of the bulk modulus. Detailed microscopic analysis shows that the NTE relies on strong intralayer Ti-O covalent bonding and weaker interlayer interactions, which is in contrast to conventional NTE mechanisms for perovskites, such as rigid-unit modes, structural transitions, and electronic or magnetic ordering. The general application of the quasi-2D lattice dynamics opens exciting avenues for the control of lattice dynamical and thermodynamic responses of other complex layered compounds through rational chemical substitution, as we show in A_{3}Zr_{2}O_{7} (A=Ca, Sr), and by heterostructuring.

  17. Covalent and Ionic Functionalization of HLN Layered Perovskite by Sonochemical Methods.

    PubMed

    Giannici, Francesco; Mossuto Marculescu, Adriana; Cattaneo, Alice Silvia; Tealdi, Cristina; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Longo, Alessandro; Martorana, Antonino

    2017-01-03

    We describe the functionalization of the layered perovskite HLaNb2O7 with n-propanol, n-decanol, 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane, imidazole, n-decylamine, and histamine. The use of sonication is found to significantly improve the reaction yield and to reduce the reaction time, compared to conventional thermal treatment under reflux. The obtained intercalates are thoroughly characterized through the use of several complementary experimental techniques (scanning electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, magic-angle spinning NMR), clarifying their structure and chemical bonding. The implications for the design of inorganic-organic composite materials are discussed.

  18. In Situ Intercalation Dynamics in Inorganic–Organic Layered Perovskite Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The properties of layered inorganic semiconductors can be manipulated by the insertion of foreign molecular species via a process known as intercalation. In the present study, we investigate the phenomenon of organic moiety (R-NH3I) intercalation in layered metal-halide (PbI2)-based inorganic semiconductors, leading to the formation of inorganic–organic (IO) perovskites [(R-NH3)2PbI4]. During this intercalation strong resonant exciton optical transitions are created, enabling study of the dynamics of this process. Simultaneous in situ photoluminescence (PL) and transmission measurements are used to track the structural and exciton evolution. On the basis of the experimental observations, a model is proposed which explains the process of IO perovskite formation during intercalation of the organic moiety through the inorganic semiconductor layers. The interplay between precursor film thickness and organic solution concentration/solvent highlights the role of van der Waals interactions between the layers, as well as the need for maintaining stoichiometry during intercalation. Nucleation and growth occurring during intercalation matches a Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov model, with results fitting both ideal and nonideal cases. PMID:24905435

  19. In situ intercalation dynamics in inorganic-organic layered perovskite thin films.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shahab; Kanaujia, Pawan K; Niu, Wendy; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Vijaya Prakash, G

    2014-07-09

    The properties of layered inorganic semiconductors can be manipulated by the insertion of foreign molecular species via a process known as intercalation. In the present study, we investigate the phenomenon of organic moiety (R-NH3I) intercalation in layered metal-halide (PbI2)-based inorganic semiconductors, leading to the formation of inorganic-organic (IO) perovskites [(R-NH3)2PbI4]. During this intercalation strong resonant exciton optical transitions are created, enabling study of the dynamics of this process. Simultaneous in situ photoluminescence (PL) and transmission measurements are used to track the structural and exciton evolution. On the basis of the experimental observations, a model is proposed which explains the process of IO perovskite formation during intercalation of the organic moiety through the inorganic semiconductor layers. The interplay between precursor film thickness and organic solution concentration/solvent highlights the role of van der Waals interactions between the layers, as well as the need for maintaining stoichiometry during intercalation. Nucleation and growth occurring during intercalation matches a Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov model, with results fitting both ideal and nonideal cases.

  20. Thin film growth and phase competition of layered ferroelectrics and related perovskite phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavaipatti, Balasubramaniam R.

    "Geometric ferroelectrics" form an interesting, albeit not well-studied, subset of ferroelectric materials. The term "geometric ferroelectrics" is used for compounds that exhibit ferroelectricity owing to a simple relaxation of frustrations in the unit cell geometry, and not as a result of either a second-order Jahn-Teller distortion (SOJT) or a cooperative lone pair displacive mechanism. The structure-property relationships in such materials has not been investigated in depth owing to the limited number of known materials that adopt the "geometric ferroelectric" structures. This thesis is concerned with the development of a synthesis method that will allow one to realize materials in these structures over wider composition spaces. Thin film synthesis of two classes of oxide geometric ferroelectric materials---ABO 3 compounds adopting the layered hexagonal LuMnO3 structure (h-REMnO3) and A4B4O 14 (Sr2Nb2O7) compounds adopting the [110]-layered perovskite structure, which both compete in stability with the close-packed perovskite (p-REMnO3 or SrNbO3) structure---is the focus of this thesis. Materials in both the classes were grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on various substrates and under various process conditions (temperature, energy, process gas type/pressure...) and characterized mainly by X-ray diffraction. The temperature, pressure, and nature of the ambient gas are the primary influence on the phase (and orientation) selected during the thin film growth of materials in the SrNbOy family. In N2 ambients, when the partial pressure of O2 is very low, reduction of the Nb cation to the 4+ state resulted in the perovskite SrNbO3 formation on SrTiO3(100) and (110), as well as MgO(100) and (111). On SrTiO 3, cube-on-cube epitaxy was observed, while on MgO, polycrystalline films were obtained. On the other hand, O2 ambients favored the Nb cation in its fully oxidized pentavalent state, resulting in formation of (110)-layered perovskite Sr2Nb2O7. On SrTiO3

  1. Quadruple-layered perovskite (CuCl)Ca2NaNb4O13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitada, A.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Narumi, Y.; Kindo, K.; Aczel, A. A.; Luke, G. M.; Uemura, Y. J.; Kiuchi, Y.; Ueda, Y.; Yoshimura, K.; Ajiro, Y.; Kageyama, H.

    2012-01-01

    We will present the synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of a new quadruple-layered perovskite (CuCl)Ca2NaNb4O13. Through a topotactic ion-exchange reaction with CuCl2, the precursor RbCa2NaNb4O13 presumably having an incoherent octahederal tliting changes into (CuCl)Ca2NaNb4O13 with a 2ap×2ap×2cp superstructure (tetragonal; a=7.73232(5) Å, c=39.2156(4) Å). The well-defined superstructure for the ion-exchanged product should be stabilized by the inserted CuCl4O2 octahedral layers that firmly connect with neighboring perovskite layers. Magnetic studies show the absence of long-range magnetic ordering down to 2 K despite strong in-plane interactions. Aleksandrov‧s group theory and Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray diffraction data suggest the structure to be of I4/mmm space group with in-phase tilting along the a and b axes, a two-tilt system (++0).

  2. Tailoring the Mesoscopic TiO2 Layer: Concomitant Parameters for Enabling High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Taehyun; Lee, Sangheon; Kim, Jinhyun; Kim, Jaewon; Kim, Chunjoong; Shin, Byungha; Park, Byungwoo

    2017-12-01

    Architectural control over the mesoporous TiO2 film, a common electron-transport layer for organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, is conducted by employing sub-micron sized polystyrene beads as sacrificial template. Such tailored TiO2 layer is shown to induce asymmetric enhancement of light absorption notably in the long-wavelength region with red-shifted absorption onset of perovskite, leading to ~20% increase of photocurrent and ~10% increase of power conversion efficiency. This enhancement is likely to be originated from the enlarged CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) grains residing in the sub-micron pores rather than from the effect of reduced perovskite-TiO2 interfacial area, which is supported from optical bandgap change, haze transmission of incident light, and one-diode model parameters correlated with the internal surface area of microporous TiO2 layers. With the templating strategy suggested, the necessity of proper hole-blocking method is discussed to prevent any direct contact of the large perovskite grains infiltrated into the intended pores of TiO2 scaffold, further mitigating the interfacial recombination and leading to ~20% improvement in power conversion efficiency compared with the control device using conventional solution-processed hole blocking TiO2. Thereby, the imperatives that originate from the structural engineering of the electron-transport layer are discussed to understand the governing elements for the improved device performance.

  3. Tailoring the Mesoscopic TiO2 Layer: Concomitant Parameters for Enabling High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Taehyun; Lee, Sangheon; Kim, Jinhyun; Kim, Jaewon; Kim, Chunjoong; Shin, Byungha; Park, Byungwoo

    2017-01-01

    Architectural control over the mesoporous TiO2 film, a common electron-transport layer for organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, is conducted by employing sub-micron sized polystyrene beads as sacrificial template. Such tailored TiO2 layer is shown to induce asymmetric enhancement of light absorption notably in the long-wavelength region with red-shifted absorption onset of perovskite, leading to 20% increase of photocurrent and 10% increase of power conversion efficiency. This enhancement is likely to be originated from the enlarged CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) grains residing in the sub-micron pores rather than from the effect of reduced perovskite-TiO2 interfacial area, which is supported from optical bandgap change, haze transmission of incident light, and one-diode model parameters correlated with the internal surface area of microporous TiO2 layers. With the templating strategy suggested, the necessity of proper hole-blocking method is discussed to prevent any direct contact of the large perovskite grains infiltrated into the intended pores of TiO2 scaffold, further mitigating the interfacial recombination and leading to 20% improvement in power conversion efficiency compared with the control device using conventional solution-processed hole blocking TiO2. Thereby, the imperatives that originate from the structural engineering of the electron-transport layer are discussed to understand the governing elements for the improved device performance.

  4. Layer-by-layer growth of CH₃NH₃PbI(3-x)Clx for highly efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yonghua; Chen, Tao; Dai, Liming

    2015-02-01

    A layer-by-layer approach is developed to prepare uniform and compact CH₃NH₃PbI(3-x)Clx perovskite films for perovskite solar cells with a high efficiency up to 15.12% and an improved stability. Moreover, a record high efficiency of 12.25% is achieved for these flexible perovskite solar cells. This study represents an important step forward in developing high-performance and stable perovskite solar cells.

  5. Mesoporous BaSnO3 layer based perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liangzheng; Shao, Zhipeng; Ye, Jiajiu; Zhang, Xuhui; Pan, Xu; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-01-18

    One of the limitations of TiO2 based perovskite solar cells is the poor electron mobility of TiO2. Here, perovskite oxide BaSnO3 is used as a replacement. It has a higher electron mobility and the same perovskite structure as the light harvesting materials. After optimization, devices based on BaSnO3 showed the best performance of 12.3% vs. 11.1% for TiO2.

  6. Role of Metal Oxide Electron-Transport Layer Modification on the Stability of High Performing Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Trilok; Singh, Jai; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2016-09-22

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite light absorbers have recently emerged as a "holy grail" for next generation thin-film photovoltaics with excellent optoelectronics properties and low fabrication cost. In a very short span of time, we have witnessed a pronounced and unexpected progress in organic- inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a vertical rise in power conversion efficiency from 3.8 to 22.1 %. In this manuscript we focus specifically on the recent development of metal oxide-based electron-transporting layer (ETL) modification for high performing PSCs and their stability. This review highlights various methodologies to modify existing compact/scaffold layers for improving device performance and stability. Various aspects of the ETL are discussed with different metal oxide compact layers in their relation to modification in mesoporous layers towards the design of a cell structure with high performance and stability.

  7. Understanding chemical expansion in perovskite-structured oxides.

    PubMed

    Marrocchelli, Dario; Perry, Nicola H; Bishop, Sean R

    2015-04-21

    In this work, chemical expansion in perovskite oxides was characterized in detail, motivated, inter alia, by a desire to understand the lower chemical expansion coefficients observed for perovskites in comparison to fluorite-structured oxides. Changes in lattice parameter and in local atomic arrangements taking place during compositional changes of perovskites, i.e., stoichiometric expansion, were investigated by developing an empirical model and through molecular dynamics and density functional theory atomistic simulations. An accurate empirical expression for predicting lattice constants of perovskites was developed, using a similar approach to previous reports. From this equation, analytical expressions relating chemical expansion coefficients to separate contributions from the cation and anion sublattices, assuming Shannon ionic radii, were developed and used to isolate the effective radius of an oxygen vacancy, rV. Using both experimental and simulated chemical expansion coefficient data, rV for a variety of perovskite compositions was estimated, and trends in rV were studied. In most cases, rV was slightly smaller than or similar to the radius of an oxide ion, but larger than in the fluorite structured materials. This result was in good agreement with the atomistic simulations, showing contractive relaxations of the closest oxide ions towards the oxygen vacancy. The results indicate that the smaller chemical expansion coefficients of perovskites vs. fluorites are largely due to the smaller change in cation radii in perovskites, given that the contraction around the oxygen vacancy appears to be less in this structure. Limitations of applicability for the model are discussed.

  8. Efficient Compact-Layer-Free, Hole-Conductor-Free, Fully Printable Mesoscopic Perovskite Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xixi; Xiong, Yuli; Mei, Anyi; Rong, Yaoguang; Hu, Yue; Hong, Li; Jin, Yingxia; Liu, Qingju; Han, Hongwei

    2016-10-05

    A compact-layer-free, hole-conductor-free, fully printable mesoscopic perovskite solar cell presents a power conversion efficiency of over 13%, which is comparable to that of the device with a TiO2 compact layer. The different wettability of the perovskite precursor solution on the surface of FTO and TiO2 possesses a significant effect on realizing efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cell. This result shows a promising future in printable solar cells by further simplifying the fabrication process and lowering the preparation costs.

  9. Simulation of an inverted perovskite solar cell with inorganic electron and hole transfer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Mohamad; Banihashemi, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    We use solar cell capacitance simulator-1D to simulate a fabricated inverted perovskite solar cell. The perovskite solar cell employs solution-processed inorganic hole and electron transfer layers. According to our simulations, surface defect densities at the interfaces of the perovskite active layer and inorganic hole/electron transfer materials in solution-based fabrication method are two orders of magnitude greater than that in the vapor deposition fabrication method. Increase of the surface defect densities reduces the circuit current, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency.

  10. Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with tunable structural color.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Anaya, Miguel; Lozano, Gabriel; Calvo, Mauricio E; Johnston, Michael B; Míguez, Hernán; Snaith, Henry J

    2015-03-11

    The performance of perovskite solar cells has been progressing over the past few years and efficiency is likely to continue to increase. However, a negative aspect for the integration of perovskite solar cells in the built environment is that the color gamut available in these materials is very limited and does not cover the green-to-blue region of the visible spectrum, which has been a big selling point for organic photovoltaics. Here, we integrate a porous photonic crystal (PC) scaffold within the photoactive layer of an opaque perovskite solar cell following a bottom-up approach employing inexpensive and scalable liquid processing techniques. The photovoltaic devices presented herein show high efficiency with tunable color across the visible spectrum. This now imbues the perovskite solar cells with highly desirable properties for cladding in the built environment and encourages design of sustainable colorful buildings and iridescent electric vehicles as future power generation sources.

  11. Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells with Tunable Structural Color

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The performance of perovskite solar cells has been progressing over the past few years and efficiency is likely to continue to increase. However, a negative aspect for the integration of perovskite solar cells in the built environment is that the color gamut available in these materials is very limited and does not cover the green-to-blue region of the visible spectrum, which has been a big selling point for organic photovoltaics. Here, we integrate a porous photonic crystal (PC) scaffold within the photoactive layer of an opaque perovskite solar cell following a bottom-up approach employing inexpensive and scalable liquid processing techniques. The photovoltaic devices presented herein show high efficiency with tunable color across the visible spectrum. This now imbues the perovskite solar cells with highly desirable properties for cladding in the built environment and encourages design of sustainable colorful buildings and iridescent electric vehicles as future power generation sources. PMID:25650872

  12. Special quasirandom structures for perovskite solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhijun; Nahas, Yousra; Xu, Bin; Prosandeev, Sergey; Wang, Dawei; Bellaiche, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    Special quasirandom structures (SQS) are presently generated for disordered (A‧1-x {{\\text{A}}\\prime \\prime} x )BX3 and A(B‧1-x {{\\text{B}}\\prime \\prime} x )X3 perovskite solid solutions, with x  =  1/2 as well as 1/3 and 2/3. These SQS configurations are obtained by imposing that the so-called Cowley parameters are as close to zero as possible for the three nearest neighboring shells. Moreover, these SQS configurations are slightly larger in size than those available in the literature for x  =  1/2, mostly because of the current capabilities of atomistic techniques. They are used here within effective Hamiltonian schemes to predict various properties, which are then compared to those associated with large random supercells, in a variety of compounds, namely (Ba1-x Sr x )TiO3, Pb(Zr1-x Ti x )O3, Pb(Sc0.5Nb0.5)O3, Ba(Zr1-x Ti x )O3, Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 and (Bi1-x Nd x )FeO3. It is found that these SQS configurations can reproduce many properties of large random supercells of most of these disordered perovskite alloys, below some finite material-dependent temperature. Examples of these properties are electrical polarization, anti-phase and in-phase octahedral tiltings, antipolar motions, antiferromagnetism, strain, piezoelectric coefficients, dielectric response, specific heat and even the formation of polar nanoregions (PNRs) in some relaxors. Some limitations of these SQS configurations are also pointed out and explained.

  13. Structural phase transitions in layered perovskitelike crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.

    1995-03-01

    Possible symmetry changes due to small tilts of octahedra are considered for layered perovskite-like crystals containing slabs of several ({ell}) layers of comer-sharing octahedra. In the crystals with {ell} > 1, four types of distortions are possible; as a rule, these distortions correspond to the librational modes of the parent lattice. Condensation of these soft modes is the reason for structural phase transitions or sequences of phase transitions. The results obtained are compared with the known experimental data for a number of layered ferroelectric and ferroelastic perovskite-like compounds. An application of the results to the initial stage of determining unknown structures is discussed with particular attention paid to high-temperature superconductors. 76 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Theoretical prediction of antiferromagnetism in layered perovskite Sr2TcO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, Alen; Pourovskii, Leonid; Aichhorn, Markus; Mravlje, Jernej

    2017-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the magnetic properties of Sr2TcO4 , a 4 d transition-metal layered perovskite of the K2NiF4 type with half-filled t2 g states. The effect of local Coulomb repulsion between the t2 g orbitals is included within the density-functional theory (DFT) + U and DFT + dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) methods. The DFT + DMFT predicts paramagnetic Sr2TcO4 to be close to the Mott insulator-to-metal transition, similarly to the cubic compound SrTcO3. The intersite exchange interactions computed within the DFT + DMFT framework point to a strong antiferromagnetic coupling between the neighboring Tc sites within the layer. We then evaluate the Néel temperature TN within a classical Monte Carlo approach including dipolar interactions, which stabilize the magnetic order in the frustrated K2NiF4 lattice structure. Our approach is validated by applying it to a set of layered and cubic perovskites, for which we obtain TN in fair agreement with experiment. Within the same approach we obtain the TN of Sr2TcO4 to be about 450 K. We explore also the effect of anisotropy in exchange interactions due to spin-orbit coupling. These lead to a somewhat higher transition temperature, 550 K.

  15. Solid-state NMR characterization of the structure and thermal stability of hybrid organic-inorganic compounds based on a HLaNb2O7 Dion-Jacobson layered perovskite.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Alice S; Ferrara, Chiara; Marculescu, Adriana Mossuto; Giannici, Francesco; Martorana, Antonino; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Tealdi, Cristina

    2016-08-03

    Dion-Jacobson phases, like MLaNb2O7, are an interesting class of ion-exchangeable layered perovskites possessing electronic and photocatalytic properties. Their protonated and organo-modified homologues, in particular, have already been indicated as promising catalysts. However, the structural analysis of these highly tailorable materials is still incomplete, and both the intercalation process and thermal stability of the included organic moieties are far from being completely understood. In this study, we present a thorough solid-state NMR characterization of HLaNb2O7·xH2O intercalated with different amounts of octylamine, or with decylamine. Samples were analyzed as prepared, and after thermal treatment at different temperatures up to 220 °C. The substitution of pristine proton ions was followed via(1)H MAS NMR spectroscopy, whereas the alkyl chains were monitored through (13)C((1)H) CP MAS experiments. The interactions in the interlayer space were explored using (13)C((1)H) 2D heteronuclear correlation experiments. We demonstrate that some of the protons are involved in the functionalization reaction, and some of them are in close proximity to the alkyl ammonium chains. Heating of the hybrid materials leads first to a rearrangement of the alkyl chains and then to their degradation. The spatial arrangement of the chains, their interactions and the thermal behavior of the materials depend on the extent of the functionalization, and on the nature of the intercalated alkyl ammonium ions.

  16. Layered-structural monoclinic–orthorhombic perovskite La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} to orthorhombic LaTiO{sub 3} phase transition and their microstructure characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, G.; Jiménez-Mier, J.; Chavira, E.

    2014-03-01

    The layered-structural ceramics, such as lanthanum titanate (La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), have been known for their good temperature and low dielectric loss at microwave frequencies that make them good candidate materials for high frequency applications. However, few studies have been conducted on the synthesis optimization by sol gel reaction, in particular by acrylamide polymerization route. The interest in La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramic has been greatly increased recently due to the effect of oriented grains. This anisotropy of the microstructure leads to anisotropy in dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties. In this study, grain oriented lanthanum titanate was produced by the sol–gel acrylamide polymerization route. The characterizations of the samples were achieved by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction indicates that the formation of monoclinic perovskite La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanocrystals is a necessary first step to obtain orthorhombic LaTiO{sub 3} nanocomposites (with space group Pbnm). In this work we identified that the monoclinic perovskite La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} with space group P2{sub 1} transforms its structure into one with the orthorhombic space group Cmc2{sub 1} at approximately 1073 K. The microstructure associated consisted of flaky monoclinic La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanocomposites in comparison with round-shaped LaTiO{sub 3} nanocomposites. - Highlights: • The flaky-like La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} compound was synthesized by sol–gel acrylamide route. • Simultaneous monitoring of the DTA and XRD with temperature was performed. • Phase transformation characterization of La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been carried out. • The variation of the La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} and LaTiO{sub 3} grain morphology has been compared.

  17. Effect of Structure, Temperature, and Metal Work Function on Performance of Organometallic Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. I.; Aïssa, B.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of hole transport materials (HTMs) on the performance of methylammonium lead halide (CH3NH3PbI3)-based perovskite solar cells has been investigated using computational analysis. The main objective is to replace the HTM with the aim of enhancing the lifetime and decreasing the overall cost of the device. As the CH3NH3PbI3 absorber layer shows an absorption coefficient as high as 105/cm, all photons with incident energy larger the material bandgap are absorbed within only a 400-nm-thick layer. Also, all the electronic and optical properties of such an absorber layer are suitable for use in photovoltaic (PV) devices. Hence, the effects of the HTM thickness, operating temperature, incident light spectrum, and metal electrode work function on the charge collection were studied numerically. For a cell with Cu2O as HTM, efficiency exceeding 25% is predicted for a 350-nm-thick absorber layer. Also, a fully optimized device architecture without HTM shows the possibility of fabricating a perovskite solar cell with PV efficiency exceeding 15%. We expect considerable minimization of the energy loss in this structure due to charge transfer across the heterojunction. Moreover, the effect of temperature on perovskite solar cells and potential electrodes with different work functions has been investigated. Our results are believed to help open an experimental avenue to achieve optimum results for perovskite solar cells with various structures.

  18. Effect of Structure, Temperature, and Metal Work Function on Performance of Organometallic Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. I.; Aïssa, B.

    2017-03-01

    The impact of hole transport materials (HTMs) on the performance of methylammonium lead halide (CH3NH3PbI3)-based perovskite solar cells has been investigated using computational analysis. The main objective is to replace the HTM with the aim of enhancing the lifetime and decreasing the overall cost of the device. As the CH3NH3PbI3 absorber layer shows an absorption coefficient as high as 105/cm, all photons with incident energy larger the material bandgap are absorbed within only a 400-nm-thick layer. Also, all the electronic and optical properties of such an absorber layer are suitable for use in photovoltaic (PV) devices. Hence, the effects of the HTM thickness, operating temperature, incident light spectrum, and metal electrode work function on the charge collection were studied numerically. For a cell with Cu2O as HTM, efficiency exceeding 25% is predicted for a 350-nm-thick absorber layer. Also, a fully optimized device architecture without HTM shows the possibility of fabricating a perovskite solar cell with PV efficiency exceeding 15%. We expect considerable minimization of the energy loss in this structure due to charge transfer across the heterojunction. Moreover, the effect of temperature on perovskite solar cells and potential electrodes with different work functions has been investigated. Our results are believed to help open an experimental avenue to achieve optimum results for perovskite solar cells with various structures.

  19. Conjugated polyelectrolyte hole transport layer for inverted-type perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyosung; Mai, Cheng-Kang; Kim, Hak-Beom; Jeong, Jaeki; Song, Seyeong; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Kim, Jin Young; Heeger, Alan J.

    2015-06-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials offer the potential for realization of low-cost and flexible next-generation solar cells fabricated by low-temperature solution processing. Although efficiencies of perovskite solar cells have dramatically improved up to 19% within the past 5 years, there is still considerable room for further improvement in device efficiency and stability through development of novel materials and device architectures. Here we demonstrate that inverted-type perovskite solar cells with pH-neutral and low-temperature solution-processable conjugated polyelectrolyte as the hole transport layer (instead of acidic PEDOT:PSS) exhibit a device efficiency of over 12% and improved device stability in air. As an alternative to PEDOT:PSS, this work is the first report on the use of an organic hole transport material that enables the formation of uniform perovskite films with complete surface coverage and the demonstration of efficient, stable perovskite/fullerene planar heterojunction solar cells.

  20. Conjugated polyelectrolyte hole transport layer for inverted-type perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyosung; Mai, Cheng-Kang; Kim, Hak-Beom; Jeong, Jaeki; Song, Seyeong; Bazan, Guillermo C; Kim, Jin Young; Heeger, Alan J

    2015-06-17

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials offer the potential for realization of low-cost and flexible next-generation solar cells fabricated by low-temperature solution processing. Although efficiencies of perovskite solar cells have dramatically improved up to 19% within the past 5 years, there is still considerable room for further improvement in device efficiency and stability through development of novel materials and device architectures. Here we demonstrate that inverted-type perovskite solar cells with pH-neutral and low-temperature solution-processable conjugated polyelectrolyte as the hole transport layer (instead of acidic PSS) exhibit a device efficiency of over 12% and improved device stability in air. As an alternative to PSS, this work is the first report on the use of an organic hole transport material that enables the formation of uniform perovskite films with complete surface coverage and the demonstration of efficient, stable perovskite/fullerene planar heterojunction solar cells.

  1. Influence of void-free perovskite capping layer on the charge recombination process in high performance CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kunwu; Nelson, Christopher T; Scott, Mary Cooper; Minor, Andrew; Mathews, Nripan; Wong, Lydia Helena

    2016-02-21

    The stunning rise of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite material as a light harvesting material in recent years has drawn much attention in the photovoltaic community. Here, we investigated in detail the uniform and void-free perovskite capping layer in the mesoscopic perovskite devices and found it to play a critical role in determining device performance and charge recombination process. Compared to the rough surface with voids of the perovskite layer, surface of the perovskite capping layer obtained from sequential deposition process is much more uniform with less void formation and distribution within the TiO2 mesoscopic scaffold is more homogeneous, leading to much improved photovoltaic parameters of the devices. The impact of void free perovskite capping layer surface on the charge recombination processes within the mesoscopic perovskite solar cells is further scrutinized via charge extraction measurement. Modulation of precursor solution concentrations in order to further improve the perovskite layer surface morphology leads to higher efficiency and lower charge recombination rates. Inhibited charge recombination in these solar cells also matches with the higher charge density and slower photovoltage decay profiles measured.

  2. TiO2-ZnS Cascade Electron Transport Layer for Efficient Formamidinium Tin Iodide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Weijun; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Logsdon, Jenna Leigh; Wasielewski, Michael R; Yan, Yanfa; Fang, Guojia; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-11-16

    Achieving high open-circuit voltage (Voc) for tin-based perovskite solar cells is challenging. Here, we demonstrate that a ZnS interfacial layer can improve the Voc and photovoltaic performance of formamidinium tin iodide (FASnI3) perovskite solar cells. The TiO2-ZnS electron transporting layer (ETL) with cascade conduction band structure can effectively reduce the interfacial charge recombination and facilitate electron transfer. Our best-performing FASnI3 perovskite solar cell using the cascaded TiO2-ZnS ETL has achieved a power conversion efficiency of 5.27%, with a higher Voc of 0.380 V, a short-circuit current density of 23.09 mA cm(-2), and a fill factor of 60.01%. The cascade structure is further validated with a TiO2-CdS ETL. Our results suggest a new approach for further improving the performance of tin-based perovskite solar cells with a higher Voc.

  3. High Efficiency Tandem Thin-Perovskite/Polymer Solar Cells with a Graded Recombination Layer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Renna, Lawrence A; Bag, Monojit; Page, Zachariah A; Kim, Paul; Choi, Jaewon; Emrick, Todd; Venkataraman, D; Russell, Thomas P

    2016-03-23

    Perovskite-containing tandem solar cells are attracting attention for their potential to achieve high efficiencies. We demonstrate a series connection of a ∼ 90 nm thick perovskite front subcell and a ∼ 100 nm thick polymer:fullerene blend back subcell that benefits from an efficient graded recombination layer containing a zwitterionic fullerene, silver (Ag), and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3). This methodology eliminates the adverse effects of thermal annealing or chemical treatment that occurs during perovskite fabrication on polymer-based front subcells. The record tandem perovskite/polymer solar cell efficiency of 16.0%, with low hysteresis, is 75% greater than that of the corresponding ∼ 90 nm thick perovskite single-junction device and 65% greater than that of the polymer single-junction device. The high efficiency of this hybrid tandem device, achieved using only a ∼ 90 nm thick perovskite layer, provides an opportunity to substantially reduce the lead content in the device, while maintaining the high performance derived from perovskites.

  4. Double-layered ZnO nanostructures for efficient perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Khalid; S. Swain, Bhabani; Amassian, Aram

    2014-11-01

    To date, a single layer of TiO2 or ZnO has been the most successful implementations of any electron transport layer (ETL) in solution-processed perovskite solar cells. In a quest to improve the ETL, we explore a new nanostructured double-layer ZnO film for mesoscopic perovskite-based thin film photovoltaics. This approach yields a maximum power conversion efficiency of 10.35%, which we attribute to the morphology of oxide layer and to faster electron transport. The successful implementation of the low-temperature hydrothermally processed double-layer ZnO film as ETL in perovskite solar cells highlights the opportunities to further improve the efficiencies by focusing on the ETL in this rapidly developing field.

  5. Double-layered ZnO nanostructures for efficient perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Khalid; S Swain, Bhabani; Amassian, Aram

    2014-12-21

    To date, a single layer of TiO2 or ZnO has been the most successful implementations of any electron transport layer (ETL) in solution-processed perovskite solar cells. In a quest to improve the ETL, we explore a new nanostructured double-layer ZnO film for mesoscopic perovskite-based thin film photovoltaics. This approach yields a maximum power conversion efficiency of 10.35%, which we attribute to the morphology of oxide layer and to faster electron transport. The successful implementation of the low-temperature hydrothermally processed double-layer ZnO film as ETL in perovskite solar cells highlights the opportunities to further improve the efficiencies by focusing on the ETL in this rapidly developing field.

  6. Evidence for reduced charge recombination in carbon nanotube/perovskite-based active layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bag, Monojit; Renna, Lawrence A.; Jeong, Seung Pyo; Han, Xu; Cutting, Christie L.; Maroudas, Dimitrios; Venkataraman, D.

    2016-10-01

    Using impedance spectroscopy and computation, we show that incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the bulk of the active layer of perovskite-based solar cells reduces charge recombination and increases the open circuit voltage. An ∼87% reduction in recombination was achieved when MWCNTs were introduced in the planar-heterostructure perovskite solar cell containing mixed counterions. The open circuit voltage (Voc) of perovskite/MWCNTs devices was increased by 70 mV, while the short circuit current density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF) remained unchanged.

  7. C60 as an Efficient n-Type Compact Layer in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Konrad; Leijtens, Tomas; Siprova, Svetlana; Schlueter, Christoph; Hörantner, Maximilian T; Wang, Jacob Tse-Wei; Li, Chang-Zhi; Jen, Alex K-Y; Lee, Tien-Lin; Snaith, Henry J

    2015-06-18

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have rapidly evolved over the last 3 years. There are still a number of issues and open questions related to the perovskite material, such as the phenomenon of anomalous hysteresis in current-voltage characteristics and long-term stability of the devices. In this work, we focus on the electron selective contact in the perovskite solar cells and physical processes occurring at that heterojunction. We developed efficient devices by replacing the commonly employed TiO2 compact layer with fullerene C60 in a regular n-i-p architecture. Detailed spectroscopic characterization allows us to present further insight into the nature of photocurrent hysteresis and charge extraction limitations arising at the n-type contact in a standard device. Furthermore, we show preliminary stability data of perovskite solar cells under working conditions, suggesting that an n-type organic charge collection layer can increase the long-term performance.

  8. A TiO2 nanotube network electron transport layer for high efficiency perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xianfeng; Li, Jianyang; Gollon, Sam; Qiu, Ming; Guan, Dongsheng; Guo, Xiaoru; Chen, Junhong; Yuan, Chris

    2017-02-15

    The electron transport layer (ETL) plays a critical role in high efficiency perovskite solar cells. In this study, an anodic TiO2 nanotube film was transformed into a TiO2 nanotube network film, which maintained its advantage as an efficient ETL for perovskite solar cells. Compared with the mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticle ETL, the TiO2 nanotube network ETL can increase the efficiency of perovskite solar cells by 26.6%, which is attributed to its superior charge collection property and light trapping ability. The results confirm the importance of optimizing the electron collecting layer and suggest another way to design and fabricate novel perovskite solid state solar cells, potentially by using a TiO2 nanotube network film as an alternative high efficiency electrode.

  9. Epitaxial Growth of Perovskite Strontium Titanate on Germanium via Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Edward L; Edmondson, Bryce I; Hu, Shen; Ekerdt, John G

    2016-07-26

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a commercially utilized deposition method for electronic materials. ALD growth of thin films offers thickness control and conformality by taking advantage of self-limiting reactions between vapor-phase precursors and the growing film. Perovskite oxides present potential for next-generation electronic materials, but to-date have mostly been deposited by physical methods. This work outlines a method for depositing SrTiO3 (STO) on germanium using ALD. Germanium has higher carrier mobilities than silicon and therefore offers an alternative semiconductor material with faster device operation. This method takes advantage of the instability of germanium's native oxide by using thermal deoxidation to clean and reconstruct the Ge (001) surface to the 2×1 structure. 2-nm thick, amorphous STO is then deposited by ALD. The STO film is annealed under ultra-high vacuum and crystallizes on the reconstructed Ge surface. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is used during this annealing step to monitor the STO crystallization. The thin, crystalline layer of STO acts as a template for subsequent growth of STO that is crystalline as-grown, as confirmed by RHEED. In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to verify film stoichiometry before and after the annealing step, as well as after subsequent STO growth. This procedure provides framework for additional perovskite oxides to be deposited on semiconductors via chemical methods in addition to the integration of more sophisticated heterostructures already achievable by physical methods.

  10. New iron pnictide oxide with thick perovskite-type blocking layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogino, Hiraku; Sato, Shinya; Matsumura, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Naoto; Machida, Kenji; Shimizu, Yasuaki; Ushiyama, Koichi; Horii, Shigeru; Shimoyama, Jun-Ichi; Kishio, Kohji

    2010-03-01

    Since the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in LaFeAs(O,F), development of the materials having iron or nickel pnictide layers are subject of study. As presented in last APS March meeting, we have discovered iron and nickel pnictide oxide superconductors with perovskite-type oxide layers[1]. Until now, several compounds of this system have been found such as (M'2Pn2)(Sr4M2O6) [M' = Fe, Ni; Pn = P, As; M = Sc, Cr, (Mg,Ti)]. These compounds have higher pnictogen heights and lower Pn-Fe-Pn angles compared to REFeAsO system. These features of the system may lead to realization of high-Tc superconductivity. Recently we discovered new material belongs to this kind of system. Structural features and physical properties of the compounds in this system as well as new compound will be presented. [1] H. Ogino et al., Supercond. Sci. Technol. 22 (2009) 075008.

  11. New oxygen-deficient cationic-ordered perovskites containing turquoise-coloring Mn5+O4 tetrahedral layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yifeng; Ye, Xuanhong; Zhu, Hong; Li, Yuexiang; Kuang, Xiaojun

    2017-03-01

    Ba6Na2M2Mn2O17 (M=Nb, Ta) oxides were synthesized by high-temperature solid-state reaction. The compounds adopt 6-layer perovskite-related structure (referred to as 6C) in P 3 ̅m1, analogous to Ba6Na2Nb2P2O17. The 6C structure consists of cubic (c) BaO3 layers and pseudo-cubic (c') oxygen-vacancy-ordered BaO2 layers stacked according to a sequence of c'ccccc. Ordering of oxygen vacancies in oxygen-deficient c'-BaO2 layers leads to two successive isolated tetrahedral layers, which stabilize an unusual +5 oxidation state for Mn cations in the tetrahedral sites. In Ba6Na2M2Mn2O17, these two Mn5+O4 layers are sandwiched by two single octahedral NaO6 layers that connected by two successive octahedral NbO6 layers, forming alternative 2:1-ordered (Ba3NaM2O9)- and (Ba3NaMn2O8)+ perovskite-like units along the stacking direction. The Mn5+O4 tetrahedral units act as a turquoise chromophore in Ba6Na2M2Mn2O17, making these two compounds potential turquoise-coloring materials for the cool pigments.

  12. Highly stable perovskite solar cells with an all-carbon hole transport layer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijiu; Endo, Masaru; Mouri, Shinichiro; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Ohno, Yutaka; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Murata, Yasujiro; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2016-06-09

    Nano-carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide) have potential application for photovoltaics because of their excellent optical and electronic properties. Here, we demonstrate that a single-walled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide buffer layer greatly improves the photovoltaic performance of organo-lead iodide perovskite solar cells. The carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide buffer layer works as an efficient hole transport/electron blocking layer. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 13.3% was achieved in the organo-lead iodide perovskite solar cell due to the complementary properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide. Furthermore, the great improvement of photovoltaic performance stability in the perovskite solar cells using carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide/polymethyl methacrylate was demonstrated in comparison with that using a typical organic hole transport layer of 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene.

  13. Flexible perovskite solar cells based on the metal-insulator-semiconductor structure.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Li, Heng; Zhao, Yicheng; Zhou, Wenke; Fu, Rui; Pan, Huiyue; Zhao, Qing

    2016-09-14

    The metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure is applied to perovskite solar cells, in which the traditional compact layer TiO2 is replaced by Al2O3 as the hole blocking material to realize an all-low-temperature process. Flexible devices based on this structure are also realized with excellent flexibility, which hold 85% of their initial efficiency after bending 100 times.

  14. Air and thermally stable perovskite solar cells with CVD-graphene as the blocking layer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xihong; Jiang, Hong; Li, Juan; Ma, Jiaxin; Yang, Dong; Liu, Zhike; Gao, Fei; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2017-06-22

    The poor air and thermal stability of organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have hindered their real applications. Here we report the insertion of a chemical vapor deposited graphene between the Au electrode and spiro-OMeTAD in planar perovskite solar cells to block the diffusion of air and Au into the perovskite layer, where the single layer graphene is transferred into the devices by a simple laminated process. After ageing in 45% humidity air for 96 h or thermal annealing at 80 °C for 12 h, more than 94% PCE of the devices with graphene can be maintained, which is much better than that of devices without graphene (∼57%). The improved stability of devices with the graphene layer is attributed to the reduction of carrier recombination from decomposition of the perovskite layer in air or Au doping into the perovskite layer under annealing treatment. Therefore, graphene is a promising ultra-thin barrier against air and metal diffusion, and has potential applications in photovoltaic devices, integrated circuit chips and light emitting diodes.

  15. Highly stable perovskite solar cells with an all-carbon hole transport layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feijiu; Endo, Masaru; Mouri, Shinichiro; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Ohno, Yutaka; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Murata, Yasujiro; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2016-06-01

    Nano-carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide) have potential application for photovoltaics because of their excellent optical and electronic properties. Here, we demonstrate that a single-walled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide buffer layer greatly improves the photovoltaic performance of organo-lead iodide perovskite solar cells. The carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide buffer layer works as an efficient hole transport/electron blocking layer. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 13.3% was achieved in the organo-lead iodide perovskite solar cell due to the complementary properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide. Furthermore, the great improvement of photovoltaic performance stability in the perovskite solar cells using carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide/polymethyl methacrylate was demonstrated in comparison with that using a typical organic hole transport layer of 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene.Nano-carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide) have potential application for photovoltaics because of their excellent optical and electronic properties. Here, we demonstrate that a single-walled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide buffer layer greatly improves the photovoltaic performance of organo-lead iodide perovskite solar cells. The carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide buffer layer works as an efficient hole transport/electron blocking layer. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 13.3% was achieved in the organo-lead iodide perovskite solar cell due to the complementary properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide. Furthermore, the great improvement of photovoltaic performance stability in the perovskite solar cells using carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide/polymethyl methacrylate was demonstrated in comparison with that using a typical organic hole transport layer of 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  16. Color-Pure Violet-Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Layered Lead Halide Perovskite Nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dong; Peng, Yuelin; Fu, Yongping; Shearer, Melinda J; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhai, Jianyuan; Zhang, Yi; Hamers, Robert J; Andrew, Trisha L; Jin, Song

    2016-07-26

    Violet electroluminescence is rare in both inorganic and organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Low-cost and room-temperature solution-processed lead halide perovskites with high-efficiency and color-tunable photoluminescence are promising for LEDs. Here, we report room-temperature color-pure violet LEDs based on a two-dimensional lead halide perovskite material, namely, 2-phenylethylammonium (C6H5CH2CH2NH3(+), PEA) lead bromide [(PEA)2PbBr4]. The natural quantum confinement of two-dimensional layered perovskite (PEA)2PbBr4 allows for photoluminescence of shorter wavelength (410 nm) than its three-dimensional counterpart. By converting as-deposited polycrystalline thin films to micrometer-sized (PEA)2PbBr4 nanoplates using solvent vapor annealing, we successfully integrated this layered perovskite material into LEDs and achieved efficient room-temperature violet electroluminescence at 410 nm with a narrow bandwidth. This conversion to nanoplates significantly enhanced the crystallinity and photophysical properties of the (PEA)2PbBr4 samples and the external quantum efficiency of the violet LED. The solvent vapor annealing method reported herein can be generally applied to other perovskite materials to increase their grain size and, ultimately, improve the performance of optoelectronic devices based on perovskite materials.

  17. Color-Pure Violet-Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Layered Lead Halide Perovskite Nanoplates

    DOE PAGES

    Liang, Dong; Peng, Yuelin; Fu, Yongping; ...

    2016-06-23

    Violet electroluminescence is rare in both inorganic and organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Low-cost and room- temperature solution-processed lead halide perovskites with high- efficiency and color-tunable photoluminescence are promising for LEDs. Here, we report room-temperature color-pure violet LEDs based on a two-dimensional lead halide perovskite material, namely, 2-phenylethylammonium (C6H5CH2CH2NH3+, PEA) lead bromide [(PEA)2PbBr4]. The natural quantum confinement of two-dimen- sional layered perovskite (PEA)2PbBr4 allows for photoluminescence of shorter wavelength (410 nm) than its three-dimensional counterpart. By converting as-deposited polycrystalline thin films to micrometer-sized (PEA)2PbBr4 nanoplates using solvent vapor annealing, we successfully integrated this layered perovskite material into LEDs and achieved efficientmore » room-temperature violet electroluminescence at 410 nm with a narrow bandwidth. This conversion to nanoplates significantly enhanced the crystallinity and photophysical properties of the (PEA)2PbBr4 samples and the external quantum efficiency of the violet LED. Finally, the solvent vapor annealing method reported herein can be generally applied to other perovskite materials to increase their grain size and, ultimately, improve the performance of optoelectronic devices based on perovskite materials.« less

  18. Self limiting atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on perovskite surfaces: a reality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Devika; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Sarkar, Shaibal K.

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of self-saturated atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on an organolead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) surface through a well known trimethylaluminium (TMA)-water (H2O) chemistry is studied. Though the sequential dosages of reactants form films on the perovskite surfaces, a self saturated growth is never observed. Self-saturation leads to the degradation of the material. Both experimental and density functional theory calculations are carried out for complete understanding of the growth mechanism of self-limiting Al2O3 on the perovskite surface.The feasibility of self-saturated atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on an organolead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) surface through a well known trimethylaluminium (TMA)-water (H2O) chemistry is studied. Though the sequential dosages of reactants form films on the perovskite surfaces, a self saturated growth is never observed. Self-saturation leads to the degradation of the material. Both experimental and density functional theory calculations are carried out for complete understanding of the growth mechanism of self-limiting Al2O3 on the perovskite surface. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional QCM results, FTIR spectra and DFT results. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06974b

  19. Photocatalytic activity of layered perovskite-like oxides in practically valuable chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, I. A.; Zvereva, I. A.

    2016-03-01

    The photocatalytic properties of layered perovskite-like oxides corresponding to the Ruddlesen-Popper, Dion-Jacobson and Aurivillius phases are considered. Of the photocatalytic reactions, the focus is on the reactions of water splitting, hydrogen evolution from aqueous solutions of organic substances and degradation of model organic pollutants. Possibilities to conduct these reactions under UV and visible light in the presence of layered perovskite-like oxides and composite photocatalysts based on them are shown. The specific surface area, band gap energy, particle morphology, cation and anion doping and surface modification are considered as factors that affect the photocatalytic activity. Special attention is paid to the possibilities to enhance the photocatalytic activity by intercalation, ion exchange and exfoliation, which are inherent in this class of compounds. Conclusions are made about the prospects for the use of layered perovskite-like oxides in photocatalysis. The bibliography includes 253 references.

  20. Synthesis and structure of perovskite ScMnO3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyan; Yu, Tian; Gao, Peng; Bai, Jianming; Tao, Jing; Tyson, Trevor A; Wang, Liping; Lalancette, Roger

    2013-08-19

    The rare-earth manganites RMnO3 (R = rare earth) are a class of important multiferroics with stable hexagonal structures for small R ion radius (Sc, Lu, Yb, ...). Metastable perovskite phases of these systems possess intriguing electronically driven electrical polarization, but the synthesis of the perovskite phase for the end member ScMnO3 system has proven to be elusive. We report the structure of a new monoclinic P2(1)/n perovskite phase of ScMnO3 synthesized from the hexagonal phase under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. This extends the small ion region for so-called E-phase electronically driven ferroelectric manganese perovsites.

  1. Indium-Free Perovskite Solar Cells Enabled by Impermeable Tin-Oxide Electron Extraction Layers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ting; Becker, Tim; Pourdavoud, Neda; Zhao, Jie; Brinkmann, Kai Oliver; Heiderhoff, Ralf; Gahlmann, Tobias; Huang, Zengqi; Olthof, Selina; Meerholz, Klaus; Többens, Daniel; Cheng, Baochang; Chen, Yiwang; Riedl, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Corrosive precursors used for the preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite photoactive layers prevent the application of ultrathin metal layers as semitransparent bottom electrodes in perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). This study introduces tin-oxide (SnOx ) grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), whose outstanding permeation barrier properties enable the design of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free semitransparent bottom electrode (SnOx /Ag or Cu/SnOx ), in which the metal is efficiently protected against corrosion. Simultaneously, SnOx functions as an electron extraction layer. We unravel the spontaneous formation of a PbI2 interfacial layer between SnOx and the CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite. An interface dipole between SnOx and this PbI2 layer is found, which depends on the oxidant (water, ozone, or oxygen plasma) used for the ALD growth of SnOx . An electron extraction barrier between perovskite and PbI2 is identified, which is the lowest in devices based on SnOx grown with ozone. The resulting PVSCs are hysteresis-free with a stable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.3% and a remarkably high open circuit voltage of 1.17 V. The ITO-free analogues still achieve a high PCE of 11%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. N-channel field-effect transistors with an organic-inorganic layered perovskite semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Mathevet, Fabrice; Heinrich, Benoît; Terakawa, Shinobu; Fujihara, Takashi; Qin, Chuanjiang; Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-12-01

    Large electron injection barriers and electrode degradation are serious issues that need to be overcome to obtain n-channel operation in field-effect transistors with an organic-inorganic layered perovskite (C6H5C2H4NH3)2SnI4 semiconductor. By employing low-work-function Al source/drain electrodes and by inserting C60 layers between the perovskite semiconductor and the Al electrodes to reduce the injection barrier and to suppress the electrode degradation, we demonstrate n-channel perovskite transistors with electron mobilities of up to 2.1 cm2/V s, the highest value ever reported in spin-coated perovskite transistors. The n-channel transport properties of these transistors are relatively stable in vacuum but are very sensitive to oxygen, which works as electron traps in perovskite and C60 layers. In addition, grazing-incidence X-ray scattering and thermally stimulated current measurements revealed that crystallite size and electron traps largely affect the n-channel transport properties.

  3. Engineering Interface Structure to Improve Efficiency and Stability of Organometal Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Longbin; Ono, Luis K; Jiang, Yan; Leyden, Matthew R; Raga, Sonia R; Wang, Shenghao; Qi, Yabing

    2017-05-25

    The rapid rise of power conversion efficiency (PCE) of low cost organometal halide perovskite solar cells suggests that these cells are a promising alternative to conventional photovoltaic technology. However, anomalous hysteresis and unsatisfactory stability hinder the industrialization of perovskite solar cells. Interface engineering is of importance for the fabrication of highly stable and hysteresis free perovskite solar cells. Here we report that a surface modification of the widely used TiO2 compact layer can give insight into interface interaction in perovskite solar cells. A highest PCE of 18.5% is obtained using anatase TiO2, but the device is not stable and degrades rapidly. With an amorphous TiO2 compact layer, the devices show a prolonged lifetime but a lower PCE and more pronounced hysteresis. To achieve a high PCE and long lifetime simultaneously, an insulating polymer interface layer is deposited on top of TiO2. Three polymers, each with a different functional group (hydroxyl, amino, or aromatic group), are investigated to further understand the relation of interface structure and device PCE as well as stability. We show that it is necessary to consider not only the band alignment at the interface, but also interface chemical interactions between the thin interface layer and the perovskite film. The hydroxyl and amino groups interact with CH3NH3PbI3 leading to poor PCEs. In contrast, deposition of a thin layer of polymer consisting of an aromatic group to prevent the direct contact of TiO2 and CH3NH3PbI3 can significantly enhance the device stability, while the same time maintaining a high PCE. The fact that a polymer interface layer on top of TiO2 can enhance device stability, strongly suggests that the interface interaction between TiO2 and CH3NH3PbI3 plays a crucial role. Our work highlights the importance of interface structure and paves the way for further optimization of PCEs and stability of perovskite solar cells.

  4. Exclusion of metal oxide by an RF sputtered Ti layer in flexible perovskite solar cells: energetic interface between a Ti layer and an organic charge transporting layer.

    PubMed

    Ameen, Sadia; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Seo, Hyung-Kee; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Shin, Hyung-Shik

    2015-04-14

    In this work, the effects of a titanium (Ti) layer on the charge transport and recombination rates of flexible perovskite solar cells were studied. Ti as an efficient barrier layer was deposited directly on PET-ITO flexible substrates through RF magnetic sputtering using a Ti-source and a pressure of ∼5 mTorr. A Ti coated PET-ITO was used for the fabrication of a flexible perovskite solar cell without using any metal oxide layer. The fabricated flexible perovskite solar cell was composed of a PET-ITO/Ti/perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3)/organic hole transport layer of 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis [N,N'-di-p-methoxyphenylamine]-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD)-Li-TFSI/Ag. A high conversion efficiency of ∼8.39% along with a high short circuit current (JSC) of ∼15.24 mA cm(-2), an open circuit voltage (VOC) of ∼0.830 V and a high fill factor (FF) of ∼0.66 was accomplished by the fabricated flexible perovskite solar cell under a light illumination of ∼100 mW cm(-2) (1.5 AM). Intensity-modulated photocurrent (IMPS)/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS) studies demonstrated that the fabricated flexible perovskite solar cell considerably reduced the recombination rate.

  5. Structural phase transitions and ferroelastic properties of perovskite-type layered (CH3NH3)2CdCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran Lim, Ae; Wan Kim, Seung; Lak Joo, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Herein, we perform a structural characterization of (CH3NH3)2CdCl4 by 1H and 13C magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry, discussing the geometry around CH3NH3 cations. 1H MAS NMR determined two sets of protons in hydrogen-bonded CH3NH3 groups, exhibiting large T1ρ (L) and small T1ρ (S) values corresponding to long and short C-H/N-H bonds, respectively. The spin-lattice relaxation time of 113Cd in CdCl6 octahedra is shown to exhibit an anomaly near 283 K (TC2) due to the occurrence of a phase transition that is not governed by changes in the motion of CH3NH3 groups but is accompanied by the corresponding changes for Cd in CdCl6 units. The observed domain pattern corresponds to an exchange of a- and c-axes of the orthorhombic structure, with the resulting domain orientations viewed as the main reason for the occurrence of phase transitions, and changes in CdCl6 group motion observed by 113Cd NMR.

  6. Structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of layered perovskite La1.1Bi0.3Sr1.6Mn2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oubla, M.; Lamire, M.; Boutahar, A.; Lassri, H.; Manoun, B.; Hlil, E. K.

    2016-04-01

    The La1.1Bi0.3Sr1.6Mn2O7 sample was synthesized by coprecipitation method. Its structure has been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. The diffraction patterns are consistent with the I4/mmm symmetry, with tetragonal lattice parameters a=3.8750±0.0001 Å and c=20.0456±0.0002 Å. Magnetic measurements have shown a ferromagnetic like ordering with second order magnetic phase transition to paramagnetic states. The magnetic entropy change caused by a magnetic field, (-∆Smax), was estimated on the basis of the Maxwell relation. The maximum magnetic entropy change (-∆Smax) and the relative cooling power (RCP) are, 1.65 J kg-1K-1 and 134.4 J kg-1 respectively, for a 5 T magnetic field change at 340 K.

  7. Al2 O3 Underlayer Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbao; Hultqvist, Adam; Zhang, Tian; Jiang, Liangcong; Ruan, Changqing; Yang, Li; Cheng, Yibing; Edoff, Marika; Johansson, Erik M J

    2017-10-09

    Perovskite solar cells, as an emergent technology for solar energy conversion, have attracted much attention in the solar cell community by demonstrating impressive enhancement in power conversion efficiencies. However, the high temperature and manually processed TiO2 underlayer prepared by spray pyrolysis significantly limit the large-scale application and device reproducibility of perovskite solar cells. In this study, lowtemperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) is used to prepare a compact Al2 O3 underlayer for perovskite solar cells. The thickness of the Al2 O3 layer can be controlled well by adjusting the deposition cycles during the ALD process. An optimal Al2 O3 layer effectively blocks electron recombination at the perovskite/fluorine-doped tin oxide interface and sufficiently transports electrons through tunneling. Perovskite solar cells fabricated with an Al2 O3 layer demonstrated a highest efficiency of 16.2 % for the sample with 50 ALD cycles (ca. 5 nm), which is a significant improvement over underlayer-free PSCs, which have a maximum efficiency of 11.0 %. Detailed characterization confirms that the thickness of the Al2 O3 underlayer significantly influences the charge transfer resistance and electron recombination processes in the devices. Furthermore, this work shows the feasibility of using a high band-gap semiconductor such as Al2 O3 as the underlayer in perovskite solar cells and opens up pathways to use ALD Al2 O3 underlayers for flexible solar cells. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Full coverage of perovskite layer onto ZnO nanorods via a modified sequential two-step deposition method for efficiency enhancement in perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruankham, Pipat; Wongratanaphisan, Duangmanee; Gardchareon, Atcharawon; Phadungdhitidhada, Surachet; Choopun, Supab; Sagawa, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    Full coverage of perovskite layer onto ZnO nanorod substrates with less pinholes is crucial for achieving high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. In this work, a two-step sequential deposition method is modified to achieve an appropriate property of perovskite (MAPbI3) film. Surface treatment of perovskite layer and its precursor have been systematically performed and their morphologies have been investigated. By pre-wetting of lead iodide (PbI2) and letting it dry before reacting with methylammonium iodide (MAI) provide better coverage of perovskite film onto ZnO nanorod substrate than one without any treatment. An additional MAI deposition followed with toluene drop-casting technique on the perovskite film is also found to increase the coverage and enhance the transformation of PbI2 to MAPbI3. These lead to longer charge carrier lifetime, resulting in an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 1.21% to 3.05%. The modified method could been applied to a complex ZnO nanorods/TiO2 nanoparticles substrate. The enhancement in PCE to 3.41% is observed. These imply that our introduced method provides a simple way to obtain the full coverage and better transformation to MAPbI3 phase for enhancement in performances of perovskite solar cells.

  9. PbI2-Based Dipping-Controlled Material Conversion for Compact Layer Free Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Enqiang; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Song, Jiaxing; Yan, Lulin; Tian, Wenjing; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2015-08-19

    A two-step sequential deposition method has been extensively employed to prepare the CH3NH3PbI3 active layer from the PbI2 precursor in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The variation of the photovoltaic performance of PSCs made by this method was always attributed to different dipping times that induce complete/incomplete conversion of PbI2 into CH3NH3PbI3. To solve this issue, we employed a solvent vapor annealing (SVA) method to prepare PbI2 crystallites with large grain size for preparation of high quality perovskite. With this method, the increased PbI2 dipping time in CH3NH3I solution was found to reduce the photovoltaic performance of resulting PSCs without a significant change in PbI2/CH3NH3PbI3 contents in the perovskite films. We attribute this abnormal reduction of the photovoltaic performance to intercalation/deintercalation of the PbI2 core with a CH3NH3PbI3 shell, which causes the doping effect on both the PbI2 and CH3NH3PbI3 crystal lattices and the formation of a CH3NH3PbI3 capping layer on the surface, as revealed by UV-vis absorption, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, and scanning electron microscope measurements. Based on our findings, a multistep dipping-drying process was employed as an alternative method to improve the crystalline quality. The method achieved power conversion efficiency up to 11.4% for the compact layer free PSC sharing a simple device structure of ITO/perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD/Ag.

  10. Structural transformations in cubic structure of Mn/Co perovskites in reducing and oxidizing atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koponen, Markus J.; Suvanto, Mika; Kallinen, Kauko; Kinnunen, Toni-J. J.; Härkönen, Matti; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2006-05-01

    ABO ( A=La, Pr; B=Mn, Co), ABBx'O ( A=La, Pr; B=Mn, Co; B=Co, Pd), and ABCoPdO ( A=La, Pr; B=Fe, Mn) ( x=0.05, 0.37; y=0.38) perovskites were synthesized via malic acid complexation. O 2-TPD, O 2-TPO, and H 2-TPR treatments were carried out to study the oxidation and reduction behavior of the synthesized perovskites. LaCo 0.95Pd 0.05O 3, PrCo 0.95Pd 0.05O 3, and PrCoO 3 perovskites had the highest desorption, oxidation, and reduction activity within the studied perovskite series. Powder XRD studies revealed structural transformation of the cubic structure of all synthesized perovskites except LaFe 0.57Co 0.38Pd 0.05O 3 in H 2/Ar atmosphere when the temperature was over 400 °C. The decomposed structure reverted to the original perovskite structure under oxidizing atmosphere. This reversion was accompanied by increased oxygen desorption activity. It was noticed that the Co and Mn combinations in the B-site of the perovskites structure decreased the thermal stability of the synthesized perovskites.

  11. Hybrid Perovskite/Perovskite Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yinghong; Schlipf, Johannes; Wussler, Michael; Petrus, Michiel L; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Bein, Thomas; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Docampo, Pablo

    2016-06-28

    Recently developed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells combine low-cost fabrication and high power conversion efficiency. Advances in perovskite film optimization have led to an outstanding power conversion efficiency of more than 20%. Looking forward, shifting the focus toward new device architectures holds great potential to induce the next leap in device performance. Here, we demonstrate a perovskite/perovskite heterojunction solar cell. We developed a facile solution-based cation infiltration process to deposit layered perovskite (LPK) structures onto methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) films. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments were performed to gain insights into the crystallite orientation and the formation process of the perovskite bilayer. Our results show that the self-assembly of the LPK layer on top of an intact MAPI layer is accompanied by a reorganization of the perovskite interface. This leads to an enhancement of the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency due to reduced recombination losses, as well as improved moisture stability in the resulting photovoltaic devices.

  12. New PCBM/carbon based electron transport layer for perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mamun, Abdullah Al; Ava, Tanzila Tasnim; Zhang, Kai; Baumgart, Helmut; Namkoong, Gon

    2017-07-21

    Carbon is inherently abundant in nature and relatively inexpensive, which can potentially reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells. In recent years, carbon has been used as a hole transport layer or counter electrode in perovskite solar cells. Herein, we demonstrate that carbon can also be used as a charge transport layer capable of enhancing the energy conversion efficiency of a CH3NH3PbI3-xClx solar cell when carbon is combined with PCBM. Particularly, we have been able to deposit an ultra-flat carbon layer using an e-beam irradiation method, which exhibited much better conductivity than the competitive PCBM/C60 layer. In addition, quantitative analysis of interfacial charge dynamics shows that the quenching efficiency of PCBM/carbon is comparable to that of PCBM/C60 but better interface defect passivation and improved series and shunt resistances were observed when PCBM/carbon was employed. For the photovoltaic performance, the reference perovskite solar cell fabricated from the widely used PCBM/C60 has a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14% while the perovskite solar cell with PCBM/carbon has an increased PCE of 16%. Our results demonstrate the potential of the use of cost-effective carbon for perovskite solar cells, which could reduce production costs.

  13. Strong Photocurrent Amplification in Perovskite Solar Cells with a Porous TiO2 Blocking Layer under Reverse Bias.

    PubMed

    Moehl, Thomas; Im, Jeong Hyeok; Lee, Yong Hui; Domanski, Konrad; Giordano, Fabrizio; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Dar, M Ibrahim; Heiniger, Leo-Philipp; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Park, Nam-Gyu; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-11-06

    We investigate two different types of TiO2 blocking layer (BL) deposition techniques commonly used in solid-state methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite (MaPbI3)-based solar cells. Although these BLs lead to similar photovoltaic device performance, their structure and blocking capability is actually very different. In one case, the "blocking" layer is porous, allowing an intimate contact of the perovskite with the fluorine-doped tin-dioxide (FTO)-covered glass substrate serving as transparent electron collector. This interface between the perovskite and the FTO shows rectifying behavior. Reverse biasing of such a solar cell allows the determination of the valence-band position of the MaPbI3 and the theoretical maximum attainable photovoltage. We show that under reverse bias strong photocurrent amplification is observed, permitting the cell to work as a high-gain photodetector at low voltage. Without BL, the solar-cell performance decreased, but the photocurrent amplification increased. At 1 V reverse bias, the photocurrent amplification is above a factor of 10 for AM 1.5 solar light and over 100 for lower light intensities.

  14. Method for fabricating high aspect ratio structures in perovskite material

    DOEpatents

    Karapetrov, Goran T.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Crabtree, George W.; Iavarone, Maria

    2003-10-28

    A method of fabricating high aspect ratio ceramic structures in which a selected portion of perovskite or perovskite-like crystalline material is exposed to a high energy ion beam for a time sufficient to cause the crystalline material contacted by the ion beam to have substantially parallel columnar defects. Then selected portions of the material having substantially parallel columnar defects are etched leaving material with and without substantially parallel columnar defects in a predetermined shape having high aspect ratios of not less than 2 to 1. Etching is accomplished by optical or PMMA lithography. There is also disclosed a structure of a ceramic which is superconducting at a temperature in the range of from about 10.degree. K. to about 90.degree. K. with substantially parallel columnar defects in which the smallest lateral dimension of the structure is less than about 5 microns, and the thickness of the structure is greater than 2 times the smallest lateral dimension of the structure.

  15. Stabilizing hybrid perovskites against moisture and temperature via non-hydrolytic atomic layer deposited overlayers

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, In Soo; Martinson, Alex B. F.

    2015-09-14

    We utilized a novel non-hydrolytic (nh) surface chemistry to allow the direct synthesis of pinhole-fee oxide overlayers directly on conventional hybrid perovskite halide absorbers without damage. By utilizing water- free ALD Al2O3 passivation, a minimum of ten-fold increase in stability against relative humidity (RH) 85% was achieved along with a dramatically improved thermal resistance (up to 250 °C). We extend this approach to synthesize nh-TiO2 directly on hybrid perovskites to establish its potential in inverted photovoltaic devices as a dual stabilizing and electron accepting layer, as evidenced by photoluminescence (PL) quenching.

  16. Cation Ordering within the Perovskite Block of a Six-layer Ruddlesden-Popper Oxide from Layer-by-layer Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lei; Niu, H. J.; Rosseinsky, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    The (AO)(A BO3)n Ruddlesden-Popper structure is an archetypal complex oxide consisting of two distinct structural units, an (AO) rock salt layer separating an n-octahedra thick perovskite block. Conventional high-temperature oxide synthesis methods cannot access members with n > 3 , butlowtemperaturelayer - by - layerthinfilmmethodsallowthepreparationofmaterialswiththickerperovskiteblocks , exploitinghighsurfacemobilityandlatticematchingwiththesubstrate . Thispresentationdescribesthegrowthofann = 6 memberCaO / (ABO 3)n (ABO 3 : CaMnO 3 , La 0.67 Ca 0.33 MnO 3 orCa 0.85 Sm 0.15 MnO 3) epitaxialsinglecrystalfilmsonthe (001) SrTiO 3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition with the assistance of a reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED).

  17. Fast Crystallization and Improved Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells with Zn2SnO4 Electron Transporting Layer: Interface Matters.

    PubMed

    Bera, Ashok; Sheikh, Arif D; Haque, Md Azimul; Bose, Riya; Alarousu, Erkki; Mohammed, Omar F; Wu, Tom

    2015-12-30

    Here we report that mesoporous ternary oxide Zn2SnO4 can significantly promotes the crystallization of hybrid perovskite layers and serves as an efficient electron transporting material in perovskite solar cells. Such devices exhibit an energy conversion efficiency of 13.34%, which is even higher than that achieved with the commonly used TiO2 in the similar experimental conditions (9.1%). Simple one-step spin coating of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx on Zn2SnO4 is found to lead to rapidly crystallized bilayer perovskite structure without any solvent engineering. Furthermore, ultrafast transient absorption measurement reveals efficient charge transfer at the Zn2SnO4/perovskite interface. Most importantly, solar cells with Zn2SnO4 as the electron-transporting material exhibit negligible electrical hysteresis and exceptionally high stability without encapsulation for over one month. Besides underscoring Zn2SnO4 as a highly promising electron transporting material for perovskite solar cells, our results demonstrate the significant role of interfaces on improving the perovskite crystallization and photovoltaic performance.

  18. Improve efficiency of perovskite solar cells by using Magnesium doped ZnO and TiO2 compact layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baktash, Ardeshir; Amiri, Omid; Sasani, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    Here the effect of Magnesium doped TiO2 and ZnO as hole blocking layers (HBLs) are investigated by using solar cell capacitance simulator (SCAPS). The Impact of Magnesium concentration into the TiO2 and ZnO and effect of operating temperature on the performance of the perovskite solar cell are investigated. Best cell performance for both TiO2 and ZnO HBLs (with cell efficiencies of 19.86% and 19.57% respectively) are concluded for the doping level of 10% of Mg into the structure of HBLs. Increase in operating temperature from 300 K to 400 K are decreased the performance of the perovskite solar cell with both pure and Mg-doped HBLs. However, the cells with pure ZnO layer and with Zn0.9 Mg0.1O layer show the highest (with a decline of 8.88% in efficiency) and the lowest stability (with a decline of 50.49% in efficiency) at higher temperatures respectively. Moreover, the cell with Ti0.9 Mg0.1O2 layer shows better stability (with 21.85% reduction in efficiency) than the cell with pure TiO2 compact layer (with 23.28% reduction in efficiency) at higher operating temperatures.

  19. Understanding the Role of the Electron-Transport Layer in Highly Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Wang, Gang; Luo, Kun; He, Xulin; Ye, Qinyan; Liao, Cheng; Mei, Jun

    2017-03-17

    Solar cells based on perovskite absorbers are rapidly emerging as attractive candidates for photovoltaics development. Understanding the role of the electron-transport layer (ETL) is very important to obtain highly efficient perovskite solar cells. Herein, the effect of the ETL on device performance in planar perovskite solar cells is investigated in detail, and the band bending in different situations is discussed. The ET barrier is shown to be responsible for the poor fill factor (FF) of J-V curves. Introduction of a thin bathocuproine interlayer increases the interface inversion and results in an increase of FF from 56 to 76 %. Some experimental and theoretical results verify these conclusions. Furthermore, this study can provide an interface-engineering strategy to improve device performance.

  20. Fulleropyrrolidinium Iodide As an Efficient Electron Transport Layer for Air-Stable Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiabin; Yu, Xuegong; Xie, Jiangsheng; Li, Chang-Zhi; Zhang, Yunhai; Xu, Dikai; Tang, Zeguo; Cui, Can; Yang, Deren

    2016-12-21

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have attracted great attention in recent years. But there are still a lot of unresolved issues related to the perovskite solar cells such as the phenomenon of anomalous hysteresis characteristics and long-term stability of the devices. Here, we developed a simple three-layered efficient perovskite device by replacing the commonly employed PCBM electrical transport layer with an ultrathin fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (C60-bis) in an inverted p-i-n architecture. The devices with an ultrathin C60-bis electronic transport layer yield an average power conversion efficiency of 13.5% and a maximum efficiency of 15.15%. Steady-state photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements show that the high performance is attributed to the efficient blocking of holes and high extraction efficiency of electrons by C60-bis, due to a favorable energy level alignment between the CH3NH3PbI3 and the Ag electrodes. The hysteresis effect and stability of our perovskite solar cells with C60-bis become better under indoor humidity conditions.

  1. Towards printed perovskite solar cells with cuprous oxide hole transporting layers: a theoretical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Liang, Jun; Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Yiming; Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhou, Hang

    2015-05-01

    Solution-processed p-type metal oxide materials have shown great promise in improving the stability of perovskite-based solar cells and offering the feasibility for a low cost printing fabrication process. Herein, we performed a device modeling study on planar perovskite solar cells with cuprous oxide (Cu2O) hole transporting layers (HTLs) by using a solar cell simulation program, wxAMPS. The performance of a Cu2O/perovskite solar cell was correlated to the material properties of the Cu2O HTL, such as thickness, carrier mobility, mid-gap defect, and doping concentrations. The effect of interfacial defect densities on the solar cell performance was also investigated. Our simulation indicates that, with an optimized Cu2O HTL, high performance perovskite solar cells with efficiencies above 13% could be achieved, which shows the potential of using Cu2O as an alternative HTL over other inorganic materials, such as NiOx and MoOx. This study provides theoretical guidance for developing perovskite solar cells with inorganic hole transporting materials via a printing process.

  2. Conjugated polyelectrolyte hole transport layer for inverted-type perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyosung; Mai, Cheng-Kang; Kim, Hak-Beom; Jeong, Jaeki; Song, Seyeong; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Kim, Jin Young; Heeger, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite materials offer the potential for realization of low-cost and flexible next-generation solar cells fabricated by low-temperature solution processing. Although efficiencies of perovskite solar cells have dramatically improved up to 19% within the past 5 years, there is still considerable room for further improvement in device efficiency and stability through development of novel materials and device architectures. Here we demonstrate that inverted-type perovskite solar cells with pH-neutral and low-temperature solution-processable conjugated polyelectrolyte as the hole transport layer (instead of acidic PEDOT:PSS) exhibit a device efficiency of over 12% and improved device stability in air. As an alternative to PEDOT:PSS, this work is the first report on the use of an organic hole transport material that enables the formation of uniform perovskite films with complete surface coverage and the demonstration of efficient, stable perovskite/fullerene planar heterojunction solar cells. PMID:26081865

  3. Anticorrelation between Local Photoluminescence and Photocurrent Suggests Variability in Contact to Active Layer in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Eperon, Giles E; Moerman, David; Ginger, David S

    2016-11-22

    We use high-resolution, spatially resolved, laser beam induced current, confocal photoluminescence, and photoconductive atomic force microscopy (pcAFM) measurements to correlate local solar cell performance with spatially heterogeneous local material properties in methylammonium lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite solar cells. We find that, for this material and device architecture, the photocurrent heterogeneity measured via pcAFM on devices missing a top selective contact with traditional Au-coated tips is significantly larger than the photocurrent heterogeneity observed in full devices with both electron- and hole-selective extraction layers, indicating that extraction barriers at the Au/perovskite interface are ameliorated by deposition of the organic charge extraction layer. Nevertheless, in completed, efficient device structures (PCE ≈ 16%) with state-of-the-art nickel oxide and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid (PCBM) methyl ester contacts, we observe that the local photoluminescence (PL) is weakly anticorrelated with local photocurrent at both short-circuit and open-circuit conditions. We determine that the contact materials are fairly homogeneous; thus the heterogeneity stems from the perovskite itself. We suggest a cause for the anticorrelation as being related to local carrier extraction heterogeneity. However, we find that the contacts are still the dominating source of losses in these devices, which minimizes the impact of the material heterogeneity on device performance at present. These results suggest that further steps to prevent recombination losses at the interfaces are needed to help perovskite-based cells approach theoretical efficiency limits; only at this point will material heterogeneity become crucial.

  4. Nanometer-Scale Epitaxial Strain Release in Perovskite Heterostructures Using 'SrAlOx' Sliding Buffer Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Christopher

    2011-08-11

    We demonstrate the strain release of LaAlO{sub 3} epitaxial film on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) by inserting ultra-thin 'SrAlO{sub x}' buffer layers. Although SrAlO{sub x} is not a perovskite, nor stable as a single phase in bulk, epitaxy stabilizes the perovskite structure up to a thickness of 2 unit cells (uc). At a critical thickness of 3 uc of SrAlO{sub x}, the interlayer acts as a sliding buffer layer, and abruptly relieves the lattice mismatch between the LaAlO{sub 3} filmand the SrTiO{sub 3} substrate, while maintaining crystallinity. This technique may provide a general approach for strain relaxation of perovskite film far below the thermodynamic critical thickness. A central issue in heteroepitaxial filmgrowth is the inevitable difference in lattice constants between the filmand substrate. Due to this lattice mismatch, thin film are subjected to microstructural strain, which can have a significan effect on the filmproperties. This challenge is especially prominent in the rapidly developing fiel of oxide electronics, where much interest is focused on incorporating the emergent physical properties of oxides in devices. Although strain can be used to great effect to engineer unusual ground states, it is often deleterious for bulk first-orde phase transitions, which are suppressed by the strain and symmetry constraints of the substrate. While there are some reports discussing the control of the lattice mismatch in oxides using thick buffer layers, the materials choice, lattice-tunable range, and control of misfit dislocations are still limited. In this Letter, we report the fabrication of strain-relaxed LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) thin film on SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) (001) using very thin 'SrAlO{sub x}' (SAO) buffer layers. Whereas for 1 or 2 pseudo-perovskite unit cells (uc) of SAO, the subsequent LAO filmis strained to the substrate, at a critical thickness of 3 uc the SAO interlayer abruptly relieves the lattice mismatch between the LAO and the STO, although maintaining the

  5. Depth profile by Total IBA in perovskite active layers for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiros, M. A.; Alves, L. C.; Brites, M. J.; Corregidor, V.

    2017-08-01

    In recent years the record efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has been updated exceeding now 20%. However, it is difficult to make PSCs consistently. Definite correlation has been established between the PSC performance and the perovskite film quality which involves mainly morphology, crystallinity and composition. The manufacturing development of these devices is dependent on the characterisation methodologies, on the availability of suitable and reliable analytical techniques to assess the materials composition and quality and on the relationship of these results with the cell performance. Ion beam analytical (IBA) techniques jointly with a micro-ion beam are powerful tools for materials characterisation and can provide a valuable input for the knowledge of perovskite films. Perovskite films based on CH3NH3PbI3 were prepared (from CH3NH3I and PbI2 precursors) in a planar architecture and in a mesoporous TiO2 scaffold. Proton and helium micro-beams at different energies were used in the analysis of PSC active layers, previously characterised by SEM-FEG (Scanning Electron Microscopy with a field emission gun) and XRD (X-ray diffraction). Self-consistent fit of all the obtained PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) spectra through Total IBA approach provided depth profiling of perovskite, its precursors and TiO2 and assess their distribution in the films. PbI2 presence and location on the active layer may hinder the charge transport and highly affect the cell performance. IBA techniques allowed to identify regions of non-uniform surface coverage and homogeneous areas and it was possible to establish the undesired presence of PbI2 and its quantitative depth profile in the planar architecture film. In the mesostructured perovskite film it was verified a non-homogeneous distribution with a decreasing of perovskite concentration down to the thin blocking layer. The good agreement between the best fits obtained

  6. It Takes Two to Tango-Double-Layer Selective Contacts in Perovskite Solar Cells for Improved Device Performance and Reduced Hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Kegelmann, Lukas; Wolff, Christian M; Awino, Celline; Lang, Felix; Unger, Eva L; Korte, Lars; Dittrich, Thomas; Neher, Dieter; Rech, Bernd; Albrecht, Steve

    2017-05-24

    Solar cells made from inorganic-organic perovskites have gradually approached market requirements as their efficiency and stability have improved tremendously in recent years. Planar low-temperature processed perovskite solar cells are advantageous for possible large-scale production but are more prone to exhibiting photocurrent hysteresis, especially in the regular n-i-p structure. Here, a systematic characterization of different electron selective contacts with a variety of chemical and electrical properties in planar n-i-p devices processed below 180 °C is presented. The inorganic metal oxides TiO2 and SnO2, the organic fullerene derivatives C60, PCBM, and ICMA, as well as double-layers with a metal oxide/PCBM structure are used as electron transport materials (ETMs). Perovskite layers deposited atop the different ETMs with the herein applied fabrication method show a similar morphology according to scanning electron microscopy. Further, surface photovoltage spectroscopy measurements indicate comparable perovskite absorber qualities on all ETMs, except TiO2, which shows a more prominent influence of defect states. Transient photoluminescence studies together with current-voltage scans over a broad range of scan speeds reveal faster charge extraction, less pronounced hysteresis effects, and higher efficiencies for devices with fullerene compared to those with metal oxide ETMs. Beyond this, only double-layer ETM structures substantially diminish hysteresis effects for all performed scan speeds and strongly enhance the power conversion efficiency up to a champion stabilized value of 18.0%. The results indicate reduced recombination losses for a double-layer TiO2/PCBM contact design: First, a reduction of shunt paths through the fullerene to the ITO layer. Second, an improved hole blocking by the wide band gap metal oxide. Third, decreased transport losses due to an energetically more favorable contact, as implied by photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The

  7. A novel layered perovskite as symmetric electrode for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ling; Chen, Kongfa; Liu, Yuanxu; He, Beibei

    2017-02-01

    Layered perovskite oxides are well known to possess significant electronic, magnetic and electrochemical properties. Herein, we highlight a novel layered perovskite PrBaMn1.5Fe0.5O5+δ (PBMFO) as electrodes of symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells (SSOFCs). The layered PBMFO shows high electrical conductivity of 112.5 and 7.4 S cm-1 at 800 °C in air and 5% H2/Ar, respectively. The single cell with PBMFO symmetric electrodes achieves peak power density of 0.54 W cm-2 at 800 °C using humidified hydrogen as fuel. Moreover, PBMFO electrodes demonstrate good redox stability and high coking tolerance against hydrocarbon fuel.

  8. Effect of Morphology Control of Light Absorbing Layer on CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lei, Binglong; Eze, Vincent Obiozo; Mori, Tatsuo

    2016-04-01

    As one of the most significant components of perovskite solar cells, the perovskite light absorbing layer demands high quality to guarantee extraordinary power conversion efficiency (PCE). We have fabricated series of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells by virtue of gas-flowing assisting (GFA), spin coating twice for the Pbl2 layer and dipping the semi-samples in a thermal CH3NH3I solution, by which some undesirable perovskite morphologies can be effectively avoided. The modified conductions have also dramatically improved the perovskite layer and elevated the coverage ratio from 53.6% to 79.5%. All the fabrication processes, except the steps for deposition of the hole transport material (HTM) and back gold electrode, have been conducted in air and an average PCE of 6.6% has been achieved by initiatively applying N,N'-bis(1-naphtyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (α-NPD) doped by MoO3 as HTM. The CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite's morphology and its coverage ratio to the underneath TiO2 mesoporic layer are evaluated to account for the cells' performance. It has demonstrated that higher homogeneity and coverage ratio of the CH3NH3PbI3 layer have most significantly contributed to the solar cells' light conversion efficiency. Keywords: Perovskite, Solar Cell, Morphology, Coverage Ratio, Hole Transport Material.

  9. Transition Metal-Oxide Free Perovskite Solar Cells Enabled by a New Organic Charge Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sehoon; Han, Ggoch Ddeul; Weis, Jonathan G; Park, Hyoungwon; Hentz, Olivia; Zhao, Zhibo; Swager, Timothy M; Gradečak, Silvija

    2016-04-06

    Various electron and hole transport layers have been used to develop high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. To achieve low-temperature solution processing of perovskite solar cells, organic n-type materials are employed to replace the metal oxide electron transport layer (ETL). Although PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) has been widely used for this application, its morphological instability in films (i.e., aggregation) is detrimental. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of a new fullerene derivative (isobenzofulvene-C60-epoxide, IBF-Ep) that serves as an electron transporting material for methylammonium mixed lead halide-based perovskite (CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)) solar cells, both in the normal and inverted device configurations. We demonstrate that IBF-Ep has superior morphological stability compared to the conventional acceptor, PCBM. IBF-Ep provides higher photovoltaic device performance as compared to PCBM (6.9% vs 2.5% in the normal and 9.0% vs 5.3% in the inverted device configuration). Moreover, IBF-Ep devices show superior tolerance to high humidity (90%) in air. By reaching power conversion efficiencies up to 9.0% for the inverted devices with IBF-Ep as the ETL, we demonstrate the potential of this new material as an alternative to metal oxides for perovskite solar cells processed in air.

  10. Copper iodide as inorganic hole conductor for perovskite solar cells with different thickness of mesoporous layer and hole transport layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huangfu, Minzan; Shen, Yue; Zhu, Gongbo; Xu, Kai; Cao, Meng; Gu, Feng; Wang, Linjun

    2015-12-01

    This study is the first to report the preparation of Copper iodide (CuI) thick films by means of convenient airbrush process and their application as inorganic hole transport layers (HTL) in organo-lead halide perovskite-based solar cells. CuI thick films exhibit high conductivity, wide-band-gap and solution-processable. Organo-lead halide perovskite solar cells with different thickness of mesoporous layers and CuI hole transport layers were fabricated. Performance of the cells were mainly controlled by the thickness of TiO2 mesoporous layers. Under optimized conditions, a power conversion efficiency of 5.8% has been achieved with short-circuit current density JSC of 22.3 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage VOC of 614 mV and fill factor of 42%. However, the VOC remains low in comparison with the state of the art perovskite-based solar cells, which is attributed to the high recombination in CuI devices as determined by impedance spectroscopy.

  11. High-efficiency perovskite solar cells prepared by using a sandwich structure MAI-PbI2-MAI precursor film.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuhui; Ye, Jiajiu; Zhu, Liangzheng; Zheng, Haiying; Liu, Guozhen; Liu, Xuepeng; Duan, Bin; Pan, Xu; Dai, Songyuan

    2017-04-06

    Two-step deposition has been widely used in the perovskite layer preparation for perovskite solar cells due to its attractive morphology controllability. However, the limited diffusivity of CH3NH3I (MAI) might cause some PbI2 to remain in the perovskite film. The residual PbI2 in the perovskite film would lead to inferior performance of devices, such as, low power conversion efficiency (PCE), poor reproducibility and weak air stability. In this work, we developed a sandwich structure MAI-PbI2-MAI precursor film to prepare a PbI2-free CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film. In comparison to the two-step approach, the MAI-PbI2-MAI precursor film with a typical sandwich structure formed a uniform and pinhole-free perovskite film without any PbI2 residue, which could significantly improve the performance of the devices. Moreover, the bottom MAI layer of the MAI-PbI2-MAI precursor film could improve the interfacial contact of the porous TiO2 layer, leading to the promotion of the charge transfer and reduction of the recombination rate. Therefore, the devices fabricated from the sandwich structure MAI-PbI2-MAI precursor films showed dramatic improvements of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), fill factor (FF) and PCE. As a result, a promising PCE of 17.8% with good long-term air stability was achieved for the MAI-PbI2-MAI precursor film based PSC, which is better than that prepared by a two-step approach.

  12. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOEpatents

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  13. Modeling and analysis of HTM-free perovskite solar cells based on ZnO electron transport layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lingyan; Jiang, Linqin; Qiu, Yu; Yu, Yunlong

    2017-04-01

    On the road towards high-efficiency and low-cost photovoltaic technology, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) emerge as the most promising candidate. Their application is, however, limited by the expensive hole transport material(HTM) and electrode material (e.g. spiro-OMeTAD and gold) and the high-temperature processed electron transport layer (e.g. TiO2) in the common device structure. In this paper, device modeling of HTM free perovskite solar cells having the structure of FTO/ZnO/CH3NH3PbI3/carbon is performed. Various factors that influence the solar cell performance have been investigated, such as doping concentration and thickness of CH3NH3PbI3 absorber layer, the interface defect density and work function of the back contact (φ). The reasonable thickness of CH3NH3PbI3 absorber is around 500 nm. The doping concentrations in the CH3NH3PbI3 layer significantly affect the electron potential barrier height at the junction interface. Meanwhile, to achieve high photovoltaic performance, the defect densities at the CH3NH3PbI3/ZnO interface should be controlled under the order of ∼1017 cm-3 by interface modification. Finally, the φ matching is a requirement to obtain high device performance. We found that an efficiency over 15% can be obtained under the moderate simulation conditions. Moreover, the conversion efficiency of 18.11% can be obtained when the doping concentration of absorber is improved to 1016 cm-3. These findings will provide important guidelines for the manufacturing of low-temperature low-cost perovskite solar cells.

  14. Photovoltaic switching mechanism in lateral structure hybrid perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Yongbo; Chae, Jungseok; Shao, Yuchuan; Wang, Qi; Xiao, Zhengguo; Centrone, Andrea; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-06-05

    In this study, long range electromigration of methylammonium ions (MA+) in methyl ammonium lead tri-iodide (MAPbI3) film is observed directly using the photo­thermal induced resonance technique. The electromigration of MA+ leads to the formation of a lateral p-i-n structure, which is the origin of the switchable photovoltaic effect in MAPbI3 perovskite devices.

  15. Photovoltaic switching mechanism in lateral structure hybrid perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Yongbo; Chae, Jungseok; Shao, Yuchuan; ...

    2015-06-05

    In this study, long range electromigration of methylammonium ions (MA+) in methyl ammonium lead tri-iodide (MAPbI3) film is observed directly using the photo­thermal induced resonance technique. The electromigration of MA+ leads to the formation of a lateral p-i-n structure, which is the origin of the switchable photovoltaic effect in MAPbI3 perovskite devices.

  16. Topological oxide insulator in cubic perovskite structure.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hosub; Rhim, Sonny H; Im, Jino; Freeman, Arthur J

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of topologically protected conducting states with the chiral spin texture is the most prominent feature at the surface of topological insulators. On the application side, large band gap and high resistivity to distinguish surface from bulk degrees of freedom should be guaranteed for the full usage of the surface states. Here, we suggest that the oxide cubic perovskite YBiO3, more than just an oxide, defines itself as a new three-dimensional topological insulator exhibiting both a large bulk band gap and a high resistivity. Based on first-principles calculations varying the spin-orbit coupling strength, the non-trivial band topology of YBiO3 is investigated, where the spin-orbit coupling of the Bi 6p orbital plays a crucial role. Taking the exquisite synthesis techniques in oxide electronics into account, YBiO3 can also be used to provide various interface configurations hosting exotic topological phenomena combined with other quantum phases.

  17. Topological Oxide Insulator in Cubic Perovskite Structure

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hosub; Rhim, Sonny H.; Im, Jino; Freeman, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of topologically protected conducting states with the chiral spin texture is the most prominent feature at the surface of topological insulators. On the application side, large band gap and high resistivity to distinguish surface from bulk degrees of freedom should be guaranteed for the full usage of the surface states. Here, we suggest that the oxide cubic perovskite YBiO3, more than just an oxide, defines itself as a new three-dimensional topological insulator exhibiting both a large bulk band gap and a high resistivity. Based on first-principles calculations varying the spin-orbit coupling strength, the non-trivial band topology of YBiO3 is investigated, where the spin-orbit coupling of the Bi 6p orbital plays a crucial role. Taking the exquisite synthesis techniques in oxide electronics into account, YBiO3 can also be used to provide various interface configurations hosting exotic topological phenomena combined with other quantum phases. PMID:23575973

  18. The effect of skin-depth interfacial defect layer in perovskite solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, Bizuneh; Mola, Genene Tessema

    2016-08-01

    The hole transport buffer layer (HTL) known as PEDOT:PSS is found to be sensitive to polar solvents often used in the preparation of solution-processed perovskite-based solar cell. We employed {CH}3 {NH}3 {PbI}3 perovskite absorber sandwiched between two charge transport layers to analyze the effect of precursor solvent. By introducing skin-depth interfacial defect layer (IDL) on PEDOT:PSS film we studied the overall performance of the devices using one-dimensional device simulator. Both enhanced conductivity and variations in valence band offset (VBO) of IDL were considered to analyze device performance. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices was found to grow by 35 % due to increased conductivity of IDL by a factor of 1000. Furthermore, we noted a drastic reduction in PCE of the device by reducing the work function of IDL by more than 0.3eV . The thickness of interfacial defect layer was also analyzed and found to decrease the PCE of the devices by 18 % for fourfold increase in IDL thickness. The analysis was remarkably reproduced the experimentally generated device parameters and will help to understand the underlying physical process in perovskite-based solar cell.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of perovskite photovoltaic devices with TiO2 nanoparticle layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oku, Takeo; Ueoka, Naoki; Suzuki, Kohei; Suzuki, Atsushi; Yamada, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Minami, Satoshi; Fukunishi, Sakiko; Kohno, Kazufumi; Miyauchi, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-based photovoltaic devices were fabricated by a spin-coating method using mixture solutions with TiO2 nanoparticles. Compact TiO2 layers were prepared from titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetyl acetonate) and TiO2 nanoparticles with different particle sizes. The performance of the photovoltaic devices was improved by sequential deposition of the TiO2 layers, which resulted in microstructural change of the perovskite layers.

  20. Process for forming epitaxial perovskite thin film layers using halide precursors

    DOEpatents

    Clem, Paul G.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Voigt, James A.; Ashley, Carol S.

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming an epitaxial perovskite-phase thin film on a substrate. This thin film can act as a buffer layer between a Ni substrate and a YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x superconductor layer. The process utilizes alkali or alkaline metal acetates dissolved in halogenated organic acid along with titanium isopropoxide to dip or spin-coat the substrate which is then heated to about 700.degree. C. in an inert gas atmosphere to form the epitaxial film on the substrate. The YBCO superconductor can then be deposited on the layer formed by this invention.

  1. Low-Temperature TiOx Compact Layer for Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zonghao; Chen, Qi; Hong, Ziruo; Zhou, Huanping; Xu, Xiaobao; De Marco, Nicholas; Sun, Pengyu; Zhao, Zhixin; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Yang, Yang

    2016-05-04

    Here, we demonstrate an effective low-temperature approach to fabricate a uniform and pinhole-free compact TiO2 layer for enhancing photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells. TiCl4 was used to modify TiO2 for efficient charge generation and significantly reduced recombination loss. We found that a TiO2 layer with an appropriate TiCl4 treatment possesses a smooth surface with full coverage of the conductive electrode. Further studies on charge carrier dynamics confirmed that the TiCl4 treatment improves the contact of the TiO2/perovskite interface, facilitating charge extraction and suppressing charge recombination. On the basis of the treatment, we improved the open circuit voltage from 1.01 V of the reference cell to 1.08 V, and achieved a power conversion efficiency of 16.4%.

  2. Solution-Processable Ionic Liquid as an Independent or Modifying Electron Transport Layer for High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiliang; Zhou, Weiran; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Pengcheng; Chen, Tao; Lu, Yalin; Qiao, Qiquan; Yang, Shangfeng

    2016-12-21

    Inorganic metal oxide, especially TiO2, has been commonly used as an electron transport layer (ETL) in regular-structure (n-i-p) planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ-PSCs) but generally suffers from high electron recombination rate and incompatibility with low-temperature solution processability. Herein, by applying an ionic liquid (IL, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([EMIM]PF6)) as either a TiO2-modifying interlayer or an independent ETL, we investigated systematically IL interface engineering for PHJ-PSCs. Upon spin-coating [EMIM]PF6-IL onto TiO2 ETL as a modification layer, the average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of CH3NH3PbI3 PHJ-PSC devices reaches 18.42 ± 0.65%, which dramatically surpasses that based on commonly used TiO2 ETL (14.20 ± 0.43%), and the highest PCE (19.59%) is almost identical to that of the record PCE for planar CH3NH3PbI3 PSCs (19.62%) reported very recently. On the other hand, by applying [EMIM]PF6-IL as an independent ETL, we achieved an average PCE of 13.25 ± 0.55%, and the highest PCE (14.39%) approaches that obtained for PHJ-PSCs based on independent TiO2 ETL (14.96%). Both IL interface engineering methods reveal the effective electron transport of [EMIM]PF6-IL. The effects of [EMIM]PF6-IL on the surface morphology, crystallinity, and optical absorption of the perovskite film and the interface between the perovskite layer and substrate were investigated and compared with the case of independent TiO2 ETL, revealing the role of [EMIM]PF6-IL in efficient electron transport.

  3. Structure-Property Correlations in Double Perovskite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Manisha

    Double perovskite compounds of the type ABB'O3 where B and B' are transition elements, exhibit a wide range of properties that are useful for various applications. Double perovskites such as Sr2FeMoO 6 (SFMO), Sr2CrReO6 (SCRO) are ferrimagnetic materials with properties useful for spintronic applications. The ordering of Fe and Mo atoms in the case of SFMO and Cr and Re atoms in case of SCRO known as B-site ordering is very important. Sputter-deposited thin-films of SFMO and SCRO systems were characterized using various high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. B-site disorders, other kinds of structural defects and variation in chemical composition were found in the thin-films studied. Valence state of Fe in SFMO system was studied using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). In order to interpret the EELS data, other comparative perovskite compounds were also utilized. In the case of SCRO system, multislice simulations were used to interpret information about B-site ordering from scanning transmission electron microscopy images acquired using the high-angle annular dark-field detector. It was found that presence of various kinds of structural defects and composition variations in these systems have an effect on the useful magnetic and electrical properties.

  4. Bio-nanocomposites by assembling of gelatin and layered perovskite mixed oxides.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Ana I; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Jiménez, Ricardo; Van Damme, Henri; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2006-06-01

    A new class of bio-nanocomposites based on hybrid gelatin-perovskite hydrogels was prepared by mixing exfoliated perovskite-tetraalkylammonium species in aqueous suspensions with gelatin solutions. Colloidal nanosheets derived from the CsCa2Nb3O10 layered perovskite re-stacked in the gelatin solutions give bio-nanocomposite materials with different content in the inorganic moiety. These films can be easily processed as homogeneous self-supported films. The partial exfoliation of the pristine mixed oxide is produced from alkylammonium exchanged phases, being the tetraalkylammonium ions (tetraethylammonium, TEA+) an efficient intermediate to give the colloid phase constituted by well exfoliated materials useful to generate homogeneous films. The nanosheets are highly oriented in the bio-nanocomposite films in agreement with the XRD patterns and the FTIR dichroism. This orientation could be considered as a characteristic of this type of hybrid materials leading to new potential applications. In this way, we have observed that the assembling of perovskite to gelatin produces a greater increase of the dielectric permittivity than the dielectric loss in the studied samples.

  5. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Ekerdt, John G.; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-12-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}. However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO{sub 3}), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable.

  6. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2015-12-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al2O3 and HfO2. However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO3), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable.

  7. Controlled Deposition and Performance Optimization of Perovskite Solar Cells Using Ultrasonic Spray-Coating of Photoactive Layers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Chieh; Lan, Ding-Hung; Lee, Kun-Mu; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Cheng-Liang

    2016-12-27

    This study investigated a new film-deposition technique, ultrasonic spray-coating, for use in the production of a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Stable atomization and facile fabrication of perovskite thin films by ultrasonic spray-coating were achieved in a one-step method through manipulating the ink formulation (e.g., solution concentration, precursor composition, and mixing solvent ratio) and the drying kinetics (e.g., post-annealing temperature). The performance of the perovskite solar cells was mainly influenced by the intrinsic film morphology and crystalline orientation of the deposited perovskite layer. By suitable optimization of the spreading and drying conditions of the ink, ultrasonic spray-coated perovskite photovoltaic devices were obtained with a maximum power conversion efficiency of 11.30 %, a fill factor of 73.6 %, a short-circuit current of 19.7 mA cm(-1) , and an open-circuit voltage of 0.78 V, respectively. Notably, the average power efficiency reached above 10 %, attributed to the large flower-like perovskite crystal with orientation along the (1 1 2)/(2 0 0) and (2 2 4)/(4 0 0) directions. Thus, the ultrasonic spray-coating method for perovskite photoactive layers, combining advantages of good photovoltaic performance results and benefits from cost and processing, has the potential for large-scale commercial production.

  8. Epitaxial 1D electron transport layers for high-performance perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Gill Sang; Chung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kim, Byeong Jo; Lee, Jin-Wook; Park, Nam-Gyu; Cho, In Sun; Lee, Jung-Kun; Lee, Sangwook; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-10-07

    We demonstrate high-performance perovskite solar cells with excellent electron transport properties using a one-dimensional (1D) electron transport layer (ETL). The 1D array-based ETL is comprised of 1D SnO2 nanowires (NWs) array grown on a F:SnO2 transparent conducting oxide substrate and rutile TiO2 nanoshells epitaxially grown on the surface of the 1D SnO2 NWs. The optimized devices show more than 95% internal quantum yield at 750 nm, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.2%. The high quantum yield is attributed to dramatically enhanced electron transport in the epitaxial TiO2 layer, compared to that in conventional nanoparticle-based mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) layers. In addition, the open space in the 1D array-based ETL increases the prevalence of uniform TiO2/perovskite junctions, leading to reproducible device performance with a high fill factor. This work offers a method to achieve reproducible, high-efficiency perovskite solar cells with high-speed electron transport.

  9. TiO2 Sub-microsphere Film as Scaffold Layer for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Zhu, Jun; Ding, Yong; Chen, Shuanghong; Zhang, Changneng; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-03-01

    TiO2 sub-microspheres composed of anatase granular-like nanocrystallines with an average diameter ∼250 nm are synthesized using sol-gel method and employed as the scaffold layer for efficient mesocopic perovskite solar cells. Compared with mesoporous TiO2 films composed of ∼18 nm nanoparticles, the sub-microsphere films show superior light-trapping characteristics and significantly improve the light-harvesting capability of the solar cells. In addition, the charge-transport performance is also dramatically improved according to the transient photocurrent decay despite there being no significant difference in the perovskite layer surface morphology. As a result, an average power conversion efficiency of 15% with a highly uniform distribution is achieved for the solar cells with TiO2 sub-microsphere films, 12% higher than those with TiO2 nanoparticle films. The combination of light-harvesting capability and fast charge transfer make the TiO2 sub-microsphere film a good candidate as the scaffold layer for efficient perovskite solar cells.

  10. Multifunctional Inverse Opal-Like TiO2 Electron Transport Layer for Efficient Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Yang, Shuang; Zheng, Yi Chu; Chen, Ying; Hou, Yu; Yang, Xiao Hua; Yang, Hua Gui

    2015-09-01

    A novel multifunctional inverse opal-like TiO2 electron transport layer (IOT-ETL) is designed to replace the traditional compact layer and mesoporous scaffold layer in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Improved light harvesting efficiency and charge transporting performance in IOT-ETL based PSCs yield high power conversion efficiency of 13.11%.

  11. Novel Solvent-free Perovskite Deposition in Fabrication of Normal and Inverted Architectures of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Nejand, Bahram Abdollahi; Gharibzadeh, Saba; Ahmadi, Vahid; Shahverdi, H Reza

    2016-09-19

    We introduced a new approach to deposit perovskite layer with no need for dissolving perovskite precursors. Deposition of Solution-free perovskite (SFP) layer is a key method for deposition of perovskite layer on the hole or electron transport layers that are strongly sensitive to perovskite precursors. Using deposition of SFP layer in the perovskite solar cells would extend possibility of using many electron and hole transport materials in both normal and invert architectures of perovskite solar cells. In the present work, we synthesized crystalline perovskite powder followed by successful deposition on TiO2 and cuprous iodide as the non-sensitve and sensitive charge transport layers to PbI2 and CH3NH3I solution in DMF. The post compressing step enhanced the efficiency of the devices by increasing the interface area between perovskite and charge transport layers. The 9.07% and 7.71% cell efficiencies of the device prepared by SFP layer was achieved in respective normal (using TiO2 as a deposition substrate) and inverted structure (using CuI as deposition substrate) of perovskite solar cell. This method can be efficient in large-scale and low cost fabrication of new generation perovskite solar cells.

  12. Novel Solvent-free Perovskite Deposition in Fabrication of Normal and Inverted Architectures of Perovskite Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nejand, Bahram Abdollahi; Gharibzadeh, Saba; Ahmadi, Vahid; Shahverdi, H. Reza

    2016-01-01

    We introduced a new approach to deposit perovskite layer with no need for dissolving perovskite precursors. Deposition of Solution-free perovskite (SFP) layer is a key method for deposition of perovskite layer on the hole or electron transport layers that are strongly sensitive to perovskite precursors. Using deposition of SFP layer in the perovskite solar cells would extend possibility of using many electron and hole transport materials in both normal and invert architectures of perovskite solar cells. In the present work, we synthesized crystalline perovskite powder followed by successful deposition on TiO2 and cuprous iodide as the non-sensitve and sensitive charge transport layers to PbI2 and CH3NH3I solution in DMF. The post compressing step enhanced the efficiency of the devices by increasing the interface area between perovskite and charge transport layers. The 9.07% and 7.71% cell efficiencies of the device prepared by SFP layer was achieved in respective normal (using TiO2 as a deposition substrate) and inverted structure (using CuI as deposition substrate) of perovskite solar cell. This method can be efficient in large-scale and low cost fabrication of new generation perovskite solar cells. PMID:27640991

  13. Novel Solvent-free Perovskite Deposition in Fabrication of Normal and Inverted Architectures of Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejand, Bahram Abdollahi; Gharibzadeh, Saba; Ahmadi, Vahid; Shahverdi, H. Reza

    2016-09-01

    We introduced a new approach to deposit perovskite layer with no need for dissolving perovskite precursors. Deposition of Solution-free perovskite (SFP) layer is a key method for deposition of perovskite layer on the hole or electron transport layers that are strongly sensitive to perovskite precursors. Using deposition of SFP layer in the perovskite solar cells would extend possibility of using many electron and hole transport materials in both normal and invert architectures of perovskite solar cells. In the present work, we synthesized crystalline perovskite powder followed by successful deposition on TiO2 and cuprous iodide as the non-sensitve and sensitive charge transport layers to PbI2 and CH3NH3I solution in DMF. The post compressing step enhanced the efficiency of the devices by increasing the interface area between perovskite and charge transport layers. The 9.07% and 7.71% cell efficiencies of the device prepared by SFP layer was achieved in respective normal (using TiO2 as a deposition substrate) and inverted structure (using CuI as deposition substrate) of perovskite solar cell. This method can be efficient in large-scale and low cost fabrication of new generation perovskite solar cells.

  14. Tightly bound indirect exciton in single-layer hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Tao; Liew, Timothy C. H.

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically study the direct and indirect excitons (IXs) in a single-layer hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) semiconductor. Due to the 2D nature, the single-layer HOIP supports the large binding energy of IXs and direct excitons over a wide range of applied electric fields, which exceed the thermal energy of room temperature. Moreover, the ground-state IX has a lower energy than that of direct exciton, which will extend the coherence and relaxation time of IXs. This is beneficial to optoelectronic applications and excitonic information processing devices of IXs.

  15. Study on the Effect of Pt Intercalation into Layered Niobate Perovskite for Photocatalytic Behavior.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nan; Takei, Takahiro; Miura, Akira; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Katsumata, Ken-ichi; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-14

    A novel photocatalyst consisting of an intercalated perovskite H(1-2x)Pt(x)LaNb2O7 was fabricated by ion exchange. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed that Pt(2+) exists within the interlayer space of the layered perovskite. H(1-2x)Pt(x)LaNb2O7 composed of layered niobate perovskite and intercalated Pt(2+) completely degraded a 20 ppm phenol solution in 3 h under irradiation by Xe light, which exhibits photocatalytic activity superior to those of RbLaNb2O7, Pt-deposited RbLaNb2O7, and HLaNb2O7. From first-principles density functional theory simulation, high photocatalytic activity of H(1-2x)Pt(x)LaNb2O7 is attributed to the emergence of a new O 2p-Pt 5d hybridized band on top of the valence band.

  16. Calcium manganate: A promising candidate as buffer layer for hybrid halide perovskite photovoltaic-thermoelectric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Pengjun; Wang, Hongguang; Kong, Wenwen; Xu, Jinbao Wang, Lei; Ren, Wei; Bian, Liang; Chang, Aimin

    2014-11-21

    We have systematically studied the feasibility of CaMnO{sub 3} thin film, an n-type perovskite, to be utilized as the buffer layer for hybrid halide perovskite photovoltaic-thermoelectric device. Locations of the conduction band and the valence band, spontaneous polarization performance, and optical properties were investigated. Results indicate the energy band of CaMnO{sub 3} can match up well with that of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} on separating electron-hole pairs. In addition, the consistent polarization angle helps enlarge the open circuit voltage of the composite system. Besides, CaMnO{sub 3} film shows large absorption coefficient and low extinction coefficient under visible irradiation, demonstrating high carrier concentration, which is beneficial to the current density. More importantly, benign thermoelectric properties enable CaMnO{sub 3} film to assimilate phonon vibration from CH{sub 3}NH3PbI{sub 3}. All the above features lead to a bright future of CaMnO{sub 3} film, which can be a promising candidate as a buffer layer for hybrid halide perovskite photovoltaic-thermoelectric systems.

  17. New hexagonal perovskite with Mn4+ and Mn5+ at distinct structural positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarakina, N. V.; Tyutyunnik, A. P.; Bazuev, G. V.; Vasiliev, A. D.; Berger, I. F.; Gould, C.; Nikolaenko, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    A new hexagonal perovskite, Ba7Li1.75Mn3.5O15.75, has been synthesised using microwave-assisted solid-state synthesis. Its crystal structure has elements typical for the layered hexagonal perovskites and quasi-one-dimensional oxides, hence representing a new polytype. Structural solution based on simultaneous refinement of X-ray and neutron diffraction data shows that Ba7Li1.75Mn3.5O15.75 crystallizes in a hexagonal unit cell with parameters a = 5.66274(2) Å and c = 16.7467(1) Å (V = 465.063(4) Å3). Columns of face- shared octahedra occupied by Mn4+, Li+ cations and vacancies along the c axis are separated in the ab plane by barium atoms, so that every sixth layer, the coordination of Mn5+ and Li+ changes to tetrahedral. Separation of Mn4+ and Mn5+ cations in two distinct structural positions makes the structure unique. A scanning transmission electron microscopy study revealed the formation of a rhombohedrally centered supercell, which might be attributed to the ordering of manganese and lithium atoms among cationic sites.

  18. Stabilizing hybrid perovskites against moisture and temperature via non-hydrolytic atomic layer deposited overlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, In Soo; Martinson, Alex B. F.

    2015-09-14

    We utilized a novel non-hydrolytic (nh) surface chemistry to allow the direct synthesis of pinhole-fee oxide overlayers directly on conventional hybrid perovskite halide absorbers without damage. By utilizing water- free ALD Al2O3 passivation, a minimum of ten-fold increase in stability against relative humidity (RH) 85% was achieved along with a dramatically improved thermal resistance (up to 250 °C). We extend this approach to synthesize nh-TiO2 directly on hybrid perovskites to establish its potential in inverted photovoltaic devices as a dual stabilizing and electron accepting layer, as evidenced by photoluminescence (PL) quenching.

  19. Enhancement of Perovskite Solar Cells Efficiency using N-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Arrays as Electron Transfer Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen-Long; Li, Jun-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Li; Qin, Jian-Qiang; Shi, Wen-Jia; Liu, Yue-Feng; Gao, Hui-Ping; Mao, Yan-Li

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanorod arrays were synthesized with hydrothermal method, and perovskite solar cells were fabricated using them as electron transfer layer. The solar cell performance was optimized by changing the N doping contents. The power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on N-TiO2 with the N doping content of 1% (N/Ti, atomic ratio) has been achieved 11.1%, which was 14.7% higher than that of solar cells based on un-doped TiO2. To get an insight into the improvement, some investigations were performed. The structure was examined with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Tauc plot spectra indicated the incorporation of N in TiO2 nanorods. Absorption spectra showed higher absorption of visible light for N-TiO2 than un-doped TiO2. The N doping reduced the energy band gap from 3.03 to 2.74 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectra displayed the faster electron transfer from perovskite layer to N-TiO2 than to un-doped TiO2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed the smaller resistance of device based on N-TiO2 than that on un-doped TiO2.

  20. Electro- and photoluminescence imaging as fast screening technique of the layer uniformity and device degradation in planar perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soufiani, Arman Mahboubi; Tayebjee, Murad J. Y.; Meyer, Steffen; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Sung Yun, Jae; MacQueen, Rowan W.; Spiccia, Leone; Green, Martin A.; Hameiri, Ziv

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we provide insights into planar structure methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3) perovskite solar cells (PSCs) using electroluminescence and photoluminescence imaging techniques. We demonstrate the strength of these techniques in screening relatively large area PSCs, correlating the solar cell electrical parameters to the images and visualizing the features which contribute to the variation of the parameters extracted from current density-voltage characterizations. It is further used to investigate one of the major concerns about perovskite solar cells, their long term stability and aging. Upon storage under dark in dry glovebox condition for more than two months, the major parameter found to have deteriorated in electrical performance measurements was the fill factor; this was elucidated via electroluminescence image comparisons which revealed that the contacts' quality degrades. Interestingly, by deploying electroluminescence imaging, the significance of having a pin-hole free active layer is demonstrated. Pin-holes can grow over time and can cause degradation of the active layer surrounding them.

  1. Enhancement of Perovskite Solar Cells Efficiency using N-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Arrays as Electron Transfer Layer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Long; Li, Jun-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Li; Qin, Jian-Qiang; Shi, Wen-Jia; Liu, Yue-Feng; Gao, Hui-Ping; Mao, Yan-Li

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanorod arrays were synthesized with hydrothermal method, and perovskite solar cells were fabricated using them as electron transfer layer. The solar cell performance was optimized by changing the N doping contents. The power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on N-TiO2 with the N doping content of 1% (N/Ti, atomic ratio) has been achieved 11.1%, which was 14.7% higher than that of solar cells based on un-doped TiO2. To get an insight into the improvement, some investigations were performed. The structure was examined with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Tauc plot spectra indicated the incorporation of N in TiO2 nanorods. Absorption spectra showed higher absorption of visible light for N-TiO2 than un-doped TiO2. The N doping reduced the energy band gap from 3.03 to 2.74 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectra displayed the faster electron transfer from perovskite layer to N-TiO2 than to un-doped TiO2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed the smaller resistance of device based on N-TiO2 than that on un-doped TiO2.

  2. Multiferroic and visible light photocatalytic properties of six-layered perovskite oxide Nd6Ti4Fe2O20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiangyi; Meng, Dechao; Yang, Hongshun; Ruan, Keqing; Xu, Xiaoliang

    2017-04-01

    The layered perovskite-related oxide Nd6Ti4Fe2O20 was prepared by incorporating NdFeO3 in the host Nd2Ti2O7 using floating-zone melting technique. XRD and HRTEM results suggested that the material has a layered structure of n = 6 type. Nd6Ti4Fe2O20 exhibited spin glass-like behavior, and its magnetic behavior was affected by magnetic Nd3+ ions strongly at low temperature. The ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties were observed by magnetic and PFM measurements at the room temperature. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy revealed that the compound is a visible light absorbing photocatalyst with a direct band gap of 2.2 eV. In addition, the photocatalytic behaviors of bulk Nd6Ti4Fe2O20 were evaluated by photodegradation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation.

  3. Influence of Domain Structure on Magnetoresistance in Perovskite Manganite Grain Boundary Jnctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    Perovskite Manganite Grain Boundary Jnctions DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report...Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 674 © 2001 Materials Research Society Influence of Domain Structure on Magnetoresistance in Perovskite Manganite Grain...INTRODUCTION Since the discovery of colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) [I I in perovskite manganites these materials have attracted a lot of scientific

  4. Epitaxial 1D electron transport layers for high-performance perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Gill Sang; Chung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kim, Byeong Jo; Lee, Jin-Wook; Park, Nam-Gyu; Cho, In Sun; Lee, Jung-Kun; Lee, Sangwook; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate high-performance perovskite solar cells with excellent electron transport properties using a one-dimensional (1D) electron transport layer (ETL). The 1D array-based ETL is comprised of 1D SnO2 nanowires (NWs) array grown on a F:SnO2 transparent conducting oxide substrate and rutile TiO2 nanoshells epitaxially grown on the surface of the 1D SnO2 NWs. The optimized devices show more than 95% internal quantum yield at 750 nm, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.2%. The high quantum yield is attributed to dramatically enhanced electron transport in the epitaxial TiO2 layer, compared to that in conventional nanoparticle-based mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) layers. In addition, the open space in the 1D array-based ETL increases the prevalence of uniform TiO2/perovskite junctions, leading to reproducible device performance with a high fill factor. This work offers a method to achieve reproducible, high-efficiency perovskite solar cells with high-speed electron transport.We demonstrate high-performance perovskite solar cells with excellent electron transport properties using a one-dimensional (1D) electron transport layer (ETL). The 1D array-based ETL is comprised of 1D SnO2 nanowires (NWs) array grown on a F:SnO2 transparent conducting oxide substrate and rutile TiO2 nanoshells epitaxially grown on the surface of the 1D SnO2 NWs. The optimized devices show more than 95% internal quantum yield at 750 nm, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.2%. The high quantum yield is attributed to dramatically enhanced electron transport in the epitaxial TiO2 layer, compared to that in conventional nanoparticle-based mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) layers. In addition, the open space in the 1D array-based ETL increases the prevalence of uniform TiO2/perovskite junctions, leading to reproducible device performance with a high fill factor. This work offers a method to achieve reproducible, high-efficiency perovskite solar cells with high-speed electron transport

  5. Lateral-Structure Single-Crystal Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells via Piezoelectric Poling.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qingfeng; Song, Jingfeng; Fang, Yanjun; Shao, Yuchuan; Ducharme, Stephen; Huang, Jinsong

    2016-04-13

    Single-crystal perovskite solar cells with a lateral structure yield an efficiency enhancement 44-fold that of polycrystalline thin films, due to the much longer carrier diffusion length. A piezoelectric effect observed in perovskite single-crystal and the strain-generated grain-boundaries enable ion migration to form a p-i-n structure.

  6. Facile thiol-ene thermal crosslinking reaction facilitated hole-transporting layer for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Zhong'an; Zhu, Zonglong; Chueh, Chu -Chen; ...

    2016-08-08

    A crosslinked organic hole-transporting layer (HTL) is developed to realize highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells via a facile thiol-ene thermal reaction. This crosslinked HTL not only facilitates hole extraction from perovskites, but also functions as an effective protective barrier. Lastly, a high-performance (power conversion efficiency: 18.3%) device is demonstrated to show respectable photo and thermal stability without encapsulation.

  7. Facile thiol-ene thermal crosslinking reaction facilitated hole-transporting layer for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhong'an; Zhu, Zonglong; Chueh, Chu -Chen; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K. -Y.

    2016-08-08

    A crosslinked organic hole-transporting layer (HTL) is developed to realize highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells via a facile thiol-ene thermal reaction. This crosslinked HTL not only facilitates hole extraction from perovskites, but also functions as an effective protective barrier. Lastly, a high-performance (power conversion efficiency: 18.3%) device is demonstrated to show respectable photo and thermal stability without encapsulation.

  8. Reversible Structural Swell-Shrink and Recoverable Optical Properties in Hybrid Inorganic-Organic Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yupeng; Wang, Yusheng; Xu, Zai-Quan; Liu, Jingying; Song, Jingchao; Xue, Yunzhou; Wang, Ziyu; Zheng, Jialu; Jiang, Liangcong; Zheng, Changxi; Huang, Fuzhi; Sun, Baoquan; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2016-07-26

    Ion migration in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites has been suggested to be an important factor for many unusual behaviors in perovskite-based optoelectronics, such as current-voltage hysteresis, low-frequency giant dielectric response, and the switchable photovoltaic effect. However, the role played by ion migration in the photoelectric conversion process of perovskites is still unclear. In this work, we provide microscale insights into the influence of ion migration on the microstructure, stability, and light-matter interaction in perovskite micro/nanowires by using spatially resolved optical characterization techniques. We observed that ion migration, especially the migration of MA(+) ions, will induce a reversible structural swell-shrink in perovskites and recoverably affect the reflective index, quantum efficiency, light-harvesting, and photoelectric properties. The maximum ion migration quantity in perovskites was as high as approximately 30%, resulting in lattice swell or shrink of approximately 4.4%. Meanwhile, the evidence shows that ion migration in perovskites could gradually accelerate the aging of perovskites because of lattice distortion in the reversible structural swell-shrink process. Knowledge regarding reversible structural swell-shrink and recoverable optical properties may shed light on the development of optoelectronic and converse piezoelectric devices based on perovskites.

  9. Thin-film preparation and characterization of Cs3Sb2I9: A lead-free layered perovskite semiconductor

    DOE PAGES

    Saparov, Bayrammurad; Hong, Feng; Sun, Jon -Paul; ...

    2015-07-09

    In this study, computational, thin-film deposition and characterization approaches have been used to examine the ternary halide semiconductor Cs3Sb2I9. Cs3Sb2I9 has two known structural modifications, the 0-D dimer form (space group P63/mmc, No. 194) and the 2-D layered form (Pmore » $$\\bar{3}$$m1, No. 164), which can be prepared via solution and solid state or gas phase reactions, respectively. Our computational investigations suggest that the layered form, which is a one-third Sb-deficient derivative of the ubiquitous perovskite structure, is a potential candidate for high-band-gap photovoltaic (PV) applications. In this work, we describe details of a two-step deposition approach that enables the preparation of large grain (>1 µm) and continuous thin films of the lead-free layered perovskite derivative Cs3Sb2I9. Depending on the deposition conditions, films that are c-axis oriented or randomly oriented can be obtained. The fabricated thin films show enhanced stability under ambient air, compared to methylammonium lead (II) iodide perovskite films stored under similar conditions, and an optical band gap value of 2.05 eV. Photoelectron spectroscopy study yields an ionization energy of 5.6 eV, with the valence band maximum approximately 0.85 eV below the Fermi level, indicating near-intrinsic, weakly p-type character. Density Functional Theory (DFT) analysis points to a nearly direct band gap for this material (less than 0.02 eV difference between the direct and indirect band gaps) and a similar high-level of absorption compared to CH3NH3PbI3. The photoluminescence peak intensity of Cs3Sb2I9 is substantially suppressed compared to that of CH3NH3PbI3, likely reflecting the presence of deep level defects that result in non-radiative recombination in the film, with computational results pointing to Ii, ISb, and VI as being likely candidates. A key further finding from this study is that, despite a distinctly layered structure, the electronic transport anisotropy is

  10. Atomic layer engineering of perovskite oxides for chemically sharp heterointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Seok; Rouleau, Christopher M; Seo, Sung Seok A; Luo, Zhenlin; Zhou, Hua; Fister, Timothy T; Eastman, Jeffrey A; Fuoss, Paul H; Fong, Dillon D; Tischler, Jonathan Z; Eres, Gyula; Chisholm, Matthew F; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2012-12-18

    Atomic layer engineering enables fabrication of a chemically sharp oxide heterointerface. The interface formation and strain evolution during the initial growth of LaAlO(3) /SrTiO(3) heterostructures by pulsed laser deposition are investigated in search of a means for controlling the atomic-sharpness of the interface. This study shows that inserting a monolayer of LaAlO(3) grown at high oxygen pressure dramatically enhances interface abruptness.

  11. Metal halide perovskite light emitters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Cho, Himchan; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years after layer-type metal halide perovskites were successfully developed, 3D metal halide perovskites (shortly, perovskites) were recently rediscovered and are attracting multidisciplinary interest from physicists, chemists, and material engineers. Perovskites have a crystal structure composed of five atoms per unit cell (ABX3) with cation A positioned at a corner, metal cation B at the center, and halide anion X at the center of six planes and unique optoelectronic properties determined by the crystal structure. Because of very narrow spectra (full width at half-maximum ≤20 nm), which are insensitive to the crystallite/grain/particle dimension and wide wavelength range (400 nm ≤ λ ≤ 780 nm), perovskites are expected to be promising high-color purity light emitters that overcome inherent problems of conventional organic and inorganic quantum dot emitters. Within the last 2 y, perovskites have already demonstrated their great potential in light-emitting diodes by showing high electroluminescence efficiency comparable to those of organic and quantum dot light-emitting diodes. This article reviews the progress of perovskite emitters in two directions of bulk perovskite polycrystalline films and perovskite nanoparticles, describes current challenges, and suggests future research directions for researchers to encourage them to collaborate and to make a synergetic effect in this rapidly emerging multidisciplinary field. PMID:27679844

  12. Perovskite Solar Cell Using a Two-Dimensional Titania Nanosheet Thin Film as the Compact Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Can; Li, Yahui; Xing, Yujin; Zhang, Zelin; Zhang, Xianfeng; Li, Zhen; Shi, Yantao; Ma, Tingli; Ma, Renzhi; Wang, Kunlin; Wei, Jinquan

    2015-07-22

    The compact layer plays an important role in conducting electrons and blocking holes in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, we use a two-dimensional titania nanosheet (TNS) thin film as the compact layer in CH3NH3PbI3 PSCs. TNS thin films with thicknesses ranging from 8 to 75 nm were prepared by an electrophoretic deposition method from a dilute TNS/tetrabutylammonium hydroxide solution. The TNS thin films contact the fluorine-doped tin oxide grains perfectly. Our results show that a 8-nm-thick TNS film is sufficient for acting as the compact layer. Currently, the PSC with a TNS compact layer has a high efficiency of 10.7% and relatively low hysteresis behavior.

  13. Structure--properties relationships for manganese perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Dabrowski, B.; Xiong, X.; Chmaissem, O.; Bukowski, Z.; Jorgensen, J. D.

    1999-10-14

    By combining the results of dc magnetization, ac susceptibility, magnetoresistivity, magnetostriction, and x-ray and neutron powder diffraction data for stoichiometric La{sub 1{minus}x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} the authors have constructed a phase diagram that describes the magnetic, transport, and structural properties and the relationships among them as a function of composition and temperature. Correlations among physical and structural properties have been observed that are consistent with a competition between ferromagnetism and JT distortion. A metallic state occurs below the Curie temperature when both coherent and incoherent JT distortions are suppressed.

  14. Low-temperature processed SnO2 compact layer for efficient mesostructure perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jinxia; Xiong, Qiu; Feng, Bingjie; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    SnO2 nanoparticle film has been synthesized via low- temperature (∼180 °C) solution-processing and proposed as compact layer in mesostructure perovskite-type solar cell (PSC). Low-temperature processed SnO2 compact layer (cl-SnO2) brings perfect crystal-lattice and band-gap matching between electron selective layer and FTO substrate and close interface-contact between cl-SnO2 and mesoporous TiO2 layer (mp-TiO2), which contributes to suppressing carrier recombination and optimizing device performance. In varied thickness cells, 70 nm cl-SnO2 device exhibits maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE). In order to further restrain photoelectron recombination and improve the photovoltaic performance, the surface modification of cl-SnO2 by SnCl4 aqueous solution has been carried out. The recombination behavior in the cell interior is greatly retarded via SnCl4 treatment and champion PSC after SnCl4 treatment has acquire PCE of 15.07%, which is higher than PCE of cl-TiO2 based PSC fabricated with same mp-TiO2 and perovskite procedures (13.3%). The stability of cl-SnO2 PSC via SnCl4 treatment has also been measured and its PCE reduces to 13.0% after 2 weeks in air.

  15. White-Light Emission and Structural Distortion in New Corrugated Two-Dimensional Lead Bromide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lingling; Wu, Yilei; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Wasielewski, Michael R; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2017-03-29

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites are developing rapidly as high performance semiconductors. Recently, two-dimensional (2D) perovskites were found to have white-light, broadband emission in the visible range that was attributed mainly to the role of self-trapped excitons (STEs). Here, we describe three new 2D lead bromide perovskites incorporating a series of bifunctional ammonium dications as templates which also emit white light: (1) α-(DMEN)PbBr4 (DMEN = 2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine), which adopts a unique corrugated layered structure in space group Pbca with unit cell a = 18.901(4) Å, b = 11.782(2) Å, and c = 23.680(5) Å; (2) (DMAPA)PbBr4 (DMAPA = 3-(dimethylamino)-1-propylamine), which crystallizes in P21/c with a = 10.717(2) Å, b = 11.735(2) Å, c = 12.127(2) Å, and β = 111.53(3)°; and (3) (DMABA)PbBr4 (DMABA = 4-dimethylaminobutylamine), which adopts Aba2 with a = 41.685(8) Å, b = 23.962(5) Å, and c = 12.000(2) Å. Photoluminescence (PL) studies show a correlation between the distortion of the "PbBr6" octahedron in the 2D layer and the broadening of PL emission, with the most distorted structure having the broadest emission (183 nm full width at half-maximum) and longest lifetime (τavg = 1.39 ns). The most distorted member α-(DMEN)PbBr4 exhibits white-light emission with a color rendering index (CRI) of 73 which is similar to a fluorescent light source and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 7863 K, producing "cold" white light.

  16. Perovskite LaRhO3 as a p-type active layer in oxide photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masao; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Fujioka, Jun; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-02-01

    Perovskite-type transition-metal oxides have a wide variety of physical properties and triggered intensive research on functional devices in the form of heteroepitaxial junctions. However, there is a missing component that is a p-type conventional band semiconductor. LaRhO3 (LRO) is one of very few promising candidates having its bandgap between filled t2g and empty eg of Rh in low-spin state, but there has been no report on the synthesis of large-size single crystals or thin films. Here, we report on the junction properties of single-crystalline thin films of LRO grown on (110) oriented Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrates. The external quantum efficiency of the photo-electron conversion exceeds 1% in the visible-light region due to the wide depletion layer and long diffusion length of minority carriers in LRO. Clear indication of p-type band semiconducting character in a perovskite oxide of LRO will pave a way to explore oxide electronics of perovskite heterostructures.

  17. Correlation of annealing time with crystal structure, composition, and electronic properties of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx mixed-halide perovskite films.

    PubMed

    Ralaiarisoa, Maryline; Busby, Yan; Frisch, Johannes; Salzmann, Ingo; Pireaux, Jean-Jacques; Koch, Norbert

    2016-12-21

    Using 3D imaging with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) complemented by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), we spatially resolve changes in both the composition and structure of CH3NH3I3-xClx perovskite films on conducting polymer substrates at different annealing stages, in particular, before and after complete perovskite crystallization. The early stage of annealing is characterized by phase separation throughout the entire film into domains with perovskite and domains with a dominating chloride-rich phase. After sufficiently long annealing, one single perovskite phase of homogeneous composition on the (lateral) micrometer scale is observed, along with pronounced film texture. This composition evolution is accompanied by diffusion of chloride from the perovskite layer towards the conducting polymer substrate, and even accumulation there. Photoelectron spectroscopy analysis further shows that perovskite films become increasingly n-type with annealing time and upon full conversion, which correlates with the change of film composition. Our results accentuate the importance of chloride for the formation of crystalline and textured films, which are crucial for enhancing the PV performance of perovskite-based solar cells.

  18. Halide perovskite solar cells using monocrystalline TiO2 nanorod arrays as electron transport layers: impact of nanorod morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Ujwal Kumar; Askar, Abdelrahman M.; Kisslinger, Ryan; Wiltshire, Benjamin D.; Kar, Piyush; Shankar, Karthik

    2017-07-01

    This is the first report of a 17.6% champion efficiency solar cell architecture comprising monocrystalline TiO2 nanorods (TNRs) coupled with perovskite, and formed using facile solution processing without non-routine surface conditioning. Vertically oriented TNR ensembles are desirable as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs) because of potential advantages such as vectorial electron percolation pathways to balance the longer hole diffusion lengths in certain halide perovskite semiconductors, ease of incorporating nanophotonic enhancements, and optimization between a high contact surface area for charge transfer (good) versus high interfacial recombination (bad). These advantages arise from the tunable morphology of hydrothermally grown rutile TNRs, which is a strong function of the growth conditions. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of the HPSCs demonstrated a stronger quenching of the perovskite PL when using TNRs as compared to mesoporous/compact TiO2 thin films. Due to increased interfacial contact area between the ETL and perovskite with easier pore filling, charge separation efficiency is dramatically enhanced. Additionally, solid-state impedance spectroscopy results strongly suggested the suppression of interfacial charge recombination between TNRs and perovskite layer, compared to other ETLs. The optimal ETL morphology in this study was found to consist of an array of TNRs ∼300 nm in length and ∼40 nm in width. This work highlights the potential of TNR ETLs to achieve high performance solution-processed HPSCs.

  19. A composite light-harvesting layer from photoactive polymer and halide perovskite for planar heterojunction solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heming; Rahaq, Yaqub; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    A new route for fabrication of photoactive materials in organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells is presented in this report. Photoactive materials by blending a semiconductive conjugated polymer with an organolead halide perovskite were fabricated for the first time. The composite active layer was then used to make planar heterojunction solar cells with the PCBM film as the electron-acceptor. Photovoltaic performance of solar cells was investigated by J-V curves and external quantum efficiency spectra. We demonstrated that the incorporation of the conjugated photoactive polymer into organolead halide perovskites did not only contribute to the generation of charges, but also enhance stability of solar cells by providing a barrier protection to halide perovskites. It is expected that versatile of conjugated semi-conductive polymers and halide perovskites in photoactive properties enables to create various combinations, forming composites with advantages offered by both types of photoactive materials. PMID:27411487

  20. A composite light-harvesting layer from photoactive polymer and halide perovskite for planar heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heming; Rahaq, Yaqub; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-07-14

    A new route for fabrication of photoactive materials in organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells is presented in this report. Photoactive materials by blending a semiconductive conjugated polymer with an organolead halide perovskite were fabricated for the first time. The composite active layer was then used to make planar heterojunction solar cells with the PCBM film as the electron-acceptor. Photovoltaic performance of solar cells was investigated by J-V curves and external quantum efficiency spectra. We demonstrated that the incorporation of the conjugated photoactive polymer into organolead halide perovskites did not only contribute to the generation of charges, but also enhance stability of solar cells by providing a barrier protection to halide perovskites. It is expected that versatile of conjugated semi-conductive polymers and halide perovskites in photoactive properties enables to create various combinations, forming composites with advantages offered by both types of photoactive materials.

  1. A composite light-harvesting layer from photoactive polymer and halide perovskite for planar heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Heming; Rahaq, Yaqub; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-07-01

    A new route for fabrication of photoactive materials in organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells is presented in this report. Photoactive materials by blending a semiconductive conjugated polymer with an organolead halide perovskite were fabricated for the first time. The composite active layer was then used to make planar heterojunction solar cells with the PCBM film as the electron-acceptor. Photovoltaic performance of solar cells was investigated by J-V curves and external quantum efficiency spectra. We demonstrated that the incorporation of the conjugated photoactive polymer into organolead halide perovskites did not only contribute to the generation of charges, but also enhance stability of solar cells by providing a barrier protection to halide perovskites. It is expected that versatile of conjugated semi-conductive polymers and halide perovskites in photoactive properties enables to create various combinations, forming composites with advantages offered by both types of photoactive materials.

  2. Impurities in noncubic crystals: stabilization mechanisms for Jahn-Teller ions in layered perovskites.

    PubMed

    García-Lastra, J M; Aramburu, J A; Barriuso, M T; Moreno, M

    2004-11-26

    Mechanisms responsible for the local geometry around Jahn-Teller impurities in K2NiF4 type lattices are shown to be different from those generating the warping in cubic crystals. The present density functional theory calculations reveal that the elastic anisotropy of the host lattice (visible for closed shell impurities) and the electric field created by the rest of lattice ions upon active electrons make it possible to have d(9) ions in an elongated geometry but with a A(1g) ground state. The puzzling difference between equilibrium geometries for Cu2+ and Ni+ in layered perovskites can reasonably be understood.

  3. Pristine fullerenes mixed by vacuum-free solution process: Efficient electron transport layer for planar perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Si-Min; Tian, Han-Rui; Zhang, Mei-Lin; Xing, Zhou; Wang, Lu-Yao; Wang, Xin; Wang, Tan; Deng, Lin-Long; Xie, Su-Yuan; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2017-01-01

    Discovery of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites ignites the dream of next-generation solar cells fabricated by low-cost solution processing. To date, fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61- butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM), is the most prevalently used electron transport layer for high efficiency p-i-n planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Compared with PC61BM, pristine fullerenes, such as C60 and C70, have shown superiority of higher electron mobility and much lower costs. Due to the poor solubility and strong tendency to crystallize for pristine fullerenes in solution process, it is still a challenge to deposit compact and continuous film of pristine fullerenes for p-i-n type perovskite solar cells by solution processing. Herein, solution processed pristine fullerenes (C60 and C70) were used as electron transport layers to replace PC61BM in perovskite solar cells with high performance and enhanced stability. Power conversion efficiency of 14.04% was obtained by using mixture of C60 and C70 as electron transport layer, which is comparable to that of PC61BM based device (13.74%). We demonstrated that the strong tendency of pristine fullerenes to crystallize during solvent removal can be largely mitigated by mixing different kinds of pristine fullerenes. These findings implicate pristine fullerenes as promising electron transport layers for high performance perovskite solar cells.

  4. Topological ferroelectricity in layered perovskite LaTaO4: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao Qiang; Li, Gui Jing; Chen, Xiang Ming

    2016-12-01

    The ferroelectricity in layered perovskite LaTaO4 is investigated by first-principles calculations. The rather large polarization (about 36 μC/cm2) along -c direction is obtained by the Berry phase approach. Ferroelectric phase can be induced by freezing a soft B1u mode from the prototype phase, and this mode involves the rotations of oxygen octahedron and the displacement of La3+ cations. The topological ferroelectricity is adopted based on the previous work to distinguish from the typical proper ferroelectrics, such as BaTiO3. The 0 K stable monoclinic phase can be regarded as an antiferroelectric phase since the polarization of the neighboring layer will be canceled each other. However, the ferroelectric phase is metastable because of the unexpected small barrier between paraelectric and monoclinic phase and narrow energy gap between ferroelectric and monoclinic phase, and this result can explain the previous experimental results. From the present work, the topological ferroelectricity in layered perovskite LaTaO4 is confirmed, and the rather high polarization makes the present compound as a promising candidate for the lead-free ferroelectric application.

  5. Amorphous TiO2 Compact Layers via ALD for Planar Halide Perovskite Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Soo; Haasch, Richard T; Cao, Duyen H; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Martinson, Alex B F

    2016-09-21

    A low-temperature (<120 °C) route to pinhole-free amorphous TiO2 compact layers may pave the way to more efficient, flexible, and stable inverted perovskite halide device designs. Toward this end, we utilize low-temperature thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) to synthesize ultrathin (12 nm) compact TiO2 underlayers for planar halide perovskite PV. Although device performance with as-deposited TiO2 films is poor, we identify room-temperature UV-O3 treatment as a route to device efficiency comparable to crystalline TiO2 thin films synthesized by higher temperature methods. We further explore the chemical, physical, and interfacial properties that might explain the improved performance through X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These findings challenge our intuition about effective electron selective layers as well as point the way to a greater selection of flexible substrates and more stable inverted device designs.

  6. Amorphous TiO2 Compact Layers via ALD for Planar Halide Perovskite Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, In Soo; Haasch, Richard T.; Cao, Duyen H.; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Martinson, Alex B. F.

    2016-09-06

    A low temperature (< 120 °C) route to pinhole-free amorphous TiO2 compact layers may pave the way to more efficient, flexible, and stable inverted perovskite halide device designs. Toward this end, we utilize low-temperature thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) to synthesize ultra-thin (12 nm) compact TiO2 underlayers for planar halide perovskite PV. While device performance with as-deposited TiO2 films is poor, we identify room temperature UV-O3 treatment as a route to device efficiency comparable to crystalline TiO2 thin films synthesized by higher temperature methods. Here, we further explore the chemical, physical, and interfacial properties 2 that might explain the improved performance through x-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These findings challenge our intuition about effective electron selective layers as well as point the way to a greater selection of flexible substrates and more stable inverted device designs.

  7. Amorphous TiO2 Compact Layers via ALD for Planar Halide Perovskite Photovoltaics

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, In Soo; Haasch, Richard T.; Cao, Duyen H.; ...

    2016-09-06

    A low temperature (< 120 °C) route to pinhole-free amorphous TiO2 compact layers may pave the way to more efficient, flexible, and stable inverted perovskite halide device designs. Toward this end, we utilize low-temperature thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) to synthesize ultra-thin (12 nm) compact TiO2 underlayers for planar halide perovskite PV. While device performance with as-deposited TiO2 films is poor, we identify room temperature UV-O3 treatment as a route to device efficiency comparable to crystalline TiO2 thin films synthesized by higher temperature methods. Here, we further explore the chemical, physical, and interfacial properties 2 that might explain the improvedmore » performance through x-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These findings challenge our intuition about effective electron selective layers as well as point the way to a greater selection of flexible substrates and more stable inverted device designs.« less

  8. Nonreduction-Active Hole-Transporting Layers Enhancing Open-Circuit Voltage and Efficiency of Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiefeng; Jiang, Fangyuan; Qin, Fei; Meng, Wei; Jiang, Youyu; Xiong, Sixing; Tong, Jinhui; Li, Zaifang; Liu, Yun; Zhou, Yinhua

    2016-12-14

    Inverted planar perovskite solar cells using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the hole-transporting layer (HTL) are very attractive because of their low-temperature and easy processing. However, the planar cells with the PEDOT:PSS HTL typically display lower open-circuit voltage (VOC) (about 0.90 V) than that of devices with TiO2-based conventional structure (1.0-1.1 V). The underlying reasons are still not clear. In this work, we report the PEDOT:PSS that is intrinsically p-doped can be chemically reduced by methylamine iodide (MAI) and MAPbI3. The reaction reduces the work function (WF) of PEDOT:PSS, which suppresses the efficient hole collection and yields lower VOC. To overcome this issue, we adopt undoped semiconducting polymers that are intrinsically nonreduction-active (NRA) as the HTL for inverted planar perovskite solar cells. The cells display enhanced VOC from 0.88 ± 0.04 V (PEDOT:PSS HTL, reference cells) to 1.02 ± 0.03 V (P3HT HTL) and 1.04 ± 0.03 V (PTB7 and PTB-Th HTL). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices with these NRA HTL reaches about 17%.

  9. Perovskite-type oxides - Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, E.

    1988-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  10. Perovskite-type oxides - Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, E.

    1988-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  11. Revealing the role of thiocyanate anion in layered hybrid halide perovskite (CH3NH3)2Pb(SCN)2I2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gang; Yang, Chao; Stroppa, Alessandro; Fang, Daining; Hong, Jiawang

    2017-06-01

    The effect of the SCN- ion on the structural, electronic, optical, and mechanical properties of the layered (MA)2Pb(SCN)2I2 (MA=CH3NH3+) perovskite is investigated by using first-principles calculations. Our results suggest that the introduction of SCN- ions at the apical positions gives rise to shorter Pb-S bond lengths, more distorted octahedra, and more hydrogen bonds, which have important effects on the electronic, optical, mechanical, and piezoelectric properties in (MA)2Pb(SCN)2I2. Furthermore, a strong relativistic Rashba splitting is induced due to the breaking of the inversion symmetry, which helps to suppress the carrier recombination and enhance the carrier lifetime. The analysis of mechanical properties reveals that the incorporation of SCN- ions is beneficial to strengthen Young's modulus of the perovskite materials and it enhances the piezoelectric properties. Our investigation suggests that doping SCN- ions into the perovskite materials could be a promising strategy to improve the stability and mechanical properties of organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskite compounds.

  12. Structure-Band Gap Relationships in Hexagonal Polytypes and Low-Dimensional Structures of Hybrid Tin Iodide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Mao, Lingling; Malliakas, Christos D; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2017-01-03

    The present study deals with the structural characterization and classification of the novel compounds 1-8 into perovskite subclasses and proceeds in extracting the structure-band gap relationships between them. The compounds were obtained from the employment of small, 3-5-atom-wide organic ammonium ions seeking to discover new perovskite-like compounds. The compounds reported here adopt unique or rare structure types akin to the prototype structure perovskite. When trimethylammonium (TMA) was employed, we obtained TMASnI3 (1), which is our reference compound for a "perovskitoid" structure of face-sharing octahedra. The compounds EASnI3 (2b), GASnI3 (3a), ACASnI3 (4), and IMSnI3 (5) obtained from the use of ethylammonium (EA), guanidinium (GA), acetamidinium (ACA), and imidazolium (IM) cations, respectively, represent the first entries of the so-called "hexagonal perovskite polytypes" in the hybrid halide perovskite library. The hexagonal perovskites define a new family of hybrid halide perovskites with a crystal structure that emerges from a blend of corner- and face-sharing octahedral connections in various proportions. The small organic cations can also stabilize a second structural type characterized by a crystal lattice with reduced dimensionality. These compounds include the two-dimensional (2D) perovskites GA2SnI4 (3b) and IPA3Sn2I7 (6b) and the one-dimensional (1D) perovskite IPA3SnI5 (6a). The known 2D perovskite BA2MASn2I7 (7) and the related all-inorganic 1D perovskite "RbSnF2I" (8) have also been synthesized. All compounds have been identified as medium-to-wide-band-gap semiconductors in the range of Eg = 1.90-2.40 eV, with the band gap progressively decreasing with increased corner-sharing functionality and increased torsion angle in the octahedral connectivity.

  13. Improving the performance of perovskite solar cells with glycerol-doped PEDOT:PSS buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian-Feng, Li; Chuang, Zhao; Heng, Zhang; Jun-Feng, Tong; Peng, Zhang; Chun-Yan, Yang; Yang-Jun, Xia; Duo-Wang, Fan

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of glycerol doping on transmittance, conductivity and surface morphology of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate)) (PEDOT:PSS) and its influence on the performance of perovskite solar cells. . The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS is improved obviously by doping glycerol. The maximum of the conductivity is 0.89 S/cm when the doping concentration reaches 6 wt%, which increases about 127 times compared with undoped. The perovskite solar cells are fabricated with a configuration of indium tin oxide (ITO)/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3/PC61BM/Al, where PEDOT:PSS and PC61BM are used as hole and electron transport layers, respectively. The results show an improvement of hole charge transport as well as an increase of short-circuit current density and a reduction of series resistance, owing to the higher conductivity of the doped PEDOT:PSS. Consequently, it improves the whole performance of perovskite solar cell. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device is improved from 8.57% to 11.03% under AM 1.5 G (100 mW/cm2 illumination) after the buffer layer has been modified. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61264002, 61166002, 91333206, and 51463011), the Natural Science Foundation of Gansu Province, China (Grant No. 1308RJZA159), the New Century Excellent Talents in University of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. NCET-13-0840), the Research Project of Graduate Teacher of Gansu Province, China (Grant No. 2014A-0042), and the Postdoctoral Science Foundation from Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China.

  14. Liquid Water- and Heat-Resistant Hybrid Perovskite Photovoltaics via an Inverted ALD Oxide Electron Extraction Layer Design.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Soo; Cao, Duyen H; Buchholz, D Bruce; Emery, Jonathan D; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Martinson, Alex B F

    2016-12-14

    Despite rapid advances in conversion efficiency (>22%), the environmental stability of perovskite solar cells remains a substantial barrier to commercialization. Here, we show a significant improvement in the stability of inverted perovskite solar cells against liquid water and high operating temperature (100 °C) by integrating an ultrathin amorphous oxide electron extraction layer via atomic layer deposition (ALD). These unencapsulated inverted devices exhibit a stable operation over at least 10 h when subjected to high thermal stress (100 °C) in ambient environments, as well as upon direct contact with a droplet of water without further encapsulation.

  15. Liquid water- and heat-resistant hybrid perovskite photovoltaics via an inverted ALD oxide electron extraction layer design

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, In Soo; Cao, Duyen H.; Buchholz, D. Bruce; ...

    2016-11-09

    Despite rapid advances in conversion efficiency (>22%), the environmental stability of perovskite solar cells remains a substantial barrier to commercialization. Here, we show a significant improvement in the stability of inverted perovskite solar cells against liquid water and high operating temperature (100 °C) by integrating an ultrathin amorphous oxide electron extraction layer via atomic layer deposition (ALD). Here, these unencapsulated inverted devices exhibit a stable operation over at least 10 h when subjected to high thermal stress (100 °C) in ambient environments, as well as upon direct contact with a droplet of water without further encapsulation.

  16. Structural Evolution, Strain and Elasticity of Perovskites at High Pressures and Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter,M.; Sondergeld, P.; Li, B.; Liebermann, R.; Walch, J.; Schreuer, J.; Darling, T.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of pressure-temperature dependent monochromatic X-ray powder diffraction data yield the bulk modulus [KT = 180.2(28) GPa] and thermal expansion coefficients [{alpha}0 = 2.841(34) x 10-5 K-1; {alpha}1 = 3.37(48) x 10-9 K-2] of CaIrO3, the structure model for post-perovskite MgSiO3. CaIrO3 is orthorhombic (Cmcm, space group 63, Z = 4) with best-fit unit-cell parameters, a = 3.14147(5) Angstroms, b = 9.87515(19), c = 7.29711(11), and V = 226.3754(78) Angstroms 3 at 1 bar and 300 K. The c-axis of CaIrO3 has a small compressibility and a large thermal expansion when compared to the other principal axes. Rietveld structure refinement reveals changes in CaIrO3 as a function of temperature in terms of IrO6 octahedra distortion. Dissociation of CaIrO3 at high temperature has possible implications for the post-perovskite MgSiO3 structure, Earth's lower mantle, and D' layer.

  17. Two-dimensional charge disproportionation of the unusual high valence state Fe(4+) in a layered double perovskite.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Yoshiteru; Ichikawa, Noriya; Saito, Takashi; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry; Attfield, J Paul; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2015-06-17

    The crystal and magnetic structures of charge-disproportionated Ca2FeMnO6 were analyzed by neutron powder diffraction. Ca2FeMnO6 is a layered double perovskite oxide with a two-dimensional arrangement of Mn(4+) and unusual high valence Fe(4+) at room temperature. When cooled, the compound shows charge disproportionation followed by magnetic transition. Around 200 K, the Fe(4+) shows the charge disproportionation to Fe(3+) and Fe(5+), which are ordered in a checkerboard pattern in the two-dimensional FeO6 octahedral layers. The magnetic transition occurs at 95 K, which is much lower than the charge disproportionation temperature. The magnetic structure is commensurate but noncollinear, and the antiferromagnetic coupling of Fe(3+) and Fe(5+) spins in the FeO6 octahedral layers gives the ferrimagnetic moments. The unique magnetic structure is described as a result of two-dimensional localization of the ligand holes with effective spins.

  18. Simultaneous Top and Bottom Perovskite Interface Engineering by Fullerene Surface Modification of Titanium Dioxide as Electron Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Ciro, John; Mesa, Santiago; Montoya, Juan Felipe; Uribe, José Ignacio; Betancur, Rafael; Jaramillo, Franklin

    2017-09-06

    Optimization of the interface between the electron transport layer (ETL) and the hybrid perovskite is crucial to achieve high-performance perovskite solar cell (PSC) devices. Fullerene-based compounds have attracted attention as modifiers on the surface properties of TiO2, the archetypal ETL in regular n-i-p PSCs. However, the partial solubility of fullerenes in the aprotic solvents used for perovskite deposition hinders its application to low-temperature solution-processed PSCs. In this work, we introduce a new method for fullerene modification of TiO2 layers derived from nanoparticles (NPs) inks. Atomic force microscopy characterization reveals that the resulting ETL is a network of TiO2-NPs interconnected by fullerenes. Interestingly, this surface modification enhances the bottom interface of the perovskite by improving the charge transfer as well as the top perovskite interface by reducing surface trap states enhancing the contact with the p-type buffer layer. As a result, rigid PSCs reached a 17.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE), while flexible PSCs exhibited a remarkable stabilized PCE of 12.2% demonstrating the potential application of this approach for further scale-up of PSC devices.

  19. Carbon nanotube/polymer composites as a highly stable hole collection layer in perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Habisreutinger, Severin N; Leijtens, Tomas; Eperon, Giles E; Stranks, Samuel D; Nicholas, Robin J; Snaith, Henry J

    2014-10-08

    Organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells have recently emerged at the forefront of photovoltaics research. Power conversion efficiencies have experienced an unprecedented increase to reported values exceeding 19% within just four years. With the focus mainly on efficiency, the aspect of stability has so far not been thoroughly addressed. In this paper, we identify thermal stability as a fundamental weak point of perovskite solar cells, and demonstrate an elegant approach to mitigating thermal degradation by replacing the organic hole transport material with polymer-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) embedded in an insulating polymer matrix. With this composite structure, we achieve JV scanned power-conversion efficiencies of up to 15.3% with an average efficiency of 10 ± 2%. Moreover, we observe strong retardation in thermal degradation as compared to cells employing state-of-the-art organic hole-transporting materials. In addition, the resistance to water ingress is remarkably enhanced. These are critical developments for achieving long-term stability of high-efficiency perovskite solar cells.

  20. Gradated Mixed Hole Transport Layer in a Perovskite Solar Cell: Improving Moisture Stability and Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Guan-Woo; Kang, Gyeongho; Malekshahi Byranvand, Mahdi; Lee, Gang-Young; Park, Taiho

    2017-08-23

    We demonstrate a simple and facile way to improve the efficiency and moisture stability of perovskite solar cells using commercially available hole transport materials, 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The hole transport layer (HTL) composed of mixed spiro-OMeTAD and P3HT exhibited favorable vertical phase separation. The hydrophobic P3HT was more distributed near the surface (the air atmosphere), whereas the hydrophilic spiro-OMeTAD was more distributed near the perovskite layer. This vertical separation resulted in improved moisture stability by effectively blocking moisture in air. In addition, the optimized composition of spiro-OMeTAD and P3HT improved the efficiency of the solar cells by enabling fast intramolecular charge transport. In addition, a suitable energy level alignment facilitated charge transfer. A device fabricated using the mixed HTL exhibited enhanced performance, demonstrating 18.9% power conversion efficiency and improved moisture stability.

  1. Fabrication of (110)-one-axis-oriented perovskite-type oxide thin films and their application to buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tomoya; Ichinose, Daichi; Kimura, Junichi; Inoue, Takaaki; Mimura, Takanori; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Kiyoshi

    2016-10-01

    BaCe0.9Y0.1O3-δ (BCYO) and SrZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (SZYO) thin films of perovskite-type oxides were deposited on (111)Pt/TiO x /SiO2/(100)Si substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the (110)-oriented BCYO and SZYO thin films were grown on (111)Pt/Si substrates directly without using any buffer layers. Thin films of SrRuO3 (SRO), a conductive perovskite-type oxide, were also deposited on those films and highly (110)-oriented SRO thin films were obtained. We believe that this (110)-oriented SRO works as a buffer layer to deposit (110)-oriented perovskite-type ferroelectric oxide thin films as well as a bottom electrode and can modify the ferroelectric properties of the oxide thin films by controlling their crystallographic orientations.

  2. Zinc tin oxide as high-temperature stable recombination layer for mesoscopic perovskite/silicon monolithic tandem solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Jérémie; Walter, Arnaud; Rucavado, Esteban; Moon, Soo-Jin; Sacchetto, Davide; Rienaecker, Michael; Peibst, Robby; Brendel, Rolf; Niquille, Xavier; De Wolf, Stefaan; Löper, Philipp; Morales-Masis, Monica; Nicolay, Sylvain; Niesen, Bjoern; Ballif, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Perovskite/crystalline silicon tandem solar cells have the potential to reach efficiencies beyond those of silicon single-junction record devices. However, the high-temperature process of 500 °C needed for state-of-the-art mesoscopic perovskite cells has, so far, been limiting their implementation in monolithic tandem devices. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of zinc tin oxide as a recombination layer and show its electrical and optical stability at temperatures up to 500 °C. To prove the concept, we fabricate monolithic tandem cells with mesoscopic top cell with up to 16% efficiency. We then investigate the effect of zinc tin oxide layer thickness variation, showing a strong influence on the optical interference pattern within the tandem device. Finally, we discuss the perspective of mesoscopic perovskite cells for high-efficiency monolithic tandem solar cells.

  3. Soft chemical control of the crystal and magnetic structure of a layered mixed valent manganite oxide sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandy, Jack N.; Abakumov, Artem M.; Christensen, Kirsten E.; Hadermann, Joke; Adamson, Paul; Cassidy, Simon J.; Ramos, Silvia; Free, David G.; Cohen, Harry; Woodruff, Daniel N.; Thompson, Amber L.; Clarke, Simon J.

    2015-04-01

    Oxidative deintercalation of copper ions from the sulfide layers of the layered mixed-valent manganite oxide sulfide Sr2MnO2Cu1.5S2 results in control of the copper-vacancy modulated superstructure and the ordered arrangement of magnetic moments carried by the manganese ions. This soft chemistry enables control of the structures and properties of these complex materials which complement mixed-valent perovskite and perovskite-related transition metal oxides.

  4. Theoretical determination of the structures of CaSiO3 perovskites.

    PubMed

    Caracas, Razvan; Wentzcovitch, Renata M

    2006-12-01

    Density functional theory is used to determine the possible crystal structure of the CaSiO3 perovskites and their evolution under pressure. The ideal cubic perovskite is considered as a starting point for studying several possible lower-symmetry distorted structures. The theoretical lattice parameters and the atomic coordinates for all the structures are determined, and the results are discussed with respect to experimental data.

  5. Inorganic perovskite photocatalysts for solar energy utilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guan; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou; Irvine, John T S

    2016-10-24

    The development and utilization of solar energy in environmental remediation and water splitting is being intensively studied worldwide. During the past few decades, tremendous efforts have been devoted to developing non-toxic, low-cost, efficient and stable photocatalysts for water splitting and environmental remediation. To date, several hundreds of photocatalysts mainly based on metal oxides, sulfides and (oxy)nitrides with different structures and compositions have been reported. Among them, perovskite oxides and their derivatives (layered perovskite oxides) comprise a large family of semiconductor photocatalysts because of their structural simplicity and flexibility. This review specifically focuses on the general background of perovskite and its related materials, summarizes the recent development of perovskite photocatalysts and their applications in water splitting and environmental remediation, discusses the theoretical modelling and calculation of perovskite photocatalysts and presents the key challenges and perspectives on the research of perovskite photocatalysts.

  6. Doped hole transport layer for efficiency enhancement in planar heterojunction organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Qi; Bi, Cheng; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-05-06

    We demonstrated the efficiency of a solution-processed planar heterojunction organometallic trihalide perovskite solar cell can be increased to 17.5% through doping the hole transporting layer for reducing the resistivity. Doped Poly(triaryl amine) (PTAA) by 2,3,5,6-Tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) reduced device series resistance by three-folds, increasing the device fill factor to 74%, open circuit voltage to 1.09 V without sacrificing the short circuit current. As a result, this study reveals that the high resistivity of currently broadly applied polymer hole transport layer limits the device efficiency, and points a new direction to improve the device efficiency.

  7. Doped hole transport layer for efficiency enhancement in planar heterojunction organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qi; Bi, Cheng; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-05-06

    We demonstrated the efficiency of a solution-processed planar heterojunction organometallic trihalide perovskite solar cell can be increased to 17.5% through doping the hole transporting layer for reducing the resistivity. Doped Poly(triaryl amine) (PTAA) by 2,3,5,6-Tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) reduced device series resistance by three-folds, increasing the device fill factor to 74%, open circuit voltage to 1.09 V without sacrificing the short circuit current. As a result, this study reveals that the high resistivity of currently broadly applied polymer hole transport layer limits the device efficiency, and points a new direction to improve the device efficiency.

  8. Low temperature fabrication of perovskite solar cells with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle layers

    SciTech Connect

    Kanayama, Masato; Oku, Takeo Suzuki, Atsushi; Yamada, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Minami, Satoshi; Kohno, Kazufumi

    2016-02-01

    TiO{sub 2}/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}-based photovoltaic devices were fabricated by a spin-coating method using a mixture solution. TiO{sub 2} require high-temperature processing to achieve suitably high carrier mobility. TiO{sub 2} electron transport layers and TiO{sub 2} scaffold layers for the perovskite were fabricated from TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with different grain sizes. The photovoltaic properties and microstructures of solar cells were characterized. Nanoparticle sizes of these TiO{sub 2} were 23 nm and 3 nm and the performance of solar cells was improved by combination of two TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  9. Local A‐Site Layering in Rare‐Earth Orthochromite Perovskites by Solution Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Luke M.; Kashtiban, Reza J.; Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Ramasse, Quentin M.; Sloan, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cation size effects were examined in the mixed A‐site perovskites La0.5Sm0.5CrO3 and La0.5Tb0.5CrO3 prepared through both hydrothermal and solid‐state methods. Atomically resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the transmission electron microscope shows that while the La and Sm cations are randomly distributed, increased cation‐radius variance in La0.5Tb0.5CrO3 results in regions of localised La and Tb layers, an atomic arrangement exclusive to the hydrothermally prepared material. Solid‐state preparation gives lower homogeneity resulting in separate nanoscale regions rich in La3+ and Tb3+. The A‐site layering in hydrothermal La0.5Tb0.5CrO3 is randomised upon annealing at high temperature, resulting in magnetic behaviour that is dependent on synthesis route. PMID:27727487

  10. Thermally induced structural evolution and performance of mesoporous block copolymer-directed alumina perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kwan Wee; Moore, David T; Saliba, Michael; Sai, Hiroaki; Estroff, Lara A; Hanrath, Tobias; Snaith, Henry J; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2014-05-27

    Structure control in solution-processed hybrid perovskites is crucial to design and fabricate highly efficient solar cells. Here, we utilize in situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the structural evolution and film morphologies of methylammonium lead tri-iodide/chloride (CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)) in mesoporous block copolymer derived alumina superstructures during thermal annealing. We show the CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) material evolution to be characterized by three distinct structures: a crystalline precursor structure not described previously, a 3D perovskite structure, and a mixture of compounds resulting from degradation. Finally, we demonstrate how understanding the processing parameters provides the foundation needed for optimal perovskite film morphology and coverage, leading to enhanced block copolymer-directed perovskite solar cell performance.

  11. Thermally Induced Structural Evolution and Performance of Mesoporous Block Copolymer-Directed Alumina Perovskite Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Structure control in solution-processed hybrid perovskites is crucial to design and fabricate highly efficient solar cells. Here, we utilize in situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the structural evolution and film morphologies of methylammonium lead tri-iodide/chloride (CH3NH3PbI3–xClx) in mesoporous block copolymer derived alumina superstructures during thermal annealing. We show the CH3NH3PbI3–xClx material evolution to be characterized by three distinct structures: a crystalline precursor structure not described previously, a 3D perovskite structure, and a mixture of compounds resulting from degradation. Finally, we demonstrate how understanding the processing parameters provides the foundation needed for optimal perovskite film morphology and coverage, leading to enhanced block copolymer-directed perovskite solar cell performance. PMID:24684494

  12. The essential role of the poly(3-hexylthiophene) hole transport layer in perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Wenqiang; Tan, Furui; Gu, Yuzong

    2015-01-01

    The compact and oriented TiO2 films are prepared by a solvothermal method, and used as electron transporting layers in perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx based solar cells incorporating poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) as the hole transporting material layer. The devices with P3HT exhibit a substantial increase in power conversion efficiency, open circuit voltage, and fill factor, compared with the reference device without P3HT. Impedance spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that the present P3HT layer decreases the internal resistance in solar cells and allows the interface between oriented TiO2 and CH3NH3PbI3-xClx to form more perfect in electronics. It is also found that the electron lifetime in the devices with P3HT is much longer than that of the device without P3HT. Thus, the charge collection efficiency of the device with P3HT is markedly enhanced, compared with the devices without P3HT. Analysis of the energy levels of the involved materials indicates that the P3HT film between the CH3NH3PbI3-xClx layer and the Au electrode provides a better energy level matching for efficient transporting holes to the anode. Meanwhile, the stability of such P3HT solar cells is enhanced because of the compact and oriented TiO2 film preventing the possible interaction between TiO2 and perovskite as time went on.

  13. Well-Defined Nanostructured, Single-Crystalline TiO2 Electron Transport Layer for Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jongmin; Song, Seulki; Hörantner, Maximilian T; Snaith, Henry J; Park, Taiho

    2016-06-28

    An electron transporting layer (ETL) plays an important role in extracting electrons from a perovskite layer and blocking recombination between electrons in the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and holes in the perovskite layers, especially in planar perovskite solar cells. Dense TiO2 ETLs prepared by a solution-processed spin-coating method (S-TiO2) are mainly used in devices due to their ease of fabrication. Herein, we found that fatal morphological defects at the S-TiO2 interface due to a rough FTO surface, including an irregular film thickness, discontinuous areas, and poor physical contact between the S-TiO2 and the FTO layers, were inevitable and lowered the charge transport properties through the planar perovskite solar cells. The effects of the morphological defects were mitigated in this work using a TiO2 ETL produced from sputtering and anodization. This method produced a well-defined nanostructured TiO2 ETL with an excellent transmittance, single-crystalline properties, a uniform film thickness, a large effective area, and defect-free physical contact with a rough substrate that provided outstanding electron extraction and hole blocking in a planar perovskite solar cell. In planar perovskite devices, anodized TiO2 ETL (A-TiO2) increased the power conversion efficiency by 22% (from 12.5 to 15.2%), and the stabilized maximum power output efficiency increased by 44% (from 8.9 to 12.8%) compared with S-TiO2. This work highlights the importance of the ETL geometry for maximizing device performance and provides insights into achieving ideal ETL morphologies that remedy the drawbacks observed in conventional spin-coated ETLs.

  14. Co-generation of electricity and syngas on proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cell with a perovskite layer as a precursor of a highly efficient reforming catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Tingting; Zhu, Ankang; Guo, Youmin; Wang, Chunchang; Huang, Shouguo; Chen, Huili; Yang, Guangming; Wang, Wei; Shao, Zongping

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a proton conducting solid oxide fuel cell (layered H+-SOFC) is prepared by introducing a La2NiO4perovskite oxide with a Ruddlesden-Popper structure as a catalyst layer onto a conventional NiO + BaZr0.4Ce0.4Y0.2O3-δ (NiO + BZCY4) anode for in situ CO2 dry reforming of methane. The roles of the La2NiO4 catalyst layer on the reforming activity, coking tolerance, electrocatalytic activity and operational stability of the anodes are systematically studied. The La2NiO4 catalyst layer exhibits greater catalytic performance than the NiO + BZCY4 anode during the CO2 dry reforming of methane. An outstanding coking resistance capability is also demonstrated. The layered H+-SOFC consumes H2 produced in situ at the anode and delivers a much higher power output than the conventional cell with the NiO + BZCY4 anode. The improved coking resistance of the layered H+-SOFC results in a steady output voltage of ∼0.6 V under a constant current density of 200 mA cm-2. In summary, the H+-SOFC with La2NiO4 perovskite oxide is a potential energy conversion device for CO2 conversion and utilization with co-generation of electricity and syngas.

  15. Single-Layer Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes with Sub-Band Gap Turn-On Voltage and High Brightness.

    PubMed

    Li, Junqiang; Shan, Xin; Bade, Sri Ganesh R; Geske, Thomas; Jiang, Qinglong; Yang, Xin; Yu, Zhibin

    2016-10-03

    Charge-carrier injection into an emissive semiconductor thin film can result in electroluminescence and is generally achieved by using a multilayer device structure, which requires an electron-injection layer (EIL) between the cathode and the emissive layer and a hole-injection layer (HIL) between the anode and the emissive layer. The recent advancement of halide perovskite semiconductors opens up a new path to electroluminescent devices with a greatly simplified device structure. We report cesium lead tribromide light-emitting diodes (LEDs) without the aid of an EIL or HIL. These so-called single-layer LEDs have exhibited a sub-band gap turn-on voltage. The devices obtained a brightness of 591 197 cd m(-2) at 4.8 V, with an external quantum efficiency of 5.7% and a power efficiency of 14.1 lm W(-1). Such an advancement demonstrates that very high efficiency of electron and hole injection can be obtained in perovskite LEDs even without using an EIL or HIL.

  16. Structure and Growth Control of Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites for Optoelectronics: From Polycrystalline Films to Single Crystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yani; He, Minhong; Peng, Jiajun; Sun, Yong; Liang, Ziqi

    2016-04-01

    Recently, organic-inorganic halide perovskites have sparked tremendous research interest because of their ground-breaking photovoltaic performance. The crystallization process and crystal shape of perovskites have striking impacts on their optoelectronic properties. Polycrystalline films and single crystals are two main forms of perovskites. Currently, perovskite thin films have been under intensive investigation while studies of perovskite single crystals are just in their infancy. This review article is concentrated upon the control of perovskite structures and growth, which are intimately correlated for improvements of not only solar cells but also light-emitting diodes, lasers, and photodetectors. We begin with the survey of the film formation process of perovskites including deposition methods and morphological optimization avenues. Strategies such as the use of additives, thermal annealing, solvent annealing, atmospheric control, and solvent engineering have been successfully employed to yield high-quality perovskite films. Next, we turn to summarize the shape evolution of perovskites single crystals from three-dimensional large sized single crystals, two-dimensional nanoplates, one-dimensional nanowires, to zero-dimensional quantum dots. Siginificant functions of perovskites single crystals are highlighted, which benefit fundamental studies of intrinsic photophysics. Then, the growth mechanisms of the previously mentioned perovskite crystals are unveiled. Lastly, perspectives for structure and growth control of perovskites are outlined towards high-performance (opto)electronic devices.

  17. Structure and Growth Control of Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites for Optoelectronics: From Polycrystalline Films to Single Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yani; He, Minhong; Peng, Jiajun; Sun, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, organic–inorganic halide perovskites have sparked tremendous research interest because of their ground‐breaking photovoltaic performance. The crystallization process and crystal shape of perovskites have striking impacts on their optoelectronic properties. Polycrystalline films and single crystals are two main forms of perovskites. Currently, perovskite thin films have been under intensive investigation while studies of perovskite single crystals are just in their infancy. This review article is concentrated upon the control of perovskite structures and growth, which are intimately correlated for improvements of not only solar cells but also light‐emitting diodes, lasers, and photodetectors. We begin with the survey of the film formation process of perovskites including deposition methods and morphological optimization avenues. Strategies such as the use of additives, thermal annealing, solvent annealing, atmospheric control, and solvent engineering have been successfully employed to yield high‐quality perovskite films. Next, we turn to summarize the shape evolution of perovskites single crystals from three‐dimensional large sized single crystals, two‐dimensional nanoplates, one‐dimensional nanowires, to zero‐dimensional quantum dots. Siginificant functions of perovskites single crystals are highlighted, which benefit fundamental studies of intrinsic photophysics. Then, the growth mechanisms of the previously mentioned perovskite crystals are unveiled. Lastly, perspectives for structure and growth control of perovskites are outlined towards high‐performance (opto)electronic devices. PMID:27812463

  18. Insight into Evolution, Processing and Performance of Multi-length-scale Structures in Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Cho, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Chen; Chiang, Kai-Ming; Hsiao, Sheng-Yi; Chen, Chang-Wen; Su, Chun-Jen; Jeng, U-Ser; Lin, Hao-Wu

    2015-01-01

    The structural characterization correlated to the processing control of hierarchical structure of planar heterojunction perovskite layer is still incomplete due to the limitations of conventional microscopy and X-ray diffraction. This present study performed the simultaneously grazing-incidence small-angle scattering and wide-angle scattering (GISAXS/GIWAXS) techniques to quantitatively probe the hierarchical structure of the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. The result is complementary to the currently microscopic study. Correlation between the crystallization behavior, crystal orientation, nano- and meso-scale internal structure and surface morphology of perovskite film as functions of various processing control parameters is reported for the first time. The structural transition from the fractal pore network to the surface fractal can be tuned by the chloride percentage. The GISAXS/GIWAXS measurement provides the comprehensive understanding of concurrent evolution of the film morphology and crystallization correlated to the high performance. The result can provide the insight into formation mechanism and rational synthesis design. PMID:26338280

  19. New oxybromide cobaltites with layered perovskite-related structures: 18R-Ba(6)Co(5)BrO(14) and 14H-Ba(7)Co(6)BrO(17).

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, Matthieu; Roussel, Pascal

    2007-08-01

    Single crystals of the title compounds were prepared by solid-solid reaction using BaBr(2) flux at 1373 K. The structures of these two new cobaltites were solved and refined. The two compounds are built from a close-packing of [BaO(3)] and [BaOBr] layers with stacking sequences (c'chhcc')(3) and (c'chhhcc')(2) for the 18R and 14H structures, respectively, which create Co(3)O(12) trimers or Co(4)O(15) tetramers of face-sharing octahedra connected at their extremities to isolated tetrahedra by corner-sharing. These new materials are strongly related to the 5H-Ba(5)Co(5)O(14)/12H-Ba(0.9)CoO(2.6) and 10H-Ba(5)Co(5)ClO(13)/6H-Ba(6)Co(6)ClO(16) materials, with the existence of common blocks. In Ba(6)Co(5)BrO(14) and Ba(7)Co(6)BrO(17), all the atoms in the vicinity of the [BaOBr] layers are disordered, whereas the rest of the structure is perfectly ordered.

  20. A High-Performing Sulfur-Tolerant and Redox-Stable Layered Perovskite Anode for Direct Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hanping; Tao, Zetian; Liu, Shun; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-12-09

    Development of alternative ceramic oxide anode materials is a key step for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Several lanthanide based layered perovskite-structured oxides demonstrate outstanding oxygen diffusion rate, favorable electronic conductivity, and good oxygen surface exchange kinetics, owing to A-site ordered structure in which lanthanide and alkali-earth ions occupy alternate (001) layers and oxygen vacancies are mainly located in [LnOx] planes. Here we report a nickel-free cation deficient layered perovskite, (PrBa)0.95(Fe0.9Mo0.1)2O5 + δ (PBFM), for SOFC anode, and this anode shows an outstanding performance with high resistance against both carbon build-up and sulfur poisoning in hydrocarbon fuels. At 800 °C, the layered PBFM showed high electrical conductivity of 59.2 S cm(-1) in 5% H2 and peak power densities of 1.72 and 0.54 W cm(-2) using H2 and CH4 as fuel, respectively. The cell exhibits a very stable performance under a constant current load of 1.0 A cm(-2). To our best knowledge, this is the highest performance of ceramic anodes operated in methane. In addition, the anode is structurally stable at various fuel and temperature conditions, suggesting that it is a feasible material candidate for high-performing SOFC anode.

  1. A High-Performing Sulfur-Tolerant and Redox-Stable Layered Perovskite Anode for Direct Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hanping; Tao, Zetian; Liu, Shun; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-12-01

    Development of alternative ceramic oxide anode materials is a key step for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Several lanthanide based layered perovskite-structured oxides demonstrate outstanding oxygen diffusion rate, favorable electronic conductivity, and good oxygen surface exchange kinetics, owing to A-site ordered structure in which lanthanide and alkali-earth ions occupy alternate (001) layers and oxygen vacancies are mainly located in [LnOx] planes. Here we report a nickel-free cation deficient layered perovskite, (PrBa)0.95(Fe0.9Mo0.1)2O5 + δ (PBFM), for SOFC anode, and this anode shows an outstanding performance with high resistance against both carbon build-up and sulfur poisoning in hydrocarbon fuels. At 800 °C, the layered PBFM showed high electrical conductivity of 59.2 S cm-1 in 5% H2 and peak power densities of 1.72 and 0.54 W cm-2 using H2 and CH4 as fuel, respectively. The cell exhibits a very stable performance under a constant current load of 1.0 A cm-2. To our best knowledge, this is the highest performance of ceramic anodes operated in methane. In addition, the anode is structurally stable at various fuel and temperature conditions, suggesting that it is a feasible material candidate for high-performing SOFC anode.

  2. Strong room-temperature ultraviolet to red excitons from inorganic organic-layered perovskites, (MX4 (M=Pb, Sn, Hg; X=I-, Br-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Shahab; Prakash, G. Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    Many varieties of layered inorganic-organic (IO) perovskite of type (MX4 (where R: organic moiety, M: divalent metal, and X: halogen) were successfully fabricated and characterized. X-ray diffraction data suggest that these inorganic and organic structures are alternatively stacked up along c-axis, where inorganic mono layers are of extended corner-shared MX6 octahedra and organic spacers are the bi-layers of organic entities. These layered perovskites show unusual room-temperature exciton absorption and photoluminescence due to the quantum and dielectric confinement-induced enhancement in the exciton binding energies. A wide spectral range of optical exciton tunability (350 to 600 nm) was observed experimentally from systematic compositional variation in (i) divalent metal ions (M=Pb, Sn, Hg), (ii) halides (X=I and Br-), and (iii) organic moieties (R). Specific photoluminescence features are due to the structure of the extended MX42- network and the eventual electronic band structure. The compositionally dependent photoluminescence of these IO hybrids could be useful in various photonic and optoelectronic devices.

  3. A High-Performing Sulfur-Tolerant and Redox-Stable Layered Perovskite Anode for Direct Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hanping; Tao, Zetian; Liu, Shun; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-01-01

    Development of alternative ceramic oxide anode materials is a key step for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Several lanthanide based layered perovskite-structured oxides demonstrate outstanding oxygen diffusion rate, favorable electronic conductivity, and good oxygen surface exchange kinetics, owing to A-site ordered structure in which lanthanide and alkali-earth ions occupy alternate (001) layers and oxygen vacancies are mainly located in [LnOx] planes. Here we report a nickel-free cation deficient layered perovskite, (PrBa)0.95(Fe0.9Mo0.1)2O5 + δ (PBFM), for SOFC anode, and this anode shows an outstanding performance with high resistance against both carbon build-up and sulfur poisoning in hydrocarbon fuels. At 800 °C, the layered PBFM showed high electrical conductivity of 59.2 S cm−1 in 5% H2 and peak power densities of 1.72 and 0.54 W cm−2 using H2 and CH4 as fuel, respectively. The cell exhibits a very stable performance under a constant current load of 1.0 A cm−2. To our best knowledge, this is the highest performance of ceramic anodes operated in methane. In addition, the anode is structurally stable at various fuel and temperature conditions, suggesting that it is a feasible material candidate for high-performing SOFC anode. PMID:26648509

  4. Solution-Processed Planar Perovskite Solar Cell Without a Hole Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Chumanov, George

    2015-06-10

    Solar cells with a structure of ITO/ZnO/CH3NH3PbI3/graphite/carbon black electrode were fabricated by spin coating at ambient conditions. PbI2 thin films were converted into CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite by reacting with CH3NH3I in solution. The incorporation of electrochemically exfoliated graphite improved the fill factor, open circuit potential and short circuit current density. The best device yielded 10.2% power conversion efficiency.

  5. Photocurrent Spectroscopy of Perovskite Layers and Solar Cells: A Sensitive Probe of Material Degradation.

    PubMed

    Holovský, Jakub; De Wolf, Stefaan; Werner, Jérémie; Remeš, Zdeněk; Müller, Martin; Neykova, Neda; Ledinský, Martin; Černá, Ladislava; Hrzina, Pavel; Löper, Philipp; Niesen, Bjoern; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-02-16

    Optical absorptance spectroscopy of polycrystalline CH3NH3PbI3 films usually indicates the presence of a PbI2 phase, either as a preparation residue or due to film degradation, but gives no insight on how this may affect electrical properties. Here, we apply photocurrent spectroscopy to both perovskite solar cells and coplanar-contacted layers at various stages of degradation. In both cases, we find that the presence of a PbI2 phase restricts charge-carrier transport, suggesting that PbI2 encapsulates CH3NH3PbI3 grains. We also find that PbI2 injects holes into the CH3NH3PbI3 grains, increasing the apparent photosensitivity of PbI2. This phenomenon, known as modulation doping, is absent in the photocurrent spectra of solar cells, where holes and electrons have to be collected in pairs. This interpretation provides insights into the photogeneration and carrier transport in dual-phase perovskites.

  6. Crystal and electronic structures of substituted halide perovskites based on density functional calculation and molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaba, Hiromitsu; Kimura, Shou; Alam, Md. Khorshed

    2017-03-01

    Durability of organo-lead halide perovskite are important issue for its practical application in a solar cells. In this study, using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics, we theoretically investigated a crystal structure, electronic structure, and ionic diffusivity of the partially substituted cubic MA0.5X0.5PbI3 (MA = CH3NH3+, X = NH4+ or (NH2)2CH+ or Cs+). Our calculation results indicate that a partial substitution of MA induces a lattice distortion, resulting in preventing MA or X from the diffusion between A sites in the perovskite. DFT calculations show that electronic structures of the investigated partially substituted perovskites were similar with that of MAPbI3, while their bandgaps slightly decrease compared to that of MAPbI3. Our results mean that partial substitution in halide perovskite is effective technique to suppress diffusion of intrinsic ions and tune the band gap.

  7. Effect of Electron Transporting Layer on Bismuth-Based Lead-Free Perovskite (CH3NH3)3 Bi2I9 for Photovoltaic Applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Trilok; Kulkarni, Ashish; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2016-06-15

    Methylammonium iodo bismuthate ((CH3NH3)3Bi2I9) (MBI) perovskite is a promising alternative to rapidly progressing hybrid organic-inorganic lead perovskites because of its better stability and low toxicity compared to lead-based perovskites. Solution-processed perovskite fabricated by single-step spin-coating and subsequent heating produced polycrystalline films of hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3)3Bi2I9), whose morphology was influenced drastically by the nature of substrates. The optical measurements showed a strong absorption band around 500 nm. The devices made on anatase TiO2 mesoporous layer showed good performance with current density over 0.8 mA cm(-2) while the devices on brookite TiO2 layer and planar (free of porous layer) was inefficient. However, all the MBI devices were stable to ambient conditions for more than 10 weeks.

  8. Significant enhancement of photovoltage in artificially designed perovskite oxide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen-jia; Jin, Kui-juan; Guo, Hai-zhong; He, Xu; He, Meng; Xu, Xiu-lai; Lu, Hui-bin; Yang, Guo-zhen

    2015-03-01

    La0.9Sr0.1MnO3/insulator/SrNb0.007Ti0.993O3 multilayer and La0.9Sr0.1MnO3/SrNb0.007Ti0.993O3/In2O3:SnO2(ITO)/La0.9Sr0.1MnO3/SrNb0.007Ti0.993O3 multilayer structures were designed to enhance the photovoltage. The photovoltages of these two structures under an illumination of 308 nm laser are 410 and 600 mV, respectively. The latter is 20 times larger than that (30 mV) observed in La0.9Sr0.1MnO3/SrNb0.007Ti0.993O3 single junction. The origin of such significant enhancement of photovoltage is discussed in this letter. These results suggest that the photoelectric property of perovskite oxides could be much improved by artificial structure designing. The enhanced photovoltaic effects have potential applications in the ultraviolet photodetection and solar cells.

  9. Low-temperature solution-processed tin oxide as an alternative electron transporting layer for efficient perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Weijun; Fang, Guojia; Liu, Qin; Xiong, Liangbin; Qin, Pingli; Tao, Hong; Wang, Jing; Lei, Hongwei; Li, Borui; Wan, Jiawei; Yang, Guang; Yan, Yanfa

    2015-06-03

    Lead halide perovskite solar cells with the high efficiencies typically use high-temperature processed TiO2 as the electron transporting layers (ETLs). Here, we demonstrate that low-temperature solution-processed nanocrystalline SnO2 can be an excellent alternative ETL material for efficient perovskite solar cells. Our best-performing planar cell using such a SnO2 ETL has achieved an average efficiency of 16.02%, obtained from efficiencies measured from both reverse and forward voltage scans. The outstanding performance of SnO2 ETLs is attributed to the excellent properties of nanocrystalline SnO2 films, such as good antireflection, suitable band edge positions, and high electron mobility. The simple low-temperature process is compatible with the roll-to-roll manufacturing of low-cost perovskite solar cells on flexible substrates.

  10. Stable and null current hysteresis perovskite solar cells based nitrogen doped graphene oxide nanoribbons hole transport layer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongmo; Mat Teridi, Mohd Asri; Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid bin; Jang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells are becoming one of the leading technologies to reduce our dependency on traditional power sources. However, the frequently used component poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) has several shortcomings, such as an easily corroded indium-tin-oxide (ITO) interface at elevated temperatures and induced electrical inhomogeneity. Herein, we propose solution-processed nitrogen-doped graphene oxide nanoribbons (NGONRs) as a hole transport layer (HTL) in perovskite solar cells, replacing the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS. The conversion efficiency of NGONR-based perovskite solar cells has outperformed a control device constructed using PEDOT:PSS. Moreover, our proposed NGONR-based devices also demonstrate a negligible current hysteresis along with improved stability. This work provides an effective route for substituting PEDOT:PSS as the effective HTL. PMID:27277388

  11. Bulk heterojunction perovskite solar cells based on room temperature deposited hole-blocking layer: Suppressed hysteresis and flexible photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiliang; Yang, Guang; Zheng, Xiaolu; Lei, Hongwei; Chen, Cong; Ma, Junjie; Wang, Hao; Fang, Guojia

    2017-05-01

    Perovskite solar cells have developed rapidly in recent years as the third generation solar cells. In spite of the great improvement achieved, there still exist some issues such as undesired hysteresis and indispensable high temperature process. In this work, bulk heterojunction perovskite-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester solar cells have been prepared to diminish hysteresis using a facile two step spin-coating method. Furthermore, high quality tin oxide films are fabricated using pulse laser deposition technique at room temperature without any annealing procedure. The as fabricated tin oxide film is successfully applied in bulk heterojunction perovskite solar cells as a hole blocking layer. Bulk heterojunction devices based on room temperature tin oxide exhibit almost hysteresis-free characteristics with power conversion efficiency of 17.29% and 14.0% on rigid and flexible substrates, respectively.

  12. Stable and null current hysteresis perovskite solar cells based nitrogen doped graphene oxide nanoribbons hole transport layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongmo; Mat Teridi, Mohd Asri; Mohd Yusoff, Abd Rashid Bin; Jang, Jin

    2016-06-09

    Perovskite solar cells are becoming one of the leading technologies to reduce our dependency on traditional power sources. However, the frequently used component poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate ( PSS) has several shortcomings, such as an easily corroded indium-tin-oxide (ITO) interface at elevated temperatures and induced electrical inhomogeneity. Herein, we propose solution-processed nitrogen-doped graphene oxide nanoribbons (NGONRs) as a hole transport layer (HTL) in perovskite solar cells, replacing the conducting polymer PSS. The conversion efficiency of NGONR-based perovskite solar cells has outperformed a control device constructed using PSS. Moreover, our proposed NGONR-based devices also demonstrate a negligible current hysteresis along with improved stability. This work provides an effective route for substituting PSS as the effective HTL.

  13. Stable and null current hysteresis perovskite solar cells based nitrogen doped graphene oxide nanoribbons hole transport layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeongmo; Mat Teridi, Mohd Asri; Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid Bin; Jang, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Perovskite solar cells are becoming one of the leading technologies to reduce our dependency on traditional power sources. However, the frequently used component poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) has several shortcomings, such as an easily corroded indium-tin-oxide (ITO) interface at elevated temperatures and induced electrical inhomogeneity. Herein, we propose solution-processed nitrogen-doped graphene oxide nanoribbons (NGONRs) as a hole transport layer (HTL) in perovskite solar cells, replacing the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS. The conversion efficiency of NGONR-based perovskite solar cells has outperformed a control device constructed using PEDOT:PSS. Moreover, our proposed NGONR-based devices also demonstrate a negligible current hysteresis along with improved stability. This work provides an effective route for substituting PEDOT:PSS as the effective HTL.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of perovskite-type solar cells with Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} layers

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Jo; Oku, Takeo Suzuki, Atsushi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunction solar cells containing perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} using Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} as an electron-transporting layer were fabricated and characterized. Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} layer showed an improvement of the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency using Ti{sub 0.95}Nb{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of perovskite-type solar cells with Nb-doped TiO2 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Jo; Oku, Takeo; Suzuki, Atsushi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunction solar cells containing perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 using Nb-doped TiO2 as an electron-transporting layer were fabricated and characterized. Nb-doped TiO2 layer showed an improvement of the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency using Ti0.95Nb0.05O2.

  16. Electrodeposited Ultrathin TiO2 Blocking Layers for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tzu-Sen; Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Hong, Cheng-You; Wei, Tzu-Chien

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the electrodeposition (ED) of ultrathin, compact TiO2 blocking layers (BLs) on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is evaluated. This bottom-up method allows for controlling the morphology and thickness of TiO2 films by simply manipulating deposition conditions. Compared with BLs produced using the spin-coating (SC) method, BLs produced using ED exhibit satisfactory surface coverage, even with a film thickness of 29 nm. Evidence from cyclic voltammetry shows that an ED BL suppresses interfacial recombination more profoundly than an SC BL does, consequently improving the photovoltaic properties of the PSC significantly. A PSC equipped with an ED TiO2 BL having a 13.6% power conversion efficiency is demonstrated.

  17. Electrodeposited Ultrathin TiO2 Blocking Layers for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tzu-Sen; Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Hong, Cheng-You; Wei, Tzu-Chien

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the electrodeposition (ED) of ultrathin, compact TiO2 blocking layers (BLs) on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is evaluated. This bottom-up method allows for controlling the morphology and thickness of TiO2 films by simply manipulating deposition conditions. Compared with BLs produced using the spin-coating (SC) method, BLs produced using ED exhibit satisfactory surface coverage, even with a film thickness of 29 nm. Evidence from cyclic voltammetry shows that an ED BL suppresses interfacial recombination more profoundly than an SC BL does, consequently improving the photovoltaic properties of the PSC significantly. A PSC equipped with an ED TiO2 BL having a 13.6% power conversion efficiency is demonstrated. PMID:26526771

  18. An Azaacene Derivative as Promising Electron-Transport Layer for Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Pei-Yang; Wang, Ning; Wu, Anyang; Wang, Zilong; Tian, Miaomiao; Fu, Zhisheng; Sun, Xiao Wei; Zhang, Qichun

    2016-08-05

    It is highly desirable to develop novel n-type organic small molecules as an efficient electron-transport layer (ETL) for the replacement of PCBM to obtain high-performance metal-oxide-free, solution-processed inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs) because this type of solar cells with a low-temperature and solution-based process would make their fabrication more feasible and practical. In this research, the new azaacene QCAPZ has been synthesized and employed as non-fullerene ETL material for inverted PSCs through a solution-based process without the need for additional dopants or additives. The as-fabricated inverted PSCs show a power conversion efficiency up to 10.26 %. Our results clearly suggest that larger azaacenes could be promising electron-transport materials to achieve high-performance solution-processed inverted PSCs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Improving Efficiency and Reproducibility of Perovskite Solar Cells through Aggregation Control in Polyelectrolytes Hole Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Ying-Chiao; Zhu, Liping; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Hai-Qiao; Fang, Junfeng

    2017-09-08

    Here, we report that the performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) can be improved by aggregation control in polyelectrolytes interlayer. Through counterions tailoring and solvent optimization, the strong aggregation of polyelectrolytes P3CT-Na can be broken up by P3CT-CH3NH2. When using P3CT-CH3NH2 to replace P3CT-Na as hole transport layer, the average efficiency is greatly improved from 16.9 to 18.9% (highest 19.6%). Importantly, efficiency over 15% is obtained in 1 cm(2) devices with P3CT-CH3NH2, ∼50% higher than that with P3CT-Na (10.3%). Our work demonstrates the important role of aggregation control in polyelectrolytes interlayer, providing new opportunities to promote its application in PSCs.

  20. 2D-3D transformation of layered perovskites through metathesis: synthesis of new quadruple perovskites A2La2CuTi3O12 (A = Sr, Ca).

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, T; Ramesha, K; Lofland, S E; Ramanujachary, K V; Subbanna, G N; Gopalakrishnan, J

    2004-03-22

    We describe the synthesis of two new quadruple perovskites, Sr(2)La(2)CuTi(3)O(12) (I) and Ca(2)La(2)CuTi(3)O(12) (II), by solid-state metathesis reaction between K(2)La(2)Ti(3)O(10) and A(2)CuO(2)Cl(2) (A = Sr, Ca). I is formed at 920 degrees C/12 h, and II, at 750 degrees C/24 h. Both the oxides crystallize in a tetragonal (P4/mmm) quadruple perovskite structure (a = 3.9098(2) and c = 15.794(1) A for I; a = 3.8729(5) and c = 15.689(2) A for II). We have determined the structures of I and II by Rietveld refinement of powder XRD data. The structure consists of perovskite-like octahedral CuO(4/2)O(2/2) sheets alternating with triple octahedral Ti(3)O(18/2) sheets along the c-direction. The refinement shows La/A disorder but no Cu/Ti disorder in the structure. The new cuprates show low magnetization (0.0065 micro(B) for I and 0.0033 micro(B) for II) suggesting that the Cu(II) spins are in an antiferromagnetically ordered state. Both I and II transform at high temperatures to 3D perovskites where La/Sr and Cu/Ti are disordered, suggesting that I and II are metastable phases having been formed in the low-temperature metathesis reaction. Interestingly, the reaction between K(2)La(2)Ti(3)O(10) and Ca(2)CuO(2)Cl(2) follows a different route at 650 degrees C, K(2)La(2)Ti(3)O(10) + Ca(2)CuO(2)Cl(2) --> CaLa(2)Ti(3)O(10) + CaCuO(2) + 2KCl, revealing multiple reaction pathways for metathesis reactions.

  1. Impact of Atomic Structure on Absolute Energy Levels of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    There has been a staggeringly rapid increase in the photovoltaic performance of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite - greater than 19 percent solar cell power conversion efficiency has been reported in less than five years since the first report in 2009. Despite the progress in device performance, structure-property relationships in MAPbI3 are still poorly understood. I will present our recent findings on the impact of changing the Pb-I bond length and Pb-I-Pb bond angle on the electronic structure of MAPbI3. By using the combination of temperature dependent X-ray scattering, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, absorbance and PL spectroscopy, we show that the energy levels of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) shift in the same direction as MAPbI3 goes through tetragonal-to-cubic structural phase transition wherein the rotational angle of PbI6 octahedra is the order parameter of the transition. Our experimental results are corroborated by density functional theory calculations which show that the lattice expansion and bond angle distortion cause different degree of orbital overlap between the Pb and I atoms and the anti-bonding orbital nature of both HOMO and LUMO results in the same direction of their shift. Moreover, through pair distribution function analysis of X-ray scattering, we discovered that the majority of MAPbI3 in thin film solar cell layer has highly disordered structure with a coherence range of only 1.4 nm. The nanostructuring correlates with a blueshift of the absorption onset and increases the photoluminescence. Our results underscore the importance of understanding the structure-property relationships in order to improve the device performance of metal-organic perovskites.

  2. Crystallographic and Electronic Structure of the Sr3Sb2CoO9 Triple Perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, W.; Cardona, R.; Landínez Téllez, D. A.; Roa-Rojas, J.

    2014-04-01

    Compounds The perovskites are materials with physical and chemical characteristics that make them optimal for application in the technological and scientist. When the ideal formula of perovskite ABO3 is modified by introducing a special structural arrangement can get to get triple perovskites, which correspond to the formula A3B2B'O9. In this work we report the synthesis process and the study of electronic structure and crystal Sr3Sb2CoO9 new triple perovskite. From the experiments of X-ray Diffraction and the application of the Rietveld refinement method was revealed that the system crystallizes in a perovskite structure with a characteristic triple given by the space group Immm (#71) and lattice parameters a=9.791(9) Å, b=5.656(7) Å and c=16.957(8) Å. Ab initio calculations of density of states (DOS) and electronic structure were carried out for this perovskite-like system by using the Quantum EXPRESSO code. The exchange-correlation potential was treated using the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA). All calculations were carried-out using spin polarization. ©2013 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of 4- tert -Butylpyridine as a Hole Transport Layer Morphological Controller in Perovskite Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shen; Sina, Mahsa; Parikh, Pritesh; Uekert, Taylor; Shahbazian, Brian; Devaraj, Arun; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-09-14

    Hybrid organic-inorganic materials for high efficiency, low cost photovoltaic devices have seen rapid progress since the introduction of lead based perovskites and solid-state hole transport layers. Although majority of the materials used for perovskite solar cells (PSC) are introduced from dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the presence of a perovskite capping layer as opposed to a single dye molecule (in DSSCs) changes the interactions between the various layers in perovskite solar cells. 4-tert-butylpyridine (tBP), commonly used in PSCs, is assumed to function as a charge recombination inhibitor, similar to DSSCs. However, the presence of a perovskite capping layer calls for a re-evaluation of its function in PSCs. Using TEM (transmission electron microscopy), we first confirm the role of tBP as a HTL morphology controller in PSCs. Our observations suggest that tBP significantly improves the uniformity of the HTL and avoids accumulation of Li salt. We also study degradation pathways by using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and APT (atom probe tomography) to investigate and visualize in 3-dimensions the moisture content associated with the Li salt. Long term effects, over 1000 hours, due to evaporation of tBP have also been studied. Based on our findings, a PSC failure mechanism associated with the morphological change of the HTL is proposed. tBP, the morphology controller in HTL, plays a key role in this process and thus this study highlights the need for additive materials with higher boiling points for consistent long term performance of PSCs.

  4. Role of 4-tert-Butylpyridine as a Hole Transport Layer Morphological Controller in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shen; Sina, Mahsa; Parikh, Pritesh; Uekert, Taylor; Shahbazian, Brian; Devaraj, Arun; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-09-14

    Hybrid organic-inorganic materials for high-efficiency, low-cost photovoltaic devices have seen rapid progress since the introduction of lead based perovskites and solid-state hole transport layers. Although majority of the materials used for perovskite solar cells (PSC) are introduced from dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the presence of a perovskite capping layer as opposed to a single dye molecule (in DSSCs) changes the interactions between the various layers in perovskite solar cells. 4-tert-Butylpyridine (tBP), commonly used in PSCs, is assumed to function as a charge recombination inhibitor, similar to DSSCs. However, the presence of a perovskite capping layer calls for a re-evaluation of its function in PSCs. Using TEM (transmission electron microscopy), we first confirm the role of tBP as a HTL morphology controller in PSCs. Our observations suggest that tBP significantly improves the uniformity of the HTL and avoids accumulation of Li salt. We also study degradation pathways by using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and APT (atom probe tomography) to investigate and visualize in 3-dimensions the moisture content associated with the Li salt. Long-term effects, over 1000 h, due to evaporation of tBP have also been studied. Based on our findings, a PSC failure mechanism associated with the morphological change of the HTL is proposed. tBP, the morphology controller in HTL, plays a key role in this process, and thus this study highlights the need for additive materials with higher boiling points for consistent long-term performance of PSCs.

  5. Magnetic and structural aspects of semiconducting perovskites RVO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoda, Masashige; Nagasawa, Hiroshi

    1996-08-01

    Magnetic and structural aspects of the perovskite system RVO 3 ( R = La, Ce, Pr and Nd) with V 3+ ions have been studied by the measurements of X-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity and magnetization. In LaVO 3, besides the antiferromagnetic transition at 147 K and the sharp change in the lattice constants around 140 K, there existed anomalies at 270 K and 670 K for the paramagnetic state. A high temperature series expansion analysis gave the antiferromagnetic exchange constant of 43 K. In CeVO 3, PrVO 3 and NdVO 3, the remanent magnetization essentially originated from the antisymmetric interaction of V ions appeared at about 150 K. There was the gradual change in the lattice constants of the last two compounds between 130 K and 200 K. Unusual temperature dependence of the remanence was observed and qualitatively understood from the molecular field of canted moment acting on the 4 f spins of R ions. At low temperatures, there was observed the peak of reversible susceptibility in CeVO 3 and PrVO 3 that was suggestive of additional structural transition.

  6. Electronic Structure Approach to Tunable Electronic Properties of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Garnett; Huhn, William; Mitzi, David B.; Kanai, Yosuke; Blum, Volker

    We present a study of the electronic structure of layered hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) materials using all-electron density-functional theory. Varying the nature of the organic and inorganic layers should enable systematically fine-tuning the carrier properties of each component. Using the HSE06 hybrid density functional including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), we validate the principle of tuning subsystem-specific parts of the electron band structures and densities of states in CH3NH3PbX3 (X=Cl, Br, I) compared to a modified organic component in layered (C6H5C2H4NH3) 2PbX4 (X=Cl, Br, I) and C20H22S4N2PbX4 (X=Cl, Br, I). We show that tunable shifts of electronic levels indeed arise by varying Cl, Br, I as the inorganic components, and CH3NH3+ , C6H5C2H4NH3+ , C20H22S4N22 + as the organic components. SOC is found to play an important role in splitting the conduction bands of the HOIP compounds investigated here. The frontier orbitals of the halide shift, increasing the gap, when Cl is substituted for Br and I.

  7. ZrO2/TiO2 Electron Collection Layer for Efficient Meso-Superstructured Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Mejía Escobar, Mario Alejandro; Pathak, Sandeep; Liu, Jiewei; Snaith, Henry J; Jaramillo, Franklin

    2017-01-25

    Since the first reports of efficient organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells in 2012, an explosion of research activity has emerged around the world, which has led to a rise in the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) to over 20%. Despite the impressive efficiency, a key area of the device which remains suboptimal is the electron extraction layer and its interface with the photoactive perovskite. Here, we implement an electron collection "bilayer" composed of a thin layer of zirconia coated with titania, sitting upon the transparent conductive oxide fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). With this double collection layer we have reached up to 17.9% power conversion efficiency, delivering a stabilized power output (SPO) of 17.0%, measured under simulated AM 1.5 sunlight of 100 mW cm(-2) irradiance. Finally, we propose a mechanism of the charge transfer processes within the fabricated architectures in order to explain the obtained performance of the devices.

  8. Novel CdS Hole-Blocking Layer for Photostable Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Insung; Yong, Kijung

    2016-02-17

    Currently, the stability issue of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is one of the most critical obstacles in the commercialization of PSCs. Although incredible advances in the photovoltaic efficiencies of PSCs have been achieved in the past few years, research on the stability of PSCs has been relatively less explored. In this study, a new kind of CdS hole-blocking layer replacing the traditional compact TiO2 layer is developed to improve the photostability of PSCs because the intrinsic oxygen vacancies of the TiO2 surface are suspected to be the main cause for the photoinduced degradation of PSCs. As a result, PSCs with the CdS layer exhibit considerably improved photostability, maintaining over 90% of the initial efficiency after continuous sunlight illumination for 12 h, while the TiO2 PSC retains only 18% of the initial efficiency under the same conditions. Charge-transfer characteristics related to photodegradation are investigated by various analyses including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay and time-resolved photoluminescence decay measurements. the CdS PSC exhibits negligible degradation in the charge-carrier dynamics, while the TiO2 PSC suffers from severely damaged characteristics like increased charge recombination rate, charge-transfer resistance, and reduced charge extraction rate.

  9. Layered oxygen-deficient double perovskite as an efficient and stable anode for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Sengodan, Sivaprakash; Choi, Sihyuk; Jun, Areum; Shin, Tae Ho; Ju, Young-Wan; Jeong, Hu Young; Shin, Jeeyoung; Irvine, John T S; Kim, Guntae

    2015-02-01

    Different layered perovskite-related oxides are known to exhibit important electronic, magnetic and electrochemical properties. Owing to their excellent mixed-ionic and electronic conductivity and fast oxygen kinetics, cation layered double perovskite oxides such as PrBaCo2O5 in particular have exhibited excellent properties as solid oxide fuel cell oxygen electrodes. Here, we show for the first time that related layered materials can be used as high-performance fuel electrodes. Good redox stability with tolerance to coking and sulphur contamination from hydrocarbon fuels is demonstrated for the layered perovskite anode PrBaMn2O5+δ (PBMO). The PBMO anode is fabricated by in situ annealing of Pr0.5Ba0.5MnO3-δ in fuel conditions and actual fuel cell operation is demonstrated. At 800 °C, layered PBMO shows high electrical conductivity of 8.16 S cm(-1) in 5% H2 and demonstrates peak power densities of 1.7 and 1.3 W cm(-2) at 850 °C using humidified hydrogen and propane fuels, respectively.

  10. Room-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2 O3 : Impact on Efficiency, Stability and Surface Properties in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kot, Malgorzata; Das, Chittaranjan; Wang, Zhiping; Henkel, Karsten; Rouissi, Zied; Wojciechowski, Konrad; Snaith, Henry J; Schmeisser, Dieter

    2016-12-20

    In this work, solar cells with a freshly made CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite film showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.4 % whereas the one with 50 days aged perovskite film only 6.1 %. However, when the aged perovskite was covered with a layer of Al2 O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at room temperature (RT), the PCE value was clearly enhanced. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study showed that the ALD precursors are chemically active only at the perovskite surface and passivate it. Moreover, the RT-ALD-Al2 O3 -covered perovskite films showed enhanced ambient air stability.

  11. Structure - property relations in lead tungstate based perovskite relaxor ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhas, Pavol

    The structure and dielectric properties of (1 - x)Pb(Sc 2/3W1/3)O3-(x)PbTiO3 (PSW-PT), (1 - x)Pb(Sc2/3W1/3)O 3-(x)PbZrO3 (PSW-PZ) and (1 - x)Pb(Sc1/2W1/4Ti1/4)O3-( x)Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PSWT-PSN) ceramics have been investigated over a full substitution range. All compositions with x < 0.5 adopt a cubic perovskite structure; however, for x ≤ 0.25 the periodicity of the lattice is doubled due to a 1:1 ordered distribution of the B-site cations. The structural order in PSW can be described by a "random site model" with one cation site occupied by Sc3+ and the other by a random distribution of the remaining ions ( Sc3+1/3W6+2/3 ). This ordering is destabilized in solid solutions of PSW with PbZrO 3, but highly stabilized by PbTiO3, with a degree of order in excess of 95% for x ≤ 0.25 in (1 - x )PSW-(x)PT. The distinct effects of Zr and Ti on the B-site order are accompanied by remarkably different alterations in the dielectric response of the two solid solutions. Both systems are relaxor ferroelectrics, and for the substitution of PZ the temperature of permittivity maximum Tepsilon,max increases with x. However, Tepsilon,max decreases for additions of Ti up to x ≈ 0.25, even though PT has a much higher Curie temperature ( TC = 763 K) than PZ (503 K). Variations of T epsilon,max in the PSW-PT system could be also induced by altering the degree of order of a given composition; changes as high as 50°C were observed for x = 0.25. Strong effects of order were also observed in (0.25)PSWT-(0.75)PSN, where the introduction of partial order induced a relaxor to ferroelectric transition. To understand the relations between the atomic structure and dielectric properties, the effects of PT and PZ on the structure and ordering of PSW were studied using synchrotron x-ray and neutron diffraction. Rietveld refinement was carried out on the PSW-PT and PSW-PZ systems to determine their average long-range crystallographic structure, along with Pair Distribution Function (PDF

  12. Artificial layered perovskite oxides A(B{sub 0.5}B′{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} as potential solar energy conversion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hungru; Umezawa, Naoto

    2015-02-07

    Perovskite oxides with a d{sup 0} electronic configuration are promising photocatalysts and exhibit high electron mobilities. However, their band gaps are too large for efficient solar energy conversion. On the other hand, transition metal cations with partially filled d{sup n} electronic configurations give rise to visible light absorption. In this study, by using hybrid density functional theory calculations, it is demonstrated that the virtues of the two categories of materials can be combined in perovskite oxide A(B{sub 0.5}B′{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} with a layered B-site ordering along the [001] direction. The electronic structures of the four selected perovskite oxide compounds, La(Ti{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, La(Ti{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, Sr(Nb{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, and Sr(Nb{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} are calculated and discussed.

  13. Perovskite-supported palladium for methane oxidation - structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Eyssler, Arnim; Lu, Ye; Matam, Santhosh Kumar; Weidenkaff, Anke; Ferri, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Palladium is the precious metal of choice for methane oxidation and perovskite-type oxides offer the possibility to stabilize it as PdO, considered crucial for catalytic activity. Pd can adopt different oxidation and coordination states when associated with perovskite-type oxides. Here, we review our work on the effect of perovskite composition on the oxidation and coordination states of Pd and its influence on catalytic activity for methane oxidation in the case of typical Mn, Fe and Co perovskite-based oxidation catalysts. Especially X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is shown to be crucial to fingerprint the different coordination states of Pd. Pd substitutes Fe and Co in the octahedral sites but without modifying catalytic activity with respect to the Pd-free perovskite. On LaMnO(3) palladium is predominantly exposed at the surface thus bestowing catalytic activity for methane oxidation. However, the occupancy of B-cation sites of the perovskite structure by Pd can be exploited to cyclically activate Pd and to protect it from particle growth. This is explicitly demonstrated for La(Fe, Pd)O(3), where catalytic activity for methane oxidation is enhanced under oscillating redox conditions at 500 °C, therefore paving the way to the practical application in three-way catalysts for stoichiometric natural gas engines.

  14. Interface Play between Perovskite and Hole Selective Layer on the Performance and Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Salado, Manuel; Idigoras, Jesus; Calio, Laura; Kazim, Samrana; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Anta, Juan A; Ahmad, Shahzada

    2016-12-21

    Perovskite solar cells with variety of hole selective contacts such as 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD), poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), poly[bis(4-phenyl)(2,5,6-trimentlyphenyl)amine], 5,10,15-trihexyl-3,8,13-tris(4-methoxyphenyl)-10,15-dihydro-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3',2'-c]carbazole (HMPDI), and 2',7'-bis(bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino)spiro[cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene-4,9'-fluorene] were employed to elucidate its role at the interface of perovskite and metallic cathode. Microscopy images revealed Spiro-OMeTAD and HMPDI produce smoother and intimate contact between perovskite/hole transporting materials (HTM) interfaces among others evaluated here. This morphological feature appears to be connected with three fundamental facts: (1) hole injection to the HTM is much more efficient as evidenced by photoluminescence measurements, (2) recombination losses are less important as evidenced by intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy measurements, and (3) fabricated solar cells are much more robust against degradation by moisture. Devices with higher open-circuit photovoltages are characterized by higher values of the recombination resistance extracted from the impedance data. The variation in device hysteresis behavior can be ascribed mainly due to the molecular interaction and the core of HTM employed. In all cases, this fact is related with a larger value of the low-frequency capacitance, which indicates that the HTM can induce specific slow processes of ion accumulation at the interface. Notably, these processes tend to slowly relax in time, as hysteresis is substantially reduced for aged devices.

  15. Preparation of ultra-thin and high-quality WO3 compact layers and comparision of WO3 and TiO2 compact layer thickness in planar perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jincheng; Shi, Chengwu; Chen, Junjun; Wang, Yanqing; Li, Mingqian

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the ultra-thin and high-quality WO3 compact layers were successfully prepared by spin-coating-pyrolysis method using the tungsten isopropoxide solution in isopropanol. The influence of WO3 and TiO2 compact layer thickness on the photovoltaic performance of planar perovskite solar cells was systematically compared, and the interface charge transfer and recombination in planar perovskite solar cells with TiO2 compact layer was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results revealed that the optimum thickness of WO3 and TiO2 compact layer was 15 nm and 60 nm. The planar perovskite solar cell with 15 nm WO3 compact layer gave a 9.69% average and 10.14% maximum photoelectric conversion efficiency, whereas the planar perovskite solar cell with 60 nm TiO2 compact layer achieved a 11.79% average and 12.64% maximum photoelectric conversion efficiency.

  16. Prospects of e-beam evaporated molybdenum oxide as a hole transport layer for perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, F.; Khoshsirat, N.; Duffin, J. L.; Wang, H.; Ostrikov, K.; Bell, J. M.; Tesfamichael, T.

    2017-09-01

    Perovskite solar cells have emerged as one of the most efficient and low cost technologies for delivering of solar electricity due to their exceptional optical and electrical properties. Commercialization of the perovskite solar cells is, however, limited because of the higher cost and environmentally sensitive organic hole transport materials such as spiro-OMETAD and PEDOT:PSS. In this study, an empirical simulation was performed using the Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator software to explore the MoOx thin film as an alternative hole transport material for perovskite solar cells. In the simulation, properties of MoOx thin films deposited by the electron beam evaporation technique from high purity (99.99%) MoO3 pellets at different substrate temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C) were used as input parameters. The films were highly transparent (>80%) and have low surface roughness (≤2 nm) with bandgap energy ranging between 3.75 eV and 3.45 eV. Device simulation has shown that the MoOx deposited at room temperature can work in both the regular and inverted structures of the perovskite solar cell with a promising efficiency of 18.25%. Manufacturing of the full device is planned in order to utilize the MoOx as an alternative hole transport material for improved performance, good stability, and low cost of the perovskite solar cell.

  17. Pin-Hole Free Perovskite Film for Solar Cells Application Prepared by Controlled Two-Step Spin-Coating Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahtiar, A.; Rahmanita, S.; Inayatie, Y. D.

    2017-05-01

    Morphology of perovskite film is a key important for achieving high performance perovskite solar cells. Perovskite films are commonly prepared by two-step spin-coating method. However, pin-holes are frequently formed in perovskite films due to incomplete conversion of lead-iodide (PbI2) into perovskite CH3NH3PbI3. Pin-holes in perovskite film cause large hysteresis in current-voltage curve of solar cells due to large series resistance between perovskite layer-hole transport material. Moreover, crystal structure and grain size of perovskite crystal are also other important parameters for achieving high performance solar cells, which are significantly affected by preparation of perovskite film. We studied the effect of preparation of perovskite film using controlled spin-coating parameters on crystal structure and morphological properties of perovskite film. We used two-step spin-coating method for preparation of perovskite film with varied spinning speed, spinning time and temperature of spin-coating process to control growth of perovskite crystal aimed to produce high quality perovskite crystal with pin-hole free and large grain size. All experiment was performed in air with high humidity (larger than 80%). The best crystal structure, pin-hole free with large grain crystal size of perovskite film was obtained from film prepared at room temperature with spinning speed 1000 rpm for 20 seconds and annealed at 100°C for 300 seconds.

  18. Synthesis of Freestanding Single-crystal Perovskite Films and Heterostructures by Etching of Sacrificial Water-soluble Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Di; Baek, David J.; Hong, Seung Sae; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hwang, Harold Y.

    2016-08-22

    The ability to create and manipulate materials in two-dimensional (2D) form has repeatedly had transformative impact on science and technology. In parallel with the exfoliation and stacking of intrinsically layered crystals, atomic-scale thin film growth of complex materials has enabled the creation of artificial 2D heterostructures with novel functionality and emergent phenomena, as seen in perovskite heterostructures. However, separation of these layers from the growth substrate has proven challenging, limiting the manipulation capabilities of these heterostructures with respect to exfoliated materials. Here we present a general method to create freestanding perovskite membranes. The key is the epitaxial growth of water-soluble Sr3Al2O6 on perovskite substrates, followed by in situ growth of films and heterostructures. Millimetre-size single-crystalline membranes are produced by etching the Sr3Al2O6 layer in water, providing the opportunity to transfer them to arbitrary substrates and integrate them with heterostructures of semiconductors and layered compounds.

  19. Synthesis of freestanding single-crystal perovskite films and heterostructures by etching of sacrificial water-soluble layers

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Di; Baek, David J.; Hong, Seung Sae; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hwang, Harold Y.

    2016-09-12

    Here, the ability to create and manipulate materials in two-dimensional (2D) form has repeatedly had transformative impact on science and technology. In parallel with the exfoliation and stacking of intrinsically layered crystals1, 2, 3, 4, 5, atomic-scale thin film growth of complex materials has enabled the creation of artificial 2D heterostructures with novel functionality6, 7, 8, 9 and emergent phenomena, as seen in perovskite heterostructures10, 11, 12. However, separation of these layers from the growth substrate has proved challenging, limiting the manipulation capabilities of these heterostructures with respect to exfoliated materials. Here we present a general method to create freestanding perovskite membranes. The key is the epitaxial growth of water-soluble Sr3Al2O6 on perovskite substrates, followed by in situ growth of films and heterostructures. Millimetre-size single-crystalline membranes are produced by etching the Sr3Al2O6 layer in water, providing the opportunity to transfer them to arbitrary substrates and integrate them with heterostructures of semiconductors and layered compounds13, 14.

  20. Synthesis of freestanding single-crystal perovskite films and heterostructures by etching of sacrificial water-soluble layers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Di; Baek, David J; Hong, Seung Sae; Kourkoutis, Lena F; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hwang, Harold Y

    2016-12-01

    The ability to create and manipulate materials in two-dimensional (2D) form has repeatedly had transformative impact on science and technology. In parallel with the exfoliation and stacking of intrinsically layered crystals, atomic-scale thin film growth of complex materials has enabled the creation of artificial 2D heterostructures with novel functionality and emergent phenomena, as seen in perovskite heterostructures. However, separation of these layers from the growth substrate has proved challenging, limiting the manipulation capabilities of these heterostructures with respect to exfoliated materials. Here we present a general method to create freestanding perovskite membranes. The key is the epitaxial growth of water-soluble Sr 3Al 2O 6 on perovskite substrates, followed by in situ growth of films and heterostructures. Millimetre-size single-crystalline membranes are produced by etching the Sr 3Al 2O 6 layer in water, providing the opportunity to transfer them to arbitrary substrates and integrate them with heterostructures of semiconductors and layered compounds.

  1. Synthesis of freestanding single-crystal perovskite films and heterostructures by etching of sacrificial water-soluble layers

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Di; Baek, David J.; Hong, Seung Sae; ...

    2016-09-12

    Here, the ability to create and manipulate materials in two-dimensional (2D) form has repeatedly had transformative impact on science and technology. In parallel with the exfoliation and stacking of intrinsically layered crystals1, 2, 3, 4, 5, atomic-scale thin film growth of complex materials has enabled the creation of artificial 2D heterostructures with novel functionality6, 7, 8, 9 and emergent phenomena, as seen in perovskite heterostructures10, 11, 12. However, separation of these layers from the growth substrate has proved challenging, limiting the manipulation capabilities of these heterostructures with respect to exfoliated materials. Here we present a general method to create freestandingmore » perovskite membranes. The key is the epitaxial growth of water-soluble Sr3Al2O6 on perovskite substrates, followed by in situ growth of films and heterostructures. Millimetre-size single-crystalline membranes are produced by etching the Sr3Al2O6 layer in water, providing the opportunity to transfer them to arbitrary substrates and integrate them with heterostructures of semiconductors and layered compounds13, 14.« less

  2. Synthesis of freestanding single-crystal perovskite films and heterostructures by etching of sacrificial water-soluble layers

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Di; Baek, David J.; Hong, Seung Sae; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hwang, Harold Y.

    2016-09-12

    Here, the ability to create and manipulate materials in two-dimensional (2D) form has repeatedly had transformative impact on science and technology. In parallel with the exfoliation and stacking of intrinsically layered crystals1, 2, 3, 4, 5, atomic-scale thin film growth of complex materials has enabled the creation of artificial 2D heterostructures with novel functionality6, 7, 8, 9 and emergent phenomena, as seen in perovskite heterostructures10, 11, 12. However, separation of these layers from the growth substrate has proved challenging, limiting the manipulation capabilities of these heterostructures with respect to exfoliated materials. Here we present a general method to create freestanding perovskite membranes. The key is the epitaxial growth of water-soluble Sr3Al2O6 on perovskite substrates, followed by in situ growth of films and heterostructures. Millimetre-size single-crystalline membranes are produced by etching the Sr3Al2O6 layer in water, providing the opportunity to transfer them to arbitrary substrates and integrate them with heterostructures of semiconductors and layered compounds13, 14.

  3. Synthesis of freestanding single-crystal perovskite films and heterostructures by etching of sacrificial water-soluble layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Di; Baek, David J.; Hong, Seung Sae; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hwang, Harold Y.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to create and manipulate materials in two-dimensional (2D) form has repeatedly had transformative impact on science and technology. In parallel with the exfoliation and stacking of intrinsically layered crystals, atomic-scale thin film growth of complex materials has enabled the creation of artificial 2D heterostructures with novel functionality and emergent phenomena, as seen in perovskite heterostructures. However, separation of these layers from the growth substrate has proved challenging, limiting the manipulation capabilities of these heterostructures with respect to exfoliated materials. Here we present a general method to create freestanding perovskite membranes. The key is the epitaxial growth of water-soluble Sr 3Al 2O 6 on perovskite substrates, followed by in situ growth of films and heterostructures. Millimetre-size single-crystalline membranes are produced by etching the Sr 3Al 2O 6 layer in water, providing the opportunity to transfer them to arbitrary substrates and integrate them with heterostructures of semiconductors and layered compounds.

  4. Lattice instability and competing spin structures in the double perovskite insulator Sr2FeOsO6.

    PubMed

    Paul, Avijit Kumar; Reehuis, Manfred; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Yan, Binghai; Hoser, Andreas; Többens, Daniel M; Abdala, Paula M; Adler, Peter; Jansen, Martin; Felser, Claudia

    2013-10-18

    The semiconductor Sr2FeOsO6, depending on temperature, adopts two types of spin structures that differ in the spin sequence of ferrimagnetic iron-osmium layers along the tetragonal c axis. Neutron powder diffraction experiments, 57Fe Mössbauer spectra, and density functional theory calculations suggest that this behavior arises because a lattice instability resulting in alternating iron-osmium distances fine-tunes the balance of competing exchange interactions. Thus, Sr2FeOsO6 is an example of a double perovskite, in which the electronic phases are controlled by the interplay of spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom.

  5. Tackling pseudosymmetry problems in electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses of perovskite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Elisabetta; Kaercher, Pamela; Mecklenburgh, Julian; Wheeler, John

    2016-04-01

    Perovskite minerals form an important mineral group that has applications in Earth science and emerging alternative energy technologies, however crystallographic quantification of these minerals with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is not accurate due to pseudosymmetry problems. The silicate perovskite Bridgmanite, (Mg,Fe)SiO3, is understood to be the dominant phase in the Earth's lower mantle. Gaining insight into its physical and rheological properties is therefore vital to understand the dynamics of the Earth's deep interior. Rock deformation experiments on analogue perovskite phases, for example (Ca,Sr)TiO3, combined with quantitative microstructural analyses of the recovered samples by EBSD, yield datasets that can reveal what deformation mechanisms may dominate the flow of perovskite in the lower mantle. Additionally, perovskite structures have important technological applications as new, suitable cathodes for the operation of more efficient and environmentally-friendly solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In recent years they have also been recognised as a potential substitute for silicon in the next generation of photovoltaic cells for the construction of economic and energy efficient solar panels. EBSD has the potential to be a valuable tool for the study of crystal orientations achieved in perovskite substrates as crystal alignment has a direct control on the properties of these materials. However, perovskite structures currently present us with challenges during the automated indexing of Kikuchi bands in electron backscatter diffraction patterns (EBSPs). Such challenges are represented by the pseudosymmetric character of perovskites, where atoms are subtly displaced (0.005 nm to 0.05 nm) from their higher symmetry positions. In orthorhombic Pbnm perovskites, for example, pseudosymmetry may be evaluated from the c/a unit cell parameter ratio, which is very close to 1. Two main types of distortions from the higher symmetry structure are recognised: a

  6. Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Low-Temperature Processed Indium Oxide Electron Selective Layers.

    PubMed

    Qin, Minchao; Ma, Junjie; Ke, Weijun; Qin, Pingli; Lei, Hongwei; Tao, Hong; Zheng, Xiaolu; Xiong, Liangbin; Liu, Qin; Chen, Zhiliang; Lu, Junzheng; Yang, Guang; Fang, Guojia

    2016-04-06

    Indium oxide (In2O3) as a promising n-type semiconductor material has been widely employed in optoelectronic applications. In this work, we applied low-temperature solution-processed In2O3 nanocrystalline film as an electron selective layer (ESL) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) for the first time. By taking advantages of good optical and electrical properties of In2O3 such as high mobility, wide band gap, and high transmittance, we obtained In2O3-based PSCs with a good efficiency exceeding 13% after optimizing the concentration of the precursor solution and the annealing temperature. Furthermore, to enhance the performance of the In2O3-based PSCs, a phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layer was introduced to modify the surface of the In2O3 film. The PCBM film could fill up the pinholes or cracks along In2O3 grain boundaries to passivate the defects and make the ESL extremely compact and uniform, which is conducive to suppressing the charge recombination. As a result, the efficiency of the In2O3-based PSC was improved to 14.83% accompanied with V(OC), J(SC), and FF being 1.08 V, 20.06 mA cm(-2), and 0.685, respectively.

  7. Local A-Site Layering in Rare-Earth Orthochromite Perovskites by Solution Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Luke M; Kashtiban, Reza J; Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Ramasse, Quentin M; Sloan, Jeremy; Walton, Richard I

    2016-12-19

    Cation size effects were examined in the mixed A-site perovskites La0.5 Sm0.5 CrO3 and La0.5 Tb0.5 CrO3 prepared through both hydrothermal and solid-state methods. Atomically resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the transmission electron microscope shows that while the La and Sm cations are randomly distributed, increased cation-radius variance in La0.5 Tb0.5 CrO3 results in regions of localised La and Tb layers, an atomic arrangement exclusive to the hydrothermally prepared material. Solid-state preparation gives lower homogeneity resulting in separate nanoscale regions rich in La(3+) and Tb(3+) . The A-site layering in hydrothermal La0.5 Tb0.5 CrO3 is randomised upon annealing at high temperature, resulting in magnetic behaviour that is dependent on synthesis route. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  8. Temperature-dependent fatigue behaviors of ferroelectric ABO3-type and layered perovskite oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, G. L.; Liu, J.-M.; Wang, Y. P.; Wu, D.; Zhang, S. T.; Shao, Q. Y.; Liu, Z. G.

    2004-04-01

    The temperature-dependent dielectric and ferroelectric fatigue behaviors of ABO3-type perovskite thin films Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) and Pb0.75La0.25TiO3 (PLT) and layered Aurivillius thin films SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) and Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 (BLT) with Pt electrodes are studied. The improved fatigue resistance of PZT and PLT at a low temperature can be explained by the defect-induced suppression of domain switch/nucleation near the film/electrode interface, which requires a long-range diffusion of defects and charges. It is argued that the fatigue effect of SBT and BLT is attributed to the competition between domain-wall pinning and depinning. The perovskitelike slabs and/or (Bi2O2)2+ layers act as barriers for long-range diffusion of defects and charges, resulting in localization of the defects and charges. Thus, the fatigued SBT and BLT can be easily rejuvenated by a high electric field over a wide temperature range.

  9. Observation of Nanoscale Morphological and Structural Degradation in Perovskite Solar Cells by in Situ TEM.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Ming, Wenmei; Du, Mao-Hua; Das, Sanjib; Rouleau, Christopher M; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2016-11-30

    High-resolution in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy were applied to systematically investigate morphological and structural degradation behaviors in perovskite films during different environmental exposure treatments. In situ TEM experiment indicates that vacuum itself is not likely to cause degradation in perovskites. In addition, these materials were found to degrade significantly when they were heated to ∼50-60 °C (i.e., a solar cell's field operating temperature) under illumination. This observation thus conveys a critically important message that the instability of perovskite solar cells at such a low temperature may limit their real field commercial applications. It was further unveiled that oxygen most likely attacks the CH3NH3(+) organic moiety rather than the PbI6 component of perovskites during ambient air exposure at room temperature. This finding grants a deeper understanding of the perovskite degradation mechanism and suggests a way to prevent degradation of perovskites by tailoring the organic moiety component.

  10. Low-temperature processed electron collection layers of graphene/TiO2 nanocomposites in thin film perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jacob Tse-Wei; Ball, James M; Barea, Eva M; Abate, Antonio; Alexander-Webber, Jack A; Huang, Jian; Saliba, Michael; Mora-Sero, Iván; Bisquert, Juan; Snaith, Henry J; Nicholas, Robin J

    2014-02-12

    The highest efficiencies in solution-processable perovskite-based solar cells have been achieved using an electron collection layer that requires sintering at 500 °C. This is unfavorable for low-cost production, applications on plastic substrates, and multijunction device architectures. Here we report a low-cost, solution-based deposition procedure utilizing nanocomposites of graphene and TiO2 nanoparticles as the electron collection layers in meso-superstructured perovskite solar cells. The graphene nanoflakes provide superior charge-collection in the nanocomposites, enabling the entire device to be fabricated at temperatures no higher than 150 °C. These solar cells show remarkable photovoltaic performance with a power conversion efficiency up to 15.6%. This work demonstrates that graphene/metal oxide nanocomposites have the potential to contribute significantly toward the development of low-cost solar cells.

  11. Solution-Processed Nb:SnO2 Electron Transport Layer for Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaodong; Yang, Dong; Yang, Zhou; Feng, Jiangshan; Zhu, Xuejie; Niu, Jinzhi; Liu, Yucheng; Zhao, Wangen; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2017-01-25

    Electron transport layer (ETL), facilitating charge carrier separation and electron extraction, is a key component in planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We developed an effective ETL using low-temperature solution-processed Nb-doped SnO2 (Nb:SnO2). Compared to the pristine SnO2, the power conversion efficiency of PSCs based on Nb:SnO2 ETL is raised to 17.57% from 15.13%. The splendid performance is attributed to the excellent optical and electronic properties of the Nb:SnO2 material, such as smooth surface, high electron mobility, appropriate electrical conductivity, therefore making a better growth platform for a high quality perovskite absorber layer. Experimental analyses reveal that the Nb:SnO2 ETL significantly enhances the electron extraction and effectively suppresses charge recombination, leading to improved solar cell performance.

  12. Facile fabrication of three-dimensional TiO2 structures for highly efficient perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Segeun; Yoon, Jungjin; Ha, Kyungyeon; Kim, Min-cheol; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kim, Sang Moon; Kang, Seong Min; Park, Sei Jin; Jung, Hyun Suk; Choi, Mansoo

    2016-04-01

    The capability of fabricating three dimensional (3-D) nanostructures with desired morphology is a key to realizing effective light-harvesting strategy in optical applications. In this work, we report a novel 3-D nanopatterning technique that combines ion-assisted aerosol lithography (IAAL) and soft lithography that serves as a facile method to fabricate 3-D nanostructures. Aerosol nanoparticles can be assembled into desired 3-D nanostructures via ion-induced electrostatic focusing and antenna effects from charged nanoparticle structures. Replication of the structures with a polymeric mold allows high throughput fabrication of 3-D nanostructures with various liquid-soluble materials. 3-D flower-patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp was prepared using the reported technique and utilized for fabricating 3-D nanopatterned mesoporous TiO2 layer, which was employed as the electron transport layer in perovskite solar cells. By incorporating the 3-D nanostructures, absorbed photon-to-current efficiency of >95% at 650 nm wavelength and overall power conversion efficiency of 15.96% were achieved. The enhancement can be attributed to an increase in light harvesting efficiency in a broad wavelength range from 400 to 800 nm and more efficient charge collection from enlarged interfacial area between TiO2 and perovskite layers. This hybrid nanopatterning technique has demonstrated to be an effective method to create textures that increase light harvesting and charge collection with 3-D nanostructures in solar cells.

  13. Simple dopant-free hole-transporting materials with p-π conjugated structure for stable perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mengna; Liu, Xueyuan; Zhang, Fei; Liu, Hongli; Liu, Xicheng; Wang, Shirong; Xiao, Yin; Li, Dongmei; Meng, Qingbo; Li, Xianggao

    2017-09-01

    Two simple hole-transporting materials, Me-QTPA and Me-BPZTPA, which consist of p-π conjugated structure, have been synthesized and studied in solid-state perovskite solar cells. Me-QTPA and Me-BPZTPA show outstanding thermal stabilities and appropriate HOMO levels; in addition, these two materials show wide band gaps, thus they can block the electron transport and hence suppress the carrier recombination. The solution-processed CH3NH3PbI3-based device using dopant-free Me-QTPA and Me-BPZTPA can achieve a power conversion efficiency of 9.07% and 8.16%, respectively. The perovskite solar cells with dopant-free Me-QTPA show better performance than the cells with dopant-free spiro-OMeTAD, especially in long-term stability. The power conversion efficiency for the perovskite solar cells with dopant-free Me-QTPA remains almost constant after 600 h. The dopant-free Me-QTPA layer shows strong hydrophobicity with a contact angle of 101.6° to water, which indicates that Me-QTPA has a promising long-term stability at room temperature.

  14. Inverted perovskite solar cells based on lithium-functionalized graphene oxide as an electron-transporting layer.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Esmaiel; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2017-02-04

    Perovskite solar cells with an inverted p-i-n architecture were constructed under ambient conditions by employing materials of lower cost than standard cells. Thus, graphene oxide was used as a hole transporting material and Li-modified graphene oxide as an electron transporting material, while Al was used as a counter electrode. A maximum solar conversion efficiency of 10.2% was achieved by adding a Ti-based sol on the top of the Li-modified graphene oxide layer.

  15. Efficient and Air-Stable Planar Perovskite Solar Cells Formed on Graphene-Oxide-Modified PEDOT:PSS Hole Transport Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hui; Lin, Xuanhuai; Hou, Xian; Pan, Likun; Huang, Sumei; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-10-01

    As a hole transport layer, PEDOT:PSS usually limits the stability and efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) due to its hygroscopic nature and inability to block electrons. Here, a graphene-oxide (GO)-modified PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer was fabricated by spin-coating a GO solution onto the PEDOT:PSS surface. PSCs fabricated on a GO-modified PEDOT:PSS layer exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.34%, which is higher than 11.90% of PSCs with the PEDOT:PSS layer. Furthermore, the stability of the PSCs was significantly improved, with the PCE remaining at 83.5% of the initial PCE values after aging for 39 days in air. The hygroscopic PSS material at the PEDOT:PSS surface was partly removed during spin-coating with the GO solution, which improves the moisture resistance and decreases the contact barrier between the hole transport layer and perovskite layer. The scattered distribution of the GO at the PEDOT:PSS surface exhibits superior wettability, which helps to form a high-quality perovskite layer with better crystallinity and fewer pin holes. Furthermore, the hole extraction selectivity of the GO further inhibits the carrier recombination at the interface between the perovskite and PEDOT:PSS layers. Therefore, the cooperative interactions of these factors greatly improve the light absorption of the perovskite layer, the carrier transport and collection abilities of the PSCs, and especially the stability of the cells.

  16. Preparation of ultra-thin and high-quality WO{sub 3} compact layers and comparision of WO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} compact layer thickness in planar perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jincheng; Shi, Chengwu Chen, Junjun; Wang, Yanqing; Li, Mingqian

    2016-06-15

    In this paper, the ultra-thin and high-quality WO{sub 3} compact layers were successfully prepared by spin-coating-pyrolysis method using the tungsten isopropoxide solution in isopropanol. The influence of WO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} compact layer thickness on the photovoltaic performance of planar perovskite solar cells was systematically compared, and the interface charge transfer and recombination in planar perovskite solar cells with TiO{sub 2} compact layer was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results revealed that the optimum thickness of WO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} compact layer was 15 nm and 60 nm. The planar perovskite solar cell with 15 nm WO{sub 3} compact layer gave a 9.69% average and 10.14% maximum photoelectric conversion efficiency, whereas the planar perovskite solar cell with 60 nm TiO{sub 2} compact layer achieved a 11.79% average and 12.64% maximum photoelectric conversion efficiency. - Graphical abstract: The planar perovskite solar cell with 15 nm WO{sub 3} compact layer gave a 9.69% average and 10.14% maximum photoelectric conversion efficiency, whereas the planar perovskite solar cell with 60 nm TiO{sub 2} compact layer achieved a 11.79% average and 12.64% maximum photoelectric conversion efficiency. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Preparation of ultra-thin and high-quality WO{sub 3} compact layers. • Perovskite solar cell with 15 nm-thick WO{sub 3} compact layer achieved PCE of 10.14%. • Perovskite solar cell with 60 nm-thick TiO{sub 2} compact layer achieved PCE of 12.64%.

  17. Synthesis and thermal stability studies of a series of metastable Dion–Jacobson double-layered neodymium-niobate perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Josepha, Elisha A.; Farooq, Sara; Mitchell, Cinnamon M.; Wiley, John B.

    2014-08-15

    The Dion–Jacobson double-layered perovskite, RbNdNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}, is used as a precursor to synthesize the series ANdNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=H, Li, Na, K, NH{sub 4}, Ag), and (MCl)NdNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} (M=Mn, Fe, Cu) through ion-exchange reactions ≤400 °C. Thermal stability studies indicated that most of these compounds are metastable. A combination of X-ray powder diffraction and differential thermal analysis were used to determine various low temperature decomposition pathways; these pathways were very dependent on the interlayer species. Overall the ANdNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} series was found to be less stable than the corresponding lanthanides, ALaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}. - Graphical abstract: A new series of topochemically-prepared metastable neodymium-containing layered perovskites are studied. - Highlights: • A series of new layered neodymium containing perovskites were synthesized by ion exchange. • Products were studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. • Most of the series are metastable showing exothermic transitions on decomposition. • The Nd compounds are less stable due to the smaller size of the Nd relative to La.

  18. Chemical bath deposited rutile TiO2 compact layer toward efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chao; Wu, Zhenhua; Li, Pengwei; Fan, Jiajie; Zhang, Yiqiang; Shao, Guosheng

    2017-01-01

    TiO2 is a best choice of electron transport layers in perovskite solar cells, due to its high electron mobility and stability. However, traditional TiO2 processing method requires rather high annealing temperature (>500 °C), preventing it from application to flexible devices. Here, we show that TiO2 thin films can be synthesized via chemical bath deposition below 100 °C. Typically, a compact layer of rutile TiO2 is deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated substrates, in an aqueous TiCl4 solution at 70 °C. Through the optimization of precursor concentration and ultraviolet-ozone surface modification, over 12% power conversion efficiency can be achieved for CH3NH3PbI3 based perovskite solar cells. These findings offer a potential low-temperature technical solution in using TiO2 thin film as an effective transport layer for flexible perovskite solar cells.

  19. Syntheses, structures, and ionic conductivities of perovskite-structured lithium–strontium–aluminum/gallium–tantalum-oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Phraewphiphat, Thanya; Iqbal, Muhammad; Suzuki, Kota; Matsuda, Yasuaki; Yonemura, Masao; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji

    2015-05-15

    The ionic conductivities of new perovskite-structured lithium–strontium–aluminum/gallium–tantalum oxides were investigated. Solid solutions of the new perovskite oxides, (Li{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x})(Al{sub (1−x)/2}Ta{sub (1+x)/2})O{sub 3} and (Li{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x})(Ga{sub (1−x)/2}Ta{sub (1+x)/2})O{sub 3}, were synthesized using a ball-milled-assisted solid-state method. The partial substitution of the smaller Ga{sup +3} for Ta{sup +5} resulted in new compositions, the structures of which were determined by neutron diffraction measurements using a cubic perovskite structural model with the Pm−3m space group. Vacancies were introduced into the Sr(Li) sites by the formation of solid solutions with compositions (Li{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x−y}☐{sub y})(Ga{sub [(1−x)/2]−y}Ta{sub [(1+x)/2]+y})O{sub 3}, where the composition range of 0≤y≤0.20 was examined for x=0.2 and 0.25. The highest conductivity, 1.85×10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 250 °C, was obtained for (Li{sub 0.25}Sr{sub 0.625}☐{sub 0.125})(Ga{sub 0.25}Ta{sub 0.75})O{sub 3} (x=0.25, y=0.125). Enhanced ionic conductivities were achieved by the introduction of vacancies at the A-sites. - Graphical abstract: Novel lithium-conducting oxides with the cubic perovskite structure (Li{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x−y}☐{sub y})(Ga{sub [(1−x)/2]−y}Ta{sub [(1+x)/2]+y})O{sub 3} provide a specific solid-solution region with various x and y values, exhibiting the highest ionic conductivity (1.85 S cm{sup −1} at 250 °C) for (Li{sub 0.25}Sr{sub 0.625}☐{sub 0.125})(Ga{sub 0.25}Ta{sub 0.75})O{sub 3} (x=0.25, y=0.125 in (Li{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x−y}☐{sub y})(Ga{sub [(1−x)/2]−y}Ta{sub [(1+x)/2]+y})O{sub 3}). The vacancies (☐) introduced into the A-sites contribute to the enhancement of lithium diffusion in the perovskite structure because of the enlargement of the bottleneck size and suppression of the interaction between lithium and oxygen. - Highlights: • The perovskite-structured novel Li

  20. Research Update: Challenges for high-efficiency hybrid lead-halide perovskite LEDs and the path towards electrically pumped lasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangru; Price, Michael; Deschler, Felix

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid lead-halide perovskites have emerged as promising solution-processed semiconductor materials for thin-film optoelectronics. In this review, we discuss current challenges in perovskite LED performance, using thin-film and nano-crystalline perovskite as emitter layers, and look at device performance and stability. Fabrication of electrically pumped, optical-feedback devices with hybrid lead halide perovskites as gain medium is a future challenge, initiated by the demonstration of optically pumped lasing structures with low gain thresholds. We explain the material parameters affecting optical gain in perovskites and discuss the challenges towards electrically pumped perovskite lasers.

  1. Surface phonons near structural phase transitions of fluoridic perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prade, J.; Kulkarni, A. D.; De Wette, F. W.; Reiger, R.; Schröder, U.; Kress, W.

    1989-04-01

    The fluoridic perovskite KMnF 3 exhibits an antiferrodistortive phase transition which goes along with a soft mode at the R-point of the Brillouin zone. We investigate in this paper the surface phonons of the KF(001) surface at temperatures near this phase transition. The calculations are carried out for relaxed and reconstructed (001) slabs.

  2. Impact of CH3NH3PbI3-PCBM bulk heterojunction active layer on the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Dhirendra K.; Kumar, Pankaj; Kumar, Lokendra

    2017-10-01

    We report here the impact of CH3NH3PbI3-PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layer on the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells. The solar cells were prepared in normal architecture on FTO coated glass substrates with compact TiO2 (c-TiO2) layer on FTO as electron transport layer (ETL) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as hole transport layer (HTL). For comparison, a few solar cells were also prepared in planar heterojunction structure using CH3NH3PbI3 only as the active layer. The bulk heterojunction CH3NH3PbI3-PCBM active layer exhibited very large crystalline grains of 2-3 μm compared to ∼150 nm only in CH3NH3PbI3 active layer. Larger grains in bulk-heterojunction solar cells resulted in enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) through enhancement in all the photovoltaic parameters compared to planar heterojunction solar cells. The bulk-heterojunction solar cells exhibited ∼9.25% PCE with short circuit current density (Jsc) of ∼18.649 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.894 V and Fill Factor (FF) of 0.554. There was ∼36.9% enhancement in the PCE of bulk-heterojunction solar cells compared to that of planar heterojunction solar cells. The larger grains are formed as a result of incorporation on PCBM in the active layer.

  3. Ab-Initio Calculation of Electronic Structure of Lead Halide Perovskites with Formamidinium Cation as an Active Material for Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indari, E. D.; Wungu, T. D. K.; Hidayat, R.

    2017-07-01

    Organic lead halide perovskite material based solar cells show impressive power conversion efficiencies, which can reach above 19 percent for perovskite solar cell with methyl-ammonium cations. These efficiencies are originated from efficient photoexcitation and charge carrier transport and not observed in conventional perovskite crystals. In this preliminary research work, we therefore performed Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation of formamidinium lead iodide (FAPI), an alternative to methyl-ammonium lead iodide (MAPI), to predict their electronic structure and density of state (DOS). The calculation result at the most stable lattice parameters show a good agreement with the experiment results. The obtained band gap energy is 1.307 eV. The valence band is dominantly formed by the 5p orbitals of I- anions, while the conduction band is dominantly formed by the 6p orbitals of Pb2+ cations. The DOS of valence band of this perovskite seems smaller compared to the case of methyl-ammonium lead iodide perovskite, which then may explain the observation of smaller power conversion efficiencies in perovskite solar cells with this formamidinium cations.

  4. Emergent Noncentrosymmetry and Piezoelectricity Driven by Oxygen Octahedral Rotations in n = 2 Dion-Jacobson Phase Layer Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Strayer, Megan E.; Gupta, Arnab Sen; Akamatsu, Hirofumi; Lei, Shiming; Benedek, Nicole A.; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Mallouk, Thomas E.

    2016-04-29

    We demonstrate the loss of centrosymmetry via oxygen octahedral rotations in the n = 2 Dion–Jacobson family of layered oxide perovskites, A'LaB2O7 (A' = Rb, Cs; B = Nb, Ta). Ab initio density functional theory calculations predict that all four materials should adopt polar space groups, in contrast to the results of previous experimental studies that have assigned these materials to the centrosymmetric P4/mmm space group. Optical second harmonic generation experiments confirm the presence of a noncentrosymmetric phase at ambient temperature. Piezoresponse force microscopy experiments also show that this phase is piezoelectric. Moreover, to elucidate the symmetry-breaking and assign the appropriate space groups, the crystal structure of CsLaNb2O7is refined as a function of temperature from synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. Above 550 K, CsLaNb2O7 adopts the previously determined centrosymmetric P4/mmm space group. Between 550 and 350 K, the symmetry is lowered to the noncentrosymmetric space group Amm2. Below 350 K, additional symmetry lowering is observed as peak splitting, but the space group cannot be unambiguously identified.

  5. Improved ambient-stable perovskite solar cells enabled by a hybrid polymeric electron-transporting layer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zonglong; Chueh, Chu -Chen; Zhang, Guangye; Huang, Fei; Yan, He; Jen, Alex K. -Y.

    2016-08-26

    In this study, an efficient inverted perovskite solar cell with decent ambient stability is successfully demonstrated by employing an n-type polymer, poly{[N,N’-bis(2-octyldodecyl)- 1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5’-(2,2’-bithiophene)} (N2200), as the electron-transporting layer (ETL). The device performance can be further enhanced from a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15 to 16.8% by tailoring the electronic properties of N2200 with a polymeric additive, poly[9,9-bis(6’- (N,N’-diethylamino)propyl)-fluorene-alt-9,9-bis(3-ethyl(oxetane- 3-ethyloxy)-hexyl) fluorene] (PFN-Ox). More importantly, the device derived from this hybrid ETL can maintain good ambient stability inherent from the pristine N2200 ETL, for which 60–70% of initial PCE can be retained after being stored in air with 10–20% humidity for 45 days.

  6. Improved ambient-stable perovskite solar cells enabled by a hybrid polymeric electron-transporting layer

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Zonglong; Chueh, Chu -Chen; Zhang, Guangye; ...

    2016-08-26

    In this study, an efficient inverted perovskite solar cell with decent ambient stability is successfully demonstrated by employing an n-type polymer, poly{[N,N’-bis(2-octyldodecyl)- 1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5’-(2,2’-bithiophene)} (N2200), as the electron-transporting layer (ETL). The device performance can be further enhanced from a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15 to 16.8% by tailoring the electronic properties of N2200 with a polymeric additive, poly[9,9-bis(6’- (N,N’-diethylamino)propyl)-fluorene-alt-9,9-bis(3-ethyl(oxetane- 3-ethyloxy)-hexyl) fluorene] (PFN-Ox). More importantly, the device derived from this hybrid ETL can maintain good ambient stability inherent from the pristine N2200 ETL, for which 60–70% of initial PCE can be retained after being stored in air with 10–20% humiditymore » for 45 days.« less

  7. Improved Ambient-Stable Perovskite Solar Cells Enabled by a Hybrid Polymeric Electron-Transporting Layer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zonglong; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Zhang, Guangye; Huang, Fei; Yan, He; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2016-09-22

    In this work, an efficient inverted perovskite solar cell with decent ambient stability is successfully demonstrated by employing an n-type polymer, poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)} (N2200), as the electron-transporting layer (ETL). The device performance can be further enhanced from a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15 to 16.8 % by tailoring the electronic properties of N2200 with a polymeric additive, poly[9,9-bis(6'-(N,N-diethylamino)propyl)-fluorene-alt-9,9-bis(3-ethyl(oxetane-3-ethyloxy)-hexyl) fluorene] (PFN-Ox). More importantly, the device derived from this hybrid ETL can maintain good ambient stability inherent from the pristine N2200 ETL, for which 60-70 % of initial PCE can be retained after being stored in air with 10-20 % humidity for 45 days. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Improved ambient-stable perovskite solar cells enabled by a hybrid polymeric electron-transporting layer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zonglong; Chueh, Chu -Chen; Zhang, Guangye; Huang, Fei; Yan, He; Jen, Alex K. -Y.

    2016-08-26

    In this study, an efficient inverted perovskite solar cell with decent ambient stability is successfully demonstrated by employing an n-type polymer, poly{[N,N’-bis(2-octyldodecyl)- 1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5’-(2,2’-bithiophene)} (N2200), as the electron-transporting layer (ETL). The device performance can be further enhanced from a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15 to 16.8% by tailoring the electronic properties of N2200 with a polymeric additive, poly[9,9-bis(6’- (N,N’-diethylamino)propyl)-fluorene-alt-9,9-bis(3-ethyl(oxetane- 3-ethyloxy)-hexyl) fluorene] (PFN-Ox). More importantly, the device derived from this hybrid ETL can maintain good ambient stability inherent from the pristine N2200 ETL, for which 60–70% of initial PCE can be retained after being stored in air with 10–20% humidity for 45 days.

  9. Composition and crystal structure of perovskite films attained from electrodes of used car battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhiaputra, Ilham; Permana, Bayu; Maulana, Yusep; Inayatie, Yuniar Dwi; Purba, Yonatan R.; Bahtiar, Ayi

    2016-02-01

    Perovskite solar cells have been intensively investigated for high performance and low-cost solid-state solar cells. Perovskite based-lead materials are commonly used as active material for high power conversion efficiency solar cells. Herein, we report our study on the development of used electrodes car battery as a cheap raw lead material to be converted into lead (II) iodide PbI2 by using simple chemical method. We have successfully obtained PbI2 material with purity higher than 85% and its crystal structure is comparable with that of commercial product. The perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 film was prepared by spin-coating of PbI2 solution and followed by spin-coating two-times of methylamonium iodide (MAI) solution. In this paper, the crystal structure of perovskite film attained from used car battery is shown and compared with that of prepared from commercial PbI2. By utilizing the used car battery into perovskite valuable material for high performance solar cells, we can not only improve the economical value (added-value) of wasted car battery but also we can simultaneously save the environment.

  10. Main-Group Halide Semiconductors Derived from Perovskite: Distinguishing Chemical, Structural, and Electronic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Fabini, Douglas H; Labram, John G; Lehner, Anna J; Bechtel, Jonathon S; Evans, Hayden A; Van der Ven, Anton; Wudl, Fred; Chabinyc, Michael L; Seshadri, Ram

    2017-01-03

    Main-group halide perovskites have generated much excitement of late because of their remarkable optoelectronic properties, ease of preparation, and abundant constituent elements, but these curious and promising materials differ in important respects from traditional semiconductors. The distinguishing chemical, structural, and electronic features of these materials present the key to understanding the origins of the optoelectronic performance of the well-studied hybrid organic-inorganic lead halides and provide a starting point for the design and preparation of new functional materials. Here we review and discuss these distinguishing features, among them a defect-tolerant electronic structure, proximal lattice instabilities, labile defect migration, and, in the case of hybrid perovskites, disordered molecular cations. Additionally, we discuss the preparation and characterization of some alternatives to the lead halide perovskites, including lead-free bismuth halides and hybrid materials with optically and electronically active organic constituents.

  11. Slicing the perovskite structure with crystallographic shear planes: the A(n)B(n)O(3n-2) homologous series.

    PubMed

    Abakumov, Artem M; Hadermann, Joke; Batuk, Maria; D'Hondt, Hans; Tyablikov, Oleg A; Rozova, Marina G; Pokholok, Konstantin V; Filimonov, Dmitry S; Sheptyakov, Denis V; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Niermann, Daniel; Hemberger, Joachim; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Antipov, Evgeny V

    2010-10-18

    A new A(n)B(n)O(3n-2) homologous series of anion-deficient perovskites has been evidenced by preparation of the members with n = 5 (Pb(2.9)Ba(2.1)Fe(4)TiO(13)) and n = 6 (Pb(3.8)Bi(0.2)Ba(2)Fe(4.2)Ti(1.8)O(16)) in a single phase form. The crystal structures of these compounds were determined using a combination of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray and neutron powder diffraction (S.G. Ammm, a = 5.74313(7), b = 3.98402(4), c = 26.8378(4) Å, R(I) = 0.035, R(P) = 0.042 for Pb(2.9)Ba(2.1)Fe(4)TiO(13) and S.G. Imma, a = 5.7199(1), b = 3.97066(7), c = 32.5245(8) Å, R(I) = 0.032, R(P) = 0.037 for Pb(3.8)Bi(0.2)Ba(2)Fe(4.2)Ti(1.8)O(16)). The crystal structures of the A(n)B(n)O(3n-2) homologues are formed by slicing the perovskite structure with (101)(p) crystallographic shear (CS) planes. The shear planes remove a layer of oxygen atoms and displace the perovskite blocks with respect to each other by the 1/2[110](p) vector. The CS planes introduce edge-sharing connections of the transition metal-oxygen polyhedra at the interface between the perovskite blocks. This results in intrinsically frustrated magnetic couplings between the perovskite blocks due to a competition of the exchange interactions between the edge- and the corner-sharing metal-oxygen polyhedra. Despite the magnetic frustration, neutron powder diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy reveal that Pb(2.9)Ba(2.1)Fe(4)TiO(13) and Pb(3.8)Bi(0.2)Ba(2)Fe(4.2)Ti(1.8)O(16) are antiferromagnetically ordered below T(N) = 407 and 343 K, respectively. The Pb(2.9)Ba(2.1)Fe(4)TiO(13) and Pb(3.8)Bi(0.2)Ba(2)Fe(4.2)Ti(1.8)O(16) compounds are in a paraelectric state in the 5-300 K temperature range.

  12. Two-Step Physical Deposition of a Compact CuI Hole-Transport Layer and the Formation of an Interfacial Species in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Gharibzadeh, Saba; Nejand, Bahram Abdollahi; Moshaii, Ahmad; Mohammadian, Nasim; Alizadeh, Amir Hossein; Mohammadpour, Rahele; Ahmadi, Vahid; Alizadeh, Abdolali

    2016-08-09

    A simple and practical approach is introduced for the deposition of CuI as an inexpensive inorganic hole-transport material (HTM) for the fabrication of low cost perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by gas-solid phase transformation of Cu to CuI. The method provides a uniform and well-controlled CuI layer with large grains and good compactness that prevents the direct connection between the contact electrodes. Solar cells prepared with CuI as the HTM with Au electrodes displays an exceptionally high short-circuit current density of 32 mA cm(-2) , owing to an interfacial species formed between the perovskite and the Cu resulting in a long wavelength contribution to the incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE), and an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.4 %. The growth of crystalline and uniform CuI on a low roughness perovskite layer leads to remarkably high charge extraction in the cells, which originates from the high hole mobility of CuI in addition to a large number of contact points between CuI and the perovskite layer. In addition, the solvent-free method has no damaging side effect on the perovskite layer, which makes it an appropriate method for large scale applications of CuI in perovskite solar cells.

  13. Layered Perovskite Oxychloride Bi4NbO8Cl: A Stable Visible Light Responsive Photocatalyst for Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Fujito, Hironori; Kunioku, Hironobu; Kato, Daichi; Suzuki, Hajime; Higashi, Masanobu; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Abe, Ryu

    2016-02-24

    Mixed anion compounds are expected to be a photocatalyst for visible light-induced water splitting, but the available materials have been almost limited to oxynitrides. Here, we show that an oxychrolide Bi4NbO8Cl, a single layer Sillen-Aurivillius perovskite, is a stable and efficient O2-evolving photocatalyst under visible light, enabling a Z-scheme overall water splitting by coupling with a H2-evolving photocatalyst (Rh-doped SrTiO3). It is found that the valence band maximum of Bi4NbO8Cl is unusually high owing to highly dispersive O-2p orbitals (not Cl-3p orbitals), affording the narrow band gap and possibly the stability against water oxidation. This study suggests that a family of Sillen-Aurivillius perovskite oxyhalides is a promising system to allow a versatile band level tuning for establishing efficient and stable water-splitting under visible light.

  14. Thermally Stable Mesoporous Perovskite Solar Cells Incorporating Low-Temperature Processed Graphene/Polymer Electron Transporting Layer.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shi Wun; Balapanuru, Janardhan; Fu, Deyi; Loh, Kian Ping

    2016-11-02

    In the short time since its discovery, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attained high power conversion efficiency but their lack of thermal stability remains a barrier to commercialization. Among the experimentally accessible parameter spaces for optimizing performance, identifying an electron transport layer (ETL) that forms a thermally stable interface with perovskite and which is solution-processable at low-temperature will certainly be advantageous. Herein, we developed a mesoporous graphene/polymer composite with these advantages when used as ETL in CH3NH3PbI3 PSCs, and a high efficiency of 13.8% under AM 1.5G solar illumination could be obtained. Due to the high heat transmission coefficient and low isoelectric point of mesoporous graphene-based ETL, the PSC device enjoys good chemical and thermal stability. Our work demonstrates that the mesoporous graphene-based scaffold is a promising ETL candidate for high performance and thermally stable PSCs.

  15. Electron Transport Layer-Free Solar Cells Based on Perovskite-Fullerene Blend Films with Enhanced Performance and Stability.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Jorge; Kosta, Ivet; Tuyen Ngo, T; Chuvilin, Andrey; Cabanero, German; Grande, Hans J; Barea, Eva M; Mora-Seró, Iván; Delgado, Juan Luis; Tena-Zaera, Ramon

    2016-09-22

    The solution processing of pinhole-free methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite-C70 fullerene (MAPbI3 :C70 ) blend films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates is presented. Based on this approach, a simplified and robust protocol for the preparation of efficient electron-transport layer (ETL)-free perovskite solar cells is described. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.6 % under AM 1.5 G simulated sunlight is demonstrated for these devices. Comparative impedance spectroscopy and photostability analysis of the MAPbI3 :C70 and single MAPbI3 films compared with conventional compact TiO2 ETL-based devices are shown. The beneficial impact of using MAPbI3 :C70 blend films is emphasized.

  16. Solution-Processed Lithium-Doped ZnO Electron Transport Layer for Efficient Triple Cation (Rb, MA, FA) Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Md Arafat; Elumalai, Naveen Kumar; Upama, Mushfika Baishakhi; Wang, Dian; Soufiani, Arman Mahboubi; Wright, Matthew; Xu, Cheng; Haque, Faiazul; Uddin, Ashraf

    2017-10-04

    The current work reports the lithium (Li) doping of a low-temperature processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron transport layer (ETL) for highly efficient, triple-cation-based MA0.57FA0.38Rb0.05PbI3 (MA: methylammonium, FA: formamidinium, Rb: rubidium) perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Lithium intercalation in the host ZnO lattice structure is dominated by interstitial doping phenomena, which passivates the intrinsic defects in ZnO film. In addition, interstitial Li doping also downshifts the Fermi energy position of Li-doped ETL by 30 meV, which contributes to the reduction of the electron injection barrier from the photoactive perovskite layer. Compared to the pristine ZnO, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSCs incorporating lithium-doped ZnO (Li-doped) is raised from 14.07 to 16.14%. The superior performance is attributed to the reduced current leakage, enhanced charge extraction characteristics, and mitigated trap-assisted recombination phenomena in Li-doped devices, thoroughly investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. Li-doped PSCs also exhibit lower photocurrent hysteresis than ZnO devices, which is investigated with regard to the electrode polarization phenomena of the fabricated devices.

  17. Enhanced electron extraction using SnO2 for high-efficiency planar-structure HC(NH2)2PbI3-based perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qi; Zhang, Liuqi; Wang, Haolin; Yang, Xiaolei; Meng, Junhua; Liu, Heng; Yin, Zhigang; Wu, Jinliang; Zhang, Xingwang; You, Jingbi

    2017-01-01

    Planar structures for halide perovskite solar cells have recently garnered attention, due to their simple and low-temperature device fabrication processing. Unfortunately, planar structures typically show I-V hysteresis and lower stable device efficiency compared with mesoporous structures, especially for TiO2-based n-i-p devices. SnO2, which has a deeper conduction band and higher electron mobility compared with traditional TiO2, could enhance charge transfer from perovskite to electron transport layers, and reduce charge accumulation at the interface. Here we report low-temperature solution-processed SnO2 nanoparticles as an efficient electron transport layer for perovskite solar cells. Our SnO2-based devices are almost free of hysteresis, which we propose is due to the enhancement of electron extraction. By introducing a PbI2 passivation phase in the perovskite layer, we obtain a 19.9 ± 0.6% certified efficiency. The devices can be easily processed under low temperature (150 ∘C), offering an efficient method for the large-scale production of perovskite solar cells.

  18. Interplay of octahedral distortions in electronic and structural phase transitions in ABO3 perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Rondinelli, James M.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we investigate group-subgroup relationships afforded to ABO3 perovskites from combinations of BO6 distortions - bond stretching and bond angle rotations - with the objective of identifying new pathways for tuning their properties through electron-lattice interactions. Using nickelate and bismuthate perovskite compounds as a template, we decompose their low-symmetry structures into orthonormal symmetry-breaking lattice modes of the parent cubic space group. Statistical analysis of mode decomposition data uncovers previously unappreciated relationships between microscopic octahedral distortion modes and macroscopic physical properties. Finally, we propose novel crystal engineering strategies to study perovskites near phase boundaries that are otherwise extremely difficult to probe experimentally. This project is supported by The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (grant no. N66001-12-4224). The views, opinions, and/or findings reported here are solely those of the authors and do not represent official views of DARPA or DOD.

  19. Exploring the Electronic Band Structure of Organometal Halide Perovskite via Photoluminescence Anisotropy of Individual Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Täuber, Daniela; Dobrovolsky, Alexander; Camacho, Rafael; Scheblykin, Ivan G

    2016-08-10

    Understanding electronic processes in organometal halide perovskites, flourishing photovoltaic, and emitting materials requires unraveling the origin of their electronic transitions. Light polarization studies can provide important information regarding transition dipole moment orientations. Investigating individual methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite nanocrystals enabled us to detect the polarization of photoluminescence intensity and photoluminescence excitation, hidden in bulk samples by ensemble averaging. Polarization properties of the crystals were correlated with their photoluminescence spectra and electron microscopy images. We propose that distortion of PbI6 octahedra leads to peculiarities of the electronic band structure close to the band-edge. Namely, the lowest band transition possesses a transition dipole moment along the apical Pb-I-Pb bond resulting in polarized photoluminescence. Excitation of photoluminescence above the bandgap is unpolarized because it involves molecular orbitals delocalized both in the apical and equatorial directions of the perovskite octahedron. Trap-assisted emission at 77 K, rather surprisingly, was polarized similar to the bandgap emission.

  20. Two-Dimensional Layered Oxide Structures Tailored by Self-Assembled Layer Stacking via Interfacial Strain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenrui; Li, Mingtao; Chen, Aiping; Li, Leigang; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Xia, Zhenhai; Lu, Ping; Boullay, Philippe; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L; Jia, Quanxi; Zhou, Honghui; Narayan, Jagdish; Zhang, Xinghang; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-07-06

    Study of layered complex oxides emerge as one of leading topics in fundamental materials science because of the strong interplay among intrinsic charge, spin, orbital, and lattice. As a fundamental basis of heteroepitaxial thin film growth, interfacial strain can be used to design materials that exhibit new phenomena beyond their conventional forms. Here, we report a strain-driven self-assembly of bismuth-based supercell (SC) with a two-dimensional (2D) layered structure. With combined experimental analysis and first-principles calculations, we investigated the full SC structure and elucidated the fundamental growth mechanism achieved by the strain-enabled self-assembled atomic layer stacking. The unique SC structure exhibits room-temperature ferroelectricity, enhanced magnetic responses, and a distinct optical bandgap from the conventional double perovskite structure. This study reveals the important role of interfacial strain modulation and atomic rearrangement in self-assembling a layered singe-phase multiferroic thin film, which opens up a promising avenue in the search for and design of novel 2D layered complex oxides with enormous promise.

  1. Perovskites: transforming photovoltaics, a mini-review

    SciTech Connect

    Chilvery, Ashwith Kumar; Batra, Ashok K.; Yang, Bin; Xiao, Kai; Guggilla, Padmaja; Aggarwal, Mohan D.; Surabhi, Raja; Lal, Ravi B.; Currie, James R.; Penn, Benjamin G.

    2015-01-06

    The recent power-packed advent of perovskite solar cells is transforming photovoltaics (PV) with their superior efficiencies, ease of fabrication, and cost. This perovskite solar cell further boasts of many unexplored features that can further enhance its PV properties and lead to it being branded as a successful commercial product. This paper provides a detailed insight of the organometal halide based perovskite structure, its unique stoichiometric design, and its underlying principles for PV applications. Finally, the compatibility of various PV layers and its fabrication methods is also discussed.

  2. Pressure Effects on Structure and Optical Properties in Cesium Lead Bromide Perovskite Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guanjun; Cao, Ye; Qi, Guangyu; Wang, Lingrui; Liu, Chuang; Ma, Zhiwei; Yang, Xinyi; Sui, Yongming; Zheng, Weitao; Zou, Bo

    2017-07-26

    Metal halide perovskites (MHPs) are gaining increasing interest because of their extraordinary performance in optoelectronic devices and solar cells. However, developing an effective strategy for achieving the band-gap engineering of MHPs that will satisfy the practical applications remains a great challenge. In this study, high pressure is introduced to tailor the optical and structural properties of MHP-based cesium lead bromide nanocrystals (CsPbBr3 NCs), which exhibit excellent thermodynamic stability. Both the pressure-dependent steady-state photoluminescence and absorption spectra experience a stark discontinuity at ∼1.2 GPa, where an isostructural phase transformation regarding the Pbnm space group occurs. The physical origin points to the repulsive force impact due to the overlap between the valence electron charge clouds of neighboring layers. Simultaneous band-gap narrowing and carrier-lifetime prolongation of CsPbBr3 trihalide perovskite NCs were also achieved as expected, which facilitates the broader solar spectrum absorption for photovoltaic applications. Note that the values of the phase change interval and band-gap red-shift of CsPbBr3 nanowires are between those for CsPbBr3 nanocubes and the corresponding bulk counterparts, which results from the unique geometrical morphology effect. First-principles calculations unravel that the band-gap engineering is governed by orbital interactions within the inorganic Pb-Br frame through structural modification. Changes of band structures are attributed to the synergistic effect of pressure-induced modulations of the Br-Pb bond length and Pb-Br-Pb bond angle for the PbBr6 octahedral framework. Furthermore, the significant distortion of the lead-bromide octahedron to accommodate the Jahn-Teller effect at much higher pressure would eventually lead to a direct to indirect band-gap electronic transition. This study enables high pressure as a robust tool to control the structure and band gap of CsPbBr3 NCs, thus

  3. Structural and electronic properties of organo-halide hybrid perovskites from ab initio molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Quarti, Claudio; Mosconi, Edoardo; De Angelis, Filippo

    2015-04-14

    The last two years have seen the unprecedentedly rapid emergence of a new class of solar cells, based on hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites. The success of this class of materials is due to their outstanding photoelectrochemical properties coupled to their low cost, mainly solution-based, fabrication techniques. Solution processed materials are however often characterized by an inherent flexible structure, which is hardly mapped into a single local minimum energy structure. In this perspective, we report on the interplay between structural and electronic properties of hybrid lead iodide perovskites investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations, which allow the dynamical simulation of disordered systems at finite temperature. We compare the prototypical MAPbI3 (MA = methylammonium) perovskite in its cubic and tetragonal structure with the trigonal phase of FAPbI3 (FA = formamidinium), investigating different starting arrangements of the organic cations. Despite the relatively short time scale amenable to AIMD, typically a few tens of ps, this analysis demonstrates the sizable structural flexibility of this class of materials, showing that the instantaneous structure could significantly differ from the time and thermal averaged structure. We also highlight the importance of the organic-inorganic interactions in determining the fluxional properties of this class of materials. A peculiar spatial localization of the valence and conduction band edges is also found, with a dynamics in the range of 0.1 ps, which is associated with the positional dynamics of the organic cations within the cubo-octahedral perovskite cage. This asymmetry in the spatial localization of the band edges is expected to ease exciton dissociation and assist the initial stages of charge separation, possibly constituting one of the key factors for the impressive photovoltaic performances of hybrid lead-iodide perovskites.

  4. Etude par spectroscopie vibrationnelle des niobates de sodium et d'argent de structure perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husson, E.; Repelin, Y.

    Infrared and Raman spectra of the niobates NaNbO 3 and AgNbO 3 of perovskite structure are analysed. An assignment of the frequencies is proposed. The influence of the antiferroelectric direction upon the NbO bonds is shown, as the influence of the A cation upon the AO and NbO bonds.

  5. Significant light absorption improvement in perovskite/CIGS tandem solar cells with dielectric nanocone structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huahua; Cai, Boyuan; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2017-06-01

    Here, we propose a novel perovskite/CIGS tandem solar cell geometry with tailored dielectric nanocone structure incorporated on the top surface for light manipulation. Absorption enhancement as high as 15.39% has been achieved both in the top and bottom subcells, leading to a 14.29% thickness reduction of the bottom subcell.

  6. Domain-dependent electronic structure and optical absorption property in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang; Zhang, Ruifeng; Fu, Zhongheng; Zhang, Qianfan

    2016-10-05

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, represented by materials in the CH3NH3PbI3 series, have become one of the most promising materials for solar cells with a high power conversion efficiency and low cost. The ordered Pb-I cage in such hybrid perovskites can induce the polarized cations to form a variety of polarization domains with long-range order, which will lead to the formation of specific atomic conformations or metastable crystalline phases, unique electronic band structures and optical absorption properties. Such domain-dependent characteristics play a critical role in the phase transition and service stability of such solar cells, and also open up the opportunity of tuning their electronic structure. In the present study, we systematically investigate the band structures and optical absorption properties of different electronically ordered domains in CH3NH3PbI3. By comparing different perovskites containing various cations, we have clarified the important influence of cation polarization on domain-dependent properties. Our results provide not only a possible pathway for the manipulation of band structure by applying an external field, but also a novel scheme for improving the performance and stability of hybrid perovskites.

  7. Improved efficiency of NiOx-based p-i-n perovskite solar cells by using PTEG-1 as electron transport layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneveld, Bart G. H. M.; Najafi, Mehrdad; Steensma, Bauke; Adjokatse, Sampson; Fang, Hong-Hua; Jahani, Fatemeh; Qiu, Li; ten Brink, Gert H.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-07-01

    We present efficient p-i-n type perovskite solar cells using NiOx as the hole transport layer and a fulleropyrrolidine with a triethylene glycol monoethyl ether side chain (PTEG-1) as electron transport layer. This electron transport layer leads to higher power conversion efficiencies compared to perovskite solar cells with PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester). The improved performance of PTEG-1 devices is attributed to the reduced trap-assisted recombination and improved charge extraction in these solar cells, as determined by light intensity dependence and photoluminescence measurements. Through optimization of the hole and electron transport layers, the power conversion efficiency of the NiOx/perovskite/PTEG-1 solar cells was increased up to 16.1%.

  8. Electroluminescence from perovskite LEDs with the structure of Ag/Spiro-OMeTAD/CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2/FTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minhuan; Shi, Yantao; Bian, Jiming; Dong, Qingshun; Sun, Hongjun; Liu, Hongzhu; Luo, Yingmin; Zhang, Yuzhi

    2016-10-01

    The perovskite light-emitting diodes (Pe-LEDs) with the structure of Ag/Spiro-OMeTAD/CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2/FTO were synthesized, where the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite layer was deposited by a two-step spin-coating process. A dominant near-infrared electroluminescence (EL) at 773 nm was detected from the Pe-LEDs under forward bias at room temperature. The origin and mechanism of the EL were discussed in comparison with the photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and it was attributed to the radiative recombination of electrons and holes confined in the CH3NH3PbI3 emissive layer. Moreover, the corresponding energy band diagrams was proposed to illustrate the carrier transport mechanism in the Pe-LED device.

  9. Thermal and Environmental Stability of Semi-Transparent Perovskite Solar Cells for Tandems Enabled by a Solution-Processed Nanoparticle Buffer Layer and Sputtered ITO Electrode.

    PubMed

    Bush, Kevin A; Bailie, Colin D; Chen, Ye; Bowring, Andrea R; Wang, Wei; Ma, Wen; Leijtens, Tomas; Moghadam, Farhad; McGehee, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    A sputtered oxide layer enabled by a solution-processed oxide nanoparticle buffer layer to protect underlying layers is used to make semi-transparent perovskite solar cells. Single-junction semi-transparent cells are 12.3% efficient, and mechanically stacked tandems on silicon solar cells are 18.0% efficient. The semi-transparent perovskite solar cell has a T 80 lifetime of 124 h when operated at the maximum power point at 100 °C without additional sealing in ambient atmosphere under visible illumination. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Ternary Oxides in the TiO2-ZnO System as Efficient Electron-Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells with Efficiency over 15.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiong; Xu, Zhongzhong; Guo, Yanjun; Xu, Peng; He, Meng

    2016-11-02

    Perovskite solar cells, which utilize organometal-halide perovskites as light-harvesting materials, have attracted great attention due to their high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and potentially low cost in fabrication. A compact layer of TiO2 or ZnO is generally applied as electron-transport layer (ETL) in a typical perovskite solar cell. In this study, we explored ternary oxides in the TiO2-ZnO system to find new materials for the ETL. Compact layers of titanium zinc oxides were readily prepared on the conducting substrate via spray pyrolysis method. The optical band gap, valence band maximum and conduction band minimum of the ternary oxides varied significantly with the ratio of Ti to Zn, surprisingly, in a nonmonotonic way. When a zinc-rich ternary oxide was applied as ETL for the device, a PCE of 15.10% was achieved, comparable to that of the device using conventional TiO2 ETL. Interestingly, the perovskite layer deposited on the zinc-rich ternary oxide is stable, in sharp contrast with that fabricated on a ZnO layer, which will turn into PbI2 readily when heated. These results indicate that potentially new materials with better performance can be found for ETL of perovskite solar cells in ternary oxides, which deserve more exploration.

  11. Hybrid perovskite resulting from the solid-state reaction between the organic cations and perovskite layers of alpha1-(Br-(CH(2))(2)-NH(3))(2)PbI(4).

    PubMed

    Sourisseau, Sebastien; Louvain, Nicolas; Bi, Wenhua; Mercier, Nicolas; Rondeau, David; Buzaré, Jean-Yves; Legein, Christophe

    2007-07-23

    The alpha1-(Br-(CH(2))(2)-NH(3))(2)PbI(4) hybrid perovskite undergoes a solid-state transformation, that is, the reaction between the organic cations and the perovskite layers to give the new hybrid perovskite (Br-(CH(2))(2)-NH(3))(2-x)(I-(CH(2))(2)-NH(3))(x)PbBr(x)I(4-x), based on mixed halide inorganic layers. This transformation has been followed by a conventional powder X-ray diffraction system equipped with a super speed detector, and both solid-state (13)C NMR and ESI/MS measurements have been adopted in the estimation of the rate of halide substitution. The first reaction step leads to the special composition of x approximately 1 (A phase), while the complete substitution is not achieved even at elevated temperature (x(max) approximately 1.85 (B phase)). This unprecedented solid-state reaction between organic and inorganic components of a hybrid perovskite can be considered as a completely new strategy to achieve interesting hybrid perovskites.

  12. Growth and evolution of solution-processed CH3NH3PbI3-xClx layer for highly efficient planar-heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiang; Lin, Jiahui; Xue, Qifan; Ye, Qinyan; He, Xulin; Ouyang, Liangqi; Zhuang, Daming; Liao, Cheng; Yip, Hin-Lap; Mei, Jun; Lau, Woon-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Methylammoniumn lead iodide perovskites have attracted great attention in photovoltaic research community. In this work, we demonstrate the results of studies focusing on the chemical reaction of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx layer formation during the annealing of perovskite precursor films. We identified two kinds of grain morphologies during the formation of perovskite films grown from non-stoichiometric precursor solution. To form single-phase and high absorbance perovskite films, higher concentration of chloride in precursor solution needs longer annealing time and only a very low Cl content could be incorporated in the final CH3NH3PbI3-xClx films. Adding PbCl2-3CH3NH3I to PbI2-CH3NH3I precursor solution can allow a good control of the growth rate and morphology for the final perovskite film, and is beneficial to the photovoltaic performance of perovskite devices. By employing the precursor solutions of PbCl2, PbI2 and CH3NH3I with a mole ratio of 1:1:4 and inserting an ultrathin amino-functionalized polymer interlayer, we achieved planar perovskite solar cell with maximum power conversion efficiency of over 15%.

  13. Perovskite LaRhO{sub 3} as a p-type active layer in oxide photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Masao Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Fujioka, Jun; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-02-16

    Perovskite-type transition-metal oxides have a wide variety of physical properties and triggered intensive research on functional devices in the form of heteroepitaxial junctions. However, there is a missing component that is a p-type conventional band semiconductor. LaRhO{sub 3} (LRO) is one of very few promising candidates having its bandgap between filled t{sub 2g} and empty e{sub g} of Rh in low-spin state, but there has been no report on the synthesis of large-size single crystals or thin films. Here, we report on the junction properties of single-crystalline thin films of LRO grown on (110) oriented Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. The external quantum efficiency of the photo-electron conversion exceeds 1% in the visible-light region due to the wide depletion layer and long diffusion length of minority carriers in LRO. Clear indication of p-type band semiconducting character in a perovskite oxide of LRO will pave a way to explore oxide electronics of perovskite heterostructures.

  14. Formation Dynamics of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Following Two-Step Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jay B; Milot, Rebecca L; Wright, Adam D; Herz, Laura M; Johnston, Michael B

    2016-01-07

    Hybrid metal-halide perovskites have emerged as a leading class of semiconductors for optoelectronic devices because of their desirable material properties and versatile fabrication methods. However, little is known about the chemical transformations that occur in the initial stages of perovskite crystal formation. Here we follow the real-time formation dynamics of MAPbI3 from a bilayer of lead iodide (PbI2) and methylammonium iodide (MAI) deposited through a two-step thermal evaporation process. By lowering the substrate temperature during deposition, we are able to initially inhibit intermixing of the two layers. We subsequently use infrared and visible light transmission, X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence lifetime measurements to reveal the room-temperature transformations that occur in vacuum and ambient air, as MAI diffuses into the PbI2 lattice to form MAPbI3. In vacuum, the transformation to MAPbI3 is incomplete as unreacted MAI is retained in the film. However, exposure to moist air allows for conversion of the unreacted MAI to MAPbI3, demonstrating that moisture is essential in making MAI more mobile and thus aiding perovskite crystallization. These dynamic processes are reflected in the observed charge-carrier lifetimes, which strongly fluctuate during periods of large ion migration but steadily increase with improving crystallinity.

  15. Carbon Quantum Dots/TiOx Electron Transport Layer Boosts Efficiency of Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells to 19.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Shi, Weina; Huang, Wenchao; Yao, En-Ping; Han, Junbo; Chen, Zhifan; Liu, Shuangshuang; Shen, Yan; Wang, Mingkui; Yang, Yang

    2017-03-06

    In planar n-i-p heterojunction perovskite solar cells, the electron transport layer (ETL) plays important roles in charge extraction and determine the morphology of the perovskite film. Here, we report a solution-processed carbon quantum dots (CQDs)/TiO2 composite that has negligible absorption in the visible spectral range, a very attractive feature for perovskite solar cells. Using this novel CQDs/TiO2 ETL in conjunction with a planar n-i-p heterojunction, we achieved an unprecedented efficiency of ∼19% under standard illumination test conditions. It was found that a CQDs/TiO2 combination increases both the open circuit voltage and short-circuits current density as compared to using TiO2 alone. Various advanced spectroscopic characterizations including ultrafast spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and electronic impedance spectroscopy elucidate that the CQDs increases the electronic coupling between the CH3NH3PbI3-xClx and TiO2 ETL interface as well as energy levers that contribute to electron extraction.

  16. Graphene oxide/PEDOT:PSS composite hole transport layer for efficient and stable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Da-Young; Na, Seok-In; Kim, Seok-Soon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a graphene oxide (GO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) composite as a promising candidate for the practical application of a 2-D carbonaceous hole transport layer (HTL) to planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) consisting of a transparent electrode/HTL/perovskite/fullerene/metal electrode. Both the insulating properties of GO and the non-uniform coating of the transparent electrode with GO cause the poor morphology of perovskite induced low power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.4%. On the other hand, PeSCs with a GO/PEDOT:PSS composite HTL, exhibited a higher PCE of 9.7% than that of a device fabricated with conventional PEDOT:PSS showing a PCE of 8.2%. The higher performance is attributed to the decreased series resistance (RS) and increased shunt resistance (RSh). The well-matched work-function between GO (4.9 eV) and PEDOT:PSS (5.1 eV) probably results in more efficient charge transport and an overall decrease in RS. The existence of GO with a large bandgap of ~3.6 eV might induce the effective blocking of electrons, leading to an increase of RSh. Moreover, improvement in the long-term stability under atmospheric conditions was observed.

  17. Graphene oxide/PEDOT:PSS composite hole transport layer for efficient and stable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Young; Na, Seok-In; Kim, Seok-Soon

    2016-01-21

    We investigated a graphene oxide (GO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) ( PSS) composite as a promising candidate for the practical application of a 2-D carbonaceous hole transport layer (HTL) to planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) consisting of a transparent electrode/HTL/perovskite/fullerene/metal electrode. Both the insulating properties of GO and the non-uniform coating of the transparent electrode with GO cause the poor morphology of perovskite induced low power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.4%. On the other hand, PeSCs with a GO/PEDOT:PSS composite HTL, exhibited a higher PCE of 9.7% than that of a device fabricated with conventional PSS showing a PCE of 8.2%. The higher performance is attributed to the decreased series resistance (RS) and increased shunt resistance (RSh). The well-matched work-function between GO (4.9 eV) and PSS (5.1 eV) probably results in more efficient charge transport and an overall decrease in RS. The existence of GO with a large bandgap of ∼3.6 eV might induce the effective blocking of electrons, leading to an increase of RSh. Moreover, improvement in the long-term stability under atmospheric conditions was observed.

  18. Modified Fullerenes for Efficient Electron Transport Layer-Free Perovskite/Fullerene Blend-Based Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Torrientes, Rafael; Pascual, Jorge; García-Benito, Inés; Collavini, Silvia; Kosta, Ivet; Tena-Zaera, Ramón; Martín, Nazario; Delgado, Juan Luis

    2017-03-15

    A variety of novel chemically modified fullerenes, showing different electron-accepting capabilities, has been synthesized and used to prepare electron transport layer (ETL)-free solar cells based on perovskite/fullerene blends. In particular, isoxazolino[60] fullerenes are proven to be a good candidate for processing blend films with CH3 NH3 PbI3 and obtaining enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) ETL-free perovskite solar cells (PSCs), improving the state-of-the-art PCE (i.e., 14.3 %) for this simplified device architecture. A beneficial effect for pyrazolino and methano[60]fullerene derivatives versus pristine [60]/fullerene is also shown. Furthermore, a clear correlation between the LUMO energy level of the fullerene component and the open circuit voltage of the solar cells is found. Apart from the new knowledge on innovative fullerene derivatives for PSCs, the universality and versatility of perovskite/fullerene blend films to obtain efficient ETL-free PSCs is demonstrated.

  19. Excellent sun-light-driven photocatalytic activity by aurivillius layered perovskites, Bi₅-xLaxTi₃FeO₁₅ (x = 1, 2).

    PubMed

    Naresh, Gollapally; Mandal, Tapas Kumar

    2014-12-10

    Aurivillius phase layered perovskites, Bi5-xLaxTi3FeO15 (x = 1, 2) are synthesized by solid-state reaction. The compounds are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance (UV-vis DRS), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. UV-vis DRS data revealed that the compounds are visible light absorbing semiconductors with band gaps ranging from ∼2.0-2.7 eV. Photocatalytic activity studies by Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation under sun-light irradiation showed that these layered oxides are very efficient photocatalysts in mild acidic medium. Scavenger test studies demonstrated that the photogenerated holes and superoxide radicals (O2(•-)) are the active species responsible for RhB degradation over the Aurivillius layered perovskites. Comparison of PL intensity, dye adsorption and ζ-potential suggested that a slow e(-)-h(+) recombination and effective dye adsorption are crucial for the degradation process over these photocatalysts. Moreover, relative positioning of the valence and conduction band edges of the semiconductors, O2/O2(•-), (•)OH/H2O potential and HOMO-LUMO levels of RhB appears to be responsible for making the degradation hole-specific. Photocatalytic cycle tests indicated high stability of the catalysts in the reaction medium without any observable loss of activity. This work shows great potential in developing novel photocatalysts with layered structures for sun-light-driven oxidation and degradation processes largely driven by holes and without any intervention of hydroxyl radicals, which is one of the most common reactive oxygen species (ROS) in many advanced oxidation processes.

  20. Systems and methods for scalable perovskite device fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Jinsong; Dong, Qingfeng; Sao, Yuchuan

    2017-02-28

    Continuous processes for fabricating a perovskite device are described that include using a doctor blade for continuously forming a perovskite layer and using a conductive tape lamination process to form an anode or a cathode layer on the perovskite device.

  1. Layered materials for structural applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, J.J.; Ward, C.H.; Jackson, M.R.; Hunt, W.H. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The symposium, Layered Materials for Structural Applications, was held April 8--11, 1996, in San Francisco, California. This Materials Research Society symposium was supported by contributions from The Air Force Office of Scientific Research and Office of Naval Research. The meeting began with overviews on structural applications of layered systems and highlighted applications such as thermal barrier coatings, aircraft structural components, and wear-resistant coatings for a variety of applications. Processing techniques such as EB deposition processing, reactive sputter deposition, sedimentation processing, pressureless co-sintering, and rapid prototyping via laminated object manufacturing were subsequently covered in a following session. Microstructural stability issues were additionally covered and highlighted as a critical area requiring further investigation. The largest number of papers presented focused on the mechanical behavior and modeling of layered systems and revealed significant effects of layer thickness, spacing, and constituent properties on the fracture and fatigue behavior of such systems. While considerable work has investigated the issues of strength and toughness, less effort has been focused on the behavior of such systems under either cyclic loading or high-temperature conditions. Forty papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. An efficient electron transport material of tin oxide for planar structure perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugadoss, Govindhasamy; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Soichiro; Nishino, Hitoshi; Ito, Seigo; Imahoric, Hiroshi; Umeyama, Tomokazu

    2016-03-01

    The photovoltaic performance of a perovskite solar cell based on a new electron conducting SnO2 film prepared at low temperature using different solvents was investigated. SnO2 was selected as an electron conducting medium due to its superior properties over TiO2, such as better antireflective properties, higher electron mobility, more suitable band edges and a wider band gap. A SnO2 layer was developed by spin-coating SnCl2 solution followed by annealing at 200 °C in air. The low-temperature (200 °C) annealed SnO2 layer exhibits enhanced crystallization, high transmittance, and uniform surface morphology using ethanol as a solvent rather than water. Solid state CuSCN hole conductor was used as HTM for reducing the device cost. A planar solar cell fabricated with CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite infiltrated SnO2 showed a power conversion efficiency of 8.38% with short-circuit current density of 18.99 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.96 mV and a fill factor of 45%. The devices were fabricated at >60% humidity level at room temperature. The results suggest that SnO2 is an effective charge collection system for CH3NH3PbI3 based planar perovskite solar cells. In addition, these results provide a new direction for the future improvement of perovskite solar cells using new electron conducting layers.

  3. Shelf life stability comparison in air for solution processed pristine PDPP3T polymer and doped spiro-OMeTAD as hole transport layer for perovskite solar cell.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Ashish; Adhikari, Nirmal; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Gu, Shaopeng; Khatiwada, Devendra; Wang, Qi; Mohammad, Lal; Kumar, Mukesh; Qiao, Qiquan

    2016-06-01

    This data in brief includes forward and reverse scanned current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics of perovskite solar cells with PDPP3T and spiro-OMeTAD as HTL, stability testing conditions of perovskite solar cell shelf life in air for both PDPP3T and spiro-OMeTAD as HTL as per the description in Ref. [1], and individual J-V performance parameters acquired with increasing time exposed in ambient air are shown for both type of devices using PDPP3T and spiro-OMeTAD as HTL. The data collected in this study compares the device stability with time for both PDPP3T and spiro-OMeTAD based perovskite solar cells and is directly related to our research article "solution processed pristine PDPP3T polymer as hole transport layer for efficient perovskite solar cells with slower degradation" [2].

  4. Low-Temperature Modification of ZnO Nanoparticles Film for Electron-Transport Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Gill Sang; Shim, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Seongha; Duff, Matthew L; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2017-06-09

    An electron-transport layer (ETL) that selectively collects photogenerated electrons is an important constituent of halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Although TiO2 films are widely used as ETL of PSCs, the processing of TiO2 films with high electron mobility requires high-temperature annealing and TiO2 dissociates the perovskite layer through a photocatalytic reaction. Here, we report an effective surface-modification method of a room-temperature processed ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) layer as an alternative to the TiO2 ETL. A combination of simple UV exposure and nitric acid treatment effectively removes the hydroxyl group and passivates surface defects in ZnO NPs. The surface modification of ZnO NPs increases the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs to 14 % and decreases the aging of PSCs under light soaking. These results suggest that the surface-modified ZnO film can be a good ETL of PSCs and provide a path toward low-temperature processing of efficient and stable PSCs that are compatible with flexible electronics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Thermally induced A'-A site exchange in novel layered perovskites Ag2[Ca1.5M3O10] (M = Nb, Ta).

    PubMed

    Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Woodward, Patrick M

    2002-12-04

    We have synthesized and characterized new layered perovskites Ag2[A1.5M3O10] (A = Ca, M = Nb, Ta), from their lithium analogues, by soft-chemical ion exchange. These oxides show topotactic irreversible thermally induced A'-A site exchange, resulting in Ag1.1Ca0.9[Ca0.6Ag0.9M3O10], conferred from our high-temperature X-ray and ionic conductivity studies. The latter phases are the first compounds where Ag+ ions reside in both A' and A sites in layered perovskites. The absence of similar phase transition for A = Sr suggests that these transitions strongly depend on the size, charge, and the coordination preference of A' and A cations. This result provides a new synthetic tool for modifying the occupation of the 12-coordinate A site of layered perovskites using soft chemical routes.

  6. Investigation of growth of thin layers of perovskite on native silicon dioxide by a combination of atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghi Khani, A.; Walther, T.

    2013-11-01

    Thin layers of (Sr,Ba)TiO3 perovskite have been grown on native silicon dioxide by pulsed laser deposition at the Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to investigate the surfaces of the native silicon oxide before and after over-growth by the perovskite in plan-view. Bright-field and dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in a JEOL 2010F field-emission transmission electron microscope have been combined to investigate the layer stacks of Si/SiO2/(Ba,Sr)TiO3 in cross-section. The aim is to correlate surface roughnesses in plan-view geometry with interface roughness in cross-sectional geometry, with an emphasis on detecting percolation in the perovskite layers if they approach thicknesses of only a few unit cells.

  7. Cobalt Oxide (CoOx) as an Efficient Hole-Extracting Layer for High-Performance Inverted Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Shalan, Ahmed Esmail; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Narra, Sudhakar; Elshanawany, Mahmoud M; Ueno, Kosei; Wu, Hui-Ping; Nakamura, Keisuke; Shi, Xu; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2016-12-14

    CoOx is a promising hole-extracting layer (HEL) for inverted planar perovskite solar cells with device configuration ITO/CoOx/CH3NH3PbI3/PCBM/Ag. The devices fabricated according to a simple solution procedure showed the best photovoltaic performance attaining power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.5% under AM 1.5 G 1 sun irradiation, which is significantly superior to those of materials fabricated with a traditional HEL such as PEDOT:PSS (12.2%), NiOx (10.2%), and CuOx (9.4%) under the same experimental conditions. We characterized the chemical compositions with XPS, crystal structures with XRD, and film morphology with SEM/AFM techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra and the corresponding PL decays for perovskite deposited on varied HEL films were recorded to obtain the hole-extracting characteristics, for which the hole-extracting times show the order CoOx (2.8 ns) < PEDOT:PSS (17.5 ns) < NiOx (22.8 ns) < CuOx (208.5 ns), consistent with the trend of their photovoltaic performances. The reproducibility and enduring stability of those devices were examined to show the outstanding long-term stability of the devices made of metal oxide HEL, for which the CoOx device retained PCE ≈ 12% for over 1000 h.

  8. Using an airbrush pen for layer-by-layer growth of continuous perovskite thin films for hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Mohan; Boopathi, Karunakara Moorthy; Huang, Tzu-Yen; Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Chu, Chih-Wei

    2015-02-04

    In this manuscript we describe hybrid heterojunction solar cells, having the device architecture glass/indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiopene)/poly(styrenesulfonic acid)/perovskite/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester/C60/2,9-dimethyl- 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline/Al, fabricated using lead halide perovskite obtained through spray-coating at a low precursor concentration. To study the relationship between the morphology and device performance, we recorded scanning electron microscopy images of perovskite films prepared at various precursor ratios, spray volumes, substrate temperatures, and postspray annealing temperatures. Optimization of the spray conditions ensured uniform film growth and high surface area coverage at low substrate temperatures. Lead halide perovskite solar cells prepared under the optimal conditions displayed an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of approximately 9.2%, with 85% of such devices having efficiencies of greater than 8.3%. The best-performing device exhibited a short-circuit current density of 17.3 mA cm(-2), a fill factor of 0.63, and an open-circuit voltage of 0.93 V, resulting in a PCE of 10.2%. Because spray-coating technology allows large-area deposition, we also fabricated devices having areas of 60 and 342 mm(2), achieving PCEs with these devices of 6.88 and 4.66%, respectively.

  9. The ordered double perovskite PrBaCo2O6: Synthesis, structure, and magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motin Seikh, Md.; Pralong, V.; Lebedev, O. I.; Caignaert, V.; Raveau, B.

    2013-07-01

    The stoichiometric layered perovskite cobaltite PrBaCo2O6 has been synthesized using an oxidative reaction of PrBaCo2O5.80 by sodium hypochlorite. The ferromagnetic properties of this oxide, which exhibits the highest TC of 210 K among the "112" layered cobaltites, are interpreted by double exchange mechanism. In contrast, the creation of oxygen vacancies in this framework leads for the oxides PrBaCo2O5+δ (0.80 ≤ δ < 1) to a strong competition between ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism due to the appearance of superexchange Co3+—O—Co3+ antiferromagnetic interactions.

  10. Cuprous Oxide as a Potential Low-Cost Hole-Transport Material for Stable Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Nejand, Bahram Abdollahi; Ahmadi, Vahid; Gharibzadeh, Saba; Shahverdi, Hamid Reza

    2016-02-08

    Inorganic hole-transport materials are commercially desired to decrease the fabrication cost of perovskite solar cells. Here, Cu2O is introduced as a potential hole-transport material for stable, low-cost devices. Considering that Cu2O formation is highly sensitive to the underlying mixture of perovskite precursors and their solvents, we proposed and engineered a technique for reactive magnetron sputtering. The rotational angular deposition of Cu2O yields high surface coverage of the perovskite layer for high rate of charge extraction. Deposition of this Cu2O layer on the pinhole-free perovskite layer produces devices with power conversion efficiency values of up to 8.93%. The engineered Cu2O layers showed uniform, compact, and crack-free surfaces on the perovskite layer without affecting the perovskite structure, which is desired for deposition of the top metal contact and for surface shielding against moisture and mechanical damages.

  11. Distribution change of oxygen vacancies in layered perovskite type(Sr, La){sub n+1}Fe{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (n=3)

    SciTech Connect

    Kagomiya, Isao Jimbo, Keigo; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi

    2013-11-15

    To elucidate characteristic oxygen vacancy formation in layered perovskite (Sr, La){sub n+1}Fe{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} with the perovskite layer number: n=3, oxygen vacancy content δ of the (Sr{sub 0.775}La{sub 0.225}){sub 4}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 10−δ} (SLF4310) was investigated using a titration technique and a thermogravimetric analysis. The equilibrium constant K for the reduction reaction: Oo{sup ×}+2Fe{sub Fe}{sup ∙} (Fe{sup 4+})=1/2O{sub 2}+Vo{sup ∙∙}+2Fe{sub Fe}{sup ×}(Fe{sup 3+}) was estimated using the vacancy content δ. The Arrhenius plot of the K reveals slope change at approximately 775 °C. From the Rietveld analysis, the oxygen vacancies are the most remarkable at the O2 (O4) sites at lower (higher) temperatures than about 800 °C, which temperature is approximately comparable with that of slope change in the K. These facts mean that distribution of vacancy sites in the SLF4310 changes at approximately 775 °C, accompanying no structural phase transition. The vacancy distribution change affects to the ion conductivity of the SLF4310. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of (Sr{sub 0.775}La{sub 0.225}){sub 4}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 10−δ} (SLF4310) at 1000 °C. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Distribution change of oxygen vacancies is appeared at approximately 775 °C. • The distribution change with no structure phase transition is the first observation. • The vacancy distribution change affects the ion conductivity of the SLF4310.

  12. Simulation of current-voltage curves for inverted planar structure perovskite solar cells using equivalent circuit model with inductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojocaru, Ludmila; Uchida, Satoshi; Jayaweera, Piyankarage V. V.; Kaneko, Shoji; Toyoshima, Yasutake; Nakazaki, Jotaro; Kubo, Takaya; Segawa, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    Physical modeling of hysteretic behavior in current-voltage (I-V) curves of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is necessary for further improving their power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). The reduction of hysteresis in inverted planar structure PSCs (p-PSCs) has been achieved by using a [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layer. In the cases, the opposite trend of the I-V hysteresis has been observed where the forward scan shows slightly higher efficiency than the reverse scan. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model with inductance is proposed. This model consists of a Schottky diode involving a parasitic inductance focusing PCBM/Al(Ca) interface and accurately represents the opposite trend of the I-V hysteresis of the p-PSC with an inverted structure.

  13. Observation of Nanoscale Morphological and Structural Degradation in Perovskite Solar Cells by In-Situ TEM

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej K.; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; ...

    2016-11-04

    The chemical stability of organometallic halide perovskites is a major barrier facing their application in the fast rising field of next generation photovoltaics. These materials were shown to undergo degradation due to the influence of heat or moisture, significantly limiting the lifetime of associated devices. To overcome this stability issue, a fundamental understanding of degradation mechanisms is of foremost importance. Here, high resolution in situ transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy elemental mapping were applied to probe morphological and structural changes in perovskite films during controlled environmental exposure treatments. Both moisture and oxygen in ambient air are revealedmore » to facilitate degradation in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites through decomposition and oxidation pathways, respectively. In addition, even in moisture- and oxygen-free environment evident degradation could be induced by heating at the solar cell s real-field operating temperature and the degradation was found to originate from defect sites. These findings provide fundamental insight to prevent degradation of perovskite materials and associated devices for realistic applications.« less

  14. Observation of Nanoscale Morphological and Structural Degradation in Perovskite Solar Cells by In-Situ TEM

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej K.; Ming, Wenmei; Du, Mao-Hua; Das, Sanjib; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B.; Xiao, Kai

    2016-11-04

    The chemical stability of organometallic halide perovskites is a major barrier facing their application in the fast rising field of next generation photovoltaics. These materials were shown to undergo degradation due to the influence of heat or moisture, significantly limiting the lifetime of associated devices. To overcome this stability issue, a fundamental understanding of degradation mechanisms is of foremost importance. Here, high resolution in situ transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy elemental mapping were applied to probe morphological and structural changes in perovskite films during controlled environmental exposure treatments. Both moisture and oxygen in ambient air are revealed to facilitate degradation in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites through decomposition and oxidation pathways, respectively. In addition, even in moisture- and oxygen-free environment evident degradation could be induced by heating at the solar cell s real-field operating temperature and the degradation was found to originate from defect sites. These findings provide fundamental insight to prevent degradation of perovskite materials and associated devices for realistic applications.

  15. Efficient and Air-Stable Mixed-Cation Lead Mixed-Halide Perovskite Solar Cells with n-Doped Organic Electron Extraction Layers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiping; McMeekin, David P; Sakai, Nobuya; van Reenen, Stephan; Wojciechowski, Konrad; Patel, Jay B; Johnston, Michael B; Snaith, Henry J

    2017-02-01

    Air-stable doping of the n-type fullerene layer in an n-i-p planar heterojunction perovskite device is capable of enhancing device efficiency and improving device stability. Employing a (HC(NH2 )2 )0.83 Cs0.17 Pb(I0.6 Br0.4 )3 perovskite as the photoactive layer, glass-glass laminated devices are reported, which sustain 80% of their "post burn-in" efficiency over 3400 h under full sun illumination in ambient conditions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Determination of stoichiometry and concentration of trace elements in thin BaxSr1-xTiO3 perovskite layers.

    PubMed

    Becker, J S; Boulyga, S F

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes an analytical procedure for determining the stoichiometry of BaxSr1-xTiO3 perovskite layers using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analytical results of mass spectrometry measurements are compared to those of X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). The performance and the limits of solid-state mass spectrometry analytical methods for the surface analysis of thin BaxSr1-xTiO3 perovskite layers sputtered neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS)--are investigated and discussed.

  17. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-06

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  18. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:26733112

  19. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  20. Efficiency Enhancement of Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells with MEH-PPV Hole-Transporting Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Huang, Tzu-Yen; Chang, Ting-Hsiang; Sanehira, Yoshitaka; Kung, Chung-Wei; Chu, Chih-Wei; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, hybrid perovskite solar cells are fabricated using poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) as dopant-free hole-transporting materials (HTMs), and two solution processes (one- and two-step methods, respectively) for preparing methylammonium lead iodide perovskite. By optimizing the concentrations and solvents of MEH-PPV solutions, a power conversion efficiency of 9.65% with hysteresis-less performance is achieved, while the device with 2,2‧,7,7‧-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9‧spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) doped with lithium salts and tert-butylpyridine (TBP) exhibits an efficiency of 13.38%. This result shows that non-doped MEH-PPV is a suitable, low-cost HTM for efficient polymer-based perovskite solar cells. The effect of different morphologies of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite on conversion efficiency is also investigated by incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

  1. Efficiency Enhancement of Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells with MEH-PPV Hole-Transporting Layers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Huang, Tzu-Yen; Chang, Ting-Hsiang; Sanehira, Yoshitaka; Kung, Chung-Wei; Chu, Chih-Wei; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, hybrid perovskite solar cells are fabricated using poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) as dopant-free hole-transporting materials (HTMs), and two solution processes (one- and two-step methods, respectively) for preparing methylammonium lead iodide perovskite. By optimizing the concentrations and solvents of MEH-PPV solutions, a power conversion efficiency of 9.65% with hysteresis-less performance is achieved, while the device with 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) doped with lithium salts and tert-butylpyridine (TBP) exhibits an efficiency of 13.38%. This result shows that non-doped MEH-PPV is a suitable, low-cost HTM for efficient polymer-based perovskite solar cells. The effect of different morphologies of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite on conversion efficiency is also investigated by incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). PMID:27698464

  2. Tunable room-temperature spin-selective optical Stark effect in solution-processed layered halide perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Giovanni, David; Chong, Wee Kiang; Dewi, Herlina Arianita; Thirumal, Krishnamoorthy; Neogi, Ishita; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Mathews, Nripan; Sum, Tze Chien

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast spin manipulation for opto–spin logic applications requires material systems that have strong spin-selective light-matter interaction. Conventional inorganic semiconductor nanostructures [for example, epitaxial II to VI quantum dots and III to V multiple quantum wells (MQWs)] are considered forerunners but encounter challenges such as lattice matching and cryogenic cooling requirements. Two-dimensional halide perovskite semiconductors, combining intrinsic tunable MQW structures and large oscillator strengths with facile solution processability, can offer breakthroughs in this area. We demonstrate novel room-temperature, strong ultrafast spin-selective optical Stark effect in solution-processed (C6H4FC2H4NH3)2PbI4 perovskite thin films. Exciton spin states are selectively tuned by ~6.3 meV using circularly polarized optical pulses without any external photonic cavity (that is, corresponding to a Rabi energy of ~55 meV and equivalent to applying a 70 T magnetic field), which is much larger than any conventional system. The facile halide and organic replacement in these perovskites affords control of the dielectric confinement and thus presents a straightforward strategy for tuning light-matter coupling strength. PMID:27386583

  3. Entropy-driven structural transition and kinetic trapping in formamidinium lead iodide perovskite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianran; Foley, Benjamin J; Park, Changwon; Brown, Craig M; Harriger, Leland W; Lee, Jooseop; Ruff, Jacob; Yoon, Mina; Choi, Joshua J; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2016-10-01

    A challenge of hybrid perovskite solar cells is device instability, which calls for an understanding of the perovskite structural stability and phase transitions. Using neutron diffraction and first-principles calculations on formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3), we show that the entropy contribution to the Gibbs free energy caused by isotropic rotations of the FA(+) cation plays a crucial role in the cubic-to-hexagonal structural phase transition. Furthermore, we observe that the cubic-to-hexagonal phase transition exhibits a large thermal hysteresis. Our first-principles calculations confirm the existence of a potential barrier between the cubic and hexagonal structures, which provides an explanation for the observed thermal hysteresis. By exploiting the potential barrier, we demonstrate kinetic trapping of the cubic phase, desirable for solar cells, even at 8.2 K by thermal quenching.

  4. Entropy-driven structural transition and kinetic trapping in formamidinium lead iodide perovskite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianran; Foley, Benjamin J.; Park, Changwon; Brown, Craig M.; Harriger, Leland W.; Lee, Jooseop; Ruff, Jacob; Yoon, Mina; Choi, Joshua J.; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2016-01-01

    A challenge of hybrid perovskite solar cells is device instability, which calls for an understanding of the perovskite structural stability and phase transitions. Using neutron diffraction and first-principles calculations on formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3), we show that the entropy contribution to the Gibbs free energy caused by isotropic rotations of the FA+ cation plays a crucial role in the cubic-to-hexagonal structural phase transition. Furthermore, we observe that the cubic-to-hexagonal phase transition exhibits a large thermal hysteresis. Our first-principles calculations confirm the existence of a potential barrier between the cubic and hexagonal structures, which provides an explanation for the observed thermal hysteresis. By exploiting the potential barrier, we demonstrate kinetic trapping of the cubic phase, desirable for solar cells, even at 8.2 K by thermal quenching. PMID:27819055

  5. Tuning the band gap in hybrid tin iodide perovskite semiconductors using structural templating.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Jeremy L; Martin, James D; Mitzi, David B

    2005-06-27

    Structural distortions within the extensive family of organic/inorganic hybrid tin iodide perovskite semiconductors are correlated with their experimental exciton energies and calculated band gaps. The extent of the in- and out-of-plane angular distortion of the SnI4(2-) perovskite sheets is largely determined by the relative charge density and steric requirements of the organic cations. Variation of the in-plane Sn-I-Sn bond angle was demonstrated to have the greatest impact on the tuning of the band gap, and the equatorial Sn-I bond distances have a significant secondary influence. Extended Hückel tight-binding band calculations are employed to decipher the crystal orbital origins of the structural effects that fine-tune the band structure. The calculations suggest that it may be possible to tune the band gap by as much as 1 eV using the templating influence of the organic cation.

  6. Novel Combination of Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells with Low Temperature Processed Compact TiO2 Layer via Anodic Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Du, Yangyang; Cai, Hongkun; Wen, Hongbin; Wu, Yuxiang; Huang, Like; Ni, Jian; Li, Juan; Zhang, Jianjun

    2016-05-25

    In this work, a facile and low temperature processed anodic oxidation approach is proposed for fabricating compact and homogeneous titanium dioxide film (AO-TiO2). In order to realize morphology and thickness control of AO-TiO2, the theory concerning anodic oxidation (AO) is unveiled and the influence of relevant parameters during the process of AO such as electrolyte ingredient and oxidation voltage on AO-TiO2 formation is observed as well. Meanwhile, we demonstrate that the planar perovskite solar cells (p-PSCs) fabricated in ambient air and utilizing optimized AO-TiO2 as electron transport layer (ETL) can deliver repeatable power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 13%, which possess superior open-circuit voltage (Voc) and higher fill factor (FF) compared to its counterpart utilizing conventional high temperature processed compact TiO2 (c-TiO2) as ETL. Through a further comparative study, it is indicated that the improvement of device performance should be attributed to more effective electron collection from perovskite layer to AO-TiO2 and the decrease of device series resistance. Furthermore, hysteresis effect about current density-voltage (J-V) curves in TiO2-based p-PSCs is also unveiled.

  7. Oxygen deficient layered double perovskite as an active cathode for CO2 electrolysis using a solid oxide conductor.

    PubMed

    Shin, Tae Ho; Myung, Jae-Ha; Verbraeken, Maarten; Kim, Guntae; Irvine, John T S

    2015-01-01

    A-site ordered PrBaMn2O(5+δ) was investigated as a potential cathode for CO2 electrolysis using a La(0.9)Sr(0.1)Ga(0.8)Mg(0.2)O3 (LSGM) electrolyte. The A-site ordered layered double perovskite, PrBaMn2O(5+δ), was found to enhance electrocatalytic activity for CO2 reduction on the cathode side since it supports mixed valent transition metal cations such as Mn, which could provide high electrical conductivity and maintain a large oxygen vacancy content, contributing to fast oxygen ion diffusion. It was found that during the oxidation of the reduced PrBaMn2O(5+δ) (O5 phase) to PrBaMn2O(6-δ) (O6 phase), a reversible oxygen switchover in the lattice takes place. In addition, here the successful CO2 electrolysis was measured in LSGM electrolyte with this novel oxide electrode. It was found that this PrBaMn2O(5+δ), layered perovskite cathode exhibits a performance with a current density of 0.85 A cm(-2) at 1.5 V and 850 °C and the electrochemical properties were also evaluated by impedance spectroscopy.

  8. The effect of hole transporting layer in charge accumulation properties of p-i-n perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatopoulos, Fedros; Savva, Achilleas; Papadas, Ioannis T.; Choulis, Stelios A.

    2017-07-01

    The charge accumulation properties of p-i-n perovskite solar cells were investigated using three representative organic and inorganic hole transporting layer (HTL): (a) Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS, Al 4083), (b) copper-doped nickel oxide (Cu:NiOx), and (c) Copper oxide (CuO). Through impedance spectroscopy analysis and modelling, it is shown that charge accumulation is decreased in the HTL/perovskite interface, between PEDOT:PSS to Cu:NiOx and CuO. This was indicative from the decrease in double layer capacitance (Cdl) and interfacial charge accumulation capacitance (Cel), resulting in an increase to recombination resistance (Rrec), thus decreased charge recombination events between the three HTLs. Through AFM measurements, it is also shown that the reduced recombination events (followed by the increase in Rrec) are also a result of increased grain size between the three HTLs, thus reduction in the grain boundary area. These charge accumulation properties of the three HTLs have resulted in an increase to the power conversion efficiency between the PEDOT:PSS (8.44%), Cu:NiOx (11.45%), and CuO (15.3%)-based devices.

  9. A composite nanostructured electron-transport layer for stable hole-conductor free perovskite solar cells: design and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhenhua; Qi, Fei; Liu, Pei; You, Sujian; Kondamareddy, Kiran Kumar; Wang, Changlei; Cheng, Nian; Bai, Sihang; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2016-03-01

    A novel composite nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) based electron-transport layer (ETL) is designed by combining size blended nanoparticles (SBNP) and nanoarrays (NA) for efficient perovskite solar cell (PSC) applications. The composite nanostructured (SBNP + NA) ETL is successfully employed in hole-conductor free PSCs, there by achieving a stable device with a maximum efficiency of 13.5%. The improvement in the performance is attributed to the better charge transport and lower recombination in the SBNP + NA ETL. Despite the stable high efficiency, SBNP + NA ETL based PSCs are advantageous owing to their low cost, ease of all-solution fabrication process in an open environment and good reproducibility.A novel composite nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) based electron-transport layer (ETL) is designed by combining size blended nanoparticles (SBNP) and nanoarrays (NA) for efficient perovskite solar cell (PSC) applications. The composite nanostructured (SBNP + NA) ETL is successfully employed in hole-conductor free PSCs, there by achieving a stable device with a maximum efficiency of 13.5%. The improvement in the performance is attributed to the better charge transport and lower recombination in the SBNP + NA ETL. Despite the stable high efficiency, SBNP + NA ETL based PSCs are advantageous owing to their low cost, ease of all-solution fabrication process in an open environment and good reproducibility. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the experimental section and ESI figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09045h

  10. Bifunctional Polymer Nanocomposites as Hole-Transport Layers for Efficient Light Harvesting: Application to Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jhong-Yao; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Huang, Jeng-Yeh; Wang, Leeyih; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2015-12-23

    A new approach to largely enhancing light harvesting of solar cells by employing bifunctional polymer nanocomposites as hole-transport layers (HTLs) is proposed. To illustrate our working principle, CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite solar cells are used as examples. Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) are added into a conjugated poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) matrix, resulting in a ∼4-fold enhancement in the electrical conductivity and carrier mobility of the native P3HT film. The improved electrical properties are attributed to enhanced polymer chain ordering caused by Au-NPs. By integration of those P3HT:Au-NP films with an optimum loading concentration of 20% into perovskite solar cells as HTLs, this leads to a more than 25% enhancement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared with that of the NP-free one. In addition to the modulated electrical properties of the HTL, the improved performance can also be attributed to the scattering effect from the incorporated Au-NPs, which effectively extends the optical pathway to amplify photon absorption of the photoactive layer. The design principle shown here can be generalized to other organic materials as well, which should be very useful for the further development of high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  11. Effect of metal cation replacement on the electronic structure of metalorganic halide perovskites: Replacement of lead with alkaline-earth metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazoki, Meysam; Jacobsson, T. Jesper; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit; Edvinsson, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    Organic and inorganic lead halogen perovskites, and in particular, C H3N H3Pb I3 , have during the last years emerged as a class of highly efficient solar cell materials. Herein we introduce metalorganic halogen perovskite materials for energy-relevant applications based on alkaline-earth metals. Based on the classical notion of Goldschmidt's rules and quantum mechanical considerations, the three alkaline-earth metals, Ca, Sr, and Ba, are shown to be able to exchange lead in the perovskite structure. The three alkaline-earth perovskites, C H3N H3Ca I3,C H3N H3Sr I3 , and C H3N H3Ba I3 , as well as the reference compound, C H3N H3Pb I3 , are in this paper investigated with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which predict these compounds to exist as stable perovskite materials, and their electronic properties are explored. A detailed analysis of the projected molecular orbital density of states and electronic band structure from DFT calculations were used for interpretation of the band-gap variations in these materials and for estimation of the effective masses of the electrons and holes. Neglecting spin-orbit effects, the band gap of MACa I3,MASr I3 , and MABa I3 were estimated to be 2.95, 3.6, and 3.3 eV, respectively, showing the relative change expected for metal cation exchange. The shifts in the conduction band (CB) edges for the alkaline-earth perovskites were quantified using scalar relativistic DFT calculations and tight-binding analysis, and were compared to the situation in the more extensively studied lead halide perovskite, C H3N H3Pb I3 , where the change in the work function of the metal is the single most important factor in tuning the CB edge and band gap. The results show that alkaline-earth-based organometallic perovskites will not work as an efficient light absorber in photovoltaic applications but instead could be applicable as charge-selective contact materials. The rather high CB edge and the wide band gap together with the large

  12. Atomic Layer Deposition of Electron Selective SnOx and ZnO Films on Mixed Halide Perovskite: Compatibility and Performance.

    PubMed

    Hultqvist, Adam; Aitola, Kerttu; Sveinbjörnsson, Kári; Saki, Zahra; Larsson, Fredrik; Törndahl, Tobias; Johansson, Erik; Boschloo, Gerrit; Edoff, Marika

    2017-09-06

    The compatibility of atomic layer deposition directly onto the mixed halide perovskite formamidinium lead iodide:methylammonium lead bromide (CH(NH2)2, CH3NH3)Pb(I,Br)3 (FAPbI3:MAPbBr3) perovskite films is investigated by exposing the perovskite films to the full or partial atomic layer deposition processes for the electron selective layer candidates ZnO and SnOx. Exposing the samples to the heat, the vacuum, and even the counter reactant of H2O of the atomic layer deposition processes does not appear to alter the perovskite films in terms of crystallinity, but the choice of metal precursor is found to be critical. The Zn precursor Zn(C2H5)2 either by itself or in combination with H2O during the ZnO atomic layer deposition (ALD) process is found to enhance the decomposition of the bulk of the perovskite film into PbI2 without even forming ZnO. In contrast, the Sn precursor Sn(N(CH3)2)4 does not seem to degrade the bulk of the perovskite film, and conformal SnOx films can successfully be grown on top of it using atomic layer deposition. Using this SnOx film as the electron selective layer in inverted perovskite solar cells results in a lower power conversion efficiency of 3.4% than the 8.4% for the reference devices using phenyl-C70-butyric acid methyl ester. However, the devices with SnOx show strong hysteresis and can be pushed to an efficiency of 7.8% after biasing treatments. Still, these cells lacks both open circuit voltage and fill factor compared to the references, especially when thicker SnOx films are used. Upon further investigation, a possible cause of these losses could be that the perovskite/SnOx interface is not ideal and more specifically found to be rich in Sn, O, and halides, which is probably a result of the nucleation during the SnOx growth and which might introduce barriers or alter the band alignment for the transport of charge carriers.

  13. Reducing Hysteresis and Enhancing Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells Using Low-Temperature Processed Y-Doped SnO2 Nanosheets as Electron Selective Layers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Lei, Hongwei; Tao, Hong; Zheng, Xiaolu; Ma, Junjie; Liu, Qin; Ke, Weijun; Chen, Zhiliang; Xiong, Liangbin; Qin, Pingli; Chen, Zhao; Qin, Minchao; Lu, Xinhui; Yan, Yanfa; Fang, Guojia

    2017-01-01

    Despite the rapid increase of efficiency, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) still face some challenges, one of which is the current-voltage hysteresis. Herein, it is reported that yttrium-doped tin dioxide (Y-SnO2 ) electron selective layer (ESL) synthesized by an in situ hydrothermal growth process at 95 °C can significantly reduce the hysteresis and improve the performance of PSCs. Comparison studies reveal two main effects of Y doping of SnO2 ESLs: (1) it promotes the formation of well-aligned and more homogeneous distribution of SnO2 nanosheet arrays (NSAs), which allows better perovskite infiltration, better contacts of perovskite with SnO2 nanosheets, and improves electron transfer from perovskite to ESL; (2) it enlarges the band gap and upshifts the band energy levels, resulting in better energy level alignment with perovskite and reduced charge recombination at NSA/perovskite interfaces. As a result, PSCs using Y-SnO2 NSA ESLs exhibit much less hysteresis and better performance compared with the cells using pristine SnO2 NSA ESLs. The champion cell using Y-SnO2 NSA ESL achieves a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 17.29% (16.97%) when measured under reverse (forward) voltage scanning and a steady-state efficiency of 16.25%. The results suggest that low-temperature hydrothermal-synthesized Y-SnO2 NSA is a promising ESL for fabricating efficient and hysteresis-less PSC.

  14. Electro-spray deposition of a mesoporous TiO2 charge collection layer: toward large scale and continuous production of high efficiency perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-cheol; Kim, Byeong Jo; Yoon, Jungjin; Lee, Jin-wook; Suh, Dongchul; Park, Nam-gyu; Choi, Mansoo; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-12-28

    The spin-coating method, which is widely used for thin film device fabrication, is incapable of large-area deposition or being performed continuously. In perovskite hybrid solar cells using CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) (MAPbI(3)), large-area deposition is essential for their potential use in mass production. Prior to replacing all the spin-coating process for fabrication of perovskite solar cells, herein, a mesoporous TiO(2) electron-collection layer is fabricated by using the electro-spray deposition (ESD) system. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy and transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements reveal that the electro-sprayed mesoscopic TiO(2) film facilitates charge collection from the perovskite. The series resistance of the perovskite solar cell is also reduced owing to the highly porous nature of, and the low density of point defects in, the film. An optimized power conversion efficiency of 15.11% is achieved under an illumination of 1 sun; this efficiency is higher than that (13.67%) of the perovskite solar cell with the conventional spin-coated TiO(2) films. Furthermore, the large-area coating capability of the ESD process is verified through the coating of uniform 10 × 10 cm(2) TiO(2) films. This study clearly shows that ESD constitutes therefore a viable alternative for the fabrication of high-throughput, large-area perovskite solar cells.

  15. Conformal bi-layered perovskite/spinel coating on a metallic wire network for solid oxide fuel cells via an electrodeposition-based route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Beom-Kyeong; Song, Rak-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Bok; Lim, Tak-Hyoung; Park, Seok-Joo; Jung, WooChul; Lee, Jong-Won

    2017-04-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) require low-cost metallic components for current collection from electrodes as well as electrical connection between unit cells; however, the degradation of their electrical properties and surface stability associated with high-temperature oxidation is of great concern. It is thus important to develop protective conducting oxide coatings capable of mitigating the degradation of metallic components under SOFC operating conditions. Here, we report a conformal bi-layered coating composed of perovskite and spinel oxides on a metallic wire network fabricated by a facile electrodeposition-based route. A highly dense, crack-free, and adhesive bi-layered LaMnO3/Co3O4 coating of ∼1.2 μm thickness is conformally formed on the surfaces of wires with ∼100 μm diameter. We demonstrate that the bi-layered LaMnO3/Co3O4 coating plays a key role in improving the power density and durability of a tubular SOFC by stabilizing the surface of the metallic wire network used as a cathode current collector. The electrodeposition-based technique presented in this study offers a low-cost and scalable process to fabricate conformal multi-layered coatings on various metallic structures.

  16. Room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong H.; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Williams, Spencer T.; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is eventually demonstrated. This study shows the potential of low-temperature processed organic EEL to replace transition metal oxide-based interlayers for highly printing compatible PVSCs with high-performance.In this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is

  17. One step spray-coated TiO2 electron-transport layers for decent perovskite solar cells on large and flexible substrates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Aibin; Zhu, Jingting; Zhou, Yijie; Yu, Yu; Liu, Yan; Yang, Songwang; Ji, Shidong; Lei, Lei; Jin, Ping

    2017-01-06

    Spray-coating as a facile and quantitative method was introduced to prepare thin and continuous TiO2 compact layers on different substrates for perovskite solar cells. The as-prepared film is highly transparent and smooth, which is of significance in perovskite solar cells to decrease incident light loss and facilitate the film cast and electric contact. The compact TiO2 layer shows excellent performance when coated with perovskite and assembled into a device. Since it provides unlimited substrate size, patterning function and the TiO2 used for spray-coating is well crystallized, this method has huge potential for mass production and great adaptability for a variety of applications.

  18. One step spray-coated TiO2 electron-transport layers for decent perovskite solar cells on large and flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Aibin; Zhu, Jingting; Zhou, Yijie; Yu, Yu; Liu, Yan; Yang, Songwang; Ji, Shidong; Lei, Lei; Jin, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Spray-coating as a facile and quantitative method was introduced to prepare thin and continuous TiO2 compact layers on different substrates for perovskite solar cells. The as-prepared film is highly transparent and smooth, which is of significance in perovskite solar cells to decrease incident light loss and facilitate the film cast and electric contact. The compact TiO2 layer shows excellent performance when coated with perovskite and assembled into a device. Since it provides unlimited substrate size, patterning function and the TiO2 used for spray-coating is well crystallized, this method has huge potential for mass production and great adaptability for a variety of applications.

  19. Cluster intergrowth of perovskite and defect sodium chloride type structures in the K-Nb-O system: The structure of @KNb sub 4 O sub 6

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, G. )

    1991-02-01

    A new reduced potassium niobate ({approximately}KNb{sub 4}O{sub 6}) of intergrowth type structure containing condensed Nb{sub 6}O{sub 12} clusters has been found. The structure has been determined from HREM images. The atomic positions have been refined with the Rietveld technique using X-ray powder diffraction data. The space group of KNb{sub 4}O{sub 6} is P4/mmm; Z = 1, and its unit cell parameters are a = 4.1393(1) and c = 8.2537(2). {approximately}KNb{sub 4}O{sub 6} consists of alternating slabs of KNbO{sub 3} (perovskite) and NbO (ordered deficient NaCl-type) both being a single unit thick. The structure is closely related to that of A{sub 2}Nb{sub 5}O{sub 9} (A = Ba, Sr). Both phases can be considered as members (n = 1 and 2 respectively) of a homologous series A{sub n}Nb{sub 3+n}O{sub 3+3n}. Electron microscopy studies show the presence of defects, both as extra perovskite layers and missing NbO slabs, together with areas of more disordered intergrowth. The profile refinement and microanalysis of individual crystal fragments both indicate the structure to be niobium deficient according to the formula K{sub 1+x/2}Nb{sub 4{minus}x}O{sub 6}.

  20. Enhanced interfacial electron transfer of inverted perovskite solar cells by introduction of CoSe into the electron-transporting-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shanshan; Yang, Songwang; Sun, Hong; Zhang, Lu; Peng, Jiajun; Liang, Ziqi; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    To improve the electron transfer at the interface between the perovskite film and the electron-transporting-material (ETM) layer, CoSe doped [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is employed as the ETM layer for the inverted planar perovskite solar cell with NiO as the hole-transporting-material layer. Introduction of CoSe (5.8 wt%) into the PCBM layer improves the conductivity of the ETM layer and decreases the photoluminescence intensity, thus enhancing the interfacial electron extraction and reducing the electron transfer resistance at the perovskite/ETM interface. As a consequence, the power conversion efficiency is enhanced from 11.43% to 14.91% by 30% due to the noted increases in short-circuit current density from 17.95 mA cm-2 to 19.85 mA cm-2 and fill factor from 0.60 to 0.70. This work provides a new strategy to improve the performance of inverted perovskite solar cells.

  1. Parameters Affecting I-V Hysteresis of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells: Effects of Perovskite Crystal Size and Mesoporous TiO2 Layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hui-Seon; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2014-09-04

    Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells are studied using a time-dependent current response with stepwise sweeping of the bias voltage. Compared with the crystalline Si solar cell showing time-independent current at a given bias voltage, the perovskite solar cells exhibit time-dependent current response. The current increases with time and becomes steady at forward scan from short-circuit to open-circuit, whereas it is decayed and saturated with time at reverse scan from open-circuit to short-circuit. Time-dependent current response eventually leads to I-V hysteresis depending on the scan direction and the scan rate. Crystal size of CH3NH3PbI3 and the mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) film are found to influence I-V hysteresis, where the I-V hysteresis is alleviated as crystal size increases and in the presence of mp-TiO2. The capacitance observed at low frequency (0.1 to 1 Hz), associated with dipole polarization, tends to diminish as size of perovskite and mp-TiO2 layer thickness increases, which suggests that the origin of hysteresis correlates to the capacitive characteristic of CH3NH3PbI3 and the degree of hysteresis depends strongly on perovskite crystal size and mesoporous TiO2 layer.

  2. Water-resistant, monodispersed and stably luminescent CsPbBr3/CsPb2Br5 core-shell like structure lead halide perovskite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Bo; Song, Pengjie; Cao, Jingyue; Zhao, Suling; Shen, Zhaohui; Gao, Di; Liang, Zhiqin; Xu, Zheng; Song, Dandan; Xu, Xurong

    2017-08-30

    Lead halide perovskite materials are blooming for optoelectronic applications due to their excellent properties, while their instability due to their extreme ease for hydrolysis is still a bottleneck for their potential applications. In this work, water-resistant, monodispersed and stably luminescent cesium lead bromine perovskite nanocrystals coated with CsPb2Br5 were obtained with modified non-stoichiometric solution-phase method. CsPb2Br5 2D layers coated on the surface of CsPbBr3 nanocrystals and formed core-shell like structure in the synthetic processes. The stability of luminescence of CsPbBr3 nanocrystals in water and ethanol atmosphere was greatly enhanced by the PL-inactive CsPb2Br5-coating with wide bandgap. The water-stable-enhanced NCs pave a pathway for more stable QLED applications and even biological fluorescence detection applications. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. First-principles exploration of multiferroic oxides with double-perovskite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Tamio; Shishidou, Tatsuya; Uratani, Yoshitaka

    2006-03-01

    Multiferroics have attracted much attention recently because of their novel properties. There are a few known as ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials, particularly with perovskite-type crystal structure. Ferroelectrics should be insulating and likely ionic. Furthermore, it is widely recognized that covalent bonds between the cation and anion orbitals are crucial to realize atomic displacements to a noncentrosymmetric structure. As for magnetism, most of magnetic perovskite oxides usually have an antiferromagnetic order (mostly frustrating) due to a superexchange coupling. According to the Kanamori-Goodenough rule for the superexchange coupling, certain combinations of the transition-metals ions (d^3-d^5 and d^3-d^8 configurations) may possibly give a ferromagnetic coupling by the 180^o superexchange mechanism. In this study, we explore possible co-existence of spontaneous electric polarization and ferromagnetic ordering from first principles, by focusing bismuth double-perovskite oxides Bi2BB'O6 (B, B' = 3d ions) as target materials. Ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic solutions are obtained for cubic Bi2MnNiO6, Bi2CrFeO6 and Bi2CrCuO6 with nearly gapped electronic structure. Quite recently, Bi2MnNiO6 has been successfully synthesized by a high-pressure technique and revealed multiferroic properties. Possible multiferroic properties of Bi2MnNiO6 with the observed monoclinic structure are investigated in detail.

  4. Computational Study of Structural and Electrical Properties of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boinapally, Vamshidhar Rao

    Methyl ammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI 3) plays an important role in light absorption in perovskite solar cells. The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the structural and electrical properties of cubic and tetragonal phases of CH3NH3PbI 3. The optimized structure and minimum energy lattice constants of relaxed cubic unit cells were initially computed. The most stable orientation of methylammonium cation was found to be in the [1 1 -1] direction. This directional preference is described by bonding analysis of the atomic cage of PbI3 with the C≡N dimer. The variation of c/a ratio with the distortion angle of PbI6 underlies the understanding of the transition from the cubic to the tetragonal phase. For the equilibrium structures band structures and effective masses were computed. The computed effective masses of both holes and electrons of CH 3NH3PbI3 are comparable to the widely used silicon in commercial inorganic solar cells. These results describe the light absorption nature of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite and its importance in future solar cell technology.

  5. Electronic energy band structure of the double perovskite Ba2MnWO6.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Yukari; Frantti, Johannes; Nieminen, Risto M

    2008-06-05

    The electronic and magnetic structures of the double perovskite oxide Ba 2MnWO6 (BMW) were determined by employing the density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) + U approach. BMW is considered a prototype double perovskite due to its high degree of B-site ordering and is a good case study for making a comparison between computations and experiments. By adjusting the U-parameter, the electronic energy band structure and magnetic properties, which were consistent with the experimental results, were obtained. These computations revealed that the valence bands are mainly formed from Mn 3d and O 2p states, while the conduction bands are derived from W 5d and O 2p states. The localized bands composed from Mn 3d states are located in the bandgap. The results imply that the formation of polarons in the conduction band initiate the resonance Raman modes observed as a series of equidistant peaks.

  6. Efficient and Stable Vacuum-Free-Processed Perovskite Solar Cells Enabled by a Robust Solution-Processed Hole Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Yu; Tsai, Bo-Chou; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng

    2017-05-09

    Here, efficient and stable vacuum-free processed perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are demonstrated by employing solutionprocessed molybdenum tris-[1-(trifluoroethanoyl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)ethane-1,2-dithiolene] (Mo(tfd-COCF3 )3 )-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) film as hole transport layer (HTL). Our results indicate that the incorporation of Mo(tfd-COCF3 )3 dopant can induce p-doping through charge transfer from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of the PEDOT host to the electron affinity of Mo(tfd-COCF3 )3 , leading to an increase in conductivity by more than three orders of magnitude. With this newly developed p-doped film as HTL in planar heterojunction PSCs, a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 18.47 % can be achieved, which exceeds that of the device with commonly used HTL 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD). Taking the advantage of the high conductivity of this doped film, a prominent PCE as high as 15.58 % is also demonstrated even when a large HTL thickness of 220 nm is used. Importantly, the high quality film of this HTL is capable of acting as an effective passivation layer to keep the underlying perovskite layer intact during solution-processed Ag-nanoparticles layer deposition. The resulting vacuum-free PSCs deliver an impressive PCE of 14.81 %, which represents the highest performance ever reported for vacuum-free PSCs. Furthermore, the resulting devices show good ambient stability without encapsulation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Solution-Processed Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Field-Effect Transistors with High Hole Mobilities.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Hwang, Sunbin; Sandanayaka, Atula S D; Qin, Chuanjiang; Terakawa, Shinobu; Fujihara, Takashi; Yahiro, Masayuki; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-12-01

    A very high hole mobility of 15 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) along with negligible hysteresis are demonstrated in transistors with an organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductor. This high mobility results from the well-developed perovskite crystallites, improved conversion to perovskite, reduced hole trap density, and improved hole injection by employing a top-contact/top-gate structure with surface treatment and MoOx hole-injection layers.

  8. Unveiling Structurally Engineered Carrier Dynamics in Hybrid Quasi-Two-Dimensional Perovskite Thin Films toward Controllable Emission.

    PubMed

    Shang, Qiuyu; Wang, Yunuan; Zhong, Yangguang; Mi, Yang; Qin, Liang; Zhao, Yuefeng; Qiu, Xiaohui; Liu, Xinfeng; Zhang, Qing

    2017-09-05

    Quasi-two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites driving carrier self-separation have rapidly advanced the development of high-performance optoelectronic devices. However, insightful understanding of carrier dynamics in the perovskites is still inadequate. The distribution of multiple perovskite phases, crucial for carrier separation, is controversial. Here we report a systematic study on carrier dynamics of spin-coated (C6H5CH2CH2NH3)2(CH3NH3)n-1PbnI3n+1 (n = 3 and 5) perovskite thin films. Efficient electrons transfer from small-n to large-n perovskite phases, and holes transfer reversely with time scales from ∼0.3 to 30.0 ps. The multiple perovskite phases are arranged perpendicularly to substrate from small to large n and also coexist randomly in the same horizontal planes. Further, the carrier separation dynamics is tailored by engineering the crystalline structure of the perovskite film, which leads to controllable emission properties. These results have important significance for the design of optoelectronic devices from solar cells, light-emitting diodes, lasers, and so forth.

  9. Amorphous Tin Oxide as a Low-Temperature-Processed Electron-Transport Layer for Organic and Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Barbé, Jérémy; Tietze, Max L; Neophytou, Marios; Murali, Banavoth; Alarousu, Erkki; Labban, Abdulrahman El; Abulikemu, Mutalifu; Yue, Wan; Mohammed, Omar F; McCulloch, Iain; Amassian, Aram; Del Gobbo, Silvano

    2017-04-05

    Chemical bath deposition (CBD) of tin oxide (SnO2) thin films as an electron-transport layer (ETL) in a planar-heterojunction n-i-p organohalide lead perovskite and organic bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is reported. The amorphous SnO2 (a-SnO2) films are grown from a nontoxic aqueous bath of tin chloride at a very low temperature (55 °C) and do not require postannealing treatment to work very effectively as an ETL in a planar-heterojunction n-i-p organohalide lead perovskite or organic BHJ solar cells, in lieu of the commonly used ETL materials titanium oxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO), respectively. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements on the glass/indium-tin oxide (ITO)/SnO2/methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3)/2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene device stack indicate that extraction of photogenerated electrons is facilitated by a perfect alignment of the conduction bands at the SnO2/MAPbI3 interface, while the deep valence band of SnO2 ensures strong hole-blocking properties. Despite exhibiting very low electron mobility, the excellent interfacial energetics combined with high transparency (Egap,optical > 4 eV) and uniform substrate coverage make the a-SnO2 ETL prepared by CBD an excellent candidate for the potentially low-cost and large-scale fabrication of organohalide lead perovskite and organic photovoltaics.

  10. The Interface between FTO and the TiO2 Compact Layer Can Be One of the Origins to Hysteresis in Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jena, Ajay Kumar; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Kogo, Atsushi; Sanehira, Yoshitaka; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2015-05-13

    Organometal halide perovskite solar cells have shown rapid rise in power conversion efficiency, and therefore, they have gained enormous attention in the past few years. However, hysteretic photovoltaic characteristics, found in these solid-state devices, have been a major problem. Although it is being proposed that the ferroelectric property of perovskite causes hysteresis in the device, we observed hysteresis in a device made of nonferroelectric PbI2 as a light absorber. This result evidently supports the fact that ferroelectric property cannot be the sole reason for hysteresis. The present study investigates the roles of some key interfaces in a planar heterojunction perovskite (CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)) solar cell that can potentially cause hysteresis. The results confirm that the interface between fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate and the TiO2 compact layer has a definite contribution to hysteresis. Although this interface is one of the origins to hysteresis, we think that other interfaces, especially the interface of the TiO2 compact layer with perovskite, can also play major roles. Nevertheless, the results indicate that hysteresis in such devices can be reduced/eliminated by changing the interlayer between FTO and perovskite.

  11. Crystallographic and electronic structure of the Ca2TiMnO6 double perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. P. Garzón; Cardona, R.; Santos, A. Sarmiento; Téllez, D. A. Landínez; Roa-Rojas, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we report synthesis and crystalline structure study of the Ca2TiMnO6 complex perovskite, by X-ray diffraction experiments and through the application of the Rietveld refinement using the GSAS code. Results revealed the crystallization of the system in a tetragonal perovskite with the characteristic structure given by I4/m (#87) space group and lattice parameters a=5.339(4) Å and c=7.736(6) Å. Ab initio calculations of density of states (DOS) and electronic structure were carried out for this perovskite-like system, by the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and using the Full-potential Linearized Augmented Plane Waves (FP-LAPW) method. The exchange-correlation potential was treated using the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA). All calculations were carried-out using spin polarization. For the up spin orientation the compound has a semiconducting behavior and for down spin polarization it behaves like a conductor. The calculated effective magnetic moment in cell was 4.02 μB, which is close to the expected value calculated from Hund's rules.

  12. Nano-structured CuO-Cu2O Complex Thin Film for Application in CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lung-Chieh; Chen, Cheng-Chiang; Liang, Kai-Chieh; Chang, Sheng Hsiung; Tseng, Zhong-Liang; Yeh, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Chin-Ti; Wu, Wen-Ti; Wu, Chun-Guey

    2016-09-01

    Nano-structured CuO-Cu2O complex thin film-based perovskite solar cells were fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass and studied. Copper (Cu) thin films with a purity of 99.995 % were deposited on an ITO-coated glass by magnetron reactive sputtering. To optimize the properties of the nano-structured CuO-Cu2O complex thin films, the deposited Cu thin films were thermally oxidized at various temperatures from 300 to 400 °C. A CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite absorber was fabricated on top of CuO-Cu2O complex thin film by a one-step spin-coating process with a toluene washing treatment. Following optimization, the maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeded 8.1 %. Therefore, the low-cost, solution-processed, stable nano-structured CuO-Cu2O complex thin film can be used as an alternative hole transport layer (HTL) in industrially produced perovskite solar cells.

  13. Nano-structured CuO-Cu2O Complex Thin Film for Application in CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lung-Chieh; Chen, Cheng-Chiang; Liang, Kai-Chieh; Chang, Sheng Hsiung; Tseng, Zhong-Liang; Yeh, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Chin-Ti; Wu, Wen-Ti; Wu, Chun-Guey

    2016-12-01

    Nano-structured CuO-Cu2O complex thin film-based perovskite solar cells were fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass and studied. Copper (Cu) thin films with a purity of 99.995 % were deposited on an ITO-coated glass by magnetron reactive sputtering. To optimize the properties of the nano-structured CuO-Cu2O complex thin films, the deposited Cu thin films were thermally oxidized at various temperatures from 300 to 400 °C. A CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite absorber was fabricated on top of CuO-Cu2O complex thin film by a one-step spin-coating process with a toluene washing treatment. Following optimization, the maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeded 8.1 %. Therefore, the low-cost, solution-processed, stable nano-structured CuO-Cu2O complex thin film can be used as an alternative hole transport layer (HTL) in industrially produced perovskite solar cells.

  14. First Principles Study of Electronic and Magnetic Structures in Double Perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Molly

    At present, electronic devices are reaching their storage and processing limit causing a major push to find materials that can be used in the next generation of devices. Double perovskites with A2BB'O 6 stoichiometry form one of the leading classes of materials currently being studied as a potential candidate because of their extremely wide range and tunability of functional properties, along with economic and highly scalable synthesis routes. Having a thorough understanding of their electronic and magnetic structure and their dependence on composition and local structure is the basis for targeted development of novel and optimized double perovskites. While the body of knowledge and rules within the field of materials chemistry has enabled many previous discoveries, recent developments within density functional theory (DFT) allow by now a rather realistic description of the electronic and magnetic properties of materials and especially identification of their origin from geometry and orbital structure. This thesis details computational work based on DFT within several collaborative studies to better understand the electronic and magnetic properties of double perovskites and related materials that show promise for future use in multifunctional devices. First, we will begin with a general introduction to the double perovskite structure, their properties, and the computational methods used to study them. In the next section, we will look at the case of the antiferromagnetic, insulating double perovskite Sr2CoOsO6, where measurements showed that the transition metal ions in the two sublattices undergo magnetic ordering independently of each other, indicating weak magnetic short-range coupling and a dominance of longer-range interactions, which has previously not been observed. Here, we performed DFT calculations to extract the exchange strengths between the ions and explain this unique dominance of the long-range interactions. Then, we will look at studies done on thin

  15. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of a new pillared perovskite La{sub 5}Mo{sub 2.75}V{sub 1.25}O{sub 16}

    SciTech Connect

    Ramezanipour, Farshid; Derakhshan, Shahab; Greedan, John E. Cranswick, Lachlan M.D.

    2008-12-15

    A new pillared perovskite compound La{sub 5}Mo{sub 2.76(4)}V{sub 1.25(4)}O{sub 16}, has been synthesized by solid-state reaction and its crystal structure has been characterized using powder X-ray and neutron diffraction. The magnetic properties of this compound have been investigated using SQUID magnetometry, and the magnetic structure has been studied using neutron diffraction data. A theoretical calculation of relative strengths of spin interactions among different magnetic ions and through different pathways has been performed using extended Hueckel, spin dimer analysis. The crystal structure of this material contains perovskite-type layers that are connected through edge-sharing dimeric units of octahedra. The structure is described in space group C2/m with unit cell parameters a=7.931(2) A, b=7.913(2) A, c=10.346(5) A and {beta}=95.096(5){sup o}. The material shows both short-range ferrimagnetic correlations from {approx}200 to 110 K and long-range antiferromagnetic order below T{sub c}{approx}100 K. The magnetic structure was investigated by neutron diffraction and is described by k=(0 0 1/2 ) as for other pillared perovskites. It consists of a ferrimagnetic arrangement of Mo and V within the layers that are coupled antiferromagnetically between layers. This is the first magnetic structure determination for any Mo-based pillared perovskite. - Graphical abstract: Long-range magnetic order below 100 K in the pillared perovskite La{sub 5}Mo{sub 2.75}V{sub 1.25}O{sub 16}. The magnetic structure is shown in the inset.

  16. Room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong H.; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Williams, Spencer T.; Jen, Alex K. -Y.

    2015-09-24

    Here in this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is eventually demonstrated. Lastly, this study shows the potential of low-temperature processed organic EEL to replace transition metal oxide-based interlayers for highly printing compatible PVSCs with high-performance.

  17. Room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Jong H.; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Williams, Spencer T.; ...

    2015-09-24

    Here in this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Basedmore » on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is eventually demonstrated. Lastly, this study shows the potential of low-temperature processed organic EEL to replace transition metal oxide-based interlayers for highly printing compatible PVSCs with high-performance.« less

  18. Room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong H; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Williams, Spencer T; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2015-11-07

    In this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ∼10% is eventually demonstrated. This study shows the potential of low-temperature processed organic EEL to replace transition metal oxide-based interlayers for highly printing compatible PVSCs with high-performance.

  19. Fast Fabrication of a Stable Perovskite Solar Cell with an Ultrathin Effective Novel Inorganic Hole Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Aibin; Lei, Lei; Zhu, Jingting; Yu, Yu; Liu, Yan; Yang, Songwang; Bao, Shanhu; Cao, Xun; Jin, Ping

    2017-04-18

    With the aim of fabricating simple, reproducible, and scalable perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with least time consumption, a novel CoOx hole transport layer (HTL) was first proposed and introduced in this work. The CoOx HTL thickness was minimized to about 10 nm with complete coverage on the FTO substrate (F-doped SnO2) by direct current magnetron sputtering. The ultrathin HTL could minimize the incident light loss caused by cobalt ion absorption and reduce the carrier transport loss by shortening the transport path. Copper was incorporated into the CoOx lattice to address the low conductivity of the CoOx film and the energy-level mismatch between CoOx and the perovskite material. On the basis of cobalt-copper binary oxide (Co1-yCuyOx), the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of about 10% was achieved, which was acceptable for mass production. Moreover, the deposition of such Co1-yCuyOx films takes only 2 min without size limitation of substrates. A well-functioned device based on the Co1-yCuyOx HTL could hence be fabricated within 100 min. Excellent stability was demonstrated as well, with over 90% of the initial PCE remaining after being stored in a dark and humid environment (relative humidity 60%) for 12 days.

  20. Effect of water on the effective Goldschmidt tolerance factor and photoelectric conversion efficiency of organic-inorganic perovskite: insights from first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhen-Kun; Zhu, Ya-Nan; Xu, Zhi-Feng; Liu, Li-Min

    2017-06-14

    Water is often believed to be the leading killer of perovskite solar cells' efficiency. However, recent experimental results show that perovskite solar cells have higher photoelectric conversion efficiency in a suitably moist environment. In this study, the relationship between the interstitial water molecule and the theoretical maximum efficiency of the perovskite absorber layer is discussed based on density functional theory calculations. Our calculated results show that an interstitial water molecule can enlarge the effective Goldschmidt tolerance factor, which is an empirical structural parameter for the structure of the perovskite material. The primitive MAPbI3 structure is not the ideal perovskite structure with the highest photoelectric conversion efficiency. Surprisingly, appropriate interstitial water molecules are beneficial to perovskite absorbers in terms of increasing photoelectric conversion efficiency. This can be attributed to the relatively larger effective Goldschmidt tolerance factor of the perovskite structure with an interstitial water molecule, which affects the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the perovskite structure. Our calculations indicate that the perovskite absorbers with a H2O : MAPbI3 ratio of 1/4-1/2 have a relatively higher photoelectric conversion efficiency. This study helps us understand the role of the interstitial molecule in the perovskite structure deeply, which is very useful in the design and optimization of the perovskite absorbers for high-efficiency perovskite cells.

  1. Lattice dynamics and the nature of structural transitions in organolead halide perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Comin, Riccardo; Crawford, Michael K.; Said, Ayman H.; ...

    2016-09-09

    Organolead halide perovskites are a family of hybrid organic-inorganic compounds whose remark- able optoelectronic properties have been under intensive scrutiny in recent years. Here we use inelastic X-ray scattering to study low-energy lattice excitations in single crystals of methylammonium lead iodide and bromide perovskites. Our ndings conrm the displacive nature of the cubic-to- tetragonal phase transition, which is further shown, using neutron and x-ray diraction, to be close to a tricritical point. The experimental sound speed, around 100-200 m/s, suggests that electron- phonon scattering is likely a limiting factor for further improvements in carrier mobility. Lastly, we detect quasistatic symmetry-breakingmore » nanodomains persisting well into the high-temperature cubic phase, possibly stabilized by local defects. These ndings reveal key structural properties of these materials, but also bear important implications for carrier dynamics across an extended temperature range relevant for photovoltaic applications.« less

  2. Lattice dynamics and the nature of structural transitions in organolead halide perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Comin, Riccardo; Crawford, Michael K.; Said, Ayman H.; Herron, Norman; Guise, William E.; Wang, Xiaoping; Whitfield, Pamela S.; Jain, Ankit; Gong, Xiwen; McGaughey, Alan J. H.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-09-09

    Organolead halide perovskites are a family of hybrid organic-inorganic compounds whose remark- able optoelectronic properties have been under intensive scrutiny in recent years. Here we use inelastic X-ray scattering to study low-energy lattice excitations in single crystals of methylammonium lead iodide and bromide perovskites. Our ndings conrm the displacive nature of the cubic-to- tetragonal phase transition, which is further shown, using neutron and x-ray diraction, to be close to a tricritical point. The experimental sound speed, around 100-200 m/s, suggests that electron- phonon scattering is likely a limiting factor for further improvements in carrier mobility. Lastly, we detect quasistatic symmetry-breaking nanodomains persisting well into the high-temperature cubic phase, possibly stabilized by local defects. These ndings reveal key structural properties of these materials, but also bear important implications for carrier dynamics across an extended temperature range relevant for photovoltaic applications.

  3. Lattice dynamics and the nature of structural transitions in organolead halide perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Comin, Riccardo; Crawford, Michael K.; Said, Ayman H.; Herron, Norman; Guise, William E.; Wang, Xiaoping; Whitfield, Pamela S.; Jain, Ankit; Gong, Xiwen; McGaughey, Alan J. H.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-09-09

    Organolead halide perovskites are a family of hybrid organic-inorganic compounds whose remarkable optoelectronic properties have been under intensive scrutiny in recent years. Here we use inelastic x-ray scattering to study low-energy lattice excitations in single crystals of methylammonium lead iodide and bromide perovskites. Our findings confirm the displacive nature of the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition, which is further shown, using neutron and x-ray diffraction, to be close to a tricritical point. Lastly, we detect quasistatic symmetry-breaking nanodomains persisting well into the high-temperature cubic phase, possibly stabilized by local defects. These findings reveal key structural properties of these materials, and also bear important implications for carrier dynamics across an extended temperature range relevant for photovoltaic applications.

  4. Lattice dynamics and the nature of structural transitions in organolead halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comin, Riccardo; Crawford, Michael K.; Said, Ayman H.; Herron, Norman; Guise, William E.; Wang, Xiaoping; Whitfield, Pamela S.; Jain, Ankit; Gong, Xiwen; McGaughey, Alan J. H.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-09-01

    Organolead halide perovskites are a family of hybrid organic-inorganic compounds whose remarkable optoelectronic properties have been under intensive scrutiny in recent years. Here we use inelastic x-ray scattering to study low-energy lattice excitations in single crystals of methylammonium lead iodide and bromide perovskites. Our findings confirm the displacive nature of the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition, which is further shown, using neutron and x-ray diffraction, to be close to a tricritical point. Lastly, we detect quasistatic symmetry-breaking nanodomains persisting well into the high-temperature cubic phase, possibly stabilized by local defects. These findings reveal key structural properties of these materials, and also bear important implications for carrier dynamics across an extended temperature range relevant for photovoltaic applications.

  5. Lattice dynamics and the nature of structural transitions in organolead halide perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Comin, Riccardo; Crawford, Michael K.; Said, Ayman H.; Herron, Norman; Guise, William E.; Wang, Xiaoping; Whitfield, Pamela S.; Jain, Ankit; Gong, Xiwen; McGaughey, Alan J. H.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-09-09

    Organolead halide perovskites are a family of hybrid organic-inorganic compounds whose remark- able optoelectronic properties have been under intensive scrutiny in recent years. Here we use inelastic X-ray scattering to study low-energy lattice excitations in single crystals of methylammonium lead iodide and bromide perovskites. Our ndings conrm the displacive nature of the cubic-to- tetragonal phase transition, which is further shown, using neutron and x-ray diraction, to be close to a tricritical point. The experimental sound speed, around 100-200 m/s, suggests that electron- phonon scattering is likely a limiting factor for further improvements in carrier mobility. Lastly, we detect quasistatic symmetry-breaking nanodomains persisting well into the high-temperature cubic phase, possibly stabilized by local defects. These ndings reveal key structural properties of these materials, but also bear important implications for carrier dynamics across an extended temperature range relevant for photovoltaic applications.

  6. The Structural Disorder and Lattice Stability of (Ba,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 Complex Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    S.N.Rashkeev

    2011-05-01

    The structural disorder and lattice stability of complex perovskite (Ba,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3, a promising cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen permeation membranes, is explored by means of first principles DFT calculations. It is predicted that Ba and Sr ions easily exchange their lattice positions (A-cation disorder) similarly to Co and Fe ions (B-cation disorder). The cation antisite defects (exchange of A- and B-type cations) have a relatively high formation energy. The BSCF is predicted to exist in an equilibrium mixture of several phases and can decompose exothermically into the Ba- and Co-rich hexagonal (Ba,Sr)CoO3 and Sr- and Fe-rich cubic (Ba,Sr)FeO3 perovskites.

  7. CaTiO.sub.3 Interfacial template structure on semiconductor-based material and the growth of electroceramic thin-films in the perovskite class

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney Allen; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A structure including a film of a desired perovskite oxide which overlies and is fully commensurate with the material surface of a semiconductor-based substrate and an associated process for constructing the structure involves the build up of an interfacial template film of perovskite between the material surface and the desired perovskite film. The lattice parameters of the material surface and the perovskite of the template film are taken into account so that during the growth of the perovskite template film upon the material surface, the orientation of the perovskite of the template is rotated 45.degree. with respect to the orientation of the underlying material surface and thereby effects a transition in the lattice structure from fcc (of the semiconductor-based material) to the simple cubic lattice structure of perovskite while the fully commensurate periodicity between the perovskite template film and the underlying material surface is maintained. The film-growth techniques of the invention can be used to fabricate solid state electrical components wherein a perovskite film is built up upon a semiconductor-based material and the perovskite film is adapted to exhibit ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electro-optic or large dielectric properties during use of the component.

  8. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2010-06-15

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  9. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2006-10-31

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  10. Thermal evolution of the crystal structure of the orthorhombic perovskite LaFeO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Charlotte A.L.; Kavanagh, Christopher M.; Knight, Kevin S.; Kockelmann, Winfried; Morrison, Finlay D.; Lightfoot, Philip

    2015-10-15

    The thermal evolution of the crystal structure of the prototypical orthorhombic perovskite LaFeO{sub 3} has been studied in detail by powder neutron diffraction in the temperature range 25perovskite LaFeO{sub 3} is rationalized from a detailed powder neutron diffraction study. - Highlights: • Crystal structure of the perovskite LaFeO{sub 3} studied in detail by powder neutron diffraction. • Unusual thermal evolution of lattice metrics rationalized. • Contrasting behavior to Bi-doped LaFeO{sub 3}. • Octahedral distortion/tilt parameters explain unusual a and c lattice parameter behavior.

  11. Atomistic Origins of Surface Defects in CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite and Their Electronic Structures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunxia; Palotas, Krisztian; Yuan, Xiao; Hou, Tingjun; Lin, Haiping; Li, Youyong; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2017-02-28

    The inherent instability of CH3NH3PbX3 remains a major technical barrier for the industrial applications of perovskite materials. Recently, the most stable surface structures of CH3NH3PbX3 have been successfully characterized by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations together with the high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) results. The two coexisting phases of the perovskite surfaces have been ascribed to the alternate orientation of the methylammonium (MA) cations. Notably, similar surface defect images (a dark depression at the sites of X atoms) have been observed on surfaces produced with various experimental methods. As such, these defects are expected to be intrinsic to the perovskite crystals and may play an important role in the structural decomposition of perovskite materials. Understanding the nature of such defects should provide some useful information toward understanding the instability of perovskite materials. Thus, we investigate the chemical identity of the surface defects systematically with first-principles density functional theory calculations and STM simulations. The calculated STM images of the Br and Br-MA vacancies are both in good agreement with the experimental measurements. In vacuum conditions, the formation energy of Br-MA is 0.43 eV less than the Br vacancy. In the presence of solvation effects, however, the formation energy of a Br vacancy becomes 0.42 eV lower than the Br-MA vacancy. In addition, at the vacancy sites, the adsorption energies of water, oxygen, and acetonitrile molecules are significantly higher than those on the pristine surfaces. This clearly demonstrated that the structural decomposition of perovskites are much easier to start from these vacancy sites than the pristine surfaces. Combining DFT calculations and STM simulations, this work reveals the chemical identities of the intrinsic defects in the CH3NH3PbX3 perovskite crystals and their effects on the stability of perovskite materials.

  12. Role of structure imperfection in the formation of the magnetotransport properties of rare-earth manganites with a perovskite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashchenko, A. V.; Pashchenko, V. P.; Prokopenko, V. K.; Turchenko, V. A.; Revenko, Yu. F.; Mazur, A. S.; Sycheva, V. Ya.; Liedienov, N. A.; Pitsyuga, V. G.; Levchenko, G. G.

    2017-01-01

    The structure, the structure imperfection, and the magnetoresistance, magnetotransport, and microstructure properties of rare-earth perovskite La0.3Ln0.3Sr0.3Mn1.1O3-δ manganites are studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, electrical resistivity measurement, magnetic, 55Mn NMR, magnetoresistance measurement, and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the structure imperfection increases, and the symmetry of a rhombohedrally distorted R3̅ c perovskite structure changes into its pseudocubic type during isovalent substitution for Ln = La3+, Pr3+, Nd3+, Sm3+, or Eu3+ when the ionic radius of an A cation decreases. Defect molar formulas are determined for a real perovskite structure, which contains anion and cation vacancies. The decrease in the temperatures of the metal-semiconductor ( T ms) and ferromagnet-paramagnet ( T C) phase transitions and the increase in electrical resistivity ρ and activation energy E a with increasing serial number of Ln are caused by an increase in the concentration of vacancy point defects, which weaken the double exchange 3 d 4(Mn3+)-2 p 6(O2-)-3 d 3(Mn4+)- V ( a)-3 d 4(Mn3+). The crystal structure of the compositions with Ln = La contains nanostructured planar clusters, which induce an anomalous magnetic hysteresis at T = 77 K. Broad and asymmetric 55Mn NMR spectra support the high-frequency electronic double exchange Mn3+(3 d 4) ↔ O2-(2 p 6) ↔ Mn4+(3 d 3) and indicate a heterogeneous surrounding of manganese by other ions and vacancies. A correlation is revealed between the tunneling magnetoresistance effect and the crystallite size. A composition-structure imperfection-property experimental phase diagram is plotted. This diagram supports the conclusion about a strong influence of structure imperfection on the formation of the magnetic, magnetotransport, and magnetoresistance properties of rare-earth perovskite manganites.

  13. Goldstone-like states in a layered perovskite with frustrated polarization: a first-principles investigation of PbSr2Ti2O7.

    PubMed

    Nakhmanson, S M; Naumov, Ivan

    2010-03-05

    With the help of first-principles-based computational techniques, we demonstrate that Goldstone-like states can be artificially induced in a layered-perovskite ferroelectric compound with frustrated polarization, resulting in the emergence of a variety of interesting physical properties that include large, tunable dielectric constants and an ability to easily form vortex polar states in a nanodot geometry. In a similar fashion to the well-known perovskite materials with morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs), these states manifest themselves as polarization rotations with almost no energy penalty, suggesting that the existence of an MPB is actually yet another manifestation of the Goldstone theorem in solids.

  14. High-performance hole-extraction layer of sol-gel-processed NiO nanocrystals for inverted planar perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zonglong; Bai, Yang; Zhang, Teng; Liu, Zhike; Long, Xia; Wei, Zhanhua; Wang, Zilong; Zhang, Lixia; Wang, Jiannong; Yan, Feng; Yang, Shihe

    2014-11-10

    Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskite solar cells have been rapidly evolving with spectacular successes in both nanostructured and thin-film versions. Herein, we report the use of a simple sol-gel-processed NiO nanocrystal (NC) layer as the hole-transport layer in an inverted perovskite solar cell. The thin NiO NC film with a faceted and corrugated surface enabled the formation of a continuous and compact layer of well-crystallized CH3 NH3 PbI3 in a two-step solution process. The hole-extraction and -transport capabilities of this film interfaced with the CH3 NH3 PbI3 film were higher than those of organic PEDOT:PSS layers. The cell with a NiO NC film with a thickness of 30-40 nm exhibited the best performance, as a thinner layer led to a higher leakage current, whereas a thicker layer resulted in a higher series resistance. With the NiO film, we observed a cell efficiency of 9.11 %, which is by far the highest reported for planar perovskite solar cells based on an inorganic hole-extracting layer. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. First principle study of band structure of SrMO3 perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daga, Avinash; Sharma, Smita

    2016-05-01

    First principle study of band structure calculations in the local density approximations (LDA) as well as in the generalized gradient approximations (GGA) have been used to determine the electronic structure of SrMO3 where M stands for Ti, Zr and Mo. Occurrence of band gap proves SrTiO3 and SrZrO3 to be insulating. A small band gap is observed in SrMoO3 perovskite signifies it to be metallic. Band structures are found to compare well with the available data in the literature showing the relevance of this approach. ABINIT computer code has been used to carry out all the calculations.

  16. Low-spin Fe[superscript 2+] in silicate perovskite and a possible layer at the base of the lower mantle

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, C.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Narygina, O.; Kantor, I.; Wu, X.; Glazyrin, K.; Sergueev, I.; Chumakov, A.I.

    2010-08-04

    We investigated the spin state of iron in Mg{sub 0.82}Fe{sub 0.18}SiO{sub 3} silicate perovskite using Moessbauer spectroscopy and nuclear forward scattering (NFS) at pressures up to 130 GPa and temperatures up to 1000 K. Majorite starting material was loaded into diamond anvil cells in three separate experiments, and transformed to silicate perovskite through laser heating. We found, in agreement with previous work, the predominance of a component with high isomer shift ({approx}1 mm/s relative to {alpha}-Fe) and high-quadrupole splitting (QS) (>4 mm/s) in Moessbauer and NFS spectra up to 115 GPa at room temperature, and in accordance with previous work this component was assigned to intermediate-spin Fe{sup 2+}. At higher pressures, the intensity of the high QS component in the silicate perovskite spectrum decreased, while the intensity of a new component with low isomer shift ({approx}0 mm/s relative to {alpha}-Fe) and low quadrupole splitting (<0.5 mm/s) increased. This new component was assigned to low-spin Fe{sup 2+}, and its intensity increased with both increasing pressure and increasing temperature: at 120 GPa and 1000 K all Fe{sup 2+} was in the low-spin state. X-ray diffraction data showed well crystallized perovskite in all runs, and although the stable phase above 110 GPa is expected to be post-perovskite, sluggish transition kinetics likely preserved the perovskite phase in a metastable state. Our results combined with data in the literature and thermodynamic and topological considerations suggest that there may be a region where silicate perovskite containing low-spin Fe{sup 2+} is stable, which coincides with predicted pressure-temperature conditions near the D{double_prime} layer.

  17. Inhibition of a structural phase transition in one-dimensional organometal halide perovskite nanorods grown inside porous silicon nanotube templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arad-Vosk, N.; Rozenfeld, N.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, R.; Coffer, J. L.; Sa'ar, A.

    2017-02-01

    One-dimensional organo-metal halide perovskite (C H3N H3Pb I3 ) nanorods whose diameter and length are dictated by the inner size of porous silicon nanotube templates have been grown, characterized, and compared to bulk perovskites in the form of microwires. We have observed a structural phase transition for bulk perovskites, where the crystal structure changes from tetragonal to orthorhombic at about 160 K, as opposed to small diameter one-dimensional perovskite nanorods, of the order of 30-70 nm in diameter, where the phase transition is inhibited and the dominant phase remains tetragonal. Two major experimental techniques, infrared absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence, were utilized to probe the temperature dependence of the perovskite phases over the 4-300 K temperature range. Yet, different characteristics of the phase transition were measured by the two spectroscopic methods and explained by the presence of small, tetragonal inclusions embedded in the orthorhombic phase. The inhibition of the phase transition is attributed to the large surface area of these one-dimensional perovskite nanorods, which gives rise to a large stress that, in turn, prevents the formation of the orthorhombic phase. The absence of phase transition enables the measurement of the tetragonal bandgap energy down to low temperatures.

  18. Molecularly Engineered Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite with Multiple Quantum Well Structure for Multicolored Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongwei; Salim, Teddy; Chen, Bingbing; Lam, Yeng Ming

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have the potential to be used as a new class of emitters with tunable emission, high color purity and good ease of fabrication. Recent studies have so far been focused on three-dimensional (3D) perovskites, such as CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbI3 for green and infrared emission. Here, we explore a new series of hybrid perovskite emitters with a general formula of (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)n−1PbnI3n+1 (where n = 1, 2, 3), which possesses a multiple quantum well structure. The quantum well thickness of these materials is adjustable through simple molecular engineering which results in a continuously tunable bandgap and emission spectra. Deep saturated red emission was obtained with a peak external quantum efficiency of 2.29% and a maximum luminance of 214 cd/m2. Green and blue LEDs were also demonstrated through halogen substitutions in these hybrid perovskites. We expect these results to open up the way towards high performance perovskite LEDs through molecular-structure engineering of these perovskite emitters. PMID:27633084

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of High-Quality Perovskite Films with Large Crystal Grains.

    PubMed

    Ma, Teng; Zhang, Qiwu; Tadaki, Daisuke; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Niwano, Michio

    2017-02-16

    Solution-processable organometal perovskite materials have been widely used in various kinds of devices. In these devices, the perovskite materials normally act as active layers. Grain boundaries and structural disorder in the perovskite layer would interfere the charge transport and increase recombination probability. Here we proposed a novel fabrication method to dramatically increase the crystal size by more than 20 times as compared with previously reported values. Exceptional structural order in the large crystals is illustrated by nanoscale surface morphology and a simple recrystallization method. Because of reduced grain boundaries and increased crystal order in perovskite layers, the lateral charge transport is significantly improved, as demonstrated by conductive atomic-force microscopy and performance of photodetectors. This deposition technology paves the way for future high-performance devices based on perovskite thin films.

  20. Tuning the Fermi-level of TiO2 mesoporous layer by lanthanum doping towards efficient perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Xin; Ge, Qian-Qing; Xue, Ding-Jiang; Ding, Jie; Ma, Jing-Yuan; Chen, Yao-Xuan; Zhang, Bao; Feng, Yaqing; Wan, Li-Jun; Hu, Jin-Song

    2016-09-29

    Tuning the band alignment is proved to be an effective way to facilitate carrier transportation and thus enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solar cells. Doping the compact layer with metal ions or modifying the interfaces among functional layers in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) can appreciably improve the PCE of PSCs. Inspired by the rare earth elemental doping of TiO2, which has witnessed the success in photocatalysis and dye-sensitized solar cells, we firstly demonstrated here that La(3+) doping in the mesoporous TiO2 layer of a mesostructured PSC can tune its Fermi level and thus significantly enhance the device PCE. Systematic analysis reveals that doping La(3+) into TiO2 raises the Fermi level of TiO2 through scavenging oxygen and inducing vacancies, which subsequently increases the open circuit voltage and the fill factor while reducing the series resistance of the PSC using La(3+)-doped TiO2 as a mesoporous layer. As a result, a PCE of 15.42% is achieved, which is appreciably higher than the PCE of a device with undoped TiO2 (12.11%).

  1. Impact of structural heterogeneity in solar absorber layers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toney, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Impact of structural heterogeneity in solar absorber layers Michael F Toney SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Structural and morphological heterogeneity is common in thin film and emerging solar cell absorber layers, including organic photovoltaic bulk heterojunctions (OPV BHJs), hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIP), and Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe), and has a significant impact on the (opto)electronic heterogeneity and hence absorber properties. In this talk I will use X-ray based methods, including scattering and spectroscopies, to characterize and quantify the heterogeneity in OPV BHJs and HOIP absorber layers. The BHJ films are blends of the small molecule X2 and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) where it has been established that there are three distinct region of the films - pure PC71BM, pure X2 and intimately mixed X2:PC71BM. This talk will show how the absolute concentration of the mixed phase can be used to explain the large PC71BM:X2 composition range where good performance is observed [1]. The talk will also show that spin cast CH3NH3PbI3 films consistent of both crystalline and amorphous regions, which can explain previous heterogeneity in the PL imaging [2]. [1] Huang et al., Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1301886 (2014). [2] deQuilettes et al., Science 348, 683 (2015).

  2. Magnetization and magneto-transport staircaselike behavior in layered perovskite Sr2CoO4 at low temperature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiuhang; Yuan, Xueping; Xing, Lei; Xu, Mingxiang

    2016-01-01

    Polycrystalline layered perovskite Sr2CoO4 sample was synthesized by high temperature and high pressure method. The staircaselike behavior has been observed in the magnetization and resistivity versus field curves of Sr2CoO4 at low temperature. The main features of the steps can be obtained from the measured results: (i) the positions of the external magnetic field at which steps occur are varying in different measurement runs, (ii) the steps only appear at low temperature and disappear with a slight increase of the temperature, (iii) the steps are dependent on the temperature and field sweep rate. Based on the features of the magnetization and magneto-transport staircaselike behavior in Sr2CoO4, the unusual phenomenon can be ascribed to an avalanche of flipping domains in terms of the random field theory. PMID:27293142

  3. Synthesis and thermal stability studies of a series of metastable Dion-Jacobson double-layered neodymium-niobate perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josepha, Elisha A.; Farooq, Sara; Mitchell, Cinnamon M.; Wiley, John B.

    2014-08-01

    The Dion-Jacobson double-layered perovskite, RbNdNb2O7, is used as a precursor to synthesize the series ANdNb2O7 (A=H, Li, Na, K, NH4, Ag), and (MCl)NdNb2O7 (M=Mn, Fe, Cu) through ion-exchange reactions ≤400 °C. Thermal stability studies indicated that most of these compounds are metastable. A combination of X-ray powder diffraction and differential thermal analysis were used to determine various low temperature decomposition pathways; these pathways were very dependent on the interlayer species. Overall the ANdNb2O7 series was found to be less stable than the corresponding lanthanides, ALaNb2O7.

  4. A composite nanostructured electron-transport layer for stable hole-conductor free perovskite solar cells: design and characterization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhua; Qi, Fei; Liu, Pei; You, Sujian; Kondamareddy, Kiran Kumar; Wang, Changlei; Cheng, Nian; Bai, Sihang; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-zhong

    2016-03-21

    A novel composite nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) based electron-transport layer (ETL) is designed by combining size blended nanoparticles (SBNP) and nanoarrays (NA) for efficient perovskite solar cell (PSC) applications. The composite nanostructured (SBNP + NA) ETL is successfully employed in hole-conductor free PSCs, there by achieving a stable device with a maximum efficiency of 13.5%. The improvement in the performance is attributed to the better charge transport and lower recombination in the SBNP + NA ETL. Despite the stable high efficiency, SBNP + NA ETL based PSCs are advantageous owing to their low cost, ease of all-solution fabrication process in an open environment and good reproducibility.

  5. Effect of organic moieties on the scintillation properties of organic-inorganic layered perovskite-type compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Naoki; Koshimizu, Masanori; Horiai, Akiyoshi; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Haruki, Rie; Kishimoto, Shunji; Shibuya, Kengo; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yanagida, Takayuki; Asai, Keisuke

    2016-11-01

    The effects of organic moieties on the scintillation properties of organic-inorganic layered perovskite-type compounds have been investigated. Three kinds of single crystals were fabricated, namely, (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4 (C4), (C6H5CH2NH3)2PbBr4 (Ben), and (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbBr4 (Phe). Among the single crystals, the light output of Phe was found to have the greatest value when exposed to X-ray radiation (67.4 keV). The light output of Phe was 0.62 times that of YAP:Ce. The relative values of the light outputs among the fabricated single crystals under X-ray radiation correlated well with those of the quantum efficiencies and the luminescence intensity under ultraviolet radiation.

  6. Scalable fabrication of efficient organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells with doctor-bladed active layers

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Yehao; Peng, Edwin; Shao, Yuchuan; ...

    2015-03-25

    Organolead trihalide perovskites (OTPs) are nature abundant materials with prospects as future low-cost renewable energy sources boosted by the solution process capability of these materials. Here we report the fabrication of efficient OTP devices by a simple, high throughput and low-cost doctor-blade coating process which can be compatible with the roll-to-roll fabrication process for the large scale production of perovskite solar cell panels. The formulation of appropriate precursor inks by removing impurities is shown to be critical in the formation of continuous, pin-hole free and phase-pure perovskite films on large area substrates, which is assisted by a high deposition temperaturemore » to guide the nucleation and grain growth process. The domain size reached 80–250 μm in 1.5–2 μm thick bladed films. By controlling the stoichiometry and thickness of the OTP films, highest device efficiencies of 12.8% and 15.1% are achieved in the devices fabricated on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate and cross-linked N4,N4'-bis(4-(6-((3-ethyloxetan-3-yl)methoxy)hexyl)phenyl)–N4,N4'-diphenylbiphenyl-4,4'-diamine covered ITO substrates. Furthermore, the carrier diffusion length in doctor-bladed OTP films is beyond 3.5 μm which is significantly larger than in the spin-coated films, due to the formation of crystalline grains with a very large size by the doctor-blade coating method.« less

  7. Scalable fabrication of efficient organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells with doctor-bladed active layers

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yehao; Peng, Edwin; Shao, Yuchuan; Xiao, Zhengguo; Dong, Qingfeng; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-03-25

    Organolead trihalide perovskites (OTPs) are nature abundant materials with prospects as future low-cost renewable energy sources boosted by the solution process capability of these materials. Here we report the fabrication of efficient OTP devices by a simple, high throughput and low-cost doctor-blade coating process which can be compatible with the roll-to-roll fabrication process for the large scale production of perovskite solar cell panels. The formulation of appropriate precursor inks by removing impurities is shown to be critical in the formation of continuous, pin-hole free and phase-pure perovskite films on large area substrates, which is assisted by a high deposition temperature to guide the nucleation and grain growth process. The domain size reached 80–250 μm in 1.5–2 μm thick bladed films. By controlling the stoichiometry and thickness of the OTP films, highest device efficiencies of 12.8% and 15.1% are achieved in the devices fabricated on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate and cross-linked N4,N4'-bis(4-(6-((3-ethyloxetan-3-yl)methoxy)hexyl)phenyl)–N4,N4'-diphenylbiphenyl-4,4'-diamine covered ITO substrates. Furthermore, the carrier diffusion length in doctor-bladed OTP films is beyond 3.5 μm which is significantly larger than in the spin-coated films, due to the formation of crystalline grains with a very large size by the doctor-blade coating method.

  8. All Inorganic Halide Perovskites Nanosystem: Synthesis, Structural Features, Optical Properties and Optoelectronic Applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Cao, Fei; Yu, Dejian; Chen, Jun; Sun, Zhiguo; Shen, Yalong; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Lin; Wei, Yi; Wu, Ye; Zeng, Haibo

    2017-03-01

    The recent success of organometallic halide perovskites (OHPs) in photovoltaic devices has triggered lots of corresponding research and many perovskite analogues have been developed to look for devices with comparable performance but better stability. Upon the preparation of all inorganic halide perovskite nanocrystals (IHP NCs), research activities have soared due to their better stability, ultrahigh photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY), and composition dependent luminescence covering the whole visible region with narrow line-width. They are expected to be promising materials for next generation lighting and display, and many other applications. Within two years, a lot of interesting results have been observed. Here, the synthesis of IHPs is reviewed, and their progresses in optoelectronic devices and optical applications, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), photodetectors (PDs), solar cells (SCs), and lasing, is presented. Information and recent understanding of their crystal structures and morphology modulations are addressed. Finally, a brief outlook is given, highlighting the presently main problems and their possible solutions and future development directions.

  9. Structural Reversibility and Nickel Particle stability in Lanthanum Iron Nickel Perovskite-Type Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Patrick; Delmelle, Renaud; Foppiano, Debora; Holzer, Lorenz; Heel, Andre; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Kröcher, Oliver; Ferri, Davide

    2017-06-09

    Perovskite-type oxides have shown the ability to reversibly segregate precious metals from their structure. This reversible segregation behavior was explored for a commonly used catalyst metal, Ni, to prevent Ni sintering, which is observed on most catalyst support materials. Temperature-programmed reduction, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and catalytic activity tests were used to follow the extent of reversible Ni segregation. LaFe1-x Nix O3±δ (0≤x≤0.2) was synthesized using a citrate-based solution process. After reduction at 600 °C, metallic Ni particles were displayed on the perovskite surfaces, which were active towards the hydrogenation of CO2 . The overall Ni reducibility was proportional to the Ni content and increased from 35 % for x=0.05 to 50 % for x=0.2. Furthermore, Ni could be reincorporated reversibly into the perovskite lattice during reoxidation at 650 °C. This could be exploited for catalyst regeneration under conditions under which impregnated materials such as Ni/LaFeO3±δ and Ni/Al2 O3 suffer from sintering. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Topotactic synthesis of strontium cobalt oxyhydride thin film with perovskite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Tsukasa; Chikamatsu, Akira Kamisaka, Hideyuki; Yokoyama, Yuichi; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Wadati, Hiroki; Fukumura, Tomoteru; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2015-10-15

    The substitution of hydride anions (H{sup −}) into transition metal oxides has recently become possible through topotactic reactions or high-pressure synthesis methods. However, the fabrication of oxyhydrides is still difficult because of their inherently less-stable frameworks. In this study, we successfully fabricated perovskite SrCoO{sub x}H{sub y} thin films via the topotactic hydride doping of brownmillerite SrCoO{sub 2.5} epitaxial thin films with CaH{sub 2}. The perovskite-type cation framework was maintained during the topotactic treatment owing to epitaxial stabilization. Structural and chemical analyses accompanied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements revealed that the doped hydride ions form a two-dimensional network of Co-H{sup −}-Co bonds, in contrast to other reported perovskite oxyhydrides, SrMO{sub 3−x}H{sub x} (M = Cr, Ti, V). The SrCoO{sub x}H{sub y} thin film exhibited insulating behavior and had a direct band gap of 2.1 eV. Thus, topotactic hydride doping of transition-metal-oxide thin films on suitable substrates is a promising method for the synthesis of new transition metal oxyhydrides.

  11. Single step deposition of an interacting layer of a perovskite matrix with embedded quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Thi Tuyen; Suarez, Isaac; Sanchez, Rafael S.; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P.; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid lead halide perovskite (PS) derivatives have emerged as very promising materials for the development of optoelectronic devices in the last few years. At the same time, inorganic nanocrystals with quantum confinement (QDs) possess unique properties that make them suitable materials for the development of photovoltaics, imaging and lighting applications, among others. In this work, we report on a new methodology for the deposition of high quality, large grain size and pinhole free PS films (CH3NH3PbI3) with embedded PbS and PbS/CdS core/shell Quantum Dots (QDs). The strong interaction between both semiconductors is revealed by the formation of an exciplex state, which is monitored by photoluminescence and electroluminescence experiments. The radiative exciplex relaxation is centered in the near infrared region (NIR), ~1200 nm, which corresponds to lower energies than the corresponding band gap of both perovskite (PS) and QDs. Our approach allows the fabrication of multi-wavelength light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on a PS matrix with embedded QDs, which show considerably low turn-on potentials. The presence of the exciplex state of PS and QDs opens up a broad range of possibilities with important implications in both LEDs and solar cells.Hybrid lead halide perovskite (PS) derivatives have emerged as very promising materials for the development of optoelectronic devices in the last few years. At the same time, inorganic nanocrystals with quantum confinement (QDs) possess unique properties that make them suitable materials for the development of photovoltaics, imaging and lighting applications, among others. In this work, we report on a new methodology for the deposition of high quality, large grain size and pinhole free PS films (CH3NH3PbI3) with embedded PbS and PbS/CdS core/shell Quantum Dots (QDs). The strong interaction between both semiconductors is revealed by the formation of an exciplex state, which is monitored by photoluminescence and

  12. Ti/Au Cathode for Electronic transport material-free organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Tongfei; Chen, Jian; Zheng, Jianqiang; Li, Xinhua; Zhou, Bukang; Cao, Huaxiang; Wang, Yuqi

    2016-01-01

    We have fabricated organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cell that uses a Ti/Au multilayer as cathode and does not use electron transport materials, and achieved the highest power conversion efficiency close to 13% with high reproducibility and hysteresis-free photocurrent curves. Our cell has a Schottky planar heterojunction structure (ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/Ti/Au), in which the Ti insertion layer isolate the perovskite and Au layers, thus proving good contact between the Au and perovskite and increasing the cells’ shunt resistance greatly. Moreover, the Ti/Au cathode in direct contact with hybrid perovskite showed no reaction for a long-term exposure to the air, and can provide sufficient protection and avoid the perovskite and PEDOT:PSS layers contact with moisture. Hence, the Ti/Au based devices retain about 70% of their original efficiency after 300 h storage in the ambient environment. PMID:27995951

  13. Ti/Au Cathode for Electronic transport material-free organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tongfei; Chen, Jian; Zheng, Jianqiang; Li, Xinhua; Zhou, Bukang; Cao, Huaxiang; Wang, Yuqi

    2016-12-01

    We have fabricated organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cell that uses a Ti/Au multilayer as cathode and does not use electron transport materials, and achieved the highest power conversion efficiency close to 13% with high reproducibility and hysteresis-free photocurrent curves. Our cell has a Schottky planar heterojunction structure (ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/Ti/Au), in which the Ti insertion layer isolate the perovskite and Au layers, thus proving good contact between the Au and perovskite and increasing the cells’ shunt resistance greatly. Moreover, the Ti/Au cathode in direct contact with hybrid perovskite showed no reaction for a long-term exposure to the air, and can provide sufficient protection and avoid the perovskite and PEDOT:PSS layers contact with moisture. Hence, the Ti/Au based devices retain about 70% of their original efficiency after 300 h storage in the ambient environment.

  14. Incommensurate magnetic structure in the orthorhombic perovskite ErMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, F.; Lorenz, B.; Huang, Q.; Wang, Y. Q.; Sun, Y. Y.; Chu, C. W.; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.; Dai, Pengcheng; Mook, H. A.

    2007-08-01

    By combining dielectric, specific heat, and magnetization measurements and high-resolution neutron powder diffraction, we have investigated the thermodynamic and magnetic and structural properties of the metastable orthorhombic perovskite ErMnO3 prepared by high-pressure synthesis. The system becomes antiferromagnetically correlated below 42K and undergoes a lock-in transition at 28K with propagation wave vector (0,kb,0) , which remains incommensurate at low temperature. The intercorrelation between the magnetic structure and electric properties and the role of the rare earth moment are discussed.

  15. Effect of Mn valence on crystal structure of La-Mn-O perovskite oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Takeshi; Ito, Toyoji; Kokubo, Tadashi

    1995-05-01

    La:Mn = 1:1 mixtures of lanthanum oxide and manganese carbonate were heat-treated under various oxygen partial pressures at 1400 C or 1300 C. The Mn valence of the samples was measured by a chemical analysis, and the crystal structures were refined by the powder x-ray diffraction and the Rietveld analysis. A novel orthorhombic perovskite phase, belonging to the space group Pbnm and containing Mn(2+) ions, was formed by heat-treatment under low oxygen partial pressures. The structure was very close to a cubic symmetry. It is supposed that the micro Jahn-Teller effects of Mn(2+) ions were nearly canceled by one another.

  16. Identifying the Molecular Structures of Intermediates for Optimizing the Fabrication of High-Quality Perovskite Films.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing; Jing, Xiaojing; Yan, Juanzhu; Hu, Chengyi; Chen, Ruihao; Yin, Jun; Li, Jing; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-08-10

    During the past two years, the introduction of DMSO has revolutionized the fabrication of high-quality pervoskite MAPbI3 (MA = CH3NH3) films for solar cell applications. In the developed DMSO process, the formation of (MA)2Pb3I8·2DMSO (shorted as Pb3I8) has well recognized as a critical factor to prepare high-quality pervoskite films and thus accomplish excellent performances in perovskite solar cells. However, Pb3I8 is an I-deficient intermediate and must further react with methylammonium iodide (MAI) to be fully converted into MAPbI3. By capturing and solving the molecular structures of several intermediates involved in the fabrication of perovskite films, we report in this work that the importance of DMSO is NOT due to the formation of Pb3I8. The use of different PbI2-DMSO ratios leads to two different structures of PbI2-DMSO precursors (PbI2·DMSO and PbI2·2DMSO), thus dramatically influencing the quality of fabricated perovskite films. However, such an influence can be minimized when the PbI2-DMSO precursor films are thermally treated to create mesoporous PbI2 films before reacting with MAI. Such a development makes the fabrication of high-quality pervoskite films highly reproducible without the need to precisely control the PbI2:DMSO ratio. Moreover, the formation of ionic compound (MA)4PbI6 is observed when excess MAI is used in the preparation of perovskite film. This I-rich phase heavily induces the hysteresis in PSCs, but is readily removed by isopropanol treatment. On the basis of all these findings, we develop a new effective protocol to fabricate high-performance PSCs. In the new protocol, high-quality perovskite films are prepared by simply treating the mesoporous PbI2 films (made from PbI2-DMSO precursors) with an isopropanol solution of MAI, followed by isopropanol washing. The best efficiency of fabricated MAPbI3 PSCs is up to 19.0%. As compared to the previously reported DMSO method, the devices fabricated by the method reported in this work

  17. Modeling of optical losses in perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghavi, M. Javad; Houshmand, Mohammad; Zandi, M. Hossein; Gorji, Nima E.

    2016-09-01

    The optical losses within the structure of hybrid perovskite solar cells are investigated using only the optical properties of each layer e.g. refractive index and extinction coefficient. This model allows calculating the transmission/reflection rates at the interfaces and absorption loss within any layer. Then, the short circuit current density and loss percentage are calculated versus the perovskite and TiO2 thicknesses from 50 nm to 150 nm. To make our calculations closer to reality, we extracted the optical properties of each device component from the literature reports on glass/TCO/TiO2/perovskite/metal. The simulations were fitted with the experimental results of some relevant references. Our simulations show that ITO transmits the light better than SnO2 as the TCO front electrode, and the light reflection at both sides of the perovskite layer, e.g. at TiO2/perovskite and perovskite/Spiro-OMeTAD, is lower than 25%. The light interference and multiple reflections have been accounted in our calculations and finally we showed that a thicker TiO2 and perovskite cause more optical loss in current density due to stronger absorption.

  18. Ultrafast Atomic Layer-by-Layer Oxygen Vacancy-Exchange Diffusion in Double-Perovskite LnBaCo2O5.5+δ Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Shanyong; Ma, Chunrui; Chen, Garry; Xu, Xing; Enriquez, Erik; Chen, Chonglin; Zhang, Yamei; Bettis, Jerry L.; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Dong, Chuang; Zhang, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    Surface exchange and oxygen vacancy diffusion dynamics were studied in double-perovskites LnBaCo2O5.5+δ (LnBCO) single-crystalline thin films (Ln = Er, Pr; −0.5 < δ < 0.5) by carefully monitoring the resistance changes under a switching flow of oxidizing gas (O2) and reducing gas (H2) in the temperature range of 250 ~ 800°C. A giant resistance change ΔR by three to four orders of magnitude in less than 0.1 s was found with a fast oscillation behavior in the resistance change rates in the ΔR vs. t plots, suggesting that the oxygen vacancy exchange diffusion with oxygen/hydrogen atoms in the LnBCO thin films is taking the layer by layer oxygen-vacancy-exchange mechanism. The first principles density functional theory calculations indicate that hydrogen atoms are present in LnBCO as bound to oxygen forming O-H bonds. This unprecedented oscillation phenomenon provides the first direct experimental evidence of the layer by layer oxygen vacancy exchange diffusion mechanism. PMID:24751601

  19. Tetrastrontium-digalliumoxide (Sr 4Ga 2O 7)—synthesis and crystal structure of a mixed anion strontium gallate related to perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlenberg, Volker; Lazić, Biljana; Krivovichev, Sergey V.

    2005-05-01

    Crystal growth experiments yielded single crystals of Sr 4Ga 2O 7. The title compound is monoclinic, space group P1 c1, a=13.0822(7) Å, b=15.7967(6) Å, c=15.8586(8) Å, β=90.643(6)°, V=3277.1(3) Å3, Z=16 ( R1=0.041 for 7155 observed reflections and 660 parameters). The crystals showed twinning by pseudo-merohedry. Furthermore, the diffraction data exhibited the typical features of a superstructure. Sr 4Ga 2O 7 can be classified as a mixed anion gallate comprising insular [GaO 4]-groups and [Ga 3O 10]-trimers. Both anion groups are located in layers perpendicular to [100]. 32 symmetrically independent Sr-cations crosslink between the tetrahedral anion groups. Alternatively, the compound can be described as a 3×4×4 superstructure of ABO 3 perovskite, with 22.2% vacancies in the oxygen sublattice. The relationship with perovskite can be expressed in the following crystal chemical formula: Sr(Ga 2/3Sr 1/3)(O 7/9□ 2/9) 3. A discussion of the structure in the context with other similar defect perovskites in presented.

  20. Role of Dispersive Interactions in Determining Structural Properties of Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites: Insights from First-Principles Calculations.

    PubMed

    Egger, David A; Kronik, Leeor

    2014-08-07

    A microscopic picture of structure and bonding in organic-inorganic perovskites is imperative to understanding their remarkable semiconducting and photovoltaic properties. On the basis of a density functional theory treatment that includes both spin-orbit coupling and dispersive interactions, we provide detailed insight into the crystal binding of lead-halide perovskites and quantify the effect of different types of interactions on the structural properties. Our analysis reveals that cohesion in these materials is characterized by a variety of interactions that includes important contributions from both van der Waals interactions among the halide atoms and hydrogen bonding. We also assess the role of spin-orbit coupling and show that it causes slight changes in lead-halide bonding that do not significantly affect the lattice parameters. Our results establish that consideration of dispersive effects is essential for understanding the structure and bonding in organic-inorganic perovskites in general and for providing reliable theoretical predictions of structural parameters in particular.

  1. Perovskite solar cells with a DMSO-treated PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer exhibit higher photovoltaic performance and enhanced durability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Di; Goh, Tenghooi; Kong, Jaemin; Zheng, Yifan; Zhao, Suling; Xu, Zheng; Taylor, André D

    2017-03-14

    Despite being the most commonly used hole transport layer for p-i-n perovskite solar cells, the conventional PEDOT:PSS layer is far from being optimal for the best photovoltaic performance. Herein, we demonstrate highly conductive thin DMSO-doped PEDOT:PSS layers which significantly enhance the light harvesting, charge extraction, and photocurrent production of organo-lead iodide devices. Both imaging and X-ray analysis reveal that the perovskite thin films grown on DMSO-doped PEDOT:PSS exhibit larger grains with increased crystallinity. Altogether, these improvements result in a 37% boost in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to standard p-i-n photovoltaics with pristine PEDOT:PSS. Furthermore, we demonstrate that DMSO-doped PEDOT:PSS devices possess enhanced PCE durability over time which we attribute primarily to fill factor stability.

  2. Noncubic layered structure of Ba1-xKxBiO3 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkova, L. A.; Uchida, M.; Matsui, Y.; Nikolaichik, V. I.; Barkovskii, N. V.

    2003-04-01

    Bismuthate superconductor Ba1-xKxBiO3 (x=0.27-0.49, Tc=25-32 K) grown by an electrolysis technique was studied by electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy. The crystalline structure thereof has been found to be noncubic, noncentrosymmetric and of the layered nature, with the lattice parameters a≈ap, c≈2ap (ap is a simple cubic perovskite cell parameter) containing an ordered arrangement of barium and potassium. The evidence for the layered nature of the bismuthate superconductor removes the principal crystallographic contradiction between bismuthate and cuprate high-Tc superconductors.

  3. High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cell Based on Poly(3-Hexylthiophene): Influence of Molecular Weight and Mesoscopic Scaffold Layer.

    PubMed

    Nia, Narges Yaghoobi; Matteocci, Fabio; Cina, Lucio; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2017-05-28

    Here, we investigated the effect of the molecular weight (MW) of poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) hole-transport material on the performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We found that by increasing the MW the photovoltaic performances of the cells are enhanced leading to an improvement of the overall efficiency. P3HT-based PSCs with a MW of 124 kDa can achieve an overall average efficiency of 16.2 %, double with respect to the ones with a MW of 44 kDa. Opposite to spiro-OMeTAD-based PSCs, the photovoltaic parameters of the P3HT-based devices are enhanced by increasing the mesoporous TiO2 layer thickness from 250 to 500 nm. Moreover, for a titania scaffold layer thickness of 500 nm, the efficiency of P3HT-based PSCs with high MW is larger than the spiro-OMeTAD based PSCs with the same scaffold layer thickness. Recombination reactions of the devices were also investigated by voltage decay and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We found that the relationship between P3HT MW and cell performance is related to the reduction of charge recombination and to the increase of the P3HT light absorption by increasing the MW. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Analysis of the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells with different materials as Hole-Transport Layer by numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, G. A.; Cappelletti, M. A.; Cédola, A. P.; Soucase, Bernabé Marí; Peltzer y Blancá, E. L.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a theoretical study of different p-p-n perovskite solar cells has been performed by means of computer simulation. Effects of the offset level upon the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of these devices have been researched using five different materials such as spiro-OMeTAD, Cu2O, CuSCN, NiO and CuI, as Hole Transporting Layer (HTL). The Solar Cells Capacitance Simulator (SCAPS)-1D has been the tool used for numerical simulation of these devices. A strong dependence of PCE has been found with the difference between the Maximum of the Valence Band of the HTL and perovskite materials, and with the doping level in p-type perovskite layer. A minimum value of hole mobility in the HTL has been also found, below which the PCE is reduced. Efficiencies in the order of 28% have been obtained for the Cu2O/Perovskite/TiO2 solar cell. Results obtained in this work show the potentiality of this promising technology.

  5. High-performance inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells based on a solution-processed CuOx hole transport layer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weihai; Li, Yunlong; Ye, Senyun; Rao, Haixia; Yan, Weibo; Peng, Haitao; Li, Yu; Liu, Zhiwei; Wang, Shufeng; Chen, Zhijian; Xiao, Lixin; Bian, Zuqiang; Huang, Chunhui

    2016-05-19

    During the past several years, methylammonium lead halide perovskites have been widely investigated as light absorbers for thin-film photovoltaic cells. Among the various device architectures, the inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells have attracted special attention for their relatively simple fabrication and high efficiencies. Although promising efficiencies have been obtained in the inverted planar geometry based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) sulfonic acid ( PSS) as the hole transport material (HTM), the hydrophilicity of the PSS is a critical factor for long-term stability. In this paper, a CuOx hole transport layer from a facile solution-processed method was introduced into the inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. After the optimization of the devices, a champion PCE of 17.1% was obtained with an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.99 V, a short-circuit current (Jsc) of 23.2 mA cm(-2) and a fill factor (FF) of 74.4%. Furthermore, the unencapsulated device cooperating with the CuOx film exhibited superior performance in the stability test, compared to the device involving the PSS layer, indicating that CuOx could be a promising HTM for replacing PSS in inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells.

  6. High-hole-mobility organic-inorganic perovskite field-effect transistors (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Hwang, Sun Bin; Sandanayaka, Atula D.; Qin, Chuanjiang; Fujihara, Takashi; Yahiro, Masayuki; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-11-01

    We have recently focused our attention on the application of perovskite materials to a semiconducting layer in field-effect transistors. Because perovskite materials are expected to promise the processability and flexibility inherent to organic semiconductors as well as the superior carrier transport inherent to inorganic semiconductors, we believe that organic semiconductor-like cost-effective, flexible transistors with inorganic semiconductor-like high carrier mobility can be realized using perovskite semiconductors in future. In this study, we have prepared the tin iodide-based perovskite as a semiconducting layer on silicon dioxide layers treated with a self-assembled monolayer containing ammonium iodide terminal groups by spin coating and, then, source-drain electrodes on the perovskite layer by vacuum deposition for the fabrication of a top-contact perovskite transistor. Because of a well-developed perovskite layer formed on the treated substrate and reduced contact resistance resulting from the top-contact structure, we have obtained a new record hole mobility of up to 12 cm2 V-1 s-1 in our perovskite transistors, which is about five times higher than a previous record hole mobility and is considered to be a very good value when compared with widely investigated organic transistors. Along with the high hole mobility, we have demonstrated that this surface treatment leads to smaller hysteresis in output and transfer characteristics and better stress stability under constant gate voltage application. These findings open the way for huge advances in solution-processable high-mobility transistors.

  7. Probing the electronic structures of ternary perovskite and pyrochlore oxides containing Sn(4+) or Sb(5+).

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Eng, Hank W; Woodward, Patrick M

    2004-03-08

    Experimental and computational studies were performed to understand the electronic structure of ternary perovskites (ASnO(3), A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Cd), pyrochlores (RE(2)Sn(2)O(7), RE = Y, La, Lu; Cd(2)Sb(2)O(7)), and defect pyrochlore oxides (Ag(2)Sb(2)O(6)) containing the main group ions Sn(4+) and Sb(5+). In all compounds, the lowest energy states in the conduction band arise primarily from the antibonding Sn/Sb 5s-O 2p interaction. In the alkaline-earth stannate perovskites (BaSnO(3), SrSnO(3), and CaSnO(3)) the conduction bandwidth decreases strongly in response to the octahedral tilting distortion triggered by the decreasing size of the alkaline-earth cation. This in turn leads to a corresponding increase in the band gap from 3.1 eV in BaSnO(3) to 4.4 eV in CaSnO(3). The band gap of CdSnO(3) is relatively small (3.0 eV) considering the large octahedral tilting distortion. The origin of this apparent anomaly is the mixing between the empty Cd 5s orbitals and the antibonding Sn 5s-O 2p states. This mixing leads to a widening of the conduction band and a corresponding decrease in the band gap. The participation of the normally inert A-site cation in the electronic structure near the Fermi level can be considered an inductive effect, as it utilizes substitution on the A-site to directly modify the electronic structure of the SnO(3)(2)(-) framework. While the pyrochlore structure is more complicated, the energy level and width of the lowest energy conduction band can be analyzed in a manner similar to that utilized on the perovskite structure. The Sn-O-Sn and Sb-O-Sb bonds are highly distorted from linear geometry in pyrochlore, leading to a relatively narrow conduction band and a wide band gap. In Cd(2)Sb(2)O(7) and Ag(2)Sb(2)O(6) the Cd(2+) and Ag(+) ions exhibit a strong inductive effect that widens the conduction band and lowers the band gap significantly, very similar to the effect observed in the perovskite form of CdSnO(3).

  8. Transforming n=1 members of the Ruddlesden-Popper phases to a n=3 member through metathesis: synthesis of a new layered perovskite, Ca 2La 2CuTi 2O 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, T.; Lofland, S. E.; Ramanujachary, K. V.; Ramesha, K.; Subbanna, G. N.; Gopalakrishnan, J.

    2004-07-01

    We report the formation of a new n=3 Ruddlesden-Popper (R-P) layered perovskite oxide, Ca 2La 2CuTi 2O 10 ( I), in the metathesis reaction between NaLaTiO 4 and Ca 2CuO 2Cl 2 ( n=1 R-P phases) at 700°C in air. Rietveld refinement of powder XRD data shows that I is isostructural with Sr 4Ti 3O 10 (space group I4/ mmm; a=3.8837(5), c=27.727(6) Å), consisting of triple perovskite CuTi 2O 10 sheets wherein Cu and Ti are ordered at the central and terminal octahedral sites, respectively. Magnetization data provide support for the presence of strong antiferromagnetically coupled CuO 2 sheets in the structure. I is metastable decomposing at higher temperatures (˜950°C) to a mixture of perovskite-like CaLa 2CuTi 2O 9 and CaO. Interestingly, the reaction between NaLaTiO 4 and Sr 2CuO 2Cl 2 follows a different metathesis route, 2NaLaTiO 4+Sr 2CuO 2Cl 2→La 2CuO 4+2SrTiO 3+2NaCl, revealing multiplicity of reaction pathways for solid-state metathesis reactions.

  9. Raman scattering and X-ray powder diffraction studies of hydrate layered perovskites: dirubidium aquapentafluoromanganate(III) and dipotassium aquapentafluoroferrate(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Galicka, Karolina; Slodczyk, Aneta; Ratuszna, Alicja; Daniel, Philippe; Malecki, Grzegorz

    2004-06-08

    The structural and vibrational properties of above mentioned crystals were determined using X-ray powder diffraction and Raman scattering experiments. At room temperature hydrate layered perovskites: Rb{sub 2}MnF{sub 5}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}FeF{sub 5}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O exhibit orthorhombic--Cmcm (D{sub 2h}{sup 17}) and monoclinic--C2/c (C{sub 2h}{sup 6}) symmetry. Their structure is built up of MnF{sub 6} or FeF{sub 5}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O octahedra forming trans-linked zig-zag chains or hydrogen bonded zig-zag chains along the major crystallographic direction [0 0 1], respectively. To confirm crystal structures and to describe lattice dynamics of these compounds the vibrational normal modes (in {gamma} point of first Brillouin zone) were calculated on the base of the group theory analysis and compared with the spectra obtained from Raman scattering experiments. A relatively good reliability was obtained for both X-ray powder diffraction and Raman scattering.

  10. Enhanced photoelectrical performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with double-layer TiO2 on perovskite SrTiO3 substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiuhong; Sun, Qiong; Zhang, Min; Li, Yang; Zhao, Mei; Dong, Lifeng

    2016-04-01

    In this research, perovskite SrTiO3 particles are synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and TiO2 with a double-layer structure is grown on the SrTiO3 surface by a hydrolysis-condensation process. Structural characterizations reveal that TiO2 comprises of two phases: anatase film at the bottom and single-crystal rutile nanorods grown along the [110] direction on top. The TiO2-SrTiO3 composite film is investigated as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells. In comparison with pure TiO2 and SrTiO3, the composite photoanode shows a much better performance in photoelectric conversion efficiency (1.35 %), which is about 2 and 100 times as efficient as pure TiO2 and SrTiO3, respectively. This indicates that the composite structure can facilitate charge carrier transfer and reduce electron-hole recombination to enhance photoelectrical properties of TiO2-based photoanode materials.

  11. Effect of Energy Alignment, Electron Mobility, and Film Morphology of Perylene Diimide Based Polymers as Electron Transport Layer on the Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiang; Xu, Yingxue; Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Bing; Zhou, Erjun; Wang, Fuzhi; Bai, Yiming; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Tan, Zhan'ao

    2017-03-29

    For organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells (PerSCs), the electron transport layer (ETL) plays a crucial role in efficient electron extraction and transport for high performance PerSCs. Fullerene and its derivatives are commonly used as ETL for p-i-n structured PerSCs. However, these spherical small molecules are easy to aggregate with high annealing temperature and thus induce morphology stability problems. N-type conjugated polymers are promising candidates to overcome these problems due to the tunable energy levels, controllable aggregation behaviors, and good film formation abilities. Herein, a series of perylene diimide (PDI) based polymers (PX-PDIs), which contain different copolymeried units (X), including vinylene (V), thiophene (T), selenophene (Se), dibenzosilole (DBS), and cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT), are introduced as ETL for p-i-n structured PerSCs. The effect of energy alignment, electron mobility, and film morphology of these ETLs on the photovoltaic performance of the PerSCs are fully investigated. Among the PX-PDIs, PV-PDI demonstrates the deeper LUMO energy level, the highly delocalized LUMO electron density, and a better planar structure, making it the best electron transport material for PerSCs. The planar heterojunction PerSC with PV-PDI as ETL achieves a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.14%, among the best values for non-fullerene based PerSCs.

  12. The electronic structure of metal oxide/organo metal halide perovskite junctions in perovskite based solar cells.

    PubMed

    Dymshits, Alex; Henning, Alex; Segev, Gideon; Rosenwaks, Yossi; Etgar, Lioz

    2015-03-03

    Cross-sections of a hole-conductor-free CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cell were characterized with Kelvin probe force microscopy. A depletion region width of about 45 nm was determined from the measured potential profiles at the interface between CH3NH3PbI3 and nanocrystalline TiO2, whereas a negligible depletion was measured at the CH3NH3PbI3/Al2O3 interface. A complete solar cell can be realized with the CH3NH3PbI3 that functions both as light harvester and hole conductor in combination with a metal oxide. The band diagrams were estimated from the measured potential profile at the interfaces, and are critical findings for a better understanding and further improvement of perovskite based solar cells.

  13. The electronic structure of metal oxide/organo metal halide perovskite junctions in perovskite based solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Dymshits, Alex; Henning, Alex; Segev, Gideon; Rosenwaks, Yossi; Etgar, Lioz

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sections of a hole-conductor-free CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cell were characterized with Kelvin probe force microscopy. A depletion region width of about 45 nm was determined from the measured potential profiles at the interface between CH3NH3PbI3 and nanocrystalline TiO2, whereas a negligible depletion was measured at the CH3NH3PbI3/Al2O3 interface. A complete solar cell can be realized with the CH3NH3PbI3 that functions both as light harvester and hole conductor in combination with a metal oxide. The band diagrams were estimated from the measured potential profile at the interfaces, and are critical findings for a better understanding and further improvement of perovskite based solar cells. PMID:25731963

  14. Revised structural phase transitions in the archetype KMnF3 perovskite crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapusta, Joanna; Daniel, Philippe; Ratuszna, Alicja

    1999-06-01

    Reinvestigation of the structural and vibrational properties of the typical perovskite KMnF3, exhibiting two antiferrodistortive structural phase transitions, was performed using x-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in the range between 30 and 300 K. The x-ray-diffraction work has unambiguously shown that a monoclinic distortion (ra-b+c- tilt system P21/m space group) is observed at low temperature below TC2=91 K. This result corresponds with the Raman temperature study which shows that this transition, in spite of its first-order character, can be associated with a group-subgroup relation between tetragonal and monoclinic symmetries. Additionally, existence of a large structural disorder far above the cubic to tetragonal transition (TC1=186 K) is suggested by the two following experimental indications: (i) persistence of hard modes of the tetragonal phase in the cubic symmetry, and (ii) existence of Raman broad bands in normally inactive ideal cubic phase, which are interpreted by the folding of the whole phonons branches of the cubic Brillouin zone. This last observation allows us to follow the evolution of the cubic R'15 soft mode versus temperature, based only on the Raman-scattering data, in full agreement with previous inelastic neutron data. The results of Raman investigations into KMnF3 are discussed in more general framework of structural disorder in perovskite systems which exhibit anisotropic correlation between octahedra.

  15. An Ultrahigh-Performance Photodetector based on a Perovskite-Transition-Metal-Dichalcogenide Hybrid Structure.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Ho; Pae, Seong Ryul; Shim, Jaewoo; Yoo, Gwangwe; Jeon, Jaeho; Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su; Lee, Sungjoo; Shin, Byungha; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-09-01

    An ultrahigh performance MoS2 photodetector with high photoresponsivity (1.94 × 10(6) A